WorldWideScience

Sample records for catalyst system task

  1. Catalyst systems and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Umit S.; Holmgreen, Erik M.; Yung, Matthew M.

    2012-07-24

    A method of carbon monoxide (CO) removal comprises providing an oxidation catalyst comprising cobalt supported on an inorganic oxide. The method further comprises feeding a gaseous stream comprising CO, and oxygen (O.sub.2) to the catalyst system, and removing CO from the gaseous stream by oxidizing the CO to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) in the presence of the oxidation catalyst at a temperature between about 20 to about 200.degree. C.

  2. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Sopchak, David A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Satcher, Joseph H. (Patterson, CA); Gash, Alex E. (Brentwood, CA)

    2011-11-15

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  3. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Sopchak, David A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Reynolds, John G.; Satcher, Joseph H.; Gash, Alex E.

    2010-06-29

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  4. Task swapping networks in distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dohan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose task swapping networks for task reassignments by using task swappings in distributed systems. Some classes of task reassignments are achieved by using iterative local task swappings between software agents in distributed systems. We use group-theoretic methods to find a minimum-length sequence of adjacent task swappings needed from a source task assignment to a target task assignment in a task swapping network of several well-known topologies.

  5. Manufacture of Catalyst Systems for Ammonia Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAKH S.V.; SAVENKOV D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Platinum catalyst gauzes have been in use since the moment of development of the process of catalyst oxidation of ammonia for production of nitric acid or hydrocyanic acid.Catalyst gauzes are usually made of platinum or its alloys with rhodium and palladium.These precious metals have remarkable properties that make them ideal catalysts for acceleration of the ammonia/oxygen reaction.In 2008,OJSC "SIC ‘Supermetal’" and Umicore AG&Co.KG launched a production line for Pt-alloy-based catalyst systems to be used for ammonia oxidation in the production of weak nitric acid.Catalyst systems consist of a pack of catalyst gauzes and a pack of catchment gauzes,which are made using flat-bed knitting machines and wire-cloth looms.Today,up-to-date catalyst systems MKSpreciseTM are being manufactured,the basic advantages of which are an individual structure of gauzes and composition of the material,which allows to define precisely the position of each gauze in the catalyst pack,a high activity of the catalyst pack,direct catching of platinum and rhodium in the catalyst system,and a reasonable combination of single- and multilayer types of gauzes.This makes it possible to vary the configuration of the catalyst and select an optimum composition of the system to ensure the maximum efficiency of the ammonia oxidation process.We also produce the catchment systems that allow to find the best decision from the economic point view for each individual case.

  6. CATALYSTS NHI Thermochemical Systems FY 2009 Year-End Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiscal Year 2009 work in the Catalysts project focused on advanced catalysts for the decomposition of sulfuric acid, a reaction common to both the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) cycle and the Hybrid Sulfur cycle. Prior years effort in this project has found that although platinum supported on titanium oxide will be an acceptable catalyst for sulfuric acid decomposition in the integrated laboratory scale (ILS) project, the material has short comings, including significant cost and high deactivation rates due to sintering and platinum evaporation. For pilot and larger scale systems, the catalyst stability needs to be improved significantly. In Fiscal Year 2008 it was found that at atmospheric pressure, deactivation rates of a 1 wt% platinum catalyst could be reduced by 300% by adding either 0.3 wt% iridium (Ir) or 0.3 wt% ruthenium (Ru) to the catalyst. In Fiscal Year 2009, work focused on examining the platinum group metal catalysts activity and stability at elevated pressures. In addition, simple and complex metal oxides are known to catalyze the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. These metal oxides could offer activities comparable to platinum but at significantly reduced cost. Thus a second focus for Fiscal Year 2009 was to explore metal oxide catalysts for the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. In Fiscal Year 2007 several commercial activated carbons had been identified for the HI decomposition reaction; a reaction specific to the S-I cycle. Those materials should be acceptable for the pilot scale project. The activated carbon catalysts have some disadvantages including low activity at the lower range of reactor operating temperature (350 to 400 C) and a propensity to generate carbon monoxide in the presence of water that could contaminate the hydrogen product, but due to limited funding, this area had low priority in Fiscal Year 2009. Fiscal Year 2009 catalyst work included five tasks: development, and testing of stabilized platinum based H2SO4 catalysts

  7. Innovative synthetic rubbers via ruthenium catalyst systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tuba, Robert; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The trans-polypentenamer has unique relevance among the synthetic rubbers since it has similar phys. properties to the natural rubber. The polypentenamer additives have propitious effect on the tire properties and have been studied extensively for this application. Polypentenamer synthetic rubber was synthesized by ringopening metathesis polymn. (ROMP) using ruthenium catalyst systems. It was found that the cyclopentene conversion does not depend on the catalyst activity and catal...

  8. Process of activation of a palladium catalyst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.; Knapke, Michael J.

    2011-08-02

    Improved processes for activating a catalyst system used for the reduction of nitrogen oxides are provided. In one embodiment, the catalyst system is activated by passing an activation gas stream having an amount of each of oxygen, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen over the catalyst system and increasing a temperature of the catalyst system to a temperature of at least 180.degree. C. at a heating rate of from 1-20.degree./min. Use of activation processes described herein leads to a catalyst system with superior NOx reduction capabilities.

  9. Supported catalyst systems and method of making biodiesel products using such catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Manhoe; Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O.; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2015-10-20

    A heterogeneous catalyst system, a method of preparing the catalyst system and a method of forming a biodiesel product via transesterification reactions using the catalyst system is disclosed. The catalyst system according to one aspect of the present disclosure represents a class of supported mixed metal oxides that include at least calcium oxide and another metal oxide deposited on a lanthanum oxide or cerium oxide support. Preferably, the catalysts include CaO--CeO.sub.2ZLa.sub.2O.sub.3 or CaO--La.sub.2O.sub.3/CeO.sub.2. Optionally, the catalyst may further include additional metal oxides, such as CaO--La.sub.2O.sub.3--GdOxZLa.sub.2O.sub.3.

  10. Task oriented evaluation system for maintenance robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adaptability evaluation of maintenance robots to autonomous plants has been discussed. In this paper, a new concept of autonomous plant with maintenance robots are introduced, and a framework of autonomous maintenance system is proposed. Then, task-oriented evaluation of robot arms is discussed for evaluating their adaptability to maintenance tasks, and a new criterion called operability is proposed for adaptability evaluation. The task-oriented evaluation system is implemented and applied to structural design of robot arms. Using genetic algorithm, an optimal structure adaptable to a pump disassembly task is obtained. (author)

  11. Net-Based Task Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIQiang; TIANLing; TONGBing-shu

    2004-01-01

    In net-based collaborative design environment, design resources become more and more varied and complex. Besides common information management systems, design resources can be organized in connection with design activities. A set of activities and resources linked by logic relations can form a task. A task has at least one objective and can be broken down into smaller ones. So a design project can be separated into many subtasks forming a hierarchical structure. Task Management System (TMS) is designed to break down these tasks and assign certain resources to its related task nodes. As a result of decomposition, all design resources and activities could be managed via this system. Based on this idea, we realized a TMS which manages collaborative resources in web environment.

  12. Compositional Memory Systems for Multimedia Communicating Tasks

    CERN Document Server

    Molnos, A M; Cotofana, S D; Van Eijndhoven, J T J

    2011-01-01

    Conventional cache models are not suited for real-time parallel processing because tasks may flush each other's data out of the cache in an unpredictable manner. In this way the system is not compositional so the overall performance is difficult to predict and the integration of new tasks expensive. This paper proposes a new method that imposes compositionality to the system?s performance and makes different memory hierarchy optimizations possible for multimedia communicating tasks when running on embedded multiprocessor architectures. The method is based on a cache allocation strategy that assigns sets of the unified cache exclusively to tasks and to the communication buffers. We also analytically formulate the problem and describe a method to compute the cache partitioning ratio for optimizing the throughput and the consumed power. When applied to a multiprocessor with memory hierarchy our technique delivers also performance gain. Compared to the shared cache case, for an application consisting of two jpeg ...

  13. Task planning systems with natural language interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, a natural language analyzer and two different task planning systems are described. In 1988, we have introduced a Japanese language analyzer named CS-PARSER for the input interface of the task planning system in the Human Acts Simulation Program (HASP). For the purpose of a high speed analysis, we have modified a dictionary system of the CS-PARSER by using C language description. It is found that the new dictionary system is very useful for a high speed analysis and an efficient maintenance of the dictionary. For the study of the task planning problem, we have modified a story generating system named Micro TALE-SPIN to generate a story written in Japanese sentences. We have also constructed a planning system with natural language interface by using the CS-PARSER. Task planning processes and related knowledge bases of these systems are explained. A concept design for a new task planning system will be also discussed from evaluations of above mentioned systems. (author)

  14. Multi-stage catalyst systems and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Umit S.; Holmgreen, Erik M.; Yung, Matthew M.

    2009-02-10

    Catalyst systems and methods provide benefits in reducing the content of nitrogen oxides in a gaseous stream containing nitric oxide (NO), hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), and oxygen (O.sub.2). The catalyst system comprises an oxidation catalyst comprising a first metal supported on a first inorganic oxide for catalyzing the oxidation of NO to nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2), and a reduction catalyst comprising a second metal supported on a second inorganic oxide for catalyzing the reduction of NO.sub.2 to nitrogen (N.sub.2).

  15. A New Reaction-controlled Phase-transfer Catalyst System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Qiang LI; Xi Gao JIAN; Gui Mei WANG; Yan YU

    2004-01-01

    A new reaction-controlled phase-transfer catalyst system was designed and synthesized. In this system, heteropolytungstate [C7H7N(CH3)3]9PW9O34 was used for catalytic epoxidation of cyclohexene with H2O2 as the oxidant. The conversion of H2O2 was 100% and the yield of cyclohexene oxide was 87.1% based on cyclohexene. Infrared spectra showed that both fresh catalyst and the recovered catalyst do have completely same absorption peak, indicating the structure of catalyst is very stability and can be recycled.

  16. Heimdall System for MSSS Sensor Tasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, A.; Jones, B.; Herz, E.; George, D.; Axelrad, P.; Gehly, S.

    In Norse Mythology, Heimdall uses his foreknowledge and keen eyesight to keep watch for disaster from his home near the Rainbow Bridge. Orbit Logic and the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research (CCAR) at the University of Colorado (CU) have developed the Heimdall System to schedule observations of known and uncharacterized objects and search for new objects from the Maui Space Surveillance Site. Heimdall addresses the current need for automated and optimized SSA sensor tasking driven by factors associated with improved space object catalog maintenance. Orbit Logic and CU developed an initial baseline prototype SSA sensor tasking capability for select sensors at the Maui Space Surveillance Site (MSSS) using STK and STK Scheduler, and then added a new Track Prioritization Component for FiSST-inspired computations for predicted Information Gain and Probability of Detection, and a new SSA-specific Figure-of-Merit (FOM) for optimized SSA sensor tasking. While the baseline prototype addresses automation and some of the multi-sensor tasking optimization, the SSA-improved prototype addresses all of the key elements required for improved tasking leading to enhanced object catalog maintenance. The Heimdall proof-of-concept was demonstrated for MSSS SSA sensor tasking for a 24 hour period to attempt observations of all operational satellites in the unclassified NORAD catalog, observe a small set of high priority GEO targets every 30 minutes, make a sky survey of the GEO belt region accessible to MSSS sensors, and observe particular GEO regions that have a high probability of finding new objects with any excess sensor time. This Heimdall prototype software paves the way for further R&D that will integrate this technology into the MSSS systems for operational scheduling, improve the software's scalability, and further tune and enhance schedule optimization. The Heimdall software for SSA sensor tasking provides greatly improved performance over manual tasking, improved

  17. The Nexus task-parallel runtime system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.; Tuecke, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kesselman, C. [Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States). Beckman Institute

    1994-12-31

    A runtime system provides a parallel language compiler with an interface to the low-level facilities required to support interaction between concurrently executing program components. Nexus is a portable runtime system for task-parallel programming languages. Distinguishing features of Nexus include its support for multiple threads of control, dynamic processor acquisition, dynamic address space creation, a global memory model via interprocessor references, and asynchronous events. In addition, it supports heterogeneity at multiple levels, allowing a single computation to utilize different programming languages, executables, processors, and network protocols. Nexus is currently being used as a compiler target for two task-parallel languages: Fortran M and Compositional C++. In this paper, we present the Nexus design, outline techniques used to implement Nexus on parallel computers, show how it is used in compilers, and compare its performance with that of another runtime system.

  18. Polyethylene glycol: A recyclable solvent system for the synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives using CAN as catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mazaahir Kidwai; Anwar Jahan; Divya Bhatnagar

    2010-07-01

    Ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) efficiently catalysed the synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives from -phenylenediamine and aldehydes in PEG. This method provides a novel route for the synthesis of benzimidazoles in good yields with little catalyst loading. The recovery and the successful reutilization of the solvent system are also presented. Moreover, the easy set-up and purification tasks of this sustainable method make it appealing for bulk industry applications.

  19. Latency Minimizing Tasking for Information Processing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horey, James L [ORNL; Lagesse, Brent J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Real-time cyber-physical systems and information processing clusters require system designers to consider the total latency involved in collecting and aggregating data. For example, applications such as wild-fire monitoring require data to be presented to users in a timely manner. However, most models and algorithms for sensor networks have focused on alternative metrics such as energy efficiency. In this paper, we present a new model of sensor network aggregation that focuses on total latency. Our model is flexible and enables users to configure varying transmission and computation time on a node-by-node basis, and thus enables the simulation of complex computational phenomena. In addition, we present results from three tasking algorithms that trade-off local communication for overall latency performance. These algorithms are evaluated in simulated networks of up to 200 nodes. We've presented an aggregation-focused model of sensor networks that can be used to study the trade-offs between computational coverage and total latency. Our model explicitly takes into account transmission and computation times, and enables users to define different values for the basestation. In addition, we've presented three different tasking algorithms that operate over model to produce aggregation schedules of varying quality. In the future, we expect to continue exploring distributed tasking algorithms for information processing systems. We've shown that the gap between highly optimized schedules that use global information is quite large relative to our distributed algorithms. This gives us encouragement that future distributed tasking algorithms can still make large gains.

  20. Oxidation catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  1. Multi-agent tasks scheduling system in software defined networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a multi-agent tasks scheduling system in software defined networks is considered. This system is designed for distribution simulation and tasks implementation on computational resources including network dynamic characteristics and topology.

  2. Clinical task performance and imaging task performance compared for two different commercial electronic portal imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper reports on the investigation and comparison of performance of a Varian Portal Vision system and a Siemens Beamview Plus system using the framework outlined by ICRU Report 54. Radiation Therapy EPI (Electronic Portal Imaging) systems are one of the main applications of digital imaging technology in a radiation therapy department. Radiation Therapy EPI systems may produce images of a lesser quality than the diagnostic radiology equivalent. It is therefore important to optimise the system to obtain the best performance possible. Contrasting opinion on the performance of EPI by clinicians, radiation therapists, medical physicists and engineers often exists, even when the same system and even the same image are being evaluated. Differing opinion occurs because of differences in task end points and task assessment methods of two broad groups of individuals, the human-observer group and the technical-measurement group. Each group uses different task criteria and methodology for assessing performance. The human-observer group is primarily interested in system performance that assures a high level clinical-task performance while the technical-measurement group is concerned with system performance that assures a high level of imaging-task performance. The technical-measurement group tends to be closely associated with imaging system technology, testing, adjustment and optimisation tasks which are couched in terms imaging-task criteria. The human-observer group is usually attempting to optimise performance using clinical-task criteria. The challenge is to provide a balanced evaluation using complementary imaging-task performance and clinical-task performance assessments. Comparison of the systems is on the basis of imaging-task performance i.e. technical-measurement through physical performance assessments such as spatial resolution and noise level, and clinical-task performance i.e. human-observer measurements through the application of psychophysical

  3. Scheduling optimization of task allocation in integrated manufacturing system based on task decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aijun Liu; Michele Pfund; John Fowler

    2016-01-01

    How to deal with the colaboration between task decomposition and task scheduling is the key problem of the integrated manufacturing system for complex products. With the development of manufacturing technology, we can probe a new way to solve this problem. Firstly, a new method for task granularity quantitative analysis is put forward, which can precisely evaluate the task granularity of complex product cooperation workflow in the integrated manufacturing system, on the above basis; this method is used to guide the coarse-grained task decomposition and recombine the sub-tasks with low cohesion coefficient. Then, a multi-objective optimieation model and an algorithm are set up for the scheduling optimization of task scheduling. Finaly, the appli-cation feasibility of the model and algorithm is ultimately vali-dated through an application case study.

  4. Synthesis of 3,7-Dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazabicyclo-[3,3,1]nonane (DPT Using Task-Specific Ionic Liquids as Recoverable Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. U. Xiao Bing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile and efficient method for the synthesis of 3,7-dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazabicyclo[3,3,1]nonane (DPT has been developed starting from urea. In the procedure some task-specific ionic liquids was synthesized as a cheap and recyclable catalyst for the synthesis of DPT. The catalysts could be recovered and reused several times without noticeably decrease in the catalytic activity.

  5. Methods of producing epoxides from alkenes using a two-component catalyst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Mayfair C.; Kung, Harold H.; Jiang, Jian

    2013-07-09

    Methods for the epoxidation of alkenes are provided. The methods include the steps of exposing the alkene to a two-component catalyst system in an aqueous solution in the presence of carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen under conditions in which the alkene is epoxidized. The two-component catalyst system comprises a first catalyst that generates peroxides or peroxy intermediates during oxidation of CO with molecular oxygen and a second catalyst that catalyzes the epoxidation of the alkene using the peroxides or peroxy intermediates. A catalyst system composed of particles of suspended gold and titanium silicalite is one example of a suitable two-component catalyst system.

  6. Dehalogenation of Aryl Halides Catalyzed by Montmorillonite Immobilized Bimetal Catalyst in Aqueous System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel bisupported bimetal catalyst PVP-PdCl2-FeSO4/Al-Mont-PEG600 was prepared by immobilization of PVP (poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)) supported bimetallic catalyst using alumina pillared inartificial montmorillonite as the carrier. This catalyst has good dehalogenation activity and selectivity to aryl halides-o-chlorotoluene in aqueous system in the presence of phase transfer catalyst (PEG) and sodium formate as hydrogen source. The catalyst also shows good reusability.

  7. Real-time multi-task operators support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development in computer software and hardware technology and information processing as well as the accumulation in the design and feedback from Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation created a good opportunity to develop an integrated Operator Support System. The Real-time Multi-task Operator Support System (RMOSS) has been built to support the operator's decision making process during normal and abnormal operations. RMOSS consists of five system subtasks such as Data Collection and Validation Task (DCVT), Operation Monitoring Task (OMT), Fault Diagnostic Task (FDT), Operation Guideline Task (OGT) and Human Machine Interface Task (HMIT). RMOSS uses rule-based expert system and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The rule-based expert system is used to identify the predefined events in static conditions and track the operation guideline through data processing. In dynamic status, Back-Propagation Neural Network is adopted for fault diagnosis, which is trained with the Genetic Algorithm. Embedded real-time operation system VxWorks and its integrated environment Tornado II are used as the RMOSS software cross-development. VxGUI is used to design HMI. All of the task programs are designed in C language. The task tests and function evaluation of RMOSS have been done in one real-time full scope simulator. Evaluation results show that each task of RMOSS is capable of accomplishing its functions. (authors)

  8. Sol-gel based oxidation catalyst and coating system using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Anthony N. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Patry, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Schryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An oxidation catalyst system is formed by particles of an oxidation catalyst dispersed in a porous sol-gel binder. The oxidation catalyst system can be applied by brush or spray painting while the sol-gel binder is in its sol state.

  9. Integrating Robot Task Planning into Off-Line Programming Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hongyan; Kroszynski, Uri

    1988-01-01

    The addition of robot task planning in off-line programming systems aims at improving the capability of current state-of-the-art commercially available off-line programming systems, by integrating modeling, task planning, programming and simulation together under one platform. This article proposes...... a system architecture for integrated robot task planning. It identifies and describes the components considered necessary for implementation. The focus is on functionality of these elements as well as on the information flow. A pilot implementation of such an integrated system architecture for a robot...

  10. Crab: A Dashboard System for Monitoring Archiving Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G.; Jenness, T.; Agarwal, A.

    2013-10-01

    In order to make the large number of cron jobs required to perform data archiving tasks at the Joint Astronomy Centre more manageable, we have designed and implemented a dashboard system for monitoring their progress. The status of all of the tasks can be monitored on the dashboard's web interface, and via consolidated notification emails.

  11. SO2 oxidation catalyst model systems characterized by thermal methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatem, G; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Gaune-Escard, M;

    2002-01-01

    The molten salts M2S2O7 and MHSO4, the binary molten salt Systems M2S2O7-MHSO4 and the molten salt-gas systems M2S2O7 V2O5 and M2S2O7-M2SO4 V2O5 (M = Na, K, Rb, Cs) in O-2, SO2 and At atmospheres have been investigated by thermal methods like calorimetry, Differential Enthalpic Analysis (DEA) and...... to the mechanism Of SO2 oxidation by V2O5 based industrial catalysts....

  12. Using Expert Systems For Computational Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Regenie, Victoria A.; Brazee, Marylouise; Brumbaugh, Randal W.

    1990-01-01

    Transformation technique enables inefficient expert systems to run in real time. Paper suggests use of knowledge compiler to transform knowledge base and inference mechanism of expert-system computer program into conventional computer program. Main benefit, faster execution and reduced processing demands. In avionic systems, transformation reduces need for special-purpose computers.

  13. Personal recommender system to advice learning tasks in Moodle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Van den Berg, Bert; Nadolski, Rob; Berlanga, Adriana; Hummel, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Van den Berg, B., Nadolski, R., Berlanga, A., & Hummel, H. (2007). Personal recommender system to advise learning tasks in Moodle. [Software source code and documentation] Available under the three clause BSD licence, Copyright TENCompetence Foundation.

  14. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping; Smith, R. Davis

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  15. Large solar energy systems within IEA task 14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, A.C. de; Isakson, P.; Bokhoven, T.P.; Vanoli, K.; Tepe, R.

    1996-01-01

    Within IEA Task 14 (Advanced Solar Systems) a working group was established dealing with large advanced solar energy systems (the Large Systems Working group). The goal of this working group was to generate a common base of experiences for the design and construction of advanced large solar systems.

  16. Task Delegation Based Access Control Models for Workflow Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaaloul, Khaled; Charoy, François

    e-Government organisations are facilitated and conducted using workflow management systems. Role-based access control (RBAC) is recognised as an efficient access control model for large organisations. The application of RBAC in workflow systems cannot, however, grant permissions to users dynamically while business processes are being executed. We currently observe a move away from predefined strict workflow modelling towards approaches supporting flexibility on the organisational level. One specific approach is that of task delegation. Task delegation is a mechanism that supports organisational flexibility, and ensures delegation of authority in access control systems. In this paper, we propose a Task-oriented Access Control (TAC) model based on RBAC to address these requirements. We aim to reason about task from organisational perspectives and resources perspectives to analyse and specify authorisation constraints. Moreover, we present a fine grained access control protocol to support delegation based on the TAC model.

  17. Task Analysis as a Resource for Strengthening Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Leah J; Carr, Catherine; Fullerton, Judith T

    2016-01-01

    Task analysis is a descriptive study methodology that has wide application in the health professions. Task analysis is particularly useful in assessment and definition of the knowledge, skills, and behaviors that define the scope of practice of a health profession or occupation. Jhpiego, a US-based nongovernmental organization, has adapted traditional task analysis methods in several countries in assessment of workforce education and practice issues. Four case studies are presented to describe the utility and adaptability of the task analysis approach. Traditional task analysis field survey methods were used in assessment of the general and maternal-child health nursing workforce in Mozambique that led to curriculum redesign, reducing the number of education pathways from 4 to 2. The process of health system strengthening in Liberia, following a long history of civil war conflict, included a traditional task analysis study conducted among 119 registered nurses and 46 certified midwives who had graduated in the last 6 months to 2 years to determine gaps in education and preparation. An innovative approach for data collection that involves "playing cards" to document participant opinions (Task Master, Mining for Data) was developed by Jhpiego for application in other countries. Results of a task analysis involving 54 nurses and 100 nurse-midwives conducted in Lesotho were used to verify the newly drafted scope and standards of practice for nurses and to inform planning for a competency-based preservice curriculum for nursing. The Nursing and Midwifery Council developed a 100-question licensing examination for new graduates following a task analysis in Botswana. The task analysis process in each country resulted in recommendations that were action oriented and were implemented by the country governments. For maximal utility and ongoing impact, a task analysis study should be repeated on a periodic basis and more frequently in countries undergoing rapid change in

  18. Task management in the new ATLAS production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the design of the new Production System of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC [1]. The Production System is the top level workflow manager which translates physicists' needs for production level processing and analysis into actual workflows executed across over a hundred Grid sites used globally by ATLAS. As the production workload increased in volume and complexity in recent years (the ATLAS production tasks count is above one million, with each task containing hundreds or thousands of jobs) there is a need to upgrade the Production System to meet the challenging requirements of the next LHC run while minimizing the operating costs. In the new design, the main subsystems are the Database Engine for Tasks (DEFT) and the Job Execution and Definition Interface (JEDI). Based on users' requests, DEFT manages inter-dependent groups of tasks (Meta-Tasks) and generates corresponding data processing workflows. The JEDI component then dynamically translates the task definitions from DEFT into actual workload jobs executed in the PanDA Workload Management System [2]. We present the requirements, design parameters, basics of the object model and concrete solutions utilized in building the new Production System and its components.

  19. Novel catalysts and photoelectrochemical system for solar fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan

    Solar fuel production from abundant raw chemicals such as CO2 and water is highly desired as a clean renewable energy solution for the future. Developing photoelectrochemical cells is viewed as a promising approach to realize this energy conversion and storage process. Efficient and robust oxygen evolution catalyst made from non-precious materials remains a major challenge for such a system. This thesis basically consists of three parts of work, including studies on enhancing the photocatalytic oxygen evolution activity of cobalt-based spinel nanoparticles by manganese3+ substitution, in situ formation of cobalt oxide nanocubanes as highly active catalyst for photocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction, and development of a photoanode-driven photoelectrochemical cell for CO2 reduction with water. The first part of this thesis work devotes efforts in the development and study on cobalt and other transition metal oxide based oxygen evolution catalyst. Photocatalytic oxygen evolution is a critical step for solar fuel production from abundant sources. It poses a significant challenge because it requires an efficient catalyst to bridge the one-electron photon capture process with the four-electron oxygen reaction. Among all the metal oxides, Co3O4 spinel exhibits a high activity as an oxygen evolution catalyst. The results of this work demonstrate that the photocatalytic oxygen evolution activity of Co3O4 spinel can be further enhanced by substituting Co with Mn in the spinel structure. Using a facile hydrothermal approach, Co3O4 spinel nanoparticles as well as Mn-substituted and Ni-substituted Co3O4 spinel nanoparticles with a typical particle size of 5-7 nm were successfully synthesized. The morphology and crystal structures of the as-synthesized nanoparticle catalysts have been carefully examined using various structural characterization techniques, including powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), gas adsorption, and x-ray absorption

  20. A framework for cognitive task analysis in systems design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present rapid development if advanced information technology and its use for support of operators of complex technical systems are changing the content of task analysis towards the analysis of mental activities in decision making. Automation removes the humans from routine tasks, and operators are left with disturbance control and critical diagnostic tasks, for which computers are suitable for support, if it is possible to match the computer strategies and interface formats dynamically to the requirements of the current task by means of an analysis of the cognitive task. Such a cognitive task analysis will not aim at a description of the information processes suited for particular control situations. It will rather aim at an analysis in order to identify the requirements to be considered along various dimensions of the decision tasks, in order to give the user - i.e. a decision maker - the freedom to adapt his performance to system requirements in a way which matches his process resources and subjective preferences. To serve this purpose, a number of analyses at various levels are needed to relate the control requirements of the system to the information processes and to the processing resources offered by computers and humans. The paper discusses the cognitive task analysis in terms of the following domains: The problem domain, which is a representation of the functional properties of the system giving a consistent framework for identification of the control requirements of the system; the decision sequences required for typical situations; the mental strategies and heuristics which are effective and acceptable for the different decision functions; and the cognitive control mechanisms used, depending upon the level of skill which can/will be applied. Finally, the end-users' criteria for choice of mental strategies in the actual situation are considered, and the need for development of criteria for judging the ultimate user acceptance of computer support is

  1. Integrated Task Clustering, Mapping and Scheduling for Heterogeneous Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuet Ming Lam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for mapping and scheduling task graphs for heterogeneous hardware/software computing systems using heuristic search. Task mapping and scheduling are vital in hardware/software codesign and previous approaches that treat them separately lead to suboptimal solutions. In this paper, we propose two techniques to enhance the speedup of mapping/scheduling solutions: (1 an integrated technique combining task clustering, mapping, and scheduling, and (2 a multiple neighborhood function strategy. Our approach is demonstrated by case studies involving 40 randomly generated task graphs, as well as six applications. Experimental results show that our proposed approach outperforms a separate approach in terms of speedup by up to 18.3% for a system with a microprocessor, a floating-point digital signal processor, and an FPGA.

  2. Memory systems, processes, and tasks: taxonomic clarification via factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruss, Peter J; Mitchell, David B

    2009-01-01

    The nature of various memory systems was examined using factor analysis. We reanalyzed data from 11 memory tasks previously reported in Mitchell and Bruss (2003). Four well-defined factors emerged, closely resembling episodic and semantic memory and conceptual and perceptual implicit memory, in line with both memory systems and transfer-appropriate processing accounts. To explore taxonomic issues, we ran separate analyses on the implicit tasks. Using a cross-format manipulation (pictures vs. words), we identified 3 prototypical tasks. Word fragment completion and picture fragment identification tasks were "factor pure," tapping perceptual processes uniquely. Category exemplar generation revealed its conceptual nature, yielding both cross-format priming and a picture superiority effect. In contrast, word stem completion and picture naming were more complex, revealing attributes of both processes. PMID:19507425

  3. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-​functionalized ionic liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3......COCHCOCH3), Pd (CF3COO)2, Pd(PPh3)4 or Pd2(dibenzylideneacetone)3. Such catalyst systems can be used for e.g. alkoxycarbonylation reactions, carboxylation reactions, and/or in a co-polymerization reaction, e.g. in the production of methyl propionate and/or propanoic acid, optionally in processes forming...... methyl methacrylate and/or methacrylic acid. Catalyst systems according to the invention are suitable for reactions forming separable product and catalyst phases and supported ionic liquid phase SILP applications....

  4. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-functionalized ionic liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3......COCHCOCH3), Pd (CF3COO)2, Pd(PPh3)4 or Pd2(dibenzylideneacetone)3. Such catalyst systems can be used for e.g. alkoxycarbonylation reactions, carboxylation reactions, and/or in a co-polymerization reaction, e.g. in the production of methyl propionate and/or propanoic acid, optionally in processes forming...... methyl methacrylate and/or methacrylic acid. Catalyst systems according to the invention are suitable for reactions forming separable product and catalyst phases and supported ionic liquid phase SILP applications....

  5. On the degradation of fuel cell catalyst. From model systems to high surface area catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenz, M. [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-07-01

    In the presented work, as an alternative accelerated degradation tests in the form of half-cell measurements combined with identical location transmission electron microscopy (IL-TEM){sup 10,} {sup 11} are presented. It is demonstrated that for different catalysts the degradation mechanism can be scrutinized in detail. Thus this approach enables the systematic investigation of fuel cell catalyst degradation in a reduced period of time. (orig.)

  6. Market-based task allocation in distributed satellite systems

    OpenAIRE

    van der Horst, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of task allocation in a distributed satellite system. These spacecraft specialise in different functions, and must collaborate to complete the mission objectives. The energy available for task execution and communication is, however, extremely limited, which poses a challenging design problem. I propose the use of a market-based, multi-agent approach to achieve the necessary macro-level behaviour. The development and verification of this allocation mechanism ...

  7. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek

    2010-01-01

    SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

  8. Using Multiple Unmanned Systems for a Site Security Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew O. Anderson; Curtis W. Nielsen; Mark D. McKay; Derek C. Wadsworth; Ryan C. Hruska; John A. Koudelka

    2009-04-01

    Unmanned systems are often used to augment the ability of humans to perform challenging tasks. While the value of individual unmanned vehicles have been proven for a variety of tasks, it is less understood how multiple unmanned systems should be used together to accomplish larger missions such as site security. The purpose of this paper is to discuss efforts by researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to explore the utility and practicality of operating multiple unmanned systems for a site security mission. This paper reviews the technology developed for a multi-agent mission and summarizes the lessons-learned from a technology demonstration.

  9. Tasking Framework: Parallelization of Computations in Onboard Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Maibaum, Olaf; Lüdtke, Daniel; Gerndt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    For the next generation of onboard computer in space application a high demand on processing power exists. Currently used onboard system didn't provide the necessary computing power. The in the paper describe tasking frame work is the core processing model for the OBC-NG (On Board Computer - Next Generation) operating system with an reactive computing model.

  10. Algorithms for Temperature-Aware Task Scheduling in Microprocessor Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chrobak, Marek; Hurand, Mathilde; Robert, Julien

    2008-01-01

    We study scheduling problems motivated by recently developed techniques for microprocessor thermal management at the operating systems level. The general scenario can be described as follows. The microprocessor's temperature is controlled by the hardware thermal management system that continuously monitors the chip temperature and automatically reduces the processor's speed as soon as the thermal threshold is exceeded. Some tasks are more CPU-intensive than other and thus generate more heat during execution. The cooling system operates non-stop, reducing (at an exponential rate) the deviation of the processor's temperature from the ambient temperature. As a result, the processor's temperature, and thus the performance as well, depends on the order of the task execution. Given a variety of possible underlying architectures, models for cooling and for hardware thermal management, as well as types of tasks, this scenario gives rise to a plethora of interesting and never studied scheduling problems. We focus on s...

  11. Distributed fusion and automated sensor tasking in ISR systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preden, Jurgo; Pahtma, Raido; Astapov, Sergei; Ehala, Johannes; Riid, Andri; Motus, Leo

    2014-06-01

    Modern Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems are increasingly being assembled from autonomous systems, so the resulting ISR system is a System of Systems (SoS). In order to take full advantage of the capabilities of the ISR SoS, the architecture and the design of these SoS should be able to facilitate the benefits inherent in a SoS approach - high resilience, higher level of adaptability and higher diversity, enabling on-demand system composition. The tasks performed by ISR SoS can well go beyond basic data acquisition, conditioning and communication as data processing can be easily integrated in the SoS. Such an ISR SoS can perform data fusion, classification and tracking (and conditional sensor tasking for additional data acquisition), these are extremely challenging tasks in this context, especially if the fusion is performed in a distributed manner. Our premise for the ISR SoS design and deployment is that the system is not designed as a complete system, where the capabilities of individual data providers are considered and the interaction paths, including communication channel capabilities, are specified at design time. Instead, we assume a loosely coupled SoS, where the data needs for a specific fusion task are described at a high level at design time and data providers (i.e., sensor systems) required for a specific fusion task are discovered dynamically at run time, the selection criteria for the data providers being the type and properties of data that can be provided by the specific data provider. The paper describes some of the aspects of a distributed ISR SoS design and implementation, bringing examples on both architectural design as well as on algorithm implementations.

  12. Ruthenium on rutile catalyst, catalytic system, and method for aqueous phase hydrogenations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Douglas C.; Werpy, Todd A.; Wang, Yong; Frye, Jr., John G.

    2001-01-01

    An essentially nickel- and rhenium-free catalyst is described comprising ruthenium on a titania support where the titania is greater than 75% rutile. A catalytic system containing a nickel-free catalyst comprising ruthenium on a titania support where the titania is greater than 75% rutile, and a method using this catalyst in the hydrogenation of an organic compound in the aqueous phase is also described.

  13. Monitoring user-system performance in interactive retrieval tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boldareva, L.; Vries, A.P. de; Hiemstra, D.

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring user-system performance in interactive search is a challenging task. Traditional measures of retrieval evaluation, based on recall and precision, are not of any use in real time, for they require a priori knowledge of relevant documents. This paper shows how a Shannon entropy-based measur

  14. Dynamic Task Optimization in Remote Diabetes Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myung-kyung; Woodbridge, Jonathan; Moin, Tannaz; Lan, Mars; Alshurafa, Nabil; Samy, Lauren; Mortazavi, Bobak; Ghasemzadeh, Hassan; Bui, Alex; Ahmadi, Sheila; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States, but careful symptom monitoring can prevent adverse events. A real-time patient monitoring and feedback system is one of the solutions to help patients with diabetes and their healthcare professionals monitor health-related measurements and provide dynamic feedback. However, data-driven methods to dynamically prioritize and generate tasks are not well investigated in the domain of remote health monitoring. This paper presents a wireless health project (WANDA) that leverages sensor technology and wireless communication to monitor the health status of patients with diabetes. The WANDA dynamic task management function applies data analytics in real-time to discretize continuous features, applying data clustering and association rule mining techniques to manage a sliding window size dynamically and to prioritize required user tasks. The developed algorithm minimizes the number of daily action items required by patients with diabetes using association rules that satisfy a minimum support, confidence and conditional probability thresholds. Each of these tasks maximizes information gain, thereby improving the overall level of patient adherence and satisfaction. Experimental results from applying EM-based clustering and Apriori algorithms show that the developed algorithm can predict further events with higher confidence levels and reduce the number of user tasks by up to 76.19 %.

  15. Biocybernetic system evaluates indices of operator engagement in automated task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, A. T.; Bogart, E. H.; Bartolome, D. S.

    1995-01-01

    A biocybernetic system has been developed as a method to evaluate automated flight deck concepts for compatibility with human capabilities. A biocybernetic loop is formed by adjusting the mode of operation of a task set (e.g., manual/automated mix) based on electroencephalographic (EEG) signals reflecting an operator's engagement in the task set. A critical issue for the loop operation is the selection of features of the EEG to provide an index of engagement upon which to base decisions to adjust task mode. Subjects were run in the closed-loop feedback configuration under four candidate and three experimental control definitions of an engagement index. The temporal patterning of system mode switching was observed for both positive and negative feedback of the index. The indices were judged on the basis of their relative strength in exhibiting expected feedback control system phenomena (stable operation under negative feedback and unstable operation under positive feedback). Of the candidate indices evaluated in this study, an index constructed according to the formula, beta power/(alpha power + theta power), reflected task engagement best.

  16. How to Obtain Computational Completeness in P Systems with One Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Freund

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Whether P systems with only one catalyst can already be computationally complete, is still an open problem. Here we establish computational completeness by using specific variants of additional control mechanisms. At each step using only multiset rewriting rules from one set of a finite number of sets of multiset rewriting rules allows for obtaining computational completeness with one catalyst and only one membrane. If the targets are used for choosing the multiset of rules to be applied, for getting computational completeness with only one catalyst more than one membrane is needed. If the available sets of rules change periodically with time, computational completeness can be obtained with one catalyst in one membrane. Moreover, we also improve existing computational completeness results for P systems with mobile catalysts and for P systems with membrane creation.

  17. Non-Precious Bimetallic Catalysts for Selective Dehydrogenation of an Organic Chemical Hydride System

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh Ali, Anaam

    2015-07-06

    Methylcyclohexane (MCH)-Toluene (TOL) chemical hydride cycles as a hydrogen carrier system is successful with the selective dehydrogenation reaction of MCH to TOL, which has been achieved only using precious Pt-based catalysts. Herein, we report improved selectivity using non-precious metal nickel-based bimetallic catalysts, where the second metal occupies the unselective step sites.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-TASK CATALYSTS FOR REMOVAL OF NOx AND TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS DURING COAL COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotis G. Smirniotis; Robert G. Jenkins

    2002-02-04

    The work performed during this project focused on the identification of materials capable of providing high activity and selectivity for the selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia. The material surface characteristics were correlated with the catalytic behavior of our catalysts to increase our understanding and to help improve the DeNO{sub x} efficiency. The catalysts employed in this study include mixed oxide composite powders (TiO{sub 2}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2}, and TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) loaded with varying amounts of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, along with 5 different commercial sources of TiO{sub 2}. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was added to the commercial sources of TiO{sub 2} to achieve monolayer coverage. Since the valence state of vanadium in the precursor solution during the impregnation step significantly impacted catalytic performance, catalysts were synthesized from both V{sup +4} and V{sup +5} solutions explain this phenomenon. Specifically, the synthesis of catalysts from V{sup 5+} precursor solutions yields lower-performance catalysts compared to the case of V{sup 4+} under identical conditions. Aging the vanadium precursor solution, which is associated with the reduction of V{sup 5+} to V{sup 4+} (VO{sub 2}{sup +} {yields} VO{sup 2+}), prior to impregnation results in catalysts with excellent catalytic behavior under identical activation and operating conditions. This work also added vanadia to TiO{sub 2}-based supports with low crystallinity. These supports, which have traditionally performed poorly, are now able to function as effective SCR catalysts. Increasing the acidity of the support by incorporating oxides such as WO{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} significantly improves the SCR activity and nitrogen selectivity. It was also found that the supports should be synthesized with the simultaneous precipitation of the corresponding precursors. The mixed oxide catalysts possess

  19. Development of a Cognitive Robotic System for Simple Surgical Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Muradore; Paolo Fiorini; Gokhan Akgun; Duygun Erol Barkana; Marcello Bonfe; Fabrizio Boriero; Andrea Caprara; Giacomo Rossi; Riccardo Dodi; Ole Jakob Elle; Federica Ferraguti; Lorenza Gasperotti; Roger Gassert; Kim Mathiassen; Dilla Handini

    2015-01-01

    ARTICLE International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems Development of a Cognitive Robotic System for Simple Surgical Tasks Invited Feature Article Riccardo Muradore1*, Paolo Fiorini1, Gokhan Akgun2, Duygun Erol Barkana3, Marcello Bonfe4, Fabrizio Boriero1, Andrea Caprara11, Giacomo De Rossi1, Riccardo Dodi5, Ole Jakob Elle6, Federica Ferraguti7, Lorenza Gasperotti1, Roger Gassert8, Kim Mathiassen6, Dilla Handini9, Olivier Lambercy8, Lin Li10, Maarja Kruusmaa10, Aura...

  20. Shared Task System Description: Frustratingly Hard Compositionality Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Anders Trærup; Martinez Alonso, Hector; Rishøj, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    , and the likelihood of long translation equivalents in other languages. Many of the features we considered correlated significantly with human compositionality scores, but in support vector regression experiments we obtained the best results using only COALS-based endocentricity scores. Our system was nevertheless...... the best performing system in the shared task, and average error reductions over a simple baseline in cross-validation were 13.7% for English glish and 50.1% for German....

  1. Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Christopher R.; Moini, Ahmad; Koermer, Gerald S.; Furbeck, Howard

    2010-07-20

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

  2. Integrated biodiesel production: a comparison of different homogeneous catalysts systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, Gemma; Martinez, Mercedes; Aracil, Jose [Complutense Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-05-01

    The most common catalysts for biodiesel production are homogeneous basic catalysts. In the present paper, a comparison is made of different basic catalysts (sodium methoxide, potassium methoxide, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide) for methanolysis of sunflower oil. All the reactions were carried out under the same experimental conditions in a batch stirred reactor and the subsequent separation and purification stages in a decanter. The analytical methods included gas chromatography and the determination of fat and oil conventional parameters. The biodiesel purity was near 100 wt. % for all catalysts. However, near 100 wt. % biodiesel yields were only obtained with the methoxide catalysts. According to the material balance of the process, yield losses were due to triglyceride saponification and methyl ester dissolution in glycerol. Obtained biodiesel met the measured specifications, except for the iodine value, according to the German and EU draft standards. Although all the transesterification reactions were quite rapid and the biodiesel layers achieved nearly 100% methyl ester concentrations, the reactions using sodium hydroxide turned out the fastest. (Author)

  3. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-05-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time period January 1, 2003 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the sixth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the pilot unit with three catalysts, conducting catalyst activity measurements, and procuring the fourth catalyst, all for the GRE Coal Creek pilot unit site. Laboratory efforts were also conducted to support catalyst selection for the second pilot unit site, at CPS' Spruce Plant. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  4. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Rhudy

    2006-06-30

    This final report presents and discusses results from a mercury control process development project entitled ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems''. The objective of this project was to demonstrate at pilot scale a mercury control technology that uses solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. Oxidized mercury is removed in downstream wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and leaves with the FGD byproducts. The goal of the project was to achieve 90% oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas and 90% overall mercury capture with the downstream wet FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (now CPS Energy) of San Antonio were also project co-funders and provided host sites. URS Group, Inc. was the prime contractor. Longer-term pilot-scale tests were conducted at two sites to provide catalyst life data. GRE provided the first site, at their Coal Creek Station (CCS), which fires North Dakota lignite, and CPS Energy provided the second site, at their Spruce Plant, which fires Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Mercury oxidation catalyst testing began at CCS in October 2002 and continued through the end of June 2004, representing nearly 21 months of catalyst operation. An important finding was that, even though the mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit was installed downstream of a high-efficiency ESP, fly ash buildup began to plug flue gas flow through the horizontal catalyst cells. Sonic horns were installed in each catalyst compartment and appeared to limit fly ash buildup. A palladium-based catalyst showed initial elemental mercury oxidation percentages of 95% across the catalyst, declining to 67% after 21 months in service. A carbon

  5. Task-Based Optimization of Computed Tomography Imaging Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Adrian A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to provide a framework for the use of task-based metrics of image quality to aid in the design, implementation, and evaluation of CT image reconstruction algorithms and CT systems in general. We support the view that task-based metrics of image quality can be useful in guiding the algorithm design and implementation process in order to yield images of objectively superior quality and higher utility for a given task. Further, we believe that metrics such as the Hotelling observer (HO) SNR can be used as summary scalar metrics of image quality for the evaluation of images produced by novel reconstruction algorithms. In this work, we aim to construct a concise and versatile formalism for image reconstruction algorithm design, implementation, and assessment. The bulk of the work focuses on linear analytical algorithms, specifically the ubiquitous filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm. However, due to the demonstrated importance of optimization-based algorithms in a wide variety of CT...

  6. System verification and validation: a fundamental systems engineering task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Wolfgang R.

    2004-09-01

    Systems Engineering (SE) is the discipline in a project management team, which transfers the user's operational needs and justifications for an Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) -or any other telescope-- into a set of validated required system performance characteristics. Subsequently transferring these validated required system performance characteris-tics into a validated system configuration, and eventually into the assembled, integrated telescope system with verified performance characteristics and provided it with "objective evidence that the particular requirements for the specified intended use are fulfilled". The latter is the ISO Standard 8402 definition for "Validation". This presentation describes the verification and validation processes of an ELT Project and outlines the key role System Engineering plays in these processes throughout all project phases. If these processes are implemented correctly into the project execution and are started at the proper time, namely at the very beginning of the project, and if all capabilities of experienced system engineers are used, the project costs and the life-cycle costs of the telescope system can be reduced between 25 and 50 %. The intention of this article is, to motivate and encourage project managers of astronomical telescopes and scientific instruments to involve the entire spectrum of Systems Engineering capabilities performed by trained and experienced SYSTEM engineers for the benefit of the project by explaining them the importance of Systems Engineering in the AIV and validation processes.

  7. System and method for determining an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Perry, Kevin L; Kim, Chang H

    2014-12-30

    A system according to the principles of the present disclosure includes a rate determination module, a storage level determination module, and an air/fuel ratio control module. The rate determination module determines an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst based on a reaction efficiency and a reactant level. The storage level determination module determines an ammonia storage level in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned downstream from the three-way catalyst based on the ammonia generation rate. The air/fuel ratio control module controls an air/fuel ratio of an engine based on the ammonia storage level.

  8. Exhaust system having a gold-platinum group metal catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragle, Christie Susan; Silver, Ronald G.; Zemskova, Svetlana Mikhailovna; Eckstein, Colleen J.

    2011-12-06

    A method of providing an exhaust treatment device is disclosed. The method includes applying a catalyst including gold and a platinum group metal to a particulate filter. The concentration of the gold and the platinum group metal is sufficient to enable oxidation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide.

  9. Representations of task assignments in distributed systems using Young tableaux and symmetric groups

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dohan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach to representing task assignments for partitioned processors (respectively, tasks) in distributed systems. A partition of processors (respectively, tasks) is represented by a Young tableau, which is one of the main tools in studying symmetric groups and their representations. We propose a task, processor, and assignment tableau in order to represent a task assignment for partitioned processors (respectively, tasks) in distributed systems. Due to their simplicity and tight relationship to symmetric groups, we mainly focus on n-task-n-processor assignments in distributed systems. A certain set of n-task-n-processor assignments is represented by a k-assignments vector in the k-assignments vector space. We present some examples of the dual space and vector space model for the vector space of k-assignments vectors in distributed systems. We concern representations of task assignments rather than finding approximate or near optimal solutions for task assignments. A Young tab...

  10. Design of Embedded Metal Catalysts via Reverser Micro-Emulsion System: a Way to Suppress Catalyst Deactivation by Metal Sintering

    KAUST Repository

    AlMana, Noor

    2016-06-19

    The development of highly selective and active, long-lasting, robust, low-cost and environmentally benign catalytic materials is the greatest challenge in the area of catalysis study. In this context, core-shell structures where the active sites are embedded inside the protecting shell have attracted a lot of researchers working in the field of catalysis owing to their enhanced physical and chemical properties suppress catalyst deactivation. Also, a new active site generated at the interface between the core and shell may increases the activity and efficiency of the catalyst in catalytic reactions especially for oxide shells that exhibit redox properties such as TiO2 and CeO2. Moreover, coating oxide layer over metal nanoparticles (NPs) can be designed to provide porosity (micropore/mesopore) that gives selectivity of the various reactants by the different gas diffusion rates. In this thesis, we will discuss the concept of catalyst stabilization against metal sintering by a core-shell system. In particular we will study the mechanistic of forming core-shell particles and the key parameters that can influence the properties and morphology of the Pt metal particle core and SiO2 shell (Pt@SiO2) using the reverse micro-emulsion method. The Pt@SiO2 core-shell catalysts were investigated for low-temperature CO oxidation reaction. The study was further extended to other catalytic applications by varying the composition of the core as well as the chemical nature of the shell material. The Pt NPs were embedded within another oxide matrix such as ZrO2 and TiO2 for CO oxidation reaction. These materials were studied in details to identify the factors governing the coating of the oxide around the metal NPs. Next, a more challenging system, namely, bimetallic Ni9Pt NPs embedded in TiO2 and ZrO2 matrix were investigated for dry reforming of methane reaction at high temperatures. The challenges of designing Ni9Pt@oxide core-shell structure with TiO2 and ZrO2 and their tolerance

  11. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-01-21

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period October 1, 2002 through December 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future fullscale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the fifth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included starting up the pilot unit with three catalysts at the first site, conducting catalyst activity measurements, completing comprehensive flue gas sampling and analyses, and procuring additional catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  12. Dehalogenation of Aryl Halides Catalyzed by MontK10 Immobilized PVP-Pd-Sn Catalyst in Aqueous System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A series of PVP-Pd-Sn/MontK10 catalysts were prepared by immobilization of PVP[poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)] supported bimetallic catalyst using MontK10 as carrier. This catalyst has good catalytic activity for hydrogen transfer dehalogenation of aryl halides. The catalytic reaction was carried out in aqueous system in the presence of phase transfer catalyst and sodium formate as hydrogen source. The catalyst with loading Pd 0.19wt% and molar ratio of Pd/Sn 8:1 gives the highest activity and good stability. This catalyst is more reducible with NaBH4. It is also found that the catalyst is easily separated from the reaction system.

  13. Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; Jennifer Paradis

    2010-06-30

    This document presents and discusses results from Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, 'Full-scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System,' which was conducted over the time-period July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. The objective of the project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in pulverized-coal-fired flue gas. Oxidized mercury is removed downstream in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and collected with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), who also provided the host site, Great River Energy, Johnson Matthey, Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NRG Energy, Ontario Power and Westar. URS Group was the prime contractor and also provided cofunding. The scope of this project included installing and testing a gold-based catalyst upstream of one full-scale wet FGD absorber module (about 200-MW scale) at LCRA's Fayette Power Project (FPP) Unit 3, which fires Powder River Basin coal. Installation of the catalyst involved modifying the ductwork upstream of one of three wet FGD absorbers on Unit 3, Absorber C. The FGD system uses limestone reagent, operates with forced sulfite oxidation, and normally runs with two FGD modules in service and one spare. The full-scale catalyst test was planned for 24 months to provide catalyst life data. Over the test period, data were collected on catalyst pressure drop, elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst module, and mercury capture by the downstream wet FGD absorber. The demonstration period began on May 6, 2008 with plans for the catalyst to remain in service until May 5, 2010. However, because of continual increases in pressure drop across the catalyst and concerns that further increases would adversely affect Unit 3 operations, LCRA decided to end the

  14. POLYKETONE FROM ETHYLENE WITH CARBON MONOXIDE CATALYZED BY NOVEL CATALYST SYSTEMS BASED ON COPPER WITH BIDENTATE PHOSPHORUS CHELATING LIGANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Huang; Feng-bo Li; Jin Zou; Guo-qing Yuan; Xiu-li Shi; Ding-sheng Yu

    2003-01-01

    Copolymerization of ethylene with carbon monoxide was performed with Cu catalyst systems. Novel catalyst systems based on Cu (Cu(CH3COO)2/ligand/acid) were firstly reported for the copolymerization of ethylene with carbon monoxide, in which the ligand was a bidentate phosphorus chelating ligand. The experimental results showed that this kind of Cu catalyst system exhibited high activity. When DPPP (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphine)propane) and CH3COOH were used catalyst system had the advantages of high stability and low cost.

  15. Progress Report of the Engineering Data Management System Task Force

    CERN Document Server

    Faber, G; CERN. Geneva; Hervé, A; Hauviller, Claude; Klempt, W; Kuipers, J; Loos, R; Nicquevert, B; Onnela, A; Price, M; Rollinger, G; Witzeling, W; Hameri, A P; Mottier, M; Nikkola, J; Pettersson, Thomas Sven; Schinzel, Josi; Tarrant, M; Vuoskoski, J; Farthouat, Philippe; Palazzi, P; Rousseau, B; Ferran, M; Høimyr, Nils-Joar; De Jonghe, J; Strubin, Pierre M; Oliger, S

    1996-01-01

    An Engineering Data Management System (EDMS) is a collection of tools and rules, which enables, as a minimum, a body of vetted information to be built up in a safe place and be easily accessible to the users. The Task Force worked through 1995 - to elucidate CERN's needs for an EDMS in the construction and lifetime of LHC and its experiments - to discover the state of the art of EDMS and find a product on the market which fulfilled CERN's needs. A Call for Tenders was issued in December 1995 and the replies are being evaluated. The name CEDAR has been chosen for the activity of implementing an EDMS at CERN. (CERN EDMS for Detectors and AcceleratoRs). see http://cadd.cern.ch/cedar/.

  16. Multisensor-based robotic systems for inspection and manipulation tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced technology division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring research at four universities (Florida, Michigan, Tennessee, and Texas) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) directed toward the development of advanced robotic systems for use in nuclear environments. The primary motivation for using robotic technology in such hazardous environments is to reduce exposure and costs associated with performing tasks such as surveillance, maintenance, and repair. The main focus of research at the University of Tennessee has been to contribute to the development of autonomous inspection and manipulation systems, which utilize a wide array of sensory inputs in controlling the actions of a stationary robot. This involves several important research issues, including selection of sensor modalities, processing and analysis of data acquired by individual sensors, integration of sensory information, control of the robotic arm and end effectors, and efficient computational architectures for implementing various algorithms. Experimental research effort is directed toward design and evaluation of new methodologies using a laboratory-based robotic test bed. A unique feature of this test bed is a multisensor module that is useful in the characterization of the robots work space. In this paper, the authors describe the development of a robotic vision system for automatic spill detection, localization, and cleanup verification and the development of efficient techniques for analyzing range images using a parallel computer. The simulated spill cleanup scenario allows demonstration of the applicability of robotic systems to problems encountered in nuclear environments

  17. Micro-Task Processing in Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sebastian Wallner

    2005-01-01

    New reconfigurable computing architectures are introduced to overcome some of the limitations of conventional microprocessors and fine-grained reconfigurable devices (e.g., FPGAs). One of the new promising architectures are Configurable System-on-Chip (CSoC) solutions. They were designed to offer high computational performance for real-time signal processing and for a wide range of applications exhibiting high degrees of parallelism. The programming of such systems is an inherently challenging problem due to the lack of an programming model. This paper describes a novel heterogeneous system architecture for signal processing and data streaming applications. It offers high computational performance and a high degree of flexibility and adaptability by employing a micro Task Controller (mTC) unit in conjunction with programmable and configurable hardware. The hierarchically organized architecture provides a programming model, allows an efficient mapping of applications and is shown to be easy scalable to future VLSI technologies. Several mappings of commonly used digital signal processing algorithms for future telecommunication and multimedia systems and implementation results are given for a standard-cell ASIC design realization in 0.18 micron 6-layer UMC CMOS technology.

  18. Development of high performance catalyst for off-gas treatment system in BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high performance catalyst for off-gas treatment system in boiling water reactor (BWR) has been developed. The hydrogen concentration in the outlets of off-gas recombiners increased at several BWR plants in Japan. These phenomena were caused by deactivation of catalysts for the recombiners, and we assumed two types of deactivation mechanisms. The first cause was an increase of the amount of boehmite in the catalyst support due to alternation of the manufacturing process. The other cause was catalysts being poisoned by cyclic siloxanes that were introduced from the silicone sealant used in the upstream of the off-gas recombiners. The catalysts were manufactured by Pt adhering on alumina support. The conventional catalyst (CAT-A) used the aqueous solution of the chloroplatinic acid for adhesion of Pt. A dechlorination process by autoclave was applied to prevent the equipment at the downstream of the recombiners from stress corrosion cracking, but this process caused the support material to transform into boehmite. The boehmite-rich catalysts were deactivated more easily by organic silicon than gamma alumina-rich catalysts. Therefore, the CAT-A was replaced at many Japanese BWR plants by the improved catalyst (CAT-B), and their support was transformed into more stable gamma alumina by heating at 500degC. However, the siloxanes keep being detected in the off-gas though the source of siloxane had been removed and there still remain possibilities to deactivate the catalysts. Therefore, we have been developing high performance catalyst (CAT-C) that has higher activity and durability against poisoning. We investigated the properties of CAT-C by performance tests and instrumental analyses. The dependency of thermal output of nuclear reactor, and durability against siloxane poisoning were investigated. We found that CAT-C showed higher performance and better properties than CAT-B did. Moreover, we have been developing a modeling method to evaluate the hydrogen recombination

  19. Cost Optimization Technique of Task Allocation in Heterogeneous Distributed Computing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizul Navi Khan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A Distributed Computing System (DCS is a network of workstations, personal computer and /or other computing systems. Such system may be heterogeneous in the sense that the computing nodes may have different speeds and memory capacities. A DCS accepts tasks from users and executes different modules of these tasks on various nodes of the system. Task allocation in a DCS is a common problem and a good number of task allocation algorithms have been proposed in the literature. In such environment an application runs in a DCS can be accessible on every node present within the DCS. In such cases if number of tasks is less than or equal to available processors in the DCS, we can assign these task without any trouble. But this allocation becomes complicated when numbers of tasks are greater than the numbers of processors. The problem of task allocation for processing of ‘m’ tasks to ‘n’ processors (m>n in a DCS is addressed here through a new modified tasks allocation technique. The model, presented in this paper allocates the tasks to the processor of different processing capacity to increase the performance of the DCS. The technique presented in this paper is based on the consideration of processing cost of the task to the processors. We have tried a new technique to assign all the tasks as per the required availability of processors and their processing capacity so that all the tasks of application get execute in the DCS.

  20. Heteroepitaxial praseodymium sesquioxide films on Si(1 1 1): A new model catalyst system for praseodymium oxide based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, A.; Schroeder, T.; Lupina, G.; Borchert, Y.; Dabrowski, J.; Wenger, Ch.; Bäumer, M.

    2007-03-01

    The structure, growth and stoichiometry of heteroepitaxial Pr 2O 3 films on Si(1 1 1) were characterized by a combined RHEED, XRD, XPS and UPS study in view of future applications as a surface science model catalyst system. RHEED and XRD confirm the growth of a (0 0 0 1) oriented hexagonal Pr 2O 3 phase on Si(1 1 1), matching the surface symmetry by aligning the oxide in-plane direction along the Si azimuth. After an initial nucleation stage RHEED growth oscillation studies point to a Frank-van der Merwe growth mode up to a thickness of approximately 12 nm. XPS and UPS prove that the initial growth of the Pr 2O 3 layer on Si up to ˜1 nm thickness is characterized by an interface reaction with Si. Nevertheless stoichiometric Pr 2O 3 films of high crystalline quality form on top of these Pr-silicate containing interlayers.

  1. Synchronized Task Decomposition for Cooperative Multi-agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Karimadini, M

    2009-01-01

    The key challenge in cooperative control for multi-agent systems could be how to design the local interaction rules and coordination principles among agents so as to achieve certain desired global behaviors. In this paper, we try to tackle this challenge from the angle of hierarchical control, and propose a divide-and-conquer approach. The basic idea is to decompose the requested global specification into subtasks for individual agents or small clusters of agents. It should be noted that the decomposition is not arbitrary. The global specification should be decomposed in such a way that the fulfilment of these subtasks by each individual agent will imply the satisfaction of the global specification as a team. Formally, a given global specification can be represented as an automaton A, while a multi-agent system can be captured as a set of parallel distributed systems. The first question needs to be answered is whether it is always possible to decompose a given task automaton A into a finite number of sub-auto...

  2. Development of a Cognitive Robotic System for Simple Surgical Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Muradore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of robotic surgery within the operating rooms has significantly improved the quality of many surgical procedures. Recently, the research on medical robotic systems focused on increasing the level of autonomy in order to give them the possibility to carry out simple surgical actions autonomously. This paper reports on the development of technologies for introducing automation within the surgical workflow. The results have been obtained during the ongoing FP7 European funded project Intelligent Surgical Robotics (I-SUR. The main goal of the project is to demonstrate that autonomous robotic surgical systems can carry out simple surgical tasks effectively and without major intervention by surgeons. To fulfil this goal, we have developed innovative solutions (both in terms of technologies and algorithms for the following aspects: fabrication of soft organ models starting from CT images, surgical planning and execution of movement of robot arms in contact with a deformable environment, designing a surgical interface minimizing the cognitive load of the surgeon supervising the actions, intra-operative sensing and reasoning to detect normal transitions and unexpected events. All these technologies have been integrated using a component-based software architecture to control a novel robot designed to perform the surgical actions under study. In this work we provide an overview of our system and report on preliminary results of the automatic execution of needle insertion for the cryoablation of kidney tumours.

  3. A Leveled Dag Critical Task Firstschedule Algorithm in Distributed Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal EL-NATTAT

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In distributed computing environment, efficient task scheduling is essential to obtain high performance. A vital role of designing and development of task scheduling algorithms is to achieve better makes pan. Several task scheduling algorithms have been developed for homogeneous and heterogeneous distributed computing systems. In this paper, a new static task scheduling algorithm is proposed namely; Leveled DAG Critical Task First (LDCTF that optimizes the performance of Leveled DAG Prioritized Task (LDPT algorithm to efficiently schedule tasks on homogeneous distributed computing systems. LDPT was compared to B-level algorithm which is the most famous algorithm in homogeneous distributed systems and it provided better results. LDCTF is a list based scheduling algorithm which depends on sorting tasks into a list according to their priority then scheduling one by one on the suitable processor. LDCTF aims to improve the performance of the system by minimizing the schedule length than LDPT and B-level algorithms.

  4. Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1998-04-28

    Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

  5. System and method for seamless task-directed autonomy for robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Curtis; Bruemmer, David; Few, Douglas; Walton, Miles

    2012-09-18

    Systems, methods, and user interfaces are used for controlling a robot. An environment map and a robot designator are presented to a user. The user may place, move, and modify task designators on the environment map. The task designators indicate a position in the environment map and indicate a task for the robot to achieve. A control intermediary links task designators with robot instructions issued to the robot. The control intermediary analyzes a relative position between the task designators and the robot. The control intermediary uses the analysis to determine a task-oriented autonomy level for the robot and communicates target achievement information to the robot. The target achievement information may include instructions for directly guiding the robot if the task-oriented autonomy level indicates low robot initiative and may include instructions for directing the robot to determine a robot plan for achieving the task if the task-oriented autonomy level indicates high robot initiative.

  6. Synthesis of Ultra—high Molecular Weight Polystyrene with a Catalyst System Based on Calixarene—Yttrium Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈耀烽; 张一烽; 沈之荃

    2003-01-01

    Polymerization of styrene(St)with a new catalyst system composed of calixarene-yitrium complex,magnesium-aluminium alkyls and hexamethyl phosphoramide was studied.The catalyst system shows extremely high activity(>7×106gPSt/mol Y·h)and gives polystyrene with very high viscosity-average molecular weight(>5×105).

  7. A Synthetic Heuristic Algorithm for Independent Task Scheduling in Cloud Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Ghorbannia Delavar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a synthetic method based on genetic algorithm, for independent task scheduling in cloud computing systems. Task scheduling is a major issue in large-scale distributed systems that impresses on system performance. For some reasons such as heterogeneous and dynamic features in cloud environment, task scheduling has appeared as a NP-complete problem. Our proposed algorithm (SHIS, by some goal oriented operations such as, making an optimize initial population, dual step evaluation, and also, running the tasks by a special ordering considering resource load balancing and quality of service, achieves the optimize makespan. It also decreases the probability of task failure rate on running, based on the resource failure frequency rate, and also decreases the task starvation problem. It supports the scheduling for new entered tasks in system by a dynamic method. The experimental results show that the proposed method solution is better than the other studied algorithms.

  8. NO.sub.x catalyst and method of suppressing sulfate formation in an exhaust purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer-Millar, Mari Lou; Park, Paul W.; Panov, Alexander G.

    2007-06-26

    The activity and durability of a zeolite lean-burn NOx catalyst can be increased by loading metal cations on the outer surface of the zeolite. However, the metal loadings can also oxidize sulfur dioxide to cause sulfate formation in the exhaust. The present invention is a method of suppressing sulfate formation in an exhaust purification system including a NO.sub.x catalyst. The NO.sub.x catalyst includes a zeolite loaded with at least one metal. The metal is selected from among an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, a lanthanide metal, a noble metal, and a transition metal. In order to suppress sulfate formation, at least a portion of the loaded metal is complexed with at least one of sulfate, phosphate, and carbonate.

  9. The synergistic effect in the Fe-Co bimetallic catalyst system for the growth of carbon nanotube forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardeman, D.; Esconjauregui, S., E-mail: cse28@cam.ac.uk; Cartwright, R.; D' Arsié, L.; Robertson, J. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Bhardwaj, S.; Cepek, C. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste I-34149 (Italy); Oakes, D.; Clark, J. [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, Sonning Common RG4 9NH (United Kingdom); Ducati, C. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-28

    We report the growth of multi-walled carbon nanotube forests employing an active-active bimetallic Fe-Co catalyst. Using this catalyst system, we observe a synergistic effect by which—in comparison to pure Fe or Co—the height of the forests increases significantly. The homogeneity in the as-grown nanotubes is also improved. By both energy dispersive spectroscopy and in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that the catalyst particles consist of Fe and Co, and this dramatically increases the growth rate of the tubes. Bimetallic catalysts are thus potentially useful for synthesising nanotube forests more efficiently.

  10. Communicate only when necessary: Cooperative tasking for multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Karimadini, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    New advances in large scale distributed systems have amazingly offered complex functionalities through parallelism of simple and rudimentary components. The key issue in cooperative control of multi-agent systems is the synthesis of local control and interaction rules among the agents such that the entire controlled system achieves a desired global behavior. For this purpose, three fundamental problems have to be addressed: (1) task decomposition for top-down design, such that the fulfillment of local tasks guarantees the satisfaction of the global task, by the team; (2) fault-tolerant top-down design, such that the global task remains decomposable and achievable, in spite of some failures, and (3) design of interactions among agents to make an undecomposable task decomposable and achievable in a top-down framework. The first two problems have been addressed in our previous works, by identifying necessary and sufficient conditions for task automaton decomposition, and fault-tolerant task decomposability. This...

  11. Multi-level computational chemistry study on hydrogen recombination catalyst of off-gas treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reveal the deactivation mechanism of the hydrogen recombination catalyst of off-gas treatment system, we investigate by using multi-level computational chemistry simulation methods. The recombiner apparatus is modeled by the numerical mesh system in the axial coordinates, and unsteady, advection and reaction rate equations are solved by using a finite difference method. The chemical reactions are formulated to represent adsorption-desorption of hydrogen and oxygen on Pt catalyst, and time developments of the coverage factors of Pt are solved numerically. The computational simulations successfully reproduce the very similar behaviors observed by experiments, such as increasing of the inversion rates of H2 to H2O, the temperatures distributions along the flow direction, dependencies of experimental condition, and so on. Thus Pt poisoning is considered to cause the deactivation of the hydrogen recombination catalyst. To clarify the poisoning mechanism, the molecular level simulation is applied to the system of Pt on boehmite attacked by a cyclic siloxane which has been detected by experiments and considered as one of poisoning spices. The simulation shows ring-opening reaction of the cyclic siloxane on Pt, then attachment of two ends of the chain-like siloxane to Pt and boehmite, respectively, and that finally the recombination reaction is prevented. This may be the first study to find out the detailed dynamical mechanism of hydrogen recombination catalyst poisoning with cyclic siloxane. (author)

  12. 28 CFR 16.105 - Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. 16.105 Section 16.105 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR... of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. (a) The following system of records is exempt from...

  13. Task analysis for the single-shell Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes a task analysis for the Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System. A task analysis is a formal method of examining work that must be done by the operators of human-machine systems. The starting point for a task analysis is the mission that a human-machine system must perform, and the ending point is a list of requirements for human actions and the displays and controls that must be provided to support them. The task analysis approach started with a top-down definition of the steps in a tank retrieval campaign. It started by dividing a waste retrieval campaign for one single-shell tank into the largest logical components (mission phases), then subdivided these into secondary components (sub functions), and then further subdivided the secondary components into tertiary units (tasks). Finally, the tertiary units were divided into potentially observable operator behaviors (task elements). In the next stage of the task analysis, the task elements were evaluated by completing an electronic task analysis form patterned after one developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for task analysis of nuclear power plant control rooms. In the final stage, the task analysis data base was used in a bottom-up approach to develop clusters of controls and displays called panel groups and to prioritize these groups for each subfunction. Panel groups are clusters of functionally related controls and displays. Actual control panels will be designed from panel groups, and panel groups will be organized within workstations to promote efficient operations during retrieval campaigns.

  14. An innovative catalyst system for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas-shift catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterfield, C.N.; Yates, I.C.; Chanenchuk, C.

    1991-07-01

    The feasibility of using a mechanical mixture of a Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis in a slurry reactor has been established. Such a mixture can combine the superior product distribution from cobalt with the high activity for the WGS reaction characteristic of iron. Weight ratios of Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} to Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of 0.27 and 0.51 for the two catalysts were studied at 240{degrees}C, 0.79 MPa, and in situ H{sub 2}/CO ratios between 0.8 and 3.0. Each catalyst mixture showed stable Fischer-Tropsch activity for about 400 hours-on-stream at a level comparable to the cobalt catalyst operating alone. The Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst exhibited a very slow loss of activity under these conditions, but when operated alone it was stable in a slurry reactor at 200--220{degrees}C, 0.79--1.48 MPa, and H{sub 2}/CO in situ ratios between 1.0 and 2.0. The presence of the water-gas-shift catalyst did not affect the long-term stability of the primary Fischer-Tropsch selectivity, but did increase the extent of secondary reactions, such as l-alkene hydrogenation and isomerization.

  15. Analysis and Modeling of Control Tasks in Dynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær; Krink, Thiemo; Jensen, Mikkel Thomas;

    2002-01-01

    -case generators (TCGs), which requires a systematic analysis of dynamic optimization tasks. So far, only a few TCGs have been suggested. Our investigation leads to the conclusion that these TCGs are not capable of generating realistic dynamic benchmark tests. The result of our research is the design of a new TCG...

  16. Task-driven equipment inspection system based on safe workflow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyou; Liu, Yangguang

    2010-12-01

    An equipment inspection system is one that contains a number of equipment queues served in cyclic order. In order to satisfy multi-task scheduling and multi-task combination requirements for equipment inspection system, we propose a model based on inspection workflow in this paper. On the one hand, the model organizes all kinds of equipments according to inspection workflow, elemental work units according to inspection tasks, combination elements according to the task defined by users. We proposed a 3-dimensional workflow model for equipments inspection system including organization sub-model, process sub-model and data sub-model. On the other hand, the model is based on the security authorization which defined by relation between roles, tasks, pre-defined business workflows and inspection data. The system based on proposed framework is safe and efficient. Our implement shows that the system is easy to operate and manage according to the basic performance.

  17. Priority-based task reassignments in hierarchical 2D mesh-connected systems using tableaux

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dohan

    2011-01-01

    Task reassignments in 2D mesh-connected systems (2D-MSs) have been researched and simulated for several decades. We propose a hierarchical 2D mesh-connected system (2D-HMS) in order to exploit the regular nature of a 2D-MS. In our approach priority-based task assignments and reassignments in a 2D-HMS are represented by tableaux and their algorithms. We provide examples of priority-based task reassignments in a 2D-HMS in which task relocations are simply reduced to a jeu de taquin slide.

  18. The Logic Description of the System of Embedded Hardware Logic Task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Dan; ZHU Yong; ZHANG Jiangling

    2006-01-01

    A new task mode, hardware logic task mode, is presented. Its architecture, schedule and implementation are described with HDL( Hardware Description Language ), and the validity of the system has been proved by logic simulation. It has advantage for real-time applications and overheadsaving for operating system, so it is profitable for the controller in the embedded system. The relationship among RTOS (Real-Time Operating System), SoC(System on Chip), VIA (Virtual Interface Architecture) and hardware logic task is also discussed in the paper.

  19. La-Ce-Ni-O monolithic perovskite catalysts potential for gasoline autothermal reforming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Aidu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, Ont. (Canada); Wang, Shudong; Fu, Guizhi; Ni, Changjun; Wu, Diyong [Department of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2005-03-18

    Hydrogen generation from gasoline is essentially one of the critical technologies for the commercialization of small-scale fuel cells auxiliary/backup power systems, so catalysts suitable for autothermal reforming (ATR) of gasoline are desperately needed. La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}NiO{sub 3} with a crystal structure of perovskite was developed both in pellet and on cordierite substrate by citrate method. Autothermal reforming of gasoline or its surrogates, n-octane with or without thiophene additive, was carried out on either bulk perovskite pellet or monolithic perovskite catalyst. During the 220-h long-term test, the pellet catalyst exhibited high thermal stability and activity with hydrogen yield approaching to the theoretical maximum value and only minor amount of CH{sub 4} slipping through. It possessed fairly good sulfur tolerance, almost immune to 5ppmw sulfur although could still be seriously poisoned when subjected to high concentration of sulfur or gasoline. The monolithic perovskite catalysts were developed by screening slurries, binders as well as substrates with or without pre-washcoating CeZrO{sub 2}. The monolithic La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}NiO{sub 3} formed in situ on the raw cordierite monolith could be an effective catalyst for ATR of gasoline, exhibiting superior performance to the catalyst of 0.3wt.%Rh/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}/cordierite at a temperature range 650-800{sup o}C. On whatever the pellet or monolithic catalysts, the active sites were presumably the in situ reduced Ni{sup 0} which were well dispersed and stabilized by the perovskite crystal structure. The good performances of La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}NiO{sub 3}, better thermal stability and immunity to carbon foul and sulfur poison than LaNiO{sub 3} could be ascribed to the increased oxygen mobility with the presence of sesquioxide of cerium.

  20. Figures of merit for optimizing imaging systems on joint estimation/detection tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Previously published work on joint estimation/detection tasks has focused on the area under the Estimation Receiver Operating Characteristic (EROC) curve as a figure of merit for these tasks in imaging. A brief discussion of this concept and the corresponding ideal observer is included here, but the main focus is on three new approaches for system optimization on these joint tasks. One of these approaches is a generalization of Shannon Task Specific Information (TSI) to this setting. The form of this TSI is used to show that a system optimized for the joint task will not in general be optimized for the detection task alone. Another figure of merit for these joint tasks is the Bayesian Risk, where a cost is assigned to all detection outcomes and to the estimation errors, and then averaged over all sources of randomness in the object ensemble and the imaging system. The ideal observer in this setting, which minimizes the risk, is shown to be the same as the ideal EROC observer, which maximizes the area under the EROC curve. It is also shown that scaling the estimation cost function upwards, i.e making the estimation task more important, degrades the performance of this ideal observer on the detection component of the joint task. Finally we generalize these concepts to the idea of Estimation/Detection Information Tradeoff (EDIT) curves which can be used to quantify the tradeof between estimation performance and detection performance in system design.

  1. Safety and Mission Assurance (SMA) Automated Task Order Management System (ATOMS) Operation Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Shawn; Fikes, Lou A.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes operational aspects of the ATOMS system. The information provided is limited to the functionality provided by ATOMS and does not include information provided in the contractor's proprietary financial and task management system.

  2. Dehydration of xylose to furfural over niobium phosphate catalyst in biphasic solvent system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boonrat; Pholjaroen; Ning; Li; Zhiqiang; Wang; Aiqin; Wang; Tao; Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoric acid treated niobic acid(NbP)was used for the dehydration of xylose to furfural in biphasic solvent system,which was found to exhibit the best performance among the tested catalysts.The excellent performance of NbP could be explained by the better synergistic cooperation between Bro¨nsted and Lewis acid sites.Moreover,NbP showed good stability and no obvious deactivation or leaching of Nb could be observed after six continuous recycles.

  3. A Systematic Modelling Framework for Phase Transfer Catalyst Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Hyung Kim, Sun;

    2016-01-01

    in an aqueous phase. These reacting systems are receiving increased attention as novel organic synthesis options due to their flexible operation, higher product yields, and ability to avoid hazardous or expensive solvents. Major considerations in the design and analysis of PTC systems are physical and chemical...... equilibria, as well as kinetic mechanisms and rates. This paper presents a modelling framework for design and analysis of PTC systems that requires a minimum amount of experimental data to develop and employ the necessary thermodynamic and reaction models and embeds them into a reactor model for simulation....... The application of the framework is made to two cases in order to highlight the performance and issues of activity coefficient models for predicting design and operation and the effects when different organic solvents are employed....

  4. An Adaptive Regulator for Space Teleoperation System in Task Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the gravity information which can not be obtained in advance for bilateral teleoperation is studied. In outer space exploration, the gravity term changes with the position changing of the slave manipulator. So it is necessary to design an adaptive regulator controller to compensate for the unknown gravity signal. Moreover, to get a more accurate position tracking performance, the controller is designed in the task space instead of the joint space. Additionally, the time delay considered in this paper is not only time varying but also unsymmetrical. Finally, simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Task-relevant modulation of primary somatosensory cortex suggests a prefrontal-cortical sensory gating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rotte, Michael

    2005-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that somatosensory information is modulated cortically for task-specific sensory inflow: Several studies report short-term adaptation of representational maps in primary somatosensory cortex (SI) due to attention or induced by task-related motor activity such as handwriting. Recently, it has been hypothesized that the frontal or prefrontal cortex may modulate SI. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the functional organization of SI while subjects performed the Tower of Hanoi task. This task is known to be related to activation of frontal or prefrontal areas. The functional organization of SI while performing the Tower of Hanoi task was compared to the organization of SI during performing the same movements but without the Tower of Hanoi task and with rest. Topography of SI was assessed using neuromagnetic source imaging based on tactile stimulation of the first (D1) and fifth digits (D5). Performing the Tower of Hanoi task was accompanied by plastic changes in SI as indicated by significant shifts in the cortical representations of D1 and D5: They moved further apart during the Tower of Hanoi task compared to the control task containing the same movements but without the cognitive characteristic. Thus, we conclude that SI maps undergo dynamic modulation depending on motor tasks with different cognitive demands. The results suggest that this short-term plasticity may be regulated by a prefrontal-cortical sensory gating system. PMID:15886021

  6. The Challenge of Multiple Perspectives: Multiple Solution Tasks for Students Incorporating Diverse Tools and Representation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of multiple solution tasks (MST) incorporating multiple learning tools and representation systems (MTRS) in encouraging each student to develop multiple perspectives on the learning concepts under study and creativity of thought. Specifically, two types of MST were used, namely tasks that allowed and demanded…

  7. Automating Routine Tasks in AmI Systems by Using Models at Runtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serral, Estefanía; Valderas, Pedro; Pelechano, Vicente

    One of the most important challenges to be confronted in Ambient Intelligent (AmI) systems is to automate routine tasks on behalf of users. In this work, we confront this challenge presenting a novel approach based on models at runtime. This approach proposes a context-adaptive task model that allows routine tasks to be specified in an understandable way for users, facilitating their participation in the specification. These tasks are described according to context, which is specified in an ontology-based context model. Both the context model and the task model are also used at runtime. The approach provides a software infrastructure capable of automating the routine tasks as they were specified in these models by interpreting them at runtime.

  8. System Identification for Experimental Study for Polymerization Catalyst Reaction in Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmmed Saadi Ibrehem

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, system identification method is used to capture the reactor characteristics of production rate of polyethylene (PE based on published experimental data. The identification method is used to measure the percentage effect on the production rate of PE by measuring the effect of input factors of temperature of reaction, hydrogen concentration, and [Al]/[Ti] molar catalyst ratio. Temperature of reaction has big effects equal 52.4 % on the output of the system and 47.6 % on interaction of the system's parameters compare to other two factors. Also, hydrogen concentration has big effect equal 45.66 % on the output of the system and 14.7 % on interaction of the system's parameters. [Al]/[Ti] molar catalyst ratio has big effect on interaction of the system equal 28.6 and 1.94 % on the output of the system but less than the reaction temperature and hydrogen concentration. All these results depend on experiment results and these results are very important in industrial plants. ©2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 13rd May 2011; Revised: 27th July 2011; Accepted: 22th September 2011[How to Cite: Ahmmed S. Ibrehem. (2011. System Identification for Experimental Study for Polymerization Catalyst Reaction in Fluidized Bed. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (2: 137-146. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.2.874.137-146][How to Link / DOI: http://dx,doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.2.874.137-146 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/874 ] | View in 

  9. Task Analysis in Action: The Role of Information Systems in Communicable Disease Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, Jamie; Turner, Anne; Kwan-Gett, Tao; Duchin, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve the design of information systems for notifiable conditions reporting, it is essential to understand the role of such systems in public health practice. Using qualitative techniques, we performed a task analysis of the activities associated with notifiable conditions reporting at a large urban health department. We identified seventeen primary tasks associated with the use of the department’s information system. The results of this investigation suggest that communicable d...

  10. Critical Task Re-assignment under Hybrid Scheduling Approach in Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, Gopalakrishnan T R

    2012-01-01

    Embedded hard real time systems require substantial amount of emergency processing power for the management of large scale systems like a nuclear power plant under the threat of an earth quake or a future transport systems under a peril. In order to meet a fully coordinated supervisory control of multiple domains of a large scale system, it requires the scenario of engaging multiprocessor real time design. There are various types of scheduling schemes existing for meeting the critical task assignment in multiple processor environments and it requires the tracking of faulty conditions of the subsystem to avoid system underperformance from failure patterns. Hybrid scheduling usually engages a combined scheduling philosophy comprising of a static scheduling of a set of tasks and a highly pre-emptive scheduling for another set of tasks in different situations of process control. There are instances where highly critical tasks need to be introduced at a least expected catastrophe and it cannot be ensured to meet a...

  11. Development of a ruthenium/phosphite catalyst system for domino hydroformylation-reduction of olefins with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Wu, Lipeng; Fleischer, Ivana; Selent, Detlef; Franke, Robert; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    An efficient domino ruthenium-catalyzed reverse water-gas-shift (RWGS)-hydroformylation-reduction reaction of olefins to alcohols is reported. Key to success is the use of specific bulky phosphite ligands and triruthenium dodecacarbonyl as the catalyst. Compared to the known ruthenium/chloride system, the new catalyst allows for a more efficient hydrohydroxymethylation of terminal and internal olefins with carbon dioxide at lower temperature. Unwanted hydrogenation of the substrate is prevented. Preliminary mechanism investigations uncovered the homogeneous nature of the active catalyst and the influence of the ligand and additive in individual steps of the reaction sequence. PMID:24811949

  12. System and method for controlling an engine based on ammonia storage in multiple selective catalytic reduction catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, MIn; Perry, Kevin L.

    2015-11-20

    A system according to the principles of the present disclosure includes a storage estimation module and an air/fuel ratio control module. The storage estimation module estimates a first amount of ammonia stored in a first selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst and estimates a second amount of ammonia stored in a second SCR catalyst. The air/fuel ratio control module controls an air/fuel ratio of an engine based on the first amount, the second amount, and a temperature of a substrate disposed in the second SCR catalyst.

  13. Minimizing Inter-Task Interferences in Scratch-Pad Memory Usage for Reducing the Energy Consumption of Multi-Task Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Lovic; Ishihara, Tohru; Takase, Hideki; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Takada, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique for reducing the energy consumption of a multi-task system by sharing its scratchpad memory (SPM) space among the tasks. With this technique, tasks can interfere by using common areas of the SPM. However, this requires to update these areas during context switches, which involves considerable overheads. Hence, an integer linear programming formulation is used at compile time for finding the best assignment of memory objects to the SPM and their respective l...

  14. Development and Simulation of a Task Assignment Model for Multirobot Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B.Biswal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Multirobot systems (MRS hold the promise of improved performance and increased fault tolerance for large-scale problems. A robot team can accomplish a given task more quickly than a single agent by executing them concurrently. A team can also make effective use of specialists designed for a single purpose rather than requiring that a single robot be a generalist. Multirobot coordination, however, is a complex problem. An empirical study is described in the present paper that sought general guidelines for task allocation strategies. Different task allocation strategies are identified, and demonstrated in the multi-robot environment. A simulation study of the methodology is carried out in a simulated grid world. The results show that there is no single strategy that produces best performance in all cases, and that the best task allocation strategy changes as a function of the noise in the system. This result is significant, and shows the need for further investigation of task allocation strategies.

  15. A Verification Method of Inter-Task Cooperation in Embedded Real-time Systems and its Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Toshio

    In software development process of embedded real-time systems, the design of the task cooperation process is very important. The cooperating process of such tasks is specified by task cooperation patterns. Adoption of unsuitable task cooperation patterns has fatal influence on system performance, quality, and extendibility. In order to prevent repetitive work caused by the shortage of task cooperation performance, it is necessary to verify task cooperation patterns in an early software development stage. However, it is very difficult to verify task cooperation patterns in an early software developing stage where task program codes are not completed yet. Therefore, we propose a verification method using task skeleton program codes and a real-time kernel that has a function of recording all events during software execution such as system calls issued by task program codes, external interrupts, and timer interrupt. In order to evaluate the proposed verification method, we applied it to the software development process of a mechatronics control system.

  16. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

    2010-12-31

    This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed

  17. An Economical, Highly Efficient and Recyclable Catalyst System for Asymmetric Dihydroxylation of Olefins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金瑛; 孙晓莉; 姜茹; 张生勇

    2005-01-01

    A reusable cinchona alkaloid derivative ligand, which could be easily synthesized by two step transformation with cheap 3,6-dichloropyridazine and quinine as materials, was applied to homogeneous asymmetric dihydroxylation of olefins with NMO as co-oxidant in Me2CO-H20 system and the products could be extracted with Et2O from the recyclable catalyst system. 80%---93% yield and 51%-99% ee have been obtained. When trans-stilbene was chosen as the substrate for recycling experiment, 88%-92% yield and >99% ee have been obtained for ten recycles.

  18. Task 11 - systems analysis of environmental management technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musich, M.A.

    1997-06-01

    A review was conducted of three systems analysis (SA) studies performed by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team led by the Energy & Environment Research Center (EERC), including Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech.

  19. Task 11 - systems analysis of environmental management technologies. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review was conducted of three systems analysis (SA) studies performed by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team led by the Energy ampersand Environment Research Center (EERC), including Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech

  20. Period selection for integrated controller tasks in cyber-physical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Chenglie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance optimization of cyber-physical systems (CPS calls for co-design strategies that handle the issues in both computing domain and physical domain. Periods of controller tasks integrated into a uniprocessor system are related to both control performance and real-time schedulability analysis simultaneously. System performance improvement can be achieved by optimizing the periods of controller tasks. This paper extends an existing model to select task periods in real-time for CPS with fixed priority controller tasks scheduled by rate-monotonic algorithm. When all the tasks can be integrated, the analytic solution of the problem is derived by using the method of Lagrange multipliers and gradient descent method is evaluated to be suitable online. To further deal with the condition that the system is overloaded, an integrated method is proposed to select periods of tasks online by selecting a subset of tasks first and then optimizing the periods for them. Experimental results demonstrate that our method yields near-optimal result with a short running time.

  1. Energy efficiency of task allocation for embedded JPEG systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Hsin; Wu, Jan-Ou; Wang, San-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Embedded system works everywhere for repeatedly performing a few particular functionalities. Well-known products include consumer electronics, smart home applications, and telematics device, and so forth. Recently, developing methodology of embedded systems is applied to conduct the design of cloud embedded system resulting in the applications of embedded system being more diverse. However, the more energy consumes result from the more embedded system works. This study presents hyperrectangle technology (HT) to embedded system for obtaining energy saving. The HT adopts drift effect to construct embedded systems with more hardware circuits than software components or vice versa. It can fast construct embedded system with a set of hardware circuits and software components. Moreover, it has a great benefit to fast explore energy consumption for various embedded systems. The effects are presented by assessing a JPEG benchmarks. Experimental results demonstrate that the HT, respectively, achieves the energy saving by 29.84%, 2.07%, and 68.80% on average to GA, GHO, and Lin.

  2. Energy Efficiency of Task Allocation for Embedded JPEG Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Hsin Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded system works everywhere for repeatedly performing a few particular functionalities. Well-known products include consumer electronics, smart home applications, and telematics device, and so forth. Recently, developing methodology of embedded systems is applied to conduct the design of cloud embedded system resulting in the applications of embedded system being more diverse. However, the more energy consumes result from the more embedded system works. This study presents hyperrectangle technology (HT to embedded system for obtaining energy saving. The HT adopts drift effect to construct embedded systems with more hardware circuits than software components or vice versa. It can fast construct embedded system with a set of hardware circuits and software components. Moreover, it has a great benefit to fast explore energy consumption for various embedded systems. The effects are presented by assessing a JPEG benchmarks. Experimental results demonstrate that the HT, respectively, achieves the energy saving by 29.84%, 2.07%, and 68.80% on average to GA, GHO, and Lin.

  3. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a palladium and rhodium or ruthenium catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.; Knapke, Michael J.

    2011-07-12

    A process for the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in a gas stream (29) in the presence of H.sub.2 is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream with a catalyst system (38) comprising zirconia-silica washcoat particles (41), a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a catalyst combination (40) comprising palladium and at least one of rhodium, ruthenium, or a mixture of ruthenium and rhodium.

  4. Solar dynamic heat rejection technology. Task 1: System concept development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Eric; Carlson, Albert W.

    1987-01-01

    The results are presented of a concept development study of heat rejection systems for Space Station solar dynamic power systems. The heat rejection concepts are based on recent developments in high thermal transport capacity heat pipe radiators. The thermal performance and weights of each of the heat rejection subsystems is addressed in detail, and critical technologies which require development tests and evaluation for successful demonstration are assessed and identified. Baseline and several alternate heat rejection system configurations and optimum designs are developed for both Brayton and Rankine cycles. The thermal performance, mass properties, assembly requirements, reliability, maintenance requirements and life cycle cost are determined for each configuration. A specific design was then selected for each configuration which represents an optimum design for that configuration. The final recommendations of heat rejection system configuration for either the Brayton or Rankine cycles depend on the priorities established for the evaluation criteria.

  5. Task Scheduling in Energy Harvesting Real-time Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chetto, Maryline

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Harvesting energy from the environment is very desirable for many emerging applications that use embedded devices. Energy harvesting also known as energy scavenging enables us to guarantee quasi-perpetual system operation for wireless sensors, medical implants, etc. without requiring human intervention which is normally necessary for recharging batteries in classical battery-operated systems. Nevertheless, energy harvesting calls for solving numerous technological prob...

  6. Report on task I: fire protection system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study (1) evaluates, on a comparative basis, the national and international regulatory and insurance standards that serve as guidance for fire protection within the nuclear power industry; (2) analyzes the recommendations contained in the major reports on the Browns Ferry Fire; (3) proposes quantitative safety goals and evaluation methods for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection Systems (NPPFPS); (4) identifies potential improvements that may be incorporated into NPPFPS; and (5) recommends a plan of action for continuation of the fire protections systems study

  7. Task scheduling on multicore embedded systems under power and thermal constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamy, Hassan

    2015-12-01

    The trend nowadays is to utilise multiple processors to overcome the limited additional power that can be extracted from a single core. This adds to the challenge of task scheduling on such architectures. Task scheduling should consider the power consumption of concurrently running tasks to avoid going over the maximum power limit. However, often scheduling with power awareness does not guarantee thermal safety. Thermal safety is intended to keep the temperatures of all system components under the maximum allowable temperature at all times. High temperatures can reduce the reliability and the overall functionality of the system. This implies that thermal-aware task scheduling is essential to reduce the system hotspots. In this article, we propose effective solutions to power and thermal-aware scheduling based on an integer linear formulation and genetic algorithms. Results on benchmarks proved the effectiveness and usefulness of our provided techniques.

  8. Catalyst development and systems analysis of methanol partial oxidation for the fuel processor - fuel cell integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newson, E.; Mizsey, P.; Hottinger, P.; Truong, T.B.; Roth, F. von; Schucan, Th.H. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Methanol partial oxidation (pox) to produce hydrogen for mobile fuel cell applications has proved initially more successful than hydrocarbon pox. Recent results of catalyst screening and kinetic studies with methanol show that hydrogen production rates have reached 7000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for the dry pox route and 12,000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for wet pox. These rates are equivalent to 21 and 35 kW{sub th}/(litre reactor volume) respectively. The reaction engineering problems remain to be solved for dry pox due to the significant exotherm of the reaction (hot spots of 100-200{sup o}C), but wet pox is essentially isothermal in operation. Analyses of the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell systems show that two routes are available to satisfy the sensitivity of the fuel cell catalysts to carbon monoxide, i.e. a preferential oxidation reactor or a membrane separator. Targets for individual system components are evaluated for the base and best case systems for both routes to reach the combined 40% efficiency required for the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell system. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  9. Thermal desorption study of catalytic systems. Communication 20. Adsorption of water vapors on the calcium aluminate components of catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, V.D.; Danyushevskii, V.Y.; Golosman, E.Z.; Rubinstein, A.M.; Yakerson, V.I.

    1985-05-01

    Ca aluminates are used as a component of catalysts of gas-phase processes, some of which take place with the participation of water. Nickel calcium aluminate catalysts are thus used for hydrogenation of CO and CO/sub 2/ to CH/sub 4/ and water; zinc calcium aluminate catalysts are used for sulfur purification of process gases, where water is liberated during sulfiding of ZnO; and copper zinc calcium aluminate catalysts are used in low-temperature conversion of CO with water vapor. It is also known that Ca aluminates undergo various transformations in aqueous media with the formation of Ca hydroaluminates. This paper discusses the adsorption of water from the gas phase on calcium aluminate systems, which was investigated by the thermal desorption method. Samples of varying phase composition, different CaO/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ ratios, and specific surface areas were also studied and are reported on here.

  10. Nanolithographic Fabrication and Heterogeneous Reaction Studies ofTwo-Dimensional Platinum Model Catalyst Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Anthony Marshall [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-05-20

    In order to better understand the fundamental components that govern catalytic activity, two-dimensional model platinum nanocatalyst arrays have been designed and fabricated. These catalysts arrays are meant to model the interplay of the metal and support important to industrial heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Photolithography and sub-lithographic techniques such as electron beam lithography, size reduction lithography and nanoimprint lithography have been employed to create these platinum nanoarrays. Both in-situ and ex-situ surface science techniques and catalytic reaction measurements were used to correlate the structural parameters of the system to catalytic activity.

  11. Manganese(II)/Picolinic Acid Catalyst System for Epoxidation of Olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Ross A; Du Bois, J; Stack, T Daniel P

    2016-06-01

    An in situ generated catalyst system based on Mn(CF3SO3)2, picolinic acid, and peracetic acid converts an extensive scope of olefins to their epoxides at 0 °C in <5 min, with remarkable oxidant efficiency and no evidence of radical behavior. Competition experiments indicate an electrophilic active oxidant, proposed to be a high-valent Mn = O species. Ligand exploration suggests a general ligand sphere motif contributes to effective oxidation. The method is underscored by its simplicity and use of inexpensive reagents to quickly access high value-added products. PMID:27191036

  12. Multiple-task real-time PDP-15 operating system for data acquisition and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RAMOS operating system is capable of handling up to 72 simultaneous tasks in an interrupt-driven environment. The minimum viable hardware configuration includes a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-15 computer with 16384 words of memory, extended arithmetic element, automatic priority interrupt, a 256K-word RS09 DECdisk, two DECtape transports, and an alphanumeric keyboard/typer. The monitor executes major tasks by loading disk-resident modules to memory for execution; modules are written in a format that allows page-relocation by the monitor, and can be loaded into any available page. All requests for monitor service by tasks, including input/output, floating point arithmetic, request for additional memory, task initiation, etc., are implemented by privileged monitor calls (CAL). All IO device handlers are capable of queuing requests for service, allowing several tasks ''simultaneous'' use of all resources. All alphanumeric IO (including the PC05) is completely buffered and handled by a single multiplexing routine. The floating point arithmetic software is re-entrant to all operating modules and includes matrix arithmetic functions. One of the system tasks can be a ''batch'' job, controlled by simulating an alphanumeric command terminal through cooperative functions of the disk handler and alphanumeric device software. An alphanumeric control sequence may be executed, automatically accessing disk-resident tasks in any prescribed order; a library of control sequences is maintained on bulk storage for access by the monitor. (auth)

  13. Development of a Cognitive Robotic System for Simple Surgical Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Yantaç, Asım Evren; Muradore, Riccardo; Fiorini, Paolo; Fiorini, Paolo; Barkana, Duygun Erol; Bonfe, Marcello; Borierol, Fabrizio; Caprara, Andrea; De Rossi, Giacomo; Dodi, Riccardo; Elle, Ole Jakob; Ferraguti, Federica; Gasperottil, Lorenza; Gassert, Roger; Mathiassen, Kim; Handini, Dilla; Lambercy, Olivier; Lil, Lin; Kruusmaal, Maarja; Manurung, Auralius Oberman; Meruzzi, Giovanni; Ho Quoc Phuong Nguyen; Freda, Nicola; Riolfo, Gianluca; Ristolainen, Asko; Sanna, Alberto; Secchi, Cristian; Torsello, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of robotic surgery within the operating rooms has significantly improved the quality of many surgical procedures. Recently, the research on medical robotic systems focused on increasing the level of autonomy in order to give them the possibility to carry out simple surgical actions autonomously. This paper reports on the development of technologies for introducing automation within the surgical workflow. The results have been obtained during the ongoing FP7 European funded pr...

  14. Evaluation of modular robot system for maintenance tasks in hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagala, Prithvi Sekhar, E-mail: ps.pagala@upm.es [Centre for Automation and Robotics UPM-CSIC (Spain); Ferre, Manuel, E-mail: m.ferre@upm.es [Centre for Automation and Robotics UPM-CSIC (Spain); Orona, Luis, E-mail: l.orona@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Modular robot deployment inside hot cell for remote manipulation evaluated. •Flexible and adaptable system for variety of tasks presented. •Uses in large workspaces and evolving requirements shown. -- Abstract: This work assesses the use of a modular robot system to perform maintenance and inspection tasks such as, remote flexible inspection, manipulation and cooperation with deployed systems inside the hot cell. A flexible modular solution for the inclusion in maintenance operations is presented. The proposed heterogeneous modular robotic system is evaluated using simulations of the prototype across selected robot configuration to perform tasks. Results obtained show the advantages and ability of the modular robot to perform the necessary tasks as well as its ability to adapt and evolve depending on the need. The simulation test case inside hot cell shows modular robot configuration, a two modular arm to perform tele-operation tasks in the workspace and a wheeled platform for inspection collaborating to perform tasks. The advantage of using re-configurable modular robot over conventional robot platforms is shown.

  15. Evaluation of modular robot system for maintenance tasks in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Modular robot deployment inside hot cell for remote manipulation evaluated. •Flexible and adaptable system for variety of tasks presented. •Uses in large workspaces and evolving requirements shown. -- Abstract: This work assesses the use of a modular robot system to perform maintenance and inspection tasks such as, remote flexible inspection, manipulation and cooperation with deployed systems inside the hot cell. A flexible modular solution for the inclusion in maintenance operations is presented. The proposed heterogeneous modular robotic system is evaluated using simulations of the prototype across selected robot configuration to perform tasks. Results obtained show the advantages and ability of the modular robot to perform the necessary tasks as well as its ability to adapt and evolve depending on the need. The simulation test case inside hot cell shows modular robot configuration, a two modular arm to perform tele-operation tasks in the workspace and a wheeled platform for inspection collaborating to perform tasks. The advantage of using re-configurable modular robot over conventional robot platforms is shown

  16. Structured catalysts for methane auto-thermal reforming in a compact thermal integrated reaction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a compact catalytic reactor was analysed for the ATR of CH4 as natural gas surrogate. Structured catalysts (commercial honeycomb and foam monoliths) performances in CH4 processing were studied. In reactor design, great attention has been paid to the thermal integration, in order to obtain a total self-sustainability of the process avoiding additional external heat sources, and improving the plant compactness. Through a heat exchange system integrated in the reactor, water and air streams are preheated by exploiting the heat from exhaust stream, allowing to feed reactants at room temperature as well as cooling products stream at a temperature suitable for further purification stages (Water Gas Shift, Preferential Oxidation). In order to have a very comprehensive process analysis, temperatures and composition were monitored in 6 point along the catalytic bed. The influence of catalytic system geometry and thermal conductivity in the process performances were also analysed. Preliminary tests showed high thermal system efficiency, with a good hydrocarbon conversion at different operating conditions for both catalyst typologies

  17. Using a network management system (NMS) as an integrated environment for the capacity planning task

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas Filho, Paulo José de; Rivalino, Matias Júnior; Specialski, Elizabeth Sueli

    1998-01-01

    The recent years had disclose many issues related to network management. Most of them concerning about technical questions. This work discusses the possibilities of using a Network Management System (NMS) as an integrated environment for capacity planning. We give an overview of NMS and its relevance to the capacity planning tasks. We also take a look at the current NMS and their suitability for the capacity planning task.

  18. Markov Task Network: A Framework for Service Composition under Uncertainty in Cyber-Physical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Wahid Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In novel collaborative systems, cooperative entities collaborate services to achieve local and global objectives. With the growing pervasiveness of cyber-physical systems, however, such collaboration is hampered by differences in the operations of the cyber and physical objects, and the need for the dynamic formation of collaborative functionality given high-level system goals has become practical. In this paper, we propose a cross-layer automation and management model for cyber-physical systems. This models the dynamic formation of collaborative services pursuing laid-down system goals as an ontology-oriented hierarchical task network. Ontological intelligence provides the semantic technology of this model, and through semantic reasoning, primitive tasks can be dynamically composed from high-level system goals. In dealing with uncertainty, we further propose a novel bridge between hierarchical task networks and Markov logic networks, called the Markov task network. This leverages the efficient inference algorithms of Markov logic networks to reduce both computational and inferential loads in task decomposition. From the results of our experiments, high-precision service composition under uncertainty can be achieved using this approach.

  19. Markov Task Network: A Framework for Service Composition under Uncertainty in Cyber-Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Abdul-Wahid; Xu, Yang; Hu, Haixiao; Agyemang, Brighter

    2016-01-01

    In novel collaborative systems, cooperative entities collaborate services to achieve local and global objectives. With the growing pervasiveness of cyber-physical systems, however, such collaboration is hampered by differences in the operations of the cyber and physical objects, and the need for the dynamic formation of collaborative functionality given high-level system goals has become practical. In this paper, we propose a cross-layer automation and management model for cyber-physical systems. This models the dynamic formation of collaborative services pursuing laid-down system goals as an ontology-oriented hierarchical task network. Ontological intelligence provides the semantic technology of this model, and through semantic reasoning, primitive tasks can be dynamically composed from high-level system goals. In dealing with uncertainty, we further propose a novel bridge between hierarchical task networks and Markov logic networks, called the Markov task network. This leverages the efficient inference algorithms of Markov logic networks to reduce both computational and inferential loads in task decomposition. From the results of our experiments, high-precision service composition under uncertainty can be achieved using this approach. PMID:27657084

  20. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems. Technical report, Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    This report identifies those potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective, and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight programs recommended for pursuit are: gas-fired combined-cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cycle pump station; internal coatings in pipelines; and drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines.

  1. In situ adsorption-catalysis system for the removal of o-xylene over an activated carbon supported Pd catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Shaoyong; ZHANG Changbin; HE Hong

    2009-01-01

    An activated carbon (AC) supported Pd catalyst was used to develop a highly efficient in situ adsorption-catalysis system for the removal of low concentrations of o-xylene. In this study, three kinds of Pd/AC catalysts were prepared and tested to investigate the synergistic efficiency between adsorption and catalysis for o-xylene removal. The Pd/AC catalyst was first used as an adsorbent to concentrate dilute o-xylene at low temperature. After saturated adsorption, the adsorbed o-xylene was oxidized to CO2 and H2O by raising the temperature of the catalyst bed. The results showed that more than 99% of the adsorbed o-xylene was completely oxidized to CO2 over a 5% Pd/AC catalyst at 140℃. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) were applied to investigate the physical properties of o-xylene adsorption-desorption and the in situ adsorption-catalysis activity of the AC support and Pd/AC catalyst. A synergistic relationship between the AC support and the active Pd species for the removal of low concentrations of o-xylene was established.

  2. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a zinc or titanium promoted palladium-zirconium catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.; Knapke, Michael J.

    2011-08-02

    A process and system (18) for reducing NO.sub.x in a gas using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream (29) with a catalyst system (38) comprising sulfated zirconia washcoat particles (41), palladium, a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a promoter (45) comprising at least one of titanium, zinc, or a mixture thereof. The presence of zinc or titanium increases the resistance of the catalyst system to a sulfur and water-containing gas stream.

  3. Novel electroless process for copper coating of flyash using titania/ultraviolet-radiation/metal catalyst-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel electroless process has been demonstrated in this investigation to coat the surface of flyash particles with a conducting metal such as copper. The conventional electroless process has been modified for this purpose by replacing the tin-palladium catalyst-system with the titania/ultraviolet-radiation/metal catalyst-system, where the metal is either copper or silver as demonstrated here. The mechanism of copper coating of flyash particles in an electroless bath, using the novel methods of surface-sensitization and surface-activation, has been systematically studied by monitoring changes in the surface-morphology, surface-chemistry, and surface-structure of flyash particles using the scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope, and X-ray diffraction. It has been revealed that the novel electroless method involves coating the flyash particles with titania photocatalyst via sol-gel, which acts as a surface-sensitizer under the ultraviolet-radiation exposure for the subsequent surface-activation with the copper- or silver-clusters. The latter in turn acts as surface-catalyst for the subsequent Cu-coating in an electroless bath. The proposed mechanism of surface-sensitization and surface-activation of flyash particles using the novel catalyst-system has been compared with that using the conventional catalyst-system.

  4. Task Characterisation and Cross-Platform Programming Through System Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Iglesias

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing robust and reliable control code for autonomous mobile robots is difficult, because the interaction between a physical robot and the environment is highly complex, it is subject to noise and variation, and therefore partly unpredictable. This means that to date it is not possible to predict robot behaviour, based on theoretical models. Instead, current methods to develop robot control code still require a substantial trial-and-error component to the software design process. Such iterative refinement could be reduced, we argue, if a more profound theoretical understanding of robot-environment interaction existed. In this paper, we therefore present a modelling method that generates a faithful model of a robot's interaction with its environment, based on data logged while observing a physical robot's behaviour. Because this modelling method - nonlinear modelling using polynomials - is commonly used in the engineering discipline of system identification, we refer to it here as "robot identification". We show in this paper that using robot identification to obtain a computer model of robot environment interaction offers several distinct advantages:
    1. Very compact representations (one-line programs of the robot control program are generated
    2.The model can be analysed, for example through sensitivity analysis, leading to a better understanding of the essential parameters underlying the robot's behaviour, and
    3. The generated, compact robot code can be used for cross-platform robot programming, allowing fast transfer of robot code from one type of robot to another.
    We demonstrate these points through experiments with a Magellan Pro and a Nomad 200 mobile robot.

  5. High Performance and Energy Efficient Task Scheduling Algorithm for Heterogeneous Mobile Computing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ilavarasan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous Mobile Computing System (HMCS consists of battery operated portable heterogeneous mobile nodes interconnected by wireless medium are increasingly being used in many areas of science,engineering and business. The advancements in the computing and communication technologies excel the mobile computing devices with the potential to execute larger application. However, execution of larger program is constrained by the availability of energy/power, node mobility and availability. A significant amount of work has been carried out to execute meta (independent tasks in mobile computing system by consuming minimum energy/power and only a very few work has been carried out for the execution of larger program represented by Directed Acyclic Graph(DAG in mobile computing system. Therefore, inthis paper, the problem of scheduling the tasks of a DAG onto the mobile computing system has been explored with objectives to minimize either the schedule length or energy/power consumption or both. Anew task scheduling algorithm namely, High Performance and energy efficient task Scheduling algorithm for heterogeneous Mobile computing system (HPSM has been proposed. The performance of thealgorithm is evaluated by simulation experiments using a large set of randomly generated task graphs. The experimental results show that the HPSM algorithm significantly minimizes the schedule length orthe energy consumption or both.

  6. Hybrid and dependent task scheduling algorithm for on-board system software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏振华; 洪炳熔; 乔永强; 蔡则苏; 彭俊杰

    2003-01-01

    In order to solve the hybrid and dependent task scheduling and critical source allocation problems, atask scheduling algorithm has been developed by first presenting the tasks, and then describing the hybrid anddependent scheduling algorithm and deriving the predictable schedulability condition. The performance of thisagorithm was evaluated through simulation, and it is concluded from the evaluation results that the hybrid taskscheduling subalgorithm based on the comparison factor can be used to solve the problem of aperiodic task beingblocked by periodic task in the traditional operating system for a very long time, which results in poor schedu-ling predictability; and the resource allocation subalgorithm based on schedulability analysis can be used tosolve the problems of critical section conflict, ceiling blocking and priority inversion; and the scheduling algo-rithm is nearest optimal when the abortable critical section is 0.6.

  7. Co(acac)3/BMMImCl as a base-free catalyst system for clean syntheses of N,N’-disubstituted ureas from amines and CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A base-free catalyst system Co(acac)3/BMMImCl was developed for the carbonylation of amines with CO2.45%-81% isolated yields for N,N’-dialkylureas and 6%-23% isolated yields for N,N-diarylureas were obtained.The catalyst system was recovered and reused without significant loss in activity.In this catalyst system,the base catalyst and chemical dehydrant were efficiently avoided.Different reaction conditions were also discussed and a postulated mechanism was proposed.

  8. THE CAPABILITIES USING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING SYSTEM AUTOCAD IN TEACHING TO PERFORM GRAPHICS TASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Krasnyuk

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional design possibilities of the AutoCAD system for performing graphic tasks are presented in the article. On the basis of the studies conducted the features of application of computer-aided design system are noted and the methods allowing to decrease considerably the quantity of errors at making the drawings are offered.

  9. Analysis on Refinery System as a Complex Task-resource Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Suyu; RONG Gang

    2013-01-01

    Refinery system,a typical example of process systems,is presented as complex network in this paper.The topology of this system is described by task-resource network and modeled as directed and weighted graph,in which nodes represent various tasks and edges denote the resources exchanged among tasks.Using the properties of node degree distribution,strength distribution and other weighted quantities,we demonstrate the heterogeneity of the network and point out the relation between structural characters of vertices and the functionality of corresponding tasks.The above phenomena indicate that the design requirements and principles of production process contribute to the heterogeneous features of the network.Besides,betweenness centrality of nodes can be used as an importance indicator to provide additional information for decision making.The correlations between structure and weighted properties are investigated to further address the influence brought by production schemes in system connectivity patterns.Cascading failures model is employed to analyze the robustness of the network when targeted attack happens.Two capacity assignment strategies are compared in order to improve the robustness of the network at certain cost.The refinery system displays more reliable behavior when the protecting strategy considers heterogeneous properties.This phenomenon further implies the structure-activity relationship of the refinery system and provides insightful suggestions for process system design.The results also indicate that robustness analysis is a promising application of methodologies from complex networks to process system engineering.

  10. Identification of the Feedback Component of the Neuromuscular System in a Pitch Control Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damveld, H.J.; Abbink, D.A.; Mulder, M.; Mulder, Mark; Van Paassen, M.M.; Van der Helm, F.C.T.; Hosman, R.J.A.W.

    2010-01-01

    This goal of this study is to understand which parts of the the neuromuscular system contribute during a pitch control task. A novel method developed at the Delft University of Technology allows us to determine the contribution of the neuromuscular feedback system by identifying the admittance, whic

  11. A Study Of BNP Parallel Task Scheduling Algorithms Metric's For Distributed Database System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Sharma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To solve number of complex scientific problems one must require elevated computation rate comparable to supercomputer. The modernization in latest technologies, communication and information lead to the development of distributed systems and parallel systems as an alternate to Super Computer for solving complex mathematical problems. Parallel processing is a method of executing the multiple tasks alongside on different processors. With the help of parallel processing one is able to solve the complex problems that require huge amount of processing time. In parallel processing or in distributed system task scheduling is one of the major problems. Distributed database system is defined as collection of computer that are connected with one another with the help of some network media over which data and tasks are scheduled for faster execution. The objective of this study is to analyze the various metrics of static (HLFET and dynamic (DLS BNP parallel scheduling algorithm in allocating the tasks of distributed database over number of processors. In the whole study the focus will be given on measuring the impact of number of processors on different metrics of performance like makespan, speed up and processor utilization by using HLFET and DLS, BNP task scheduling algorithms.

  12. Behavioural adaptation and effectiveness of a Forward Collision Warning System depending on a secondary cognitive task

    OpenAIRE

    BUENO, Mercedes; Fabrigoule, Colette; Ndiaye, Daniel; Fort, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) have been designed to enhance road safety by reducing the number of rear-end collisions. Nevertheless, little is known about how drivers adapt their behaviour over time when using this kind of system. In addition, these systems are expected to aid particularly distracted drivers. However, previous research has suggested that the effectiveness of the system could depend on the difficulty level of the secondary task. The objective of this study on dri...

  13. Efficient solar-to-fuels production from a hybrid microbial-water-splitting catalyst system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torella, Joseph P; Gagliardi, Christopher J; Chen, Janice S; Bediako, D Kwabena; Colón, Brendan; Way, Jeffery C; Silver, Pamela A; Nocera, Daniel G

    2015-02-24

    Photovoltaic cells have considerable potential to satisfy future renewable-energy needs, but efficient and scalable methods of storing the intermittent electricity they produce are required for the large-scale implementation of solar energy. Current solar-to-fuels storage cycles based on water splitting produce hydrogen and oxygen, which are attractive fuels in principle but confront practical limitations from the current energy infrastructure that is based on liquid fuels. In this work, we report the development of a scalable, integrated bioelectrochemical system in which the bacterium Ralstonia eutropha is used to efficiently convert CO2, along with H2 and O2 produced from water splitting, into biomass and fusel alcohols. Water-splitting catalysis was performed using catalysts that are made of earth-abundant metals and enable low overpotential water splitting. In this integrated setup, equivalent solar-to-biomass yields of up to 3.2% of the thermodynamic maximum exceed that of most terrestrial plants. Moreover, engineering of R. eutropha enabled production of the fusel alcohol isopropanol at up to 216 mg/L, the highest bioelectrochemical fuel yield yet reported by >300%. This work demonstrates that catalysts of biotic and abiotic origin can be interfaced to achieve challenging chemical energy-to-fuels transformations.

  14. Exploration of Cocatalyst Effects on a Bimetallic Cobalt Catalyst System: Enhanced Activity and Enantioselectivity in Epoxide Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Widger, Peter C. B.

    2011-07-26

    Organic ionic compounds were synthesized and investigated as cocatalysts with a bimetallic cobalt complex for enantioselective epoxide polymerization. The identities of both the cation and the anion were systematically varied, and the subsequent reactivity was studied. The nature of the ionic cocatalyst dramatically impacted the rate and enantioselectivity of the catalyst system. The ionic cocatalyst [P(N=P(N(CH2)4)3) 4 +][tBuCO2 -] in combination with a bimetallic cobalt complex produced a catalyst system that exhibited the greatest activity and selectivity for a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Choosing Your Poison: Optimizing Simulator Visual System Selection as a Function of Operational Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Barbara T.; Kaiser, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    Although current technology simulator visual systems can achieve extremely realistic levels they do not completely replicate the experience of a pilot sitting in the cockpit, looking at the outside world. Some differences in experience are due to visual artifacts, or perceptual features that would not be present in a naturally viewed scene. Others are due to features that are missing from the simulated scene. In this paper, these differences will be defined and discussed. The significance of these differences will be examined as a function of several particular operational tasks. A framework to facilitate the choice of visual system characteristics based on operational task requirements will be proposed.

  16. Collaborative task planning for an internet based multi-operator multi-robot system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Sheng; ZHAO Jie; CAI He-gao

    2005-01-01

    In an Internet based multi-operator and multi-robot system (IMOMR), operators have to work collaboratively to overcome the constraints of space and time. Inherently, the activities among them can be defined as a computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW). As a practical application of CSCW, a collaborative task planning system (CTPS) for IMOMR is proposed in this paper on the basis of Petri nets. Its definition, components design, and concrete implementation are given in detail, respectively. As a result, a clear collaboration mechanism of multiple operators in an IMOMR is obtained to guarantee their task planning.

  17. 任务管理系统的开发%Development of Task Manager System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉斌

    2013-01-01

    任务管理的主要功能是对各人员分配任务的进度进行跟踪管理。开发环境使用了eclipse、jetty,使用Java语言开发,开源MVC框架struts2,对象关系映射方案使用了Hibernate Annotation,IOC使用Spring,数据库使用了Mysql。系统将根据用户角色确定相应的操作权限,可以进行相应的操作。不同的角色可以跟踪不同的任务,普通用户仅可以查看分配给自己的任务,组长可以查看自己以及组员的任务信息。%The main function of task management system is tracking and managing the progress of assigned task to each staff. The system use eclipse, jetty, open source MVC framework struts2 and java to develop. Object-relational mapping scheme use Hiber-nate Annotation, IOC use Spring, the database uses Mysql. System perform the appropriate action which based on the appropriate operating authority by user roles. Different roles can track different tasks, ordinary users can only view their assigned tasks, the group leader can view team members’task information.

  18. Presentation an approach for useful rate based on changing many tasks of workflow in distributed systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Parseh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing refers to a network that distributes processing power, applications, and large systems among many computers With the significant advances in Information and Communications Technology (ICT over the last half century, there is an increasingly perceived vision that computing will one day be the 5th utility (after water, electricity, gas, and telephony. This computing utility, like all other four existing utilities, will provide the basic level of computing service that is considered essential to meet the everyday needs of the general community. To deliver this vision, a number of computing paradigms have been proposed, of which the latest one is known as Cloud computing. The distributed system consists of a number of data centers that presents different services through internet. In a distributed system Timing and mapping the priority of tasks among processors is one of the issues attracted most of attention to itself. This issue consists of mapping a Direct Acyclic Graph with a set of tasks on a number of parallel processors and its purpose is allocating tasks to the available processors in order to satisfy the needs of priority and decency of tasks, and also to minimize the duration time of execution in total graph. In this article, well represent an algorithm that useful rate based on changing many tasks of workflow. Simulation is showed that the way for me is better about the list schedule algorithm.

  19. IEA Task 32: Wind Lidar Systems for Wind Energy Deployment (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Martin; Trabucchi, Davide; Clifton, Andrew; Courtney, Mike; Rettenmeier, Andreas

    2016-05-09

    Under the International Energy Agency Wind Implementing Agreement (IEA Wind) Task 11, researchers started examining novel applications for remote sensing and the issues around them during the 51st topical expert meeting about remote sensing in January 2007. The 59th topical expert meeting organized by Task 11 in October 2009 was also dedicated to remote sensing, and the first draft of the Task's recommended practices on remote sensing was published in January 2013. The results of the Task 11 topical expert meetings provided solid groundwork for a new IEA Wind Task 32 on wind lidar technologies. Members of the wind community identified the need to consolidate the knowledge about wind lidar systems to facilitate their use, and to investigate how to exploit the advantages offered by this technology. This was the motivation that led to the start of IEA Wind Task 32 'Lidar Application for Wind Energy Deployment' in November 2011. The kick-off was meeting was held in May 2012.

  20. Effects of Local-Lag Mechanism on Task Performance in a Desktop CVE System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Chen; Ling Chen; Gen-Cai Chen

    2005-01-01

    Consistency maintenance is a kernel problem in Collaborative Virtual Environment (CVE) research. The approaches used in Networked Virtual Environments (e.g., DR algorithm) could not be used in CVEs, for they could not prevent short-term inconsistency. Therefore, local-lag mechanism has been proposed to eliminate short-term inconsistency in CVEs. Choosing a proper lag value is a key problem in local-lag mechanism. This paper studied the effects of lag value (0ms-900ms) on task performance in a desktop CVE system. Experimental results indicate that the effect of lag value on task performance is not linear. The effect could be separated into four segments by three dividing points: 150ms, 300ms and 600ms. Lag has no effect on task performance while ranging from 0ms to 150ms. From 150ms to 300ms, lag slightly affects task performance. Lag deteriorates task performance seriously while ranging from 300ms to 600ms. When lag is longer than 600ms, the task cannot be accomplished sometimes.

  1. Surface chemistry and catalytic properties of VOX/Ti-MCM-41 catalysts for dibenzothiophene oxidation in a biphasic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J.; Chen, L. F.; Wang, J. A.; Manríquez, Ma.; Limas, R.; Schachat, P.; Navarrete, J.; Contreras, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    A series of vanadium oxide supported on Ti-MCM-41 catalysts was synthesized via the incipient impregnation method by varying the vanadia loading from 5 wt% to 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. These catalysts were characterized by a variety of advanced techniques for investigating their crystalline structure, textural properties, and surface chemistry information including surface acidity, reducibility, vanadium oxidation states, and morphological features. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated in a biphasic reaction system for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of a model diesel containing 300 ppm of dibenzothiophene (DBT) where acetonitrile was used as extraction solvent and H2O2 as oxidant. ODS activity was found to be proportional to the V5+/(V4+ + V5+) values of the catalysts, indicating that the surface vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) was the active phase. Reaction temperature would influence significantly the ODS efficiency; high temperature, i.e., 80 °C, would lead to low ODS reaction due to the partial decomposition of oxidant. All the catalysts contained both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites but the former was predominant. The catalysts with low vanadia loading (5 or 10 wt%V2O5) had many Lewis acid sites and could strongly adsorb DBT molecule via the electron donation/acceptance action which resulted in an inhibition for the reaction of DBT with the surface peroxometallic species. The catalyst with high vanadia loading (25wt%V2O5/Ti-MCM-41) showed the highest catalytic activity and could remove 99.9% of DBT at 60 °C within 60 min.

  2. Fault recovery for real-time, multi-tasking computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Richard (Inventor); Kelly, Gerald B. (Inventor); Rogers, Randy (Inventor); Stange, Kent A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    System and methods for providing a recoverable real time multi-tasking computer system are disclosed. In one embodiment, a system comprises a real time computing environment, wherein the real time computing environment is adapted to execute one or more applications and wherein each application is time and space partitioned. The system further comprises a fault detection system adapted to detect one or more faults affecting the real time computing environment and a fault recovery system, wherein upon the detection of a fault the fault recovery system is adapted to restore a backup set of state variables.

  3. Equation-Free Multiscale Computation enabling microscopic simulators to perform system-level tasks

    CERN Document Server

    Kevrekidis, Yu G; Hyman, J M; Kevrekidis, P G; Runborg, O; Theodoropoulos, C; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.; Hyman, James M.; Kevrekidis, Panagiotis G.; Runborg, Olof; Theodoropoulos, Constantinos

    2002-01-01

    We present and discuss a framework for computer-aided multiscale analysis, which enables models at a "fine" (microscopic/stochastic) level of description to perform modeling tasks at a "coarse" (macroscopic, systems) level. These macroscopic modeling tasks, yielding information over long time and large space scales, are accomplished through appropriately initialized calls to the microscopic simulator for only short times and small spatial domains. Our equation-free (EF) approach, when successful, can bypass the derivation of the macroscopic evolution equations when these equations conceptually exist but are not available in closed form. We discuss how the mathematics-assisted development of a computational superstructure may enable alternative descriptions of the problem physics (e.g. Lattice Boltzmann (LB), kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) or Molecular Dynamics (MD) microscopic simulators, executed over relatively short time and space scales) to perform systems level tasks (integration over relatively large time an...

  4. Photoreduction of CO2 Using [Ru(bpy)2(CO)L]n+ Catalysts in Biphasic Solution/Supercritical CO2 Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Voyame, Patrick; Toghill, Kathryn E.; Méndez, Manuel A.; Girault, Hubert H.

    2013-01-01

    The photosensitized reduction of carbon dioxide by the molecular catalyst [Ru(bpy)2(CO)L] is studied in a biphasic liquid-condensed gas system. Increasing pressure is shown to enhance the initial production rate and turnover number of the catalyst before deactivation of the system, especially for formation of carbon monoxide.

  5. Simulation of a nuclear measurement system around a multi-task mode real-time monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When debugging and testing material and software for the automation of systems, the non-availability of this last one states important logistic problems. A simulator of the system to be automatized, conceived around a multi-task mode real-time monitor, allowing the debugging of the software of automation without the physical presence of the system to be automatized, is proposed in the present report

  6. Optimal task mapping in safety-critical real-time parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PhD thesis is dealing with the correct design of safety-critical real-time parallel systems. Such systems constitutes a fundamental part of high-performance systems for command and control that can be found in the nuclear domain or more generally in parallel embedded systems. The verification of their temporal correctness is the core of this thesis. our contribution is mainly in the following three points: the analysis and extension of a programming model for such real-time parallel systems; the proposal of an original method based on a new operator of synchronized product of state machines task-graphs; the validation of the approach by its implementation and evaluation. The work addresses particularly the main problem of optimal task mapping on a parallel architecture, such that the temporal constraints are globally guaranteed, i.e. the timeliness property is valid. The results incorporate also optimally criteria for the sizing and correct dimensioning of a parallel system, for instance in the number of processing elements. These criteria are connected with operational constraints of the application domain. Our approach is based on the off-line analysis of the feasibility of the deadline-driven dynamic scheduling that is used to schedule tasks inside one processor. This leads us to define the synchronized-product, a system of linear, constraints is automatically generated and then allows to calculate a maximum load of a group of tasks and then to verify their timeliness constraints. The communications, their timeliness verification and incorporation to the mapping problem is the second main contribution of this thesis. FInally, the global solving technique dealing with both task and communication aspects has been implemented and evaluated in the framework of the OASIS project in the LETI research center at the CEA/Saclay. (author)

  7. A study on the catalyst for the removal of dissolved oxygen from NPP's system water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalytic removal method of dissolved oxgen was selected as optimm process, which can produce water with less than 5 ppb dissolved oxgen, maximum permissible concentration. To develope the catalyst essential to the removal process, technical investigation, fundamental experiment, property test and analysis for various catalysts were carried out. The setup of methodology, column design for catalyst performance test also have been carried out. (Author)

  8. Clean Catalysts for Water Recovery Systems in Long-Duration Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Oxidation catalysts based on innovative, physically-robust activated carbon materials containing dispersed noble metals are essential in process optimization for...

  9. Effects of automobile steering characteristics on driver vehicle system dynamics in regulation tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Klein, R.

    1975-01-01

    A regulation task which subjected the automobile to a random gust disturbance which is countered by driver control action is used to study the effects of various automobile steering characteristics on the driver/vehicle system. The experiments used a variable stability automobile specially configured to permit insertion of the simulated gust disturbance and the measurement of the driver/vehicle system characteristics. Driver/vehicle system dynamics were measured and interpreted as an effective open loop system describing function. Objective measures of system bandwidth, stability, and time delays were deduced and compared. These objective measures were supplemented by driver ratings. A tentative optimum range of vehicle dynamics for the directional regulation task was established.

  10. A Gesture Recognition System to Transition Autonomously through Vocational Tasks for Individuals with Cognitive Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Shu-Fang; Chuang, An-Fu

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the possibility of training two individuals with cognitive impairments using a Kinect-based task prompting system. This study was carried out according to an ABAB sequence in which A represented the baseline and B represented intervention phases. Data showed that the two participants significantly increased their target…

  11. Contrasting single and multi-component working-memory systems in dual tasking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Menno; Borst, Jelmer; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Working memory can be a major source of interference in dual tasking. However, there is no consensus on whether this interference is the result of a single working memory bottleneck, or of interactions between different working memory components that together form a complete working-memory system. W

  12. Utilization of central nervous system resources for preparation and performance of complex walking tasks in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Clark

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWalking in the home and community often involves performance of complex walking tasks. Understanding the control of such tasks is crucial to preserving independence and quality of life in older adults. However, very little research has been conducted in this area. Here we assess the extent to which two measures of central nervous system (CNS activity are responsive to the challenges posed by preparation and performance of complex walking tasks. Prefrontal cortical activity was measured by functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and sympathetic nervous system arousal was measured by skin conductance level (SCL.Materials and MethodsSixteen older men and women (age 77.2 ± 5.6 years with mild mobility deficits participated in this study. Participants walked at their preferred speed without distractions along an unobstructed, well-lit course (control task and also walked on the same course under five separate challenging conditions: performing a cognitive verbal fluency task (verbal task, dim lighting (dim task, carrying a tray (carry task, negotiating obstacles (obstacles task and wearing a weighted vest (vest task. Mean prefrontal activation and SCL were calculated during the preparation and performance phases of each task. Gait spatiotemporal measurements were acquired by an instrumented gait mat.ResultsPrefrontal cortical activity and SCL were elevated during the preparation phase of complex walking tasks relative to the control task. During the performance phase, prefrontal activity remained elevated to a similar level as during task preparation. In contrast, SCL continued to increase beyond the level observed during task preparation. A larger increase in prefrontal activity was found to be linked to preserved quality of gait during complex walking tasks.DiscussionThese findings indicate that availability and utilization of CNS resources are important for optimizing performance of complex walking tasks in older adults.

  13. Degree of Schedulability of Mixed-Criticality Real-time Systems with Probabilistic Sporadic Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; David, Alexandre; Kim, Jin Hyun;

    2014-01-01

    that follow user-defined continuous probability distributions. We determine the degree of schedulability of a single scheduling component which can contain both periodic and sporadic tasks using statistical model checking in the form of UPPAAL SMC. We support uniform, exponential, Gaussian and any user......We present the concept of degree of schedulability for mixed-criticality scheduling systems. This concept is given in terms of the two factors 1) Percentage of Missed Deadlines (PoMD), and 2) Degradation of the Quality of Service (DoQoS). The novel aspect is that we consider task arrival patterns...

  14. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Task 3 -- System selection; Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.J.

    1994-07-01

    Solar Turbines Incorporated has elected to pursue an intercooled and recuperated (ICR) gas turbine system to exceed the goals of the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program, which are to develop and commercialize an industrial gas turbine system that operates at thermal efficiencies at least 15% higher than 1991 products, and with emissions not exceeding eight ppmv NOx and 20 ppmv CO and UHC. Solar`s goal is to develop a commercially viable industrial system (3--20 MW) driven by a gas turbine engine with a thermal efficiency of 50% (ATS50), with the flexibility to meet the differing operational requirements of various markets. Dispersed power generation is currently considered to be the primary future target market for the ICR in the 5--15 MW size class. The ICR integrated system approach provides an ideal candidate for the assumed dispersed power market, with its small footprint, easy transportability, and environmental friendliness. In comparison with other systems that use water or toxic chemicals such as ammonia for NOx control, the ICR has no consumables other than fuel and air. The low pressure ratio of the gas turbine engine also is favorable in that less parasitic power is needed to pump the natural gas into the combustor than for simple-cycle machines. Solar has narrowed the ICR configuration to two basic approaches, a 1-spool, and a 2-spool version of the ATS50. The 1-spool engine will have a lower first-cost but lower part-power efficiencies. The 2-spool ATS may not only have better part-power efficiency, its efficiency will also be less sensitive to reduced turbine rotor inlet temperature levels. Thus hot-end parts life can be increased with only small sacrifices in efficiency. The flexibility of the 2-spool arrangement in meeting customer needs is its major advantage over the 1-spool. This Task 3 Topical Report is intended to present Solar`s preliminary system selection based upon the initial trade-off studies performed to date.

  15. NO{sub x} removal from a flue gas in a corona discharge-catalyst hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dors, Miroslaw; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-231 Gdansk (Poland)

    2004-02-29

    The objective of this work was to investigate NO{sub x} removal with a hybrid system consisting of a dc corona discharge and a catalyst at a room temperature (22C) in the presence of ammonia. The experimental procedure was as follows. A positive dc corona discharge was generated between a stainless steel hollow needle and a flat mesh made of brass. The needle was placed perpendicularly to the mesh maintaining the interelectrode distance of 40mm. The outer and inner diameters of the hollow needle were 2 and 1.6mm, respectively. The catalyst used in this investigation was a layer of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and TiO{sub 2} deposited on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} globules of 5-6mm in diameter. They were placed on the mesh so that the distance between the tube and the globules was 30mm. The catalyst was either saturated with NH{sub 3} or free of NH{sub 3}. A gas mixture of N{sub 2} (80%):O{sub 2} (5%):CO{sub 2} (15%):NO (200ppm) flowed through the tube with a flow rate of 1l/min. Ammonia was added to the gas mixture through a hollow needle in a concentration of either 400ppm when NH{sub 3}-free catalyst was used or 30ppm when catalyst saturated with NH{sub 3} was used. Results of the investigation showed that the hybrid system (with NH{sub 3}-saturated catalyst) removes up to 96% of NO{sub x} with an energy efficiency of 3.4g NO/kWh. Without the catalyst, NO{sub x} removal in the 'pure' corona discharge in the gas mixture with ammonia was lower (up to 66%). Also the energy efficiency was lower (about 1.8gNO/kWh). The obtained results showed that the investigated corona discharge-catalyst hybrid system is attractive for NO{sub x} removal because of relatively high efficiency both in NO{sub x} decomposition and energy consumption.

  16. Using Bee Colony Optimization to Solve the Task Scheduling Problem in Homogenous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Arabnejad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bee colony optimization (BCO is one of the most recent algorithms in swarm intelligence that can be used in optimization problems this algorithm is based on the intelligent behavior of honey bees in foraging process. In this paper bee colony optimization is applied to solve the task scheduling problem which tasks have dependency with each other. Scheduling of tasks that represents by directed acyclic graph is a NP-complete problem. The main purpose of this problem is obtaining the minimum schedule length that is called make-span. To realize the performance of BCO in this problem, the obtained results are presented and compared with the most successful methods such as Ant colony system, Tabu search and simulate annealing. The comparison shows that BCO produces the solutions in a different way and it is still among the bests.

  17. Task-role-based Access Control Model in Smart Health-care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the development of computer science and smart health-care technology, there is a trend for patients to enjoy medical care at home. Taking enormous users in the Smart Health-care System into consideration, access control is an important issue. Traditional access control models, discretionary access control, mandatory access control, and role-based access control, do not properly reflect the characteristics of Smart Health-care System. This paper proposes an advanced access control model for the medical health-care environment, task-role-based access control model, which overcomes the disadvantages of traditional access control models. The task-role-based access control (T-RBAC model introduces a task concept, dividing tasks into four categories. It also supports supervision role hierarchy. T-RBAC is a proper access control model for Smart Health-care System, and it improves the management of access rights. This paper also proposes an implementation of T-RBAC, a binary two-key-lock pair access control scheme using prime factorization.

  18. Capturing Safety Requirements to Enable Effective Task Allocation Between Humans and Automaton in Increasingly Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Natasha A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a current drive towards enabling the deployment of increasingly autonomous systems in the National Airspace System (NAS). However, shifting the traditional roles and responsibilities between humans and automation for safety critical tasks must be managed carefully, otherwise the current emergent safety properties of the NAS may be disrupted. In this paper, a verification activity to assess the emergent safety properties of a clearly defined, safety critical, operational scenario that possesses tasks that can be fluidly allocated between human and automated agents is conducted. Task allocation role sets were proposed for a human-automation team performing a contingency maneuver in a reduced crew context. A safety critical contingency procedure (engine out on takeoff) was modeled in the Soar cognitive architecture, then translated into the Hybrid Input Output formalism. Verification activities were then performed to determine whether or not the safety properties held over the increasingly autonomous system. The verification activities lead to the development of several key insights regarding the implicit assumptions on agent capability. It subsequently illustrated the usefulness of task annotations associated with specialized requirements (e.g., communication, timing etc.), and demonstrated the feasibility of this approach.

  19. A design fix to supervisory control for fault-tolerant scheduling of real-time multiprocessor systems with aperiodic tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Rajesh; Sarkar, Arnab; Biswas, Santosh

    2015-11-01

    In the article 'Supervisory control for fault-tolerant scheduling of real-time multiprocessor systems with aperiodic tasks', Park and Cho presented a systematic way of computing a largest fault-tolerant and schedulable language that provides information on whether the scheduler (i.e., supervisor) should accept or reject a newly arrived aperiodic task. The computation of such a language is mainly dependent on the task execution model presented in their paper. However, the task execution model is unable to capture the situation when the fault of a processor occurs even before the task has arrived. Consequently, a task execution model that does not capture this fact may possibly be assigned for execution on a faulty processor. This problem has been illustrated with an appropriate example. Then, the task execution model of Park and Cho has been modified to strengthen the requirement that none of the tasks are assigned for execution on a faulty processor.

  20. Evidence of Encapsulated Learning Systems in an Alternating Serial Reaction Time Task

    OpenAIRE

    McConville, Dan

    2011-01-01

    A model of learning systems that has received wide acknowledgment is that promulgated by Squire (1992). The model describes explicit and implicit learning systems as being encapsulated and operating in parallel. This paper aimed to investigate if implicit procedural sequence learning could be affected by explicit learning processes in an alternating serial reaction time task (ASRTT). The ASRTT involved visual-stimuli appearing in one of four spatial-locations placed horizo...

  1. Development of metal catalyst impregnation technology for membrane-based oxygen removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissolved oxygen(DO) is a primary cause of PWSCC and its content in reactor coolant system in NPPs has been strictly controlled by various DO removal methods. There are several removal methods of DO, such as vacuum degasification, thermal deaeration, and reductive removal by oxygen scavengers. Although the operation principles of vacuum degasification and thermal deaeration are simple, these methods require a lot of energy for operation and show lower efficiency. And these methods have a few handicaps such as temperature, pH, toxicity, high cost of installation and so on. For the purpose of developing the best method for DO removal from make-up water storage tank, it is necessary to overcome the disadvantages of hydrazine treatment. From this point of view, membrane-based oxygen removal system (MORS) has many advantages than other methods for example, friendly environmental process, versatility of operation conditions with high temperature and low pressure, small space, low cost, etc. Recently de-gassing membrane is widely used in power plant's feed water system for DO removal. De-gassing membrane has some advantages; it removes other dissolved gases such as CO2, N2, as well as O2, and is more economical than Catalytic resin-based Oxygen Removal System. In this study, to obtain better efficiency of MORS, we modified the polypropylene (PP) hollow fiber membrane by plasma treatment and ion beam irradiation supported platinum(Pt), palladium(Pd) as metal catalyst on the surface of the membrane

  2. Assistance tools for generic definition of ITER maintenance tasks and scenarios in advanced supervisory control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Improve supervisory control systems for ITER in-vessel and hot cell maintenance. ► Optimize remote handling operations effectiveness, reliability and safety. ► Provide a generic description of the maintenance tasks and scenarios. ► Development of context-based assistances for operators and supervisor. ► Improvement of operator's situation awareness. -- Abstract: This paper concerns the improvement of supervisory control systems in the context of remote handling for the maintenance tasks in ITER. This work aims at providing a single formalism and tools to define in a generic way the ITER maintenance tasks and scenarios for in-vessel and hot cell operations. A three-layered approach is proposed to model these tasks and scenarios. Physical actions are defined for the scene elements. From these physical actions, behaviours are defined to represent high-level functionalities. Finally, interaction modes define the way that behaviours are achieved in terms of human–machine interactions. Case study concerning the blanket maintenance procedure is discussed concerning the contributions of the descriptive model and the context-based assistances to the activities of supervisory control

  3. Task 2: Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcolm, Gordon R.; McGhee, Barry

    2009-05-01

    The PowerPoint presentation provides an overview of the tasks for the project: Characterize advanced boiler (oxy-fuel combustion, biomass co-fired) gas compositions and ash deposits; Generate critical data on the effects of environmental conditions; develop a unified test method with a view to future standardization; Generate critical data for coating systems for use in advanced boiler systems; Generate critical data for flue gas recycle piping materials for oxy-fuel systems; and, Compile materials performance data from laboratory and pilot plant exposures of candidate alloys for use in advanced boiler systems.

  4. Comparison of multi-objective evolutionary approaches for task scheduling in distributed computing systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Subashini; M C Bhuvaneswari

    2012-12-01

    Parallel and distributed systems play an important part in the improvement of high performance computing. In these type of systems task scheduling is a key issue in achieving high performance of the system. In general, task scheduling problems have been shown to be NP-hard. As deterministic techniques consume much time in solving the problem, several heuristic methods are attempted in obtaining optimal solutions. This paper presents an application of Elitist Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) and a Non-dominated Sorting Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (NSPSO) to schedule independent tasks in a distributed system comprising of heterogeneous processors. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem, aiming to obtain schedules achieving minimum makespan and flowtime. The applied algorithms generate Pareto set of global optimal solutions for the considered multi-objective scheduling problem. The algorithms are validated against a set of benchmark instances and the performance of the algorithms evaluated using standard metrics. Experimental results and performance measures infer that NSGA-II produces quality schedules compared to NSPSO.

  5. A swarm intelligence based memetic algorithm for task allocation in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvizadeh, Raheleh; Haghi Kashani, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a Swarm Intelligence based Memetic algorithm for Task Allocation and scheduling in distributed systems. The tasks scheduling in distributed systems is known as an NP-complete problem. Hence, many genetic algorithms have been proposed for searching optimal solutions from entire solution space. However, these existing approaches are going to scan the entire solution space without considering the techniques that can reduce the complexity of the optimization. Spending too much time for doing scheduling is considered the main shortcoming of these approaches. Therefore, in this paper memetic algorithm has been used to cope with this shortcoming. With regard to load balancing efficiently, Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) has been applied as local search in the proposed memetic algorithm. Extended experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method outperformed the existing GA-based method in terms of CPU utilization.

  6. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 24 Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Lysbeth

    2003-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Engines & Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International Inc., documenting work performed during the period June 1999 through December 1999 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Small Engine Technology (SET) Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 24, Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies. The work performed under SET Task 24 consisted of evaluating the noise reduction benefits compared to the baseline noise levels of representative 1992 technology aircraft, obtained by applying different combinations of noise reduction technologies to five business and regional aircraft configurations. This report focuses on the selection of the aircraft configurations and noise reduction technologies, the prediction of noise levels for those aircraft, and the comparison of the noise levels with those of the baseline aircraft.

  7. Multilevel Flow Modeling Based Decision Support System and Its Task Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Ravn, Ole

    2013-01-01

    For complex engineering systems, there is an increasing demand for safety and reliability. Decision support system (DSS) is designed to offer su-pervision and analysis about operational situations. A proper model representa-tion is required for DSS to understand the process knowledge. Multilevel...... Flow Modeling (MFM) represents complex system in multiple levels of means-end and part-whole decompositions, which is considered suitable for plant supervi-sion tasks. The aim of this paper is to explore the different possible functionali-ties by applying MFM to DSS, where both currently available...

  8. International PV QA Task Force's Proposed Comparative Rating System for PV Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2014-10-01

    The International PV Quality Assurance Task Force is developing a rating system that provides comparative information about the relative durability of PV modules. Development of accelerated stress tests that can provide such comparative information is seen as a major step toward being able to predict PV module service life. This paper will provide details of the ongoing effort to determine the format of such an overall module rating system. The latest proposal is based on using three distinct climate zones as defined in IEC 60721-2-1 for two different mounting systems. Specific stresses beyond those used in the qualification tests are being developed for each of the selected climate zones.

  9. International PV QA Task Force's proposed comparative rating system for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, John; Kurtz, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    The International PV Quality Assurance Task Force is developing a rating system that provides comparative information about the relative durability of PV modules. Development of accelerated stress tests that can provide such comparative information is seen as a major step toward being able to predict PV module service life. This paper will provide details of the ongoing effort to determine the format of such an overall module rating system. The latest proposal is based on using three distinct climate zones as defined in IEC 60721-2-1 for two different mounting systems. Specific stresses beyond those used in the qualification tests are being developed for each of the selected climate zones.

  10. A Workflow-Forecast Approach To The Task Scheduling Problem In Distributed Computing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gritsenko, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a description of deep-learning-based scheduling approach for academic-purpose high-performance computing systems. The share of academic-purpose distributed computing systems (DCS) reaches 17.4 percents amongst TOP500 supercomputer sites (15.6 percents in performance scale) that makes them a valuable object of research. The core of this approach is to predict the future workflow of the system depending on the previously submitted tasks using deep learning al...

  11. Perceived Task-Difficulty Recognition from Log-File Information for the Use in Adaptive Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janning, Ruth; Schatten, Carlotta; Schmidt-Thieme, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Recognising students' emotion, affect or cognition is a relatively young field and still a challenging task in the area of intelligent tutoring systems. There are several ways to use the output of these recognition tasks within the system. The approach most often mentioned in the literature is using it for giving feedback to the students. The…

  12. Development and Simulation of a Task Assignment Model for Multirobot Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biswal, B. B.; B.B.Choudhury

    2007-01-01

    Multirobot systems (MRS) hold the promise of improved performance and increased fault tolerance for large-scale problems. A robot team can accomplish a given task more quickly than a single agent by executing them concurrently. A team can also make effective use of specialists designed for a single purpose rather than requiring that a single robot be a generalist. Multirobot coordination, however, is a complex problem. An empirical study is described in the present paper that sought general g...

  13. Dynamic Scheduling of Skippable Periodic Tasks With Energy Efficiency In Weakly Hard Real-Time System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhi Baskaran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is a critical design issue in real-time systems, especially in battery- operated systems. Maintaining high performance, while extending the battery life between charges is an interesting challenge for system designers. Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS allows a processor to dynamically change speed and voltage at run time, thereby saving energy by spreading run cycles into idle time.Knowing when to use full power and when not, requires the cooperation of the operating system scheduler. Usually, higher processor voltage and frequency leads to higher system throughput whileenergy reduction can be obtained using lower voltage and frequency. Instead of lowering processorvoltage and frequency as much as possible, energy efficient real-time scheduling adjusts voltage andfrequency according to some optimization criteria, such as low energy consumption or high throughput,while it meets the timing constraints of the real-time tasks. As the quantity and functional complexity ofbattery powered portable devices continues to raise, energy efficient design of such devices has becomeincreasingly important. Many real-time scheduling algorithms have been developed recently to reduceenergy consumption in the portable devices that use DVS capable processors. Extensive power awarescheduling techniques have been published for energy reduction, but most of them have been focusedsolely on reducing the processor energy consumption. While the processor is one of the major powerhungry units in the system, other peripherals such as network interface card, memory banks, disks alsoconsume significant amount of power. Dynamic Power Down (DPD technique is used to reduce energyconsumption by shutting down the processing unit and peripheral devices, when the system is idle. Threealgorithms namely Red Tasks Only (RTO, Blue When Possible (BWP and Red as Late as Possible (RLPare proposed in the literature to schedule the real-time tasks in Weakly-hard real

  14. A FAST AND ELITIST BI-OBJECTIVE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHM FOR SCHEDULING INDEPENDENT TASKS ON HETEROGENEOUS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Subashini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available To meet the increasing computational demands, geographically distributed resources need to be logically coupled to make them work as a unified resource. In analyzing the performance of such distributed heterogeneous computing systems scheduling a set of tasks to the available set of resources for execution is highly important. Task scheduling being an NP-complete problem, use of metaheuristics is more appropriate in obtaining optimal solutions. Schedules thus obtained can be evaluated using several criteria that may conflict with one another which require multi objective problem formulation. This paper investigates the application of an elitist Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II, to efficiently schedule a set of independent tasks in a heterogeneous distributed computing system. The objectives considered in this paper include minimizing makespan and average flowtime simultaneously. The implementation of NSGA-II algorithm and Weighted-Sum Genetic Algorithm (WSGA has been tested on benchmark instances for distributed heterogeneous systems. As NSGA-II generates a set of Pareto optimal solutions, to verify the effectiveness of NSGA-II over WSGA a fuzzy based membership value assignment method is employed to choose the best compromise solution from the obtained Pareto solution set.

  15. Zeolite Based SCR Catalysts - An Interesting Alternative To Vanadia-Titania Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devadas, M.; Kroecher, O.; Wokaun, A.

    2004-03-01

    Metal exchanged zeolite catalysts were tested for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with ammonia (NH{sub 3}-SCR) and compared with a vanadia based catalyst. With pure NO in the feed Cu-ZSM5 exhibited a better NO{sub x} conversion than Fe-ZSM5 and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/WO{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} at all temperatures. The main drawback of Cu-ZSM5 is the required excess of ammonia due to oxidation of NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} (SCO). For a feed ratio of NO:NO{sub 2} = 0.5, all catalysts showed a high activity at elevated temperatures, but Fe-ZSM5 and Cu-ZSM5 performed better than the vanadia catalyst at lower temperatures. (author)

  16. Preparation, characterization and degradation investigations of cathode catalysts for automotive PEM fuel cells systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marcu, Alina

    2014-01-01

    This research was designed to meet Daimler systematic efforts to address future electromobility demands. The work focuses on developing potential cathode catalysts and tests procedures to be employed in prototype fuel cells. In order to achieve commercial cost-competitive polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEM FC), the following major challenges have to be addressed: i) The catalytic mass activity of the cathode catalysts has to be at least 0.44 A/mg Pt representing an increased factor ...

  17. Task-based evaluation of practical lens designs for lens-coupled digital mammography systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liying; Foo, Leslie D.; Cortesi, Rebecca L.; Thompson, Kevin P.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2007-03-01

    Recent developments in low-noise, large-area CCD detectors have renewed interest in radiographic systems that use a lens to couple light from a scintillation screen to a detector. The lenses for this application must have very large numerical apertures and high spatial resolution over a FOV. This paper expands on our earlier work by applying the principles of task-based assessment of image quality to development of meaningful figures of merit for the lenses. The task considered in this study is detection of a lesion in a mammogram, and the figure of merit used is the lesion detectability, expressed as a task-based signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), for a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). As in the previous work, the statistical model accounts for the random structure in the breast, the statistical properties of the scintillation screen, the random coupling of light to the CCD, the detailed structure of the shift-variant lens point spread function (PSF), and Poisson noise of the X-ray flux. The lenses considered range from F/0.9 to F/1.2. All yield nominally the same spot size at a given field. Among the F/0.9 lenses, some of them were designed by conventional means for high resolution and some for high contrast, and the shapes of the PSF differ considerably. The results show that excessively large lens numerical apertures do not improve the task-based SNR but dramatically increase the optics fabrication cost. Contrary to common wisdom, high-contrast designs have higher task-based SNRs than high-resolution designs when the signal is small. Additionally, we constructed a merit function to successfully tune the lenses to perform equally well anywhere in the FOV.

  18. Complementary roles of systems representing sensory evidence and systems detecting task difficulty during perceptual decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A Ruff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual decision making is a multi-stage process where incoming sensory information is used to select one option from several alternatives. Researchers typically have adopted one of two conceptual frameworks to define the criteria for determining whether a brain region is involved in decision computations. One framework, building on single unite recordings in monkeys, posits that activity in a region involved in decision making reflects the accumulation of evidence toward a decision threshold, thus showing the lowest level of BOLD signal during the hardest decisions. The other framework instead posits that activity in a decision-making region reflects the difficulty of a decision, thus showing the highest level of BOLD signal during the hardest decisions. We had subjects perform a face detection task on degraded face images while we simultaneously recorded BOLD activity. We searched for brain regions where changes in BOLD activity during this task supported either of these frameworks by calculating the correlation of BOLD activity with reaction time - a measure of task difficulty. We found that the right supplementary eye field, right frontal eye field and right inferior frontal gyrus had increased activity relative to baseline that positively correlated with reaction time, while the left superior frontal sulcus and left middle temporal gyrus had decreased activity relative to baseline that negatively correlated with reaction time. We propose that a simple mechanism that scales a region’s activity based on task demands can explain our results.

  19. Utilization of central nervous system resources for preparation and performance of complex walking tasks in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Walking in the home and community often involves performance of complex walking tasks. Understanding the control of such tasks is crucial to preserving independence and quality of life in older adults. However, very little research has been conducted in this area. Here we assess the extent to which two measures of central nervous system (CNS) activity are responsive to the challenges posed by preparation and performance of complex walking tasks. Prefrontal cortical activity...

  20. Utilization of central nervous system resources for preparation and performance of complex walking tasks in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, David J.; Rose, Dorian K.; Ring, Sarah A.; Porges, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Walking in the home and community often involves performance of complex walking tasks. Understanding the control of such tasks is crucial to preserving independence and quality of life in older adults. However, very little research has been conducted in this area. Here, we assess the extent to which two measures of central nervous system (CNS) activity are responsive to the challenges posed by preparation and performance of complex walking tasks. Prefrontal cortical activity was...

  1. ExM:System Support for Extreme-Scale, Many-Task Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Daniel S

    2011-05-31

    The ever-increasing power of supercomputer systems is both driving and enabling the emergence of new problem-solving methods that require the effi cient execution of many concurrent and interacting tasks. Methodologies such as rational design (e.g., in materials science), uncertainty quanti fication (e.g., in engineering), parameter estimation (e.g., for chemical and nuclear potential functions, and in economic energy systems modeling), massive dynamic graph pruning (e.g., in phylogenetic searches), Monte-Carlo- based iterative fi xing (e.g., in protein structure prediction), and inverse modeling (e.g., in reservoir simulation) all have these requirements. These many-task applications frequently have aggregate computing needs that demand the fastest computers. For example, proposed next-generation climate model ensemble studies will involve 1,000 or more runs, each requiring 10,000 cores for a week, to characterize model sensitivity to initial condition and parameter uncertainty. The goal of the ExM project is to achieve the technical advances required to execute such many-task applications efficiently, reliably, and easily on petascale and exascale computers. In this way, we will open up extreme-scale computing to new problem solving methods and application classes. In this document, we report on combined technical progress of the collaborative ExM project, and the institutional financial status of the portion of the project at University of Chicago, over the rst 8 months (through April 30, 2011)

  2. Task Scheduling problem in distributed systems considering communication cost and precedence by population-based ACO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Erfani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the fact of the rapid growth of distributed systems and their large spectrum of usage of proposing and representing controlling solutions and optimization of task execution procedures is one of the most important issues. Task scheduling in distributed systems has determining role in improving efficiency in applications such as communication, routing, production plans and project management. The most important issues of good schedule are minimizing makespan and average of waiting time. However, the recent and previous effort usually focused on minimizing makespan. This article presents and analyze a new method based on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO algorithm with considerations to precedence and communication cost for task scheduling problem. In the mentioned method in addition to optimization of finish time, average of waiting time and number of needed processors are also optimized. In this method, by using of a new heuristic list, an algorithm based on ant colony is proposed. The results obtained in comparison with the latest similar models of random search algorithms, proves the higher efficiency of algorithm.

  3. Evaluation of Robotic Systems to Carry Out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Leonard, Matther J.; Pacal, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This report covers the execution of and results from the activities proposed and approved in Exploration Analogs and Mission Development (EAMD) Field Test Protocol HMP2010: Evaluation of Robotic Systems to carry out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks. The field tests documented in this report examine one facet of a larger program of planetary surface exploration. This program has been evolving and maturing for several years, growing from a broad policy statement with a few specified milestones for NASA to an international effort with much higher fidelity descriptions of systems and operations necessary to accomplish this type of exploration.

  4. Simultaneous Task Subdivision and Allocation using Negotiations in Multi-Robot Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rossi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a negotiations based approach for simultaneous task subdivision and assignment in hetero-geneous multi-robot systems. We first propose an abstraction of the concept of a task that allows for the generalizing of a variety of different problems. Based on such an abstraction, we have developed a negotiation protocol based on Rubinstein’s alternate offers protocol. This is extended to the multi-dimensional space and employs a heuristic search step for evaluating and generating offers. Furthermore, the issue of how to extend a bilateral negotiations protocol to more than two parties is taken into consideration. The protocol was first tested in numerical simulations with different scenarios and then applied to three real world missions.

  5. Feasibility of the adaptive and automatic presentation of tasks (ADAPT system for rehabilitation of upper extremity function post-stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Younggeun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current guidelines for rehabilitation of arm and hand function after stroke recommend that motor training focus on realistic tasks that require reaching and manipulation and engage the patient intensively, actively, and adaptively. Here, we investigated the feasibility of a novel robotic task-practice system, ADAPT, designed in accordance with such guidelines. At each trial, ADAPT selects a functional task according to a training schedule and with difficulty based on previous performance. Once the task is selected, the robot picks up and presents the corresponding tool, simulates the dynamics of the tasks, and the patient interacts with the tool to perform the task. Methods Five participants with chronic stroke with mild to moderate impairments (> 9 months post-stroke; Fugl-Meyer arm score 49.2 ± 5.6 practiced four functional tasks (selected out of six in a pre-test with ADAPT for about one and half hour and 144 trials in a pseudo-random schedule of 3-trial blocks per task. Results No adverse events occurred and ADAPT successfully presented the six functional tasks without human intervention for a total of 900 trials. Qualitative analysis of trajectories showed that ADAPT simulated the desired task dynamics adequately, and participants reported good, although not excellent, task fidelity. During training, the adaptive difficulty algorithm progressively increased task difficulty leading towards an optimal challenge point based on performance; difficulty was then continuously adjusted to keep performance around the challenge point. Furthermore, the time to complete all trained tasks decreased significantly from pretest to one-hour post-test. Finally, post-training questionnaires demonstrated positive patient acceptance of ADAPT. Conclusions ADAPT successfully provided adaptive progressive training for multiple functional tasks based on participant's performance. Our encouraging results establish the feasibility of ADAPT; its

  6. Photochemical hydrogen production from water catalyzed by CdTe quantum dots/molecular cobalt catalyst hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kai; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Shuai; Wu, Suli; Yang, Yong; Sun, Licheng

    2015-04-25

    A hybrid system with a coordinative interaction between a cobalt complex of a N2S2-tetradentate ligand and CdTe quantum dots displayed a high activity (initial TOF 850 h(-1)) and improved stability (TON 1.44 × 10(4) based on catalyst over 30 h) for the photochemical H2 generation from water, with a quantum efficiency of 5.32% at 400 nm. PMID:25800286

  7. Effects of methylphenidate on motor system excitability in a response inhibition task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moll Gunther H

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor system excitability is based on a complex interaction of excitatory and inhibitory processes, which in turn are modulated by internal (e.g., volitional inhibition and external (e.g., drugs factors. A well proven tool to investigate motor system excitability in vivo is the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. In this study, we used TMS to investigate the effects of methylphenidate (MPH on the temporal dynamics of motor system excitability during a go/nogo task. Methods Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 14 healthy adults (8 male, 6 female; aged 20–40 yrs performed a spatial go/nogo task (S1-S2 paradigm either under dl-methylphenidate (MPH, 20 mg or placebo. TMS single and double-pulses (interstimulus interval: 3 ms were delivered either at 120, 230 or 350 ms after the S2 stimulus (control, go and nogo trials. Results At the performance level, faster reaction times and a trend towards less impulsivity errors under MPH vs. placebo were observed. In nogo trials, i.e., when a prepared response had to be inhibited, motor evoked potentials (MEPs had a smaller amplitude at an interval of 230 ms compared to 120 and 350 ms. The short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI increased over time. Under MPH, SICI in nogo trials was larger compared to placebo. With the interval between S2 and the TMS-pulse increasing, MEP amplitudes increased under MPH in nogo trials but an early inhibitory effect (at 120 ms could also be observed. Conclusion Our results show a distinct pattern of excitatory and inhibitory phenomena in a go/nogo task. MPH appears to significantly alter the dynamics of motor system excitability. Our findings suggest that a single dose of 20 mg MPH provides some fine-tuning of the motor system in healthy adults.

  8. Dynamic Scheduling of Skippable Periodic Tasks with Energy Efficiency in Weakly Hard Real-Time System

    CERN Document Server

    Baskaran, Santhi

    2010-01-01

    Energy consumption is a critical design issue in real-time systems, especially in battery- operated systems. Maintaining high performance, while extending the battery life between charges is an interesting challenge for system designers. Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) allows a processor to dynamically change speed and voltage at run time, thereby saving energy by spreading run cycles into idle time. Knowing when to use full power and when not, requires the cooperation of the operating system scheduler. Usually, higher processor voltage and frequency leads to higher system throughput while energy reduction can be obtained using lower voltage and frequency. Instead of lowering processor voltage and frequency as much as possible, energy efficient real-time scheduling adjusts voltage and frequency according to some optimization criteria, such as low energy consumption or high throughput, while it meets the timing constraints of the real-time tasks. As the quantity and functional complexity of battery powered porta...

  9. Task Space Division and Trajectory Planning for a Flexible Macro-Micro Manipulator System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with a flexible macro-micro manipulator system, which includes a long flexible manipulator and a relatively short rigid manipulator attached to the tip of the macro manipulator. A flexible macro manipulator possesses the advantages of wide operating range, high speed, and low energy consumption, but the disadvantage of a low tracking precision. The macro-micro manipulator system improves tracking performance by compensating for the endpoint tracking error while maintaining the advantages of the flexible macro manipulator. A trajectory planning scheme was built utilizing the task space division method. The division point is chosen to optimize the error compensation and energy consumption for the whole system. Then movements of the macro-micro manipulator can be determined using separate inverse kinematic models. Simulation results for a planar 4-DOF macro-micro manipulator system are presented to show the effectiveness of the control system.

  10. Electrodril system field test program. Phase II: Task C-1-deep drilling system demonstration. Final report for Phase II: Task C-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P D

    1981-04-01

    The Electrodril Deep Drilling System field test demonstrations were aborted in July 1979, due to connector problems. Subsequent post test analyses concluded that the field replacable connectors were the probable cause of the problems encountered. The designs for both the male and female connectors, together with their manufacturing processes, were subsequently modified, as was the acceptance test procedures. A total of nine male and nine female connectors were manufactured and delivered during the 2nd Quarter 1980. Exhaustive testing was then conducted on each connector as a precursor to formal qualification testing conducted during the month of October 1980, at the Brown Oil Tool test facility located in Houston, Texas. With this report, requirements under Phase II, Task C-1 are satisfied. The report documents the results of the connector qualification test program which was successfully completed October 28, 1980. In general, it was concluded that connector qualification had been achieved and plans are now in progress to resume the field test demonstration program so that Electrodril System performance predictions and economic viability can be evaluated.

  11. Heterogeneous hydrogenation catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main types of heterogeneous catalysts used for hydrogenation, the methods for their preparation, and the structure and chemistry of their surfaces are considered, as well as the catalytic activity and the mechanism of action in the hydrogenation of unsaturated and aromatic compounds, of CO, and of carbonyl compounds and in the hydrorefining of fuels. Chief attention is paid to supported Ni catalysts, to the methods for their preparation and physicochemical studies, and to the development of novel catalytic systems through modification. A novel type of catalyst for hydrogenation, viz. metal carbides, is described. Some aspects of the mechanochemical treatment of hydrogenation catalysts, including in situ methods, are discussed. Sulfide catalysts for hydrotreating are also discussed in detail. The bibliography includes 340 references.

  12. Task 3.0: Advanced power systems. Semi-annual report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCollor, D.P.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Mann, M.D.; Willson, W.G.; Hurley, J.P.

    1993-07-01

    A variety of activities are incorporated into the Advanced Power Systems program. Tasks included are (1) fuel utilization properties, (2) pressurized combustion, (3) catalytic gasification, and (4) hot-gas cleanup. ATRAN is stochastic and combines initial coal inorganics in a random manner in order to predict the resulting fly ash particle size and composition. ASHPERT, is an expert system yielding a first-order estimate of fly ash size and composition. Both models are designed to emulate pulverized-coal combustion. Input data required include identity, chemistry, size, quantity, and mineral-to-coal associations. The pressurized combustion task has focused on the construction of a versatile reactor system to simulate pressurized fluidized-bed combustion. Both castable and monolithic refractories have been investigated in determining slag prevention under a variety of conditions. Catalytic gasification coupled with a molten carbonate fuel cell offers an extremely efficient and environmentally sound power generating system using coal. Work with an Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal has not been successful. Continued efforts will focus on using the more reactive low-rank coals to try to achieve this goal. Hot-gas cleanup is the critical issue in many of the proposed advanced power system operations on coal. The key to successful ash removal is an understanding of the properties of the ash to be collected as well as the interactions of this material with the barrier itself. The knowledge base under development will assist in assessing many of these barrier material issues for a variety of coal ashes.

  13. Efficient and limiting reactions in aqueous light-induced hydrogen evolution systems using molecular catalysts and quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbert-Suriñach, Carolina; Albero, Josep; Stoll, Thibaut; Fortage, Jérôme; Collomb, Marie-Noëlle; Deronzier, Alain; Palomares, Emilio; Llobet, Antoni

    2014-05-28

    Hydrogen produced from water and solar energy holds much promise for decreasing the fossil fuel dependence. It has recently been proven that the use of quantum dots as light harvesters in combination with catalysts is a valuable strategy to obtain photogenerated hydrogen. However, the light to hydrogen conversion efficiency of these systems is reported to be lower than 40%. The low conversion efficiency is mainly due to losses occurring at the different interfacial charge-transfer reactions taking place in the multicomponent system during illumination. In this work we have analyzed all the involved reactions in the hydrogen evolution catalysis of a model system composed of CdTe quantum dots, a molecular cobalt catalyst and vitamin C as sacrificial electron donor. The results demonstrate that the electron transfer from the quantum dots to the catalyst occurs fast enough and efficiently (nanosecond time scale), while the back electron transfer and catalysis are much slower (millisecond and microsecond time scales). Further improvements of the photodriven proton reduction should focus on the catalytic rate enhancement, which should be at least in the hundreds of nanoseconds time scale. PMID:24799030

  14. The use Mitsubishi PLC systems in student's preparation for realization of industrial tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Świder

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to show the laboratory equipment, the methods of learning and the results of education process in student’s preparation for realization of industrial tasks.Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the models elaborated by students as results of semestral or BSc Eng. works.Findings: Contemporary higher education must be directed to educate students according to needs of employers. In order to be up to these needs, a new technology should be presented and used during realization of syllabus. Moreover, the students should solve the real problems from industry.Practical implications: Working on real industrial problems and developing models introduce a new trend in practical teaching. Student involved in the project gets skills in engineering by completing the tasks from an idea to a working model.Originality/value: All of the projects presented in the paper have been made by the students according to their original concepts. In the Institute of Engineering Processes Automation and Integrated Manufacturing Systems the emphasis is put on these tasks, which are realized within the confines of diploma thesis, semestral works or researches with employees of the Institute.

  15. Zr-zeolite beta: a new heterogeneous catalyst system for the highly selective cascade transformation of citral to (+/-)-menthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yuntong; Jaenicke, Stephan; Chuah, Gaik-Khuan

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of citral to menthols involves hydrogenation steps as well as cyclisation of the intermediate, citronellal. The ability of Zr-zeolite beta to catalyse the cyclisation with high diastereoselectivity to (+/-)-isopulegol is the critical step in this cascade transformation. Bifunctional catalysts containing nickel or rhodium supported on Zr-zeolite beta gave menthols in yields of 87-89% and an excellent diastereoselectivity of 94% for the desired (+/-)-menthol. Dual catalyst systems of Zr-zeolite beta and nano-dispersed Ni on an MCM-41 support were equally effective and have the added advantage that the rates of the acid- and hydrogenation-catalysed steps can be independently varied. By applying a pressure ramp of 0.2-2 MPa, the yield of menthols could be increased to 95%, with 94% diastereoselectivity for (+/-)-menthol. The low initial pressure minimises the rates of competing hydrogenation reactions to byproducts such as citronellol and 3,7-dimethyloctanol. PMID:19132702

  16. Assessment of microcapsule—catalyst particles healing system in high performance fibre reinforced polymer composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolimowski, P. A.; Wass, D. F.; Bond, I. P.

    2016-08-01

    Autonomous self-healing in carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) is demonstrated using epoxy resin filled microcapsules and a solid-state catalyst. Microcapsules filled with oligomeric epoxy resin (20-450 μm) and particles of Sc(OTf)3 are embedded in an interleave region of a unidirectional CFRP laminate and tested under mode I loading. Double cantilever beam (DCB) test specimens containing variable concentrations of microcapsules and catalyst were prepared, tested and compared to those healed by manual injection with corresponding healing resin formulation. The healing efficiency was evaluated by comparing the maximum peak load recorded on load-displacement curves for pristine and healed specimens. A 44% maximum recovery was observed for specimens containing 10 wt% of solid phase catalyst and 11 wt% of epoxy microcapsules. However, a significant (80%) decrease in initial strain energy release rate (G IC) was observed for specimens with the embedded healing chemistries.

  17. Assessment of microcapsule—catalyst particles healing system in high performance fibre reinforced polymer composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolimowski, P. A.; Wass, D. F.; Bond, I. P.

    2016-08-01

    Autonomous self-healing in carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) is demonstrated using epoxy resin filled microcapsules and a solid-state catalyst. Microcapsules filled with oligomeric epoxy resin (20–450 μm) and particles of Sc(OTf)3 are embedded in an interleave region of a unidirectional CFRP laminate and tested under mode I loading. Double cantilever beam (DCB) test specimens containing variable concentrations of microcapsules and catalyst were prepared, tested and compared to those healed by manual injection with corresponding healing resin formulation. The healing efficiency was evaluated by comparing the maximum peak load recorded on load–displacement curves for pristine and healed specimens. A 44% maximum recovery was observed for specimens containing 10 wt% of solid phase catalyst and 11 wt% of epoxy microcapsules. However, a significant (80%) decrease in initial strain energy release rate (G IC) was observed for specimens with the embedded healing chemistries.

  18. CONVERSION OF GLUCOSE OVER SO42-/ZRO2-TIO2 CATALYSTS IN AN EXTREMELY LOW ACID SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available SO42-/ZrO2-TiO2 catalysts prepared by precipitation and impregnation methods were employed for glucose conversion. The basic structures of the prepared catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, NH3-TPD, XPS, and TEM techniques. The essential properties of SO42-/ZrO2 could be improved greatly by adding a suitable amount of TiO2. High BET area and pore volume favored glucose conversion. The conversion rate of glucose into levulinic acid catalyzed by SO42-/ZrO2-TiO2 increased significantly in an extremely low acid system, indicating that the acidic condition was favorable for levulinic acid formation. The combined yield of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid reached 28.8% with the presence of SO42-/ZrO2-TiO2 when the Zr-Ti molar ratio was 5:5 at 170 °C for 2 h in the extremely low acid system. Studies on catalyst recycling were also further investigated in this study.

  19. Selection of an industrial natural-gas-fired advanced turbine system - Task 3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, G.M.

    1997-05-01

    TASK OBJECTIVES: Identify a gas-fueled turbine and steam system which will meet the program goals for efficiency - and emissions. TECHNICAL GOALS AND REQUIREMENTS: Goals for the Advanced Turbine System Program (ATS) where outlined in the statement of work for five basic categories: Cycle Efficiency - System heat rate to have a 15% improvement over 1991 vintage systems being offered to the market. Environmental No post-combustion devices while meeting the following parameter targets: (1) Nitrous Oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions to equal 8 parts per million dry (ppmd) with 15% oxygen. (2) Carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions to equal 20 parts per million(ppmd) each. Cost of electricity to be 10 percent less when compared to similar 1991 systems. Fuel Flexibility Have to ability to burn coal or coal derived fuels without extensive redesign. Reliability, Availability, Maintainability Reliability, availability and maintainability must be comparable to modern advanced power generation systems. For all cycle and system studies, analyses were done for the following engine system ambient conditions: Temperature - 59F; Altitude - Sea Level; Humidity - 60%. For the 1991 reference system, GE Aircraft Engines used its LM6OOO engine product offering for comparison of the Industrial System parameters developed under this program.

  20. Testing of a Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst for methane steam reforming using different reaction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Miguel, N.; Manzanedo, J. [IKERLAN S. Coop, Alternative Generation Systems Area, Minano (Alava) (Spain); Arias, P.L. [University of the Basque Country, School of Engineering, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Bilbao (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst activity was tested for methane steam reforming using two different reaction systems: a catalyst particle bed (0.42-0.5 mm catalyst particles diluted in SiC) with a surface area-to-volume ratio SA/V of 910 m{sup -1} and a porosity {epsilon} of 52 % and a catalyst-coated metal monolith with an SA/V of 3300 m{sup -1} and an {epsilon} of 86 %. Under a steam-to-carbon ratio of 2.5 and at a temperature of 700 C, the highest specific reaction rates were found for the catalyst-coated monolith. The high SA/V and {epsilon}, together with the high rate of heat transfer of the metal monolith were found to be responsible of this optimum behavior. However, in both systems, the Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst suffered a catalyst deactivation during operation. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Changing societies and four tasks of schooling: Challenges for strongly differentiated educational systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

    2014-05-01

    Changing labour markets, increased calls for selection and excellence, and increased diversity and individualisation have repercussions on how educational systems can prepare youth for work, optimise knowledge production, achieve equality of opportunity, and socialise students into active civic engagement. This paper discusses four central tasks of schooling and examines to what extent societal developments challenge education policy to deliver on the tasks at hand. Particular attention is given to the challenges Europe's strongly diversified educational systems are currently facing. Both the Netherlands and Germany, for example, have been offering vocationally-oriented pathways alongside traditional academic higher education for some time. But today's ongoing changes in job descriptions, mainly due to ever-accelerating technological developments, are causing a risk of skills obsolescence which can only be avoided by continuous upskilling and/or reskilling of a sufficiently flexible workforce. Overcoming differences of intelligence as well as differences of diverse socioeconomic, ethnic and linguistic backgrounds by way of education is another challenge, as is fostering "soft" skills and political awareness. This paper investigates the effectiveness of current education systems in preparing citizens for a functioning modern society.

  2. Parallel Task Processing on a Multicore Platform in a PC-based Control System for Parallel Kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Michalik

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Multicore platforms are such that have one physical processor chip with multiple cores interconnected via a chip level bus. Because they deliver a greater computing power through concurrency, offer greater system density multicore platforms provide best qualifications to address the performance bottleneck encountered in PC-based control systems for parallel kinematic robots with heavy CPU-load. Heavy load control tasks are generated by new control approaches that include features like singularity prediction, structure control algorithms, vision data integration and similar tasks. In this paper we introduce the parallel task scheduling extension of a communication architecture specially tailored for the development of PC-based control of parallel kinematics. The Sche-duling is specially designed for the processing on a multicore platform. It breaks down the serial task processing of the robot control cycle and extends it with parallel task processing paths in order to enhance the overall control performance.

  3. CONFIGURATION OF VO(OR)2Cl-Al(i-Bu)3 CATALYST SYSTEM AND CHARGE DISTRIBUTION OF VANADIUM CENTRAL ION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Shuke; LU Chongxian; JIANG Jian

    1987-01-01

    According to the calculation of quantum chemistry it could be deduced that configurations of the catalysts VO(OR)2Cl-Al (i-Bu)3, for the alternating copolymerization of butadiene with propene, the highest reactive configuration was A. When the catalyst complex forms the configuration A, the energy of the system was the lowest; the central vanadium atom had relatively high positive charge and whose frontier orbital overlapped easily with the frontier orbital of butadiene to form coordination complex, so it was concluded from the experimental results and calculations that the configuration of the catalyst of relatively high activity was A.

  4. An innovative catalyst system for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Cobalt plus a water-gas-shift catalyst. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterfield, C.N.; Yates, I.C.; Chanenchuk, C.

    1991-07-01

    The feasibility of using a mechanical mixture of a Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis in a slurry reactor has been established. Such a mixture can combine the superior product distribution from cobalt with the high activity for the WGS reaction characteristic of iron. Weight ratios of Co/MgO/SiO{sub 2} to Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of 0.27 and 0.51 for the two catalysts were studied at 240{degrees}C, 0.79 MPa, and in situ H{sub 2}/CO ratios between 0.8 and 3.0. Each catalyst mixture showed stable Fischer-Tropsch activity for about 400 hours-on-stream at a level comparable to the cobalt catalyst operating alone. The Cu-ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst exhibited a very slow loss of activity under these conditions, but when operated alone it was stable in a slurry reactor at 200--220{degrees}C, 0.79--1.48 MPa, and H{sub 2}/CO in situ ratios between 1.0 and 2.0. The presence of the water-gas-shift catalyst did not affect the long-term stability of the primary Fischer-Tropsch selectivity, but did increase the extent of secondary reactions, such as l-alkene hydrogenation and isomerization.

  5. Homogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, John C; Freixa, Zoraida; van Leeuwen, Piet W N M

    2011-01-01

    This first book to illuminate this important aspect of chemical synthesis improves the lifetime of catalysts, thus reducing material and saving energy, costs and waste.The international panel of expert authors describes the studies that have been conducted concerning the way homogeneous catalysts decompose, and the differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. The result is a ready reference for organic, catalytic, polymer and complex chemists, as well as those working in industry and with/on organometallics.

  6. Reliability of steam-turbine rotors. Task 1. Lifetime prediction analysis system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Task 1 of RP 502, Reliability of Steam Turbine Rotors, resulted in the development of a computerized lifetime prediction analysis system (STRAP) for the automatic evaluation of rotor integrity based upon the results of a boresonic examination of near-bore defects. Concurrently an advanced boresonic examination system (TREES), designed to acquire data automatically for lifetime analysis, was developed and delivered to the maintenance shop of a major utility. This system and a semi-automated, state-of-the-art system (BUCS) were evaluated on two retired rotors as part of the Task 2 effort. A modified nonproprietary version of STRAP, called SAFER, is now available for rotor lifetime prediction analysis. STRAP and SAFER share a common fracture analysis postprocessor for rapid evaluation of either conventional boresonic amplitude data or TREES cell data. The final version of this postprocessor contains general stress intensity correlations for elliptical cracks in a radial stress gradient and provision for elastic-plastic instability of the ligament between an imbedded crack and the bore surface. Both linear elastic and ligament rupture models were developed for rapid analysis of linkup within three-dimensional clusters of defects. Bore stress-rupture criteria are included, but a creep-fatigue crack growth data base is not available. Physical and mechanical properties of air-melt 1CrMoV forgings are built into the program; however, only bounding values of fracture toughness versus temperature are available. Owing to the lack of data regarding the probability of flaw detection for the boresonic systems and of quantitative verification of the flaw linkup analysis, automatic evlauation of boresonic results is not recommended, and the lifetime prediction system is currently restricted to conservative, deterministic analysis of specified flaw geometries

  7. In situ synthesis of nano clay filled polyethylene using polymer support metallocenes catalyst system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ ethylene polymerizations were performed using bis(cyclopentadiene)titanium dichloride supported on poly ethersulfone as catalyst. The bis(cyclopentadiene)titanium dichloride supported on poly ethersulfone catalyst activity estimated by ethylene polymerization was 360 kg PE/mol Ti/h. During polymerization the fillers used were montmorillonite nano clays having surface modifications with 35-45 wt % dimethyl dialkyl(14-18)amine (FA) and 25-30 wt % trimethyl stearyl ammonium (FB). These fillers were pretreated with methylaluminoxine (MAO; co catalyst) for better dispersion onto the polymer matrix. The formation of polyethylene within the whole matrix was confirmed by FTIR studies. It was found that the nature of nano filler did not have any remarkable effect on the melting characteristics of the polymer. TGA study indicates that nano clay FB filled polyethylene has higher thermal stability than nano clay FA filled polyethylene. The melting temperature of the obtained polyethylenes was 142 degree C, which corresponds to that synthesized by the polyether sulfone supported catalyst. (author)

  8. Reward contingencies and the recalibration of task monitoring and reward systems: a high-density electrical mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morie, K P; De Sanctis, P; Foxe, J J

    2014-07-25

    Task execution almost always occurs in the context of reward-seeking or punishment-avoiding behavior. As such, ongoing task-monitoring systems are influenced by reward anticipation systems. In turn, when a task has been executed either successfully or unsuccessfully, future iterations of that task will be re-titrated on the basis of the task outcome. Here, we examined the neural underpinnings of the task-monitoring and reward-evaluation systems to better understand how they govern reward-seeking behavior. Twenty-three healthy adult participants performed a task where they accrued points that equated to real world value (gift cards) by responding as rapidly as possible within an allotted timeframe, while success rate was titrated online by changing the duration of the timeframe dependent on participant performance. Informative cues initiated each trial, indicating the probability of potential reward or loss (four levels from very low to very high). We manipulated feedback by first informing participants of task success/failure, after which a second feedback signal indicated actual magnitude of reward/loss. High-density electroencephalography (EEG) recordings allowed for examination of event-related potentials (ERPs) to the informative cues and in turn, to both feedback signals. Distinct ERP components associated with reward cues, task-preparatory and task-monitoring processes, and reward feedback processes were identified. Unsurprisingly, participants displayed increased ERP amplitudes associated with task-preparatory processes following cues that predicted higher chances of reward. They also rapidly updated reward and loss prediction information dependent on task performance after the first feedback signal. Finally, upon reward receipt, initial reward probability was no longer taken into account. Rather, ERP measures suggested that only the magnitude of actual reward or loss was now processed. Reward and task-monitoring processes are clearly dissociable, but

  9. Report of the Census Task Force on beamline control system requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special task force was appointed to study the experience with the present beamline control system at Fermilab and to make recommendations in this area. The charge of the committee and the list of its members are appended. In order to carry out its assignment, the committee conducted a series of meetings in which it discussed the controls situation in general and the best way to approach the user community. The various groups of users were identified, and a letter was written to representatives of these groups asking questions concerning the present system and future needs. The committee met with each group to discuss the response to these questions. Written summaries of the discussions are appended. Conclusions are drawn regarding current problems, systematic upgrades and specific recommendations

  10. STUDIES ON HYDROISOMERIZATION CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    C5/C6 alkane hydroisomerization is one of the most economical technologies for octane enhancement and has potential application in China in the next decade. The work about choice of hydroisomerization catalyst systems and scale-up in catalyst preparation was presented. Performance and regeneration behaviors tested in different laboratory reactors and a 1000 t/a pilot plant were discussed, which offers the information for commercial use of this process. Mechanism for coke formation was also proposed.

  11. Modified Fe3O4- hydroxyapatite nanocomposites as heterogeneous catalysts in three UV, Vis and Fenton like degradation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photocatalytic degradation of dye by Ag modified HAP under visible light. • Study of Fenton like degradation of dye by transition metal ions modified HAP. • Comparison of catalytic systems according to Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic expression. - Abstract: The magnetite-hydroxyapatite (M-HAP) nanocomposites were prepared by a chemical co- precipitation procedure and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The ability of the synthesized catalyst for photocatalytic degradation of Acid Blue 25 (AB25), as an organic dye, under UV irradiation was studied. The catalyst was modified employing transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) trying to improve the catalytic performance of HAP in absence of UV irradiation and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide i.e. a Fenton like reaction. The best results obtained for Cu and Co modified M-HAPs and the effect of operational parameters such pH, amount of catalyst and hydrogen peroxide concentration was studied. In order to investigate the performance of HAP based photocatalyst in visible light region, M-HAP was modified with silver ions. At the end, Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic expression used to evaluate and compare the catalytic systems. The strongest degradation activity was observed for Ag-M-HAP/Vis system because of Ag3PO4 formation. Apparent reaction rate constant (Kapp) by Ag-M-HAP/Vis was 63, 36 and 19 times faster than Cu-M-HAP(II)/H2O2, Co-M-HAP(II)/H2O2 and M-HAP (I)/UV systems, respectively

  12. Direct transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural via SnCl₄ catalysts in aqueous and biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenju; Ren, Junli; Li, Huiling; Deng, Aojie; Sun, Runcang

    2015-05-01

    Direct catalytic transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural in the aqueous system and the biphasic system were comparatively investigated under mild conditions. Screening of several promising chlorides for conversion of beech xylan in the aqueous system revealed the Lewis acid SnCl4 was the most effective catalyst. Comparing to the single aqueous system, the bio-based 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF)/H2O biphasic system was more conducive to the synthesis of furfural, in which the highest furfural yield of 78.1% was achieved by using SnCl4 as catalysts under the optimized reaction conditions (150°C, 120 min). Additionally, the influences of xylan-type hemicelluloses with different chemical and structural features from beech, corncob and bagasse on the furfural production were studied. It was found that furfural yield to some extent was determined by the xylose content in hemicelluloses and also had relationships with the molecular weight of hemicelluloses and the degree of crystallization.

  13. The TRIDEC System-of-Systems; Choreography of large-scale concurrent tasks in Natural Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häner, R.; Wächter, J.

    2012-04-01

    The project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), co-funded by the European Commission in its Seventh Framework Programme aims at establishing a network of dedicated, autonomous legacy systems for large-scale concurrent management of natural crises utilising heterogeneous information resources. TRIDEC's architecture reflects the System-of- Systems (SoS) approach which is based on task-oriented systems, cooperatively interacting as a collective in a common environment. The design of the TRIDEC-SoS follows the principles of service-oriented and event-driven architectures (SOA & EDA) exceedingly focusing on a loose coupling of the systems. The SoS approach in combination with SOA and EDA has the distinction of being able to provide novel and coherent behaviours and features resulting from a process of dynamic self-organisation. Self-organisation is a process without the need for a central or external coordinator controlling it through orchestration. It is the result of enacted concurrent tasks in a collaborative environment of geographically distributed systems. Although the individual systems act completely autonomously, their interactions expose emergent structures of evolving nature. Particularly, the fact is important that SoS are inherently able to evolve on all facets of intelligent information management. This includes adaptive properties, e.g. seamless integration of new resource types or the adoption of new fields in natural crisis management. In the case of TRIDEC with various heterogeneous participants involved, concurrent information processing is of fundamental importance because of the achievable improvements regarding cooperative decision making. Collaboration within TRIDEC will be implemented with choreographies and conversations. Choreographies specify the expected behaviour between two or more participants; conversations describe the message exchange between all participants emphasising their logical

  14. Bimetallic Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinfelt, John H.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical reaction rates can be controlled by varying composition of miniscule clusters of metal atoms. These bimetallic catalysts have had major impact on petroleum refining, where work has involved heterogeneous catalysis (reacting molecules in a phase separate from catalyst.) Experimentation involving hydrocarbon reactions, catalytic…

  15. Heat pump concepts for nZEB Technology developments, design tools and testing of heat pump systems for nZEB in the USA: Country report IEA HPT Annex 40 Task 2, Task 3 and Task 4 of the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Payne, W. Vance [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Ling, Jiazhen [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Radermacher, Reinhard [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The IEA HPT Annex 40 "Heat pump concepts for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings" deals with the application of heat pumps as a core component of the HVAC system for Nearly or Net Zero energy buildings (nZEB). This report covers Task 2 on the system comparison and optimisation and Task 3 dedicated to the development of adapted technologies for nZEB and field monitoring results of heat pump systems in nZEB. In the US team three institutions are involved and have worked on the following projects: The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will summarize development activities through the field demonstration stage for several integrated heat pump (IHP) systems electric ground-source (GS-IHP) and air-source (AS-IHP) versions and an engine driven AS-IHP version. The first commercial GS-IHP product was just introduced to the market in December 2012. This work is a contribution to Task 3 of the Annex. The University of Maryland will contribute a software development project to Task 2 of the Annex. The software ThermCom evaluates occupied space thermal comfort conditions accounting for all radiative and convective heat transfer effects as well as local air properties. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is working on a field study effort on the NIST Net Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF). This residential building was constructed on the NIST campus and officially opened in summer 2013. During the first year, between July 2013 and June 2014, baseline performance of the NZERTF was monitored under a simulated occupancy protocol. The house was equipped with an air-to-air heat pump which included a dedicated dehumidification operating mode. Outdoor conditions, internal loads and modes of heat pump operation were monitored. Field study results with respect to heat pump operation will be reported and recommendations on heat pump optimization for a net zero energy building will be provided. This work is a contribution to Task 3 of the Annex.

  16. Crafting a Balanced System of Assessment in Wisconsin. Recommendations of the Next Generation Assessment Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Assessment Task Force was convened to formulate Wisconsin's path forward. Task force members listened to leaders from business and technology sectors as well as leaders from PK-12 and higher education. This summary shares the process, definitions, assumptions, and recommendations of the task force. This paper aims to use these…

  17. Correcting Working Postures in Water Pump AssemblyTasks using the OVAKO Work Analysis System (OWAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiya Kadhim Al-Zuheri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovako Working Postures Analyzing System (OWAS is a widely used method for studying awkward working postures in workplaces. This study with OWAS, analyzed working postures for manual material handling of laminations at stacking workstation for water pump assembly line in Electrical Industrial Company (EICO / Baghdad. A computer program, WinOWAS, was used for the study. In real life workstation was found that more than 26% of the working postures observed were classified as either AC2 (slightly harmful, AC3 (distinctly harmful. Postures that needed to be corrected soon (AC3 and corresponding tasks, were identified. The most stressful tasks observed were grasping, handling, and positioning of the laminations from workers. The construction of real life workstation is modified simultaneously by redesign suggestions in the values of location (positioning factors for stacking workstation. The simulation workstation executed by mean of parametric CAD software. That modifications lead to improvement in the percentage of harmful postures. It was therefore recommended the use of supplementary methods is required to identify ergonomic risk factors for handling work or other hand-intensive activities on industry sites.

  18. SU-E-T-350: Verification of Gating Performance of a New Elekta Gating Solution: Response Kit and Catalyst System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, X; Cao, D; Housley, D; Mehta, V; Shepard, D [Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In this work, we have tested the performance of new respiratory gating solutions for Elekta linacs. These solutions include the Response gating and the C-RAD Catalyst surface mapping system.Verification measurements have been performed for a series of clinical cases. We also examined the beam on latency of the system and its impact on delivery efficiency. Methods: To verify the benefits of tighter gating windows, a Quasar Respiratory Motion Platform was used. Its vertical-motion plate acted as a respiration surrogate and was tracked by the Catalyst system to generate gating signals. A MatriXX ion-chamber array was mounted on its longitudinal-moving platform. Clinical plans are delivered to a stationary and moving Matrix array at 100%, 50% and 30% gating windows and gamma scores were calculated comparing moving delivery results to the stationary result. It is important to note that as one moves to tighter gating windows, the delivery efficiency will be impacted by the linac's beam-on latency. Using a specialized software package, we generated beam-on signals of lengths of 1000ms, 600ms, 450ms, 400ms, 350ms and 300ms. As the gating windows get tighter, one can expect to reach a point where the dose rate will fall to nearly zero, indicating that the gating window is close to beam-on latency. A clinically useful gating window needs to be significantly longer than the latency for the linac. Results: As expected, the use of tighter gating windows improved delivery accuracy. However, a lower limit of the gating window, largely defined by linac beam-on latency, exists at around 300ms. Conclusion: The Response gating kit, combined with the C-RAD Catalyst, provides an effective solution for respiratorygated treatment delivery. Careful patient selection, gating window design, even visual/audio coaching may be necessary to ensure both delivery quality and efficiency. This research project is funded by Elekta.

  19. Self-Healing of Molecular Catalyst and Photosensitizer on Metal-Organic Framework: Robust Molecular System for Photocatalytic H2 Evolution from Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongha; Whang, Dong Ryeol; Park, Soo Young

    2016-07-20

    Inspired by self-repair mechanism of PSII in plants, we report a self-healing system which spontaneously repairs molecular catalyst and photosensitizer during photocatalytic H2 evolution. A bipyridine-embedded UiO-type metal-organic framework (MOF), namely Ptn_Ir_BUiO, which incorporated H2-evolving catalyst and photosensitizer, was synthesized and subject to photocatalytic H2 evolution reaction (HER). Impressively, HER with Pt0.1_Ir_BUiO showed very stable molecular photocatalysis without significant decrease in its activity and colloidal formation for 6.5 days at least; in the homogeneous counterpart, the molecular catalyst became a colloid just after 7.5 h. It was revealed that the arrangement of diimine sites which closely and densely surrounded the H2-evolving catalyst and photosensitizer in the MOF enabled such a highly efficient self-healing. PMID:27356034

  20. The role of domain-general frontal systems in language comprehension: evidence from dual-task interference and semantic ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jennifer M; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Davis, Matthew H

    2010-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) plays a critical role in semantic and syntactic aspects of speech comprehension. It appears to be recruited when listeners are required to select the appropriate meaning or syntactic role for words within a sentence. However, this region is also recruited during tasks not involving sentence materials, suggesting that the systems involved in processing ambiguous words within sentences are also recruited for more domain-general tasks that involve the selection of task-relevant information. We use a novel dual-task methodology to assess whether the cognitive system(s) that are engaged in selecting word meanings are also involved in non-sentential tasks. In Experiment 1, listeners were slower to decide whether a visually presented letter is in upper or lower case when the sentence that they are simultaneously listening to contains words with multiple meanings (homophones), compared to closely matched sentences without homophones. Experiment 2 indicates that this interference effect is not tied to the occurrence of the homophone itself, but rather occurs when listeners must reinterpret a sentence that was initially misparsed. These results suggest some overlap between the cognitive system involved in semantic disambiguation and the domain-general process of response selection required for the case-judgement task. This cognitive overlap may reflect neural overlap in the networks supporting these processes, and is consistent with the proposal that domain-general selection processes in inferior frontal regions are critical for language comprehension.

  1. Progress report of the Engineering Data Management System Task Force CERN-CN-96-002

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalley, J L; Faber, G; Farthouat, Philippe; Ferran, M; Flegel, Wilfried; Hameri, A P; Hauviller, Claude; Hervé, A; Høimyr, Nils-Joar; Klempt, W; Kuipers, J P M; Loos, R; Mottier, M; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nikkola, J; Oliger, S; Onnela, A; Palazzi, P; Pettersson, Thomas Sven; Price, M; Rollinger, G; Rousseau, B; Schinzel, Josi; Strubin, Pierre M; Tarrant, M; Vuoskoski, J; Witzeling, W

    1996-01-01

    An Engineering Data Management System (EDMS) is a collection of tools and rules, which enables, as a minimum, a body of vetted information to be built up in a safe pla and be easily accessible to the users. The Task Force worked through 1995 to elucidate CERN's needs for an EDMS in the construction and lifetime of LHC and its experiments, to discover the state of the art of EDMS and find a product on the market which fulfilled CERN's needs. A Call for Tenders was issued in December 1995 and the replies are being evaluated. The name DAR has been chosen for the activity of implenting an EDMS at CERN (CERN EDMS for Detectors and Accelerators) see http://cadd.cern.ch/cedar

  2. Design of highly active binary catalyst systems for CO2/epoxide copolymerization: polymer selectivity, enantioselectivity, and stereochemistry control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Bing; Shi, Lei; Wang, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Ying-Ju; Peng, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Li, Bo

    2006-02-01

    Asymmetric, regio- and stereoselective alternating copolymerization of CO(2) and racemic aliphatic epoxides proceeds effectively under mild temperature and pressure by using a binary catalyst system of a chiral tetradentate Schiff base cobalt complex [SalenCo(III)X] as the electrophile in conjunction with an ionic organic ammonium salt or a sterically hindered strong organic base as the nucleophile. The substituent groups on the aromatic rings, chiral diamine backbone, and axial X group of the electrophile, as well as the nucleophilicity, leaving ability, and coordination ability of the nucleophile, all significantly affect the catalyst activity, polymer selectivity, enantioselectivity, and stereochemistry. A bulky chiral cyclohexenediimine backbone complex [SalcyCo(III)X] with an axial X group of poor leaving ability as the electrophile, combined with a bulky nuclephile with poor leaving ability and low coordination ability, is an ideal binary catalyst system for the copolymerization of CO(2) and a racemic aliphatic epoxide to selectively produce polycarbonates with relatively high enantioselectivity, >95% head-to-tail connectivity, and >99% carbonate linkages. A fast copolymerization of CO(2) and epoxides was observed when the concentration of the electrophile or/and the nucleophile was increased, and the number of polycarbonate chains was proportional to the concentration of the nucleophile. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, in combination with a kinetic study, showed that the copolymerization involved the coordination activation of the monomer by the electrophile and polymer chain growth predominately occurring in the nucleophile. Both the enantiomorphic site effect resulting from the chiral electrophile and the polymer chain end effect mainly from the bulky nucleophile cooperatively control the stereochemistry of the CO(2)/epoxide copolymerization.

  3. Hydrogenation of Olefins Catalyzed by Highly Active Titanocene/NaH or n-BuLi Catalyst Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the substituents on the cyclopentadienyl ring and the reducing agents on the catalytic activity and the stability of titanocene/NaH or n-BuLi systems for the hydrogenation of olefins were investigated. For the catalyst systems composed of titanocene/NaH or n-BuLi, the nature and the number of the substituents on the cyclopentadienyl ring control the catalytic behavior of those two systems. The effect of the reducing agent on the catalytic activity is relatively small. In addition, the characters of the hydrogenation of various olefins catalyzed respectively by Cp2TiCl2/NaH or n-BuLi systems were compared.

  4. Modeling, control and optimization of water systems systems engineering methods for control and decision making tasks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides essential background knowledge on the development of model-based real-world solutions in the field of control and decision making for water systems. It presents system engineering methods for modelling surface water and groundwater resources as well as water transportation systems (rivers, channels and pipelines). The models in turn provide information on both the water quantity (flow rates, water levels) of surface water and groundwater and on water quality. In addition, methods for modelling and predicting water demand are described. Sample applications of the models are presented, such as a water allocation decision support system for semi-arid regions, a multiple-criteria control model for run-of-river hydropower plants, and a supply network simulation for public services.

  5. Evolving the JET virtual reality system for delivering the JET EP2 shutdown remote handling tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality, functionality and performance of the virtual reality (VR) system used at JET for preparation and implementation of remote handling (RH) operations has been progressively enhanced since its first use in the original JET remote handling shutdown in 1998. As preparation began for the JET EP2 (Enhanced Performance 2) shutdown it was recognised that the VR system being used was unable to cope with the increased functionality and the large number of 3D models needed to fully represent the JET in-vessel components and tooling planned for EP2. A bespoke VR software application was developed in collaboration with the OEM, which allowed enhancements to be made to the VR system to meet the requirements of JET remote handling in preparation for EP2. Performance improvements required to meet the challenges of EP2 could not be obtained from the development of the new VR software alone. New methodologies were also required to prepare source, CATIA models for use in the VR using a collection of 3D software packages. In collaboration with the JET drawing office, techniques were developed within CATIA using polygon reduction tools to reduce model size, while retaining surface detail at required user limits. This paper will discuss how these developments have played an essential part in facilitating EP2 remote handling task development and examine their impact during the EP2 shutdown.

  6. Task 3.0 - Advanced power systems. Subtask 3.18 - Ash behavior in power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall goal of this initiative is to develop fundamental knowledge of ash behavior in power systems for the purpose of increasing power production efficiency, reducing operation and maintenance costs, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The specific objectives of this initiative focus primarily on ash behavior related to advanced power systems and include the following: Determine the current status of the fundamental ash interactions and deposition formation mechanisms as already reported through previous or ongoing projects at the EERC or in the literature. Determine sintering mechanisms for temperatures and particle compositions that are less well known and remain for the most part undetermined. Identify the relationship between the temperature of critical viscosity (Tcv ) as measured in a viscometer and the crystallization occurring in the melt. Perform a literature search on the use of heated-stage microscopy (HSM) for examining in situ ash-sintering phenomena and then validate the use of HSM in the determination of viscosity in spherical ash particles. Ascertain the formation and stability of specific mineral or amorphous phases in deposits typical of advanced power systems. Evaluate corrosion for alloys being used in supercritical combustion systems

  7. Using Bee Colony Optimization to Solve the Task Scheduling Problem in Homogenous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Arabnejad; Ali Moeini; Nasrollah Moghadam

    2011-01-01

    Bee colony optimization (BCO) is one of the most recent algorithms in swarm intelligence that can be used in optimization problems this algorithm is based on the intelligent behavior of honey bees in foraging process. In this paper bee colony optimization is applied to solve the task scheduling problem which tasks have dependency with each other. Scheduling of tasks that represents by directed acyclic graph is a NP-complete problem. The main purpose of this problem is obtaining the minimum sc...

  8. Nanoscale zero-valent iron/AC as heterogeneous Fenton catalysts in three-dimensional electrode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Lei; Yang, Jie; Yu, Xinmin; Jiang, Yonghai; Zhou, Minghua

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, nanoscale zero-valent iron/activated carbon (NZVI/AC) was investigated as heterogeneous Fenton catalyst in three-dimensional (3D) electrode system for methyl orange (MO) degradation. Some important operating parameters such as cathodic potential, pH, and O₂ flow rate were investigated, exhibiting good decolorization. The mineralization of MO was significantly improved by 20-35% compared to two-dimensional (2D) AC system at the optimum conditions. Although the TOC removal of AC was higher than NZVI/AC due to its good adsorption capacity initially, heterogeneous Fenton catalysis played a more and more important roles in the following test. After eight runs, NZVI/AC still exhibited excellent catalytic properties with low iron leaching. Further, a relatively comprehensive mechanism of NZVI/AC as particle electrodes in 3D system was proposed.

  9. Efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production from water over Pt-Eosin Y catalyst: A systemic study of reaction parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhao, Hui; Chen, Yong; Sun, Ruimin; Han, Bing

    2016-07-01

    A high efficient homogeneous system for hydrogen production from water consisting of Eosin Y as a photosensitizer, methyl viologen (MV2+) as an electron transfer mediator, triethanolamine (TEOA) as a sacrificial electron donor and colloid Pt as a catalyst, has been systemicly studied. The initial system pH and the concentration of Eosin Y have remarkable effects on the rate of hydrogen evolution. The optimal pH and concentration of Eosin Y are 9 and 7.2×10-5 M. Triethanolamine (TEOA) as an electron donor, can reductively quench the oxidized Eosin Y and the quenching is well modeled by the Stern-Volmer equation. The optimal concentration of TEOA and the concentration of MV2+ are 0.3 M and 3.1×10-4 M, respectively. In addition, the role of colloid Pt has been investigated.

  10. Stabilized rhodium(0) nanoparticles: a reusable hydrogenation catalyst for arene derivatives in a biphasic water-liquid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, J; Roucoux, A; Patin, H

    2000-02-18

    A colloidal system based on an aqueous suspension of rhodium(o) nanoparticles proved to be an efficient catalyst for the hydrogenation of arene derivatives under biphasic conditions. The rhodium nanoparticles (2-2.5 nm) were synthesized by the reduction of RhCl3 x 3H2O with sodium borohydride and were stabilized by highly water-soluble N-alkyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium salts (HEA-Cn). These surfactant molecules were characterized by measurements of the surface tension and the aqueous dispersions with rhodium were observed by transmission electron cryomicroscopy. The catalytic system is efficient under ultramild conditions, namely room temperature and 1 atm H2 pressure. The aqueous phase which contains the protected rhodium(0) colloids can be reused without significant loss of activity. The microheterogeneous behavior of this catalytic system was confirmed on a mercury poisoning experiment.

  11. Instrumentation Needs for Integral Primary System Reactors (IPSRs) - Task 1 Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the Westinghouse work performed under Task 1 of this Financial Assistance Award and satisfies a Level 2 Milestone for the project. While most of the signals required for control of IPSRs are typical of other PWRs, the integral configuration poses some new challenges in the design or deployment of the sensors/instrumentation and, in some cases, requires completely new approaches. In response to this consideration, the overall objective of Task 1 was to establish the instrumentation needs for integral reactors, provide a review of the existing solutions where available, and, identify research and development needs to be addressed to enable successful deployment of IPSRs. The starting point for this study was to review and synthesize general characteristics of integral reactors, and then to focus on a specific design. Due to the maturity of its design and availability of design information to Westinghouse, IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) was selected for this purpose. The report is organized as follows. Section 1 is an overview. Section 2 provides background information on several representative IPSRs, including IRIS. A review of the IRIS safety features and its protection and control systems is used as a mechanism to ensure that all critical safety-related instrumentation needs are addressed in this study. Additionally, IRIS systems are compared against those of current advanced PWRs. The scope of this study is then limited to those systems where differences exist, since, otherwise, the current technology already provides an acceptable solution. Section 3 provides a detailed discussion on instrumentation needs for the representative IPSR (IRIS) with detailed qualitative and quantitative requirements summarized in the exhaustive table included as Appendix A. Section 3 also provides an evaluation of the current technology and the instrumentation used for measurement of required parameters in current PWRs. Section 4

  12. Instrumentation Needs for Integral Primary System Reactors (IPSRs) - Task 1 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Storrick; Bojan Petrovic; Luca Oriani; Lawrence E. Conway; Diego Conti

    2005-09-30

    This report presents the results of the Westinghouse work performed under Task 1 of this Financial Assistance Award and satisfies a Level 2 Milestone for the project. While most of the signals required for control of IPSRs are typical of other PWRs, the integral configuration poses some new challenges in the design or deployment of the sensors/instrumentation and, in some cases, requires completely new approaches. In response to this consideration, the overall objective of Task 1 was to establish the instrumentation needs for integral reactors, provide a review of the existing solutions where available, and, identify research and development needs to be addressed to enable successful deployment of IPSRs. The starting point for this study was to review and synthesize general characteristics of integral reactors, and then to focus on a specific design. Due to the maturity of its design and availability of design information to Westinghouse, IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) was selected for this purpose. The report is organized as follows. Section 1 is an overview. Section 2 provides background information on several representative IPSRs, including IRIS. A review of the IRIS safety features and its protection and control systems is used as a mechanism to ensure that all critical safety-related instrumentation needs are addressed in this study. Additionally, IRIS systems are compared against those of current advanced PWRs. The scope of this study is then limited to those systems where differences exist, since, otherwise, the current technology already provides an acceptable solution. Section 3 provides a detailed discussion on instrumentation needs for the representative IPSR (IRIS) with detailed qualitative and quantitative requirements summarized in the exhaustive table included as Appendix A. Section 3 also provides an evaluation of the current technology and the instrumentation used for measurement of required parameters in current PWRs. Section 4

  13. Locality-Aware Task Scheduling and Data Distribution for OpenMP Programs on NUMA Systems and Manycore Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Muddukrishna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance degradation due to nonuniform data access latencies has worsened on NUMA systems and can now be felt on-chip in manycore processors. Distributing data across NUMA nodes and manycore processor caches is necessary to reduce the impact of nonuniform latencies. However, techniques for distributing data are error-prone and fragile and require low-level architectural knowledge. Existing task scheduling policies favor quick load-balancing at the expense of locality and ignore NUMA node/manycore cache access latencies while scheduling. Locality-aware scheduling, in conjunction with or as a replacement for existing scheduling, is necessary to minimize NUMA effects and sustain performance. We present a data distribution and locality-aware scheduling technique for task-based OpenMP programs executing on NUMA systems and manycore processors. Our technique relieves the programmer from thinking of NUMA system/manycore processor architecture details by delegating data distribution to the runtime system and uses task data dependence information to guide the scheduling of OpenMP tasks to reduce data stall times. We demonstrate our technique on a four-socket AMD Opteron machine with eight NUMA nodes and on the TILEPro64 processor and identify that data distribution and locality-aware task scheduling improve performance up to 69% for scientific benchmarks compared to default policies and yet provide an architecture-oblivious approach for programmers.

  14. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold, Michael; Crocker, Mark; Balakotaiah, Vemuri; Luss, Dan; Choi, Jae-Soon; Dearth, Mark; McCabe, Bob; Theis, Joe

    2013-09-30

    Oxides of nitrogen in the form of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) commonly referred to as NO{sub x}, is one of the two chemical precursors that lead to ground-level ozone, a ubiquitous air pollutant in urban areas. A major source of NO{sub x} is generated by equipment and vehicles powered by diesel engines, which have a combustion exhaust that contains NO{sub x} in the presence of excess O{sub 2}. Catalytic abatement measures that are effective for gasoline-fueled engines such as the precious metal containing three-way catalytic converter (TWC) cannot be used to treat O2-laden exhaust containing NO{sub x}. Two catalytic technologies that have emerged as effective for NO{sub x} abatement are NO{sub x} storage and reduction (NSR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). NSR is similar to TWC but requires much larger quantities of expensive precious metals and sophisticated periodic switching operation, while SCR requires an on-board source of ammonia which serves as the chemical reductant of the NO{sub x}. The fact that NSR produces ammonia as a byproduct while SCR requires ammonia to work has led to interest in combining the two together to avoid the need for the cumbersome ammonia generation system. In this project a comprehensive study was carried out of the fundamental aspects and application feasibility of combined NSR/SCR. The project team, which included university, industry, and national lab researchers, investigated the kinetics and mechanistic features of the underlying chemistry in the lean NOx trap (LNT) wherein NSR was carried out, with particular focus on identifying the operating conditions such as temperature and catalytic properties which lead to the production of ammonia in the LNT. The performance features of SCR on both model and commercial catalysts focused on the synergy between the LNT and SCR converters in terms of utilizing the upstream-generated ammonia and alternative reductants such as propylene, representing the

  15. Description of the tasks of control room operators in German nuclear power plants and support possibilities by advanced computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In course of the development of nuclear power plants the instrumentation and control systems and the information in the control room have been increasing substantially. With this background it is described which operator tasks might be supported by advanced computer aid systems with main emphasis to safety related information and diagnose facilities. Nevertheless, some of this systems under development may be helpful for normal operation modes too. As far as possible recommendations for the realization and test of such systems are made. (orig.)

  16. Report of the Defense Science Board task force on military system applications of superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    The Task Force found a number of superconductivity applications that could result in significant new military capabilities, including electronics and high power applications. In particular, superconducting materials could enable significant military improvements in: Magnetic Field Sensors with greatly increased sensitivity for improved detection and identification capability; Passive Microwave and Millimeter-wave Components enabling increased detection range and discrimination in clutter; Staring Infrared Focal Plane Array sensors incorporating superconducting electronics permitting significant range and sensitivity increases over current scanning IR sensors; Wideband Analog and Ultra-Fast Digital Signal Processing for radar and optical sensors; High Power Motors and Generators for ship and aircraft propulsion leading to: decreased displacement; drive system flexibility; increased range; or longer endurance on station; Magnets/Energy Storage for high power microwave, millimeter-wave or optical generators (e.g., free electron laser); capability for powering quiet propulsion systems; Electro-Magnetic Launchers capable of launching hypervelocity projectiles for antiarmor weapons and close-in ship defense weapons; and Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Propulsion enabling ultra quiet drives for submarines, torpedoes, and surface ships.

  17. Ionic Liquid-Complex Pd/C System as Catalyst for Copolymerization of CO and Styrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海霞; 郭锦棠; 胡光; 冯亚凯; 武瑞涛

    2014-01-01

    The copolymerization of CO and styrene catalyzed by Pd/C toward the formation of polyketones (PK)was studied in the N-valeronitrile-N'-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C4CNmim]+PF6-) medium. The synthe-sized PK was characterized by Fourier transform infrared(FTIR), elemental analysis, 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and gel permeation chro-matography (GPC). The supported ionic liquid film on the surface of Pd/C catalyst can prevent the products from covering the hole of active carbon due to its chemical stability and weak coordination ability with metal ions, and thus efficiently improve the catalytic activity. The effects of different amounts of ionic liquid on the catalytic activity and reusability of the catalyst and the molecular weight of PK were discussed. When the usage of ionic liquid is 10wt%(0.1 g ionic liquid/1 g active carbon carrier) and the theoretical content of Pd2+is 5wt%(0.05 g Pd2+/1 g active car-bon carrier), the highest catalytic activity 2 963.64 gSTCO/(gPd·h) is achieved with the molecular weight and polydispersity index of PK as Mn=9 684, Mw=13 452 and Mw/Mn=1.389.

  18. Carbon nanohybrids used as catalysts and emulsifiers for reactions in biphasic aqueous/organic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel E. Resasco

    2014-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes some novel aspects of reactions conducted in aqueous/organic emul-sions stabilized by carbon nanohybrids functionalized with catalytic species. Carbon nanohybrids represent a family of solid catalysts that not only can stabilize water-oil emulsions in the same fash-ion as Pickering emulsions, but also catalyze reactions at the liquid/liquid interface. Several exam-ples are discussed in this mini-review. They include (a) aldol condensation-hydrodeoxygenation tandem reactions catalyzed by basic (MgO) and metal (Pd) catalysts, respectively; (b) Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyzed by carbon-nanotube-supported Ru;and (c) emulsion polymerization of styrene for the production of conductive polymer composites. Conducting these reactions in emul-sion generates important advantages, such as increased liquid/liquid interfacial area that conse-quently means faster mass transfer rates of molecules between the two phases, effective separation of products from the reaction mixture by differences in the water-oil solubility, and significant changes in product selectivity that can be adjusted by modifying the emulsion characteristics.

  19. Transition Metal Catalyzed Hydroarylation of Multiple Bonds: Exploration of Second Generation Ruthenium Catalysts and Extension to Copper Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Brent Gunnoe

    2011-02-17

    Catalysts provide foundational technology for the development of new materials and can enhance the efficiency of routes to known materials. New catalyst technologies offer the possibility of reducing energy and raw material consumption as well as enabling chemical processes with a lower environmental impact. The rising demand and expense of fossil resources has strained national and global economies and has increased the importance of accessing more efficient catalytic processes for the conversion of hydrocarbons to useful products. The goals of the research are to develop and understand single-site homogeneous catalysts for the conversion of readily available hydrocarbons into useful materials. A detailed understanding of these catalytic reactions could lead to the development of catalysts with improved activity, longevity and selectivity. Such transformations could reduce the environmental impact of hydrocarbon functionalization, conserve energy and valuable fossil resources and provide new technologies for the production of liquid fuels. This project is a collaborative effort that incorporates both experimental and computational studies to understand the details of transition metal catalyzed C-H activation and C-C bond forming reactions with olefins. Accomplishments of the current funding period include: (1) We have completed and published studies of C-H activation and catalytic olefin hydroarylation by TpRu{l_brace}P(pyr){sub 3}{r_brace}(NCMe)R (pyr = N-pyrrolyl) complexes. While these systems efficiently initiate stoichiometric benzene C-H activation, catalytic olefin hydroarylation is hindered by inhibition of olefin coordination, which is a result of the steric bulk of the P(pyr){sub 3} ligand. (2) We have extended our studies of catalytic olefin hydroarylation by TpRu(L)(NCMe)Ph systems to L = P(OCH{sub 2}){sub 3}CEt. Thus, we have now completed detailed mechanistic studies of four systems with L = CO, PMe{sub 3}, P(pyr){sub 3} and P(OCH{sub 2}){sub 3}CEt

  20. Improved Automotive NO (x) Aftertreatment System: Metal Ammine Complexes as NH3 Source for SCR Using Fe-Containing Zeolite Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Schmidt, Henning; Frey, Anne Mette;

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia storage is a challenge in the selective catalytic reduction of NO (x) in vehicles. We propose a new system, based on metal ammines as the ammonia source. In combination with iron containing zeolites as the SCR catalyst it should be possible to obtain a low temperature system for NO (x...

  1. Student Assessment System. Student Performance Record. Task Detailing. Cosmetology. Georgia Vocational Education Program Articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This booklet lists tasks and functions the cosmetology student should be able to do upon entering an employment situation or a postsecondary school. (Listings are also available for the areas of allied health occupations/practical nursing and transportation/automotive mechanics.) Tasks are coded to correspond to those on the Student Performance…

  2. Task Mapping and Bandwidth Reservation for Mixed Hard/Soft Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saraswat, Prabhat Kumar; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we are interested in mixed hard/soft real-time fault-tolerant applications mapped on distributed heterogeneous architectures. We use the Earliest Deadline First (EDF) scheduling for the hard real-time tasks and the Constant Bandwidth Server (CBS) for the soft tasks. The bandwidth re...

  3. Task Migration for Fault-Tolerance in Mixed-Criticality Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saraswat, Prabhat Kumar; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we are interested in mixed-criticality embedded applications implemented on distributed architectures. Depending on their time-criticality, tasks can be hard or soft real-time and regarding safety-criticality, tasks can be fault-tolerant to transient faults, permanent faults, or have...

  4. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power-plant retrofit and distribution network. Volume 2. Tasks 1-3. Final report. [Downtown Toledo steam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, J.R.; Sommerfield, G.A.

    1979-08-01

    Each of the tasks is described separately: Task 1 - Demonstration Team; Task 2 - Identify Thermal Energy Source(s) and Potential Service Area(s); and Task 3 - Energy Market Analysis. The purpose of the project is to establish and implement measures in the downtown Toledo steam system for conserving scarce fuel supplies through cogeneration, by retrofit of existing base- or intermediate-loaded electric-generating plants to provide for central heating and cooling systems, with the ultimate purpose of applying the results to other communities. For Task 1, Toledo Edison Company has organized a Demonstration Team (Battelle Columbus Laboratories; Stone and Webster; Ohio Dept. of Energy; Public Utilities Commission of Ohio; Toledo Metropolitan Area Council of Governments; and Toledo Edison) that it hopes has the expertise to evaluate the technical, legal, economic, and marketing issues related to the utilization of by-product heat from power generation to supply district heating and cooling services. Task 2 gives a complete technical description of the candidate plant(s), its thermodynamic cycle, role in load dispatch, ownership, and location. It is concluded that the Toledo steam distribution system can be the starting point for developing a new district-heating system to serve an expanding market. Battelle is a member of the team employed as a subcontractor to complete the energy market analysis. The work is summarized in Task 3. (MCW)

  5. Titanium compounds as catalysts of higher alpha-olefin-based super-high-molecular polymers synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, K. B.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Manzhay, V. N.; Vetrova, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of polymers of 10 million or more molecular weight is a difficult task even in a chemical lab. Higher α-olefin-based polymer agents of such kind have found a narrow but quite important niche, the reduction of drag in the turbulent flow of hydrocarbon fluids such as oil and oil-products. In its turn, searching for a catalytic system capable to produce molecules of such a high length and to synthesize polymers of a low molecular-mass distribution is part of a global task of obtaining a high-quality product. In this paper we had observed a number of industrial catalysts with respect to their suitability for higher poly-α- olefins synthesis. A number samples representing copolymers of 1-hexene with 1-decene obtained on a previous generation catalyst, a microsphere titanium chloride catalytic agent had been compared to samples synthesized using a titanium-magnesium catalyst both in solution and in a polymer medium.

  6. NO removal by CH{sub 4} on Co-NaX-CO and Ag-NaX catalysts in a dual-bed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Hee; Lee, Jea-Keun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong-Guk; Kim, Joon-Hyung [Nuclear Chemical Engineering Research Department, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-11-15

    NO removal using CH{sub 4} as a reductant in a dual-bed system has been investigated with Co-NaX and Ag-NaX catalysts, which were prepared by Co{sup 2+}-, Ag{sup +}-ion exchange into zeolite NaX, respectively, and activation for 5h at 500C. The experimental result has been compared with that of a Co-NaX-CO catalyst, additionally pre-treated under CO flow for the Co-NaX catalyst. The cobalt crystal structure of a Co-NaX-CO catalyst is Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, which promotes NO oxidation to NO{sub 2} by excess O{sub 2} at a low temperature (523K). The mechanical mixture of Co-NaX-CO and Ag-NaX catalysts shows a synergy effect on NO reduction to N{sub 2} by CH{sub 4} in the presence of excess O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, but the NO reduction decreases quickly as time passes. However, the NO reduction to N{sub 2} in a deNO bed at 523K and a deNO{sub 2} bed at 423K, which are relatively lower than the reaction temperatures for common SCR systems, still remained at 67% even in a H{sub 2}O 10% gas mixture after 160min.

  7. The WorkQueue project - a task queue for the CMS workload management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, S.; Wakefield, S.

    2012-12-01

    We present the development and first experience of a new component (termed WorkQueue) in the CMS workload management system. This component provides a link between a global request system (Request Manager) and agents (WMAgents) which process requests at compute and storage resources (known as sites). These requests typically consist of creation or processing of a data sample (possibly terabytes in size). Unlike the standard concept of a task queue, the WorkQueue does not contain fully resolved work units (known typically as jobs in HEP). This would require the WorkQueue to run computationally heavy algorithms that are better suited to run in the WMAgents. Instead the request specifies an algorithm that the WorkQueue uses to split the request into reasonable size chunks (known as elements). An advantage of performing lazy evaluation of an element is that expanding datasets can be accommodated by having job details resolved as late as possible. The WorkQueue architecture consists of a global WorkQueue which obtains requests from the request system, expands them and forms an element ordering based on the request priority. Each WMAgent contains a local WorkQueue which buffers work close to the agent, this overcomes temporary unavailability of the global WorkQueue and reduces latency for an agent to begin processing. Elements are pulled from the global WorkQueue to the local WorkQueue and into the WMAgent based on the estimate of the amount of work within the element and the resources available to the agent. WorkQueue is based on CouchDB, a document oriented NoSQL database. The WorkQueue uses the features of CouchDB (map/reduce views and bi-directional replication between distributed instances) to provide a scalable distributed system for managing large queues of work. The project described here represents an improvement over the old approach to workload management in CMS which involved individual operators feeding requests into agents. This new approach allows for a

  8. Using Task Analytic Models and Phenotypes of Erroneous Human Behavior to Discover System Failures Using Model Checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Matthew L; Bass, Ellen J

    2010-09-01

    Breakdowns in complex systems often occur as a result of system elements interacting in ways unanticipated by analysts or designers. In systems with human operators, human-automation interaction associated with both normative and erroneous human behavior can contribute to such failures. This paper presents a method for automatically generating task analytic models encompassing both erroneous and normative human behavior from normative task models. The resulting model can be integrated into a formal system model so that system safety properties can be formally verified with a model checker. This allows analysts to prove that a human automation-interactive system (as represented by the model) will or will not satisfy safety properties with both normative and generated erroneous human behavior. This method is illustrated with a case study: the operation of a radiation therapy machine. In this example, a problem resulting from a generated erroneous human action is discovered. Future extensions of our method are discussed.

  9. Aversive picture processing: effects of a concurrent task on sustained defensive system engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangelin, Bethany C; Löw, Andreas; McTeague, Lisa M; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Viewing a series of aversive pictures prompts emotional reactivity reflecting sustained defensive engagement. The present study examined the effects of a concurrent visual task on autonomic, somatic, electrocortical, and facial components of this defensive state. Results indicated that emotional activation was largely preserved despite continuous visual distraction, although evidence of attenuation was observed in startle reflex and electrocortical measures. Concurrent task-specific reactivity was also apparent, suggesting that motivational circuits can be simultaneously activated by stimuli with intrinsic survival significance and instructed task significance and that these processes interact differently across the separate components of defensive engagement.

  10. Resource characterization and residuals remediation, Task 1.0: Air quality assessment and control, Task 2.0: Advanced power systems, Task 3.0: Advanced fuel forms and coproducts, Task 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Timpe, R.C.; Hartman, J.H. [and others

    1994-02-01

    This report addresses three subtasks related to the Resource Characterization and Residuals Remediation program: (1) sulfur forms in coal and their thermal transformations, (2) data resource evaluation and integration using GIS (Geographic Information Systems), and (3) supplementary research related to the Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) UCG (Underground Coal Gasification) test program.

  11. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 1.0: Networked Monitoring and Control of Small Interconnected Wind Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janet.twomey@wichita.edu

    2010-04-30

    EXECUTIVE SUMARRY This report presents accomplishments, results, and future work for one task of five in the Wichita State University Sustainable Energy Solutions Project: To develop a scale model laboratory distribution system for research into questions that arise from networked control and monitoring of low-wind energy systems connected to the AC distribution system. The lab models developed under this task are located in the Electric Power Quality Lab in the Engineering Research Building on the Wichita State University campus. The lab system consists of four parts: 1. A doubly-fed induction generator 2. A wind turbine emulator 3. A solar photovoltaic emulator, with battery energy storage 4. Distribution transformers, lines, and other components, and wireless and wired communications and control These lab elements will be interconnected and will function together to form a complete testbed for distributed resource monitoring and control strategies and smart grid applications testing. Development of the lab system will continue beyond this project.

  12. Social-Insect-Inspired Adaptive Task Allocation for Many-Core Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rowlings, Matthew Raymond Peter; Tyrrell, Andrew Martin; Trefzer, Martin Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Large social insect colonies require a wide range of important tasks to be undertaken to build and maintain the colony. Fortunately, in most nests there are many thousands of workers available to offer their assistance to ensure the expansion and survival of the colony. However, there is a crucial equilibrium between the number of workers performing each task that must not only be maintained but must also continuously adapt to sudden changes in environment and colony need. What is most fascin...

  13. A Verbal-Instruction System to Help Persons with Multiple Disabilities Perform Complex Food- and Drink-Preparation Tasks Independently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Smaldone, Angela; La Martire, Maria L.; Alberti, Gloria; Scigliuzzo, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    In a recent single-case study, we showed that a new verbal-instruction system, ensuring the automatic presentation of step instructions, was beneficial for promoting the task performance of a woman with multiple disabilities (including blindness). The present study was aimed at replicating and extending the aforementioned investigation with three…

  14. Polystyrene-supported Phenol/DMAP: an Efficient Binary Catalyst System for CO2 Fixation to Give Cyclic Carbonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI, Chao-Rong; JIANG, Huan-Feng; WANG, Zhao-Yang; ZOU, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Polystyrene-supported phenol (PS-PhOH) was successfully synthesized by alkylation reaction of phenol with 2% DVB cross-linked chloromethylated polystyrene and characterized by IR spectra and elemental analysis. In conjunction with an organic base such as DMAP, DBU, triethylamine (Et3N), diethylamine (Et2NH) or pyridine, the PS-PhOH could effectively catalyze the coupling reaction of carbon dioxide with epoxides to give cyclic carbonates in high yield and selectivity under mild conditions. The binary catalyst system of the PS-PhOH/DMAP was found to be the most active. The influence of reaction temperature, carbon dioxide pressure and reaction time on the yield of product was carefully investigated. The PS-PhOH could be recycled by simple filtration for at least up to ten times without loss of catalytic activity.

  15. Catalyst composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, T.; Sakai, T.; Sumitani, K.; Yamasaki, Y.

    1984-11-27

    A catalyst composition comprising a crystalline aluminosilicate selected from the group consisting of zeolite ZSM-5, zeolite ZSM-11, zeolite ZSM-12, zeolite ZSM-35 and zeolite ZSM-38 and having a silica/alumina mole ratio of 20 to 1,000; and at least two metals which are platinum and at least one other metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, chromium, zinc, gallium, germanium, strontium, yttrium, zirconium, molybdenum, palladium, tin, barium, cerium, tungsten, osmium, lead, cadmium, mercury, indium, lanthanum and beryllium. This catalyst composition is useful particularly for the isomerization of aromatic hydrocarbons and reforming of naphtha.

  16. Dynamics of Catalyst Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Cavalca, Filippo; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    under gas exposure, dynamic phenomena such as sintering and growth can be observed with sub-Ångstrøm resolution. Metal nanoparticles contain the active sites in heterogeneous catalysts, which are important for many industrial applications including the production of clean fuels, chemicals...... and pharmaceuticals, and the cleanup of exhaust from automobiles and stationary power plants. Sintering, or thermal deactivation, is an important mechanism for the loss of catalyst activity. In order to initiate a systematic study of the dynamics and sintering of nanoparticles, various catalytic systems have been...

  17. Description of the system planning process at Florida Power Corporation. Task I. Report No. FC-5237-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    One of the means of evaluating a new technology is to have it considered by a utility company, run through the system planning, and thus scrutinized by a potential user of the new technology in a manner directly drawn from the user's methods of decision making on new capacity additions. By having Florida Power Corporation (FPC), a company with real potential for the future use of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), exercise its system planning methods to consider this possible source of future generating capacity, a number of highly useful results will be obtained. The overall study of the application of system planning to OTEC is being carried out in four tasks. This report covers task-1 which provides a description of the existing system and the planning process of Florida Power Corporation. (WHK)

  18. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  19. Task 5. Grid interconnection of building integrated and other dispersed photovoltaic power systems. International guideline for the certification of photovoltaic system components and grid-connected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, W.

    2002-02-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme presents a guideline for the certification of photovoltaic system components and grid-connected systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and distributed PV power systems. This generic international guideline for the certification of photovoltaic system components and complete grid-connected photovoltaic systems describes a set of recommended methods and tests that may be used to verify the integrity of hardware and installations, compliance with applicable standards/codes and can be used to provide a measure of the performance of components or of entire systems. The guideline is to help ensure that photovoltaic installations are both safe for equipment as well as for personnel when used according to the applicable installation standards and codes. The guideline may be used in any country using the rules stipulated by the applicable standards and codes and by applying them to the guideline's recommended tests. This document uses examples for some tests but does not specify exact test set-ups, equipment accuracy, equipment manufacturers or calibration procedures.

  20. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

    2003-10-31

    This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the second set of mercury measurements was made after the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 2,000 hours. There was good agreement between the Ontario Hydro measurements and the SCEM measurements. Carbon trap measurements of total mercury agreed fairly well with the SCEM. There did appear to be some loss of mercury in the sampling system toward the end of the sampling campaign. NO{sub x} reductions across the catalysts ranged from 60% to 88%. Loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts was not observed, as it had been in the March/April test series. It is not clear whether this was due to aging of the catalyst or to changes in the sampling system made between March/April and August. In the presence of ammonia, the blank monolith showed no oxidation. Two of the commercial catalysts showed mercury oxidation that was comparable to that in the March/April series. The other three commercial catalysts showed a decrease in mercury oxidation relative to the March/April series. Oxidation of mercury increased without ammonia present. Transient experiments showed that when ammonia was turned on, mercury appeared to desorb from the catalyst, suggesting displacement of adsorbed mercury by the ammonia.

  1. Classification Systems for Individual Differences in Multiple-task Performance and Subjective Estimates of Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Human factors practitioners often are concerned with mental workload in multiple-task situations. Investigations of these situations have demonstrated repeatedly that individuals differ in their subjective estimates of workload. These differences may be attributed in part to individual differences in definitions of workload. However, after allowing for differences in the definition of workload, there are still unexplained individual differences in workload ratings. The relation between individual differences in multiple-task performance, subjective estimates of workload, information processing abilities, and the Type A personality trait were examined.

  2. Comparison of evolutionary computation algorithms for solving bi-objective task scheduling problem on heterogeneous distributed computing systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Chitra; P Venkatesh; R Rajaram

    2011-04-01

    The task scheduling problem in heterogeneous distributed computing systems is a multiobjective optimization problem (MOP). In heterogeneous distributed computing systems (HDCS), there is a possibility of processor and network failures and this affects the applications running on the HDCS. To reduce the impact of failures on an application running on HDCS, scheduling algorithms must be devised which minimize not only the schedule length (makespan) but also the failure probability of the application (reliability). These objectives are conflicting and it is not possible to minimize both objectives at the same time. Thus, it is needed to develop scheduling algorithms which account both for schedule length and the failure probability. Multiobjective Evolutionary Computation algorithms (MOEAs) are well-suited for Multiobjective task scheduling on heterogeneous environment. The two Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms such as Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) and Multiobjective Evolutionary Programming (MOEP) with non-dominated sorting are developed and compared for the various random task graphs and also for a real-time numerical application graph. The metrics for evaluating the convergence and diversity of the obtained non-dominated solutions by the two algorithms are reported. The simulation results confirm that the proposed algorithms can be used for solving the task scheduling at reduced computational times compared to the weighted-sum based biobjective algorithm in the literature.

  3. Voluntary Exercise Improves Performance of a Discrimination Task through Effects on the Striatal Dopamine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Stansfield, Katherine J.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that voluntary exercise facilitates discrimination learning in a modified T-maze. There is evidence implicating the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) as the substrate for this task. The present experiments examined whether changes in DLS dopamine receptors might underlie the exercise-associated facilitation. Infusing a…

  4. Meaning-Based Scoring: A Systemic Functional Linguistics Model for Automated Test Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Communicative approaches to language teaching that emphasize the importance of speaking (e.g., task-based language teaching) require innovative and evidence-based means of assessing oral language. Nonetheless, research has yet to produce an adequate assessment model for oral language (Chun 2006; Downey et al. 2008). Limited by automatic speech…

  5. [Effectiveness of an executive function task with a touch panel system for young children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Yoko; Moriguchi, Yusuke

    2016-06-01

    The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) task is a widely used measure for the development of executive function during early childhood. In this task, children are asked to sort cards according to one rule (e.g., color) during preswitch phases, after which they are asked to sort cards according to another rule (e.g.; shape) during the postswitch phases. A computer version of the DCCS was needed to standardize the test material, but a previous study showed that children showed more difficulty in a computer version with a mouse device than the standard card version. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of a computer version with a touch panel and compared performance with the standard card version. Three- and 4-year-old children were given the card version and computer version of the DCCS tasks. The results revealed that children showed similar performance during the preswitch and postswitch phases both in the computer version and in the card version. The results suggest that both versions of the task assessed the same underlying cognitive processes.

  6. Efficient Nd Promoted Rh Catalysts for Vapor Phase Methanol Carbonylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Feng ZHANG; Qing Li QIAN; Ping Lai PAN; Yi CHEN; Guo Qing YUAN

    2005-01-01

    A Nd promoted-Rh catalysts supported on polymer-derived carbon beads for vapor-phase methanol carbonylation was developed. Rh-Nd bimetallic catalysts obviously have higher activity than that of supported Rh catalyst under similar reaction condition. The difference between the activity of above two catalyst systems is clearly caused by the intrinsic properties generated by the introduction of Nd.

  7. Product Protection, the Key to Developing High Performance Methane Selective Oxidation Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlquist, Mårten; Nielsen, Robert J.; Periana, Roy A.; Goddard, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Selective, direct conversion of methane to methanol might seem an impossible task since the C−H bond energy of methane is 105 kcal mol^(−1) compared to the C−H bond energy for methanol of 94. We show here that the Catalytica catalyst is successful because the methanol is protected as methyl bisulfate, which is substantially less reactive than methanol toward the catalyst. This analysis suggests a limiting performance for systems that operate by this type of protection that is well above the C...

  8. Towards a cognitive robotics methodology for reward-based decision-making: dynamical systems modelling of the Iowa Gambling Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2010-09-01

    The somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) posits that the role of emotions and mental states in decision-making manifests through bodily responses to stimuli of import to the organism's welfare. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), proposed by Bechara and Damasio in the mid-1990s, has provided the major source of empirical validation to the role of somatic markers in the service of flexible and cost-effective decision-making in humans. In recent years the IGT has been the subject of much criticism concerning: (1) whether measures of somatic markers reveal that they are important for decision-making as opposed to behaviour preparation; (2) the underlying neural substrate posited as critical to decision-making of the type relevant to the task; and (3) aspects of the methodological approach used, particularly on the canonical version of the task. In this paper, a cognitive robotics methodology is proposed to explore a dynamical systems approach as it applies to the neural computation of reward-based learning and issues concerning embodiment. This approach is particularly relevant in light of a strongly emerging alternative hypothesis to the SMH, the reversal learning hypothesis, which links, behaviourally and neurocomputationally, a number of more or less complex reward-based decision-making tasks, including the 'A-not-B' task - already subject to dynamical systems investigations with a focus on neural activation dynamics. It is also suggested that the cognitive robotics methodology may be used to extend systematically the IGT benchmark to more naturalised, but nevertheless controlled, settings that might better explore the extent to which the SMH, and somatic states per se, impact on complex decision-making.

  9. Catalyst Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans; Marling, Gitte; Hansen, Peter Mandal

    2014-01-01

    How can architecture promote the enriching experiences of the tolerant, the democratic, and the learning city - a city worth living in, worth supporting and worth investing in? Catalyst Architecture comprises architectural projects, which, by virtue of their location, context and their combinatio...... meaningful for everyone. The exhibited works are designed by SANAA, Diller Scofidio + Renfro, James Corner Field Operation, JBMC Arquitetura e Urbanismo, Atelier Bow-Wow, Ateliers Jean Nouvel, COBE, Transform, BIG, Topotek1, Superflex, and by visual artist Jane Maria Petersen....

  10. 将MES系统运用在催化剂生产装置上%Applications of MES System in Catalyst Production Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦宗

    2015-01-01

    利用生产执行管理系统(MES)建立设计催化剂加氢装置的控制系统管理平台,升级安全生产管理水平。%Using the manufacturing executive system (MES) based design catalyst hydrogenation unit control system management platform can upgrade the production safety management level.

  11. Principles and Tasks of the New Regulatory System for Radioactive Waste Management in the Russian Federation - 12020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year the Federal Law 'On Radioactive Waste management' was adopted in the Russian Federation. The law significantly changes the existing radioactive waste management regulatory system and assigns a lot of new tasks in order to implement new principles and overcome inevitable respective difficulties. Nuclear Safety Institute was largely involved in the process of the development of the law as well as its further co-ordination among the stakeholders, during which some important initial provisions were excluded. In the paper special features of the Russian safety regulation system for radioactive waste management are analyzed. Most significant requirements adopted by the law as well as tasks and expected difficulties related to its implementation are discussed. (authors)

  12. Task 5. Grid interconnection of building integrated and other dispersed photovoltaic power systems. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: power value and capacity value of PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppi, F.

    2002-02-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the power value and capacity value of photovoltaic power systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and dispersed PV power systems. This report summarises the results of a study aimed to assess the benefits that may be obtained when distributed PV production systems are present in a low-voltage grid. The basic aspects concerning the power-value and those related to the capacity-value are discussed. Data obtained from simulations are presented and discussed. A simple concept shows that great variation occurs if varying load patterns are taken into account. The power-value of PV generation in the grid varies instant by instant depending on the current level of power production and on the surrounding load conditions. Although the three case-studies considered do not cover all the possibilities of coupling between PV and loads, the results obtained show a good differentiation among users with PV production which leads to interesting conclusions.

  13. A hybrid discrete particle swarm optimization-genetic algorithm for multi-task scheduling problem in service oriented manufacturing systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武善玉; 张平; 李方; 古锋; 潘毅

    2016-01-01

    To cope with the task scheduling problem under multi-task and transportation consideration in large-scale service oriented manufacturing systems (SOMS), a service allocation optimization mathematical model was established, and then a hybrid discrete particle swarm optimization-genetic algorithm (HDPSOGA) was proposed. In SOMS, each resource involved in the whole life cycle of a product, whether it is provided by a piece of software or a hardware device, is encapsulated into a service. So, the transportation during production of a task should be taken into account because the hard-services selected are possibly provided by various providers in different areas. In the service allocation optimization mathematical model, multi-task and transportation were considered simultaneously. In the proposed HDPSOGA algorithm, integer coding method was applied to establish the mapping between the particle location matrix and the service allocation scheme. The position updating process was performed according to the cognition part, the social part, and the previous velocity and position while introducing the crossover and mutation idea of genetic algorithm to fit the discrete space. Finally, related simulation experiments were carried out to compare with other two previous algorithms. The results indicate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed hybrid algorithm.

  14. Cognitive Styles, Demographic Attributes, Task Performance, and Affective Experiences: An Empirical Investigation into Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Core Users

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Tang

    2016-01-01

    System) 2.0 interface features several visualization tools such as Author Network and Metrics. This research study involves 20 ADS long term users who participated in a usability and eye tracking research session. Participants first completed a cognitive test, and then performed five tasks in ADS 2.0 where they explored its multiple visualization tools. Results show that over half of the participants were Imagers and half of the participants were Analytic. Cognitive styles were found to have ...

  15. Implications of task environment and corporate context on marketing measurement systems in shopping centers - a constructive case study

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtonen, Lotta

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives of the study The objective of this thesis was to understand how marketing performance assessment can be organized in shopping centers. The purpose was to develop a recommendation of a marketing performance measurement system for the case company by identifying which marketing metrics were perceived relevant in the specific corporate context and how the marketing metrics fit the shopping center task environment. The empirical research also addressed perceived barrie...

  16. Behavior generation strategy of artificial behavioral system by self-learning paradigm for autonomous robot tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan

    2008-04-01

    In this study, behavior generation and self-learning paradigms are investigated for the real-time applications of multi-goal mobile robot tasks. The method is capable to generate new behaviors and it combines them in order to achieve multi goal tasks. The proposed method is composed from three layers: Behavior Generating Module, Coordination Level and Emotion -Motivation Level. Last two levels use Hidden Markov models to manage dynamical structure of behaviors. The kinematics and dynamic model of the mobile robot with non-holonomic constraints are considered in the behavior based control architecture. The proposed method is tested on a four-wheel driven and four-wheel steered mobile robot with constraints in simulation environment and results are obtained successfully.

  17. Hybrid Control of Multi-robot Systems under Complex Temporal Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous robots like household service robots, self-driving cars and dronesare emerging as important parts of our daily lives in the near future. They need tocomprehend and fulfill complex tasks specified by the users with minimal humanintervention. Also they should be able to handle un-modeled changes and contingentevents in the workspace. More importantly, they shall communicate and collaboratewith each other in an efficient and correct manner. In this thesis, we address theseissues by fo...

  18. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 2: Participant Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  19. Voluntary exercise improves performance of a discrimination task through effects on the striatal dopamine system

    OpenAIRE

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Stansfield, Katherine J.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that voluntary exercise facilitates discrimination learning in a modified T-maze. There is evidence implicating the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) as the substrate for this task. The present experiments examined whether changes in DLS dopamine receptors might underlie the exercise-associated facilitation. Infusing a D1R antagonist into the DLS prior to discrimination learning facilitated the performance of nonexercising rats but not exercising rats. Infusing a D2R...

  20. Task Mapping and Partition Allocation for Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul

    2012-01-01

    are scheduled using static-cyclic scheduling. We are interested to determine the task mapping to processors, and the sequence and size of the time slots within the Major Frame on each processor, such that the applications are schedulable. We have proposed a Tabu Search-based approach to solve this...... optimization problem. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using several synthetic and real-life benchmarks....

  1. In-line localized monitoring of catalyst activity in selective catalytic NO.sub.x reduction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Lawrence J.; Smith, Randall A.

    2009-12-22

    Localized catalyst activity in an SCR unit for controlling emissions from a boiler, power plant, or any facility that generates NO.sub.x-containing flue gases is monitored by one or more modules that operate on-line without disrupting the normal operation of the facility. Each module is positioned over a designated lateral area of one of the catalyst beds in the SCR unit, and supplies ammonia, urea, or other suitable reductant to the catalyst in the designated area at a rate that produces an excess of the reductant over NO.sub.x on a molar basis through the designated area. Sampling probes upstream and downstream of the designated area draw samples of the gas stream for NO.sub.x analysis, and the catalyst activity is determined from the difference in NO.sub.x levels between the two probes.

  2. ITER SAFETY TASK NID-5D: Operational tritium loss and accident investigation for heat transport and water detritiation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The task objectives are to: a) determine major pathways for tritium loss during normal operation of the cooling systems and water detritiation system, b) estimate operational losses and environmental tritium releases from the heat transport and water detritiation systems of ITER, and c) prepare a preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for the ITER Water Detritiation System. The analysis will be used to estimate chronic environmental tritium releases (airborne and waterborne) for the ITER Cooling Systems and Water Detritiation System. The assessment will form the basis for demonstrating the acceptability of ITER for siting in the Early Safety and Environmental Characterization Study (ESECS), to be issued in early 1995. (author). 7 refs., 10 tabs., 11 figs

  3. Engineering Task Plan for Development and Fabrication and Deployment of a mobile, variable depth sampling At-Tank Analysis Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This engineering task plan identifies the resources, responsibilities, and schedules for the development and deployment of a mobile, variable depth sampling system and an at-tank analysis system. The mobile, variable depth sampling system concept was developed after a cost assessment indicated a high cost for multiple deployments of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system. The sampling will provide double-shell tank (DST) staging tank waste samples for assuring the readiness of the waste for shipment to the LAW/HLW plant for treatment and immobilization. The at-tank analysis system will provide ''real-time'' assessments of the samples' chemical and physical properties. These systems support the Hanford Phase 1B vitrification project

  4. Development of a condenser for the dual catalyst water recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinikas, P.; Rasouli, F.; Rabadi, N.

    1983-01-01

    Conceptual evaporation/condensation systems suitable for integration with the catalytic water recovery method were evaluated. The primary requirements for each concept were its capability to operate under zero-gravity conditions, condense recovered water from a vapor-noncondensable gas mixture, and integrate with the catalytic system. Specific energy requirements were estimated for concepts meeting the primary requirements, and the concept most suitable for integration with the catalytic system was proposed. A three-man rate condenser capable of integration with the proposed system, condensing water vapor in presence of noncondensables and transferring the heat of condensation to feed urine was designed, fabricated, and tested. It was treated with steam/air mixtures at atmospheric and elevated pressures and integrated with an actual catalytic water recovery system. The condenser has a condensation efficiency exceeding 90% and heat transfer rate of approximately 85% of theoretical value at coolant temperature ranging from 7 to 80 deg C.

  5. Investigation of Advanced Counterrotation Blade Configuration Concepts for High Speed Turboprop Systems. Task 8: Cooling Flow/heat Transfer Analysis User's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward J.; Topp, David A.; Heidegger, Nathan J.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this task was to validate the ADPAC code for heat transfer calculations. To accomplish this goal, the ADPAC code was modified to allow for a Cartesian coordinate system capability and to add boundary conditions to handle spanwise periodicity and transpiration boundaries. This user's manual describes how to use the ADPAC code as developed in Task 5, NAS3-25270, including the modifications made to date in Tasks 7 and 8, NAS3-25270.

  6. Development and Commercial Application of Third Generation Resid Hydrotreating Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Dawei; Yang Qinghe; Dai Lishun; Zhao Xinqiang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the mechanism of resid hydrotreating reaction by coordinating the catalyst activity and stability, the diffusion mechanism and catalyst reactivity, the cost and catalyst performance, and the production and application re-quirements, the third-generation series catalysts for residue hydrotreating have been developed by Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, SINOPEC. The new series RHT catalysts possess higher activity for HDS, HDM and HDCCR per-formance as well as longer run length. The commercial results for application of these catalysts have demonstrated that the new catalyst system performs better than the reference ones.

  7. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpel, Michael; Liu, Di-Jia

    2009-03-24

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  8. Task 21 - Development of Systems Engineering Applications for Decontamination and Decommissioning Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, T.A.

    1998-11-01

    The objectives of this task are to: Develop a model (paper) to estimate the cost and waste generation of cleanup within the Environmental Management (EM) complex; Identify technologies applicable to decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) operations within the EM complex; Develop a database of facility information as linked to project baseline summaries (PBSs). The above objectives are carried out through the following four subtasks: Subtask 1--D and D Model Development, Subtask 2--Technology List; Subtask 3--Facility Database, and Subtask 4--Incorporation into a User Model.

  9. IPIRG-2 task 1 - pipe system experiments with circumferential cracks in straight-pipe locations. Final report, September 1991--November 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from Task 1 of the Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. The IPIRG-2 program is an international group program managed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) and funded by a consortium of organizations from 15 nations including: Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Lithuania, Republic of China, Slovak Republic, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The objective of the program was to build on the results of the IPIRG-1 and other related programs by extending the state-of-the-art in pipe fracture technology through the development of data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of nuclear power plant piping systems that contain defects. The IPIRG-2 program included five main tasks: Task 1 - Pipe System Experiments with Flaws in Straight Pipe and Welds Task 2 - Fracture of Flawed Fittings Task 3 - Cyclic and Dynamic Load Effects on Fracture Toughness Task 4 - Resolution of Issues From IPIRG-1 and Related Programs Task 5 - Information Exchange Seminars and Workshops, and Program Management. The scope of this report is to present the results from the experiments and analyses associated with Task 1 (Pipe System Experiments with Flaws in Straight Pipe and Welds). The rationale and objectives of this task are discussed after a brief review of experimental data which existed after the IPIRG-1 program

  10. STUDIES ON THE RING-OPENING POLYMERIZATION OF TETRAHYDROFURAN Ⅳ. COPOLYMERIZATION OF TETRAHYDROFURAN AND PROPYLENE OXIDE INITIATED BY FUMING SULFURIC ACID AND PERCHLORIC ACID CATALYST SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongzhi; GAO Guozhen; WANG Yin; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of copolymerization of tetrahydrofuran and propylene oxide (THF: PO = 100: 5-15, by wt) using a binary catalyst of fuming sulfuric acid (21% or 28%) and perchloric acid is around 50-60%, and the loss of THF in the reaction is below 10-15%. The average molecular weight of the product can be controlled in the range of 1000-2000 by varying the binary catalyst system.The present method, which is different from the usual copolymerization initiated by BF3-diol or SbCl5-diol system, shows the pecularities i.e. the yield of copolymerization with the low PO feed is not decreased, the hydroxyl functionality is equal to 2, and the end-groups are predominantly primary hydroxyls (around 65-70%).

  11. Evaluation of hydrogen demonstration systems (Task 18 of IEA Implementing Agreement on Hydrogen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J.N.; Carter, S.

    2005-07-01

    Task 18 aims to gather information about the integration of hydrogen into society around the world. As part of subtask B (demonstration projects), EA Technology Limited collected information and data on specific UK hydrogen demonstration projects and case studies. The work involved desk research, a literature review, telephone conversations and meetings with developers and operators of hydrogen-related projects in the UK. Various examples were identified in phase 1 that were either proposed, planned, under construction, commissioned or operational. The main demonstration activities described in the report are: the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) refuelling station at Hornchurch in Essex; the Hydrogen and Renewables Integration (HARI) project at West Beacon Farm, Leicestershire; the Promoting Unst Renewable Energy (PURE) project on Unst in the Shetland Isles; the Hunterston Hydrogen Project in North Ayrshire, Scotland; and the Tees Valley Hydrogen Project. The CUTE, HARI and PURE projects were selected for inclusion in the overall Task 18 workplan. The report also covers developments associated with the Fuel Cell House, the Hydrogen Office, INEOS Chlor, the London Hydrogen Partnership and the Wales Hydrogen Project.

  12. Automotive Catalyst State Diagnosis Using Microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moos Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The state of catalysts plays a key role in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment. The soot or ash loading of Diesel particulate filters, the oxygen loading degree in three-way catalysts, the amount of stored ammonia in SCR catalysts, or the NOx loading degree in NOx storage catalysts are important parameters that are today determined indirectly and in a model-based manner with gas sensors installed upstream and/or downstream of the catalysts. This contribution gives an overview on a novel approach to determine the catalyst state directly by a microwave-based technique. The method exploits the fact that the catalyst housing acts as a microwave cavity resonator. As “sensing” elements, one or two simple antennas are mounted inside the catalyst canning. The electrical properties of the catalyst device (ceramic honeycomb plus coating and storage material can be measured. Preferably, the resonance characteristics, e.g., the resonance frequencies, of selected cavity modes are observed. The information on the catalyst interior obtained in such a contactless manner is very well correlated with the catalyst state as will be demonstrated for different exhaust gas aftertreatment systems.

  13. Lunar base scenario cost estimates: Lunar base systems study task 6.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The projected development and production costs of each of the Lunar Base's systems are described and unit costs are estimated for transporting the systems to the lunar surface and for setting up the system.

  14. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 4 Report: Virtual Mockup Maintenance Task Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 4 report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. This report focuses on using Full-scale virtual mockups for nuclear power plant training applications.

  15. Can main group systems act as superior catalysts for dihydrogen generation reactions? A computational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Nishamol; Vanka, Kumar

    2016-04-14

    The protolytic cleavage of the O-H bond in water and alcohols is a very important reaction, and an important method for producing dihydrogen. Full quantum chemical studies with density functional theory (DFT) reveal that germanium based complexes, such as HC{CMeArB}2GeH (Ar = 2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3), with the assistance of silicon based compounds such as SiF3H, can perform significantly better than the existing state-of-the-art post-transition metal based systems for catalyzing dihydrogen generation from water and alcohols through the protolysis reaction.

  16. Condensation reaction of formaldehyde and methyl formate catalyzed by a composite catalyst system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The condensation reaction of formaldehyde and methyl formate to form methyl glycolate and methyl methoxy acetate catalyzed by p-toluenesulfonic acid and different Lewis acid compounds has been investigated. The composite catalytic system consisting of p-toluenesulfonic acid and NiX2 (X = Cl, Br, I), especially NiI2, exhibited a high catalytic performance for the condensation reaction, the total yield of MG and MMAc was up to 72.37%.(C) 2007 Gong Ying Wang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Niobium(v) chloride and imidazolium bromides as efficient dual catalyst systems for the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Wilhelm, Michael E.

    2014-02-19

    The application of niobium(v) chloride and several imidazolium bromides as catalyst systems for the cycloaddition of propylene oxide (PO) with carbon dioxide to propylene carbonate (PC) is reported. A set of 31 different imidazolium bromides has been synthesized with varying substituents at all five imidazolium ring atoms, of which 17 have not been reported before. The impact of different substitution patterns (steric and electronic changes and solubility in PO) at the imidazolium ring on the catalytic activity was investigated. The optimisation of the catalyst structure allows for the valorisation of carbon dioxide under mild reaction conditions with high reaction rates in very good yield and selectivity for PC. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  18. Niobium(v) chloride and imidazolium bromides as efficient dual catalyst systems for the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Wilhelm, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The application of niobium(v) chloride and several imidazolium bromides as catalyst systems for the cycloaddition of propylene oxide (PO) with carbon dioxide to propylene carbonate (PC) is reported. A set of 31 different imidazolium bromides has been synthesized with varying substituents at all five imidazolium ring atoms, of which 17 have not been reported before. The impact of different substitution patterns (steric and electronic changes and solubility in PO) at the imidazolium ring on the catalytic activity was investigated. The optimisation of the catalyst structure allows for the valorisation of carbon dioxide under mild reaction conditions with high reaction rates in very good yield and selectivity for PC. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  19. Method of treating emissions of a hybrid vehicle with a hydrocarbon absorber and a catalyst bypass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Gonze, Eugene V; Santoso, Halim G; Spohn, Brian L

    2014-01-14

    A method of treating emissions from an internal combustion engine of a hybrid vehicle includes directing a flow of air created by the internal combustion engine when the internal combustion engine is spinning but not being fueled through a hydrocarbon absorber to collect hydrocarbons within the flow of air. When the hydrocarbon absorber is full and unable to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through an electrically heated catalyst to treat the flow of air and remove the hydrocarbons. When the hydrocarbon absorber is not full and able to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through a bypass path that bypasses the electrically heated catalyst to conserve the thermal energy stored within the electrically heated catalyst.

  20. Investigation of Advanced Counterrotation Blade Configuration Concepts for High Speed Turboprop Systems. Task 8: Cooling Flow/heat Transfer Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward J.; Topp, David A.; Heidegger, Nathan J.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this task was to validate the ADPAC code for heat transfer calculations. To accomplish this goal, the ADPAC code was modified to allow for a Cartesian coordinate system capability and to add boundary conditions to handle spanwise periodicity and transpiration boundaries. The primary validation case was the film cooled C3X vane. The cooling hole modeling included both a porous region and grid in each discrete hold. Predictions for these models as well as smooth wall compared well with the experimental data.

  1. Africa's game changers and the catalysts of social and system innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Swilling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that many African economies are being transformed by rapid economic growth driven largely by rising demand for the abundant natural resources scattered across the African continent. I critically review the mainstream game-changing dynamics driving this process, with special reference to a set of influential policy-oriented documents. This is followed by an analysis of less-recognized game-changing dynamics that have, in turn, been affected by the mainstream game-changing dynamics. These less-recognized game-changing dynamics include energy infrastructure challenges in a context of climate change, securing access to water, access to arable soils, slum urbanism, and food security responses. These mainstream and less-recognized game-changing dynamics provide the context for analyzing a range of African actor networks engaged in social and system innovations. I use a transdisciplinary framework to discuss these actor networks and how they construct their understanding of the game changers affecting their programs and actions. Based on a case study of the iShack initiative in Stellenbosch, South Africa, I conclude that social and system innovations will need to be driven by transformation knowledge co-produced by researchers and social actors who can actively link game-changing dynamics that operate at multiple scales with local-level innovations with potential societal impacts.

  2. A Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Heuristic for Market-Oriented Task-Level Scheduling in Cloud Workflow Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud workflow system is a kind of platform service based on cloud computing. It facilitates the automation of workflow applications. Between cloud workflow system and its counterparts, market-oriented business model is one of the most prominent factors. The optimization of task-level scheduling in cloud workflow system is a hot topic. As the scheduling is a NP problem, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO have been proposed to optimize the cost. However, they have the characteristic of premature convergence in optimization process and therefore cannot effectively reduce the cost. To solve these problems, Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO algorithm with chaotic sequence and adaptive inertia weight factor is applied to present the task-level scheduling. Chaotic sequence with high randomness improves the diversity of solutions, and its regularity assures a good global convergence. Adaptive inertia weight factor depends on the estimate value of cost. It makes the scheduling avoid premature convergence by properly balancing between global and local exploration. The experimental simulation shows that the cost obtained by our scheduling is always lower than the other two representative counterparts.

  3. The Impact of Channel Context and Task on Consumers' Evaluations of Personalized Health Recommendation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel, S.; Ronteltap, A.; Dellaert, B.G.C.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate consumer perspectives on complex, multistage systems designed to provide personalized health recommendations. We conceptualize the underlying benefit trade-offs that consumers make in evaluating such systems as the manifestation of a psychological contract in which consumers contribut

  4. Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolllins, Harry W.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2012-07-24

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  5. Ceria nanoclusters on graphene/Ru(0001): A new model catalyst system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Z.; Netzer, F. P.; Dohnálek, Z.

    2016-10-01

    The growth of ceria nanoclusters on single-layer graphene on Ru(0001) has been examined, with a view towards fabricating a stable system for model catalysis studies. The surface morphology and cluster distribution as a function of oxide coverage and substrate temperature has been monitored by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), whereas the chemical composition of the cluster deposits has been determined by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The ceria nanoparticles are of the CeO2(111)-type and are anchored at the intrinsic defects of the graphene surface, resulting in a variation of the cluster densities across the macroscopic sample surface. The ceria clusters on graphene display a remarkable stability against reduction in ultrahigh vacuum up to 900 K, but some sintering of clusters is observed for temperatures > 450 K. The evolution of the cluster size distribution suggests that the sintering proceeds via a Smoluchowski ripening mechanism, i.e. diffusion and aggregation of entire clusters.

  6. Efficiency and mechanism of degradation of alachlor in water by O3/H2O2 catalyst system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高金胜; 于颖慧; 孙志忠; 马军

    2003-01-01

    Alachlor is used widely as a herbicide,but is an environmental endocrine disruptor. O3/H2O2 systemis used as catalyst to delve on the degradation efficiency of alachlor. The amount of the catalyst-H2O2 ,the pHvalue of the soluble, the temperature and quality of water sample are changed to investigate the effect of thesefactors on the degradation of alaehlor. The degradation of alachlor is qualitatively analyzed through their GS-MSspectra and the possible mechanism of the degradation of alachlor is discussed as well.

  7. Hydrothermal research and development assessment. Task force report: projections for electric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    It is estimated that high temperature (greater than 150/sup 0/C or 300/sup 0/F) hydrothermal resources in the western United States have the potential for producing about 140,000 megawatts of electric power for 30 years. The objectives of the present analysis were to realistically evaluate the extent to which these resources might be utilized over the next 20 years, and to assess the probably impact of Federal programs on that utilization. The R and D assessment team interviewed industry personnel to determine the nature and the relative significance of investment decision criteria for developers and utilities. The results of these interviews were used to develop a probabilistic model to simulate the investment decision behavior of these two groups toward hydrothermal resources. Estimations of the characteristics of anticipated available resources (e.g., temperature, salinity, depth) and predictions of the geographic distribution of new resource discoveries were based upon the characteristics and distribution of known reservoirs. The impact of a minimal R and D program and the impact of expanded R and D program were estimated on the basis of its effect upon industry investment decision criteria (e.g., the cost of power). The Task Force estimates comparing three different scenarios: (1) no program, (2) minimal R and D, and (3) expanded R and D are presented.

  8. The Living Application: a Self-Organising System for Complex Grid Tasks

    CERN Document Server

    Groen, D; Zwart, S Portegies

    2009-01-01

    We present the living application, a method to autonomously manage applications on the grid. During its execution on the grid, the living application makes choices on the resources to use in order to complete its tasks. These choices can be based on the internal state, or on autonomously acquired knowledge from external sensors. By giving limited user capabilities to a living application, the living application is able to port itself from one resource topology to another. The application performs these actions at run-time without depending on users or external workflow tools. We demonstrate this new concept in a special case of a living application: the living simulation. Today, many simulations require a wide range of numerical solvers and run most efficiently if specialized nodes are matched to the solvers. The idea of the living simulation is that it decides itself which grid machines to use based on the numerical solver currently in use. In this paper we apply the living simulation to modelling the collis...

  9. SOLUTION MANAGMET’S TASK INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT IN CONDITIONS OF UNCERTAINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar Hazarkhanov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In this article the methods of increase the efficiency of the compensation of indignations of theonboard integrated control systems of Unmanned Aircrafts are considered. On the basis of generalizationthe disadvantages of inertial and satellite navigation systems it was revealed, that as a result of theinsufficient compensation of indignations these systems lose a stable condition. They are exposed to barriersand there is unlimited growth of mistakes in time. For the solution of this actual problem of the onboardintegrated control systems a method of increase the efficiency of the compensation of indignations of nonstationarylinear systems in the conditions of uncertainty with the observer and with the correction bymistake of recovery was suggested. For this purpose the conditions of uncertainty were mathematicallystated, the equations of the onboard integrated control systems were completed, as non-stationary object ofmanagement, the observer with correction by mistake of recovery and a matrix of factor of strengthening ofthe observer are made. As a result the system is asymptotically stable to low-frequency indignations and theaccumulation of an error in time at high-frequency indignations is eliminated.Keywords: a condition of uncertainty, a matrix of factor of strengthening of the observer, iasymptoticalstability, low-frequency and high-frequency indignations, nertial and satellite navigation systems, nonstationarylinear systems, onboard integrated control systems, the observer with a correction by mistake ofrecovery, unmanned aircrafts.

  10. Assembly, integration, verification, and validation in extremely large telescope projects: a core systems engineering task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Wolfgang R.

    2000-08-01

    This presentation describes the verification and validation processes of an Extremely Large Telescope Project and outlines the key role System Engineering plays in these processes throughout all project phases. If these processes are implemented correctly into the project execution and are started at the proper time, namely at the very beginning of the project, and if all capabilities of experienced system engineers are used, the project costs and the life-cycle costs of the telescope system can be reduced between 25 and 50%. The intention of this article is, by explaining the importance of Systems Engineering in the AIV and validation processes, to motivate and encourage project managers of astronomical telescopes and scientific instruments to involve the entire spectrum of Systems Engineering capabilities performed by trained and experienced SYSTEM engineers for the benefit of the project.

  11. Movement generation using dynamical systems: a humanoid robot performing a drumming task

    OpenAIRE

    Degallier, Sarah; Santos, Cristina; Righetti, Ludovic; Ijspeert, Auke

    2006-01-01

    The online generation of trajectories in humanoid robots remains a difficult problem. In this contribution, we present a system that allows the superposition, and the switch between, discrete and rhythmic movements. Our approach uses nonlinear dynamical systems for generating trajectories online and in real time. Our goal is to make use of attractor properties of dynamical systems in order to provide robustness against small perturbations and to enable online modulation of the trajector...

  12. TeamWorker: An agent-based support system for mobile task execution

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H.; Mihailescu, P; Shepherdson, J

    2005-01-01

    Traditional workflow management systems are considered insufficiently flexible to support autonomous job management via close team working. This paper proposes a multi-agent system approach to enhancing existing workflow management systems to enable team-based job management in the field of telecommunications service provision and maintenance. This paper adopts a component-based approach and explains how applications can be developed by customising the generic components provided by a multi-a...

  13. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  14. Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) Task Loading Model (TLM) experimental and software detailed design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveland, Lowell

    1994-01-01

    This is the experimental and software detailed design report for the prototype task loading model (TLM) developed as part of the man-machine integration design and analysis system (MIDAS), as implemented and tested in phase 6 of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Program. The A3I program is an exploratory development effort to advance the capabilities and use of computational representations of human performance and behavior in the design, synthesis, and analysis of manned systems. The MIDAS TLM computationally models the demands designs impose on operators to aide engineers in the conceptual design of aircraft crewstations. This report describes TLM and the results of a series of experiments which were run this phase to test its capabilities as a predictive task demand modeling tool. Specifically, it includes discussions of: the inputs and outputs of TLM, the theories underlying it, the results of the test experiments, the use of the TLM as both stand alone tool and part of a complete human operator simulation, and a brief introduction to the TLM software design.

  15. Nanostructured Catalyst Systems for Fuel Cells: Synthesis and Characterization of Low Platinum Content Electrocatalysts for O{sub 2} Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adzic, Radoslav

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this project is to synthesize and characterize new O{sub 2} reduction catalysts with enhanced activity and ultra low Pt loading, and to test them in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) to determine their performance under fuel cell cathode operating conditions.

  16. Palladium(II/Cationic 2,2’-Bipyridyl System as a Highly Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for the Mizoroki-Heck Reaction in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Yu Tsai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A water-soluble and air-stable Pd(NH32Cl2/cationic 2,2’-bipyridyl system was found to be a highly-efficient and reusable catalyst for the coupling of aryl iodides and alkenes in neat water using Bu3N as a base. The reaction was conducted at 140 °C in a sealed tube in air with a catalyst loading as low as 0.0001 mol % for the coupling of activated aryl iodides with butyl and ethyl acrylates, providing the corresponding products in good to excellent yields with very high turnover numbers. In the case of styrene, Mizoroki-Heck coupling products were obtained in good to high yields by using a greater catalyst loading (1 mol % and TBAB as a phase-transfer agent. After extraction, the residual aqueous solution could be reused several times with only a slight decrease in its activity, making the Mizoroki-Heck reaction “greener”.

  17. A high speed multi-tasking, multi-processor telemetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kung Chris [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a small size, light weight, multitasking, multiprocessor telemetry system capable of collecting 32 channels of differential signals at a sampling rate of 6.25 kHz per channel. The system is designed to collect data from remote wind turbine research sites and transfer the data via wireless communication. A description of operational theory, hardware components, and itemized cost is provided. Synchronization with other data acquisition systems and test data on data transmission rates is also given. 11 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. TSX-PLUS MULTI-TASKING UPGRADE FOR THE NICOLET L-11 POWDER DIFFRACTION SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, J.; Queen, David L.

    1985-01-01

    In August of 1982, a single-user, dual-translator, automated powder diffraction system was purchased by the Denver Research Institute for use on project work in the Chemical and Materials Sciences Division. Within a short period of time, the system had already become saturated with users. Scheduling conflicts arose. In view of these problems, an answer was sought in the form of hardware and software changes which would allow many users access to the system simultaneously. A low-cost, minimum impact solution was eventually found. The elements of the solution are reported.

  19. Welding technology transfer task/laser based weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Sensors to control and monitor welding operations are currently being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The laser based weld bead profiler/torch rotation sensor was modified to provide a weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds. The tracking system features a precision laser based vision sensor, automated two-axis machine motion, and an industrial PC controller. The system benefits are elimination of weld repairs caused by joint tracking errors which reduces manufacturing costs and increases production output, simplification of tooling, and free costly manufacturing floor space.

  20. Design and fabrication of an automated temperature programmed reaction system to evaluate 3-way catalysts Ce1--(La/Y)PtO2-

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arup Gayen; Tinku Baidya; G S Ramesh; R Sriharia; M S Hegde

    2006-01-01

    A completely automated temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) system for carrying out gas-solid catalytic reactions under atmospheric flow conditions is fabricated to study CO and hydrocarbon oxidation, and NO reduction. The system consists of an all-stainless steel UHV system, quadrupole mass spectrometer SX200 (VG Scientific), a tubular furnace and micro-reactor, a temperature controller, a versatile gas handling system, and a data acquisition and analysis system. The performance of the system has been tested under standard experimental conditions for CO oxidation over well-characterized Ce1--Pt(La/Y)O2- catalysts. Testing of 3-way catalysis with CO, NO and C2H2 to convert to CO2, N2 and H2O is done with this catalyst which shows complete removal of pollutants below 325°C. Fixed oxide-ion defects in Pt substituted Ce1-(La/Y)O2-/2 show higher catalytic activity than Pt ion-substituted CeO2.

  1. Changing societies and four tasks of schooling: Challenges for strongly differentiated educational systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. van de Werfhorst

    2014-01-01

    Changing labour markets, increased calls for selection and excellence, and increased diversity and individualisation have repercussions on how educational systems can prepare youth for work, optimise knowledge production, achieve equality of opportunity, and socialise students into active civic enga

  2. Independent task system to develop communicative competence in English with medical purpose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkys Gonzalez Machin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated taks system constitutes a methodological strategy in the teaching of English with medical purposes through systemic activities using the English native students of the 4th year of medicine specialty. This observational, analytic, comparative study was performed with 90 students taken from 5 groups which constituted the universe of this investigation. Each group of students by itself constituted an independent sample integrated in a fair way by native students of the English speaking countries, Spanish speaking countries and any other. This system permitted the achievement of communicative competences through an approach to the communicative knowledge of the students in their classroom interaction. Four macro habilities of the English language were developed, and the management of the language sub system was improved. An adequate preparation for future missions abroad in their labor field was obtained.

  3. Task Management for Soft Real-Time Applications Based on General Purpose Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pedreiras, Paulo; Almeida, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Using general purpose operating systems for soft real time applications has several advantages related with low costs and the abundance of device drivers and software tools. However, such applications still require adequate timing services, for process activation and synchronization.

  4. Parametric Optimization and Prediction Tool for Lunar Surface Systems Excavation Tasks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a software tool for facilitating lunar excavation system trades in support of selecting an optimal architecture. This will...

  5. Task-role-based Access Control Model in Smart Health-care System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Peng; Jiang Lingyun

    2015-01-01

    As the development of computer science and smart health-care technology, there is a trend for patients to enjoy medical care at home. Taking enormous users in the Smart Health-care System into consideration, access control is an important issue. Traditional access control models, discretionary access control, mandatory access control, and role-based access control, do not properly reflect the characteristics of Smart Health-care System. This paper proposes an advanced access control model for...

  6. System Integration in a UAS design. An example of undergraduate student's tasks.

    OpenAIRE

    Gandia Agüera, Fernando; Barcala Montejano, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez Sevillano, Angel; Holgado-Vicente, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Systems integration is the origin of most major difficulties found in the engineering design of aeronautical vehicles. The whole design team must assure that each subsystem accomplishes its particular goals and that, together with the rest of the systems, they all meet the general aircraft requirements.Design and building of UAS is a field of actuation to which leading Universities, research Centers and Aeronautical designers have dedicated a lot of effort. In recent years, a team of st...

  7. Intra-Task Device Scheduling for Real-Time Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Awan, Muhammad Ali; Petters, Stefan M.

    2015-01-01

    An ever increasing need for extra functionality in a single embedded system demands for extra Input/Output (I/O) devices, which are usually connected externally and are expensive in terms of energy consumption. To reduce their energy consumption, these devices are equipped with power saving mechanisms. While I/O device scheduling for real-time (RT) systems with such power saving features has been studied in the past, the use of energy resources by these scheduling algorithms may be improved. ...

  8. Method for reactivating catalysts and a method for recycling supercritical fluids used to reactivate the catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Thompson, David N.; Anderson, Raymond P.

    2008-08-05

    A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

  9. Are bioenergy production systems carbon neutral? An overview of the work of IEA Bioenergy Task 38 on greenhouse gas balances of biomass and bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowie, A.; George, B. [Univ. of New England, Armidale, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    The bioenergy industry is growing rapidly in response to concerns over climate change and high oil prices. However, there are serious concerns about the sustainability of the industry, as well as about the environmental impacts of off-site activities. The International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 38 was established to develop a method of calculating the net greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation benefit of bioenergy and sequestration projects. Task 38 focuses on the methods used to assess the GHG benefits of bioenergy systems when compared with fossil fuel systems. A full life cycle approach was used to assess the GHG emissions associated with the production and handling of biomass, as well as the nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions emitted from fertilized soils, and emissions resulting from the production of fertilizer, herbicide, and the manufacture and construction of power stations. Methods for including indirect land use change where biomass production is displacing food production are also being discussed as part of the task. To date, the study has indicated that materials substitution or co-firing applications have greater mitigation benefits than other bioenergy systems.

  10. Catalysts for decomposing ozone tail gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chang-an; SUN De-zhi; WANG Hui; LI Wei

    2003-01-01

    The preparation of immobilizing-catalysts for decomposing ozone by using dipping method was studied. XRD, XPS and TEM were used to characterize the catalysts. The three kinds of catalysts were selected preferentially, and their catalytic activities were investigated. The results showed that the catalyst with activated carbon dipping acetate (active components are Mn: Cu = 3:2, active component proportion in catalyst is 15%, calcination temperature is 200℃ ) has the best catalytic activity for ozone decomposing. One gram of catalyst can decompose 17.6 g ozone at initial ozone concentration of 2.5 g/m3 and the residence time in reactor of 0.1 s. The experimental results also indicated that humidity of reaction system had negative effect on catalytic activity.

  11. Aldol condensations of a variety of different aldehydes and ketones under ultrasonic irradiation using poly(N-vinylimidazole) as a new heterogeneous base catalyst under solvent-free conditions in a liquid-solid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nader Ghaffari Khaligh; Taraneh Mihankhah

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasound-assisted aldol condensation reaction has been developed for a range of ketones with a variety of aromatic aldehydes using poly(N-vinylimidazole) as a solid base catalyst in a liquid-solid system. The catalyst can be recovered by simple filtration and reused at least 10 times without any significant reduction in its activity. The reaction is also amenable to the large scale, making the pro-cedure potentially useful for industrial applications.

  12. Cationic ruthenium alkylidene catalysts bearing phosphine ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Endo, Koji; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of highly active catalysts and the success of ionic liquid immobilized systems have accelerated attention to a new class of cationic metathesis catalysts. We herein report the facile syntheses of cationic ruthenium catalysts bear-ing bulky phosphine ligands. Simple ligand exchange using silver(I) salts of non-coordinating or weakly coordinating anions pro-vided either PPh3 or chelating Ph2P(CH2)nPPh2 (n = 2 or 3) ligated cationic catalysts. The structures of these newly reported...

  13. The task of beam abort module optical link network for XFEL safety interlock system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) facility will provide an environment to experiment using high coherent X-ray laser beam, which is generated by electron beam accelerated by a linear accelerator, passing the undulator. The XFEL facility (SACLA) which is constructed at SPring-8 site, is necessary to build the two interlock systems for human radiation protection. One is accelerator safety interlock system to ensure the safety of the accelerator housing portion. Another is the beamline interlock system to ensure the safety of beamlines and experimental hutch. Two interlock systems, alone or together, stop the accelerator, to ensure the safety of facility. This system can stop the accelerator at high speed, using high-speed stop signal optical transmission equipments connected in series, without PLC. The high-speed stop signal optical transmission equipment was designed and has achieved, to be within 5 ms delay time, when connected in series 70 equipments. This paper reports about the role and characteristics of the high-speed stop signal optical transmission equipment. (author)

  14. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

  15. Separable roles for attentional control sub-systems in reading tasks: a combined behavioral and fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihnen, S K Z; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2015-05-01

    Attentional control is important both for learning to read and for performing difficult reading tasks. A previous study invoked 2 mechanisms to explain reaction time (RT) differences between reading tasks with variable attentional demands. The present study combined behavioral and neuroimaging measures to test the hypotheses that there are 2 mechanisms of interaction between attentional control and reading; that these mechanisms are dissociable both behaviorally and neuro-anatomically; and that the 2 mechanisms involve functionally separable control systems. First, RT evidence was found in support of the 2-mechanism model, corroborating the previous study. Next, 2 sets of brain regions were identified as showing functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen level-dependent activity that maps onto the 2-mechanism distinction. One set included bilateral Cingulo-opercular regions and mostly right-lateralized Dorsal Attention regions (CO/DA+). This CO/DA+ region set showed response properties consistent with a role in reporting which processing pathway (phonological or lexical) was biased for a particular trial. A second set was composed primarily of left-lateralized Frontal-parietal (FP) regions. Its signal properties were consistent with a role in response checking. These results demonstrate how the subcomponents of attentional control interact with subcomponents of reading processes in healthy young adults. PMID:24275830

  16. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janet M Twomey, PhD

    2010-04-30

    research has developed a fundamental approach. The emphasis was place on individual unit processes as an organizing framework to understand the life cycle of manufactured products. The rearrangement of unit processes provides an efficient and versatile means of understanding improved manufactured products such as wind generators. The taxonomy and structure of unit process lci were developed in this project. A series of ten unit process lci were developed to sample the major segments of the manufacturing unit process taxonomy. Technical and economic effectiveness has been a focus of the project research in Task three. The use of repeatable modules for the organization of information on environmental improvement has a long term impact. The information developed can be used and reused in a variety of manufacturing plants and for a range of wind generator sizes and designs. Such a modular approach will lower the cost of life cycle analysis, that is often asked questions of carbon footprint, environmental impact, and sustainability. The use of a website for dissemination, linked to NREL, adds to the economic benefit as more users have access to the lci information. Benefit to the public has been achieved by a well-attended WSU conference, as well as presentations for the Kansas Wind Energy Commission. Attendees represented public interests, land owners, wind farm developers, those interested in green jobs, and industry. Another benefit to the public is the start of information flow from manufacturers that can inform individuals about products.

  17. SEAFP cooling system design. Task M8 - water coolant option (final report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the ex-vessel portions of the outline designs for first wall, blanket and divertor cooling using water as the heat transport fluid. Equipment layout, key components and main system parameters are also described. (author). 7 tabs., 14 figs

  18. TASK OF FUNCTIONING ALGORITHM SYNTHESIS OF AUTOMATIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF TRAFFIC MOVEMENT IN METROPOLITAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Getsovich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept and structure of automatic management system of traffic movement in metropolitan areas is proposed by the authors, where the parameters of road network and efficient information on traffic streams are used as primary data as well as empirical-stochastic approach to simulation and forecast of development of situation.

  19. Changing Societies and Four Tasks of Schooling: Challenges for Strongly Differentiated Educational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

    2014-01-01

    Changing labour markets, increased calls for selection and excellence, and increased diversity and individualisation have repercussions on how educational systems can prepare youth for work, optimise knowledge production, achieve equality of opportunity, and socialise students into active civic engagement. This paper discusses four central tasks…

  20. Task 5. Grid interconnection of building integrated and other dispersed photovoltaic power systems. Risk analysis of islanding of photovoltaic power systems within low voltage distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, N. [Freelance Consultant, Hillside House, Swindon SN1 3QA (United Kingdom); Thornycroft, J. [Halcrow Group Ltd, Burderop Park, Swindon SN4 0QD (United Kingdom); Collinson, A. [EA Technology, Capenhurst Technology Park, Chester CH1 6ES (United Kingdom)

    2002-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme presents the results of a risk analysis concerning photovoltaic power systems islanding in low-voltage distribution networks. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and distributed PV power systems. The purpose of this study was to apply formal risk analysis techniques to the issue of islanding of photovoltaic power systems within low voltage distribution networks. The aim was to determine the additional level of risk that islanding could present to the safety of customers and network maintenance staff. The study identified the reliability required for islanding detection and control systems based on standard procedures for developing a safety assurance strategy. The main conclusions are presented and discussed and recommendations are made. The report is concluded with an appendix that lists the relative risks involved.

  1. Task 9 recommended practice guides - Executive summaries. Financing mechanisms for solar home systems in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-15

    This Practice Guide issued by the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) group of the International Energy Agency (IEA) summarises how insufficient financing, the low incomes of the potential clients in remote rural areas and the high initial investment costs for the Solar Home System (SHS) are the factors responsible for insufficient progress in this area. The findings of the study such as access to finance, subsidies, formal and informal intermediaries and alternative financing solutions are discussed. SHS operating costs, possible higher priorities for other commodities and other market-driven factors are discussed. The report notes that most other reports concentrate more on technical and institutional rather than on the underlying financing schemes and associated data. Recommendations made deal with political aspects as well as technical, financial and awareness issues.

  2. Space station operations task force. Panel 2 report: Ground operations and support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The Ground Operations Concept embodied in this report provides for safe multi-user utilization of the Space Station, eases user integration, and gives users autonomy and flexibility. It provides for meaningful multi-national participation while protecting U.S. interests. The concept also supports continued space operations technology development by maintaining NASA expertise and enabling technology evolution. Given attention here are pre/post flight operations, logistics, sustaining engineering/configuration management, transportation services/rescue, and information systems and communication.

  3. Correcting Working Postures in Water Pump AssemblyTasks using the OVAKO Work Analysis System (OWAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Atiya Kadhim Al-Zuheri; Hussein S. Ketan

    2008-01-01

    Ovako Working Postures Analyzing System (OWAS) is a widely used method for studying awkward working postures in workplaces. This study with OWAS, analyzed working postures for manual material handling of laminations at stacking workstation for water pump assembly line in Electrical Industrial Company (EICO) / Baghdad. A computer program, WinOWAS, was used for the study. In real life workstation was found that more than 26% of the working postures observed were classified as either AC2 (slight...

  4. High Performance and Energy Efficient Task Scheduling Algorithm for Heterogeneous Mobile Computing System

    OpenAIRE

    E. Ilavarasan; Manoharan, R

    2010-01-01

    Heterogeneous Mobile Computing System (HMCS) consists of battery operated portable heterogeneous mobile nodes interconnected by wireless medium are increasingly being used in many areas of science,engineering and business. The advancements in the computing and communication technologies excel the mobile computing devices with the potential to execute larger application. However, execution of larger program is constrained by the availability of energy/power, node mobility and availability. A s...

  5. Improved Duct Systems Task Report with StageGate 2 Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Neil [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Stroer, Dennis [Calcs-Plus, Venice, FL (United States)

    2007-12-31

    This report is about Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership's work with two industry partners, Davalier Homes and Southern Energy Homes, in constructing and evaluating prototype interior duct systems. Issues of energy performance, comfort, DAPIA approval, manufacturability and cost is addressed. A stage gate 2 analysis addresses the current status of project showing that there are still refinements needed to the process of incorporating all of the ducts within the air and thermal boundaries of the envelope.

  6. Technical support for digital systems technology development. Task order 1: ISP contention analysis and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Roy H.; Ogier, Richard G.

    1993-01-01

    Alternatives for realizing a packet-based network switch for use on a frequency division multiple access/time division multiplexed (FDMA/TDM) geostationary communication satellite were investigated. Each of the eight downlink beams supports eight directed dwells. The design needed to accommodate multicast packets with very low probability of loss due to contention. Three switch architectures were designed and analyzed. An output-queued, shared bus system yielded a functionally simple system, utilizing a first-in, first-out (FIFO) memory per downlink dwell, but at the expense of a large total memory requirement. A shared memory architecture offered the most efficiency in memory requirements, requiring about half the memory of the shared bus design. The processing requirement for the shared-memory system adds system complexity that may offset the benefits of the smaller memory. An alternative design using a shared memory buffer per downlink beam decreases circuit complexity through a distributed design, and requires at most 1000 packets of memory more than the completely shared memory design. Modifications to the basic packet switch designs were proposed to accommodate circuit-switched traffic, which must be served on a periodic basis with minimal delay. Methods for dynamically controlling the downlink dwell lengths were developed and analyzed. These methods adapt quickly to changing traffic demands, and do not add significant complexity or cost to the satellite and ground station designs. Methods for reducing the memory requirement by not requiring the satellite to store full packets were also proposed and analyzed. In addition, optimal packet and dwell lengths were computed as functions of memory size for the three switch architectures.

  7. Task Description Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  8. Task Learning of an Arm Robot in Real Space by Using a Learning System in Virtual Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubone, Tadashi; Kurimoto, Kenichi; Sugiyama, Koichi; Wada, Yasuhiro

    Reinforced learning by which a robot acquires control rules through trial and error has gotten a lot of attention. However, it is quite difficult for robots to acquire control rules by reinforcement learning in real space because many learning trials are needed to achieve the control rules; the robot itself may lose control, or there may be safety problems with the control objects. In this paper, we propose a method in which a robot in real space learns a virtual task; then the task is transferred from virtual to real space. The robot eventually acquires the task in a real environment. We show that a real robot can acquire a task in virtual space with an input device by an example of an inverted pendulum. Next, we verify availability that the acquired task in virtual space can be applied to a real world task. We emphasize the utilization of virtual space to effectively obtain the real world task.

  9. Foundation Flash Catalyst

    CERN Document Server

    Goralski, Greg

    2010-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to Flash Catalyst for designers with intermediate to advanced skills. It discusses where Catalyst sits within the production process and how it communicates with other programs. It covers all of the features of the Flash Catalyst workspace, teaching you how to create designs from scratch, how to build application designs and add functionality, and how to master the Catalyst/Flex workflow. * Introduces Flash Catalyst * Focuses on production process * Covers the interrelation between Flash Catalyst and Photoshop/Illustrator/Flex/Flash What you'll learn Starting f

  10. Optimizing ccNUMA locality for task-parallel execution under OpenMP and TBB on multicore-based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Task parallelism as employed by the OpenMP task construct or some Intel Threading Building Blocks (TBB) components, although ideal for tackling irregular problems or typical producer/consumer schemes, bears some potential for performance bottlenecks if locality of data access is important, which is typically the case for memory-bound code on ccNUMA systems. We present a thin software layer ameliorates adverse effects of dynamic task distribution by sorting tasks into locality queues, each of which is preferably processed by threads that belong to the same locality domain. Dynamic scheduling is fully preserved inside each domain, and is preferred over possible load imbalance even if nonlocal access is required, making this strategy well-suited for typical multicore-mutisocket systems. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated by using a blocked six-point stencil solver as a toy model.

  11. Metal-mediated Layer-by-layer Films of Multi-metalloporphyrin Arrays:a Novel Switchable Catalyst System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Metalloporphyrins as one kind of effective catalysts have received considerable attention in the past two decades,because of their selective oxidation of hydrocarbons and other organic compound under mild conditions.Great efforts have been made to oxidize or epoxidize the hydrocarbons and cycloparaffin with the oxidants such as PhIO,H2O2 catalyzed by the metalloporphyrins.However,the metalloporphyrins are normally dissolved in the reaction solution or immobilized on silica or other porous supp...

  12. Solar air heating systems. IEA solar heating and cooling programme - task 19. Final report; Luftsolvarmesystemer. Dansk deltagelse i IEA task 19. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This project focuses on tools for analysis, development and optimization of systems and buildings with solar air-based heating systems. The results are collected in engineering handbook and in a `case study book` with examples of solar-heated buildings. The latter book is addressed to the architects as the primary target group. A component catalog for solar heating systems has been collected and will be published in the same time as the two handbooks. (EG)

  13. Energy material transport, now through 2000 system characteristics and potential problems. Task 4 progress report: natural gas transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, J.G.; Geffen, C.A.

    1978-07-01

    A summary characterization is presented of the existing natural gas transportation system and an assessment of some potential problems which may impact natural gas transportation in the United States during the balance of the century. A primary purpose of this task is to provide information and perspective that contributes to the evaluation of research needs and priorities in future programs. Safety and environmental issues that should concern the gas industry, the Department of Energy (DOE) and other cognizant government agencies are emphasized. Specific potential problems are identified which warrant additional programmatic effort because they do not appear to be receiving adequate attention. New programs are recommended to address these concerns according to their apparent importance, under conditions known or anticipated in early 1978. Other safety and environmental concerns in natural gas transportation are also reviewed, and judged to be adequately addressed in ongoing programs. No additional effort appears to be needed in these areas at present.

  14. Increase in physical activities in kindergarten children with cerebral palsy by employing MaKey-MaKey-based task systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Chang, Yu-Ming

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we employed Flash- and Scratch-based multimedia by using a MaKey-MaKey-based task system to increase the motivation level of children with cerebral palsy to perform physical activities. MaKey MaKey is a circuit board that converts physical touch to a digital signal, which is interpreted by a computer as a keyboard message. In this study, we used conductive materials to control this interaction. This study followed single-case design using ABAB models in which A indicated the baseline and B indicated the intervention. The experiment period comprised 1 month and a half. The experimental results demonstrated that in the case of two kindergarten children with cerebral palsy, their scores were considerably increased during the intervention phrases. The developmental applications of the results are also discussed.

  15. A hybrid photocatalytic system comprising ZnS as light harvester and an [Fe(2)S(2)] hydrogenase mimic as hydrogen evolution catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fuyu; Wang, Xiuli; Huang, Lei; Ma, Guijun; Yang, Jinhui; Li, Can

    2012-05-01

    Photo opportunity: A highly efficient and stable hybrid artificial photosynthetic H(2) evolution system is assembled by using a semiconductor (ZnS) as light-harvester and an [Fe(2)S(2)] hydrogenase mimic ([(μ-SPh-4-NH(2) )(2) Fe(2) (CO)(6)]) as catalyst for H(2) evolution. Photocatalytic H(2) production is achieved with more than 2607 turnovers (based on [Fe(2)S(2)]) and an initial turnover frequency of 100 h(-1) through the efficient transfer of photogenerated electrons from ZnS to the [Fe(2)S(2)] complex.

  16. A Highly Efficient Method for Synthesis of Bisarylmethylidenes of Cyclic Ketones in [BMIm]Cl/NaOH System as New and Recyclable Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Javanshir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An ionic liquid 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazoliumchloride[BMIm]Cl/sodium hydroxide system, was employed as a catalyst for the fast and one-pot crossed aldol-condensation of various aromatic aldehydes and cyclic ketones, to produce a variety of substituted α,α'-bis(benzylidene-cycloalkanones under neat conditions. This process is simple, efficient and environmentally benign and proceeds in high yield and short reaction times. The ionic liquid can be recycled for subsequent reactions without any appreciable loss of efficiency.

  17. A high-throughput reactor system for optimization of Mo–V–Nb mixed oxide catalyst composition in ethane ODH

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    75 Mo-V-Nb mixed oxide catalysts with a broad range of compositions were prepared by a simple evaporation method, and were screened for the ethane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) reaction. The compositions of these 75 catalysts were systematically changed by varying the Nb loading, and the Mo/V molar ratio. Characterization by XRD, XPS, H2-TPR and SEM revealed that an intimate structure is formed among the 3 components. The strong interaction among different components leads to the formation of a new phase or an "intimate structure". The dependency of conversion and selectivity on the catalyst composition was clearly demonstrated from the results of high-throughput testing. The optimized Mo-V-Nb molar composition was confirmed to be composed of a Nb content of 4-8%, a Mo content of 70-83%, and a V content of 12-25%. The enhanced catalytic performance of the mixed oxides is obviously due to the synergistic effects of the different components. The optimized compositions for ethane ODH revealed in our high-throughput tests and the structural information provided by our characterization studies can serve as the starting point for future efforts to improve the catalytic performance of Mo-V-Nb oxides. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. The individual and societal effects of the European education systems. How does structure influence the tasks of education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morena Cuconato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Across European countries, the expansion of education has increased during the 20th century the opportunities of young people’s access to and within schooling, but it has not reduced socioeconomic and cultural inequality both in term of labour market’s entry and participation to the democratic public life. This paper proposes an analysis of the ways in which education systems are institutionalised in Europe and the effects of this institutionalisation on educational inequality, young people’ labor market entry and the promotion of their active citizenship: three hot topics in the EU agenda framing the implementation of the European knowledge societies. Educational inequality becomes particularly evident at the transition point from lower to upper secondary education as this passage confronts young people with new (adult expectations, status and practices and contributes to their positioning in a segmented labor market and an unequal society. Therefore, our special focus is set on the kinds of transitions foreseen in the education systems of the eight countries participating to an EU-funded research project on the Governance of Educational Trajectories in Europe (GOETE. The aim is to highlight how different the tasks of education are interpreted through the systemic structure of the different national education systems.

  19. Energy material transport, now through 2000, system characteristics and potential problems. Task 3. Final report - petroleum transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, J.G.

    1979-03-01

    This report contains a summary characterization of the petroleum transportation system and an assessment of some potential problems that may impact petroleum transportation in the United States during the balance of the century. A primary purpose of this task is to provide information and perspective that contribute to the evaluation of research and development needs and priorities in future programs. The system characterization in Section 3 includes a review of petroleum product movements, modal operations and comparisons, and transportation regulations and safety. This system overview summarizes domestic production and consumption scenarios to the year 2000. A median scenario based on published projections shows that the US will probably rely on foreign oil to supply between 40 and 50 percent of domestic petroleum needs throughout the balance of the century. Potential problems in petroleum transportation were identified by the analysis and prioritization of current issues. The relative priorities of problem concerns were judged on the basis of their overall impact on the system and the immediacy of this potential impact. Two classes of concern are distinguished: 1. Potential problems that appear to require new programmatic action, in addition to effort already committed, to minimize the possible future impact of these concerns. 2. Latent concerns that may increase or decrease in priority or entirely change in nature as they develop. While the trend of these concerns should be monitored, new program action does not appear necessary at this time.

  20. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development task 5 -- market study of the gas fired ATS. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), in partnership with the Department of Energy, will develop a family of advanced gas turbine-based power systems (ATS) for widespread commercialization within the domestic and international industrial marketplace, and to the rapidly changing electric power generation industry. The objective of the jointly-funded Program is to introduce an ATS with high efficiency, and markedly reduced emissions levels, in high numbers as rapidly as possible following introduction. This Topical Report is submitted in response to the requirements outlined in Task 5 of the Department of Energy METC Contract on Advanced Combustion Systems, Contract No, DE AC21-93MC30246 (Contract), for a Market Study of the Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System. It presents a market study for the ATS proposed by Solar, and will examine both the economic and siting constraints of the ATS compared with competing systems in the various candidate markets. Also contained within this report is an examination and analysis of Solar`s ATS and its ability to compete in future utility and industrial markets, as well as factors affecting the marketability of the ATS.

  1. The use of shading systems in VDU task offices: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, Y.; Dumortier, D.; Fontoynont, M. [Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l' Etat (ENTPE), Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Habitat (LASH), Departement Genie Civil et Batiment, Vaulx-en-Velin (France)

    2006-07-01

    We registered how eight subjects used their remotely controlled black Venetian blinds in eight individual offices, every 15 min, over a period of 30 weeks. This also included measuring parameters such as the illuminance on the window, the illuminance on the VDU screen, the ambient temperature inside the room, the presence of the worker and the state of the artificial lighting. During the same period, we registered the position of the blinds in seven other offices fitted with manually controlled fabric blinds, through web cam pictures taken every 15 min. There was no further monitoring inside these offices. With the data collected, several hypotheses regarding the use of Venetian blinds in offices were tested. It appeared that office workers were consistent in the way they used their shading system, however it was difficult to draw general conclusions on blind usage. The type of control of the shading system also seemed to be important. Remotely controlled black Venetian blinds were used three times more often than manually controlled fabric blinds. In addition, most of the time users adjusted the tilt of the slats of the Venetian blinds downwards, towards the external ground. We also came to the conclusion that the higher the quality of the VDU screen (in terms of emitted luminance levels), the more likely a worker was to tolerate high levels of diffuse reflections on it, hence taking more advantage of the daylight available. (author)

  2. JV Task 117 - Impact of Lignite Properties on Powerspan's NOx Oxidation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Tolbert; Steven Benson

    2008-02-29

    (EERC); and the U.S. Department of Energy. An electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) reactor slipstream system was designed by Powerspan and the EERC. The slipstream system was installed by the EERC at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young Station Unit 1 downstream of the electrostatic precipitator where the flue gas temperature ranged from 300 to 350 F. The system was commissioned on July 3, 2007, operated for 107 days, and then winterized upon completion of the testing campaign. Operational performance of the system was monitored, and data were archived for postprocessing. A pair of electrodes were extracted and replaced on a biweekly basis. Each pair of electrodes was shipped to Powerspan to determine NO conversion efficiency in Powerspan's laboratory reactor. Tested electrodes were then shipped to the EERC for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis. Measurement of NO{sub x} conversion online in operating the slipstream system was not possible because the nitric and sulfuric acid production by the DBD reactor results in conditioning corrosion challenges in the sample extraction system and NO measurement technologies. The operational observations, performance results, and lab testing showed that the system was adversely affected by accumulation of the aerosol materials on the electrode. NO{sub x} conversion by ash-covered electrodes was significantly reduced; however, with electrodes that were rinsed with water, the NOx conversion efficiency recovered to nearly that of a new electrode. In addition, the visual appearance of the electrode after washing did not show evidence of a cloudy reacted surface but appeared similar to an unexposed electrode. Examination of the electrodes using SEM x-ray microanalysis showed significant elemental sodium, sulfur, calcium, potassium, and silica in the ash coating the electrodes. There was no evidence of the reaction of the sodium with the silica electrodes to produce sodium silicate layers. All SEM

  3. Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 and ZSM-5 Composite Catalyst System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Gray, Michel J.; White, James F.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2014-07-01

    A composite Pd/ZnO/Al2O3-HZSM-5 (Si/Al=40) catalytic system was evaluated for the synthesis of gasoline-range hydrocarbons directly from synthesis gas. Bifunctional catalyst comprising PdZn metal and acid sites present the required catalytically active sites necessary for the methanol synthesis, methanol dehydration, and methanol-to-gasoline reactions. This system provides a unique catalytic pathway for the production of liquid hydrocarbons directly from syngas. However, selectivity control is difficult and poses many challenges. The composite catalytic system was evaluated under various process conditions. Investigated were the effects of temperature (310-375oC), pressure (300-1000 psig), time-on-stream (50 hrs), and gas-hour space velocity (740-2970 hr-1), using a H2/CO molar syngas ratio of 2.0. By operating at the lower end of the temperature range investigated, liquid hydrocarbon formation was favored, as was decreased amounts of undesirable light hydrocarbons. However, lower operating temperatures also facilitated undesirable CO2 formation via the water-gas shift reaction. Higher operating pressures slightly favored liquid synthesis. Operating at relatively low pressures (e.g. 300 psig) was made possible, whereas for methanol synthesis alone higher pressure are usually required to achieve similar conversion levels (e.g. 1000 psig). Thermodynamic constraints on methanol synthesis are eased by pushing the equilibrium through hydrocarbon formation. Catalytic performance was also evaluated by altering Pd and Zn composition of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. Of the catalysts and conditions tested, selectivity toward liquid hydrocarbon was highest when using a 5% Pd metal loading and Pd/Zn molar ratio of 0.25 and mixed with HZMS-5, operating at 310oC and 300 psig, CO conversion was 43 % and selectivity (carbon weight basis) to hydrocarbons was 49 wt. %. Of the hydrocarbon fraction, 44wt. % was in the C5-C12 liquid product range and consisted primarily of aromatic

  4. Ni-Based Catalysts for Low Temperature Methane Steam Reforming: Recent Results on Ni-Au and Comparison with Other Bi-Metallic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Anna M. Venezia; Fabrizio Puleo; Valeria La Parola; Giuseppe Pantaleo; Hongjing Wu; Leonarda F. Liotta

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming of light hydrocarbons provides a promising method for hydrogen production. Ni-based catalysts are so far the best and the most commonly used catalysts for steam reforming because of their acceptably high activity and significantly lower cost in comparison with alternative precious metal-based catalysts. However, nickel catalysts are susceptible to deactivation from the deposition of carbon, even when operating at steam-to-carbon ratios predicted to be thermodynamically outside...

  5. Status Report on Activities of the Systems Assessment Task Force, OECD-NEA Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon Michelle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development /Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) Nuclear Science Committee approved the formation of an Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) for LWRs (EGATFL) in 2014. Chaired by Kemal Pasamehmetoglu, INL Associate Laboratory Director for Nuclear Science and Technology, the mandate for the EGATFL defines work under three task forces: (1) Systems Assessment, (2) Cladding and Core Materials, and (3) Fuel Concepts. Scope for the Systems Assessment task force includes definition of evaluation metrics for ATF, technology readiness level definition, definition of illustrative scenarios for ATF evaluation, parametric studies, and selection of system codes. The Cladding and Core Materials and Fuel Concepts task forces will identify gaps and needs for modeling and experimental demonstration; define key properties of interest; identify the data necessary to perform concept evaluation under normal conditions and illustrative scenarios; identify available infrastructure (internationally) to support experimental needs; and make recommendations on priorities. Where possible, considering proprietary and other export restrictions (e.g., International Traffic in Arms Regulations), the Expert Group will facilitate the sharing of data and lessons learned across the international group membership. The Systems Assessment Task Force is chaired by Shannon Bragg-Sitton (INL), while the Cladding Task Force will be chaired by a representative from France (Marie Moatti, Electricite de France [EdF]) and the Fuels Task Force will be chaired by a representative from Japan (Masaki Kurata, Japan Atomic Energy Agency [JAEA]). This report provides an overview of the Systems Assessment Task Force charter and status of work accomplishment.

  6. Pd Close Coupled Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Hua SHI; Mao Chu GONG; Yao Qiang CHEN

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst comprised novel high surface area alumina support was prepared to control emission of automobiles. The results showed that prepared catalyst could satisfy the requirements of a high performance close coupled catalyst for its good catalytic activity at low temperature and good stability at high temperature.

  7. Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); LaBarge, W. [General Motors-AC Delco Systems, Flint, MI (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This has been the second year of a CRADA between General Motors - AC Delco Systems (GM-ACDS) and Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES) aimed at improved performance/lifetime of platinum-rhodium based three-way-catalysts (TWC) for automotive emission control systems. While current formulations meet existing emission standards, higher than optimum Pt-Rh loadings are often required. In additionk, more stringent emission standards have been imposed for the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts.

  8. Synthesis of 2-Methyl-4-methoxyaniline from o-Nitrotoluene Using Pt/C and Acidic Ionic Liquid as Catalyst System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yingxin; LI Xiying; FANG Yanyan; ZHANG Lin

    2013-01-01

    2-Methyl-4-methoxyaniline (MMA) was synthesized by one-pot method through the hydrogenation and Bamberger rearrangement of o-nitrotoluene in methanol using acidic ionic liquid and 3% Pt/C as catalyst system.The effects of ionic liquid type,dosage of ionic liquid and 3% Pt/C,reaction temperature and reaction pressure on o-nitrotoluene conversion and MMA selectivity were investigated.The results indicated that the imidazolium-based acidic ionic liquid which contains SO3H-functionalized cation showed higher selectivity to MMA than other acidic ionic liquids used in this work.Using 1-(propyl-3-sulfonate)-3-methylimidazolium hydrosulfate ([HSO3-pmim][HSO4])as the acid catalyst,the selectivity to MMA was as high as 67.6% at 97.8% of o-nitrotoluene conversion.As 3% Pt/C increased from 0.01 g to 0.025 g,the selectivity to MMA decreased from 73.4% to 62.5%,because of the hydrogenation of intermediate o-methyl-phenylhydroxylamine to o-toluidine becoming more dominant.An increase in hydrogen pressure also had obviously dramatic effect in lowering the MMA selectivity.After easy separation from the products,the catalvst system could be reused at least 3 times.

  9. Establishing the Family of Diruthenium Water Oxidation Catalysts Based on the Bis(bipyridyl)pyrazolate Ligand System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Sven; Maji, Somnath; López, Isidoro; Dechert, Sebastian; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi; Llobet, Antoni; Meyer, Franc

    2016-03-01

    A bis(bipyridyl)pyrazolate ((Me)bbp(-)) has recently been introduced as a rugged dinucleating, bis(tridentate) ligand for the formation of efficient diruthenium water oxidation catalysts (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 24-27). Now, detailed protocols for the synthesis of a whole family of such dinuclear ruthenium complexes [{Ru(pyR(2))2}2(μ-(R1)bbp)(X,Y)](2+) based on the bis(bipyridyl)pyrazolate scaffold are reported. The isolation of a synthetic key intermediate allowed the straightforward introduction of different pyridines as axial ligands. Thereby, a set of complexes with different substituents at the pyrazolate backbone (R(1) = Br, H, Me), different pyridines as axial ligand (R(2) = H, NMe2, SO3), and different (non)bridging units in the in,in-position (X,Y = Cl, H2O, OAc) has been prepared and thoroughly characterized. Complexes of the type [{Ru(pyR(2))2}2(μ-(R1)bbp)(μ-OAc)](2+), with an exogenous acetato bridge, have been used as catalyst precursors in catalytic water oxidation experiments with a sacrificial oxidant. The effect of substitution on the pyrazole core of the (R1)bbp(-) ligand as well as on the pyridine ligands on both electrochemistry and catalytic activity has been systematically investigated. The catalyst stability, reflected by the turnover number, is crucially determined by the substituent at the pyrazolate ligand (R(1) = Me > H > Br). In contrast, the axial pyridine ligands modulate the rate of the catalytic process, expressed by the initial turnover frequency (R(2) = H > NMe2H(+)). PMID:26894408

  10. Case Studies of integrated hydrogen systems. International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, Final report for Subtask A of task 11 - Integrated Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schucan, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    1999-12-31

    Within the framework of the International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement, Task 11 was undertaken to develop tools to assist in the design and evaluation of existing and potential hydrogen demonstration projects. Emphasis was placed on integrated systems, from input energy to hydrogen end use. Included in the PDF document are the Executive Summary of the final report and the various case studies. The activities of task 11 were focused on near- and mid-term applications, with consideration for the transition from fossil-based systems to sustainable hydrogen energy systems. The participating countries were Canada, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the United States. In order for hydrogen to become a competitive energy carrier, experience and operating data need to be generated and collected through demonstration projects. A framework of scientific principles, technical expertise, and analytical evaluation and assessment needed to be developed to aid in the design and optimization of hydrogen demonstration projects to promote implementation. The task participants undertook research within the framework of three highly coordinated subtasks that focused on the collection and critical evaluation of data from existing demonstration projects around the world, the development and testing of computer models of hydrogen components and integrated systems, and the evaluation and comparison of hydrogen systems. While the Executive Summary reflects work on all three subtasks, this collection of chapters refers only to the work performed under Subtask A. Ten projects were analyzed and evaluated in detail as part of Subtask A, Case Studies. The projects and the project partners were: Solar Hydrogen Demonstration Project, Solar-Wasserstoff-Bayern, Bayernwerk, BMW, Linde, Siemens (Germany); Solar Hydrogen Plant on Residential House, M. Friedli (Switzerland); A.T. Stuart Renewable Energy Test Site; Stuart Energy Systems (Canada); PHOEBUS Juelich

  11. Energy material transport, now through 2000, system characteristics and potential problems. Task 2 final report: coal transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, J.G.; Bamberger, J.A.; Franklin, A.L.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lippek, H.E.; Loscutoff, W.V.; Wilson, C.L.

    1978-06-01

    This report contains a summary characterization of the existing domestic coal transportation system and an assessment of some potential problems which may impact coal transportation in the United States during the balance of the century. A primary purpose of this task is to provide information and perspective that contributes to the evaluation of research and development needs and priorities in future programs. Specific concerns are identified which warrant additional programmatic effort to fill apparent gaps in the coverage of other relevant programs. Recommendations are made for new programs to address these concerns according to their apparent importance under conditions known or anticipated in early 1978. These recommendations are intended to encourage new research initiatives by the coal transportation industry, the Department of Energy (DOE) and other cognizant agencies. Concerns were identified by the analysis of problem issues associated with currently-projected growth scenarios for domestic coal consumption. The assessment of potential problem effects on the adequacy of future coal transportation assumes domestic coal production levels of approximately one billion tons in 1985 and two billion tons by the year 2000. The relative priorities of potential problems were judged on the basis of their overall impact on the system and the immediacy of this potential impact.

  12. In a secondary care setting, differences between neck pain subgroups classified using the Quebec task force classification system were typically small

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne; Kent, Peter; Kjaer, Per;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The component of the Quebec Task Force Classification System that subgroups patients based on the extent of their radiating pain and neurological signs has been demonstrated to have prognostic implications for patients with low back pain but has not been tested on patients with neck...... and patients with NP + NRI had experienced the largest improvements in pain intensity. Similar results were obtained for activity limitation. CONCLUSIONS: This study found baseline and outcome differences between neck pain subgroups classified using the Quebec Task Force Classification System. However...

  13. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Wood Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for treatment of wood-derived syngas for use in the synthesis of liquid fuels. Two different 2,000 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, a low-pressure, indirect system using the gasifier, and a high-pressure, direct system using gasification technology were evaluated. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  14. Plasmonic Ag-pillared rectorite as catalyst for degradation of 2,4-DCP in the H2O2-containing system under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunfang; Fang, Jianzhang; Lu, Shaoyou; Wu, Yan; Chen, Dazhi; Huang, Liyan; Cheng, Cong; Ren, Lu; Zhu, Ximiao; Fang, Zhanqiang

    2015-10-30

    This study aims at photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-DCP with the assistance of H2O2 in aqueous solution by a composite catalyst of Ag-rectorite. The catalysts were prepared via a novel thermal decomposition method followed after the cation-exchange process. The synthesized nano-materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analyzer, Ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) absorption spectra, field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The different mechanisms of degradation process with or without visible light irradiation were discussed, respectively. Moreover, the degradation efficiency of 2,4-DCP wastewater under Ag-rectorite/H2O2/visible light system was investigated by series of experiments, concerning on effects of major operation factors, such as H2O2 dosage and the initial pH value. The highest degradation rate was observed when adding 0.18 mL H2O2 into 50 mL 2,4-DCP solution, and the optimal pH value was 4 for the reaction. Afterwards, total organic carbon (TOC) experiments were carried out to evaluate the mineralization ratio of 2,4-DCP. PMID:26010473

  15. Renovation and Reuse of Reactive Dyeing Effluent by a Novel Heterogeneous Fenton System Based on Metal Modified PTFE Fibrous Catalyst/H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu-Fe bimetallic grafted polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE fiber complexes were prepared and optimized as the novel heterogeneous Fenton catalysts for the degradation of reactive dyes under UV irradiation. Cotton fabrics were dyed with three reactive dyes, namely, Reactive Red 195, Reactive Yellow 145, and Reactive Blue 222, in tap fresh water using exhaustion process. The spent dyeing effluents were then collected and degraded with the optimized Cu-Fe bimetallic grafted PTFE fiber complex/H2O2 system. The treated dyeing effluents were characterized and reused for the dyeing of cotton fabrics through the same process. The effect of reuse process number on quality of the dyed cotton fabrics was examined. The results indicated that the Cu-Fe bimetallic modified PTFE fiber complex with a Cu/Fe molar ratio of 2.87 was found to be the most effective fibrous catalyst, which enhanced complete decolorization of the treated dyeing effluents with H2O2 in 4 h. However, the TOC removal for the treated dyeing effluents was below 80%. The dyeing quality was not affected for three successive cycles. The increase in residual TOC value influences fourth dyeing cycle. Further TOC reduction of the treated effluents is needed for its repeated reuse in more than three dyeing cycles.

  16. Engineering design and testing of a ground water remediation system using electrolytically generated hydrogen with a palladium catalyst for dehalogenation of chlorinated hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, R.

    1997-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that dissolved hydrogen causes rapid dehalogenation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the presence of a palladium catalyst. The speed and completeness of these reactions offer advantages in designing remediation technologies for certain ground water contamination problems. However, a practical design challenge arises in the need to saturate the aqueous phase with hydrogen in an expeditious manner. To address this issue, a two-stage treatment reactor has been developed. The first stage consists of an electrolytic cell that generates hydrogen by applying a voltage potential across the influent water stream. The second stage consists of a catalyst column of palladium metal supported on alumina beads. A bench-scale reactor has been used to test this design for treating ground water contaminated with trichloroethene and other chlorinated hydrocarbons. In influent streams containing contaminant concentrations up to 4 ppm, initial results confirm that destruction efficiencies greater than 95% may be achieved with residence times short enough to allow practical implementation in specially designed flow-through treatment wells. Results from the bench-scale tests are being used to design a pilot ground water treatment system.

  17. Plasmonic Ag-pillared rectorite as catalyst for degradation of 2,4-DCP in the H2O2-containing system under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunfang; Fang, Jianzhang; Lu, Shaoyou; Wu, Yan; Chen, Dazhi; Huang, Liyan; Cheng, Cong; Ren, Lu; Zhu, Ximiao; Fang, Zhanqiang

    2015-10-30

    This study aims at photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-DCP with the assistance of H2O2 in aqueous solution by a composite catalyst of Ag-rectorite. The catalysts were prepared via a novel thermal decomposition method followed after the cation-exchange process. The synthesized nano-materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analyzer, Ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) absorption spectra, field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The different mechanisms of degradation process with or without visible light irradiation were discussed, respectively. Moreover, the degradation efficiency of 2,4-DCP wastewater under Ag-rectorite/H2O2/visible light system was investigated by series of experiments, concerning on effects of major operation factors, such as H2O2 dosage and the initial pH value. The highest degradation rate was observed when adding 0.18 mL H2O2 into 50 mL 2,4-DCP solution, and the optimal pH value was 4 for the reaction. Afterwards, total organic carbon (TOC) experiments were carried out to evaluate the mineralization ratio of 2,4-DCP.

  18. Feasibility of developing a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research: Technical tasks. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.; Spelt, P.F.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    A two-phase, multi-year research program entitled ``development of a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research`` was recently completed. The primary objective of the project was to develop a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) that will allow drive performance data to be collected using a large variety of vehicle types and that would be capable of being installed on a given vehicle type within a relatively short-time frame. During phase 1 a feasibility study for designing and fabricating DASCAR was conducted. In phase 2 of the research DASCAR was actually developed and validated. This technical memorandum documents the results from the feasibility study. It is subdivided into three volumes. Volume one (this report) addresses the last five items in the phase 1 research and the first issue in the second phase of the project. Volumes two and three present the related appendices, and the design specifications developed for DASCAR respectively. The six tasks were oriented toward: identifying parameters and measures; identifying analysis tools and methods; identifying measurement techniques and state-of-the-art hardware and software; developing design requirements and specifications; determining the cost of one or more copies of the proposed data acquisition system; and designing a development plan and constructing DASCAR. This report also covers: the background to the program; the requirements for the project; micro camera testing; heat load calculations for the DASCAR instrumentation package in automobile trunks; phase 2 of the research; the DASCAR hardware and software delivered to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; and crash avoidance problems that can be addressed by DASCAR.

  19. Investigation of advanced counterrotation blade configuration concepts for high speed turboprop systems. Task 5: Unsteady counterrotation ducted propfan analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward J.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was the development of a time-marching three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis to predict steady and unsteady compressible transonic flows about ducted and unducted propfan propulsion systems employing multiple blade rows. The computer codes resulting from this study are referred to as ADPAC-AOAR\\CR (Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis Codes-Angle of Attack Coupled Row). This document is the final report describing the theoretical basis and analytical results from the ADPAC-AOACR codes developed under task 5 of NASA Contract NAS3-25270, Unsteady Counterrotating Ducted Propfan Analysis. The ADPAC-AOACR Program is based on a flexible multiple blocked grid discretization scheme permitting coupled 2-D/3-D mesh block solutions with application to a wide variety of geometries. For convenience, several standard mesh block structures are described for turbomachinery applications. Aerodynamic calculations are based on a four-stage Runge-Kutta time-marching finite volume solution technique with added numerical dissipation. Steady flow predictions are accelerated by a multigrid procedure. Numerical calculations are compared with experimental data for several test cases to demonstrate the utility of this approach for predicting the aerodynamics of modern turbomachinery configurations employing multiple blade rows.

  20. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Task 4, System integration studies: Char upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L.; Hogsett, R.F.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes the results of Task 4 under which a 50 pound/hour char-to-carbon (CTC) process research unit (PRU) was designed in the second half of 1989, with construction completed in June 1990. The CTC PRU at Golden was operated for nearly one year during which 35 runs were completed for a total of nearly 800 hours of operation. Char methanation and carbon production reactor development activities are detailed in this report, as well as the results of integrated runs of the CTC process. Evaluation of the process and the carbon product produced is also included. It was concluded that carbon could be produced from mild gasification char utilizing the CTC process. Char methanation and membrane separation steps performed reasonably well and can scaled up with confidence. However, the novel directly heated reactor system for methane cracking did not work satisfactorily due to materials of construction and heat transfer problems, which adversely affected the quantity and quality of the carbon product. Alternative reactor designs are recommended.

  1. Ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing pH-responsive ligands: External control of catalyst solubility and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balof, Shawna Lynn

    2011-12-01

    Sixteen novel, Ru-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing pH responsive ligands were synthesized. The pH-responsive groups employed with these catalysts included dimethylamino (NMe2) modified NHC ligands as well as N-donor dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and 3-(o-pyridyl)propylidene ligands. These pH-responsive ligands provided the means by which the solubility and/or activity profiles of the catalysts produced could be controlled via acid addition. The main goal of this dissertation was to design catalyst systems capable of performing ring opening metathesis (ROMP) and ring closing metathesis (RCM) reactions in both organic and aqueous media. In an effort to quickly gain access to new catalyst structures, a template synthesis for functionalized NHC ligand precursors was designed, in addition to other strategies, to obtain ligand precursors with ancillary NMe2 groups. Kinetic studies for the catalysts produced from these precursors showed external control of catalyst solubility was afforded via protonation of the NMe2 groups of their NHC ligands. Additionally, this protonation afforded external control of catalyst propagation rates for several catalysts. This is the first known independent external control for the propagation rates of ROMP catalysts. The incorporation of pH-responsive N-donor ligands into catalyst structures also provided the means for the external control of metathesis activity, as the protonation of these ligands resulted in an increased initiation rate based on their fast and irreversible dissociation from the metal center. The enhanced external control makes these catalysts applicable to a wide range of applications, some of which have been explored by us and/or through collaboration. Three of the catalysts designed showed remarkable metathesis activity in aqueous media. These catalysts displayed comparable RCM activity in aqueous media to a class of water-soluble catalysts reported by Grubbs et al., considered to be the most active catalyst for

  2. Advanced coal-using community systems. Task 1A. Technology characteristics. Volume 1. Fuel- and energy-production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tison, R.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Biederman, N.P.; Malik, N.J.; Gamze, M.G.; Wetterstrom, D.; Diskant, W.; Malfitani, L.

    1979-03-01

    This report is presented in 2 volumes. It contains descriptions of engineering characterizations and equipment used in coal processing, fuel and energy distribution, storage, and end-use utilization. Volume 1 contains 4 chapters dealing with: coal conversion processes (high- and low-Btu gas from coal and coal-to-liquid fuels); coal cleaning and direct combustion (pretreating, direct combustion, and stack gas cleaning); electricity production (compression-ignition engines, turbines, combined-cycle, fuel cells, alternative Rankine cycles, Stirling cycles, and closed Brayton cycles); and thermal generating processes (steam plants, direct-contact steam-heated hot water systems, thermal liquid plants, absorption chillers, and centrifugal chillers). (DMC)

  3. Use of Human Modeling Simulation Software in the Task Analysis of the Environmental Control and Life Support System Component Installation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Virtual reality and simulation applications are becoming widespread in human task analysis. These programs have many benefits for the Human Factors Engineering field. Not only do creating and using virtual environments for human engineering analyses save money and time, this approach also promotes user experimentation and provides increased quality of analyses. This paper explains the human engineering task analysis performed on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) space station rack and its Distillation Assembly (DA) subsystem using EAI's human modeling simulation software, Jack. When installed on the International Space Station (ISS), ECLSS will provide the life and environment support needed to adequately sustain crew life. The DA is an Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) that provides means of wastewater (primarily urine from flight crew and experimental animals) reclamation. Jack was used to create a model of the weightless environment of the ISS Node 3, where the ECLSS is housed. Computer aided drawings of the ECLSS rack and DA system were also brought into the environment. Anthropometric models of a 95th percentile male and 5th percentile female were used to examine the human interfaces encountered during various ECLSS and DA tasks. The results of the task analyses were used in suggesting modifications to hardware and crew task procedures to improve accessibility, conserve crew time, and add convenience for the crew. This paper will address some of those suggested modifications and the method of presenting final analyses for requirements verification.

  4. Influence of Organoboron Compounds on Ethylene Polymerization Using Cp2ZrCl2/MAO as Catalyst System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alexandro Valencia López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organoboron compounds of nonionic and ionic nature, tris(pentafluorophenylborane, and N,N-dimethylanilinium tetra(pentafluorophenylborate were evaluated to act in conjunction with MAO as activators on ethylene polymerization by using the catalyst Cp2ZrCl2. A decrease on the catalytic activity was observed in both cases in relation with a reference polyethylene which was synthesized in absence of any organoboron compound. An increase on the crystallinity degree and molecular weight, as well as an improvement in thermal and dynamic-mechanical properties, was observed in polyethylenes synthetized in presence of tris(pentafluorophenylborane. A low density polyethylene with improved thermal stability was obtained when N,N-dimethylanilinium tetra(pentafluorophenylborate was employed as activator.

  5. Physico-chemical characterisations and catalytic performance of Ni-based catalyst systems for dry reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlach, K.; Hoang, D.L.; Schneider, M.; Pohl, M.M.; Armbruster, U.; Martin, A. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Leibniz-Institut fuer Katalyse e.V.

    2012-07-01

    In this study, ternary perovskite type oxides LaNi{sub x}Cu{sub 1-x}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1) were synthesized using NaOH and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (H{sub 5}DTPA). The catalysts resulting from perovskite precursors exhibit catalytic activities for CO{sub 2} reforming of CH{sub 4} at 700 C that increase with a higher Ni content. Characterization methods showed that the activation led to formation of small metallic Ni/Cu particles. Methane and carbon dioxide conversions varied from 20 to 65% for CH{sub 4} and 3 to 58% for CO{sub 2}. Selectivities from 46 to 93% for CO and from 4 to 64% for H{sub 2} were obtained. (orig.)

  6. Design Guidelines for the Development of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Training Systems for Maintenance and Assembly Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tecchia Franco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work describes design guidelines for the development of Virtual Reality (VR and Augmented Reality (AR platforms to train technicians on maintenance and assembly tasks of industrial machineries. The main skill involved in this kind of tasks is the procedural skill. Based on past literature and studies conducted within the SKILLS project, several main design guidelines were formulated. First, observational learning integrated properly within the training protocol increases training efficiency. Second, training protocols combining physical and cognitive fidelity enhances procedural skills acquisition. Third, guidance aids should be provided in a proper and controlled way. And last, enriched information about the task helps trainees to develop a useful mental model of the task. These recommendations were implemented in both VR and AR training platforms.

  7. Advanced Turbine Systems Program conceptual design and product development. Task 3.0, Selection of natural gas-fired Advanced Turbine System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This report presents results of Task 3 of the Westinghouse ATS Phase II program. Objective of Task 3 was to analyze and evaluate different cycles for the natural gas-fired Advanced Turbine Systems in order to select one that would achieve all ATS program goals. About 50 cycles (5 main types) were evaluated on basis of plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity, reliability-availability-maintainability (RAM), and program schedule requirements. The advanced combined cycle was selected for the ATS plant; it will incorporate an advanced gas turbine engine as well as improvements in the bottoming cycle and generator. Cost and RAM analyses were carried out on 6 selected cycle configurations and compared to the baseline plant. Issues critical to the Advanced Combined Cycle are discussed; achievement of plant efficiency and cost of electricity goals will require higher firing temperatures and minimized cooling of hot end components, necessitating new aloys/materials/coatings. Studies will be required in combustion, aerodynamic design, cooling design, leakage control, etc.

  8. EULAR recommendations for the management of systemic lupus erythematosus. Report of a task force of the EULAR standing committee for international clinical studies including therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertsias, G.; Ioannidis, J. P. A.; Boletis, J.; Bombardieri, S.; Cervera, R.; Dostal, C.; Font, J.; Gilboe, I. M.; Houssiau, F.; Huizinga, T.; Isenberg, D.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.; Khamashta, M.; Piette, J. C.; Schneider, M.; Smolen, J.; Sturfelt, G.; Tincani, A.; van Vollenhoven, R.; Gordon, C.; Boumpas, D. T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex disease with variable presentations, course and prognosis. We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations addressing the major issues in the management of SLE. Methods: The EULAR Task Force on SLE comprised 19 specialists and a clinical

  9. Modelling the Factors that Affect Individuals' Utilisation of Online Learning Systems: An Empirical Study Combining the Task Technology Fit Model with the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tai-Kuei; Yu, Tai-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Understanding learners' behaviour, perceptions and influence in terms of learner performance is crucial to predict the use of electronic learning systems. By integrating the task-technology fit (TTF) model and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this paper investigates the online learning utilisation of Taiwanese students. This paper provides a…

  10. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  11. Copolymerization of 1-hexene and 1-dodecene with 1,3-butadiene by a versatate/diisobutylaluminum hydride/t-butyl chloride catalyst system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Monteiro da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to incorporate an alpha-olefin (1-hexene or 1-dodecene in a high cis polybutadiene chain, using a neodymium versatate/diisobutylaluminum hydride/t-butyl chloride catalyst system. The influence of alpha-olefin on polymerization reaction and polymer characteristics, using different weight ratios of butadiene/α-olefin, was evaluated. The copolymers were characterized by SEC, FTIR, NMR, TGA and viscosimetric analysis. The thermal stability of the polymer tended to increase with incorporation of alpha-olefins, while its microstructure was not affected. The weight average molecular mass (Mw tended to increase and the polymerization conversion tended to decrease with increasing alpha-olefins content. The copolymers showed a lower intrinsic viscosity than for the homopolymer. The results indicated that the alpha-olefins were incorporated in the polybutadiene chain.

  12. Surfactant-coated Candida rugosa Lipase as Catalyst for Hydrolysis of Olive Oil in Solvent-Free Two-Phase System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宝东; 丁辉; 吴金川; HayashiY.; TalukderMMR; 王世昌

    2003-01-01

    The surfactant-coated Candida rugosa lipase was used as catalyst for hydrolysis of olive oil in two-phase system consisting of olive oil and phosphate buffer without organic solvent. For both the coated and native lipases,the optimal buffer/oil volume ratio of 1.0, aqueous pH 6.8 and reaction temperature 30℃ were determined. The maximum activity of the coated lipase was ca 1.3 times than that of the native lipase. The half-life of the coated lipase in olive oil and the native lipase in phosphate buffer was ca 9 h and 12 h, and the final residual activity was 27% and 20% of their initial values, respectively. The final substrate conversion by the coated lipase was ca 20% higher than that of the native lipase.

  13. Alloy catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...... of the novel catalyst material for synthesising hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water....

  14. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  15. Stereospecific olefin polymerization catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercaw, John E.; Herzog, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    A metallocene catalyst system for the polymerization of .alpha.-olefins to yield stereospecific polymers including syndiotactic, and isotactic polymers. The catalyst system includes a metal and a ligand of the formula ##STR1## wherein: R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, 5 to 7 membered cycloalkyl, which in turn may have from 1 to 3 C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyls as a substituent, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or arylalkyl in which two adjacent radicals may together stand for cyclic groups having 4 to 15 carbon atoms which in turn may be substituted, or Si(R.sup.8).sub.3 where R.sup.8 is selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; R.sup.4 and R.sup.6 are substituents both having van der Waals radii larger than the van der Waals radii of groups R.sup.1 and R.sup.3 ; R.sup.5 is a substituent having a van der Waals radius less than about the van der Waals radius of a methyl group; E.sup.1, E.sup.2 are independently selected from the group consisting of Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Si(R.sup.9).sub.2 --Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Ge(R.sup.9).sub.2, Sn(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2 --C(R.sup.9).sub.2, where R.sup.9 is C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; and the ligand may have C.sub.S or C.sub.1 -symmetry. Preferred metals are selected from the group consisting of group III, group IV, group V or lanthanide group elements. The catalysts are used to prepare stereoregular polymers including polypropylene from .alpha.-olefin monomers.

  16. An expert system shell for inferring vegetation characteristics: Changes to the historical cover type database (Task F)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    All the options in the NASA VEGetation Workbench (VEG) make use of a database of historical cover types. This database contains results from experiments by scientists on a wide variety of different cover types. The learning system uses the database to provide positive and negative training examples of classes that enable it to learn distinguishing features between classes of vegetation. All the other VEG options use the database to estimate the error bounds involved in the results obtained when various analysis techniques are applied to the sample of cover type data that is being studied. In the previous version of VEG, the historical cover type database was stored as part of the VEG knowledge base. This database was removed from the knowledge base. It is now stored as a series of flat files that are external to VEG. An interface between VEG and these files was provided. The interface allows the user to select which files of historical data to use. The files are then read, and the data are stored in Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) units using the same organization of units as in the previous version of VEG. The interface also allows the user to delete some or all of the historical database units from VEG and load new historical data from a file. This report summarizes the use of the historical cover type database in VEG. It then describes the new interface to the files containing the historical data. It describes minor changes that were made to VEG to enable the externally stored database to be used. Test runs to test the operation of the new interface and also to test the operation of VEG using historical data loaded from external files are described. Task F was completed. A Sun cartridge tape containing the KEE and Common Lisp code for the new interface and the modified version of the VEG knowledge base was delivered to the NASA GSFC technical representative.

  17. An approach of information technologies employment within the tasks of radioactive wastes management in the 'Ukrytie' and its transformation into ecologically safe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a description of a concept of the information technologies employment based on the geo information systems (GIS) and the designing systems (CAD) to create an integrated information system (IIS) for the 'Ukrytie' and the industrial site. This system incorporates data based with text, tabular, screen, animation, video and vector data types involved. The IIS is a basic system for further tasks on simulation of the processes in the 'Ukrytie'. The delivered concept employs two up-to-date technologies, i.e. CAD and GIS

  18. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emissions Project (APBF-DEC): 2,000-Hour Performance of a NOx Adsorber Catalyst and Diesel Particle Filter System for a Medium-Duty, Pick-Up Diesel Engine Platform; Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    Presents the results of a 2,000-hour test of an emissions control system consisting of a nitrogen oxides adsorber catalyst in combination with a diesel particle filter, advanced fuels, and advanced engine controls in an SUV/pick-up truck vehicle platform.

  19. Synthesis and application of aryl-ferrocenyl(pseudo-biarylic) complexes. Part 5. Design and synthesis of a new type of ferrocene-based planar chiral DMAP analogues. A new catalyst system for asymmetric nucleophilic catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitzberg, J.G; Dissing, C; Søtofte, Inger;

    2005-01-01

    A new first-generation catalyst system for nucleophilic catalysis has been developed. It is based on a planar chiral ferrocene skeleton with either the potent nucleophile 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) or the related 4-nitropyridine N-oxide attached in either the 2- or the 3-position. The synth...

  20. Modulation of the Reactivity, Stability and Substrate- and Enantioselectivity of an Epoxidation Catalyst by Noncovalent Dynamic Attachment of a Receptor Functionality - Aspects on the Mechanism of the Jacobsen-Katsuki Epoxidation Applied to a Supramolecular System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Stefán; Odille, Fabrice G. J.; Norrby, Per-Ola;

    2006-01-01

    model of the metal-free system 4 + 5 refutes the earlier assumption that macrocycle 1 is the predominant form of catalyst 2 under the standard epoxidation reaction conditions with 2 + 3. Evidence are provided that receptor-binding substrates and nonbinding substrates, respectively, are epoxidised by two...

  1. Final Report Project Activity Task ORD-FY04-002 Nevada System of Higher Education Quality Assurance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smiecinski, Amy; Keeler, Raymond; Bertoia, Julie; Mueller, Terry; Roosa, Morris; Roosa, Barbara

    2008-03-07

    The principal purpose of DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232 is to develop and continue providing the public and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an independently derived, unbiased body of scientific and engineering data concerning the study of Yucca Mountain as a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Under this agreement, the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE), formerly the University and Community College System of Nevada (UCCSN), performs scientific or engineering research, and maintains and fosters collaborative working relationships between government and academic researchers. In performing these activities, the NSHE has already developed and implemented a Quality Assurance (QA) program, which was accepted by the DOE Office of Quality Assurance, under the previous Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC28-98NV12081. The following describes the objectives of Project Activity 002 “Quality Assurance Program” under cooperative agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232. The objective of this QA program was to assure that data produced under the cooperative agreement met the OCRWM QA Requirements and Description (QARD) requirements for quality-affecting (Q) data. The QA Program was written to address specific QARD requirements historically identified and incorporated in Q activities to the degree appropriate for the nature, scope, and complexity of the activity. Additional QARD requirements were integrated into the program when required to complete a specific activity. NSHE QA staff developed a detailed matrix to address each QARD element, identifying the applicable requirements and specifying where each requirement is addressed in the QA program procedures, or identify requirements as “not applicable” to the QA program. Controlled documents were prepared in the form of QA procedures (QAPs) and implementing procedures (IPs). NSHE identified new QAPs and IPs when needed. NSHE PIs

  2. Assessment of image quality in soft tissue and bone visualization tasks for a dedicated extremity cone-beam CT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demehri, S. [Johns Hopkins University, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Outpatient Center, JHOC 5168, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Muhit, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Stayman, J.W. [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yorkston, J.; Packard, N.; Senn, R.; Yang, D.; Foos, D. [Carestream Health, Rochester, NY (United States); Thawait, G.K.; Fayad, L.M.; Chhabra, A.; Carrino, J.A. [Johns Hopkins University, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Siewerdsen, J.H. [Johns Hopkins University, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-01

    To assess visualization tasks using cone-beam CT (CBCT) compared to multi-detector CT (MDCT) for musculoskeletal extremity imaging. Ten cadaveric hands and ten knees were examined using a dedicated CBCT prototype and a clinical multi-detector CT using nominal protocols (80kVp-108mAs for CBCT; 120kVp- 300mAs for MDCT). Soft tissue and bone visualization tasks were assessed by four radiologists using five-point satisfaction (for CBCT and MDCT individually) and five-point preference (side-by-side CBCT versus MDCT image quality comparison) rating tests. Ratings were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and observer agreement was assessed using the Kappa-statistic. Knee CBCT images were rated ''excellent'' or ''good'' (median scores 5 and 4) for ''bone'' and ''soft tissue'' visualization tasks. Hand CBCT images were rated ''excellent'' or ''adequate'' (median scores 5 and 3) for ''bone'' and ''soft tissue'' visualization tasks. Preference tests rated CBCT equivalent or superior to MDCT for bone visualization and favoured the MDCT for soft tissue visualization tasks. Intraobserver agreement for CBCT satisfaction tests was fair to almost perfect (κ ∝ 0.26-0.92), and interobserver agreement was fair to moderate (κ ∝ 0.27-0.54). CBCT provided excellent image quality for bone visualization and adequate image quality for soft tissue visualization tasks. (orig.)

  3. Nano-catalysts: Bridging the gap between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Functionalized nanoparticles have emerged as sustainable alternatives to conventional materials, as robust, high-surface-area heterogeneous catalyst supports. We envisioned a catalyst system, which can bridge the homogenous and heterogeneous system. Postsynthetic surface modifica...

  4. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark G.; Ranaweera, Samantha A.; Henry, William P.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality distillates, gasoline components, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel supported bimetallic ion complex catalyst for conversion, and provides methods of preparing such novel catalysts and use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  5. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Tasks 3 and 4 Materials for Heat Recovery in Recovery Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, James R.; Kish, Joseph R.; Singh, Preet M.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Yuan, Jerry; Gorog, J. Peter; Frederick, Laurie A.; Jette, Francois R.; Meisner, Roberta A.; Singbeil, Douglas L.

    2007-12-31

    The DOE-funded project on materials for industrial heat recovery systems included four research tasks: materials for aluminum melting furnace recuperator tubes, materials and operational changes to prevent cracking and corrosion of the co-extruded tubes that form primary air ports in black liquor recovery boilers, the cause of and means to prevent corrosion of carbon steel tubes in the mid-furnace area of recovery boilers, and materials and operational changes to prevent corrosion and cracking of recovery boiler superheater tubes. Results from studies on the latter two topics are given in this report while separate reports on results for the first two tasks have already been published. Accelerated, localized corrosion has been observed in the mid-furnace area of kraft recovery boilers. This corrosion of the carbon steel waterwall tubes is typically observed in the vicinity of the upper level of air ports where the stainless clad co-extruded wall tubes used in the lower portion of the boiler are welded to the carbon steel tubes that extend from this transition point or “cut line” to the top of the boiler. Corrosion patterns generally vary from one boiler to another depending on boiler design and operating parameters, but the corrosion is almost always found within a few meters of the cut line and often much closer than that. This localized corrosion results in tube wall thinning that can reach the level where the integrity of the tube is at risk. Collection and analysis of gas samples from various areas near the waterwall surface showed reducing and sulfidizing gases were present in the areas where corrosion was accelerated. However, collection of samples from the same areas at intervals over a two year period showed the gaseous environment in the mid-furnace section can cycle between oxidizing and reducing conditions. These fluctuations are thought to be due to gas flow instabilities and they result in an unstable or a less protective scale on the carbon steel

  6. Task 4 - EMI/RFI Issues Potentially Impacting Electromagnetic Compatibility of I&C Systems (NRCHQ6014D0015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ewing, Paul D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    (remote I&C) purposes. Also, specific concerns and issues with testing methods and methodologies have been identified that must be addressed. Further, most of the standards that serve as the basis for the RG have been revised. Therefore, the NRC’s Office of Regulatory Research has contracted with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to incorporate new information and resolve the identified issues under NRC-HQ-60-14-D-0015, “Update to RG 1.180, Revision 2, Guidelines for Evaluating Electromagnetic and Radio-Frequency Interference in Safety-Related Instrumentation and Control Systems.” The ultimate goal of this project is to provide NRC the technical basis for developing and publishing a new revision of the RG. The focus of Task 4 was for ORNL to identify and address any new or additional EMI/RFI issues that could potentially impact the EMC of I&C systems. More specifically, ORNL was to evaluate the impact of any new issue on safety equipment in their local environments and then determine whether the issues should be included and discussed in the revision to RG 1.180 that is currently under way.

  7. Magnetic catalyst bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, Wendy; Bol, A.A.; Geus, John W.

    2001-01-01

    After a discussion about the importance of the size of the catalyst bodies with reactions in the liquid-phase with a suspended catalyst, the possibilities of magnetic separation are dealt with. Deficiencies of the usual ferromagnetic particles are the reactivity and the clustering of the particles.

  8. Catalyst for Ammonia Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation, a method for producing a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation and a method for tuning the catalytic activity of a transition metal. By depositing an overlayer of less catalytic active metal onto a more catalytic...

  9. Cannabinoid and Cholinergic Systems Interact during Performance of a Short-Term Memory Task in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonawardena, Anushka V.; Robinson, Lianne; Hampson, Robert E.; Riedel, Gernot

    2010-01-01

    It is now well established that cannabinoid agonists such as [delta][superscript 9]-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), anandamide, and WIN 55,212-2 (WIN-2) produce potent and specific deficits in working memory (WM)/short-term memory (STM) tasks in rodents. Although mediated through activation of CB1 receptors located in memory-related brain regions such…

  10. High-Tech or Low-Tech? Comparing Self-Monitoring Systems to Increase Task Independence for Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Savage, Melissa; Meyer, Nancy K.; Taber-Doughty, Teresa; Hunley, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Independence is the ultimate goal for students with disabilities, including secondary students with autism. One avenue targeted for increasing independence and decreasing prompt-dependency is through self-monitoring. In this study, investigators sought to determine whether a difference exists in levels of task independence when three students with…

  11. The Role of Domain-General Frontal Systems in Language Comprehension: Evidence from Dual-Task Interference and Semantic Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.; Davis, Matthew H.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) plays a critical role in semantic and syntactic aspects of speech comprehension. It appears to be recruited when listeners are required to select the appropriate meaning or syntactic role for words within a sentence. However, this region is also recruited during tasks not…

  12. Idea of environmental catalyst and its application; Kankyo shokubai no hasso to sono riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inumaru, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-20

    The catalyst creating environmental conservation and comfortable environment is generally named an `environmental catalyst (EC).` EC is roughly classified into direct and indirect type ECs. Purification catalysts for automobile exhaust gas, and catalysts for chemical production process are under investigation as direct and indirect type ECs, respectively. The catalyst was found which can remove NOx under the coexistence of oxygen by using hydrocarbon as reductant. In addition, the practical exhaust gas purification catalyst was also developed for lean-burn engines by combining noble metal catalysts with NOx absorbing materials or zeolite superior in reductant adsorbing power. {epsilon}-caprolactam as raw material of nylon 6 is synthesized from cyclohexanoneoxime through Beckmann` rearrangement reaction. Zeolite system solid catalysts using no ammonia are under investigation. An environment-friendly synthesis method using not phosgene but catalyst was proposed for production of dimethyl carbonate. How to utilize catalysts for global material circulation remains unsolved for the future study. 5 refs.

  13. Regional systems development for geothermal energy resources: Pacific region (California and Hawaii). Task I: implementation plan development, topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michler, D.W.

    1979-03-26

    Eleven implementation plans were prepared. They represent some 21 reservoir-site developments and 48 geothermal power plant developments. The plans consist of three integrated elements: (1) a bar-chart schedule that depicts interdependencies among activities and shows significant milestones on the path from initial exploration to power on-line, (2) task descriptions, and (3) the responsible performers. During the preparation of the implementation plans, the tasks required for resource development at each KGRA were defined on a generalized work breakdown structure (WBS) diagram. A generalized WBS dictionary (task descriptions) was also compiled. In addition, a specific WBS for each KGRA was prepared in a tabular and indented format. The tasks formed the basis for the schedular activities. Institutional responsibilities, based upon the WBS, were identified and are also shown on the tabular WBS. In this manner, implementation plans evolved whose schedular, task, and responsibility elements were integrated with one another. In order to provide logically consistent time estimates, and a reasonable basis for comparison, schedule modules were developed for some recurring activities which are essentially common to all KGRAs. In the preparation of multiple plant schedules for a given KGRA, the interactive effects of power development on the ancillary resources of the area were considered so that interfaces and constraining situations would be identified. Within Imperial County, this process was taken one step further to include the influence that development at the several close-lying KGRAs would have upon one another. A set of recommendations for the accelerated development of geothermal energy resources was prepared and the potential implementors were suggested.

  14. Design of heterogeneous catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anne Mette

    . Previously it has been shown that calcination of cobalt catalyst in a NO/He mixture resulted in improved catalytic activity compared to standard air calcined samples, since more homogenous cobalt particles with a narrow particle size distribution were formed. Unfortunately the C5+ selectivity decreased....... Since Mn is known to improve C5+ selectivity the addition of this promoter, combined with NO calcination, was studied. The influence of parameters such as Co:Mn ratio, drying conditions, and reduction temperatures on the catalytic performance were investigated. The promotion strategy turned out to work...... well, and the best catalyst prepared had a C5+ yield almost a factor of two higher than a standard air calcined Co catalyst. In the NH3-SCR reaction it is desirable to develop an active and stable catalyst for NOx removal in automotive applications, since the traditionally used vanadium-based catalyst...

  15. User Experience May be Producing Greater Heart Rate Variability than Motor Imagery Related Control Tasks during the User-System Adaptation in Brain-Computer Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Valerdi, Luz M.; Gutiérrez-Begovich, David A.; Argüello-García, Janet; Sepulveda, Francisco; Ramírez-Mendoza, Ricardo A.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) is technology that is developing fast, but it remains inaccurate, unreliable and slow due to the difficulty to obtain precise information from the brain. Consequently, the involvement of other biosignals to decode the user control tasks has risen in importance. A traditional way to operate a BCI system is via motor imagery (MI) tasks. As imaginary movements activate similar cortical structures and vegetative mechanisms as a voluntary movement does, heart rate variability (HRV) has been proposed as a parameter to improve the detection of MI related control tasks. However, HR is very susceptible to body needs and environmental demands, and as BCI systems require high levels of attention, perceptual processing and mental workload, it is important to assess the practical effectiveness of HRV. The present study aimed to determine if brain and heart electrical signals (HRV) are modulated by MI activity used to control a BCI system, or if HRV is modulated by the user perceptions and responses that result from the operation of a BCI system (i.e., user experience). For this purpose, a database of 11 participants who were exposed to eight different situations was used. The sensory-cognitive load (intake and rejection tasks) was controlled in those situations. Two electrophysiological signals were utilized: electroencephalography and electrocardiography. From those biosignals, event-related (de-)synchronization maps and event-related HR changes were respectively estimated. The maps and the HR changes were cross-correlated in order to verify if both biosignals were modulated due to MI activity. The results suggest that HR varies according to the experience undergone by the user in a BCI working environment, and not because of the MI activity used to operate the system. PMID:27458384

  16. User Experience May be Producing Greater Heart Rate Variability than Motor Imagery Related Control Tasks during the User-System Adaptation in Brain-Computer Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Valerdi, Luz M; Gutiérrez-Begovich, David A; Argüello-García, Janet; Sepulveda, Francisco; Ramírez-Mendoza, Ricardo A

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) is technology that is developing fast, but it remains inaccurate, unreliable and slow due to the difficulty to obtain precise information from the brain. Consequently, the involvement of other biosignals to decode the user control tasks has risen in importance. A traditional way to operate a BCI system is via motor imagery (MI) tasks. As imaginary movements activate similar cortical structures and vegetative mechanisms as a voluntary movement does, heart rate variability (HRV) has been proposed as a parameter to improve the detection of MI related control tasks. However, HR is very susceptible to body needs and environmental demands, and as BCI systems require high levels of attention, perceptual processing and mental workload, it is important to assess the practical effectiveness of HRV. The present study aimed to determine if brain and heart electrical signals (HRV) are modulated by MI activity used to control a BCI system, or if HRV is modulated by the user perceptions and responses that result from the operation of a BCI system (i.e., user experience). For this purpose, a database of 11 participants who were exposed to eight different situations was used. The sensory-cognitive load (intake and rejection tasks) was controlled in those situations. Two electrophysiological signals were utilized: electroencephalography and electrocardiography. From those biosignals, event-related (de-)synchronization maps and event-related HR changes were respectively estimated. The maps and the HR changes were cross-correlated in order to verify if both biosignals were modulated due to MI activity. The results suggest that HR varies according to the experience undergone by the user in a BCI working environment, and not because of the MI activity used to operate the system.

  17. Climate-Adapted Soil Cultivation as an Aspect for Sustainable Farming – Task-Technology-Fit of a Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welf Guenther-Lübbers

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to global climate change and its impact on local weather conditions, decision support systems are becoming more important in agriculture. Such systems allow farmers to adapt more effectively to the complex changes affecting their farms. Marginal production sites must apply new tillage strategies adapted to new climatic conditions. Information about proper strategy adjustments is often disseminated through agricultural extension services and journals. A new internet information platform, KlimaBob, which focuses on climate-flexible tillage, was established under the auspices of the Innovation Network of Climate Change Adaptation Brandenburg Berlin. Successful and permanent introduction of such a system requires analysis and verification of its acceptance among individual farmers. This study addresses this need by applying the established task-technology fit approach. A survey was conducted among farmers in the Brandenburg region. The resulting data provided the basis for a structural equation model that explains and evaluates the task-technology fit of the KlimaBob platform. The results indicate that the performance spectrum of the system exerts a strong influence on the task-technology fit when assessed by both the name characteristics of KlimaBob and the individual characteristics of users (for example, time management, technology affinity and risk attitude.

  18. Features of Solving Retrospective (Successive Tasks of the Monitoring Subsystem in Systems for Strategic Control of the Regional Structure and Territorial Organization in the Agri-Food Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Serhii A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The given article highlights features of solving retrospective (successive tasks of monitoring production and economic activity of the territorial-production system through a profound using of scientific principles in the developed and introduced enlarged block diagram of the control system for a functionally advanced solution of the task of monitoring labour force turnover at the entity in the agri-food sphere. Solving the task of monitoring the labour force turnover in the territorial-production system by means of electronic digital machines allows: to reduce the complexity of calculations performed by employees of Human Resources Department and make time for other research and control functions; to accelerate submission of necessary accounting and economic as well as analytical information on the labour force turnover at the entity in the agri-food sphere to consumers; increase the quality of accounting and economic as well as analytical information by eliminating errors, which occur at manual calculation; to build a real scientific basis for developing measures of technical, organizational and socio-economic nature aimed at reducing the labour force turnover. The given list of issues solved at development of the monitoring subsystem in strategic control systems of the regional structure and territorial organization of the agri-food sphere is not complete, the use of industrial methods for creating a monitoring subsystem, training specialists and a number of other issues, which are no less important, should be mentioned as well.

  19. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 1: Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is the Final Report for Task 1, Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems, as part of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 1.1 looked into processes and technologies that have been commercially built at both large and small scales, with three technologies, Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) of refinery gas oil, Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) of Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Expanders, chosen for further investigation. These technologies were chosen due to their applicability relative to other technologies being considered by NREL for future commercial applications, such as indirect gasification and fluidized bed tar cracking. Research in this subject is driven by an interest in the impact that scaling has on the cost and major process unit designs for commercial technologies. Conclusions from the evaluations performed could be applied to other technologies being considered for modular or skid-mounted applications.

  20. Synthesis and Understanding of Novel Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stair, Peter C. [Northwestern University

    2013-07-09

    The research took advantage of our capabilities to perform in-situ and operando Raman spectroscopy on complex systems along with our developing expertise in the synthesis of uniform, supported metal oxide materials to investigate relationships between the catalytically active oxide composition, atomic structure, and support and the corresponding chemical and catalytic properties. The project was organized into two efforts: 1) Synthesis of novel catalyst materials by atomic layer deposition (ALD). 2) Spectroscopic and chemical investigations of coke formation and catalyst deactivation. ALD synthesis was combined with conventional physical characterization, Raman spectroscopy, and probe molecule chemisorption to study the effect of supported metal oxide composition and atomic structure on acid-base and catalytic properties. Operando Raman spectroscopy studies of olefin polymerization leading to coke formation and catalyst deactivation clarified the mechanism of coke formation by acid catalysts.

  1. Catalysts, methods of making catalysts, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Renard, Laetitia

    2014-03-06

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for catalysts, methods of making catalysts, methods of using catalysts, and the like. In an embodiment, the method of making the catalysts can be performed in a single step with a metal nanoparticle precursor and a metal oxide precursor, where a separate stabilizing agent is not needed.

  2. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. Summary of models for the implementation of solar home systems in developing countries - Part 1: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-15

    This first part of a two-part report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the implementation of Solar Home systems in developing countries. The objective of Task 9 is to increase the successful deployment of PV systems in developing countries. This summary outlines various models for the implementation of small domestic photovoltaic (PV) systems (Solar Home Systems, SHS) in developing countries. Part 1 of this two-part document discusses three generic models. The second, separate part of the document provides a number of examples demonstrating the models described. This report focuses on the implementation of SHS. However, a considerable amount of the PV market in developing countries is stated as consisting of large systems providing electricity for social services, such as light for schools, mosques, churches, communal centres, refrigeration for health centres and drinking water for communities. It is noted that there are considerable differences between the 'social market' and the 'private market' for SHS. The 'social market' generally consists of large systems but fewer in number. The guide does not cover the detailed technical aspects of a Solar Home System or the issue of recycling old batteries.

  3. A system of token economy associated to response cost applied to the out of the task behaviour of two adolescents suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Chaves Cruz; Rosangela Bertelli; Agostinho Jorge Assanção Marafão

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a program of token economy, that is, positive reinforcement, associated to negative punishment, that is, response cost, on the “out of the task” behaviour of two adolescents diagnosed as suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The program involved presenting or removing points contingent to the emission of adequate or inadequate behaviour, respectively, considering the task at hand. The token economy system was carrie...

  4. Study on TenneT profits 2010. Regulated Transport and System Tasks; Onderzoek winsten TenneT 2010. Gereguleerde Transport- en Systeemtaken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Research has been done on the profits realized by TenneT in 2010 with its regulated distribution and system tasks. The regulation method enables TenneT to recover its costs and realize a reasonable profit [Dutch] Onderzoek is gedaan naar het rendement dat TenneT in 2010 heeft behaald met de uitvoering van zijn gereguleerde transport- en systeemtaken. TenneT is door de reguleringsmethodiek in staat zijn efficiente kosten terug te verdienen en een redelijk rendement te behalen.

  5. A feasibility study of enhancing independent task performance for people with cognitive impairments through use of a handheld location-based prompting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Shu-Fang; Chou, Li-Der

    2012-11-01

    An autonomous task-prompting system is presented to increase workplace and life independence for people with cognitive impairments such as traumatic brain injury, intellectual disability, schizophrenia, and Down syndrome. This paper describes an approach to providing distributed cognition support of work engagement for persons with cognitive disabilities. In the pilot study, a prototype was built and tested in a community-based rehabilitation program involving pre-service food preparation training of 8 participants with cognitive impairments. The results show improvement in helping with task engagement is statistically significant compared to the oral-instruction method. A follow-up comparative study with 2 participants evaluated the shadow-team approach against the proposed system. Although the number of participants was few, the participants were studied in depth and the findings were very promising. The results in the autonomous task prompting without staff intervention indicate that the performance is statistically as good as the shadow-team approach. Our findings suggest that acquisition of job skills may be facilitated by the proposed system in conjunction with operant conditioning strategies. PMID:22581142

  6. Multiphase catalysts for selective reduction of NOx with hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    catalyst with Rh was studied and the results are summarized in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 presents a comparison between the Co-Pt and Co-Rh systems. Finally, we evaluate the results of this study and general conclusions with suggestions for the design of an optimal deNOx catalyst. refs

  7. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  8. Lacunary Keggin Polyoxotungstate as Reaction-controlled Phasetransfer Catalyst for Catalytic Epoxidation of Olefins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Ming-Qiang(李明强); JIAN,Xi-Gao(蹇锡高); YANG,Yong-Qiang(杨永强)

    2004-01-01

    A new reaction-controlled phase-transfer catalyst system, lacunary Keggin polyoxotungstate [C7H7N(CH3)3]9PW9O34 has been synthesized and used for catalytic epoxidation of olefins with H2O2 as the oxidant.Infrared spectra were used to analyze the behavior of the phase transfer of catalyst. In this system, the catalyst not only can act as homogeneous catalyst but also as heterogeneous catalyst to be easily filtered and reused. The epoxidation reaction is clean and exhibits high conversion and selectivity as well as excellent catalyst stability.

  9. ALKALI RESISTANT CATALYST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention concerns the selective removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from gasses. In particular, the invention concerns a process, a catalyst and the use of a catalyst for the selective removal of nitrogen oxides in the presence of ammonia from gases containing a significant amount...... of alkali metal and/or alkali-earth compounds which process comprises using a catalyst combined of (i) a formed porous superacidic support, said superacidic support having an Hammett acidity stronger than Ho=-12, and (ii) a metal oxide catalytic component deposited on said superacidic support selected from...

  10. Solar-Driven Reduction of Aqueous Protons Coupled to Selective Alcohol Oxidation with a Carbon Nitride-Molecular Ni Catalyst System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasap, Hatice; Caputo, Christine A; Martindale, Benjamin C M; Godin, Robert; Lau, Vincent Wing-Hei; Lotsch, Bettina V; Durrant, James R; Reisner, Erwin

    2016-07-27

    Solar water-splitting represents an important strategy toward production of the storable and renewable fuel hydrogen. The water oxidation half-reaction typically proceeds with poor efficiency and produces the unprofitable and often damaging product, O2. Herein, we demonstrate an alternative approach and couple solar H2 generation with value-added organic substrate oxidation. Solar irradiation of a cyanamide surface-functionalized melon-type carbon nitride ((NCN)CNx) and a molecular nickel(II) bis(diphosphine) H2-evolution catalyst (NiP) enabled the production of H2 with concomitant selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols to aldehydes in high yield under purely aqueous conditions, at room temperature and ambient pressure. This one-pot system maintained its activity over 24 h, generating products in 1:1 stoichiometry, separated in the gas and solution phases. The (NCN)CNx-NiP system showed an activity of 763 μmol (g CNx)(-1) h(-1) toward H2 and aldehyde production, a Ni-based turnover frequency of 76 h(-1), and an external quantum efficiency of 15% (λ = 360 ± 10 nm). This precious metal-free and nontoxic photocatalytic system displays better performance than an analogous system containing platinum instead of NiP. Transient absorption spectroscopy revealed that the photoactivity of (NCN)CNx is due to efficient substrate oxidation of the material, which outweighs possible charge recombination compared to the nonfunctionalized melon-type carbon nitride. Photoexcited (NCN)CNx in the presence of an organic substrate can accumulate ultralong-lived "trapped electrons", which allow for fuel generation in the dark. The artificial photosynthetic system thereby catalyzes a closed redox cycle showing 100% atom economy and generates two value-added products, a solar chemical, and solar fuel.

  11. Solar-Driven Reduction of Aqueous Protons Coupled to Selective Alcohol Oxidation with a Carbon Nitride-Molecular Ni Catalyst System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasap, Hatice; Caputo, Christine A; Martindale, Benjamin C M; Godin, Robert; Lau, Vincent Wing-Hei; Lotsch, Bettina V; Durrant, James R; Reisner, Erwin

    2016-07-27

    Solar water-splitting represents an important strategy toward production of the storable and renewable fuel hydrogen. The water oxidation half-reaction typically proceeds with poor efficiency and produces the unprofitable and often damaging product, O2. Herein, we demonstrate an alternative approach and couple solar H2 generation with value-added organic substrate oxidation. Solar irradiation of a cyanamide surface-functionalized melon-type carbon nitride ((NCN)CNx) and a molecular nickel(II) bis(diphosphine) H2-evolution catalyst (NiP) enabled the production of H2 with concomitant selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols to aldehydes in high yield under purely aqueous conditions, at room temperature and ambient pressure. This one-pot system maintained its activity over 24 h, generating products in 1:1 stoichiometry, separated in the gas and solution phases. The (NCN)CNx-NiP system showed an activity of 763 μmol (g CNx)(-1) h(-1) toward H2 and aldehyde production, a Ni-based turnover frequency of 76 h(-1), and an external quantum efficiency of 15% (λ = 360 ± 10 nm). This precious metal-free and nontoxic photocatalytic system displays better performance than an analogous system containing platinum instead of NiP. Transient absorption spectroscopy revealed that the photoactivity of (NCN)CNx is due to efficient substrate oxidation of the material, which outweighs possible charge recombination compared to the nonfunctionalized melon-type carbon nitride. Photoexcited (NCN)CNx in the presence of an organic substrate can accumulate ultralong-lived "trapped electrons", which allow for fuel generation in the dark. The artificial photosynthetic system thereby catalyzes a closed redox cycle showing 100% atom economy and generates two value-added products, a solar chemical, and solar fuel. PMID:27337491

  12. Solar-Driven Reduction of Aqueous Protons Coupled to Selective Alcohol Oxidation with a Carbon Nitride–Molecular Ni Catalyst System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Solar water-splitting represents an important strategy toward production of the storable and renewable fuel hydrogen. The water oxidation half-reaction typically proceeds with poor efficiency and produces the unprofitable and often damaging product, O2. Herein, we demonstrate an alternative approach and couple solar H2 generation with value-added organic substrate oxidation. Solar irradiation of a cyanamide surface-functionalized melon-type carbon nitride (NCNCNx) and a molecular nickel(II) bis(diphosphine) H2-evolution catalyst (NiP) enabled the production of H2 with concomitant selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols to aldehydes in high yield under purely aqueous conditions, at room temperature and ambient pressure. This one-pot system maintained its activity over 24 h, generating products in 1:1 stoichiometry, separated in the gas and solution phases. The NCNCNx–NiP system showed an activity of 763 μmol (g CNx)−1 h–1 toward H2 and aldehyde production, a Ni-based turnover frequency of 76 h–1, and an external quantum efficiency of 15% (λ = 360 ± 10 nm). This precious metal-free and nontoxic photocatalytic system displays better performance than an analogous system containing platinum instead of NiP. Transient absorption spectroscopy revealed that the photoactivity of NCNCNx is due to efficient substrate oxidation of the material, which outweighs possible charge recombination compared to the nonfunctionalized melon-type carbon nitride. Photoexcited NCNCNx in the presence of an organic substrate can accumulate ultralong-lived “trapped electrons”, which allow for fuel generation in the dark. The artificial photosynthetic system thereby catalyzes a closed redox cycle showing 100% atom economy and generates two value-added products, a solar chemical, and solar fuel. PMID:27337491

  13. Iron Contamination Mechanism and Reaction Performance Research on FCC Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoyong Liu; Zhongdong Zhang; Pusheng Liu; Jianing Zhai; Chaohe Yang

    2015-01-01

    FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracking) catalyst iron poisoning would not only influence units’ product slate; when the poisoning is serious, it could also jeopardize FCC catalysts’ fluidization in reaction-regeneration system and further cause bad influences on units’ stable operation. Under catalytic cracking reaction conditions, large amount of iron nanonodules is formed on the seriously iron contaminated catalyst due to exothermic reaction. These nodules intensify the attrition between catalyst pa...

  14. Co-Assembled Supported Catalysts: Synthesis of Nano-Structured Supported Catalysts with Hierarchic Pores through Combined Flow and Radiation Induced Co-Assembled Nano-Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galip Akay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel generic method of silica supported catalyst system generation from a fluid state is presented. The technique is based on the combined flow and radiation (such as microwave, thermal or UV induced co-assembly of the support and catalyst precursors forming nano-reactors, followed by catalyst precursor decomposition. The transformation from the precursor to supported catalyst oxide state can be controlled from a few seconds to several minutes. The resulting nano-structured micro-porous silica supported catalyst system has a surface area approaching 300 m2/g and X-ray Diffraction (XRD-based catalyst size controlled in the range of 1–10 nm in which the catalyst structure appears as lamellar sheets sandwiched between the catalyst support. These catalyst characteristics are dependent primarily on the processing history as well as the catalyst (Fe, Co and Ni studied when the catalyst/support molar ratio is typically 0.1–2. In addition, Ca, Mn and Cu were used as co-catalysts with Fe and Co in the evaluation of the mechanism of catalyst generation. Based on extensive XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM studies, the micro- and nano-structure of the catalyst system were evaluated. It was found that the catalyst and silica support form extensive 0.6–2 nm thick lamellar sheets of 10–100 nm planar dimensions. In these lamellae, the alternate silica support and catalyst layer appear in the form of a bar-code structure. When these lamellae structures pack, they form the walls of a micro-porous catalyst system which typically has a density of 0.2 g/cm3. A tentative mechanism of catalyst nano-structure formation is provided based on the rheology and fluid mechanics of the catalyst/support precursor fluid as well as co-assembly nano-reactor formation during processing. In order to achieve these structures and characteristics, catalyst support must be in the form of silane coated silica nano

  15. Small Engine Technology (SET) - Task 13 ANOPP Noise Prediction for Small Engines: Jet Noise Prediction Module, Wing Shielding Module, and System Studies Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Lysbeth; Golub, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Final Report has been prepared by AlliedSignal Engines and Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, documenting work performed during the period May 1997 through June 1999, under the Small Engines Technology Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 13, ANOPP Noise Prediction for Small Engines. The report specifically covers the work performed under Subtasks 4, 5 and 6. Subtask 4 describes the application of a semi-empirical procedure for jet noise prediction, subtask 5 describes the development of a procedure to predict the effects of wing shielding, and subtask 6 describes the results of system studies of the benefits of the new noise technology on business and regional aircraft.

  16. Task Analytic Models to Guide Analysis and Design: Use of the Operator Function Model to Represent Pilot-Autoflight System Mode Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Asaf; Mitchell, Christine M.; Chappell, Alan R.; Shafto, Mike (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Task-analytic models structure essential information about operator interaction with complex systems, in this case pilot interaction with the autoflight system. Such models serve two purposes: (1) they allow researchers and practitioners to understand pilots' actions; and (2) they provide a compact, computational representation needed to design 'intelligent' aids, e.g., displays, assistants, and training systems. This paper demonstrates the use of the operator function model to trace the process of mode engagements while a pilot is controlling an aircraft via the, autoflight system. The operator function model is a normative and nondeterministic model of how a well-trained, well-motivated operator manages multiple concurrent activities for effective real-time control. For each function, the model links the pilot's actions with the required information. Using the operator function model, this paper describes several mode engagement scenarios. These scenarios were observed and documented during a field study that focused on mode engagements and mode transitions during normal line operations. Data including time, ATC clearances, altitude, system states, and active modes and sub-modes, engagement of modes, were recorded during sixty-six flights. Using these data, seven prototypical mode engagement scenarios were extracted. One scenario details the decision of the crew to disengage a fully automatic mode in favor of a semi-automatic mode, and the consequences of this action. Another describes a mode error involving updating aircraft speed following the engagement of a speed submode. Other scenarios detail mode confusion at various phases of the flight. This analysis uses the operator function model to identify three aspects of mode engagement: (1) the progress of pilot-aircraft-autoflight system interaction; (2) control/display information required to perform mode management activities; and (3) the potential cause(s) of mode confusion. The goal of this paper is twofold

  17. Auto-adaptative Robot-aided Therapy based in 3D Virtual Tasks controlled by a Supervised and Dynamic Neuro-Fuzzy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Lledó

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application formed by a classification method based on the architecture of ART neural network (Adaptive Resonance Theory and the Fuzzy Set Theory to classify physiological reactions in order to automatically and dynamically adapt a robot-assisted rehabilitation therapy to the patient needs, using a three-dimensional task in a virtual reality system. Firstly, the mathematical and structural model of the neuro-fuzzy classification method is described together with the signal and training data acquisition. Then, the virtual designed task with physics behavior and its development procedure are explained. Finally, the general architecture of the experimentation for the auto-adaptive therapy is presented using the classification method with the virtual reality exercise.

  18. Task Manager for the Motorola 6800

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nucleus of multi-tasking operating systems has been implemented on a Motorola 6800 microprocessor. This control structure, called a Task Manager, is appropriate for those real-time systems which are required to handle several different asynchronous events. The general concept of a Task Manager is described. A specific implementation for a Motorola 6800 microprocessor is given and its usage defined

  19. Synchrotron radiation studies of supported metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic clusters supported on refractory oxides have been used extensively for several decades in the production of chemicals and petroleum derived transportation fuels. Catalysts containing more than one metal component are of particular interest since the addition of a second metal provides a method of controlling the selectivity of the catalyst. That is, the second metal can alter the rates of competing reactions in a complex reaction sequence and thus alter the final product distribution of the reaction. In this work the reactions of cyclohexane in hydrogen over silica supported ruthenium and osmium catalysts were studied. Bimetallic catalysts represent an important class of materials that are of interest both scientifically and technologically. Despite the importance and long-standing use of supported metal catalysts, detailed information on the structure of the metal clusters has been difficult to obtain. The development of x-ray absorption spectroscopy with the increasing availability of synchrotron radiation, however, has provided a powerful and versatile tool for studying the structure of these complex systems. Using the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) technique, it is possible to obtain information on the local atomic structure of supported monometallic catalytic metals and their interaction with the support. In the discussion that follows the authors will focus on results that have been obtained on the structure of supported bimetallic cluster catalysts

  20. Reforming gasoline over catalyst Kr-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen' kov, G.M.; Pushkarev, V.P.; Kozlov, N.S.; Varshavskiy, O.M.; Pryakhina, N.Ya.; Glinchak, S.I.; Gorbatsevich, M.F.

    KR-104 is a widely used domestic polymetallic (Pt, Re, Cd, Fe) catalyst for making high octane components of motor fuel. The start-up and performance results of this catalyst on a high capacity LK-6u unit have been presented previously. In the present work, a further study was made of the performance and regeneration characteristics of the catalyst during reforming of a broad cut gasoline fraction in a one million ton per year industrial unit for 45 months. In the first stage of regeneration, the catalyst was reduced at 768 K for 9 hours and then oxychlorinated. During the second stage, the KR-104 was first treated for 8 hours with a hydrogen-containing gas at 768 K and then cooled and blown through with nitrogen. No change in Pt or Re content was observed, although the Cd content dropped markedly after 11 months and then remained constant. The octane number of the catalyzate was 80.4 (motor method, without TEL) and the catalyst lost both activity and selectivity and had to be regenerated after 5 months. The poor performance of the catalyst and its drop in activity are attributed to the high moisture content in the system during the start-up period. 10 references, 3 figures.

  1. Epoxidation catalyst and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip

    2010-10-26

    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  2. Ni-Based Catalysts for Low Temperature Methane Steam Reforming: Recent Results on Ni-Au and Comparison with Other Bi-Metallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Venezia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Steam reforming of light hydrocarbons provides a promising method for hydrogen production. Ni-based catalysts are so far the best and the most commonly used catalysts for steam reforming because of their acceptably high activity and significantly lower cost in comparison with alternative precious metal-based catalysts. However, nickel catalysts are susceptible to deactivation from the deposition of carbon, even when operating at steam-to-carbon ratios predicted to be thermodynamically outside of the carbon-forming regime. Reactivity and deactivation by carbon formation can be tuned by modifying Ni surfaces with a second metal, such as Au through alloy formation. In the present review, we summarize the very recent progress in the design, synthesis, and characterization of supported bimetallic Ni-based catalysts for steam reforming. The progress in the modification of Ni with noble metals (such as Au and Ag is discussed in terms of preparation, characterization and pretreatment methods. Moreover, the comparison with the effects of other metals (such as Sn, Cu, Co, Mo, Fe, Gd and B is addressed. The differences of catalytic activity, thermal stability and carbon species between bimetallic and monometallic Ni-based catalysts are also briefly shown.

  3. Catalyst for Change: A Case Report of a Campus-wide Student Information System Software Implementation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Jan; Garrity, N. B.

    2004-01-01

    When a mid-sized public college made a politically unpopular decision to purchase new student information system software, a team of fourteen people from across campus was assembled and charged with facilitating the transition from the home-grown system. This case report describes the challenges they faced as they worked to understand their…

  4. Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); LaBarge, W. [Delphi Automotive Systems, Flint, MI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The CRADA between Delphi Automotive Systems (Delphi; formerly General Motors - AC Delco, Systems) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research (LMER) on automotive catalysts was completed at the end of FY96, after a ten month, no-cost extension. The CRADA was aimed at improved performance and lifetime of noble metal based three-way-catalysts (TWC), which are the primary catalytic system for automotive emission control systems. While these TWC can meet the currently required emission standards, higher than optimum noble metal loadings are often required to meet lifetime requirements. In addition, more stringent emission standards will be imposed in the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts. Initially in a fresh catalyst, the active material is often distributed on a very fine scale, approaching single atoms or small atomic clusters. As such, a wide range of analytical techniques have been employed to provide high spatial resolution characterization of the evolving state of the catalytic material.

  5. New Catalysts for ROMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Berke; C. Frech; A. Lhamazares; O. Blacque; H.W. Schmalle; C. Adlhart; P. Chen

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) is based on the olefin metathesis reaction, which requires transition metal catalysts. Mainly molybdenum, tungsten and ruthenium based catalysts have up to now been used. The "in-between" metal rhenium was only rarely applied in olefin metathesis reactions, and not at all in ROMP processes.We have found that cationic phosphine substituted dinitrosyl rhenium complexes[1]1a and 1b effectively catalyze ROMP of norbonene, dicyclopentadiene and of cyclooctene. See Fig. 1.

  6. High-quality bio-oil from one-pot catalytic hydrocracking of kraft lignin over supported noble metal catalysts in isopropanol system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhao, Liang; Liu, Shaotong; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dai, Liyi

    2016-07-01

    Catalytic hydrocracking of kraft lignin was carried out in isopropanol system and an orthogonal array design (OAD) was employed to optimize the experimental conditions. GC-MS/FID, elemental analysis, GPC and (1)H-(13)C HSQC NMR were carried out for entire investigation of the liquid products. The results indicated that the hydrocracking process was thermally controlled and catalysts showed significant influences on the product distributions. Comparing with Pd/C, Pt/C and Ru/C, Rh/C inhibited the self-condensation of isopropanol and reduced the formation of oxygenic-chain compounds. The excellent catalytic activity for phenols conversion was obtained over Rh/C. The routes of oxygenic-chain compounds formation and phenol conversion were proposed in detail. The least oxygenic-chain compounds formation, the highest phenols conversion (93.4%), the lowest O/C ratio (0.094) and the highest HHV (37.969MJ/kg) provided the possibility of the high quality bio-oil obtained over Rh/C in isopropanol medium. PMID:27123643

  7. Atomistic Processes of Catalyst Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-27

    The purpose of this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between Sasol North America, Inc., and the oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was to improve the stability of alumina-based industrial catalysts through the combination of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) at ORNL and innovative sample preparation techniques at Sasol. Outstanding progress has been made in task 1, 'Atomistic processes of La stabilization'. STEM investigations provided structural information with single-atom precision, showing the lattice location of La dopant atoms, thus enabling first-principles calculations of binding energies, which were performed in collaboration with Vanderbilt University. The stabilization mechanism turns out to be entirely due to a particularly strong binding energy of the La tom to the {gamma}-alumina surface. The large size of the La atom precludes incorporation of La into the bulk alumina and also strains the surface, thus preventing any clustering of La atoms. Thus highly disperse distribution is achieved and confirmed by STEM images. la also affects relative stability of the exposed surfaces of {gamma}-alumina, making the 100 surface more stable for the doped case, unlike the 110 surface for pure {gamma}-alumina. From the first-principles calculations, they can estimate the increase in transition temperature for the 3% loading of La used commercially, and it is in excellent agreement with experiment. This task was further pursued aiming to generate useable recommendations for the optimization of the preparation techniques for La-doped aluminas. The effort was primarily concentrated on the connection between the boehmitre-{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase transition (i.e. catalyst preparation) and the resulting dispersion of La on the {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface. It was determined that the La distribution on boehmite was non-uniform and different from that on the {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and thus

  8. Deactivation by carbon of iron catalysts for indirect liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, C.H.

    1991-01-10

    Although promoted cobalt and iron catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis of gasoline feedstock were first developed more than three decades ago, a major technical problem still limiting the commercial use of these catalysts today is carbon deactivation. This report describes recent progress in a fundamental, three-year investigation of carbon formation and its effects on the activity and selectivity of promoted iron catalysts for FT synthesis, the objectives of which are to: determine rates and mechanisms of carbon deactivation of unsupported Fe and Fe/K catalysts during CO hydrogenation over a range of CO concentrations, CO:H{sub 2} ratios, and temperatures; and model the rates of deactivation of the same catalysts in fixed-bed reactors. To accomplish the above objectives, the project is divided into the following tasks: (1) determine the kinetics of reaction and of carbon deactivation during CO hydrogenation on Fe and Fe/K catalysts coated on monolith bodies. (2) Determine the reactivities and types of carbon deposited during reaction on the same catalysts from temperature-programmed-surface-reaction spectroscopy (TPSR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Determine the types of iron carbides formed at various temperatures and H{sub 2}/CO ratios using x-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy. (3) Develop mathematical deactivation models which include heat and mass transport contributions for FT synthesis is packed-bed reactors. Progress to date is described. 48 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Performance evaluation of a sub-millimetre spectrally resolved CT system on high- and low-frequency imaging tasks: a simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yveborg, Moa; Danielsson, Mats; Bornefalk, Hans

    2012-04-21

    We are developing a photon-counting silicon strip detector with 0.4 × 0.5 mm² detector elements for clinical CT applications. Except for the limited detection efficiency of approximately 0.8 for a spectrum of 80 kVp, the largest discrepancies from ideal spectral behaviour have been shown to be Compton interactions in the detector and electronic noise. Using the framework of cascaded system analysis, we reconstruct the 3D MTF and NPS of a silicon strip detector including the influence of scatter and charge sharing inside the detector. We compare the reconstructed noise and signal characteristics with a reconstructed 3D MTF and NPS of an ideal energy-integrating detector system with unity detection efficiency, no scatter or charge sharing inside the detector, unity presampling MTF and 1 × 1 mm² detector elements. The comparison is done by calculating the dose-normalized detectability index for some clinically relevant imaging tasks and spectra. This work demonstrates that although the detection efficiency of the silicon detector rapidly drops for the acceleration voltages encountered in clinical computed tomography practice, and despite the high fraction of Compton interactions due to the low atomic number, silicon detectors can perform on a par with ideal energy-integrating detectors for routine imaging tasks containing low-frequency components. For imaging tasks containing high-frequency components, the proposed silicon detector system can perform approximately 1.1-1.3 times better than a fully ideal energy-integrating system.

  10. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit and distribution network. Volume 3. Tasks 4-6. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, J.R.; Sommerfield, G.A.

    1979-08-01

    Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation is a member of the Demonstration Team to review and assess the technical aspects of cogeneration for district heating. Task 4 details the most practical retrofit schemes. Of the cogeneration schemes studied, a back-pressure turbine is considered the best source of steam for district heating. Battelle Columbus Laboratories is a member of the Demonstration Team employed to investigate several institutional issues affecting the success of district heating. The Toledo Edison legal staff reviewed the legal aspects of mandate to serve, easement and franchise requirements, and corporate charter requirements. The principal findings of both the Battelle investigations and the legal research are summarized in Task 5. A complete discussion of each issue is included in the two sections labeled Legal Issues and Institutional Issues. In Task 6, Battelle Columbus Laboratories completed a preliminary economic analysis, incorporating accurate input parameters applicable to utility ownership of the proposed district-heating system. The methodology used is summarized, the assumptions are listed, and the results are briefly reviewed.

  11. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX FROM CATALYST BY SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARK C. THIES; PATRICK C. JOYCE

    1998-10-31

    The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for the recovery and fractionation of the wax product from the slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. The wax, comprised mostly of branched and linear alkanes with a broad molecular weight distribution up to C{sub 100}, will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300 C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. The success of the project depends on two factors. First, the supercritical solvent must be able to dissolve the F-T wax; furthermore, this must be accomplished at conditions that do not entrain the solid catalyst. Second, the extraction must be controlled so as not to favor the removal of the low molecular weight wax compounds. That is, a constant carbon-number distribution in the wax slurry must be maintained at steady-state column operation. Three major tasks are being undertaken to evaluate our proposed SCF extraction process. Task 1: Equilibrium solubility measurements for model F-T wax components in supercritical fluids at conditions representative of those in a SBC reactor. Task 2: Thermodynamic modeling of the measured VLE data for extending our results to real wax systems. Task 3: Process design studies of our proposed process. Additional details of the task structure are given.

  12. Task 9. Photovoltaic deployment in developing countries. Financing mechanisms for solar home systems in developing countries. The role of financing in the dissemination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheutzlich, T.; Pertz, K.; Klinghammer, W.; Scholand, M.; Wisniwski, S.

    2002-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the implementation of Solar Home Systems in developing countries. The objective of Task 9 is to increase the successful deployment of PV systems in developing countries. This paper takes a look at financing mechanisms for Solar Home Systems (SHS). The lack of financial services for users of SHS is often regarded as the main barrier for their commercial dissemination and is often the justification for donor assisted programmes. This study attempts to shed some light on the question whether commercial SHS dissemination in remote rural areas could be made easier if financial services were made available. The authors state that the thesis is based on the fact that carefully designed, target-group-oriented financial services may speed up the widespread dissemination of SHS. Financial mechanisms for the stimulation of SHS and how their commercialisation can be achieved are among the topics discussed.

  13. CERES AuTomAted job Loading SYSTem (CATALYST): An automated workflow manager for satellite data production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, J. L.; Hillyer, T. N.; Wilkins, J.

    2012-12-01

    The CERES Science Team integrates data from 5 CERES instruments onboard the Terra, Aqua and NPP missions. The processing chain fuses CERES observations with data from 19 other unique sources. The addition of CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) onboard NPP, coupled with ground processing system upgrades further emphasizes the need for an automated job-submission utility to manage multiple processing streams concurrently. The operator-driven, legacy-processing approach relied on manually staging data from magnetic tape to limited spinning disk attached to a shared memory architecture system. The migration of CERES production code to a distributed, cluster computing environment with approximately one petabyte of spinning disk containing all precursor input data products facilitates the development of a CERES-specific, automated workflow manager. In the cluster environment, I/O is the primary system resource in contention across jobs. Therefore, system load can be maximized with a throttling workload manager. This poster discusses a Java and Perl implementation of an automated job management tool tailored for CERES processing.

  14. MgCl2/Et3N Base System as a New Catalyst for the Synthesis of a-Hydroxyphosphonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tajbakhsh, Mahmood; Khaksar, Samad; Tafazoli, Zahra; Bekhradnia, Ahmadreza

    2012-01-01

    An efficient and simple synthesis of a-hydroxyphosphonates via reaction of aldehydes and ketones with di- methylphosphite in the presence of MgCI2/Et3N base system is reported. The use of readily available and easy to handle reagent MgCI2/Et3N makes this method simple, convenient, and practical.

  15. Ruthenium-Aryloxide Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfette, Sebastien; Blacquiere, Johanna M.; Conrad, Jay C.; Beach, Nicholas J.; Fogg, Deryn E.

    : Advances in design of ruthenium aryloxide catalysts for olefin metathesis are described. The target complexes are accessible on reaction of RuCl2(NHC)(py)2 (CHPh) (NHC - N-heterocyclic carbene) with electron-deficient, monodentate aryl- oxides, or aryloxides that yield small, rigid chelate rings. The best of these catalysts offer activity comparable to or greater than that of the parent chloride (Grubbs) systems in ring-closing metathesis (RCM). Preliminary studies of the electronic nature of the Ru-X bond suggest that the metal center is more electropositive in the aryloxide complexes than in the Grubbs systems.

  16. Prospects of a mathematical theory of human behavior in complex man-machine systems tasks. [time sharing computer analogy of automobile driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    A hierarchy of human activities is derived by analyzing automobile driving in general terms. A structural description leads to a block diagram and a time-sharing computer analogy. The range of applicability of existing mathematical models is considered with respect to the hierarchy of human activities in actual complex tasks. Other mathematical tools so far not often applied to man machine systems are also discussed. The mathematical descriptions at least briefly considered here include utility, estimation, control, queueing, and fuzzy set theory as well as artificial intelligence techniques. Some thoughts are given as to how these methods might be integrated and how further work might be pursued.

  17. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2.3: Sulfur Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is Subtask 2.3 of Task 2, Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates, of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 2.3 builds upon the sulfur removal information first presented in Subtask 2.1, Gas Cleanup Technologies for Biomass Gasification by adding additional information on the commercial applications, manufacturers, environmental footprint, and technical specifications for sulfur removal technologies. The data was obtained from Nexant's experience, input from GTI and other vendors, past and current facility data, and existing literature.

  18. New catalysts for exhaust gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, M. [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Major challenge for future catalyst systems was to develop thermally more stable washcoats for close coupled operating conditions and for engines operating under high speed and load conditions. To design these future emission systems extensive research and development was undertaken to develop methods to disperse and stabilize the key catalytic materials for operation at much higher temperatures. Second priority was to design catalysts that are more effective under low temperature exhaust conditions and have improved oxygen storage properties in the washcoats. Incorporating new materials and modified preparation technology a new generation of metallic catalyst formulations emerged, those being trimetallic K6 (Pt:Pd:Rh and bimetallic K7) (Pd+Pd:Rh). The target was to combine the best property of Pt:Rh (good NO{sub x} reduction) with that of the good HC oxidation activity of Pd and to ensure that precious metal/support interactions were positively maintained. Both K6 and K7 concepts contain special catalyst structures with optimized washcoat performance which can be brick converter configuration. Improvement in light-off, thermal stability and transient performance with these new catalyst formulations have clearly been shown in both laboratory and vehicle testing. (author) (20 refs.)

  19. Results of IEA SHC Task 45: Large Scale Solar Heating and Cooling Systems. Subtask A: “Collectors and Collector Loop”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bava, Federico; Nielsen, Jan Erik; Knabl, Samuel;

    2016-01-01

    . Within this project, subtask A had the more specific objectives of investigating ways to evaluate the influence that different operating conditions can have on the collector performance, assure proper and safe installation of large solar collector fields, and guarantee their performance and yearly energy...... output. The results of the different investigations are presented, with a particular focus on how different parameters such as tilt, flow rate and fluid type, can affect the collector efficiency. Other presented results include methods to guarantee and check the thermal performance of a solar collector......The IEA SHC Task 45 Large Scale Solar Heating and Cooling Systems, carried out between January 2011 and December 2014, had the main objective to assist in the development of a strong and sustainable market of large solar heating systems by focusing on high performance and reliability of systems...

  20. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  1. Efficient electrochemical water oxidation in neutral and near-neutral systems with a nanoscale silver-oxide catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, Khurram S; Ahmad, Zahoor; Joya, Yasir F; Garcia-Esparza, Angel T; de Groot, Huub J M

    2016-08-11

    In electrocatalytic water splitting systems pursuing for renewable energy using sunlight, developing robust, stable and easily accessible materials operating under mild chemical conditions is pivotal. We present here a unique nanoparticulate type silver-oxide (AgOx-NP) based robust and highly stable electrocatalyst for efficient water oxidation. The AgOx-NP is generated in situ in a HCO3(-)/CO2 system under benign conditions. Micrographs show that they exhibit a nanoscale box type squared nano-bipyramidal configuration. The oxygen generation is initiated at low overpotential, and a sustained O2 evolution current density of >1.1 mA cm(-2) is achieved during prolonged-period water electrolysis. The AgOx-NP electrocatalyst performs exceptionally well in metal-ion free neutral or near-neutral carbonate, phosphate and borate buffers relative to recently reported Co-oxide and Ni-oxide based heterogeneous electrocatalysts, which are unstable in metal-ion free electrolytes and tend to deactivate with time and lose catalytic performance during long-term experimental tests. PMID:27472834

  2. Efficient electrochemical water oxidation in neutral and near-neutral systems by nanoscale silver-oxide catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram

    2016-07-19

    In electrocatalytic water splitting systems pursuing for renewable energy using sun light, developing robust, stable and easy accessible materials operating under mild chemical conditions is pivotal. We present here unique nano-particulate type silver-oxide (AgOx-NP) based robust and highly stable electrocatalyst for efficient water oxidation. The AgOx-NP is generated in situ in a HCO3–/CO2 system under benign conditions. Mircographs show that they exhibit nanoscale box type squared nano-bipyramidal configuration. The oxygen generation is initiated at low overpotential, and a sustained O2 evolution current density of > 1.1 mA cm–2 is achieved during prolonged-period water electrolysis. The AgOx-NP electrocatalyst performs exceptionally well in metal-ions free neutral or near-neutral carbonate, phosphate and borate buffers relative to recently reported Co-oxide and Ni-oxide based heterogeneous electrocatalysts, which are unstable in metal-ions free electrolyte and tend to degrade with time and lose catalytic performance during long-term experimental tests.

  3. Efficient electrochemical water oxidation in neutral and near-neutral systems with a nanoscale silver-oxide catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, Khurram S; Ahmad, Zahoor; Joya, Yasir F; Garcia-Esparza, Angel T; de Groot, Huub J M

    2016-08-11

    In electrocatalytic water splitting systems pursuing for renewable energy using sunlight, developing robust, stable and easily accessible materials operating under mild chemical conditions is pivotal. We present here a unique nanoparticulate type silver-oxide (AgOx-NP) based robust and highly stable electrocatalyst for efficient water oxidation. The AgOx-NP is generated in situ in a HCO3(-)/CO2 system under benign conditions. Micrographs show that they exhibit a nanoscale box type squared nano-bipyramidal configuration. The oxygen generation is initiated at low overpotential, and a sustained O2 evolution current density of >1.1 mA cm(-2) is achieved during prolonged-period water electrolysis. The AgOx-NP electrocatalyst performs exceptionally well in metal-ion free neutral or near-neutral carbonate, phosphate and borate buffers relative to recently reported Co-oxide and Ni-oxide based heterogeneous electrocatalysts, which are unstable in metal-ion free electrolytes and tend to deactivate with time and lose catalytic performance during long-term experimental tests.

  4. Supported organoiridium catalysts for alkane dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R. Thomas; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Li, Hongbo

    2013-09-03

    Solid supported organoiridium catalysts, a process for preparing such solid supported organoiridium catalysts, and the use of such solid supported organoiridium catalysts in dehydrogenation reactions of alkanes is provided. The catalysts can be easily recovered and recycled.

  5. Deactivation-resistant catalyst for selective catalyst reduction of NOx

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Anker Degn; Castellino, Francesco; Rams, Per Donskov; Pedersen, Jannik Blaabjerg; Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NOx in alkali metal containing flue gas using ammonia as reductant, the catalyst comprising a surface with catalytically active sites, wherein the surface is at least partly coated with a coating comprising at least one metal oxide. In another aspect the present invention relates to the use of said catalyst and to a method of producing said catalyst. In addition, the present invention relates to a method of treat...

  6. Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2, book 2, part 2, Task 2: Information management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Missions to be performed, station operations and functions to be carried out, and technologies anticipated during the time frame of the space station were examined in order to determine the scope of the overall information management system for the space station. This system comprises: (1) the data management system which includes onboard computer related hardware and software required to assume and exercise control of all activities performed on the station; (2) the communication system for both internal and external communications; and (3) the ground segment. Techniques used to examine the information system from a functional and performance point of view are described as well as the analyses performed to derive the architecture of both the onboard data management system and the system for internal and external communications. These architectures are then used to generate a conceptual design of the onboard elements in order to determine the physical parameters (size/weight/power) of the hardware and software. The ground segment elements are summarized.

  7. Pre-impact trajectory planning for minimizing base attitude disturbance in space manipulator systems for a capture task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Long

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at capture task for a free-floating space manipulator, a scheme of pre-impact trajectory planning for minimizing base attitude disturbance caused by impact is proposed in this paper. Firstly, base attitude disturbance is established as a function of joint angles, collision direction and relative velocity between robotic hand and the target. Secondly, on the premise of keeping correct capture pose, a novel optimization factor in null space is designed to minimize base attitude disturbance and ensure that the joint angles do not exceed their limits simultaneously. After reaching the balance state, a desired configuration is achieved at the contact point. Thereafter, particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is employed to solve the pre-impact trajectory planning from its initial configuration to the desired configuration to achieve the minimized base attitude disturbance caused by impact and the correct capture pose simultaneously. Finally, the proposed method is applied to a 7-dof free-floating space manipulator and the simulation results verify the effectiveness.

  8. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation within IEA Wind Task 30: Phase II Results Regarding a Floating Semisubmersible Wind System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Vorpahl, F.; Popko, W.; Qvist, J.; Froyd, L.; Chen, X.; Azcona, J.; Uzungoglu, E.; Guedes Soares, C.; Luan, C.; Yutong, H.; Pengcheng, F.; Yde, A.; Larsen, T.; Nichols, J.; Buils, R.; Lei, L.; Anders Nygard, T.; et al.

    2014-03-01

    Offshore wind turbines are designed and analyzed using comprehensive simulation tools (or codes) that account for the coupled dynamics of the wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity, and controls of the turbine, along with the incident waves, sea current, hydrodynamics, and foundation dynamics of the support structure. This paper describes the latest findings of the code-to-code verification activities of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation (OC4) project, which operates under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 30. In the latest phase of the project, participants used an assortment of simulation codes to model the coupled dynamic response of a 5-MW wind turbine installed on a floating semisubmersible in 200 m of water. Code predictions were compared from load-case simulations selected to test different model features. The comparisons have resulted in a greater understanding of offshore floating wind turbine dynamics and modeling techniques, and better knowledge of the validity of various approximations. The lessons learned from this exercise have improved the participants? codes, thus improving the standard of offshore wind turbine modeling.

  9. Plasmonic Ag-pillared rectorite as catalyst for degradation of 2,4-DCP in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-containing system under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yunfang [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Fang, Jianzhang, E-mail: fangjzh@scnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Guangdong Technology Research Center for Ecological Management and Remediation of Urban Water System, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lu, Shaoyou [Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Wu, Yan; Chen, Dazhi; Huang, Liyan [Institute of Engineering Technology of Guangdong Province, Key Laboratory of Water Environmental Pollution Control of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510440 (China); Cheng, Cong; Ren, Lu; Zhu, Ximiao [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Fang, Zhanqiang [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Guangdong Technology Research Center for Ecological Management and Remediation of Urban Water System, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • The Ag-R catalyst was synthesized via a novel thermal decomposition method. • Ag-R catalyst possessed the synergistic effects of SPR and adsorption capacity. • The degradation of 2,4-DCP was evaluated in Ag-R/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/visible light system. - Abstract: This study aims at photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-DCP with the assistance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous solution by a composite catalyst of Ag-rectorite. The catalysts were prepared via a novel thermal decomposition method followed after the cation-exchange process. The synthesized nano-materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface analyzer, Ultraviolet–visible light (UV–vis) absorption spectra, field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The different mechanisms of degradation process with or without visible light irradiation were discussed, respectively. Moreover, the degradation efficiency of 2,4-DCP wastewater under Ag-rectorite/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/visible light system was investigated by series of experiments, concerning on effects of major operation factors, such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage and the initial pH value. The highest degradation rate was observed when adding 0.18 mL H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into 50 mL 2,4-DCP solution, and the optimal pH value was 4 for the reaction. Afterwards, total organic carbon (TOC) experiments were carried out to evaluate the mineralization ratio of 2,4-DCP.

  10. Optimization of furfural production from D-xylose with formic acid as catalyst in a reactive extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wandian; Li, Pingli; Bo, Dechen; Chang, Heying; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhu, Tao

    2013-04-01

    Furfural is one of the most promising platform chemicals derived from biomass. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to determine four important parameters including reaction temperature (170-210°C), formic acid concentration (5-25 g/L), o-nitrotoluene volume percentage (20-80 vt.%), and residence time (40-200 min). The maximum furfural yield of 74% and selectivity of 86% were achieved at 190°C for 20 g/L formic acid concentration and 75 vt.% o-nitrotoluene by 75 min. The high boiling solvent, o-nitrotoluene, was recommended as extraction solvent in a reactive extraction system to obtain high furfural yield and reduce furfural-solvent separation costs. Although the addition of halides to the xylose solutions enhanced the furfural yield and selectivity, the concentration of halides was not an important factor on the furfural yield and selectivity.

  11. Study and Commercial Application of Graded Optimization of Catalysts for Fixed Bed Residue Upgrading Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Zhaoming; Jiang Lijing

    2007-01-01

    The SHIFT-G technology of inverse catalyst loading is used to optimize the catalyst grading in the residue hydrotreating unit.The results,taken from pilot tests and commercial units,have showed that the optimized catalyst grading system can reasonably distribute the reaction load,effectively improve the properties of hydrotreated products,prolong the operating cycle and promote economic benefits.

  12. 49 CFR 236.1043 - Task analysis and basic requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of work, etc.), task(s), and desired success rate; (2) Based on a formal task analysis, identify the... performance necessary to perform each task; (5) Develop a training and evaluation curriculum that includes... curriculum and pass an examination that covers the PTC system and appropriate rules and tasks for which...

  13. Chaos enhanced differential evolution in the task of evolutionary control of selected set of discrete chaotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkerik, Roman; Zelinka, Ivan; Pluhacek, Michal; Davendra, Donald; Oplatková Kominkova, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary technique differential evolution (DE) is used for the evolutionary tuning of controller parameters for the stabilization of set of different chaotic systems. The novelty of the approach is that the selected controlled discrete dissipative chaotic system is used also as the chaotic pseudorandom number generator to drive the mutation and crossover process in the DE. The idea was to utilize the hidden chaotic dynamics in pseudorandom sequences given by chaotic map to help differential evolution algorithm search for the best controller settings for the very same chaotic system. The optimizations were performed for three different chaotic systems, two types of case studies and developed cost functions.

  14. Chaos Enhanced Differential Evolution in the Task of Evolutionary Control of Selected Set of Discrete Chaotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Senkerik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary technique differential evolution (DE is used for the evolutionary tuning of controller parameters for the stabilization of set of different chaotic systems. The novelty of the approach is that the selected controlled discrete dissipative chaotic system is used also as the chaotic pseudorandom number generator to drive the mutation and crossover process in the DE. The idea was to utilize the hidden chaotic dynamics in pseudorandom sequences given by chaotic map to help differential evolution algorithm search for the best controller settings for the very same chaotic system. The optimizations were performed for three different chaotic systems, two types of case studies and developed cost functions.

  15. Olefin metathesis catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukes, S.G.; Banks, R.L.

    1986-05-20

    A process is described for preparing a disproportionation catalyst comprising admixing a catalytically effective amount of a calcined and activated catalyst consisting essentially of at least one metal oxide selected from molybdenum oxide and tungsten oxide and a support containing a major proportion of silica or alumina with a promoting amount of a methylating agent selected from the group consisting of dimethyl sulfate, dimethylsulfoxide, trimethyloxonium tetrafluorborate, methyl iodide, and methyl bromide, and subjecting same to inert atmospheric conditions for the methylating agent to promote the activity of the calcined molybdenum and tungsten oxides for the disproportionation of olefins.

  16. Aerogel derived catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J. G., LLNL

    1996-12-11

    Aerogels area class of colloidal materials which have high surface areas and abundant mesoporous structure. SiO{sub 2} aerogels show unique physical, optical and structural properties. When catalytic metals are incorporated in the aerogel framework, the potential exists for new and very effective catalysts for industrial processes. Three applications of these metal-containing SiO{sub 2} aerogels as catalysts are briefly reviewed in this paper--NO{sub x} reduction, volatile organic compound destruction, and partial oxidation of methane.

  17. A portable, multi-channel fNIRS system for prefrontal cortex: Preliminary study on neurofeedback and imagery tasks (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Seung-ho; Kim, Beop-Min

    2016-03-01

    fNIRS is a neuroimaging technique which uses near-infrared light source in the 700-1000 nm range and enables to detect hemodynamic changes (i.e., oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, blood volume) as a response to various brain processes. In this study, we developed a new, portable, prefrontal fNIRS system which has 12 light sources, 15 detectors and 108 channels with a sampling rate of 2 Hz. The wavelengths of light source are 780nm and 850nm. ATxmega128A1, 8bit of Micro controller unit (MCU) with 200~4095 resolution along with MatLab data acquisition algorithm was utilized. We performed a simple left and right finger movement imagery tasks which produced statistically significant changes of oxyhemoglobin concentrations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) areas. We observed that the accuracy of the imagery tasks can be improved by carrying out neurofeedback training, during which a real-time feedback signal is provided to a participating subject. The effects of the neurofeedback training was later visually verified using the 3D NIRfast imaging. Our portable fNIRS system may be useful in non-constraint environment for various clinical diagnoses.

  18. Gas Phase Polymerization of Ethylene with Supported Titanium-Nickel Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new ditransition-metal catalyst system TiCl4-NiCl2/MgCl2-SiO2/AlR3 was prepared.Gas phase polymerization of ethylene with the catalysts has been studied.The kinetic curves of gas phase polymerization showed a decline.The catalystic efficiency and polymerization reaction rates have a optimum value when Ni content of the catalysts was 12.5%(mol).The products obtained are branched polyethylene.

  19. A Systems-Level Approach to Building Sustainable Assessment Cultures: Moderation, Quality Task Design and Dependability of Judgement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Peta; Wyatt-Smith, Claire; Klenowski, Val

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the conditions that are necessary at system and local levels for teacher assessment to be valid, reliable and rigorous. With sustainable assessment cultures as a goal, the article examines how education systems can support local-level efforts for quality learning and dependable teacher assessment. This is achieved through…

  20. Birth of an Abstraction: A Dynamical Systems Account of the Discovery of an Elsewhere Principle in a Category Learning Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Whitney; Cho, Pyeong W.; Dankowicz, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Human participants and recurrent ("connectionist") neural networks were both trained on a categorization system abstractly similar to natural language systems involving irregular ("strong") classes and a default class. Both the humans and the networks exhibited staged learning and a generalization pattern reminiscent of the…