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Sample records for catalyst precursor powders

  1. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  2. Hydrodeoxygenation of coal using organometallic catalyst precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Stephen R.

    2002-04-01

    coals. Trends within the data were similar to those reported by other authors. Based on the conclusions from both the model compound studies and the coal analysis, predictions were made of the catalyst precursors' performance in the HDO of the three selected coals. It was concluded that CoMo-T2 is a desirable catalyst precursor for the HDO of coals (particularly low-rank coals), but that an optimum set of conditions must be determined to take full advantage of its HDO ability. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  3. Colloidal nanoparticles as catalysts and catalyst precursors for nitrite hydrogenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yingnan

    2015-01-01

    The most distinguished advantage to use colloidal methods for catalyst preparation is that the size and the shape of nanoparticles can be manipulated easily under good control, which is normally difficult to achieve by using traditional methods, such as impregnation and precipitation. This

  4. Dry Powder Precursors of Cubic Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles (cubosomes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, Patrick T.; Small, William B.; Small, William B.; Lynch, Matthew L.; Burns, Janet L.

    2002-01-01

    Cubosomes are dispersed nanostructured particles of cubic phase liquid crystal that have stimulated significant research interest because of their potential for application in controlled-release and drug delivery. Despite the interest, cubosomes can be difficult to fabricate and stabilize with current methods. Most of the current work is limited to liquid phase processes involving high shear dispersion of bulk cubic liquid crystalline material into sub-micron particles, limiting application flexibility. In this work, two types of dry powder cubosome precursors are produced by spray-drying: (1) starch-encapsulated monoolein is produced by spray-drying a dispersion of cubic liquid crystalline particles in an aqueous starch solution and (2) dextran-encapsulated monoolein is produced by spray-drying an emulsion formed by the ethanol-dextran-monoolein-water system. The encapsulants are used to decrease powder cohesion during drying and to act as a soluble colloidal stabilizer upon hydration of the powders. Both powders are shown to form (on average) 0.6 μm colloidally-stable cubosomes upon addition to water. However, the starch powders have a broader particle size distribution than the dextran powders because of the relative ease of spraying emulsions versus dispersions. The developed processes enable the production of nanostructured cubosomes by end-users rather than just specialized researchers and allow tailoring of the surface state of the cubosomes for broader application

  5. Silica-supported, single-site titanium catalysts for olefin epoxidation. A molecular precursor strategy for control of catalyst structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarupatrakorn, Jonggol; Don Tilley, T

    2002-07-17

    A molecular precursor approach involving simple grafting procedures was used to produce site-isolated titanium-supported epoxidation catalysts of high activity and selectivity. The tris(tert-butoxy)siloxy titanium complexes Ti[OSi(O(t)Bu)(3)](4) (TiSi4), ((i)PrO)Ti[OSi(O(t)Bu)(3)](3) (TiSi3), and ((t)BuO)(3)TiOSi(O(t)Bu)(3) (TiSi) react with the hydroxyl groups of amorphous Aerosil, mesoporous MCM-41, and SBA-15 via loss of HO(t)Bu and/or HOSi(O(t)Bu)(3) and introduction of titanium species onto the silica surface. Powder X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, infrared, and diffuse reflectance ultraviolet spectroscopies were used to investigate the structures and chemical natures of the surface-bound titanium species. The titanium species exist mainly in isolated, tetrahedral coordination environments. Increasing the number of siloxide ligands in the molecular precursor decreases the amount of titanium that can be introduced this way, but also enhances the catalytic activity and selectivity for the epoxidation of cyclohexene with cumene hydroperoxide as oxidant. In addition, the high surface area mesoporous silicas (MCM-41 and SBA-15) are more effective than amorphous silica as supports for these catalysts. Supporting TiSi3 on the SBA-15 affords highly active cyclohexene epoxidation catalysts (0.25-1.77 wt % Ti loading) that provide turnover frequencies (TOFs) of 500-1500 h(-1) after 1 h (TOFs are reduced by about half after calcination). These results demonstrate that oxygen-rich siloxide complexes of titanium are useful as precursors to supported epoxidation catalysts.

  6. Co3O4 nanowires as efficient catalyst precursor for hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lei; Cao, Xurong; Ma, Maixia; Lu, Yanhong; Wang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Suling; Wang, Qian

    Hydrogen generation from the catalytic hydrolysis of sodium borohydride has many advantages, and therefore, significant research has been undertaken on the development of highly efficient catalysts for this purpose. In our present work, Co3O4 nanowires were successfully synthesized as catalyst precursor by employing SBA-15 as a hard template. For material characterization, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and N2 adsorption isotherms were employed, respectively. To measure the catalyst activity, typical water-displacement method was carried out. Using a reaction solution comprising 10wt.% NaBH4 and 2wt.% NaOH, the hydrogen generation rate (HGR) was observed to be as high as 7.74L min-1 g-1 at 25∘C in the presence of Co3O4 nanowires, which is significantly higher than that of CoB nanoparticles and commercial Co3O4 powder. Apparent activation energy was calculated to be 50.9kJ mol-1. After recycling the Co3O4 nanowires six times, HGR was decreased to be 72.6% of the initial level.

  7. Quantitative analysis of mineral powders by DRIFTS: Determination of SrCO3 in superconductor precursor powders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, J.; Kindl, B.

    1997-01-01

    An application of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) has been demonstrated to be able to determine small concentrations, down to the 100-ppm level, of carbonates in powdery superconductor (SPC) precursor samples, The detection of carbonates in SPC precursor powders...

  8. The effect of precursor powder size on the microstructure and integranular properties of Bi2223 superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Abdolhosseini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available  We have studied the effect of precursor powder size on the microstructure and intergranular behavior of polycrystalline Bi2223 superconductors using the XRD, SEM, electrical resistivity and AC susceptibility techniques. Polycrystalline Bi2223 superconductors were prepared from the powders with different milling times. The XRD results show that by decreasing the precursor powder size the Bi2223 phase fraction increases. It was found that the grain size and grain connectivity improved by decreasing the precursor powder size. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the AC susceptibility near the transition temperature (Tc has been done employing Beans critical state model. The observed variation of intergranular critical current densities (Jc with temperature indicates that the decreasing of precursor powder size in the Bi2223 system cases an increase in the intergranular critical current density.

  9. Recovery of molybdenum and cobalt powders from spent hydrogenation catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, M.A.; Hewaidy, I.F.; Farghaly, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    Free powders as well as compact shapes of molybdenum and cobalt have been successfully recovered from spent hydrogenation and desulphurization catalysts. A process flow sheet was followed involving crushing, milling, particle sizing, hydrometallurgical acid leaching roasting of the obtained salts in an atmospheric oxygen to obtain the respective oxides. These were reduced by hydrogen gas at 110 degree C and 900 degree C respectively. Parameters affecting the properties of the products and the recovery efficiency value such as acid concentration, particle diameter of the solid catalyst, temperature time under a constant mass flow rate the hydrogen gas, have been investigated. A mixture of concentration.sulphuric and nitric acids (3:1 by volume) achieved adequate recovery of both metals. The latter increased with the increase in acid concentration, time up 10 3 hours and temperature: 100 degree C and with the decrease in particle diameter of the spent catalyst. The PH of the obtained filtrate was adjusted to 2 with ammonia to precipitate insoluble ammonium molybdate and a solution of cobalt sulphate. Cobalt hydroxide can be precipitate from the latter solution at a PH = 7.6 using excess ammonium hydroxide solution. The obtained results showed that the metallic products are technically pure meeting the standard specifications. Compact shapes of molybdenum acquire density values increasing with the increase of the pressing load whereby a maximum density value of 2280 kg/m 3 is attained at 0.75 MPa. Maximum recovery efficiency amounts to 96%. 10 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Catalytic Hydrodechlorination of Trichlorobenzenes with Pd(PhenCl2 as Catalyst Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanlin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported the catalytic hydrodechlorination (HDC of trichlorobenzenes by an organometallic compound Pd(PhenCl2 as a catalyst precursor. The catalyst precursor was prepared by chemical coordination reaction and characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR techniques. The HDC performance of Pd(PhenCl2 as catalyst precursor was evaluated on 1,2,3-, 1,2,4-, and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzenes (TCBs. All TCBs could be converted to dechlorination products with high conversion. Products distribution was closely related with the substrate structures and C-Cl bond energies. A reasonable reaction mechanism was also proposed.

  11. The precursors effects on biomimetic hydroxyapatite ceramic powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoruç, Afife Binnaz Hazar; Aydınoğlu, Aysu

    2017-06-01

    In this study, effects of the starting material on chemical, physical, and biological properties of biomimetic hydroxyapatite ceramic powders (BHA) were investigated. Characterization and chemical analysis of BHA powders were performed by using XRD, FT-IR, and ICP-AES. Microstructural features such as size and morphology of the resulting BHA powders were characterized by using BET, nano particle sizer, pycnometer, and SEM. Additionally, biological properties of the BHA ceramic powders were also investigated by using water-soluble tetrazolium salts test (WST-1). According to the chemical analysis of BHA ceramic powders, chemical structures of ceramics which are prepared under different conditions and by using different starting materials show differences. Ceramic powders which are produced at 80°C are mainly composed of hydroxyapatite, dental hydroxyapatite (contain Na and Mg elements in addition to Ca), and calcium phosphate sulfide. However, these structures are altered at high temperatures such as 900°C depending on the features of starting materials and form various calcium phosphate ceramics and/or their mixtures such as Na-Mg-hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, Mg-Whitlockit, and chloroapatite. In vitro cytotoxicity studies showed that amorphous ceramics produced at 80°C and ceramics containing chloroapatite structure as main or secondary phases were found to be extremely cytotoxic. Furthermore, cell culture studies showed that highly crystalline pure hydroxyapatite structures were extremely cytotoxic due to their high crystallinity values. Consequently, the current study indicates that the selection of starting materials which can be used in the production of calcium phosphate ceramics is very important. It is possible to produce calcium phosphate ceramics which have sufficient biocompatibility at physiological pH values and by using appropriate starting materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrodeoxygenation of O-containing polycyclic model compounds using a novel organometallic catalyst-precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, S.R.; Song, C.S.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1996-09-05

    Compounds containing oxygen functional groups, especially phenols, are undesirable components of coal-derived liquids. Removal of these compounds from the products of coal liquefaction is required. A beneficial alternative would be the removal of these compounds, or the prevention of their formation, during the liquefaction reaction itself, rather than as a separate processing step. A novel organometallic catalyst precursor containing Co and Mo has been studied as a potential hydrogenation catalyst for coal liquefaction. To ascertain the hydrodeoxygenation activity of this catalyst under liquefaction conditions, model compounds were investigated. Anthrone, 2,6-di-r-btuyl-4-methyl-phenol, dinaphthyl ether and xanthene were reacted in the presence of the Co-Mo catalyst precursor and a precursor containing only Mo over a range of temperatures, providing a comparison of conversions to deoxygenated products. These conversions give an indication of the hydrodeoxygenating abilities of organometallic catalyst precursors within a coal liquefaction system. For example, at 400{degree}C dinaphthyl ether was converted 100% (4.5% O-containing products) in the presence of the Co-Mo organometallic precursor, compared to 76.5% conversion (7.4% O-products) in the presence of the Mo catalyst.

  13. The influence of precursor powders on the microstructure and properties of B-2212 blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, F.F.M.; Polasek, A.; Saleh, L.A.; Sena, C.V. de; Serra, E.T.; Rizzo, F.

    2006-01-01

    The Bi-2212 is one of the main HTSC's for applications development. The present work reports our investigations on the partial melt processing of bulk-2212. The precursors were uniaxially pressed into silver molds, which were partially melted, slow cooled and subsequently annealed. Precursor powders with different nominal compositions, with and without silver powder addition were employed. Samples were analyzed by XRD, SEM/EDS and DTA. The DC critical current (lc) was measured by the four-points method (77 K). Although the partial melt processing has been intensively studied, there is still a lack of knowledge on the influence on the final properties of bulk Bi-2212. (author)

  14. Analysis of coke precursor on catalyst and study on regeneration of catalyst in upgrading of bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoya; Zheng, Yong; Zhang, Baohua; Chen, Jinyang

    2009-01-01

    Catalyst HZSM-5 was used in bio-oil catalytic cracking upgrading. The precursor of coke on the catalyst was analyzed by means of TGA, FTIR and C13 NMR. Precursors of coke deposited in the pore of the molecular sieve were mainly aromatic hydrocarbon with the boiling point range from 350 o C to 650 o C. Those on the outer surface of the pellet precursor were identified as saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons with the boiling point below 200 o C. The activity of HZSM-5 was studied after regeneration. In terms of yield of organic distillate and formation rate of coke, results showed that catalytic activity change moderately during the first three times of regeneration.

  15. Stable amorphous georgeite as a precursor to a high-activity catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat, Simon A.; Smith, Paul J.; Wells, Peter P.; Chater, Philip A.; Carter, James H.; Morgan, David J.; Fiordaliso, Elisabetta M.; Wagner, Jakob B.; Davies, Thomas E.; Lu, Li; Bartley, Jonathan K.; Taylor, Stuart H.; Spencer, Michael S.; Kiely, Christopher J.; Kelly, Gordon J.; Park, Colin W.; Rosseinsky, Matthew J.; Hutchings, Graham J.

    2016-03-01

    Copper and zinc form an important group of hydroxycarbonate minerals that include zincian malachite, aurichalcite, rosasite and the exceptionally rare and unstable—and hence little known and largely ignored—georgeite. The first three of these minerals are widely used as catalyst precursors for the industrially important methanol-synthesis and low-temperature water-gas shift (LTS) reactions, with the choice of precursor phase strongly influencing the activity of the final catalyst. The preferred phase is usually zincian malachite. This is prepared by a co-precipitation method that involves the transient formation of georgeite; with few exceptions it uses sodium carbonate as the carbonate source, but this also introduces sodium ions—a potential catalyst poison. Here we show that supercritical antisolvent (SAS) precipitation using carbon dioxide (refs 13, 14), a process that exploits the high diffusion rates and solvation power of supercritical carbon dioxide to rapidly expand and supersaturate solutions, can be used to prepare copper/zinc hydroxycarbonate precursors with low sodium content. These include stable georgeite, which we find to be a precursor to highly active methanol-synthesis and superior LTS catalysts. Our findings highlight the value of advanced synthesis methods in accessing unusual mineral phases, and show that there is room for exploring improvements to established industrial catalysts.

  16. Stable amorphous georgeite as a precursor to a high-activity catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrat, Simon A.; Smith, Paul J.; Wells, Peter P.

    2016-01-01

    Copper and zinc form an important group of hydroxycarbonate minerals that include zincian malachite, aurichalcite, rosasite and the exceptionally rare and unstable-and hence little known and largely ignored-georgeite. The first three of these minerals are widely used as catalyst precursors...... for the industrially important methanol-synthesis and low-temperature water-gas shift (LTS) reactions, with the choice of precursor phase strongly influencing the activity of the final catalyst. The preferred phase is usually zincian malachite. This is prepared by a co-precipitation method that involves the transient...

  17. Effect of Chlorine precursor in surface and cataytic properties of Fe/TiO2 Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    López, Tessi; Pecchi, Gina; Moreno, Abel; García Fierro, José Luis; Gómez, R.; Reyes, P.

    2002-01-01

    Titania-supported iron (1wt%) catalysts were prepared by the sol-gel method using different gelation pH (3 and 9), metal precursors (FeCl2 and FeCl3) and calcination temperatures (873 and 1073K). Characterization data of calcined catalysts revealed that in all samples the dominant iron species is Fe3+ and the crystalline phase of the TiO2 substrate depends on the gelation pH and the metal precursor used. It was found that in the Fe/TiO2 ex-FeCl3 samples an important part of the iron ions beca...

  18. NiTiO3 powders obtained by polymeric precursor method: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, K.P.; Cavalcante, L.S.; Simoes, A.Z.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.; Leite, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Nickel titanate (NiTiO 3 ) powders were synthesized by the polymeric precursor method after thermal treatment at different temperatures for 2 h in air atmosphere. The decomposition of the precursors was monitored by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The NiTiO 3 powders presented a reduction in the specific surface area and increase of the average particle size with the evolution of the temperature. The structural evolution of NiTiO 3 phase was accompanied by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. By scanning electron microscopy was revealed the agglomerated nature of very fine particles of NiTiO 3 powders annealed from 600 to 1000 deg. C

  19. Low temperature catalyst-assisted pyrolysis of polymer precursors to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-11-15

    Nov 15, 2017 ... convert the organic compounds into high-performance car- bon. PAN is one of the ... yield, RF organic gel is also identified as a widely used precursor to produce ..... sis were applied to estimate radius of gyration (Rg) and surface ... pyrolysis approach without compromising the yield and qual- ity of the final ...

  20. Influence of Ce-precursor and fuel on structure and catalytic activity of combustion synthesized Ni/CeO{sub 2} catalysts for biogas oxidative steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vita, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.vita@itae.cnr.it; Italiano, Cristina; Fabiano, Concetto; Laganà, Massimo; Pino, Lidia

    2015-08-01

    A series of nanosized Ni/CeO{sub 2} catalysts were prepared by Solution Combustion Synthesis (SCS) varying the fuel (oxalyldihydrazide, urea, carbohydrazide and glycerol), the cerium precursor (cerium nitrate and cerium ammonium nitrate) and the nickel loading (ranging between 3.1 and 15.6 wt%). The obtained powders were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2}-physisorption, CO-chemisorption, Temperature Programmed Reduction (H{sub 2}-TPR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The catalytic activity towards the Oxy Steam Reforming (OSR) of biogas was assessed. The selected operating variables have a strong influence on the nature of combustion and, in turn, on the morphological and structural properties of the synthesized catalysts. Particularly, the use of urea allows to improve nickel dispersion, surface area, particle size and reducibility of the catalysts, affecting positively the biogas OSR performances. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Ni/CeO{sub 2} nanopowders by quick and easy solution combustion synthesis. • The fuel and precursor drive the structural and morphological properties of the catalysts. • The use of urea as fuel allows to improve nickel dispersion, surface area and particle size. • Ni/CeO{sub 2} (7.8 wt% of Ni loading) powders synthesized by urea route exhibits high performances for the biogas OSR process.

  1. Influence of Ce-precursor and fuel on structure and catalytic activity of combustion synthesized Ni/CeO2 catalysts for biogas oxidative steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vita, Antonio; Italiano, Cristina; Fabiano, Concetto; Laganà, Massimo; Pino, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    A series of nanosized Ni/CeO 2 catalysts were prepared by Solution Combustion Synthesis (SCS) varying the fuel (oxalyldihydrazide, urea, carbohydrazide and glycerol), the cerium precursor (cerium nitrate and cerium ammonium nitrate) and the nickel loading (ranging between 3.1 and 15.6 wt%). The obtained powders were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), N 2 -physisorption, CO-chemisorption, Temperature Programmed Reduction (H 2 -TPR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The catalytic activity towards the Oxy Steam Reforming (OSR) of biogas was assessed. The selected operating variables have a strong influence on the nature of combustion and, in turn, on the morphological and structural properties of the synthesized catalysts. Particularly, the use of urea allows to improve nickel dispersion, surface area, particle size and reducibility of the catalysts, affecting positively the biogas OSR performances. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Ni/CeO 2 nanopowders by quick and easy solution combustion synthesis. • The fuel and precursor drive the structural and morphological properties of the catalysts. • The use of urea as fuel allows to improve nickel dispersion, surface area and particle size. • Ni/CeO 2 (7.8 wt% of Ni loading) powders synthesized by urea route exhibits high performances for the biogas OSR process

  2. Synthesis and optical properties of Mg-Al layered double hydroxides precursor powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsuan Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and optical properties of Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH precursor powders were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED, high-resolution TEM (HRTEM, UV-transmission spectrometer, and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The FT-IR results show that the intense absorption at around 1363–1377 cm-1 can be assigned to the antisymmetric ν3 mode of interlayer carbonate anions because the LDH phase contains some CO32-. The XRD results show that all of the Mg-Al LDH precursor powders contain only a single phase of [Mg0.833Al0.167(OH2](CO30.083·(H2O0.75 but have broad and weak intensities of peaks. All of Mg-Al LDHs precursor powders before calcination have the same photoluminescence (PL spectra. Moreover, these spectra were excited at λex = 235 nm, and the broad emission band was in the range 325-650 nm. In the range, there were relatively strong intensity at around 360, 407 and 510 nm, respectively.

  3. Filter bag De-NOx system with powder type catalysts at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Heon; Kang, Pil-Sun; Yoo, Seung-Kwan; Yoon, Kyoon-Duk

    2010-01-01

    Combustion of carbon source materials (MSW, RDF, sludge, coal etc.) leads to the emission of harmful gaseous pollutants such as SO x , NO x , mercury, particulate matter, and dioxins etc. In particular, the emission of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from the solid waste incinerator remains a serious air pollution problem. The previous research concerns have focused mainly on NO x reduction of stationary sources at high temperature SCR or SNCR process. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH 3 is the most widespread system used to control NO x emissions. However, this process suffers from several disadvantages due to the use of thermo fragile honeycomb type module and high temperature (about 300 degree Celsius) operation which consumes additional heating energy. To overcome this hurdle, filter bag De-NO x system with powder type catalysts at low temperature (less than 200 degree Celsius) has been under investigation in recent years and looks interesting because neither additional heat nor honeycomb type modules are required. Filter bag and powder type catalysts are cheap and effective materials to remove NO x at low temperature. In this study, the selective catalytic reduction of NO x was carried out on a filter support reactor with 300 mesh powder type catalysts at low temperature. The experiments were performed by powder type MnO x and V 2 O 5 / TiO 2 catalyst at low temperature ranging between 130 and 250 degree Celsius. Also, the effect of SO 2 and H 2 O on the NO conversion was investigated under our test conditions. The powder type catalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) for measuring the state of oxygen on the catalyst surface and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was observed that NO conversion of the powder type V 2 O 5 / TiO 2 catalyst was 85 % at 200 degree Celsius under presence of oxygen and that of MnO x was 50 % at the same condition. From these results, the powder type V 2 O 5 / TiO 2 catalyst showed an excellent performance on the

  4. Effect of Au Precursor and Support on the Catalytic Activity of the Nano-Au-Catalysts for Propane Complete Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshid M. Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic activity of nano-Au-catalyst(s for the complete propane oxidation was investigated. The results showed that the nature of both Au precursor and support strongly influences catalytic activity of the Au-catalyst(s for the propane oxidation. Oxidation state, size, and dispersion of Au nanoparticles in the Au-catalysts, surface area, crystallinity, phase structure, and redox property of the support are the key aspects for the complete propane oxidation. Among the studied Au-catalysts, the AuHAuCl4-Ce catalyst is found to be the most active catalyst.

  5. Obtaining aluminas from the thermal decomposition of their different precursors: An {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and X-ray powder diffraction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagas, L.H.; De Carvalho, G.S.G. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Química, Grupo de Físico-Química de Sólidos e Interfaces, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); San Gil, R.A.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Química, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chiaro, S.S.X. [PETROBRAS-CENPES, 21941-915 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leitão, A.A. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Química, Grupo de Físico-Química de Sólidos e Interfaces, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Diniz, R., E-mail: renata.diniz@ufjf.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Química, Grupo de Físico-Química de Sólidos e Interfaces, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We synthesized three precursors of alumina from different methods. • The calcination of the precursors generated several alumina polymorphs. • XRD and NMR were used for structural investigation of the polymorphs. • The synthesis route determines the structural and textural properties of the solids. - Abstract: A commercial sample of Boehmite was used as precursor of alumina polymorphs. For comparison, three other precursors were synthesized from different methods. Particularly, the use of excess of urea promoted a very crystalline form of basic aluminum carbonate. The characteristics of the four precursors were investigated by thermal, vibrational and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. Additionally, the nuclear magnetic resonance, with magic angle spinning ({sup 27}Al MAS NMR), was used to verify the coordination of aluminum cations. Each precursor was calcined at various temperatures generating alumina polymorphs, which were structurally analyzed by XRD and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR. Due to interest in catalysis supports, special attention was given to the γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase, which in addition to structural investigation was subjected to textural analysis. The results showed that, from different synthesis procedures and common route of calcination, one can obtain materials with the same composition but with different structural and textural properties, which in turn can significantly influence the performance of a supported catalyst.

  6. Influence of Pd-precursor on the acetoxylation activity of Pd-Sb/TiO{sub 2} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-homeid, A. [Benghazi Univ. (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Chemistry Dept.; Kalevaru, V.N.; Radnik, J.; Luecke, B.; Martin, A. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Katalyse e.V. an der Universitaet Rostock (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    The impact of palladium precursors (e.g. chloride-PdCl{sub 2}; acetate-Pd(OAc){sub 2}; nitrate-Pd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) on the catalytic properties of Pd-Sb/TiO{sub 2} catalysts used for acetoxylation of toluene has been investigated. The catalysts were characterized by different techniques such as N{sub 2}-adsorption (BET-surface area and pore volume), XRD, TEM, CO-Chemisorption and XPS for better understanding of the catalytic properties of the catalysts. The acetate and nitrate-type precursors exhibited higher surface areas, pore volumes and higher dispersion of Pd, but displayed poor performance compared to chloride precursor. TEM analysis indicated that the size of Pd particles depended upon the nature of Pd-precursor. Among the three, chloride precursor exhibited bigger Pd particles. XPS results revealed that all the fresh catalysts irrespective of Pd-precursor contained Pd in oxidized state (i.e. Pd{sup +2}), while in the spent catalysts such oxidized Pd species were reduced. The catalytic performance was found to depend strongly on the nature of precursor used. Among the three, the catalysts prepared from chloride-type precursor showed much higher overall catalytic activity (68%) than those of nitrate and/or acetate type precursors. Moreover, these two precursors (acetate and nitrate) gave higher total oxidation products due to oxidative decomposition of mainly acetic acid. Furthermore, the catalyst prepared from Cl-precursor revealed easy deactivation due to coke deposition and also due to loss of Pd in the near-surface-region. (orig.)

  7. Flow dynamics study of catalyst powder in catalytic cracking unit for troubleshooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelgaonkar Vivek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma scanning and radiotracer applications are very effective and inexpensive tools to understand and optimize the process as well as troubleshoot the various types of problems in many chemical, petrochemical industries and refineries. These techniques are non-invasive; hence, the problems can be pinpointed online, which leads to reduce the downtime, schedule the shutdown and maintenance of the plant equipment, rendering huge economic benefits. In a leading refinery of India, the catalytic cracking unit (CCU was malfunctioning. It was suspected by the refinery engineers that the catalyst powder was being carried over to the fractionator, which could have led to erosion of the fractionator column internals resulting in their rupture, and consequentially, to the fire hazard. To understand the flow behaviour of the catalyst powder and to ensure the mechanical integrity, catalyst accumulation and choking, both radiotracer study and gamma scanning of the CCU reactor was carried out. The reactor consists of a riser, three primary cyclones and three secondary cyclones. Gamma scanning of the reactor was carried out with the help of an automatic gamma scanner using 1.8 GBq of Co-60 sealed source. Results showed that the catalyst powder was accumulated in one of the secondary cyclones and uneven density distribution was observed in another secondary cyclone. The radiotracer study was carried out using the irradiated catalyst powder as a radiotracer, which contains 0.9 GBq of Na-24. The radiotracer was injected in the reactor through the specially fabricated injection system. Radiation measurement was done using the thermally insulated and collimated NaI(Tl scintillation detectors located at various strategic locations coupled to a multi-detector data acquisition system. The data were mathematically analysed. It was confirmed that the catalyst powder was accumulated in one of the secondary cyclones with no flow downwards. This resulted in excess powder

  8. Effects of precursor and sulfation on OMS-2 catalyst for oxidation of ethanol and acetaldehyde at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renhu; Li, Junhua

    2010-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from many industrial processes and transportation activities are major organic pollutants in the atmosphere and toxic to human health. Octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalysts with different precursors and sulfate-acidified OMS-2 catalysts were synthesized using refluxing methods. The catalysts were investigated on complete oxidation of ethanol and acetaldehyde, and both demonstrated good reactivity. However, acidification resulted in a decrease in activity. OMS-2 catalyst using MnSO(4) as precursor exhibited the best catalytic performance and, thus, was selected for catalyst deactivation by sulfur dioxide. The results of this study suggested that the Mn-O bond of OMS-2 catalysts was the main determinant of the catalytic activity toward oxygenated VOC oxidation and weaker acid sites benefited higher acetaldehyde selectivity. Catalyst deactivation resulted from a strong but slow chemical interaction between the Mn-O bond and sulfur dioxide, probably forming manganese sulfate.

  9. Effect of heat absorbing powder addition on cell morphology of porous titanium composite manufactured by reactive precursor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobashi, Makoto; Kamiya, Yoshinori; Kanetake, Naoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Open-cell structured porous titanium/ceramics composite was synthesized by a reactive precursor method using titanium and boron carbide (B 4 C) as reactant powders. Pore morphology was controlled by adding heat absorbing powder (titanium diboride: TiB 2 ) in the Ti+B 4 C blended powder. The effects of molar blending ratio of titanium and B 4 C and the amount of heat absorbing powder addition on the cell morphology (either open or closed) were investigated. Fine and homogeneous open-cell structure was achieved by adding appropriate amount of heat absorbing agent powder (>15 vol%), and the relative density of the specimen after the reaction became closer to that of the precursor by increasing TiB 2 volume fraction. When the volume fraction of TiB 2 addition was 20%, the open-cell fraction was maintained as 1.0 regardless of the relative density of the precursor.

  10. Adsorption of N-nitrosodimethylamine precursors by powdered and granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanigan, David; Zhang, Jinwei; Herckes, Pierre; Krasner, Stuart W; Chen, Chao; Westerhoff, Paul

    2012-11-20

    Activated carbon (AC) has been shown to remove precursors of halogenated disinfection byproducts. Granular and powdered activated carbon (GAC, PAC) were investigated for their potential to adsorb N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors from blends of river water and effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). At bench scale, waters were exposed to lignite or bituminous AC, either as PAC in bottle point experiments or as GAC in rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs). NDMA formation potential (FP) was used as a surrogate for precursor removal. NDMA FP was reduced by 37, 59, and 91% with 3, 8, and 75 mg/L of one PAC, respectively, with a 4-h contact time. In RSSCTs and in full-scale GAC contactors, NDMA FP removal always exceeded that of the bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and UV absorbance at 254 nm. For example, whereas DOC breakthrough exceeded 90% of its influent concentration after 10,000 bed volumes of operation in an RSSCT, NDMA FP was less than 40% of influent concentration after the same bed life of the GAC. At full or pilot scale, high NDMA FP reduction ranging from >60 to >90% was achieved across GAC contactors, dependent upon the GAC bed life and/or use of a preoxidant (chlorine or ozone). In all experiments, NDMA formation was not reduced to zero, which suggests that although some precursors are strongly sorbed, others are not. This is among the first studies to show that AC is capable of adsorbing NDMA precursors, but further research is needed to better understand NDMA precursor chemical properties (e.g., hydrophobicity, molecular size) and evaluate how best to incorporate this finding into full-scale designs and practice.

  11. Location of adsorbed species in NO-reduction catalysts by high resolution neutron powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowkes, A.J.; Rosseinsky, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Catalysts containing copper ion exchanged into zeolites are attracting considerable attention due to their efficiency for both NO decomposition and the selective catalytic reduction of NO x in so-called lean-burn conditions in automotive exhausts. This presentation will describe the application of in-situ high resolution neutron powder diffraction to study active sites in a Cu-zeolite Y catalyst active for NO decomposition. The study under NO pressure reveals the location of two distinct copper sites for sorption. The influence of copper oxidation state on the structure of both the pristine and NO-loaded zeolites will be discussed. (author)

  12. Methanol Reforming over Cobalt Catalysts Prepared from Fumarate Precursors: TPD Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftichia Papadopoulou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD was employed to investigate adsorption characteristics of CH3OH, H2O, H2, CO2 and CO on cobalt-manganese oxide catalysts prepared through mixed Co-Mn fumarate precursors either by pyrolysis or oxidation and oxidation/reduction pretreatment. Pyrolysis temperature and Co/Mn ratio were the variable synthesis parameters. Adsorption of methanol, water and CO2 was carried out at room temperature. Adsorption of H2 and H2O was carried out at 25 and 300 °C. Adsorption of CO was carried out at 25 and 150 °C. The goal of the work was to gain insight on the observed differences in the performance of the aforementioned catalysts in methanol steam reforming. TPD results indicated that activity differences are mostly related to variation in the number density of active sites, which are able to adsorb and decompose methanol.

  13. Directed deposition of silicon nanowires using neopentasilane as precursor and gold as catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Kämpken

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the applicability of neopentasilane (Si(SiH34 as a precursor for the formation of silicon nanowires by using gold nanoparticles as a catalyst has been explored. The growth proceeds via the formation of liquid gold/silicon alloy droplets, which excrete the silicon nanowires upon continued decomposition of the precursor. This mechanism determines the diameter of the Si nanowires. Different sources for the gold nanoparticles have been tested: the spontaneous dewetting of gold films, thermally annealed gold films, deposition of preformed gold nanoparticles, and the use of “liquid bright gold”, a material historically used for the gilding of porcelain and glass. The latter does not only form gold nanoparticles when deposited as a thin film and thermally annealed, but can also be patterned by using UV irradiation, providing access to laterally structured layers of silicon nanowires.

  14. Synthesis of Biodiesel in Batch and Packed-Bed Reactors Using Powdered and Granular Sugar Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaun, J.; Lim, P. M.; Balan, W. S.; Yaser, A. Z.; Chong, K. P.

    2017-06-01

    Increasing world production of palm oil warrants effective utilization of its waste. In particular, conversion of waste cooking oil into biodiesel has obtained global interest because of renewable energy need and reduction of CO2 emission. In this study, oleic acid used as a model compound for waste cooking oil conversion using esterification reaction catalysed by sugar catalyst (SC) in powdered (P-SC) and granular (G-SC) forms. The catalysts were synthesized via incomplete carbonization of D-glucose followed by functionalization with concentrated sulphuric acid. Catalysts characterizations were done for their physical and chemical properties using modern tools. Batch and packed-bed reactor systems were used to evaluate the reactivity of the catalysts. The results showed that G-SC had slightly higher total acidity and more porous than P-SC. The experimental conditions for batch reaction were temperature of 60°C, molar ratio of 1:20 (Oleic Acid:Methanol) and 2 wt. catalyst with respect to oleic acid. The results showed the maximum oleic acid conversion using G-SC and P-SC were 52 and 48, respectively. Whereas, the continuous reaction with varying feed flow rate as a function of retention time was studied by using 3 g of P-SC in 60 °C and 1:20 molar ratio in a packed-bed reactor. The results showed that a longer retention time which was 6.48 min and feed flow rate 1.38 ml/min, achieved higher average conversion of 9.9 and decreased with further increasing flow rate. G-SC showed a better average conversion of 10.8 at lowest feed flow rate of 1.38 ml/min in continuous reaction experiments. In a broader perspective, large scale continuous biodiesel production is feasible using granular over powdered catalyst mainly due to it lower pressure drop.

  15. Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction and Microbial Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.; Nieto Delgado, Cesar; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Commercially available activated carbon (AC) powders made from different precursor materials (coal, peat, coconut shell, hardwood, and phenolic resin) were electrochemically evaluated as oxygen reduction catalysts and tested as cathode catalysts

  16. Production of dispersed nanometer sized YAG powders from alkoxide, nitrate and chloride precursors and spark plasma sintering to transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, M.; Fernandez, A.; Menendez, J.L.; Torrecillas, R.

    2010-01-01

    Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) was synthesized from different starting materials, i.e., alkoxide, nitrate and chloride precursors. The conversion steps from the precursors to crystalline YAG were studied by Raman spectroscopy. Dispersed YAG powders were formed at a relatively low temperature, around 800 o C by the chlorides route, whereas alkoxide precursors needed firing over 900 o C and nitrates even over 1100 o C. Lyophilized YAG gel was sintered to transparency by the spark plasma sintering method at 1500 o C with in-line transmittances close to 60% at 680 nm and over 80% in the infrared range.

  17. Gas atomized precursor alloy powder for oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieken, Joel [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-12-13

    Gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) was employed as a simplified method for producing precursor powders for oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic stainless steels (e.g., Fe-Cr-Y-(Ti,Hf)-O), departing from the conventional mechanical alloying (MA) process. During GARS processing a reactive atomization gas (i.e., Ar-O2) was used to oxidize the powder surfaces during primary break-up and rapid solidification of the molten alloy. This resulted in envelopment of the powders by an ultra-thin (t < 150 nm) metastable Cr-enriched oxide layer that was used as a vehicle for solid-state transport of O into the consolidated microstructure. In an attempt to better understand the kinetics of this GARS reaction, theoretical cooling curves for the atomized droplets were calculated and used to establish an oxidation model for this process. Subsequent elevated temperature heat treatments, which were derived from Rhines pack measurements using an internal oxidation model, were used to promote thermodynamically driven O exchange reactions between trapped films of the initial Cr-enriched surface oxide and internal Y-enriched intermetallic precipitates. This novel microstructural evolution process resulted in the successful formation of nano-metric Y-enriched dispersoids, as confirmed using high energy X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), equivalent to conventional ODS alloys from MA powders. The thermal stability of these Y-enriched dispersoids was evaluated using high temperature (1200°C) annealing treatments ranging from 2.5 to 1,000 hrs of exposure. In a further departure from current ODS practice, replacing Ti with additions of Hf appeared to improve the Y-enriched dispersoid thermal stability by means of crystal structure modification. Additionally, the spatial distribution of the dispersoids was found to depend strongly on the original rapidly solidified microstructure. To exploit this, ODS microstructures were engineered from

  18. Powder of a copper oxide superconductor precursor, fabrication process and use for the preparation of superconducting oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehaudt, P.

    1990-01-01

    The precursor powder comprises at least a copper compound (hydroxide, oxide and hydroxynitrates), at least a rare earth and/or yttrium compound (nitrates, hydroxides and hydroxynitrates) or bismuth oxide and at least an alkaline earth nitrate. It can be prepared by atomization drying of a suspension a copper precipitate or coprecipitate and other elements of the superconducting oxide in solution [fr

  19. Structural and morphological characterization of TiO2-ZrO2 powders obtained by the polymeric precursors method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M.A.; Gama, L.; Bispo, A.; Neiva, L.S.; Bernardi, M.I.B.; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to characterize the structure and morphology of TiO 2 -ZrO 2 powders obtained by polymeric precursor method. For this we studied the following compositions: 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 moles of Zr and calcined at 800 deg C for one hour. The powders obtained were characterized by XRD, SEM and nitrogen adsorption (BET). The analysis of X-ray diffraction showed that the powders had a phase of TiO 2 in the anatase form and a tetragonal phase of ZrO 2 . The crystallite size was between 8, 13 and 11 nm respectively. The analysis of scanning electron microscopy showed the growth of ZrO 2 nanoparticles and that these comprise spherical agglomerates of less than 100 nm. Particle size determined by the BET ranging 28.1-29.5 nm, showing thereby the character of nanosized powders. (author)

  20. Tungsten oxide coatings deposited by plasma spray using powder and solution precursor for detection of nitrogen dioxide gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao, E-mail: zhangc@yzu.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Wang, Jie [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Geng, Xin [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China)

    2016-05-25

    Increasing attention has been paid on preparation methods for resistive-type gas sensors based on semiconductor metal oxides. In this work, tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) coatings were prepared on alumina substrates and used as gas sensitive layers. The coatings were deposited by atmospheric plasma spray using powder, solution precursor, or a combination of both. Tungsten oxide powder through a powder port and ammonium tungstate aqueous solution through a liquid port were injected into plasma stream respectively or together to deposit WO{sub 3} coatings. Phase structures in the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction analyzer. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy images confirmed that the coatings were in microstructure, nanostructure or micro-nanostructure. The sensing properties of the sensors based on the coatings exposed to 1 ppm nitrogen dioxide gas were characterized in a home-made instrument. Sensing properties of the coatings were compared and discussed. The influences of gas humidity and working temperature on the sensor responses were further studied. - Highlights: • Porous gas sensitive coatings were deposited by plasma spray using powder and solution precursor. • Crystallized WO{sub 3} were obtained through hybrid plasma spray plus a pre-conditioned step. • Plasma power had an important influence on coating microstructure. • The particle size of atmospheric plasma-sprayed microstructured coating was stable. • Solution precursor plasma-sprayed WO{sub 3} coatings had nanostructure and showed good responses to 1 ppm NO{sub 2}.

  1. Hydrogen production with nickel powder cathode catalysts in microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Selembo, Priscilla A.

    2010-01-01

    Although platinum is commonly used as catalyst on the cathode in microbial electrolysis cells (MEC), non-precious metal alternatives are needed to reduce costs. Cathodes were constructed using a nickel powder (0.5-1 μm) and their performance was compared to conventional electrodes containing Pt (0.002 μm) in MECs and electrochemical tests. The MEC performance in terms of coulombic efficiency, cathodic, hydrogen and energy recoveries were similar using Ni or Pt cathodes, although the maximum hydrogen production rate (Q) was slightly lower for Ni (Q = 1.2-1.3 m3 H2/m3/d; 0.6 V applied) than Pt (1.6 m3 H2/m3/d). Nickel dissolution was minimized by replacing medium in the reactor under anoxic conditions. The stability of the Ni particles was confirmed by examining the cathodes after 12 MEC cycles using scanning electron microscopy and linear sweep voltammetry. Analysis of the anodic communities in these reactors revealed dominant populations of Geobacter sulfurreduces and Pelobacter propionicus. These results demonstrate that nickel powder can be used as a viable alternative to Pt in MECs, allowing large scale production of cathodes with similar performance to systems that use precious metal catalysts. © 2009 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu.

  2. Nanostructured manganese oxides as highly active water oxidation catalysts: a boost from manganese precursor chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Prashanth W; Indra, Arindam; Littlewood, Patrick; Schwarze, Michael; Göbel, Caren; Schomäcker, Reinhard; Driess, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    We present a facile synthesis of bioinspired manganese oxides for chemical and photocatalytic water oxidation, starting from a reliable and versatile manganese(II) oxalate single-source precursor (SSP) accessible through an inverse micellar molecular approach. Strikingly, thermal decomposition of the latter precursor in various environments (air, nitrogen, and vacuum) led to the three different mineral phases of bixbyite (Mn2 O3 ), hausmannite (Mn3 O4 ), and manganosite (MnO). Initial chemical water oxidation experiments using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) gave the maximum catalytic activity for Mn2 O3 and MnO whereas Mn3 O4 had a limited activity. The substantial increase in the catalytic activity of MnO in chemical water oxidation was demonstrated by the fact that a phase transformation occurs at the surface from nanocrystalline MnO into an amorphous MnOx (1catalysts has been proposed by determining the amount of accessible manganese centers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Influence of Cobalt Precursor on Efficient Production of Commercial Fuels over FTS Co/SiC Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raquel de la Osa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available β-SiC-supported cobalt catalysts have been prepared from nitrate, acetate, chloride and citrate salts to study the dependence of Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS on the type of precursor. Com/SiC catalysts were synthetized by vacuum-assisted impregnation while N2 adsorption/desorption, XRD, TEM, TPR, O2 pulses and acid/base titrations were used as characterization techniques. FTS catalytic performance was carried out at 220 °C and 250 °C while keeping constant the pressure (20 bar, space velocity (6000 Ncm3/g·h and syngas composition (H2/CO:2. The nature of cobalt precursor was found to influence basic behavior, extent of reduction and metallic particle size. For β-SiC-supported catalysts, the use of cobalt nitrate resulted in big Co crystallites, an enhanced degree of reduction and higher basicity compared to acetate, chloride and citrate-based catalysts. Consequently, cobalt nitrate provided a better activity and selectivity to C5+ (less than 10% methane was formed, which was centered in kerosene-diesel fraction (α = 0.90. On the contrary, catalyst from cobalt citrate, characterized by the highest viscosity and acidity values, presented a highly dispersed distribution of Co nanoparticles leading to a lower reducibility. Therefore, a lower FTS activity was obtained and chain growth probability was shortened as observed from methane and gasoline-kerosene (α = 0.76 production when using cobalt citrate.

  4. Swelling of radiation-cured polymer precursor powder for silicon carbide by pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Takeyama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic yield, density, volume change and pore size distribution were measured for radiation- and thermally cured PCS powder when they were pyrolyzed in the temperature range of 673–973 K. Higher ceramic yield was obtained for radiation-cured powder due to smaller amount of evolved gas. Temperature dependence of volume change and the total pore volume show that the formation and disappearance of pores in the powders were determined by the volume shrinkage and evolution of decomposed gases. Volume shrinkage narrowed the pore size distribution for radiation-cured powder. For thermally cured powder, the narrowing of size distribution was disturbed by aggregated pores. Smaller amount of evolved gas from radiation-cured powder relative to thermally cured powder prevented the aggregation of pores and provided the narrow size distribution.

  5. Domain growth of carbon nanotubes assisted by dewetting of thin catalyst precursor films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Alok Kumar [Defence Materials and Stores R and D Establishment (DRDO), GT Road, Kanpur 208013 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Sachan, Priyanka; Samanta, Chandan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Kingsuk [Defence Materials and Stores R and D Establishment (DRDO), GT Road, Kanpur 208013 (India); Sharma, Ashutosh, E-mail: ashutos@iitk.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2014-01-01

    We explore self-organized dewetting of ultrathin films of a novel metal complex as a one step surface patterning method to create nanoislands of iron, using which spatially separated carbon nanostructures were synthesized. Dewetting of ultrathin metal complex films was induced by two different methods: liquid solvent exposure and thermal annealing to engender surface patterning. For thermal dewetting, thin films of the iron oleate complex were dewetted at high temperature. In the case of liquid solvent assisted dewetting, the metal complex, mixed with a sacrificial polymer (polystyrene) was spin coated as thin films (<40 nm) and then dewetted under an optimal solution mixture consisting of methyl ethyl ketone, acetone and water. The carrier polymer was then selectively removed to produce the iron metal islands. These metal islands were used for selective growth of discrete patches of multiwall CNTs and CNFs by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Solvent induced dewetting showed clear advantages over thermal dewetting owing to reduced size of catalyst domains formed by dewetting, an improved control over CNT growth as well as in its ability to immobilize the seed particles. The generic solution mediated dewetting and pattern generation in thin films of various catalytic precursors can thus be a powerful method for selective domain growth of a variety of functional nanomaterials.

  6. [Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}]MoO{sub 4} as a precursor for Pd–Mo-containing catalysts: Thermal behavior, X-ray analysis of the thermolysis products and related catalytic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubanov, Alexander I., E-mail: gubanov@niic.nsc.su [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Akad. Lavrentiev Prospekt 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Filatov, Eugeny Yu.; Semitut, Eugeny Yu.; Smolentsev, Anton I. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Akad. Lavrentiev Prospekt 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Snytnikov, Pavel V.; Potemkin, Dmitry I. [Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Akad. Lavrentiev Prospekt 5, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Korenev, Sergey V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Akad. Lavrentiev Prospekt 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-20

    Highlights: • [Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}]MoO{sub 4} as a precursor for Pd–Mo-containing catalysts. • Different products are formed depending on atmosphere of thermal decomposition. • Thermolysis in He atmosphere affords finely mixed two-phase nanosized system Pd–MoO{sub 2}. • Pd–MoO{sub 2} system can be a promising catalyst both in pure and supported form. - Abstract: Compound [Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}]MoO{sub 4} (1) has been synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, analytical data, powder and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Thermal properties of 1 have been examined by thermogravimetry. Powder X-ray diffraction has been applied to investigate the nanosized products of thermal decomposition of the precursor in hydrogen (Pd–Mo) and helium (Pd–MoO{sub 2}) atmospheres. Pd–Mo catalysts supported with γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been tested in oxidation of CO and H{sub 2} mixtures.

  7. Simultaneous removal of ammonia and N-nitrosamine precursors from high ammonia water by zeolite and powdered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Runmiao; Donovan, Ariel; Zhang, Haiting; Ma, Yinfa; Adams, Craig; Yang, John; Hua, Bin; Inniss, Enos; Eichholz, Todd; Shi, Honglan

    2018-02-01

    When adding sufficient chlorine to achieve breakpoint chlorination to source water containing high concentration of ammonia during drinking water treatment, high concentrations of disinfection by-products (DBPs) may form. If N-nitrosamine precursors are present, highly toxic N-nitrosamines, primarily N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), may also form. Removing their precursors before disinfection should be a more effective way to minimize these DBPs formation. In this study, zeolites and activated carbon were examined for ammonia and N-nitrosamine precursor removal when incorporated into drinking water treatment processes. The test results indicate that Mordenite zeolite can remove ammonia and five of seven N-nitrosamine precursors efficiently by single step adsorption test. The practical applicability was evaluated by simulation of typical drinking water treatment processes using six-gang stirring system. The Mordenite zeolite was applied at the steps of lime softening, alum coagulation, and alum coagulation with powdered activated carbon (PAC) sorption. While the lime softening process resulted in poor zeolite performance, alum coagulation did not impact ammonia and N-nitrosamine precursor removal. During alum coagulation, more than 67% ammonia and 70%-100% N-nitrosamine precursors were removed by Mordenite zeolite (except 3-(dimethylaminomethyl)indole (DMAI) and 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine (DMAP)). PAC effectively removed DMAI and DMAP when added during alum coagulation. A combination of the zeolite and PAC selected efficiently removed ammonia and all tested seven N-nitrosamine precursors (dimethylamine (DMA), ethylmethylamine (EMA), diethylamine (DEA), dipropylamine (DPA), trimethylamine (TMA), DMAP, and DMAI) during the alum coagulation process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The influences of microwave irradiation and polyol precursor pH on Cu/AC catalyst and its CO oxidation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kui-Hao; Shih, Kaimin; Wey, Ming-Yen

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of microwave irradiation parameters and the pH of the polyol precursor on the morphological features and catalytic performances of Cu/activated carbon (AC) catalysts. Experimental results of carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation indicated that the highest catalytic activity is achieved when the Cu/AC catalyst is prepared with microwave irradiation at 700 W for 60 s. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of beneficial small copper aciculae on the Cu/AC catalyst under such a microwave irradiation scheme. Further investigation of operational parameters found that the performance of Cu/AC catalysts is enhanced by adopting a pH = 12 polyol precursor solution. With the observation that small cube copper ( 16 nm) aggregates form when a pH = 12 polyol precursor solution is used, this study also demonstrated the importance of controlling the morphology of metal nanoparticles on Cu/AC catalysts when using the microwave-assisted polyol method.

  9. The influences of microwave irradiation and polyol precursor pH on Cu/AC catalyst and its CO oxidation performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Kui-Hao; Shih, Kaimin; Wey, Ming-Yen

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of microwave irradiation parameters and the pH of the polyol precursor on the morphological features and catalytic performances of Cu/activated carbon (AC) catalysts. Experimental results of carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation indicated that the highest catalytic activity is achieved when the Cu/AC catalyst is prepared with microwave irradiation at 700 W for 60 s. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of beneficial small copper aciculae on the Cu/AC catalyst under such a microwave irradiation scheme. Further investigation of operational parameters found that the performance of Cu/AC catalysts is enhanced by adopting a pH = 12 polyol precursor solution. With the observation that small cube copper (∼16 nm) aggregates form when a pH = 12 polyol precursor solution is used, this study also demonstrated the importance of controlling the morphology of metal nanoparticles on Cu/AC catalysts when using the microwave-assisted polyol method.

  10. Synthesis of (Cr,V){sub 2}(C,N) solid solution powders by thermal processing precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Anrui [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Liu, Ying [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Material & Technology, Ministry of Education, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Ma, Shiqing; Qiu, Yuchong; Rong, Pengcheng; Ye, Jinwen [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China)

    2017-06-01

    The single-phase (Cr,V){sub 2}(C,N) solid solution powders were fabricated via carbothermal reduction-nitridation (CRN) processing technique. The effects of heat treatment temperature, nitrogen pressure and carbon proportion were experimentally studied in detail by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and thermal analysis. The chemical transformations of vanadium and chromium compounds were as follows: precursors → V{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} → Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (Cr,V){sub 2}(C,N) → (Cr,V){sub 2}(C,N). When the heat-treated temperature was below 1200 °C, chromium oxides didn’t completely react. However, higher temperature ∼1300 °C could not only lead to the segregation of some nitrides and carbon black, but also to the occurrence of fiber-bridged particles. The system nitrogen pressure over 0.03 MPa would cause a subtle transformation of (Cr,V){sub 2}(C,N) to VCrN{sub 2}. When the carbon proportion was below 15 wt%, the oxides could not be completely reduced, while when the carbon proportion was above 15.5 wt%, some undesired carbides, like Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}, would form. Ultimately, the homogeneously distributed pure-phase (Cr,V){sub 2}(C,N) spherical particles with the average size of ∼1.5 μm were obtained at the optimal conditions of the treatment of precursors at 1200 °C for 1 h with the nitrogen pressure of 0.03 MPa and carbon content of 15.5 wt%. The chemical composition of the solid solution with the optimal process could be drawn as (Cr{sub 0.85}V{sub 0.15}){sub 2}(C{sub 0.57}N{sub 0.43}). Thermal processing precursors method shows the advantages of lower synthesis temperature, shorter period and finer particles when comparing with the conventional preparations. - Highlights: • Single phase of (Cr,V){sub 2}(C,N) powders were synthesized for the first time. • Precursors were used to prepared the powders by carbothermal

  11. Preparation of iron molybdate catalysts for methanol to formaldehyde oxidation based on ammonium molybdoferrate(II precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Nikolenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It was demonstrated that iron molybdate catalysts for methanol oxidation can be prepared using Fe(II as a precursor instead of Fe(III. This would allow for reduction of acidity of preparation solutions as well as elimination of Fe(III oxide impurities which are detrimental for the process selectivity. The system containing Fe(II and Mo(VI species in aqueous solution was investigated using UV–Vis spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that three types of chemical reactions occur in the Fe(II–Mo(VI system: (i formation of complexes between Fe(II and molybdate(VI ions, (ii inner sphere oxidation of coordinated Fe(II by Mo(VI and (iii decomposition of the Fe–Mo complexes to form scarcely soluble Fe(III molybdate, Mo(VI hydrous trioxide and molybdenum blue. Solid molybdoferrate(II prepared by interaction of Fe(II and Mo(VI in solution was characterized by EDXA, TGA, DTA and XRD and a scheme of its thermal evolution proposed. The iron molybdate catalyst prepared from Fe(II precursor was tested in methanol-to-formaldehyde oxidation in a continuous flow fixed-bed reactor to show similar activity and selectivity to the conventional catalyst prepared with the use of Fe(III.

  12. Surface area, crystal morphology and characterization of transition alumina powders from a new gibbsite precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Vieira Coelho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure was used to prepare a microcrystalline powder constituted by thin euhedral hexagonal gibbsite plates, 0.2 to 0.6 µm in diameter and 32 nm thick. The powder, fired between 200 and 1000 °C, produced chi and kappa transition aluminas. Alpha-alumina is formed from 1000 °C and recrystallized up to 1500 °C. At 1000 °C, kappa- and alpha-alumina coexisted, but kappa-alumina could only be characterized by SAED. The details of the internal organization of the transition alumina pseudomorphs were clearly observable in TEM due to the great thinness of the I-gibbsite plates. The specific surface area varied from pristine I-gibbsite (24.9 m².g-1 to chi- and kappa transition aluminas (25.4 m².g-1 at 1000 °C to alpha-alumina (4.0 m².g-1 at 1500 °C. The maximum value of specific surface area is 347 m².g-1 in chi-alumina powder at 300 °C, a difference from Bayer gibbsite, in which the chi-alumina highest surface area is 370 m².g-1 at 400 °C.

  13. Using precipitated Cr on the surface of Cu-Cr alloy powders as catalyst synthesizing CNTs/Cu composite powders by water-assisted CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Honglei; Liu, Ping; Chen, Xiaohong; Bi, Liming; Zhang, Ke; Liu, Xinkuan; Li, Wei; Ma, Fengcang

    2018-02-01

    Given that the conventional catalyst is easily soluble in the matrix to result in the poor performance of the CNTs/Cu composite materials, the Cr nano-particles precipitated on the surface of Cu-Cr particles are first used as catalysts to prepare the CNTs/Cu composite powders by means of water-assisted chemical vapor deposition in situ synthesis. The results show that the morphological difference of the precipitated Cr nano-particle is obvious with the change of solution and aging treatment, and the morphology, length and diameter of the synthetic CNTs are also different. The catalyst of Cr nano-particle has the best morphology and the synthesized CNTs had a good wettability with Cu particles when the Cu-Cr composite powders was solution-treated at 1023 K for 60 min and then was aged at 723 K for 120 min. The length, diameter, yield and purity of the synthesized CNTs can be also affected by the moisture content in the reaction gas. It is the most suitable for the growth of CNTs when the moisture content is 0.4%, and the high purity and defect-free CNTs with the smooth pipe wall, a diameter of 20 ˜ 30 nm and a length of up to 1800 nm can be obtained. The yield of CNTs with the moisture content of 0.4% reached to 138%, which was increased by 119% to compare with that without moisture. In this paper, a feasible technology was offered for the preparation of high performance CNTs/Cu composites.

  14. Development of Ni-Based Catalysts Derived from Hydrotalcite-Like Compounds Precursors for Synthesis Gas Production via Methane or Ethanol Reforming

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Li Du; Xu Wu; Qiang Cheng; Yan-Li Huang; Wei Huang

    2017-01-01

    As a favorably clean fuel, syngas (synthesis gas) production has been the focus of concern in past decades. Substantial literatures reported the syngas production by various catalytic reforming reactions particularly in methane or ethanol reforming. Among the developed catalysts in these reforming processes, Ni-based catalysts from hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTLcs) precursors have drawn considerable attention for their preferable structural traits. This review covers the recent literature r...

  15. Crystallization of an amorphous B-C-N precursor with a Li-B-N catalyst at high pressures and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Dongxu; Yu Dongli; Wang Peng; Li Yingmei; He Julong; Xu Bo; Liu Zhongyuan [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, Hebei Province (China); Tian Yongjun, E-mail: fhcl@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, Hebei Province (China)

    2009-11-15

    An orthorhombic B-C-N compound was synthesized using an amorphous B-C-N precursor and a Li-B-N catalyst at 6 GPa and 1773 K. The results of energy dispersive spectrometry and electronic energy loss spectrometry suggest a stoichiometry of B:C:N = 1:3.3:1. In addition, the Li-B-N catalyst improves the crystallizations of the B-C-N compound, graphite and BN and therefore might be a profitable catalyst in ultrahigh pressure experiments.

  16. Crystallization of an amorphous B-C-N precursor with a Li-B-N catalyst at high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongxu; Yu Dongli; Wang Peng; Li Yingmei; He Julong; Xu Bo; Liu Zhongyuan; Tian Yongjun

    2009-01-01

    An orthorhombic B-C-N compound was synthesized using an amorphous B-C-N precursor and a Li-B-N catalyst at 6 GPa and 1773 K. The results of energy dispersive spectrometry and electronic energy loss spectrometry suggest a stoichiometry of B:C:N = 1:3.3:1. In addition, the Li-B-N catalyst improves the crystallizations of the B-C-N compound, graphite and BN and therefore might be a profitable catalyst in ultrahigh pressure experiments.

  17. Preparation of (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox precursor powders by a modified polyethylene glycol based sol-gel process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Andersen, N.H.

    2002-01-01

    A modified sol-gel process based on polyethylene glycol has been developed for preparing (Bi,Pb)(2)Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox precursor powders in view of Ag-sheeted tape manufacture. A careful control of the pH and concentration temperature yields an amorphous gel, which can be converted to a fine and extremely...

  18. In situ Generated Ruthenium Catalyst Systems Bearing Diverse N-Heterocyclic Carbene Precursors for Atom-Economic Amide Synthesis from Alcohols and Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hua; Xiong, Mao-Qian; Cheng, Chuan-Xiang; Wang, Hua-Jing; Lu, Qiang; Liu, Hong-Fu; Yao, Fu-Bin; Chen, Cheng; Verpoort, Francis

    2018-02-16

    The transition-metal-catalyzed direct synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines is herein demonstrated as a highly environmentally benign and atom-economic process. Among various catalyst systems, in situ generated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-based ruthenium (Ru) halide catalyst systems have been proven to be active for this transformation. However, these existing catalyst systems usually require an additional ligand to achieve satisfactory results. In this work, through extensive screening of a diverse variety of NHC precursors, we discovered an active in situ catalyst system for efficient amide synthesis without any additional ligand. Notably, this catalyst system was found to be insensitive to the electronic effects of the substrates, and various electron-deficient substrates, which were not highly reactive with our previous catalyst systems, could be employed to afford the corresponding amides efficiently. Furthermore, mechanistic investigations were performed to provide a rationale for the high activity of the optimized catalyst system. NMR-scale reactions indicated that the rapid formation of a Ru hydride intermediate (signal at δ=-7.8 ppm in the 1 H NMR spectrum) after the addition of the alcohol substrate should be pivotal in establishing the high catalyst activity. Besides, HRMS analysis provided possible structures of the in situ generated catalyst system. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. From 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to Polymer Precursors : Catalyst Screening Studies on the Conversion of 1,2,6-hexanetriol to 1,6-hexanediol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buntara, Teddy; Noel, Sébastien; Phua, Pim Huat; Melián-Cabrera, Ignacio; Vries, Johannes G. de; Heeres, Hero J.

    1,6-hexanediol (1) is an important polymer precursor for the polyester industry. In this paper, exploratory catalyst screening studies on the synthesis of 1 from 1,2,6-hexanetriol (2) are described via two different routes. The latter is available by a two-step procedure from 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

  20. Molybdenum acetate like precursor of molybdenum carburized supported on alumina: a catalyst for hydrogenation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkovic, Lucia M; Parra, Ruben D; Marquez Manuel; Larsen, Gustavo

    1994-01-01

    The stability of the Al203 supported dimers under relatively high temperatures and hydrocarbon/H2 (carburizing) atmospheres is reported also, it has been developed a new method for Mo2 loading of the support based on the wet impregnation of the latter. Since carbided Mo is active for hydrogenations, the isobutene/H2 has been chosen as the probe reaction. Al203 supported Mo2(Ac)4 results in a catalyst active for isobutene hydrogenation after treatment with a H2/C2H6 2:1 mixture at 753 k

  1. Growth kinetics of tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO2 crystallites in 3 mol% yttria partially stabilized ZrO2 (3Y-PSZ) precursor powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Chih-Wei; Lee, Kuen-Chan; Yen, Feng-Lin; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Lee, Huey-Er; Wen, Shaw-Bing; Wang, Moo-Chin; Stack, Margaret Mary

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The crystalline structures were composed of tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO 2 . • Growth kinetics of t-ZrO 2 in the 3Y-PSZ precursor powder is described as: D te 2 =(4.57±0.55)t 0.12±0.02 exp(-((24.79±0.38)×10 3 )/(RT) ). • Growth kinetics of m-ZrO 2 in the 3Y-PSZ precursor powder is described as: D m 2 =(4.40±1.63)t 0.17±0.08 exp(-((66.47±3.97)×10 3 )/(RT) ). - Abstract: The growth kinetics of tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO 2 crystallites in 3 mol% yttria partially stabilized ZrO 2 (3Y-PSZ) precursor powder has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM). After calcination of the 3Y-PSZ precursor powder between 773 and 1073 K for 2 h, the crystalline structures were composed of tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO 2 as the primary and secondary phases, respectively. When the 3Y-PSZ precursor powder was calcined at 773 K for 2 h, the BET specific surface area was 97.13 m 2 /g, which is equivalent to a particle size of 10.30 nm. The crystallite sizes determined via XRD and BET agreed well, indicating that the powder was virtually non-agglomerated. The growth kinetics of tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO 2 crystallite isothermal growth in the 3Y-PSZ precursor powder are described by: D te 2 =(4.57±0.55)t 0.12±0.02 exp(-((24.79±0.38)×10 3 )/(RT) ) and D m 2 =(4.40±1.63)t 0.17±0.08 exp(-((66.47±3.97)×10 3 )/(RT) ), respectively, for 773K≤T≤1073K. D te and D m denote the crystallite size of tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO 2 at time t and temperature T, respectively

  2. Microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition growth of few-walled carbon nanotubes using catalyst derived from an iron-containing block copolymer precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Lu, Jennifer; Zhou, Otto

    2008-01-01

    The microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) method is now commonly used for directional and conformal growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on supporting substrates. One of the shortcomings of the current process is the lack of control of the diameter and diameter distribution of the CNTs due to difficulties in synthesizing well-dispersed catalysts. Recently, block copolymer derived catalysts have been developed which offer the potential of fine control of both the size of and the spacing between the metal clusters. In this paper we report the successful growth of CNTs with narrow diameter distribution using polystyrene-block-polyferrocenylethylmethylsilane (PS-b-PFEMS) as the catalyst precursor. The study shows that higher growth pressure leads to better CNT growth. Besides the pressure, the effects on the growth of CNTs of the growth parameters, such as temperature and precursor gas ratio, are also studied

  3. Development of Ni-Based Catalysts Derived from Hydrotalcite-Like Compounds Precursors for Synthesis Gas Production via Methane or Ethanol Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As a favorably clean fuel, syngas (synthesis gas production has been the focus of concern in past decades. Substantial literatures reported the syngas production by various catalytic reforming reactions particularly in methane or ethanol reforming. Among the developed catalysts in these reforming processes, Ni-based catalysts from hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTLcs precursors have drawn considerable attention for their preferable structural traits. This review covers the recent literature reporting syngas production with Ni-based catalysts from HTLc precursors via methane or ethanol reforming. The discussion was initiated with catalyst preparation (including conventional and novel means, followed by subsequent thermal treatment processes, then composition design and the addition of promoters in these catalysts. As Ni-based catalysts have thermodynamic potential to deactivate because of carbon deposition or metal sintering, measures for dealing with these problems were finally summarized. To obtain optimal catalytic performances and resultantly better syngas production, based on analyzing the achievements of the references, some perspectives were finally proposed.

  4. Catalytic oxidation of n-hexane promoted by Ce1−xCuxO2 catalysts prepared by one-step polymeric precursor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, Vinícius D.; Lima, Maurício M. de; Cantarero, Andrés; Bernardi, Maria I.B.; Bellido, Jorge D.A.; Assaf, Elisabete M.; Balzer, Rosana; Probst, Luiz F.D.; Fajardo, Humberto V.

    2013-01-01

    Ceria-supported copper catalysts (Ce 1−x Cu x O 2 , with x (mol) = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.10) were prepared in one step through the polymeric precursor method. The textural properties of the catalysts were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rietveld refinement, N 2 -physisorption (BET surface area), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), UV–visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopies and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). In a previous study ceria-supported copper catalysts were found to be efficient in the preferential oxidation of CO. In this study, we extended the catalytic application of Ce 1−x Cu x O 2 systems to n-hexane oxidation and it was verified that the catalysts were highly efficient in the proposed reaction. The best performance (up to 95% conversion) was observed for the catalysts with low copper loads (Ce 0.97 Cu 0.03 O 2 and Ce 0.99 Cu 0.01 O 2 , respectively). The physicochemical characterizations revealed that these behaviors could be attributed to the copper species present in the catalysts and the interaction between CuO and CeO 2 , which vary according to the copper content. - Highlights: • Synthesis of CuO/CeO2 catalysts by the one-step polymeric precursor method. • 95% n-hexane conversion on Ce0.97Cu0.03O2 catalyst. • Redox properties play a key role in the catalytic performance

  5. Improvement of activated carbons as oxygen reduction catalysts in neutral solutions by ammonia gas treatment and their performance in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.; Nieto Delgado, Cesar; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Commercially available activated carbon (AC) powders from different precursor materials (peat, coconut shell, coal, and hardwood) were treated with ammonia gas at 700 C to improve their performance as oxygen reduction catalysts in neutral p

  6. Hydrodeoxygenation of furfuryl alcohol over Cu/MgAl and Cu/ZnAl catalysts derived from hydrotalcite-like precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Andrea Pino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous phase hydrodeoxygenation (HDO of furfuryl alcohol over Cu/MgAl and Cu/ZnAl catalysts with different Mg/Al and Zn/Al molar ratios, were investigated. Mg-Al and Zn-Al mixed oxides derived from hydrotalcites precursors were used as supports, which were impregnated with an aqueous solution of copper nitrate by incipient wetness impregnation. The HDO reaction was carried out in a typical batch reactor at 5 MPa of H2 and 200 °C for 4 h. Among the catalysts studied, the Cu/MgAl-0.5 catalyst exhibited the higher furfuryl alcohol conversion (86% and yield of cyclopentanol (35%, which is the reaction product with the highest hydrogen-carbon (H/C ratio. With the Cu/MgAl-3 catalyst a high cyclopentanone yield (67% was achieved. The results obtained, showed that copper supported on mixed oxides catalysts derived from hydrotalcite precursors are a promising alternative to improve the bio-oil quality.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of scandia ceria stabilized zirconia powders prepared by polymeric precursor method for integration into anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hengyong; Liu, Xin; Yu, Qingchun

    2011-03-01

    Scandia ceria stabilized zirconia (10Sc1CeSZ) powders are synthesized by polymeric precursor method for use as the electrolyte of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The synthesized powders are characterized in terms of crystalline structure, particle shape and size distribution by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). 10Sc1CeSZ electrolyte films are deposited on green anode substrate by screen-printing method. Effects of 10Sc1CeSZ powder characteristics on sintered films are investigated regarding the integration process for application as the electrolytes in anode-supported SOFCs. It is found that the 10Sc1CeSZ films made from nano-sized powders with average size of 655 nm are very porous with many open pores. In comparison, the 10Sc1CeSZ films made from micron-sized powders with average size of 2.5 μm, which are obtained by calcination of nano-sized powders at higher temperatures, are much denser with a few closed pinholes. The cell performances are 911 mW cm-2 at the current density of 1.25 A cm-2 and 800 °C by application of Ce0.8Gd0.2O2 (CGO) barrier layer and La0.6Sr0.4CoO3 (LSC) cathode.

  8. High-performance oxygen reduction catalysts in both alkaline and acidic fuel cells based on pre-treating carbon material and iron precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ping; Barkholtz, Heather M.; Wang, Ying; Xu, Weilin; Liu, Dijia; Zhuang, Lin

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate a new and simple method for pre-treating the carbon material and iron precursor to prepare oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts, which can produce super-high performance and stability in alkaline solution, with high performance in acid solution. This strategy using cheap materials is simply controllable. Moreover, it has achieved smaller uniform nanoparticles to exhibit high stability, and the synergetic effect of Fe and N offered much higher performance in ORR than commercial Pt/C, with high maximum power density in alkaline and acid fuel cell test. So it can make this kind of catalysts be the most promising alternatives of Pt-based catalysts with best performance/price.

  9. Microstructural study of Ce1-xGdxO2-δ (x = 0.1 and 0.2) nano crystallized powders synthesized by the polymeric precursor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cela, B.; Macedo, D.A.; Souza, G.L.; Paskocimas, C.A.; Martinelli, A.E.; Nascimento, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Gadolinia-doped ceria powders (Ce 1-x Gd x O 2-δ ) were prepared with substitution of 10 and 20% of the dopant element by the polymeric precursor method. This method makes possible the attainment of homogeny powder in molecular level, ideal to application in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) component. In this work, the particulated materials were calcinated in a range from 500 °C to 900 °C and structurally characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The sintering behaviors of the compact samples were determined by dilatometric analyses. The results showed the method efficiency to attain monophasic nanopowder with cubic crystalline structure starting at 700 °C. The crystallite average size and crystalline parameter were determined by the Rietveld refinement method. (author)

  10. Preparation of highly dispersed Ru-Sn bimetallic supported catalysts from the single source precursors Cp(PPh32Ru-SnX3 (X = Cl or Br

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Bernardes Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work highly dispersed Ru-Sn bimetallic catalysts have been prepared from organobimetallic Cp(PPh32Ru-SnX3 (X = Cl or Br complexes. These single source precursors can be easily impregnated in high surface area supports, such as activated carbon and sol-gel SiO2, and upon controlled thermal treatment the ligands are released as volatile products resulting in the formation of the bimetallic system Ru-Sn. Catalytic reactions, such as hydrodechlorination of CCl4 and chlorobenzene and TPR (Temperature Programmed Reduction experiments carried out with these RuSn catalysts suggested a strong interaction between Ruthenium and Tin. Mössbauer measurements showed that these materials when exposed to air are immediately oxidized to form Sn (IV. It was shown that upon controlled reduction conditions with H2 it is possible to reduce selectively Sn to different oxidation states and different phases. The Sn oxidation state showed significant effect on the catalytic hydrogenation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene. The use of these single source precursors with a controlled decomposition/reduction procedure allows the preparation of unique catalysts with an intimate interaction between the components ruthenium and tin and the possibility of varying the Sn oxidation state around the Ru metal.

  11. Treatment of a non-azo dye aqueous solution by CWAO in continuous reactor using a Ni catalyst derived from hydrotalcite-like precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallet, Ana, E-mail: avallet@quim.ucm.es [Grupo de Catalisis y Procesos de Separacion (CyPS), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Besson, Michele, E-mail: michele.besson@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.fr [IRCELYON, Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l' environnement de Lyon, UMR5256 CNRS-Universite Lyon1, 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ovejero, Gabriel; Garcia, Juan [Grupo de Catalisis y Procesos de Separacion (CyPS), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni supported over hydrotalcite calcined precursors as catalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic wet air oxidation in trickle bed reactor for Basic Yellow 11 removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dye removal depends on temperature, initial dye concentration and flow rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst proved to be stable and efficient for the dye degradation. - Abstract: Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of a Basic Yellow 11 (BY11) aqueous solution, chosen as a model of a hardly biodegradable non-azo dye was carried out in a continuous-flow trickle-bed reactor, using nickel supported over hydrotalcite precursor calcined at 550 Degree-Sign C. An increase in the reaction temperature (120-180 Degree-Sign C), and a decrease in dye concentration (1000-3000 ppm) or liquid flow rate (0.1-0.7 mL min{sup -1}) enhanced the CWAO performance in a 30 and 19% for the variation of the temperature and concentration respectively. After a small leaching observed within the first hours, the catalyst proved to be very stable during the 65-day reaction. The CWAO process was found to be very efficient, achieving BY11 conversion up to 95% and TOC conversion up to 85% at 0.1 mL min{sup -1} and 180 Degree-Sign C under 5 MPa air.

  12. Treatment of a non-azo dye aqueous solution by CWAO in continuous reactor using a Ni catalyst derived from hydrotalcite-like precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, Ana; Besson, Michèle; Ovejero, Gabriel; García, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ni supported over hydrotalcite calcined precursors as catalyst. ► Catalytic wet air oxidation in trickle bed reactor for Basic Yellow 11 removal. ► Dye removal depends on temperature, initial dye concentration and flow rate. ► The catalyst proved to be stable and efficient for the dye degradation. - Abstract: Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of a Basic Yellow 11 (BY11) aqueous solution, chosen as a model of a hardly biodegradable non-azo dye was carried out in a continuous-flow trickle-bed reactor, using nickel supported over hydrotalcite precursor calcined at 550 °C. An increase in the reaction temperature (120–180 °C), and a decrease in dye concentration (1000–3000 ppm) or liquid flow rate (0.1–0.7 mL min −1 ) enhanced the CWAO performance in a 30 and 19% for the variation of the temperature and concentration respectively. After a small leaching observed within the first hours, the catalyst proved to be very stable during the 65-day reaction. The CWAO process was found to be very efficient, achieving BY11 conversion up to 95% and TOC conversion up to 85% at 0.1 mL min −1 and 180 °C under 5 MPa air.

  13. Analysis of the influence of two different milling processes in the properties of precursor powder and [Beta]-TCP cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, H.A.I.; Pereira, C.H.R.; Zavaglia, C.A.C.; Motisuke, M.

    2011-01-01

    There are several characteristics that put calcium phosphate cements in evidence, like its bioactivity and in vivo resorption. The influence of two milling processes in the morphological properties of the [beta]-tricalcium phosphate powder, [beta]-TCP, and in the mechanical properties of the cement were analyzed. The powder was obtained by solid state reaction of CaCO_3 and CaHPO_4 at 1050 ° C. It showed high phase purity and absence of toxic elements. The powder was processed in ball mill (A) and high-energy vibratory mill (B), with posterior analyze by SEM and particle size distribution. The powders showed different average and distribution of grain size. Finally, the cement obtained by the process (B) showed values of axial tensile strength significantly greater than that obtained by the process (A). The milling process (B) is much more efficient than the process (A). (author)

  14. From trash to resource: recovered-Pd from spent three-way catalysts as a precursor of an effective photo-catalyst for H 2 production

    KAUST Repository

    Gombac, V.; Montini, T.; Falqui, Andrea; Loche, D.; Prato, M.; Genovese, Alessandro; Mercuri, M. L.; Serpe, A.; Fornasiero, P.; Deplano, P.

    2016-01-01

    The successful production of a nanostructured and highly dispersed Pd-TiO2 photo-catalyst, using [Pd(Me2dazdt)2](I3)2 (Me2dazdt = N,N′-dimethyl-perhydrodiazepine-2,3-dithione) salt, obtained through the selective and safe recovery of palladium from model exhaust three-way catalysts (TWCs), is reported here. The photo-catalyst prepared by the impregnation/photo-reduction of palladium on the support showed improved performance in H2 production from methanol and in glycerol photo-reforming compared to reference photo-catalysts obtained from conventional Pd-salts. The reported results represent a case of successful palladium “recovery and re-employment” and thus constitute an example of green chemistry by providing, in one route, the environmentally friendly recovery of a critical metal and its employment in the renewable energy field.

  15. From trash to resource: recovered-Pd from spent three-way catalysts as a precursor of an effective photo-catalyst for H 2 production

    KAUST Repository

    Gombac, V.

    2016-01-06

    The successful production of a nanostructured and highly dispersed Pd-TiO2 photo-catalyst, using [Pd(Me2dazdt)2](I3)2 (Me2dazdt = N,N′-dimethyl-perhydrodiazepine-2,3-dithione) salt, obtained through the selective and safe recovery of palladium from model exhaust three-way catalysts (TWCs), is reported here. The photo-catalyst prepared by the impregnation/photo-reduction of palladium on the support showed improved performance in H2 production from methanol and in glycerol photo-reforming compared to reference photo-catalysts obtained from conventional Pd-salts. The reported results represent a case of successful palladium “recovery and re-employment” and thus constitute an example of green chemistry by providing, in one route, the environmentally friendly recovery of a critical metal and its employment in the renewable energy field.

  16. Kinetics of CO Oxidation over Unloaded and Pd-Loaded α-Fe2O3 Spherical Submicron Powder Catalysts: Photoacoustic Investigations at Low Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong-Seok Roh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, α-Fe2O3 spherical particles with an average diameter of approximately 200 nm were synthesized by a solvothermal method for use as both a catalyst and medium for a Pd catalyst. The kinetics of CO oxidation over powders of α-Fe2O3 spherical particles and 14 wt % Pd/α-Fe2O3 spherical particles were measured in a static reactor by using a CO2 laser-based photoacoustic technique. The total pressure was fixed at 40 Torr for the CO/O2/N2 mixture for temperatures in the range of 225–350 °C. The variation in the CO2 photoacoustic signal with the CO2 concentration during CO oxidation was recorded as a function of time, and the CO2 photoacoustic data at the early reaction stage was used to estimate the rates of CO2 formation. Based on plots of ln(rate vs. 1/T, apparent activation energies were calculated as 13.4 kcal/mol for the α-Fe2O3 submicron powder and 13.2 kcal/mol for the 14 wt % Pd/α-Fe2O3 submicron powder. Reaction orders with respect to CO and O2 were determined from the rates measured at various partial pressures of CO and O2 at 350 °C. The zero-order of the reaction with respect to Po2 was observed for CO oxidation over α-Fe2O3 submicron powder, while 0.48 order to Po2 was observed for CO oxidation over Pd/α-Fe2O3 submicron powder. The partial orders with respect to PCO were determined as 0.58 and 0.54 for the α-Fe2O3, and the Pd/α-Fe2O3 submicron powders, respectively. The kinetic results obtained from both catalysts were compared with those for the α-Fe2O3 fine powder catalysts and were used to understand the reaction mechanism.

  17. Hydrothermally synthesised Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles as catalyst precursors for the CVD production of graphitic nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, H K [School of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Evans, E [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); McCaldin, S [School of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Blood, P [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Gregory, D H [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Poliakoff, M [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Lester, E [School of Chemical Engineering and Mining Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Walker, G S [School of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Brown, P D [School of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-22

    Graphitic nanofibres (GNFs) have been grown by chemical vapour deposition at 500 deg. C and 700 deg. C, using 6 nm and 20 nm particles of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} produced by supercritical water hydrothermal synthesis (scWHS). The morphologies of catalyst and GNFs have been examined using the combined techniques of conventional transmission electron microscopy, high resolution electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction. GNF production varied from well ordered nanofibres with an average diameter of 100 nm, to very large, disordered fibres with diameters ranging from 500 nm to {approx}2 {mu}m. Larger fibres were found to have a compound structure composed of discreet domains of graphite and multiwall nanotubes. 20 nm particles produced by scWHS were associated with significant increases in the yield of GNFs as compared with traditional catalyst precipitation routes.

  18. Ni/SiO2 Catalyst Prepared with Nickel Nitrate Precursor for Combination of CO2 Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane: Characterization and Deactivation Mechanism Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Ni/SiO2 catalyst in the process of combination of CO2 reforming and partial oxidation of methane to produce syngas was studied. The Ni/SiO2 catalysts were prepared by using incipient wetness impregnation method with nickel nitrate as a precursor and characterized by FT-IR, TG-DTA, UV-Raman, XRD, TEM, and H2-TPR. The metal nickel particles with the average size of 37.5 nm were highly dispersed over the catalyst, while the interaction between nickel particles and SiO2 support is relatively weak. The weak NiO-SiO2 interaction disappeared after repeating oxidation-reduction-oxidation in the fluidized bed reactor at 700°C, which resulted in the sintering of metal nickel particles. As a result, a rapid deactivation of the Ni/SiO2 catalysts was observed in 2.5 h reaction on stream.

  19. Effect of the calcining temperature on the porosity of the titanium dioxide powders obtained by Polymeric Precursor Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.W.; Granado, S.R.; Ciola, R.A.; Cavalheiro, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Ceramics materials obtained by Polymeric Precursor Method exhibit mechanisms of the pore formation and elimination dependents on the decomposition kinetics of the residual organic matter of the polyester. The mechanism of pore elimination seems to occur by disrupting of the wall among the pores because it leads to the consequent pore coalescence and increasing in pore volume, which posses higher pore diameters. In this case, it was observed that the porosity decreasing occurs by pore wall moving after that the residual organic matter is eliminated from the pore inside. The pore diameter associated to the highest volume desorption occurred for the material obtained after calcining at 450°C is approximately 1,7 nm, what seems to be related to the amorphous carbon accumulated inside the pores, once that the pore volume decreases more effectively for the material obtained by calcining at 550°C, making the maximum volume situates at 2,0 nm. (author)

  20. Catalysts, methods of making catalysts, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Renard, Laetitia; El Eter, Mohamad; Caps, Valerie; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for catalysts, methods of making catalysts, methods of using catalysts, and the like. In an embodiment, the method of making the catalysts can be performed in a single step with a metal nanoparticle precursor and a metal oxide precursor, where a separate stabilizing agent is not needed.

  1. Catalysts, methods of making catalysts, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Renard, Laetitia

    2014-03-06

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for catalysts, methods of making catalysts, methods of using catalysts, and the like. In an embodiment, the method of making the catalysts can be performed in a single step with a metal nanoparticle precursor and a metal oxide precursor, where a separate stabilizing agent is not needed.

  2. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Iron Manganese Catalysts: Effect of Preparation and Operating Conditions on Catalyst Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Mirzaei

    2009-01-01

    molar basis which is the most active catalyst for the conversion of synthesis gas to light olefins. The effects of different promoters and supports with loading of optimum support on the catalytic performance of catalysts are also studied. It was found that the catalyst containing 50%Fe/50%Mn/5 wt.%Al2O3 is an optimum-modified catalyst. The catalytic performance of optimal catalyst has been studied in operation conditions such as a range of reaction temperatures, H2/CO molar feed ratios and a range of total pressures. Characterization of both precursors and calcined catalysts is carried out by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, BET specific surface area and thermal analysis methods such as TGA and DSC.

  3. Continuous-Flow O-Alkylation of Biobased Derivatives with Dialkyl Carbonates in the Presence of Magnesium-Aluminium Hydrotalcites as Catalyst Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattelan, Lisa; Perosa, Alvise; Riello, Piero; Maschmeyer, Thomas; Selva, Maurizio

    2017-04-10

    The base-catalysed reactions of OH-bearing biobased derivatives (BBDs) including glycerol formal, solketal, glycerol carbonate, furfuryl alcohol and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol with non-toxic dialkyl carbonates (dimethyl and diethyl carbonate) were explored under continuous-flow (CF) conditions in the presence of three Na-exchanged Y- and X-faujasites (FAUs) and four Mg-Al hydrotalcites (HTs). Compared to previous etherification protocols mediated by dialkyl carbonates, the reported procedure offers substantial improvements not only in terms of (chemo)selectivity but also for the recyclability of the catalysts, workup, ease of product purification and, importantly, process intensification. Characterisation studies proved that both HT30 and KW2000 hydrotalcites acted as catalyst precursors: during the thermal activation pre-treatments, the typical lamellar structure of the hydrotalcite was broken down gradually into a MgO-like phase (periclase) or rather a magnesia-alumina solid solution, which was the genuine catalytic phase. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. CH3 NH3 PbI3 and HC(NH2 )2 PbI3 Powders Synthesized from Low-Grade PbI2 : Single Precursor for High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Kim, Seul-Gi; Lee, Do-Kyoung; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2018-05-09

    High-efficiency perovskite solar cells are generally fabricated by using highly pure (>99.99 %) PbI 2 mixed with an organic iodide in polar aprotic solvents. However, the use of such an expensive chemical may impede progress toward large-scale industrial applications. Here, we report on the synthesis of perovskite powders by using inexpensive low-grade (99 %) PbI 2 and on the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells prepared from a powder-based single precursor. Pure APbI 3 [A=methylammonium (MA) or formamidinium (FA)] perovskite powders were synthesized by treating low-grade PbI 2 with MAI or FAI in acetonitrile at ambient temperature. The structural phase purity was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The solar cell with a MAPbI 3 film prepared from the synthesized perovskite powder demonstrated a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.14 %, which is higher than the PCE of MAPbI 3 films prepared by using both MAI and PbI 2 as precursors (PCE=13.09 % for 99 % pure PbI 2 and PCE=16.39 % for 99.9985 % pure PbI 2 ). The synthesized powder showed better absorption and photoluminescence, which were responsible for the better photovoltaic performance. For the FAPbI 3 powder, a solution with a yellow non-perovskite δ-FAPbI 3 powder synthesized at room temperature was found to lead to a black perovskite film, whereas a solution with the black perovskite α-FAPbI 3 powder synthesized at 150 °C was not transformed into a black perovskite film. The α↔δ transition between the powder and film was assumed to correlate with the difference in the iodoplumbates in the powder-dissolved solution. An average PCE of 17.21 % along with a smaller hysteresis [ΔPCE=PCE reverse -PCE forward )=1.53 %] was demonstrated from the perovskite solar cell prepared by using δ-FAPbI 3 powder; this PCE is higher than the average PCE of 17.05 % with a larger hysteresis (ΔPCE=2.71 %) for a device based on a conventional precursor solution dissolving MAI with high

  5. Effect of the nickel precursor on the impregnation and drying of γ-Al2O3 catalyst bodies: a UV-vis and IR micro-spectroscopic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinosa Alonso, L.; de Jong, K.P.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    The elemental preparation steps of impregnation and drying of Ni/g-Al2O3 catalyst bodies have been studied by combining UV-vis and IR microspectroscopy. The influence of the number of chelating ligands in [Ni(en)x(H2O)6-2x]2+ precursor complexes (with en ) ethylenediamine and x ) 0-3) has been

  6. Study of fluorine doped (Nb,Ir)O_2 solid solution electro-catalyst powders for proton exchange membrane based oxygen evolution reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadakia, Karan Sandeep; Jampani, Prashanth H.; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Patel, Prasad; Chung, Sung Jae; Park, Sung Kyoo; Poston, James A.; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: High surface area (∼300 m"2/g) nanostructured powders of nominal composition (Nb_1_−_xIr_x)O_2 and (Nb_1_−_xIr_x)O_2:10F have been synthesized and tested as oxygen evolution electro-catalysts for PEM based water electrolysis using a simple two-step chemical synthesis procedure. Superior electrochemical activity was demonstrated by fluorine doped compositions of (Nb_1_−_xIr_x)O_2 with an optimal composition (Nb_0_._7_5Ir_0_._2_5)O_2:10F (x = 0.25) demonstrating on-par performance with commercial hydrated IrO_2 and nanostructured in-house chemically synthesized IrO_2. Using first principles calculations, the electronic structure modification resulting in ∼75 at.% reduction (experimentally observed) in noble metal content without loss in catalytic performance and stability has been established. - Highlights: • (Nb_1_−_xIr_x)O_2:10F nanopowder electrocatalysts have been wet chemically synthesized. • (Nb_0_._7_5Ir_0_._2_5)O_2:10F exhibits superior electrochemical activity than pure IrO_2. • Stability of the (Nb,Ir)O_2:10F nanomaterials is comparable to pure (Nb,Ir)O_2. • High surface area F doped (Nb,Ir)O_2 are promising OER anode electro-catalysts. - Abstract: High surface area (∼300 m"2/g) nanostructured powders of (Nb_1_−_xIr_x)O_2 and (Nb_1_−_xIr_x)O_2:10F (∼100 m"2/g) have been examined as promising oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electro-catalysts for proton exchange membrane (PEM) based water electrolysis. Nb_2O_5 and 10 wt.% F doped Nb_2O_5 powders were prepared by a low temperature sol-gel process which were then converted to solid solution (Nb,Ir)O_2 and 10 wt.% F doped (Nb,Ir)O_2 [(NbIr)O_2:10F] electro-catalysts by soaking in IrCl_4 followed by heat treatment in air. Electro-catalyst powders of optimal composition (Nb_0_._7_5Ir_0_._2_5)O_2:10F with ∼75 at.% reduction in noble metal content exhibited comparable OER activity to commercial hydrated IrO_2 and nanostructured in-house chemically synthesized IrO_2

  7. Study of fluorine doped (Nb,Ir)O{sub 2} solid solution electro-catalyst powders for proton exchange membrane based oxygen evolution reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadakia, Karan Sandeep [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Jampani, Prashanth H., E-mail: pjampani@pitt.edu [Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Datta, Moni Kanchan [Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Patel, Prasad [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Chung, Sung Jae [Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Park, Sung Kyoo [Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Poston, James A.; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu [US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507 (United States); Kumta, Prashant N. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15217 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Graphical abstract: High surface area (∼300 m{sup 2}/g) nanostructured powders of nominal composition (Nb{sub 1−x}Ir{sub x})O{sub 2} and (Nb{sub 1−x}Ir{sub x})O{sub 2}:10F have been synthesized and tested as oxygen evolution electro-catalysts for PEM based water electrolysis using a simple two-step chemical synthesis procedure. Superior electrochemical activity was demonstrated by fluorine doped compositions of (Nb{sub 1−x}Ir{sub x})O{sub 2} with an optimal composition (Nb{sub 0.75}Ir{sub 0.25})O{sub 2}:10F (x = 0.25) demonstrating on-par performance with commercial hydrated IrO{sub 2} and nanostructured in-house chemically synthesized IrO{sub 2}. Using first principles calculations, the electronic structure modification resulting in ∼75 at.% reduction (experimentally observed) in noble metal content without loss in catalytic performance and stability has been established. - Highlights: • (Nb{sub 1−x}Ir{sub x})O{sub 2}:10F nanopowder electrocatalysts have been wet chemically synthesized. • (Nb{sub 0.75}Ir{sub 0.25})O{sub 2}:10F exhibits superior electrochemical activity than pure IrO{sub 2}. • Stability of the (Nb,Ir)O{sub 2}:10F nanomaterials is comparable to pure (Nb,Ir)O{sub 2}. • High surface area F doped (Nb,Ir)O{sub 2} are promising OER anode electro-catalysts. - Abstract: High surface area (∼300 m{sup 2}/g) nanostructured powders of (Nb{sub 1−x}Ir{sub x})O{sub 2} and (Nb{sub 1−x}Ir{sub x})O{sub 2}:10F (∼100 m{sup 2}/g) have been examined as promising oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electro-catalysts for proton exchange membrane (PEM) based water electrolysis. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and 10 wt.% F doped Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} powders were prepared by a low temperature sol-gel process which were then converted to solid solution (Nb,Ir)O{sub 2} and 10 wt.% F doped (Nb,Ir)O{sub 2} [(NbIr)O{sub 2}:10F] electro-catalysts by soaking in IrCl{sub 4} followed by heat treatment in air. Electro-catalyst powders of optimal composition (Nb{sub 0.75}Ir

  8. Thermal behavior and phase transformation of ZrO2–10%SiO2 precursor powder prepared by a co-precipitation route without adding stability agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Hwang, Weng-Sing; Wang, Cheng-Li; Wang, Moo-Chin; Lee, Kuen-Chan; Huang, Hong-Hsin; Lee, Huey-Er

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The precursor powders contained about 68.3 wt% ZrO 2 , which corresponds to ZrO 2 ·1/8 H 2 O. • The exothermic peak temperature of tetragonal ZrO 2 formation occurred at 1014 K. • The activation energy of ZrO 2 –10%SiO 2 precursors crystallization is 993.7 kJ/mol. • Only the tetragonal ZrO 2 formed when the precursor calcined at 1173–1373 K for 2 h. • As calcined at 1473 K for 2 h, tetragonal ZrO 2 fully converted to monoclinic ZrO 2 . - Abstract: Thermal behavior and phase transformation of ZrO 2 –10%SiO 2 precursor powder prepared by a co-precipitation route without adding stability agent has been studied using different thermal analysis/thermogravimetry (DTA/TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The TG results show that four weight loss regions were from 298 to 443 K, 443 to 743 K, 743 to 793 K and 793 to 1400 K. The DTA result shows that the ZrO 2 freeze-dried precursor powders crystallization at 1014 K. The activation energy of 993.7 kJ/mol was obtained for tetragonal ZrO 2 crystallization using a non-isothermal process. The XRD result shows that only a single phase of tetragonal ZrO 2 appears when the freeze-dried precursor powders after calcination between 1173 and 1373 K for 2 h. Moreover, when calcined at 1473 K for 2 h, the phase transformation from tetragonal ZrO 2 fully converted to monoclinic ZrO 2 occurred

  9. Growth kinetics of tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} crystallites in 3 mol% yttria partially stabilized ZrO{sub 2} (3Y-PSZ) precursor powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Chih-Wei [Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Lee, Kuen-Chan [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Yen, Feng-Lin, E-mail: flyen@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Shen, Yun-Hwei [Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Lee, Huey-Er [Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Chung Ho Memorial Hospital, 100 Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Wen, Shaw-Bing [General Education Center, Meiho Institute of Technology, 23 Pingguang Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91202, Taiwan (China); Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Stack, Margaret Mary [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The crystalline structures were composed of tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO{sub 2}. • Growth kinetics of t-ZrO{sub 2} in the 3Y-PSZ precursor powder is described as: D{sub te}{sup 2}=(4.57±0.55)t{sup 0.12±0.02}exp(-((24.79±0.38)×10{sup 3})/(RT) ). • Growth kinetics of m-ZrO{sub 2} in the 3Y-PSZ precursor powder is described as: D{sub m}{sup 2}=(4.40±1.63)t{sup 0.17±0.08}exp(-((66.47±3.97)×10{sup 3})/(RT) ). - Abstract: The growth kinetics of tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} crystallites in 3 mol% yttria partially stabilized ZrO{sub 2} (3Y-PSZ) precursor powder has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM). After calcination of the 3Y-PSZ precursor powder between 773 and 1073 K for 2 h, the crystalline structures were composed of tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} as the primary and secondary phases, respectively. When the 3Y-PSZ precursor powder was calcined at 773 K for 2 h, the BET specific surface area was 97.13 m{sup 2}/g, which is equivalent to a particle size of 10.30 nm. The crystallite sizes determined via XRD and BET agreed well, indicating that the powder was virtually non-agglomerated. The growth kinetics of tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} crystallite isothermal growth in the 3Y-PSZ precursor powder are described by: D{sub te}{sup 2}=(4.57±0.55)t{sup 0.12±0.02}exp(-((24.79±0.38)×10{sup 3})/(RT) ) and D{sub m}{sup 2}=(4.40±1.63)t{sup 0.17±0.08}exp(-((66.47±3.97)×10{sup 3})/(RT) ), respectively, for 773K≤T≤1073K. D{sub te} and D{sub m} denote the crystallite size of tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} at time t and temperature T, respectively.

  10. Enhanced coagulation with powdered activated carbon or MIEX secondary treatment: a comparison of disinfection by-product formation and precursor removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kalinda; Farré, Maria José; Knight, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The removal of both organic and inorganic disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors prior to disinfection is important in mitigating DBP formation, with halide removal being particularly important in salinity-impacted water sources. A matrix of waters of variable alkalinity, halide concentration and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration were treated with enhanced coagulation (EC) followed by anion exchange (MIEX resin) or powdered activated carbon (PAC) and the subsequent disinfection by-product formation potentials (DBP-FPs) assessed and compared to DBP-FPs for untreated samples. Halide and DOC removal were also monitored for both treatment processes. Bromide and iodide adsorption by MIEX treatment ranged from 0 to 53% and 4-78%, respectively. As expected, EC and PAC treatments did not remove halides. DOC removal by EC/PAC was 70 ± 10%, while EC/MIEX enabled a DOC removal of 66 ± 12%. Despite the halide removals achieved by MIEX, increases in brominated disinfection by-product (Br-DBP) formation were observed relative to untreated samples, when favourable Br:DOC ratios were created by the treatment. However, the increases in formation were less than what was observed for the EC/PAC treated waters, which caused large increases in Br-DBP formation when high Br-DBP-forming water quality conditions occurred. The formation potential of fully chlorinated DBPs decreased after treatment in all cases.

  11. From precursor powders to CsPbX3 perovskite nanowires. One-pot synthesis, growth mechanism, and oriented self-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Yu; Bohn, Bernhard J.; Urban, Alexander S.; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Feldmann, Jochen; Bladt, Eva; Bals, Sara; Wang, Kun; Mueller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The colloidal synthesis and assembly of semiconductor nanowires continues to attract a great deal of interest. Herein, we describe the single-step ligand-mediated synthesis of single-crystalline CsPbBr 3 perovskite nanowires (NWs) directly from the precursor powders. Studies of the reaction process and the morphological evolution revealed that the initially formed CsPbBr 3 nanocubes are transformed into NWs through an oriented-attachment mechanism. The optical properties of the NWs can be tuned across the entire visible range by varying the halide (Cl, Br, and I) composition through subsequent halide ion exchange. Single-particle studies showed that these NWs exhibit strongly polarized emission with a polarization anisotropy of 0.36. More importantly, the NWs can self-assemble in a quasi-oriented fashion at an air/liquid interface. This process should also be easily applicable to perovskite nanocrystals of different morphologies for their integration into nanoscale optoelectronic devices. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. From precursor powders to CsPbX{sub 3} perovskite nanowires. One-pot synthesis, growth mechanism, and oriented self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Yu; Bohn, Bernhard J.; Urban, Alexander S.; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Feldmann, Jochen [Chair for Photonics and Optoelectronics, Department of Physics and Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Muenchen Univ. (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Munich (Germany); Bladt, Eva; Bals, Sara [EMAT, University of Antwerp (Belgium); Wang, Kun; Mueller-Buschbaum, Peter [Department of Physics, Chair for Functional Materials, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-10-23

    The colloidal synthesis and assembly of semiconductor nanowires continues to attract a great deal of interest. Herein, we describe the single-step ligand-mediated synthesis of single-crystalline CsPbBr{sub 3} perovskite nanowires (NWs) directly from the precursor powders. Studies of the reaction process and the morphological evolution revealed that the initially formed CsPbBr{sub 3} nanocubes are transformed into NWs through an oriented-attachment mechanism. The optical properties of the NWs can be tuned across the entire visible range by varying the halide (Cl, Br, and I) composition through subsequent halide ion exchange. Single-particle studies showed that these NWs exhibit strongly polarized emission with a polarization anisotropy of 0.36. More importantly, the NWs can self-assemble in a quasi-oriented fashion at an air/liquid interface. This process should also be easily applicable to perovskite nanocrystals of different morphologies for their integration into nanoscale optoelectronic devices. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Catalytic oxidation of n-hexane promoted by Ce{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} catalysts prepared by one-step polymeric precursor method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araújo, Vinícius D., E-mail: dantas@ursa.ifsc.usp.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo – USP, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lima, Maurício M. de [Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Fundación General, Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Cantarero, Andrés [Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Bernardi, Maria I.B. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo – USP, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Bellido, Jorge D.A. [CAP-Engenharia Química, Universidade Federal de São João Del-Rei – UFSJ, São João Del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Assaf, Elisabete M. [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo – USP, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Balzer, Rosana; Probst, Luiz F.D. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina – UFSC, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Fajardo, Humberto V. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto – UFOP, 35400-000 Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    Ceria-supported copper catalysts (Ce{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2}, with x (mol) = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.10) were prepared in one step through the polymeric precursor method. The textural properties of the catalysts were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rietveld refinement, N{sub 2}-physisorption (BET surface area), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), UV–visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopies and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). In a previous study ceria-supported copper catalysts were found to be efficient in the preferential oxidation of CO. In this study, we extended the catalytic application of Ce{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} systems to n-hexane oxidation and it was verified that the catalysts were highly efficient in the proposed reaction. The best performance (up to 95% conversion) was observed for the catalysts with low copper loads (Ce{sub 0.97}Cu{sub 0.03}O{sub 2} and Ce{sub 0.99}Cu{sub 0.01}O{sub 2}, respectively). The physicochemical characterizations revealed that these behaviors could be attributed to the copper species present in the catalysts and the interaction between CuO and CeO{sub 2}, which vary according to the copper content. - Highlights: • Synthesis of CuO/CeO2 catalysts by the one-step polymeric precursor method. • 95% n-hexane conversion on Ce0.97Cu0.03O2 catalyst. • Redox properties play a key role in the catalytic performance.

  14. Petroleum residue upgrading with dispersed catalysts. Part 1. Catalysts activity and selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panariti, N.; Del Bianco, A.; Del Piero, G. [ENITECNOLOGIE S.p.A, Via Maritano 26, 20097 San Donato Mil. (Italy); Marchionna, M. [SNAMPROGETTI S.p.A, Via Maritano 26, 20097 San Donato Mil. (Italy)

    2000-12-04

    The results of a study aimed at the identification of the relevant chemical aspects involved in the process of upgrading heavy feedstocks in the presence of dispersed catalysts are discussed. The catalytic activity of different compounds was compared in terms of products yields and quality. Moreover, a detailed and systematic characterization of the catalysts recovered at the end of the reactions was achieved. The experimental work provided quite a large set of data, allowing to investigate the factors that may affect catalyst activity (precursor solubility, rate of activation, degree of dispersion, presence of promoters, etc.). The results of this study demonstrate that the best performances are obtained by the microcrystalline molybdenite generated in situ by oil-soluble precursors. The nature of the organic ligand does not play a very relevant role in influencing the hydrogenation activity. The presence of phosphorus, however, significantly enhances hydrodemetallation, at least in terms of vanadium removal. Bimetallic precursors show a slight synergistic effect towards the hydrodesulfurization reaction. Microsized powdered catalyst precursors have a much lower catalytic activity compared to the oil-soluble ones.

  15. Structural and morphological characterization of TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} powders obtained by the polymeric precursors method; Caracterizacao estrutural e morfologica de pos de TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} obtidos pelo metodo dos precursores polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, M.A.; Gama, L.; Bispo, A.; Neiva, L.S., E-mail: m_aparecidaribeiro@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (DEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Bernardi, M.I.B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Kiminami, R.H.G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    This work aims to characterize the structure and morphology of TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} powders obtained by polymeric precursor method. For this we studied the following compositions: 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 moles of Zr and calcined at 800 deg C for one hour. The powders obtained were characterized by XRD, SEM and nitrogen adsorption (BET). The analysis of X-ray diffraction showed that the powders had a phase of TiO{sub 2} in the anatase form and a tetragonal phase of ZrO{sub 2}. The crystallite size was between 8, 13 and 11 nm respectively. The analysis of scanning electron microscopy showed the growth of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles and that these comprise spherical agglomerates of less than 100 nm. Particle size determined by the BET ranging 28.1-29.5 nm, showing thereby the character of nanosized powders. (author)

  16. Electrochemical Behavior of TiO(x)C(y) as Catalyst Support for Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells at Intermediate Temperature: From Planar Systems to Powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvillo, Laura; García, Gonzalo; Paduano, Andrea; Guillen-Villafuerte, Olmedo; Valero-Vidal, Carlos; Vittadini, Andrea; Bellini, Marco; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Agnoli, Stefano; Martucci, Alessandro; Kunze-Liebhäuser, Julia; Pastor, Elena; Granozzi, Gaetano

    2016-01-13

    To achieve complete oxidation of ethanol (EOR) to CO2, higher operating temperatures (often called intermediate-T, 150-200 °C) and appropriate catalysts are required. We examine here titanium oxycarbide (hereafter TiOxCy) as a possible alternative to standard carbon-based supports to enhance the stability of the catalyst/support assembly at intermediate-T. To test this material as electrocatalyst support, a systematic study of its behavior under electrochemical conditions was carried out. To have a clear description of the chemical changes of TiOxCy induced by electrochemical polarization of the material, a special setup that allows the combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements was used. Subsequently, an electrochemical study was carried out on TiOxCy powders, both at room temperature and at 150 °C. The present study has revealed that TiOxCy is a sufficiently conductive material whose surface is passivated by a TiO2 film under working conditions, which prevents the full oxidation of the TiOxCy and can thus be considered a stable electrode material for EOR working conditions. This result has also been confirmed through density functional theory (DFT) calculations on a simplified model system. Furthermore, it has been experimentally observed that ethanol molecules adsorb on the TiOxCy surface, inhibiting its oxidation. This result has been confirmed by using in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS). The adsorption of ethanol is expected to favor the EOR in the presence of suitable catalyst nanoparticles supported on TiOxCy.

  17. Treatment of a non-azo dye aqueous solution by CWAO in continuous reactor using a Ni catalyst derived from hydrotalcite-like precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Ana; Besson, Michèle; Ovejero, Gabriel; García, Juan

    2012-08-15

    Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of a Basic Yellow 11 (BY11) aqueous solution, chosen as a model of a hardly biodegradable non-azo dye was carried out in a continuous-flow trickle-bed reactor, using nickel supported over hydrotalcite precursor calcined at 550°C. An increase in the reaction temperature (120-180°C), and a decrease in dye concentration (1000-3000 ppm) or liquid flow rate (0.1-0.7 mL min(-1)) enhanced the CWAO performance in a 30 and 19% for the variation of the temperature and concentration respectively. After a small leaching observed within the first hours, the catalyst proved to be very stable during the 65-day reaction. The CWAO process was found to be very efficient, achieving BY11 conversion up to 95% and TOC conversion up to 85% at 0.1 mL min(-1) and 180°C under 5 MPa air. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. New Ag(I)-iminophosphorane coordination polymers as efficient catalysts precursors for the MW-assisted Meyer-Schuster rearrangement of propargylic alcohols in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Álvarez, Joaquín; Díez, Josefina; Vidal, Cristian; Vicent, Cristian

    2013-06-03

    Treatment of the N-thiophosphorylated iminophosphorane ligands (PTA)═NP(═S)(OR)2 [PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane, 3a and 3b] and (DAPTA)═NP(═S)(OR)2 [DAPTA = 3,7-diacetyl-1,3,7-triaza-5-bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane, 4a and 4b] with an equimolecular amount of AgSbF6 leads to high-yield formation of the new one-dimensional coordination polymers [Ag{μ(2)-N,S-(PTA)═NP(═S)(OR)2}]x[SbF6]x (5a and 5b) and [Ag{μ(2)-O,S-(DAPTA)═NP(═S)(OR)2}]x[SbF6]x (6a and 6b), respectively. These new (iminophosphorane)silver(I) coordination polymers are efficient catalyst precursors for the Meyer-Schuster isomerization of both terminal and internal alkynols. Reactions proceeded in water, under aerobic conditions and using microwave irradiation as heating source, to afford the corresponding α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds in excellent yields, without the addition of any cocatalyst. Remarkably, it should be noted that this catalytic system can be recycled up to 10 consecutive runs (1st cycle 45 min, 99%; 10th cycle 6 h, 97%). ESI-MS analysis of 5a in water has been carried out providing valuable insight into the monomeric active species responsible for catalytic activity in water.

  19. Striking difference between alkane and olefin metathesis using the well-defined precursor [≡Si-O-WMe5]: Indirect evidence in favour of a bifunctional catalyst W alkylidene-hydride

    KAUST Repository

    Riache, Nassima; Callens, Emmanuel; Espinas, Jeff; Dé ry, Alexandre; Samantaray, Manoja; Dey, Raju; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Metathesis of linear alkanes catalyzed by the well-defined precursor (≡Si-O-WMe5) affords a wide distribution of linear alkanes from methane up to triacontane. Olefin metathesis using the same catalyst and under the same reaction conditions gives a very striking different distribution of linear α-olefins and internal olefins. This shows that olefin and alkane metathesis processes occur via very different pathways.

  20. Thermal behavior and phase transformation of ZrO{sub 2}–10%SiO{sub 2} precursor powder prepared by a co-precipitation route without adding stability agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Hsueh-Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Weng-Sing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wang, Cheng-Li [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Lee, Kuen-Chan [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hong-Hsin [Department of Electrical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840 Cheng Ching Road, Niaosong, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Lee, Huey-Er, E-mail: huerle@kmu.edu.tw [School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The precursor powders contained about 68.3 wt% ZrO{sub 2}, which corresponds to ZrO{sub 2}·1/8 H{sub 2}O. • The exothermic peak temperature of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} formation occurred at 1014 K. • The activation energy of ZrO{sub 2}–10%SiO{sub 2} precursors crystallization is 993.7 kJ/mol. • Only the tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} formed when the precursor calcined at 1173–1373 K for 2 h. • As calcined at 1473 K for 2 h, tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} fully converted to monoclinic ZrO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Thermal behavior and phase transformation of ZrO{sub 2}–10%SiO{sub 2} precursor powder prepared by a co-precipitation route without adding stability agent has been studied using different thermal analysis/thermogravimetry (DTA/TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The TG results show that four weight loss regions were from 298 to 443 K, 443 to 743 K, 743 to 793 K and 793 to 1400 K. The DTA result shows that the ZrO{sub 2} freeze-dried precursor powders crystallization at 1014 K. The activation energy of 993.7 kJ/mol was obtained for tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} crystallization using a non-isothermal process. The XRD result shows that only a single phase of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} appears when the freeze-dried precursor powders after calcination between 1173 and 1373 K for 2 h. Moreover, when calcined at 1473 K for 2 h, the phase transformation from tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} fully converted to monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} occurred.

  1. XPS and SEM analysis of the surface of gas atomized powder precursor of ODS ferritic steels obtained through the STARS route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, E.; Cortés, J.; Iturriza, I.; Ordás, N.

    2018-01-01

    An innovative powder metallurgy route to produce ODS FS, named STARS, has succeeded in atomizing steel powders containing the oxide formers (Y and Ti) and, hence, avoids the mechanical alloying (MA) step to dissolve Y in the matrix. A metastable oxide layer forms at the surface of atomized powders and dissociates during HIP consolidation at high temperatures, leading to precipitation of more stable Y-Ti-O nanoparticles.

  2. A Laboratory Test Setup for in Situ Measurements of the Dielectric Properties of Catalyst Powder Samples under Reaction Conditions by Microwave Cavity Perturbation: Set up and Initial Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Dietrich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR of nitrogen oxides (NOX depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia.

  3. A laboratory test setup for in situ measurements of the dielectric properties of catalyst powder samples under reaction conditions by microwave cavity perturbation: set up and initial tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Markus; Rauch, Dieter; Porch, Adrian; Moos, Ralf

    2014-09-10

    The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOX) depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia.

  4. Synthesis,Characterization and Application of Benzyl-substituted Cyclopentadienyl lanthanide Complexes as Catalyst Precursors for the Syndiotactic Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN,Yan-Long(钱延龙); BALA,Muhammad D.; XIE,Xiao-Min(谢小敏); HUANG,Ji-Ling(黄吉玲)

    2004-01-01

    Benzyl-substituted cyclopentadienyl lanthanide complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, MS and IR spectroscopy. The analytical data point out the formation of monomeric, unsolvated complexes.In conjunction with Al(Et)3 as co-catalyst, the title complexes are efficient catalysts for the syndiotactic polymerization of methyl methacrylate. For the complex (C6H5CH2C5H4)2YCI, under the optimum polymerization conditions (60 ℃, n(MMA):n(catalyst):n(co-catalyst)= 1000:1:10), a predominantly syndiotactic (rr=66%) polymer of high molecular weight (Mη = 105000) was obtained.

  5. Crystallization behavior of ZrO{sub 2}−3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}−xSrO precursor powders synthesized by a coprecipitation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Hsueh-Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta- Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Weng-Sing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta- Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta- Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Du, Je-Kang [Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Chung Ho Memorial Hospital, 100 Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ker-Kong, E-mail: enamel@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Chung Ho Memorial Hospital, 100 Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China)

    2016-09-05

    Crystallization behaviors of ZrO{sub 2}−3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}−xSrO precursor powders were studied with zirconium nitrate (Zr(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}·xH{sub 2}O), yttrium nitrate (Y(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O) and strontium nitrate (Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) constituting the initial materials. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) were utilized to characterize the crystallization behavior of ZrO{sub 2}−3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}−xSrO precursor powders. The activation energies of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} (t-ZrO{sub 2}) crystallization were 389.1, 327.6, and 315.1 kJ/mol with SrO content for 1, 2, and 3 mol%, respectively, obtained with a non-isothermal method. The growth morphology parameter and growth mechanism index were close to 2.0 and 1.0, respectively, showing that t-ZrO{sub 2} had a plate-like morphology. - Highlights: • The single phase of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} formed when calcined at 923 K for 2 h. • ZrO{sub 2}−3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}−2SrO precursor powders crystallization is at 765.6 K. • The activation energy of t-ZrO{sub 2} crystallization was 389.1 kJ/mol with 1 mol% SrO. • The growth morphology and index of crystallization were close to 2.0 and 1.0.

  6. The impact of copper in LaNi{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3} perovskite-like structures used as catalyst precursors for dry reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlach, K.; Hoang, D.L.; Armbruster, U.; Martin, A. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Katalyse e.V. an der Universitaet Rostock (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    This work deals with the synthesis of perovskite-like catalyst precursors (LaNi{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3} with x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1). These precursors were used to catalyse the dry reforming of methane (DRM) reaction carried out at 973 K, CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} = 1 and a GHSV = 18,000 ml/g/h. The precursors were transformed during the course of the reaction to give Ni-Cu/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} solids. We found out that the activity increases with raising Ni content but small Cu admixture suppresses the coke formation substantially. XRD and TEM measurements showed that the transformation led to the formation of small metallic Ni and/or Cu particles. In addition also alloying can be observed. The best catalytic system with respect to activity and suppressed carbon deposition was Ni{sub 0.8}-Cu{sub 0.2}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} (X{sub CH4} = 61%, X{sub CO2} = 67%). (orig.)

  7. Second-Order Biomimicry: In Situ Oxidative Self-Processing Converts Copper(I)/Diamine Precursor into a Highly Active Aerobic Oxidation Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Scott D; Lumb, Jean-Philip; Arndtsen, Bruce A; Stahl, Shannon S

    2017-04-26

    A homogeneous Cu-based catalyst system consisting of [Cu(MeCN) 4 ]PF 6 , N , N '-di- tert -butylethylenediamine (DBED), and p -( N , N -dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) mediates efficient aerobic oxidation of alcohols. Mechanistic study of this reaction shows that the catalyst undergoes an in situ oxidative self-processing step, resulting in conversion of DBED into a nitroxyl that serves as an efficient cocatalyst for aerobic alcohol oxidation. Insights into this behavior are gained from kinetic studies, which reveal an induction period at the beginning of the reaction that correlates with the oxidative self-processing step, EPR spectroscopic analysis of the catalytic reaction mixture, which shows the buildup of the organic nitroxyl species during steady state turnover, and independent synthesis of oxygenated DBED derivatives, which are shown to serve as effective cocatalysts and eliminate the induction period in the reaction. The overall mechanism bears considerable resemblance to enzymatic reactivity. Most notable is the "oxygenase"-type self-processing step that mirrors generation of catalytic cofactors in enzymes via post-translational modification of amino acid side chains. This higher-order function within a synthetic catalyst system presents new opportunities for the discovery and development of biomimetic catalysts.

  8. Synthesis of self-supported non-precious metal catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction with preserved nanostructures from the polyaniline nanofiber precursor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Zhao, Xiao; Huang, Yunjie

    2013-01-01

    Non-precious metal catalysts (NPMCs) for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are an active subject of recent research on proton exchange membrane fuel cells. In this study, we report a new approach to preparation of self-supported and nano-structured NPMCs using pre-prepared polyaniline (PANI...

  9. Effect of the calcining temperature on the porosity of the titanium dioxide powders obtained by Polymeric Precursor Method; Efeito da temperatura de calcinacao na porosidade de pos de dioxido de titanio obtidos pelo Metodo dos Precursores Polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, D.W.; Granado, S.R.; Ciola, R.A.; Cavalheiro, A.A., E-mail: douglas_levis@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (CPTREN/UEMS), Navirai, MS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Tecnologicas em Recursos Naturais

    2011-07-01

    Ceramics materials obtained by Polymeric Precursor Method exhibit mechanisms of the pore formation and elimination dependents on the decomposition kinetics of the residual organic matter of the polyester. The mechanism of pore elimination seems to occur by disrupting of the wall among the pores because it leads to the consequent pore coalescence and increasing in pore volume, which posses higher pore diameters. In this case, it was observed that the porosity decreasing occurs by pore wall moving after that the residual organic matter is eliminated from the pore inside. The pore diameter associated to the highest volume desorption occurred for the material obtained after calcining at 450°C is approximately 1,7 nm, what seems to be related to the amorphous carbon accumulated inside the pores, once that the pore volume decreases more effectively for the material obtained by calcining at 550°C, making the maximum volume situates at 2,0 nm. (author)

  10. Synthesis of Ni2B nanoparticles by RF thermal plasma for fuel cell catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y; Tanaka, M; Watanabe, T; Choi, S Y; Shin, M S; Lee, K H

    2014-01-01

    The catalyst of Ni 2 B nanoparticles was successfully prepared using nickel and boron as precursors with the quenching gas in radio frequency thermal plasmas. The generating of Ni 2 B needs adequate reaction temperature and boron content in precursors. The quenching gas is beneficial for the synthesis of Ni 2 B in RF thermal plasma. The effect of quenching rate, powder feed rate and boron content in feeding powders on the synthesis of nickel boride nanoparticles was studied in this research. The high mass fraction of 28 % of Ni 2 B nanoparticles can be generated at the fixed initial composition of Ni:B = 2:3. Quenching gas is necessary in the synthesis of Ni 2 B nanoaprticles. In addition, the mass fraction of Ni 2 B increases with the increase of quenching gas flow rate and powder feed rate

  11. Sn powder as reducing agents and SnO2 precursors for the synthesis of SnO2-reduced graphene oxide hybrid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingxi; Zhang, Congcong; Li, Lingzhi; Liu, Yu; Li, Xichuan; Xu, Xiaoyang; Xia, Fengling; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jianping

    2013-12-26

    A facile approach to prepare SnO2/rGO (reduced graphene oxide) hybrid nanoparticles by a direct redox reaction between graphene oxide (GO) and tin powder was developed. Since no acid was used, it is an environmentally friendly green method. The SnO2/rGO hybrid nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The microstructure of the SnO2/rGO was observed with scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The tin powder efficiently reduced GO to rGO, and the Sn was transformed to SnO2 nanoparticles (∼45 nm) that were evenly distributed on the rGO sheets. The SnO2/rGO hybrid nanoparticles were then coated on an interdigital electrode to fabricate a humidity sensor, which have an especially good linear impedance response from 11% to 85% relative humidity.

  12. SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM CO2-REFORMING OF CH4 OVER SOL-GEL SYNTHESIZED Ni-Co/Al2O3-MgO-ZrO2 NANOCATALYST: EFFECT OF ZrO2 PRECURSOR ON CATALYST PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Sajjadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ni-Co/Al2O3-MgO-ZrO2 nanocatalyst with utilization of two different zirconia precursors, namely, zirconyl nitrate hydrate (ZNH and zirconyl nitrate solution (ZNS, was synthesized via the sol-gel method. The physiochemical properties of nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET and FTIR analyses and employed for syngas production from CO2-reforming of CH4. XRD patterns, exhibiting proper crystalline structure and homogeneous dispersion of active phase for the nanocatalyst ZNS precursor employed (NCAMZ-ZNS. FESEM and BET results of NCAMZ-ZNS presented more uniform morphology and smaller particle size and consequently higher surface areas. In addition, average particle size of NCAMZ-ZNS was 15.7 nm, which is close to the critical size for Ni-Co catalysts to avoid carbon formation. Moreover, FESEM analysis indicated both prepared samples were nanoscale. EDX analysis confirmed the existence of various elements used and also supported the statements made in the XRD and FESEM analyses regarding dispersion. Based on the excellent physiochemical properties, NCAMZ-ZNS exhibited the best reactant conversion across all of the evaluated temperatures, e.g. CH4 and CO2 conversions were 97.2 and 99% at 850 ºC, respectively. Furthermore, NCAMZ-ZNS demonstrated a stable yield with H2/CO close to unit value during the 1440 min stability test.

  13. Fabrication and Mechanical Properties of SiCw(p/SiC-Si Composites by Liquid Si Infiltration using Pyrolysed Rice Husks and SiC Powders as Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dense silicon carbide (SiC matrix composites with SiC whiskers and particles as reinforcement were prepared by infiltrating molten Si at 1550 °C into porous preforms composed of pyrolysed rice husks (RHs and extra added SiC powder in different ratios. The Vickers hardness of the composites showed an increase from 18.6 to 21.3 GPa when the amount of SiC added in the preforms was 20% (w/w, and then decreased to 17.3 GPa with the increase of SiC added in the preforms up to 80% (w/w. The values of flexural strength of the composites initially decreased when 20% (w/w SiC was added in the preform and then increased to 587 MPa when the SiC concentration reached 80% (w/w. The refinement of SiC particle sizes and the improvement of the microstructure in particle distribution of the composites due to the addition of external SiC played an effective role in improving the mechanical properties of the composites.

  14. Studies on unusually reactive metal powders. Preparation of new organometallic and organic compounds including potential new catalysts. Final report, July 1, 1980-December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieke, R.D.

    1985-06-01

    This research project was involved with the preparation and study of highly reactive metal powders prepared by the reduction of metal salts with alkali metals. Studies concentrated on nickel, copper, cadmium, uranium, iron, and magnesium. The nickel powders have been found to react rapidly with benzylic halides, and the resulting organonickel complexes yield dibenzyl. Aryl halides react rapidly with the nickel powders to produce biaryl compounds in high yields. Benzylic halides react with the nickel powders in the presence of acylhalides to produce benzyl ketones in high yields. Reactions of ROCOCOC1 and benzylic halides with nickel powders yield benzyl ketones. These reactions proceed with a wide variety of substituents on the phenyl ring of the benzylic halides. Highly reactive uranium has been prepared, and found to react with a variety of oxygen containing substrates, such as nitrobenzene to yield azo benzene. Highly reactive magnesium has opened up a totally new area of low temperature Grignard chemistry. The preparation of highly reactive copper has allowed the direct preparation of organocopper species directly from organic halides. 16 refs., 6 tabs

  15. A facile synthesis for cauliflower like CeO2 catalysts from Ce-BTC precursor and their catalytic performance for CO oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Hou, Fulin; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yuxin; Liu, Ning; Chen, Dan; Yang, Yiqiong

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents a novel and facile method for preparing cauliflowerlike CeO2 through direct decomposition of cerium based metal-organic framework (MOF) Ce-BTC (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) straw in air. Several analytical tools such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric (TG), N2 adsorption-desorption, Temperature programmed reduction (TPR), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and Photoluminescence (PL) have been used to characterize Ce-BTC and CeO2. The Ce-BTC calcined at 500 °C (CeO2-500) maintains the morphology of its template ;Ce-BTC; and forms a special cauliflower-like structure. XRD patterns showed that the catalyst has a perfect CeO2 crystal structure and has a smaller particle size. The prepared CeO2 cauliflowers exhibit excellent catalytic activities, long-term stability, and cycling stability for CO oxidation. The improved catalytic activities could be attributed to porous nanorods of CeO2 cauliflowers, which provide more active sites and oxygen vacancy for CO oxidation.

  16. Extrudate versus Powder Silica Alumina as Support for Re2O7 Catalyst in the Metathesis of Seed Oil-Derivatives – A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassie B. Marvey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Self- and cross-metathesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs was investigated using a silica alumina supported Re2O7 catalyst. Although a 3 wt% Re2O7/SiO2-Al2O3/SnBu4 is already active for the metathesis of unsaturated FAMEs, the results have shown that particle size of silica alumina support has a profound influence on its activity and selectivity. Consequently, high substrate conversions coupled with improved product yields (for mono- and diesters and reaction rates were obtained upon using powder, as opposed to extrudate silica alumina as the support material. Diesters are platform compounds for the synthesis of polymers and fragrances. In this paper a comparative outline of the influence of particle size of silica alumina (extrudate versus powder on catalytic performance of a 3 wt% Re2O7/SiO2-Al2O3/SnBu4 for self- and cross-metathesis of FAMEs is made. Low surface area and diffusion constraints associated with extrudates were identified as some of the factors leading to low catalytic activity and selectivity.

  17. Boron-containing catalysts for dry reforming of methane to synthesis gas

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Basset, Jean-Marie; Park, Jung-Hyun; Samal, Akshaya Kumar; Alsabban, Bedour

    2018-01-01

    The present invention uses a cobalt catalyst for carbon dioxide reforming of lower alkanes to synthesis gas having a cobalt catalyst on an oxide support where the supported cobalt catalyst has been modified with a boron precursor. The boron

  18. Oxidation catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  19. Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction and Microbial Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.

    2013-06-03

    Commercially available activated carbon (AC) powders made from different precursor materials (coal, peat, coconut shell, hardwood, and phenolic resin) were electrochemically evaluated as oxygen reduction catalysts and tested as cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). AC powders were characterized in terms of surface chemistry and porosity, and their kinetic activities were compared to carbon black and platinum catalysts in rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests. Cathodes using the coal-derived AC had the highest power densities in MFCs (1620 ± 10 mW m-2). Peat-based AC performed similarly in MFC tests (1610 ± 100 mW m-2) and had the best catalyst performance, with an onset potential of Eonset = 0.17 V, and n = 3.6 electrons used for oxygen reduction. Hardwood based AC had the highest number of acidic surface functional groups and the poorest performance in MFC and catalysis tests (630 ± 10 mW m-2, Eonset = -0.01 V, n = 2.1). There was an inverse relationship between onset potential and quantity of strong acid (pKa < 8) functional groups, and a larger fraction of microporosity was negatively correlated with power production in MFCs. Surface area alone was a poor predictor of catalyst performance, and a high quantity of acidic surface functional groups was determined to be detrimental to oxygen reduction and cathode performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. Efeito do vapor d'água na síntese pelo método do precursor polimérico da alumina contendo aditivos Effect of water vapor on the synthesis by the polymeric precursor method of alumina doped powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Castro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A presença de H2O nos processos de síntese e transformação de fase da alumina tem usualmente função catalisadora, diminuindo as temperaturas dos processos e facilitando os possíveis rearranjos atômicos. Neste trabalho mostrou-se que o vapor de H2O durante a síntese pode não apenas acelerar os processos diminuindo as energias de ativação, mas também induzir diferentes formas de ação de aditivos. O estudo foi possível utilizando-se o método dos precursores poliméricos para a síntese dos pós, que permite um controle absoluto do teor de H2O na etapa de cristalização do material. Alumina contendo Mn ou Mg como aditivos foram sintetizadas na ausência de H2O e na presença de excesso controlado desta e fases diferentes para cada situação foram observadas. Uma explicação do fenômeno é descrita em função da dependência da cristalização da gama-Al2O3 na presença de H+ para compensação das vacâncias catiônicas.It is commonly accepted that the presence of H2O during the synthesis and phase transformation of alumina causes decreasing temperatures of these processes since it increases the atomic motilities. In addition to this general concept, in this work H2O vapor is also shown to play an important role on the influence of additives in alumina based systems. Alumina powders containing Mn or Mg were synthesized by the polymeric precursor method under H2O vapor or dry atmosphere during the crystallization stage. Each atmosphere promoted a different phase and an explanation for the phenomenon was given bases on the gamma-Al2O3 crystallization dependence on the H+ presence due to the required cationic vacancies compensations.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of fine oxide powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Inorganic powders are among the most important factors in many fields of materials such as ceramics, catalysts, medicines, food, etc. There are many papers and books related to powders preparation by many authors (Veale. 1972; Kato and Yamaguchi 1983; Vincenzini 1983;. Brinker et al 1984; Johnson Jr. 1987; Messing ...

  2. Optimization of carbon nanotube powder growth using low pressure floating catalytic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Sun, Z.; Li, Y.N.; Tay, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to synthesize carbon nanotube (CNT) powders has been achieved by using the floating catalyst method below atmospheric pressure. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were utilized to characterize the CNTs samples. Using ferrocene (FeC 10 H 10 ) as catalyst precursor, cyclohexane (C 6 H 12 ) as carbon source, H 2 as carrier gas and thiophene (C 4 H 4 S) as promoter, it is found that the pressure of 15 kPa, temperature of 650 deg. C and H 2 flow rate of 60 sccm would be the optimization condition for synthesis of high quality CNTs. This method is economical and easily scalable for synthesis of CNTs

  3. Hydrophobic catalyst applications in the nuclear field and in environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, Gheorghe; Popescu, Irina; Stefanescu, Ioan; Varlam, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents methods of preparation and applications of hydrophobic platinum catalysts in nuclear field and environmental protection. These catalysts allow the transport of gaseous reactants and reaction products to and from catalytic active centers since the pore blocking by water is avoided. Hence the activity and stability of the catalysts increase and isotopic exchange columns with simpler internal structure can be achieved. The aim of the paper is: 1. to give a data base regarding the preparation methods of the optimal catalyst type; 2. to indicate the utilization and operation procedures of hydrophobic catalysts with mixed and simple packings; 3. to evaluate the performances and applications of hydrophobic catalysts. Over one hundred of hydrophobic catalysts of the active metal/support type were prepared in our laboratory. Hydrophobic features were obtained by different methods like these: - coating a hydrophilic conventional catalyst with a hydrophobic agent such as silicone or teflon; - supporting the active metal directly into the pores of a hydrophobic support; - mixing the teflon powder with a hydrophilic conventional catalyst; coating the support with teflon followed by the impregnation with the precursor of the active metal. The most important application of these catalysts is detritiation of the heavy water used as moderator and coolant in CANDU type reactors. Build-up of tritium in heavy water following the neutron capture by deuterium leads to a reduction in the moderating properties and at the same time leads to a contamination hazard for both operation personnel and environment. Tritium recovery leads this way to both improving the moderating qualities of the heavy water and obtaining valuable pure tritium of high importance in fusion research and other laboratory studies. One gram of tritium costs about USD 10,000. The physical chemical process is water-hydrogen catalyzed isotopic exchange. Also discussed in the paper is the separation of

  4. Nanosized spinel oxide catalysts for CO-oxidation prepared via CoMnMgAl quaternary hydrotalcite route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtar, M., E-mail: mmoustafa@kau.edu.s [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah, P.O. Box 80203 (Saudi Arabia); Basahel, S.N.; Al-Angary, Y.O. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah, P.O. Box 80203 (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-03-18

    Catalytic activity of the Co-Mn-Mg-Al mixed oxide spinel catalysts was examined in CO oxidation by O{sub 2}. The prepared catalysts were characterized by chemical analysis (ICP), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis (TG, DTG), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area measurements, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The calcined hydrotalcite-like precursor was composed of spinel-like Co-Mn-Mg-Al mixed oxide as the only XRD crystalline phases. The nanosized spinel oxide catalysts produced by calcination of hydrotalcites showed higher S{sub BET} than CoMn-hydrotalcite samples as calcination led to dehydroxylation and carbonate decomposition of anions in interlayer spaces. All the catalysts showed 100% CO conversion at high temperature even those calcined at 800 {sup o}C. A catalyst with Co/Mn = 4 and calcined at 500 {sup o}C showed 100% CO conversion at 160 {sup o}C. Moreover, this catalyst exhibited quite good durability without deactivation in 60 h stability test.

  5. Preparation and characterization of anode catalysts for the direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC): methanol and ethanol

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available and M2 precursor solutions followed by reduction of the precursors. Catalysts prepared were: Pt-M1-M2/C (M1=Sn or Ru, M2= Ir). Phosphorus was deposited on these catalysts and their electrochemical activities were compared. The prepared catalysts were...

  6. Thermoset precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Y.

    1983-04-01

    This invention pertains to a distinctive thermoset precursor which is prepared by mixing a resin composition (A) which can be hardened by ionizing radiation, and a resin composition (B) which can be hardened by heat but cannot be hardened by, or is resistant to, ionizing radiation, and by coating or impregnating a molding or other substrate with a sheet or film of this mixture and irradiating this with an ionizing radiation. The principal components of composition (A) and (B) can be the following: (1) an acrylate or methacrylate and an epoxy resin and an epoxy resin hardener; (2) an unsaturated polyester resin and epoxy resin and an epoxy resin hardener; (3) a diacrylate or dimethacrylate or polyethylene glycol and an epoxy resin; (4) an epoxy acrylates or epoxy methacrylate obtained by the addition reaction of epoxy resin and acrylic or methacrylic acid

  7. The Use of C-MnO2 as Hybrid Precursor Support for a Pt/C-MnxO1+x Catalyst with Enhanced Activity for the Methanol Oxidation Reaction (MOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro H.A. Monteverde Videla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Platinum (Pt nanoparticles are deposited on a hybrid support (C-MnO2 according to a polyol method. The home-made catalyst, resulted as Pt/C-MnxO1+x, is compared with two different commercial platinum based materials (Pt/C and PtRu/C. The synthesized catalyst is characterized by means of FESEM, XRD, ICP-MS, XPS and μRS analyses. MnO2 is synthesized and deposited over a commercial grade of carbon (Vulcan XC72 by facile reduction of potassium permanganate in acidic solution. Pt nanoparticles are synthesized on the hybrid support by a polyol thermal assisted method (microwave irradiation, followed by an annealing at 600 °C. The obtained catalyst displays a support constituted by a mixture of manganese oxides (Mn2O3 and Mn3O4 with a Pt loading of 19 wt. %. The electro-catalytic activity towards MOR is assessed by RDE in acid conditions (0.5 M H2SO4, evaluating the ability to oxidize methanol in 1 M concentration. The synthesized Pt/C-MnxO1+x catalyst shows good activity as well as good stability compared to the commercial Pt/C based catalyst.

  8. Pt-Ni and Pt-Co Catalyst Synthesis Route for Fuel Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdosy, Samad A.; Ravi, Vilupanur A.; Valdez, Thomas I.; Kisor, Adam; Narayan, Sri R.

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) at the cathode are the rate-limiting step in fuel cell performance. The ORR is 100 times slower than the corresponding hydrogen oxidation at the anode. Speeding up the reaction at the cathode will improve fuel cell efficiency. The cathode material is generally Pt powder painted onto a substrate (e.g., graphite paper). Recent efforts in the fuel cell area have focused on replacing Pt with Pt-X alloys (where X = Co, Ni, Zr, etc.) in order to (a) reduce cost, and (b) increase ORR rates. One of these strategies is to increase ORR rates by reducing the powder size, which would result in an increase in the surface area, thereby facilitating faster reaction rates. In this work, a process has been developed that creates Pt-Ni or Pt-Co alloys that are finely divided (on the nano scale) and provide equivalent performance at lower Pt loadings. Lower Pt loadings will translate to lower cost. Precursor salts of the metals are dissolved in water and mixed. Next, the salt mixtures are dried on a hot plate. Finally, the dried salt mixture is heattreated in a furnace under flowing reducing gas. The catalyst powder is then used to fabricate a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for electrochemical performance testing. The Pt- Co catalyst-based MEA showed comparable performance to an MEA fabri cated using a standard Pt black fuel cell catalyst. The main objective of this program has been to increase the overall efficiencies of fuel cell systems to support power for manned lunar bases. This work may also have an impact on terrestrial programs, possibly to support the effort to develop a carbon-free energy source. This catalyst can be used to fabricate high-efficiency fuel cell units that can be used in space as regenerative fuel cell systems, and terrestrially as primary fuel cells. Terrestrially, this technology will become increasingly important when transition to a hydrogen economy occurs.

  9. (YSZ) powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    109–114. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 109 ... Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India .... pensions of 900°C calcined YSZ powders. .... The sintered density data of the compacts (sintered at.

  10. Nanoparticular metal oxide/anatase catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of preparation of nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts having a narrow particle size distribution. In particular, the invention concerns preparation of nanoparticular metal oxide catalyst precursors comprising combustible crystallization seeds upon which...... the catalyst metai oxide is co-precipitated with the carrier metal oxide, which crystallization seeds are removed by combustion in a final calcining step. The present invention also concerns processes wherein the nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts of the invention are used, such as SCR (deNOx) reactions...

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, and Use of Novel Bimetal Oxide Catalyst for Photoassisted Degradation of Malachite Green Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Ameta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a simple, novel, and cost effective synthesis of nanobimetal oxide catalyst using cerium and cadmium nitrates as metal precursors. The cerium-cadmium oxide nanophotocatalyst was synthesized by coprecipitation method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction method to analyze the particle size. XRD study reveals a high degree of crystallinity and 28.43 nm particle size. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized nanobimetal catalyst was examined by using it for the photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of various parameters, such as the pH of the dye solution, concentration of dye, amount of catalyst, and light intensity on the rate of dye degradation. The progress of the dye degradation was monitored spectrophotometrically by taking the optical density of the dye solution at regular intervals. Experimental results indicate that the dye degrades best at pH 8.0 with light intensity 600 Wm−2 and catalyst loading 0.03 g/50 mL of dye solution. The rate constant for the reaction was 7.67 × 10−4 s−1.

  12. Innovative Route to Prepare of Au/C Catalysts by Replication of Gold-containing Mesoporous Silicas

    KAUST Repository

    Kerdi, Fatmé

    2011-12-23

    Gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidations in the liquid phase are generally performed in low-polarity solvents, in which conventional oxide-supported catalysts are poorly dispersed. To improve the wettability of the catalytic powder and, thus, the efficiency of the catalyst, gold nanoparticles (NPs) have been dispersed on meso-structured carbons. Gold is first introduced in functionalized mesostructured silica and particles are formed inside the porosity. Silica pores are then impregnated with a carbon precursor and the composite material is heated at 900 °C under vacuum or nitrogen. Silica is then removed by acid leaching, leading to partially encapsulated gold particles in mesoporous carbon. Carbon prevents aggregation of gold particles at high temperature, both the mean size and distribution being similar to those observed in silica. However, while Au@SiO2 exhibit significant catalytic activity in the aerobic oxidation of trans-stilbene in the liquid phase, its Au@C mesostructured replica is quite inactive.

  13. Effect of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} powder addition in the precursor solution on the properties of cathode films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Caio Luis Santos; Rangel, Maria do Carmo, E-mail: clssilva@ufba.br, E-mail: mcarmov@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Grupo de Estudo em Cinetica e Catalise; Gama, Leonardo Marques; Paes Junior, Herval Ramos, E-mail: leonardo.m.gama@gmail.com, E-mail: herval@uenf.br [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados; Santos, Jacqueline Amanda Figueiredo dos; Domingues, Rosana Zacarias, E-mail: jac.amanda28@gmail.com, E-mail: rosanazd@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais e Pilhas a Combustivel

    2017-01-15

    Films of lanthanum strontium manganite, LSM (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3}) were deposited on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates by different methods aiming to establish the most suitable route to prepare cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Samples were obtained by using a solution of lanthanum, strontium and manganese nitrates or a dispersion of the LSM powder in this solution. Both commercial and synthesized LSM powders were used, the last one obtained by amorphous citrate method. The films were deposited by spray pyrolysis on YSZ substrates prepared by uniaxial and isostatic pressing. Samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction and two-probe conductivity measurements. The area specific resistance and relaxation to cathodic activation were measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The substrate obtained by uniaxial pressing and the commercial LSM produced films with the highest amount of surface cracks. The film obtained from the suspension showed area specific resistance and activation energy lower than the other produced from the solution. For both samples, the cathodic activation process resulted in an initial reduction of the total resistance of around 20%, the sample produced from the suspension being more resistant to relaxation. Therefore, the LSM suspension is more suitable than the salts solution for preparing films by spray pyrolysis on YSZ substrates to obtain efficient cathodes for SOFC. (author)

  14. [(≢SiO)TaVCl2Me2]: A well-defined silica-supported tantalum(V) surface complex as catalyst precursor for the selective cocatalyst-free trimerization of ethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin; Callens, Emmanuel; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Merle, Nicolas; White, Andrew J P; Taoufik, Mostafa; Copé ret, Christophe; Le Roux, Erwan; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    On the surface of it: In the absence of co-catalyst, a well-defined silica-supported surface organometallic complex [(≢SiO)Ta VCl2Me2] selectively catalyzes the oligomerization of ethylene. The use of surface organometallic species allows three different pathways to be determined for the reduction of TaV to TaIII species under pressure of ethylene. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. [(≢SiO)TaVCl2Me2]: A well-defined silica-supported tantalum(V) surface complex as catalyst precursor for the selective cocatalyst-free trimerization of ethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin

    2012-10-22

    On the surface of it: In the absence of co-catalyst, a well-defined silica-supported surface organometallic complex [(≢SiO)Ta VCl2Me2] selectively catalyzes the oligomerization of ethylene. The use of surface organometallic species allows three different pathways to be determined for the reduction of TaV to TaIII species under pressure of ethylene. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Synthesis of yttria powders by electrospray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rulison, A.J.; Flagan, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Electrospray atomization of high-concentration (∼400 g/L) chemical precursor solutions was applied to the synthesis of yttria powders. Conditions were found which led to high-quality powders, composed of dense, spheroidal, submicrometer, and nanocrystalline oxide particles. The precursor solutions were hydrated yttrium nitrates dissolved in n-propyl alcohol at concentrations ranging from 44.1 to 455 g/L. Electrospray atomization produced submicrometer precursor droplets which were dispersed in air and carried through an electric furnace for thermal decomposition at 500 C for several seconds residence time. X-ray powder diffraction patterns indicated the expected cubic phase. Transmission electron micrographs showed that the particle structure varied with solution composition, ranging from hollow, inflated spheres for 6-hydrated nitrates to dense spheroids for 5-hydrated nitrates. The use of 6-hydrated nitrates in the solutions appeared to form particle surfaces which were impermeable to alcohol vapor evolved during thermal decomposition, leading to hollow, inflated spheres

  17. Communicating catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2018-06-01

    The beauty and activity of enzymes inspire chemists to tailor new and better non-biological catalysts. Now, a study reveals that the active sites within heterogeneous catalysts actively cooperate in a fashion phenomenologically similar to, but mechanistically distinct, from enzymes.

  18. Powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M.

    1995-12-31

    the importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940`s, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments.

  19. Powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, M.

    1995-01-01

    The importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940's, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments

  20. Powder diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, J.

    1983-01-01

    The new possibilities openned by the synchrotron radiation in the powder diffractometry techniques are presented. This technique is described in a general manner and some aspects which can be developed with the use of the synchrotron radiation are analyzed. (L.C.) [pt

  1. Syngas production from CO{sub 2}-reforming of CH{sub 4} over sol-gel synthesized Ni-Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MgOZrO{sub 2} nanocatalyst: effect of ZrO{sub 2} precursor on catalyst properties and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajjadi, Seyed Mehdi; Haghighi, Mohammad; Rahmani, Farhad, E-mail: haghighi@sut.ac.ir [Reactor and Catalysis Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Ni-Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MgO-ZrO{sub 2} nanocatalyst with utilization of two different zirconia precursors, namely, zirconyl nitrate hydrate (ZNH) and zirconyl nitrate solution (ZNS), was synthesized via the sol-gel method. The physiochemical properties of nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET and FTIR analyses and employed for syngas production from CO{sub 2}-reforming of CH{sub 4}. XRD patterns, exhibiting proper crystalline structure and homogeneous dispersion of active phase for the nanocatalyst ZNS precursor employed (NCAMZ-ZNS). FESEM and BET results of NCAMZ-ZNS presented more uniform morphology and smaller particle size and consequently higher surface areas. In addition, average particle size of NCAMZ-ZNS was 15.7 nm, which is close to the critical size for Ni-Co catalysts to avoid carbon formation. Moreover, FESEM analysis indicated both prepared samples were nanoscale. EDX analysis confirmed the existence of various elements used and also supported the statements made in the XRD and FESEM analyses regarding dispersion. Based on the excellent physiochemical properties, NCAMZ-ZNS exhibited the best reactant conversion across all of the evaluated temperatures, e.g. CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} conversions were 97.2 and 99% at 850 °C, respectively. Furthermore, NCAMZZNS demonstrated a stable yield with H{sub 2}/CO close to unit value during the 1440 min stability test. (author)

  2. Lunar CATALYST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (Lunar CATALYST) is a NASA initiative to encourage the development of U.S. private-sector robotic lunar...

  3. Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Due-Hansen, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    by onepot sol–gel method. All catalysts were characterized by BET, XRPD and NH3-TPD. Initial SCR activities of 8 out of 9 catalysts showed higher NO conversion at least at one temperature in the temperature range 300–500 ◦C compared to the conventional V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst. After potassium poisoning (100......Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts were prepared using three different supports ZrO2, TiO2 and Mordenite zeolite. The majority of the catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of a commercial support, with vanadium, copper or iron precursor, one catalyst was prepared......–130 µmol of K/g of catalyst) the relative drop in SCR activity and acidity was lower for all the alternative catalysts compared to the industrial V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst. Furthermore, Cu/MOR and Nano-V2O5/Sul-TiO2 catalysts showed 8–16 times higher SCR activities than the conventional even after high...

  4. Thermal effects in highly dispersed iron catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, A.M.; Cagnoli, M.V.; Gallegos, N.G.; Marchetti, S.G.; Yeramian, A.A.; Mercader, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Moessbauer spectra of three Fe/SiO 2 catalysts with 5 wt% iron content show the presence of several Fe species and display different magnetic behaviours when the precursors are subjected to various thermal treatments. Based on the Moessbauer parameters and CO chemisorption measurements, the average crystal sizes of the catalysts are estimated and discussed in connection with the thermal pretreatment severity and magnetic properties of the samples. (orig.)

  5. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  6. Powder technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueda, Horacio

    1989-01-01

    Powder technology is experiencing nowadays a great development and has broad application in different fields: nuclear energy, medicine, new energy sources, industrial and home artifacts, etc. Ceramic materials are of daily use as tableware and also in the building industry (bricks, tiles, etc.). However, in machine construction its utilization is not so common. The same happens with metals: powder metallurgy is employed less than traditional metal forming techniques. Both cases deal with powder technology and the forming techniques as far as the final consolidation through sintering processes are very similar. There are many different methods and techniques in the forming stage: cold-pressing, slip casting, injection molding, extrusion molding, isostatic pressing, hot-pressing (which involves also the final consolidation step), etc. This variety allows to obtain almost any desired form no matter how complex it could be. Some applications are very specific as in the case of UO 2 pellets (used as nuclear fuels) but with the same technique and other materials, it is possible to manufacture a great number of different products. This work shows the characteristics and behaviour of two magnetic ceramic materials (ferrites) fabricated in the laboratory of the Applied Research Division of the Bariloche Atomic Center for different purposes. Other materials and products made with the same method are also mentioned. Likewise, densities and shrinkage obtained by different methods of forming (cold-pressing, injection molding, slip casting and extrusion molding) using high-purity alumina (99.5% Al 2 O 3 ). Finally, different applications of such methods are given. (Author) [es

  7. Photoassisted Fenton degradation of phthalocyanine dyes from wastewater of printing industry using Fe(II)/γ-Al2O3 catalyst in up-flow fluidized-bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsuhui; Chou, Shihjie; Chen, Shiaoshing; Yu, Chiajen

    2014-06-01

    Fe(II)/γ-Al2O3 powders synthesized using the dipping method were produced from a mixed aqueous solution containing aluminium oxide (γ-Al2O3) and iron(II)-precursor (FeSO4), and used for photo-Fenton degradation of phthalocyanine dyes (PCS) under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in an up-flow fluidized bed. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, ESCA, BET, EDS and SEM. The results showed that Fe(2+) ion was compounded on the γ-Al2O3 carrier. The effects of different reaction parameters such as catalyst activity, dosage and solution pH on the decolorization of PCS were assessed. Results indicated that maximum decolorization (more than 95%) of PCS occurred with 20 wt% Fe(II)/γ-Al2O3 catalyst (dosage of 60 g/L) using a combination of UV irradiation and heterogeneous Fenton system. The degradation efficiency of PCS increases as pH decreases, exhibiting a maximum efficiency at pH 3.5. The recycled catalyst was capable of repeating three runs without a significant decrease in treatment efficiency, and this demonstrated the stability and reusability of catalyst. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Zircon Supported Copper Catalysts for the Steam Reforming of Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastri, M.; Fendy, Marsih, I. N.

    2008-03-01

    Steam reforming of methanol (SRM) is known as one of the most favorable catalytic processes for producing hydrogen. Current research on zirconia, ZrO2 supported copper catalyst revealed that CuO/ZrO2 as an active catalyst for the SRM. Zircon, ZrSiO4 is available from the by-product of tin mining. In the work presented here, the catalytic properties of CuO/ZrSiO4 with various copper oxide compositions ranging from 2.70% (catalyst I), 4.12% (catalyst II), and 7.12%-mass (catalyst III), synthesized by an incipient wetness impregnation technique, were investigated to methanol conversion, selectivity towards CO formation, and effect of ZnO addition (7.83%CuO/8.01%ZnO/ZrSiO4 = catalyst V). The catalytic activity was obtained using a fixed bed reactor and the zircon supported catalyst activity was compared to those of CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst (catalyst IV) and commercial Kujang LTSC catalyst. An X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis was done to identify the abundant phases of the catalysts. The catalysts topography and particle diameter were measured with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and composition of the catalysts was measured by SEM-EDX, scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive using X-ray analysis. The results of this research provide information on the possibility of using zircon (ZrSiO4) as solid support for SRM catalysts.

  9. An improved method of preparation of nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns an improved method of preparation of nanoparticular vanadium oxide/anatase titania catalysts having a narrow particle size distribution. In particular, the invention concerns preparation of nanoparticular vanadium oxide/anatase titania catalyst precursors comprising...... combustible crystallization seeds upon which the catalyst metal oxide is coprecipitated with the carrier metal oxide, which crystallization seeds are removed by combustion in a final calcining step....

  10. Highly dispersed metal catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; West, William L.; Rhodes, William D.

    2016-11-08

    A supported catalyst having an atomic level single atom structure is provided such that substantially all the catalyst is available for catalytic function. A process of forming a single atom catalyst unto a porous catalyst support is also provided.

  11. Co-Assembled Supported Catalysts: Synthesis of Nano-Structured Supported Catalysts with Hierarchic Pores through Combined Flow and Radiation Induced Co-Assembled Nano-Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galip Akay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel generic method of silica supported catalyst system generation from a fluid state is presented. The technique is based on the combined flow and radiation (such as microwave, thermal or UV induced co-assembly of the support and catalyst precursors forming nano-reactors, followed by catalyst precursor decomposition. The transformation from the precursor to supported catalyst oxide state can be controlled from a few seconds to several minutes. The resulting nano-structured micro-porous silica supported catalyst system has a surface area approaching 300 m2/g and X-ray Diffraction (XRD-based catalyst size controlled in the range of 1–10 nm in which the catalyst structure appears as lamellar sheets sandwiched between the catalyst support. These catalyst characteristics are dependent primarily on the processing history as well as the catalyst (Fe, Co and Ni studied when the catalyst/support molar ratio is typically 0.1–2. In addition, Ca, Mn and Cu were used as co-catalysts with Fe and Co in the evaluation of the mechanism of catalyst generation. Based on extensive XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM studies, the micro- and nano-structure of the catalyst system were evaluated. It was found that the catalyst and silica support form extensive 0.6–2 nm thick lamellar sheets of 10–100 nm planar dimensions. In these lamellae, the alternate silica support and catalyst layer appear in the form of a bar-code structure. When these lamellae structures pack, they form the walls of a micro-porous catalyst system which typically has a density of 0.2 g/cm3. A tentative mechanism of catalyst nano-structure formation is provided based on the rheology and fluid mechanics of the catalyst/support precursor fluid as well as co-assembly nano-reactor formation during processing. In order to achieve these structures and characteristics, catalyst support must be in the form of silane coated silica nano

  12. Ionospheric earthquake precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulachenko, A.L.; Oraevskij, V.N.; Pokhotelov, O.A.; Sorokin, V.N.; Strakhov, V.N.; Chmyrev, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Results of experimental study on ionospheric earthquake precursors, program development on processes in the earthquake focus and physical mechanisms of formation of various type precursors are considered. Composition of experimental cosmic system for earthquake precursors monitoring is determined. 36 refs., 5 figs

  13. Sulfidation of alumina-supported iron and iron-molybdenum oxide catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramselaar, W.L.T.M.; Crajé, M.W.J.; Hadders, R.H.; Gerkema, E.; Beer, de V.H.J.; Kraan, van der A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The transition of alumina-supported iron and iron-molybdenum catalysts from the oxidic precursor to the sulfided catalysts was systematically studied by means of in-situ Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature. This enabled the adjudgement of various sulfidic phases in the sulfided catalysts. The

  14. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan, Song; Kirby, S.; Schmidt, E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to explore bimetallic dispersed catalysts for more efficient coal liquefaction. Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting various aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. This paper describes recent results on (1) hydrodeoxygenation of O-containing polycyclic model compounds using novel organometallic catalyst precursors; and (2) activity and selectivity of dispersed Fe catalysts from organometallic and inorganic precursors for hydrocracking of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl) bibenzyl. The results showed that some iron containing catalysts have higher activity in the sulfur-free form, contrary to conventional wisdom. Adding sulfur to Fe precursors with Cp-ligands decreased the activity of the resulting catalyst. This is in distinct contrast to the cases with iron pentacarbonyl and superfine Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, where S addition increased their catalytic activity substantially. A positive correlation between sulfur addition and increased activity can be seen, but a reversed trend between Fe cluster size and hydrocracking conversion could be observed, for carbonyl-type Fe precursors. It is apparent that the activity and selectivity of Fe catalysts for NMBB conversion depends strongly on both the type of ligand environment, the oxidation state and the number of intermetal bonds in the molecular precursor.

  15. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Tran, Tri D.; Feikert, John H.; Mayer, Steven T.

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  16. Sputtered catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyerman, W.J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for preparing a supported catalyst by a sputtering process. A material that is catalytic, or which is a component of a catalytic system, is sputtered on to the surface of refractory oxide particles that are compatible with the sputtered material and the sputtered particles are consolidated into aggregate form. The oxide particles before sputtering should have a diameter in the range 1000A to 50μ and a porosity less than 0.4 ml/g, and may comprise MgO, Al 2 O 3 or SiO 2 or mixtures of these oxides, including hydraulic cement. The particles may possess catalytic activity by themselves or in combination with the catalytic material deposited on them. Sputtering may be effected epitaxially and consolidation may be effected by compaction pelleting, extrusion or spray drying of a slurry. Examples of the use of such catalysts are given. (U.K.)

  17. Moessbauer investigations of the Fe-Cu-Mn catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanu, V.; Filoti, G.; Ilie, I.; Zamfirescu, E.

    1990-01-01

    In the selective process of the syngas conversion to synthetic gasoline a bifunctional catalytic system has to be used. It was obtained by combination a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst with the HZSM-5 zeolite. The phase compositions of the precursor and the fresh catalyst were established as well as the optimum thermal treatment. The catalyst was reduced in pure H 2 or in a H 2 +CO mixture. The influence of the reduction and reaction conditions on the catalyst structure was investigated. (orig.)

  18. Boron-containing catalysts for dry reforming of methane to synthesis gas

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2018-01-04

    The present invention uses a cobalt catalyst for carbon dioxide reforming of lower alkanes to synthesis gas having a cobalt catalyst on an oxide support where the supported cobalt catalyst has been modified with a boron precursor. The boron-treated cobalt catalyst systems as described herein show significant increases in the conversion of CH4 and CO2 during the dry reforming of methane (DRM) reaction as compared to traditional catalysts. Described herein are supported catalysts and methods of using the catalysts for the dry reforming of methane to synthesis gas, with the supported catalysts in the present invention include a boron-treated cobalt catalyst disposed on an oxide support. Also described herein are processes for preparing the supported catalysts.

  19. Foundations of powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libenson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration is being given to physicochemical foundations and technology of metal powders, moulding and sintering of bars, made of them or their mixtures with nonmetal powders. Data on he design of basic equipment used in the processes of powder metallurgy and its servicing are presented. General requirements of safety engineering when fabricating metal powders and products of them are mentioned

  20. Synthesis of polymeric fluorinated sol–gel precursor for fabrication of superhydrophobic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qianqian; Yan, Yuheng; Yu, Miao; Song, Botao; Shi, Suqing; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A polymeric fluorinated sol–gel precursor PFT is designed to fabricate superhydrophobic coatings. • The superhydrophobicity could be governed by the concentration of PFT. • Bio-mimicking self-cleaning property similar to lotus leaves could also be achieved. - Abstract: A fluorinated polymeric sol–gel precursor (PFT) is synthesized by copolymerization of 2,3,4,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-bis(trifluorinated methyl)pentyl methacrylate (FMA) and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (TSMA) to replace the expensive long chain fluorinated alkylsilanes. The fluorinated silica sol is prepared by introducing PFT as co-precursor of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in the sol–gel process with ammonium hydroxide as catalyst, which is then used to fabricate superhydrophobic coating on glass substrate through a simple dip-coating method. The effects of PFT concentrations on the chemical structure of the formed fluorinated silica, the surface chemical composition, surface morphology, wetting and self-cleaning properties of the resultant fluorinated silica coatings were studied by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and water contact angle measurements (WCA). The results show that the fluorinated silica sols are successfully obtained. The size and size distribution of the fluorinated silica particles are found greatly dependent on the concentration of PFT, which play a crucial role in the surface morphology of the corresponding fluorinated silica coatings. The suitable PFT concentration added in the sol–gel stage, i.e. for F-sol-1 and F-sol-2, is helpful to achieve both the low surface energy and multi-scaled microstructures, leading to the formation of the superhydrophobic coatings with bio-mimicking self-cleaning property similar to lotus leaves.

  1. Pd-bound functionalized mesoporous silica as active catalyst for Suzuki coupling reaction: Effect of OAcˉ, PPh3 and Clˉ ligands on catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Trisha; Uyama, Hiroshi; Nandi, Mahasweta

    2018-04-01

    Three new palladium catalysts, PdCat-I, PdCat-II and PdCat-III, immobilized over heterogeneous silica support have been synthesized using different ligands attached to the palladium precursor. The ligands that have been used in this study are acetate, triphenylphosphine and chloride in PdCat-I, PdCat-II and PdCat-III, respectively. The ligands have different effect on stability of the compounds and impart different oxidation states to the metal center. The materials have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption studies, transmission electron microscopy, thermal analysis, and different spectroscopic techniques. The Pd-content of the samples have been determined by ICP-AES analysis. The materials have been used as catalysts for Suzuki coupling reaction of aryl halides with phenylboronic acid under mild conditions. A comparative study has been carried out to ascertain the effect of the nature of different ligands on the outcome of the catalytic reactions. Products have been identified and estimated by 1H NMR and gas chromatography. The results show that the best yields are obtained with the catalyst containing triphenylphosphine as the ligand in methanol. Such type of work to study the effect of ligand on Suzuki coupling reaction over functionalized mesoporous silica heterogeneous catalysts have not been carried out so far.

  2. Fundamentals of powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Qureshi, K.A.; Minhas, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    This book is being presented to introduce the fundamentals of technology of powder metallurgy. An attempt has been made to present an overall view of powder metallurgy technology in the first chapter, whereas chapter 2 to 8 deal with the production of metal powders. The basic commercial methods of powder production are briefly described with illustrations. Chapter 9 to 12 describes briefly metal powder characteristics and principles of testing, mixing, blending, conditioning, compaction and sintering. (orig./A.B.)

  3. An introduction to catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Hak Je

    1988-11-01

    This book explains basic conception of catalyst such as definition, velocity of chemical reaction and velocity of catalyst reaction, absorption with absorption energy and chemical absorption, pore structure with the role of pore and measurement of pore structure, catalyst activity on solid structure, electrical property on catalyst activity, choice and design of catalyst, catalytic reaction with reaction velocity and chemical equilibrium and reaction velocity model, measurement of reaction velocity and material analysis, catalyst for mixed compound, catalyst for solid acid and catalyst for supported metal.

  4. Process for producing ceramic nitrides anc carbonitrides and their precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G.M.; Maya, L.

    1987-02-25

    A process for preparing ceramic nitrides and carbon nitrides in the form of very pure, fine particulate powder. Appropriate precursors is prepared by reaching a transition metal alkylamide with ammonia to produce a mixture of metal amide and metal imide in the form of an easily pyrolyzable precipitate.

  5. Spheroidization of molybdenum powder by radio frequency thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-ping; Wang, Kuai-she; Hu, Ping; Chen, Qiang; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2015-11-01

    To control the morphology and particle size of dense spherical molybdenum powder prepared by radio frequency (RF) plasma from irregular molybdenum powder as a precursor, plasma process parameters were optimized in this paper. The effects of the carrier gas flow rate and molybdenum powder feeding rate on the shape and size of the final products were studied. The molybdenum powder morphology was examined using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. The powder phases were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The tap density and apparent density of the molybdenum powder were investigated using a Hall flow meter and a Scott volumeter. The optimal process parameters for the spherical molybdenum powder preparation are 50 g/min powder feeding rate and 0.6 m3/h carrier gas rate. In addition, pure spherical molybdenum powder can be obtained from irregular powder, and the tap density is enhanced after plasma processing. The average size is reduced from 72 to 62 µm, and the tap density is increased from 2.7 to 6.2 g/cm3. Therefore, RF plasma is a promising method for the preparation of high-density and high-purity spherical powders.

  6. Simple preparation of Fenton catalyst@bacterial cellulose for waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Arie; Febi Indrawan, Radian; Triadhi, Untung; Hasdi Aimon, Akfiny; Iskandar, Ferry; Ardy, Husaini

    2018-02-01

    Heterogeneous fenton catalyst is one of the attractive technologies for destruction of persistent and non-biodegradable pollutant in wastewater, because it can be used in wide range of pH and recyclable. Herein, commercial bacterial celluloses (BCs) were used as an alternative support of fenton catalyst to improve their catalytic activity. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observations indicated that the presence of BCs and decreasing precursor concentration might promote formation of smaller particle sizes of catalyst from 3.5 μm of bare catalyst to 0.7 μm of catalyst@BC. UV-vis measurement showed that fast degradation of dyes with half-time degradation at around 25 min was observed in sample using catalyst@BCs with precursor concentration of 0.01 M. Successful preparation of heterogeneous fenton catalyst with smaller particle size and better catalytic activity is important for their application in wastewater treatment.

  7. Advanced development of catalysts by using the high-brilliance synchrotron radiation in SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The advanced development of catalysts by using the high-brilliance synchrotron radiation in SPring-8 is described: (1) the industrial use of SPring-8, (2) the analytical methods of catalyst using SPring-8 (XAFS, powder X-ray diffraction, thin film X-ray scattering, X-ray imaging, infrared analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, and photoelectron spectroscopy etc.), (3) the history of synchrotron radiation and catalyst investigations, (4) the new advanced measuring methods of catalyst using synchrotron radiation (various X-ray spectroscopic methods, and application of XAFS to highly-disperse systems of catalyst), and (5) the new advanced development of catalysts using synchrotron radiation and its applications (motor-car catalysts, light catalysts, fuel cells, nanotechnology, and trace amounts of catalyst in wastes). (M.H.)

  8. Slat templated formation of efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalyst with a fluidic precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yao

    2018-05-01

    Development of cost-effective and efficient oxygen reduction catalyst is critical for the commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Metal and nitrogen co-doped carbon is recognized as a promising alternative to traditional platinum-based oxygen reduction catalyst. Herein, we report a novel metal and nitrogen co-doped carbon catalyst with an ionic liquid precursor. Salt template, which can be easily removed with mild treatment after the synthesis, is used to generate abundant mesopores in the resulting catalyst. We show that the novel catalyst shows a superior activity comparable to commercial Pt/C catalyst. Furthermore, the important role of the mesopore for the activity of the catalyst is demonstrated.

  9. Characterization of steam-reforming catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos D. C. R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the addition of Mg and Ca to Ni/ a-Al2O3 catalysts was investigatedstudied, aiming to detail the promotion mechanismaddress their role as promoters in the steam reforming reaction. Temperature- programmed reduction and H2 and CO temperature-programmed desorption experiments indicated that Mg interacts with the metallic phase. Mg-promoted catalysts showed a greater difficulty for Ni precursors reduction besides different probe molecules (H2 and CO adsorbed states. In the conversion of cyclohexane, Mg inhibited the formation of hydrogenolysis products. Nonetheless, the presence of Ca did not influence the metallic phase.

  10. Characterization of the impregnated iron based catalyst for direct coal liquefaction by EXAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianli; Zhun Jisheng; Liu Zhenyu; Zhong Bing

    2002-01-01

    Catalyst plays an important role in direct coal liquefaction (DCL). Iron catalysts are regarded as the most attractive catalysts for DCL. To maximize catalytic effect and minimize catalysts usage, ultra-fine size catalysts are preferred. The most effective catalysts are found to be those impregnated onto coal because of their high dispersion on coal surface and intimate contact with coal particles. Besides the physical size, chemical form of a catalyst or a catalyst precursor is also important in determination of DCL activity. The expended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy technique were used in this study. It was shown that the catalysts tested are in nanomater range and have structure mainly in the form of γ-FeOOH and FeS, or possibly of Fe/O/S. The presence of γ-FeOOH can be attributed to the interaction between Fe and the oxygen containing groups of coal or oxygen from moisture

  11. Waste glass as partial mineral precursor in alkali-activated slag/fly ash system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Keulen, A.; Arbi, K.; Ye, G.

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility of a waste glass powder residue (GP) from glass recycling as partial mineral precursor to produce alkali-activated materials is investigated. GP served as powder coal fly ash (PCFA) replacement within a reference system composed of 50% PCFA and 50% ground granulated blast furnace

  12. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  13. Ceria powders by homogeneous precipitation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, S.; Roy, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Formation of precursors for ceria by two homogeneous precipitation reactions - (cerium chloride + urea at 95 degC - called reaction A and cerium chloride + hexamethylenetetramine at 85 degC - called reaction B) - has been studied. The variation of size of the colloidal particles formed and the zeta potential of the suspensions with progress of reactions exhibited similar trends for both the precipitation processes. Particle size increased from 100 to 300 nm with increasing temperature and extent of reaction. The zeta potential was found to decrease with increasing extent of precipitation in the pH range of 5 to 7. Filtration and drying led to agglomeration of the fine particles in case of the precursor from reaction B. The as-formed precursors were crystalline - a basic carbonate in case of reaction A and hydrous oxide in case of reaction B. It was found that nano-crystalline ceria powders (average crystallite size -10 nm) formed above 400 degC from both these precursors. The agglomerate size (D50) of the precursors and ceria powders formed after calcination at 600 degC varied from 0.7 to 3 μm. Increasing calcination temperature up to 800 degC, increased the crystallite size (50 nm). The zeta potential variation with pH and concentration of an anionic dispersant (Calgon) for the ceria powders formed was studied to determine the ideal conditions for suspension stability. It was found to be maximum (i.e., the suspensions stable) in the pH range of 3 to 4 or Calgon concentration of 0.01 to 0.1 weight percent. (author)

  14. Nickel Oxide (NiO nanoparticles prepared by solid-state thermal decomposition of Nickel (II schiff base precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Dehno Khalaji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, plate-like NiO nanoparticles were prepared by one-pot solid-state thermal decomposition of nickel (II Schiff base complex as new precursor. First, the nickel (II Schiff base precursor was prepared by solid-state grinding using nickel (II nitrate hexahydrate, Ni(NO32∙6H2O, and the Schiff base ligand N,N′-bis-(salicylidene benzene-1,4-diamine for 30 min without using any solvent, catalyst, template or surfactant. It was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and elemental analysis (CHN. The resultant solid was subsequently annealed in the electrical furnace at 450 °C for 3 h in air atmosphere. Nanoparticles of NiO were produced and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD at 2θ degree 0-140°, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The XRD and FT-IR results showed that the product is pure and has good crystallinity with cubic structure because no characteristic peaks of impurity were observed, while the SEM and TEM results showed that the obtained product is tiny, aggregated with plate-like shape, narrow size distribution with an average size between 10-40 nm. Results show that the solid state thermal decomposition method is simple, environmentally friendly, safe and suitable for preparation of NiO nanoparticles. This method can also be used to synthesize nanoparticles of other metal oxides.

  15. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite powders produced by a flame-based technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trommer, R.M., E-mail: rafael_trommer@yahoo.com.br [Ceramic Materials Laboratory, av. Osvaldo Aranha 99/705, 90035190, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos, L.A. [Biomaterials Laboratory, av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Campus do Vale Setor IV Predio 74 Sala 123, 91501970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bergmann, C.P. [Ceramic Materials Laboratory, av. Osvaldo Aranha 99/705, 90035190, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2009-08-01

    In this work we reported the production of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder, one of the most studied calcium phosphates in the bioceramics field, using a cost-effective apparatus, composed by three major components: the atomization device, the pilot and main flames and finally the powder collector system. Calcium acetate and ammonium phosphate, diluted in ethanol and water, were used as salts in the precursor solution. The Ca/P molar ratio in the precursor solution was 1.65, equivalent to biological hydroxyapatite. After its production and collection, HA powder was calcined at 600 deg. C for 2 h. X-ray diffraction analysis pointed to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite powders. Carbonate was identified in the powders by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) showed that the powders were composed of spherical primary particles and secondary aggregates, with the morphology unchanged after calcination. By transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), it was observed that the crystallite size of the primary particles was 24.8 {+-} 5.8 nm, for the calcined powder. The specific surface area was 15.03 {+-} 6.4 and 26.50 {+-} 7.6 m{sup 2}/g, for the as-synthetized and calcined powder respectively.

  16. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  17. Scalable synthesis of palladium nanoparticle catalysts by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xinhua; Lyon, Lauren B.; Jiang Yingbing; Weimer, Alan W.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to produce Pd/Al 2 O 3 catalysts using sequential exposures of Pd(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate and formalin at 200 °C in a fluidized bed reactor. The ALD-prepared Pd/alumina catalysts were characterized by various methods including hydrogen chemisorption, XPS, and TEM, and compared with a commercially available 1 wt% Pd/alumina catalyst, which was also characterized. The content of Pd on alumina support and the size of Pd nanoparticles can be controlled by the number of ALD-coating cycles and the dose time of the Pd precursor. One layer of organic component from the Pd precursor remained on the Pd particle surface. The ALD 0.9 wt% Pd/alumina had greater active metal surface area and percent metal dispersion than the commercial 1 wt% Pd/alumina catalyst. The ALD and commercial catalysts were subjected to catalytic testing to determine their relative activities for glucose oxidation to gluconic acid in aqueous solution. The ALD 0.9 wt% Pd/alumina catalyst had comparable activity as compared to the commercial 1 wt% Pd catalyst. No noticeable amount of Pd leaching was observed for the ALD-prepared catalysts during the vigorously stirred reaction.

  18. The preparation of UO2 powder: effect of ammonium uranate properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolfrey, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Ammonium uranate (AU) powders were precipitated from a uranyl nitrate solution with gaseous ammonia. The decomposition of the powders in hydrogen was studied to determine those properties of AU which affect the decomposition reactions and influence the properties of the final UO 2 powder. The thermal decomposition was affected by the initial composition (ammonia and nitrate content) and the morphology of the AU powders. The amount of self-reduction increased with increasing combined ammonia content and decreased with increasing nitrate content. The specific surface area of the decomposed powder increased with increasing total ammonia content and initial surface area of the precursor AU powder. Thermal treatment of the decomposed powder can be used to modify such effects and, in commercial powder production, is used to control the properties of the final UO 2 powder. (Auth.)

  19. IR-doped ruthenium oxide catalyst for oxygen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for preparing a metal-doped ruthenium oxide material by heating a mixture of a doping metal and a source of ruthenium under an inert atmosphere. In some embodiments, the doping metal is in the form of iridium black or lead powder, and the source of ruthenium is a powdered ruthenium oxide. An iridium-doped or lead-doped ruthenium oxide material can perform as an oxygen evolution catalyst and can be fabricated into electrodes for electrolysis cells.

  20. Novel catalysts and photoelectrochemical system for solar fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan

    Solar fuel production from abundant raw chemicals such as CO2 and water is highly desired as a clean renewable energy solution for the future. Developing photoelectrochemical cells is viewed as a promising approach to realize this energy conversion and storage process. Efficient and robust oxygen evolution catalyst made from non-precious materials remains a major challenge for such a system. This thesis basically consists of three parts of work, including studies on enhancing the photocatalytic oxygen evolution activity of cobalt-based spinel nanoparticles by manganese3+ substitution, in situ formation of cobalt oxide nanocubanes as highly active catalyst for photocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction, and development of a photoanode-driven photoelectrochemical cell for CO2 reduction with water. The first part of this thesis work devotes efforts in the development and study on cobalt and other transition metal oxide based oxygen evolution catalyst. Photocatalytic oxygen evolution is a critical step for solar fuel production from abundant sources. It poses a significant challenge because it requires an efficient catalyst to bridge the one-electron photon capture process with the four-electron oxygen reaction. Among all the metal oxides, Co3O4 spinel exhibits a high activity as an oxygen evolution catalyst. The results of this work demonstrate that the photocatalytic oxygen evolution activity of Co3O4 spinel can be further enhanced by substituting Co with Mn in the spinel structure. Using a facile hydrothermal approach, Co3O4 spinel nanoparticles as well as Mn-substituted and Ni-substituted Co3O4 spinel nanoparticles with a typical particle size of 5-7 nm were successfully synthesized. The morphology and crystal structures of the as-synthesized nanoparticle catalysts have been carefully examined using various structural characterization techniques, including powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), gas adsorption, and x-ray absorption

  1. Spherical rhenium metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, T.; Moore, N.; Hamister, M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of a high-density, spherical rhenium powder (SReP) possessing excellent flow characteristics has enabled the use of advanced processing techniques for the manufacture of rhenium components. The techniques that were investigated were vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), direct-hot isostatic pressing (D-HIP), and various other traditional powder metallurgy processing methods of forming rhenium powder into near-net shaped components. The principal disadvantages of standard rhenium metal powder (RMP) for advanced consolidation applications include: poor flow characteristics; high oxygen content; and low and varying packing densities. SReP will lower costs, reduce processing times, and improve yields when manufacturing powder metallurgy rhenium components. The results of the powder characterization of spherical rhenium powder and the consolidation of the SReP are further discussed. (author)

  2. Supported chromium-molybdenum and tungsten sulfide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chianelli, R.R.; Jacobson, A.J.; Young, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes the process for preparing a supported hydroprocessing catalyst. The process comprising compositing a quantity of a particulate, porous catalyst support material comprising one or more refactory oxides with one or more catalyst precursor salts and heating the composite at elevated temperature of at least about 200/sup 0/C up to about 600/sup 0/, in the presence of a sulfur-bearing compound in an amount whereby sulfur in the form of the sulfur-bearing compound in an amount whereby sulfur in the form of the sulfur bearing compound is present in excess of that contained in the catalyst precursor and under oxygen-free conditions for a time sufficient to form the catalyst. The catalyst precursor salt contains a tetrathiometallate anion of Mo, W or mixture therof and a cation comprising trivalent chromium or a mixture of trivalent chromium with one or more divalent promoter metals selected from the group consisting of Fe, Ni, Co, Mn, Cu and a mixture thereof wherein the trivalent chromium and divalent promoter metals are chelated by at least one neutral, nitrogen-containing polydentate ligand, L

  3. Effect of agglomerate strength on sintered density for yttria powders containing agglomerates of monosize spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftcioglu, M.; Akine, M.; Burkhart, L.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of agglomerate strength on sintered density was determined for several yttria powders made by intentionally agglomerating 0.1-μm, monodisperse yttriuim hydrocarbonate precursor spheres and calcining separate portions of the precursor at different temperatures to vary the strength of the intraaglomeate bonds. In this way, the effects of differences in particle morphology and other characteristics among the powders were minimized and the effect of agglomerate strength could be seen more clearly

  4. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-​functionalized ionic liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3...... methyl methacrylate and/or methacrylic acid. Catalyst systems according to the invention are suitable for reactions forming separable product and catalyst phases and supported ionic liquid phase SILP applications....

  5. Sulfation of ceria-zirconia model automotive emissions control catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alan Edwin

    Cerium-zirconium mixed metal oxides are used in automotive emissions control catalysts to regulate the partial pressure of oxygen near the catalyst surface. The near surface oxygen partial pressure is regulated through transfer of atomic oxygen from the ceria-zirconia solid matrix to the platinum group metals to form metal oxides capable of oxidizing carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. Although the addition of zirconium in the cubic lattice of ceria increases the oxygen storage capacity and thermal stability of the ceria matrix, the cerium-zirconium oxide system remains particularly susceptible to deactivation from sulfur compounds. While the overall effect of sulfur on these systems is understood (partially irreversible deactivation), the fundamental and molecular interaction of sulfur with ceria-zirconia remains a challenging problem. Ceria-zirconia metal oxide solid solutions have been prepared through co-precipitation with nitrate precursors. The prepared powders were calcined and subsequently formed into planer wafers and characterized for chemical and physical attributes. The prepared samples were subsequently exposed to a sulfur dioxide based environment and characterized with spectroscopic techniques to characterize the extent of sulfation and the nature of surface sulfur species. The extent of sulfation of the model ceria-zirconia systems was characterized with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) prior to and after treatment in a microreactor. Strong dependencies were observed between the atomic ratio of ceria to zirconia and the extent of sulfation. In addition, the partial pressure of sulfur dioxide during treatments also correlated to the extent of sulfation, while temperature only slightly effected the extent of sulfation. The AES data suggests the gas phase sulfur dioxide preferentially chemisorbs on surface ceria atoms and the extent of sulfation is heavily dependent on sulfur dioxide concentrations and only slightly dependent on catalyst

  6. Barium strontium titanate powders prepared by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brankovic, G.; Brankovic, Z.; Goes, M.S.; Paiva-Santos, C.O.; Cilense, M.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Ultasonic spray pyrolysis (SP) has been investigated for the production of the barium strontium titanate (BST) powders from the polymeric precursors. The processing parameters, such as flux of aerosol and temperature profile inside the furnace, were optimized to obtain single phase BST. The powders were characterized by the methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM, EDS and TEM. The obtained powders were submicronic, consisting of spherical, polycrystalline particles, with internal nanocrystalline structure. Crystallite size of 10 nm, calculated using Rietveld refinement, is in a good agreement with results of HRTEM

  7. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of lead zirconate fine powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apinpus Rujiwatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid synthesis of lead zirconate fine powders by microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique is reported. The influences of type of lead precursor, concentration of potassium hydroxide mineraliser, applied microwave power and irradiation time are described. The synthesised powders were characterised by powder X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic microanalysis and light scattering technique. The merits of the microwave application in reducing reaction time and improving particle mono-dispersion and size uniformity as well as the drawbacks, viz. low purity of the desired phase and increasing demand of mineraliser, are discussed in relation to conventional heating method.

  8. Production of nanocrystalline metal powders via combustion reaction synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, John G.; Weil, Kenneth Scott; Lavender, Curt A.; Kim, Jin Yong

    2017-10-31

    Nanocrystalline metal powders comprising tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium and/or niobium can be synthesized using a combustion reaction. Methods for synthesizing the nanocrystalline metal powders are characterized by forming a combustion synthesis solution by dissolving in water an oxidizer, a fuel, and a base-soluble, ammonium precursor of tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, or niobium in amounts that yield a stoichiometric burn when combusted. The combustion synthesis solution is then heated to a temperature sufficient to substantially remove water and to initiate a self-sustaining combustion reaction. The resulting powder can be subsequently reduced to metal form by heating in a reducing gas environment.

  9. Design of heterogeneous catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anne Mette

    was inspired by a computational screening, suggesting that alloys such as Ni-Fe, Co-Ni, and Co-Fe should show superior activity to the industrially used nickel catalyst. Especially the Ni-Fe system was considered to be interesting, since such alloy catalysts should be both more active and cheaper than the Ni...... catalyst. The results from the screening were experimentally verified for CO hydrogenation, CO2 hydrogenation, and simultaneous CO and CO2 hydrogenation by bimetallic Ni-Fe catalysts. These catalysts were found to be highly active and selective. The Co-Ni and Co-Fe systems were investigated for CO...... well, and the best catalyst prepared had a C5+ yield almost a factor of two higher than a standard air calcined Co catalyst. In the NH3-SCR reaction it is desirable to develop an active and stable catalyst for NOx removal in automotive applications, since the traditionally used vanadium-based catalyst...

  10. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, U.

    1996-06-04

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2} Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains. 11 figs.

  11. Catalytic dehydration of ethanol using transition metal oxide catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, T

    2005-04-15

    The aim of this work is to study catalytic ethanol dehydration using different prepared catalysts, which include Fe(2)O(3), Mn(2)O(3), and calcined physical mixtures of both ferric and manganese oxides with alumina and/or silica gel. The physicochemical properties of these catalysts were investigated via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), acidity measurement, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption at -196 degrees C. The catalytic activities of such catalysts were tested through conversion of ethanol at 200-500 degrees C using a catalytic flow system operated under atmospheric pressure. The results obtained indicated that the dehydration reaction on the catalyst relies on surface acidity, whereas the ethylene production selectivity depends on the catalyst chemical constituents.

  12. Effect of Cobalt Source on the Catalyst Reducibility and Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cobalt precursor (nitrate, acetate and chloride salts) on the catalyst reducibility and dispersion, ... balt catalysts (>5.0 wt%) prepared using ammonium cobalt ... heated from 323 K to 1073 K using a heating ramp of 10 K min–1.

  13. Ammonia synthesis over multi-promoted iron catalysts obtained by high-energy ball-milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, C.J.H.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Mørup, Steen

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of producing ammonia synthesis catalysts from high-energy ball-milling of a simple mixture of the constituent oxides has been investigated. The effect of ball-milling the fused oxidic precursor of the industrial KM1 ammonia synthesis catalyst has also been studied. The results show...

  14. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  15. Propene Hydroformylation by Supported Aqueous-phase Rh-NORBOS Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Hjortkjær, Jes

    2003-01-01

    The gas-phase hydroformylation reaction of propene using supported aqueous-phase (SAP) Rh-NORBOS modified catalysts in a continuous flow reactor has been examined. SAP catalysts supported on six different support materials were made by wet impregnation using solutions of the precursor complex Rh(...

  16. Energetic Mapping of Ni Catalysts by Detailed Kinetic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørgum, Erlend; Chen, De; Bakken, Mari G.

    2005-01-01

    Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of CO has been performed on supported and unsupported nickel catalysts. The unsupported Ni catalyst consists of a Ni(14 13 13) single crystal which has been studied under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The desorption energy for CO at low CO surface coverage...... was found to be 119 kJ/mol, and the binding energy of C to the Ni(111) surface of the crystal was 703 kJ/mol. The supported catalysts consist of nickel supported on hydrotalcite-like compounds with three different Mg2+/Al3+ ratios. The experimental results show that for the supported Ni catalysts TPD of CO...... precursor seems to result in more steplike sites, kinks, and defects for carbon monoxide dissociation. A detailed kinetic modeling of the TPO results based on elementary reaction steps has been conducted to give an energetic map of supported Ni catalysts. Experimental results from the ideal Ni surface fit...

  17. SAF line powder operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederickson, J.R.; Horgos, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    An automated nuclear fuel fabrication line is being designed for installation in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) near Richland, Washington. The fabrication line will consist of seven major process systems: Receiving and Powder Preparation; Powder Conditioning; Pressing and Boat Loading; Debinding, Sintering, and Property Adjustment; Boat Transport; Pellet Inspection and Finishing; and Pin Operations. Fuel powder processing through pellet pressing will be discussed in this paper

  18. Two layer powder pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, H.

    1979-01-01

    First, significance and advantages of sintered materials consisting of two layers are pointed out. By means of the two layer powder pressing technique metal powders are formed resulting in compacts with high accuracy of shape and mass. Attributes of basic powders, different filling methods and pressing techniques are discussed. The described technique is supposed to find further applications in the field of two layer compacts in the near future

  19. Operation whey powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, E.

    1987-01-01

    The odyssey of the contaminated whey powder finally has come to an end, and the 5000 tonnes of whey now are designated for decontamination by means of an ion exchange technique. The article throws light upon the political and economic reasons that sent the whey powder off on a chaotic journey. It is worth mentioning in this context that the natural radioactivity of inorganic fertilizers is much higher than that of the whey powder in question. (HP) [de

  20. Metallic oxides for desulphurization catalyst reaction; Oxidos metalicos mistos como catalisadores para reacoes de dessulfurizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, R.L.B.A.; Melo, D.M.A.; Melo, M.A.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Souza, K.S.G.M. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba - Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, PB (Brazil); Barros, J.M.F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande - Campos Cuite, PB (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The mixed metal oxides constitute an important class of catalytic materials widely investigated in different fields of applications. Studies of rare earth nickelates have been carried by several researchers in order to investigate the structural stability afforded by oxide formed and the existence of catalytic properties at room temperature. So, this study aims synthesize the nano sized catalyst of nickelate of lanthanum doped with strontium (La(1- x)Sr{sub x}NiO4-{sigma}; x = 0,2 and 0,3), through the Pechini method and your characterization for subsequent application in the desulfurization of thiophene reaction. The precursor solutions were calcined at 300 degree C/2h for pyrolysis of polyester and later calcinations occurred at temperatures of 500 - 1000 degree C. The resulting powders were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TG / DTG), surface area for adsorption of N{sub 2} by BET method, Xray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (HR{sub S}EM) and spectrometry dispersive energy (EDS). The results of XRD had show that the perovskites obtained consist of two phases (LSN and NiO) and from 700 degree C have crystalline structure. The results of SEM evidenced the obtainment of nano metric powders. The results of BET show that the powders have surface area within the range used in catalysis (5-50m{sup 2}/g). The characterization of active sites was performed by reaction of desulfurization of thiophene at room temperature and 200 degree C, the relation F/W equal to 0,7 mol h{sup -1}m{sub c}at {sup -1}. The products of the reaction were separated by gas chromatography and identified by the selective detection PFPD sulfur. All samples had presented conversion above 95%. (author)

  1. Interaction in polysilazane/SiC powder systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boiteux, Y.P.

    1992-07-01

    Consolidation of ceramic precursor ceramic powder systems upon heating is investigated. A polysilazane (silicon nitride precursor) is chosen as ceramic precursor with a filler of a sub-micron SiC powder. A scheme to optimize the volume fraction of precursor is developed in order to maximize the density of the compacted samples in the green state. Different techniques are presented to improve the homogeneity of precursor distribution in the mixture. A microencapsulation technique is developed that leads to a uniform coating of precursor on individual SiC particles. Upon pyrolysis of systems with 20 wt% polysilazane, little shrinkage occurs. The SiC particles do not coarsen during the heat treatment. The precursor, upon pyrolysis, transforms into an amorphous ceramic phase that acts as a cement between SiC particles. This cement phase can remain amorphous up to 1500{degrees}C; and is best described as a siliconoxycarbide with or without traces of nitrogen. Elimination of nitrogen in the amorphous phase indicates that the filler material (SiC) has a strong influence on the pyrolysis behavior of the chosen polysilazane. The amorphous ceramic phase may crystallize between 1400 and 1500{degrees}C, and depending on the nature of the gas environment, the crystalline phases are SiC, Si or Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Mechanisms explaining the strength increase upon heat treatment are proposed. Redistribution of the precursor occurs by capillary forces or vapor phase diffusion and recondensation of volatile monomers. The confined pyrolysis of the precursor results in an increase of residual ceramic matter being decomposed inside the sample. Interfacial reaction between the native silica-rich surface layer on SiC particles and the precursor derived phase explains the high strength of the materials.

  2. Pharmaceutical powder compaction technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Çelik, Metin

    2011-01-01

    ... through the compaction formulation process and application. Compaction of powder constituents both active ingredient and excipients is examined to ensure consistent and reproducible disintegration and dispersion profiles...

  3. Uniting Electron Crystallography and Powder Diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Shankland, Kenneth; Meshi, Louisa; Avilov, Anatoly; David, William

    2012-01-01

    The polycrystalline and nanocrystalline states play an increasingly important role in exploiting the properties of materials, encompassing applications as diverse as pharmaceuticals, catalysts, solar cells and energy storage. A knowledge of the three-dimensional atomic and molecular structure of materials is essential for understanding and controlling their properties, yet traditional single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods lose their power when only polycrystalline and nanocrystalline samples are available. It is here that powder diffraction and single-crystal electron diffraction techniques take over, substantially extending the range of applicability of the crystallographic principles of structure determination.  This volume, a collection of teaching contributions presented at the Crystallographic Course in Erice in 2011, clearly describes the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art of powder diffraction and electron diffraction methods in materials characterisation, encompassing a diverse range of discipl...

  4. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-05

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of ternary mixtures consisting of: Ni powder, Cu powder, and Al powder, Ni powder, Cr powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, W powder and Al powder; Ni powder, V powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, Mo powder, and Al powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  5. Graphitised Carbon Nanofibres as Catalyst Support for PEMFC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yli-Rantala, E.; Pasanen, A.; Kauranen, P.

    2011-01-01

    (PANI) precursor. The modified surfaces were studied by FTIR and XPS and the electrochemical characterization, including long-term Pt stability tests, was performed using a low-temperature PEMFC single cell. The performance and stability of the G-CNF supported catalysts were compared with a CB supported...

  6. Ultrahighly Dispersed Titanium Oxide on Silica : Effect of Precursors on the Structure and Photocatalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida , S.; Takenaka , S.; Tanaka , T.; Funabiki , T.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of precursor on the dispersion and catalytic performance of titanium oxide supported on silica has ben investigated. The catalysts were prepared by a simple impregnation method with three kinds of titanium complexes of different ligands (bis(isopropyato)-bis(pivaroylmethanato) : DPM, acetylacetonato : ACAC, tetrakis(isopropylato) : IPRO) with the aim of preparing ultrahighly dispersed titanium oxide on silica. The XAFS study revealed that titanium species in the catalyst prepared f...

  7. PREPARATION OF TANTALUM CARBIDE FROM AN ORGANOMETALLIC PRECURSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. SOUZA

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have synthesized an organometallic oxalic precursor from tantalum oxide. This oxide was solubilized by heating with potassium hydrogen sulfate. In order to precipitate Ta2O5.nH2O, the fused mass obtained was dissolved in a sulfuric acid solution and neutralized with ammonia. The hydrated tantalum oxide precipitated was dissolved in an equimolar solution of oxalic acid/ammonium oxalate. The synthesis and the characterization of the tantalum oxalic precursor are described. Pyrolysis of the complex in a mixture of hydrogen and methane at atmospheric pressure was studied. The gas-solid reaction made it possible to obtain tantalum carbide, TaC, in the powder form at 1000oC. The natural sintering of TaC powder in an inert atmosphere at 1400°C during 10 hours, under inert atmosphere made it possible to densify the carbide to 96% of the theoretical value.

  8. Sintered aluminium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanova, M.G.; Matveev, B.I.

    1974-01-01

    The mechanical and physical properties of aluminium powder alloys and the various methods employed to produce them are considered. Data are given on the hardening of the alloys SAP and SPAK-4, as well as the powder-alloy system Al-Cr-Zr. (L.M.)

  9. Precursor effect on the property and catalytic behavior of Fe-TS-1 in butadiene epoxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei; Zhao, Huahua; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Jun; Song, Huanling; Chou, Lingjun

    2017-11-01

    The effect of iron precursor on the property and catalytic behavior of iron modified titanium silicalite molecular sieve (Fe-TS-1) catalysts in butadiene selective epoxidation has been studied. Three Fe-TS-1 catalysts were prepared, using iron nitrate, iron chloride and iron sulfate as precursors, which played an important role in adjusting the textural properties and chemical states of TS-1. Of the prepared Fe-TS-1 catalysts, those modified by iron nitrate (FN-TS-1) exhibited a significant enhanced performance in butadiene selective epoxidation compared to those derived from iron sulfate (FS-TS-1) or iron chloride (FC-TS-1) precursors. To obtain a deep understanding of their structure-performance relationship, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Temperature programmed desorption of NH3 (NH3-TPD), Diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectra (DR UV-Vis), Fourier transformed infrared spectra (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were conducted to characterize Fe-TS-1 catalysts. Experimental results indicated that textural structures and acid sites of modified catalysts as well as the type of Fe species influenced by the precursors were all responsible for the activity and product distribution.

  10. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  11. Iridium-catalyst-based autonomous bubble-propelled graphene micromotors with ultralow catalyst loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Sofer, Zdeněk; Eng, Alex Yong Sheng; Pumera, Martin

    2014-11-10

    A novel concept of an iridium-based bubble-propelled Janus-particle-type graphene micromotor with very high surface area and with very low catalyst loading is described. The low loading of Ir catalyst (0.54 at %) allows for fast motion of graphene microparticles with high surface area of 316.2 m(2)  g(-1). The micromotor was prepared with a simple and scalable method by thermal exfoliation of iridium-doped graphite oxide precursor composite in hydrogen atmosphere. Oxygen bubbles generated from the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide at the iridium catalytic sites provide robust propulsion thrust for the graphene micromotor. The high surface area and low iridium catalyst loading of the bubble-propelled graphene motors offer great possibilities for dramatically enhanced cargo delivery. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Sol-Gel Process for Making Pt-Ru Fuel-Cell Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas; Kumta, Prashant; Kim, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A sol-gel process has been developed as a superior alternative to a prior process for making platinum-ruthenium alloy catalysts for electro-oxidation of methanol in fuel cells. The starting materials in the prior process are chloride salts of platinum and ruthenium. The process involves multiple steps, is time-consuming, and yields a Pt-Ru product that has relatively low specific surface area and contains some chloride residue. Low specific surface area translates to incomplete utilization of the catalytic activity that might otherwise be available, while chloride residue further reduces catalytic activity ("poisons" the catalyst). In contrast, the sol-gel process involves fewer steps and less time, does not leave chloride residue, and yields a product of greater specific area and, hence, greater catalytic activity. In this sol-gel process (see figure), the starting materials are platinum(II) acetylacetonate [Pt(C5H7O2)2, also denoted Pt-acac] and ruthenium(III) acetylacetonate [Ru(C5H7O2)3, also denoted Ru-acac]. First, Pt-acac and Ru-acac are dissolved in acetone at the desired concentrations (typically, 0.00338 moles of each salt per 100 mL of acetone) at a temperature of 50 C. A solution of 25 percent tetramethylammonium hydroxide [(CH3)4NOH, also denoted TMAH] in methanol is added to the Pt-acac/Ruacac/ acetone solution to act as a high-molecular-weight hydrolyzing agent. The addition of the TMAH counteracts the undesired tendency of Pt-acac and Ru-acac to precipitate as separate phases during the subsequent evaporation of the solvent, thereby helping to yield a desired homogeneous amorphous gel. The solution is stirred for 10 minutes, then the solvent is evaporated until the solution becomes viscous, eventually transforming into a gel. The viscous gel is dried in air at a temperature of 170 C for about 10 hours. The dried gel is crushed to make a powder that is the immediate precursor of the final catalytic product. The precursor powder is converted to the

  13. Measurement of loose powder density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, S.; Ali, A.; Haider, A.; Farooque, M.

    2011-01-01

    Powder metallurgy is a conventional technique for making engineering articles from powders. Main objective is to produce final products with the highest possible uniform density, which depends on the initial loose powder characteristics. Producing, handling, characterizing and compacting materials in loose powder form are part of the manufacturing processes. Density of loose metallic or ceramic powder is an important parameter for die design. Loose powder density is required for calculating the exact mass of powder to fill the die cavity for producing intended green density of the powder compact. To fulfill this requirement of powder metallurgical processing, a loose powder density meter as per ASTM standards is designed and fabricated for measurement of density. The density of free flowing metallic powders can be determined using Hall flow meter funnel and density cup of 25 cm/sup 3/ volume. Density of metal powders like cobalt, manganese, spherical bronze and pure iron is measured and results are obtained with 99.9% accuracy. (author)

  14. The Dependence of CNT Aerogel Synthesis on Sulfur-driven Catalyst Nucleation Processes and a Critical Catalyst Particle Mass Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoecker, Christian; Smail, Fiona; Pick, Martin; Weller, Lee; Boies, Adam M

    2017-11-06

    The floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FC-CVD) process permits macro-scale assembly of nanoscale materials, enabling continuous production of carbon nanotube (CNT) aerogels. Despite the intensive research in the field, fundamental uncertainties remain regarding how catalyst particle dynamics within the system influence the CNT aerogel formation, thus limiting effective scale-up. While aerogel formation in FC-CVD reactors requires a catalyst (typically iron, Fe) and a promotor (typically sulfur, S), their synergistic roles are not fully understood. This paper presents a paradigm shift in the understanding of the role of S in the process with new experimental studies identifying that S lowers the nucleation barrier of the catalyst nanoparticles. Furthermore, CNT aerogel formation requires a critical threshold of Fe x C y  > 160 mg/m 3 , but is surprisingly independent of the initial catalyst diameter or number concentration. The robustness of the critical catalyst mass concentration principle is proved further by producing CNTs using alternative catalyst systems; Fe nanoparticles from a plasma spark generator and cobaltocene and nickelocene precursors. This finding provides evidence that low-cost and high throughput CNT aerogel routes may be achieved by decoupled and enhanced catalyst production and control, opening up new possibilities for large-scale CNT synthesis.

  15. Effect of pretreatment temperature on catalytic performance of the catalysts derived from cobalt carbonyl cluster in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byambasuren O

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The monometallic cobalt-based catalysts were prepared by pretreating the catalysts derived from carbonyl cluster precursor (CO6Co2CC(COOH2 supported on γ-Al2O3 with hydrogen at 180, 220, and 260°C respectively. The temperature effect of the pretreatments on the structure evolution of cluster precursors and the catalytic performance of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T synthesis was investigated. The pretreated catalyst at 220°C with unique phase structure exhibited best catalytic activity and selectivity among three pretreated catalysts. Moreover, the catalysts exhibited high dispersion due to the formation of hydrogen bonds between the cluster precursor and γ-Al2O3 support.

  16. Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

    1993-02-01

    This research program involves the investigation of the use of highly dispersed catalyst precursors for the pretreatment of coals by mild hydrogenation. During the course of this effort solvent preswelling of the coal was evaluated as a means of deeply impregnating catalysts into coal, active phases of catalysts under reaction conditions were studied and the impact of these techniques were evaluated during pretreatment and temperature-staged liquefaction. Two coals, a Texas subbituminous and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling pretreatment and catalyst impregnation on conversion behavior at 275[degrees]C, representative of the first, low-temperature stage in a temperature-staged liquefaction reaction. Ferrous sulfate, iron pentacarbonyl, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum hexacarbonyl were used as catalyst precursors. Without swelling pretreatment, impregnation of both coals increased conversion, mainly through increased yields of preasphaltenes.

  17. Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

    1993-02-01

    This research program involves the investigation of the use of highly dispersed catalyst precursors for the pretreatment of coals by mild hydrogenation. During the course of this effort solvent preswelling of the coal was evaluated as a means of deeply impregnating catalysts into coal, active phases of catalysts under reaction conditions were studied and the impact of these techniques were evaluated during pretreatment and temperature-staged liquefaction. Two coals, a Texas subbituminous and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling pretreatment and catalyst impregnation on conversion behavior at 275{degrees}C, representative of the first, low-temperature stage in a temperature-staged liquefaction reaction. Ferrous sulfate, iron pentacarbonyl, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum hexacarbonyl were used as catalyst precursors. Without swelling pretreatment, impregnation of both coals increased conversion, mainly through increased yields of preasphaltenes.

  18. Synthesis of MoVTeNb Oxide Catalysts with Tunable Particle Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolenko, Yury V.; Zhang, Wei; d'Alnoncourt, Raoul Naumann

    2011-01-01

    Reliable procedures for the controlled synthesis of phase-pure MoVTeNb mixed oxides with M1 structure (ICSD 55097) and tunable crystal dimensions were developed to study the structure sensitivity of the selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid. A series of powdered M1 catalysts...... catalysts were studied in the selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid, revealing that active sites appear on the entire M1 surface and illustrating the high sensitivity of catalyst performance on the catalyst synthesis method....

  19. Synthesis and characterization of platinum supported on alumina doped with cerium catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Abdullah; Abd Fatah Awang Mat; Mohd Ali Sufi; Sarimah Mahat; Razali Kassim; Nurhaslinda Abdullah.

    1996-03-01

    The synthesis and characterization of gamma-alumina doped with cerium as platinum support for the automobile exhaust catalyst are described. Platinum/alumina/ceria catalyst were prepared by impregnation of hexachloroplatinic acid and sintered at 500 degree Celsius to obtain metal dispersions of 1.0 wt%. Catalyst distribution inside the powder and the effects of the addition of cerium to alumina were analyzed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). The results showed that the alumina - supported catalysts contained well dispersion of the noble metal

  20. Sol-gel synthesis and densification of aluminoborosilicate powders. Part 1: Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Jeffrey; Selvaduray, Guna; Leiser, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    Aluminoborosilicate powders high in alumina content were synthesized by the sol-gel process utilizing various methods of preparation. Properties and microstructural effects related to these syntheses were examined. After heating to 600 C for 2 h in flowing air, the powders were amorphous with the metal oxides comprising 87 percent of the weight and uncombusted organics the remainder. DTA of dried powders revealed a T(sub g) at approximately 835 C and an exotherm near 900 C due to crystallization. Powders derived from aluminum secbutoxide consisted of particles with a mean diameter 5 microns less than those from aluminum isopropoxide. Powders synthesized with aluminum isopropoxide produced agglomerates comprised of rod shaped particulates while powders made with the secbutoxide precursor produced irregular glassy shards. Compacts formed from these powders required different loadings for equivalent densities according to the method of synthesis.

  1. NO formation during burnoff of spent hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Zaitlin, L.; Laugher, R. (CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Laboratories)

    1993-11-01

    Temperature-programmed oxidation (from room temperature to 600[degree]C) was performed on operating forms of aged CoMo (extrudate) and NiMo (chestnut bur-like) as well as powder forms, with continuous on-line analysis for NO, CO, CO[sub 2] and SO[sub 2]. For all catalysts, NO formation was delayed by that of CO and CO[sub 2], indicating either a strong interaction of nitrogen-containing compounds with the catalyst surface or a lower reactivity of nitrogen during burnoff compared with that of carbon. The existence of diffusion effects during burnoff was quite evident. These effects were influenced by the catalyst structure and the level of catalyst deactivation. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. POWDER COAT APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses an investigation of critical factors that affect the use of powder coatings on the environment, cost, quality, and production. The investigation involved a small business representative working with the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (ND...

  3. OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: aka OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER, SPILL GREEN LS, this miscellaneous oil spill control agent used in cleanups initially behaves like a synthetic sorbent, then as a solidifier as the molecular microencapsulating process occurs.

  4. Synthesis of nanostructured LiTi2(PO4)3 powder by a Pechini-type polymerizable complex method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariappan, C.R.; Galven, C.; Crosnier-Lopez, M.-P.; Le Berre, F.; Bohnke, O.

    2006-01-01

    The nanostructured NASICON-type LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 (LTP) material has been synthesized by Pechini-type polymerizable complex method. The use of water-soluble ammonium citratoperoxotitanate (IV) metal complex instead of alkoxides as precursor allows to prepare monophase material. Thermal analyses have been carried out on the powder precursor to check the weight loss and synthesis temperature. X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD) has been performed on the LTP powder obtained after heating the powder precursor over a temperature range from 550 to 1050 deg. C for 2 h. By varying the molar ratio of citric acid to metal ion (CA/Ti) and citric acid to ethylene glycol (CA/EG), the grain size of the LTP powder could be modified. The formation of small and well-crystalline grains, in the order of 50-125 nm in size, has been determined from the XRD patterns and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy

  5. Methods of making textured catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2010-08-17

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  6. Design and synthesis of single-source molecular precursors to homogeneous multi-component oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujdala, Kyle Lee

    This dissertation describes the syntheses of single-source molecular precursors to multi-component oxide materials. These molecules possess a core metal or element with various combinations of -OSi(O tBu)3, -O2P(OtBu) 2, and -OB[OSi(OtBu)3] 2 ligands. Such molecules decompose under mild thermolytic conditions (models for oxide-supported metal species and multi-component oxides. Significantly, the first complexes to contain three or more heteroelements suitable for use in the TMP method have been synthesized. Compounds for use as single-source molecular precursors have been synthesized containing Al, B, Cr, Hf, Mo, V, W, and Zr, and their thermal transformations have been examined. Heterogeneous catalytic reactions have been examined for selected materials. Also, cothermolyses of molecular precursors and additional molecules (i.e., metal alkoxides) have been utilized to provide materials with several components for potential use as catalysts or catalyst supports. Reactions of one and two equivs of HOSi(OtBu) 3 with Cr(OtBu)4 afforded the first Cr(IV) alkoxysiloxy complexes (tBuO) 3CrOSi(OtBu)3 and ( tBuO)2Cr[OSi(OtBu) 3]2, respectively. The high-yielding, convenient synthesis of (tBuO)3CrOSi(O tBu)3 make this complex a useful single-source molecular precursor, via the TMP method, to Cr/Si/O materials. The thermal transformations of (tBuO)3CrOSi(O tBu)3 and (tBuO) 2Cr[OSi(OtBu)3]2 to chromia-silica materials occurr at low temperatures (≤180°C), to give isobutene as the major carbon-containing product. The material generated from the solid-state conversion of (tBuO) 3CrOSi(OtBu)3 (CrOS ss) has an unexpectedly high surface area of 315 m2 g-1 that is slightly reduced to 275 m2 g-1 after calcination at 500°C in O2. The xerogel obtained by the thermolysis of an n-octane solution of (tBuO)3CrOSi(O tBu)3 (CrOSixg) has a surface area of 315 m2 g-1 that is reduced to 205 m2 g-1 upon calcination at 500°C. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis revealed that Cr2O 3 is

  7. Sol-gel preparation of lead magnesium niobate (PMN) powders and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, T.J.

    1999-01-12

    A method of preparing a lead magnesium niobium oxide (PMN), Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}, precursor solution by a solvent method wherein a liquid solution of a lead-complex PMN precursor is combined with a liquid solution of a niobium-complex PMN precursor, the combined lead- and niobium-complex liquid solutions are reacted with a magnesium-alkyl solution, forming a PMN precursor solution and a lead-based precipitate, and the precipitate is separated from the reacted liquid PMN precursor solution to form a precipitate-free PMN precursor solution. This precursor solution can be processed to form both ferroelectric powders and thin films. 3 figs.

  8. Alloy catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...... of the novel catalyst material for synthesising hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water....

  9. Metal catalysts fight back

    OpenAIRE

    George Marsh

    1998-01-01

    In recent years organometallic catalysts, especially metallocenes, have been a major focus of attention in terms of polymerisation chemistry. But the news earlier this year of a family of iron-based catalysts able to rival the effectiveness of both conventional and metallocene catalysts in the polymerisation of ethylene has excited the plastics industry. Because of the impact of this discovery and its potential as a route to lower-priced commodity plastics in the future, it may be useful at t...

  10. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna, E-mail: kristyna.pospiskova@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Safarik, Ivo, E-mail: ivosaf@yahoo.com [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (−20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Cross-linked enzyme powders were prepared in various liquid media. • Insoluble enzymes were magnetized using iron oxides particles. • Magnetic iron oxides particles were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. • Magnetic modification was performed under low (freezing) temperature. • Cross-linked powdered trypsin and lipase can be used repeatedly for reaction.

  11. Characteristics of Inconel Powders for Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Bau Nguyen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flow characteristics and behaviors of virgin and recycled Inconel powder for powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM were studied using different powder characterization techniques. The results revealed that the particle size distribution (PSD for the selective laser melting (SLM process is typically in the range from 15 μm to 63 μm. The flow rate of virgin Inconel powder is around 28 s·(50 g−1. In addition, the packing density was found to be 60%. The rheological test results indicate that the virgin powder has reasonably good flowability compared with the recycled powder. The inter-relation between the powder characteristics is discussed herein. A propeller was successfully printed using the powder. The results suggest that Inconel powder is suitable for AM and can be a good reference for researchers who attempt to produce AM powders.

  12. Catalyst design for clean and efficient fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Šaric, Manuel

    cobalt promoted MoS2 catalyst. Reactivity of a series of model molecules, found in oil prior to desulfurization, is studied on cobalt promoted MoS2. Such an approach has the potential to explain the underlying processes involved in the removal of sulfur at each specific site of the catalyst. The goal...... is to identify which sites are active towards specific molecules and in getting insight to what the ideal catalyst should look like in terms of morphology. Dimethyl carbonate is an environmentally benign compound that can be used as a solvent and precursor in chemical synthesis or as a fuel and fuel additive...... processes currently used. It is found that noble metals can be used as electrocatalysts for the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate, significantly lowering the potential when using copper instead of gold. Besides being active, copper was found to be selective towards dimethyl carbonate. A non-selective catalyst...

  13. Ethylbenzene dehydrogenation over Mg3Fe0.5−xCoxAl0.5 catalysts derived from hydrotalcites: Comparison with Mg3Fe0.5−yNiyAl0.5 catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Atanda, Luqman A.; Balasamy, Rabindran J.; Khurshid, Alam; Al-Ali, Ali A S; Sagata, Kunimasa; Asamoto, Makiko; Yahiro, Hidenori; Nomura, Kiyoshi; Sano, Tsuneji; Takehira, Katsuomi; Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman S.

    2011-01-01

    A series of Mg3Fe0.5-xCoxAl0.5 (x = 0-0.5) catalysts were prepared from hydrotalcite precursors and their activities in the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene were compared with those of a series of Mg3Fe0.5-yNiyAl0.5 (y = 0-0.5) catalysts also derived

  14. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  15. Reactions of synthesis gas on silica supported transition metal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemelae, M. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Industrial Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    The effect of catalyst precursor and composition on the activation of CO was investigated using CO hydrogenation as a test reaction. The interrelations of preparation, pretreatment, characteristics and activity were clarified. For Co/SiO{sub 2} catalyst, MgO promotion increased the CO adsorption capacity and the hydrogen uptake, although the extent of reduction for cobalt remained the same or decreased. The conversion per active metallic cobalt site consequently increased in conjunction with MgO promotion, while the effect on overall performance per 1 g of catalyst remained moderate. The precursor affected the performance of Co/SiO{sub 2} considerably. CO was more strongly adsorbed on catalysts of carbonyl origin than on those derived from cobalt nitrate, the activity thus being higher. Although the nitrate derived Co/SiO{sub 2} appeared both to retain its activity and to regain its adsorption capacity better than the catalysts of carbonyl origin, the performance of the latter was superior with time on stream. For tetranuclear cluster based Co-Ru and Co-Rh catalysts, rhodium or ruthenium was in contact with the support and cobalt was enriched on top. On Co-Ru/SiO{sub 2} ruthenium enhanced deactivation, and no benefits in activity or oxygenate selectivity were achieved relative to the monometallic catalysts of cluster origin. The Co-Rh/SiO{sub 2} catalysts were also less active than those derived from monometallic clusters, but they exhibited higher selectivities to oxygenated compounds due to the presence of active sites on the perimeter of the cobalt particles located on rhodium. The highest selectivity to oxygenates was achieved by changing the decomposition atmosphere of Rh{sub 4}(CO){sub 12}/SiO{sub 2} from hydrogen to carbon monoxide. The results also showed two types of active sites to be operative in the formation of oxygenates - one for ethanol and another for aldehydes. (orig.) 69 refs.

  16. New Trends in Gold Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonarda F. Liotta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold is an element that has fascinated mankind for millennia. The catalytic properties of gold have been a source of debate, due to its complete chemical inertness when in a bulk form, while it can oxidize CO at temperatures as low as ~200 K when in a nanocrystalline state, as discovered by Haruta in the late 1980s [1]. Since then, extensive activity in both applied and fundamental research on gold has been initiated. The importance of the catalysis by gold represents one of the fasted growing fields in science and is proven by the promising applications in several fields, such as green chemistry and environmental catalysis, in the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, as modifiers of Ni catalysts for methane steam and dry reforming reactions and in biological and electrochemistry applications. The range of reactions catalyzed by gold, as well as the suitability of different supports and the influence of the preparation conditions have been widely explored and optimized in applied research [2]. Gold catalysts appeared to be very different from the other noble metal-based catalysts, due to their marked dependence on the preparation method, which is crucial for the genesis of the catalytic activity. Several methods, including deposition-precipitation, chemical vapor deposition and cation adsorption, have been applied for the preparation of gold catalysts over reducible oxides, like TiO2. Among these methods, deposition-precipitation has been the most frequently employed method for Au loading, and it involves the use of tetrachloroauric (III acid as a precursor. On the other hand, the number of articles dealing with Au-loaded acidic supports is smaller than that on basic supports, possibly because the deposition of [AuCl4]− or [AuOHxCl4−x]− species on acidic supports is difficult, due to their very low point of zero charge. Despite this challenge, several groups have reported the use of acidic zeolites as supports for gold. Zeolites

  17. SYNTHESIS OF UNSATURATED ESTERS VIA HIGHLY EFFICIENT ESTERIFICATION CATALYZED BY POLYMER GRAFTED QUARTERNARY AMMONIUM SALTS AS TRIPHASE CATALYSTS

    OpenAIRE

    LIANG, ZHENG YONG; WANG, LILI; LIU, HUI; HUANG, JIN SHUO

    2013-01-01

    A series of unsaturated esters were prepared via condensation of sodium carboxylates and alkenyl halide under the condition of macroporous polystyrene grafted quarternary ammonium salt as recyclable phase transfer catalyst, NaI as co-catalyst, Cu powder as inhibitor and H2O as solvent. Under optimal conditions, products yields are 78.2~ 96.0%. The catalyst can be convenient recycled and reutilized for about five times without losing its activity obviously.

  18. Fe3C-based oxygen reduction catalysts: synthesis, hollow spherical structures and applications in fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of a novel Fe3C-based spherical catalyst with respect to synthetic parameters, nanostructure formation, ORR active sites and fuel cell demonstration. The catalyst is synthesized by high temperature autoclave pyrolysis using decomposing precursors. Below 500 °C, melamine...

  19. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  20. Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T.; Biddy, Mary J.; Chmely, Stephen C.; Sturgeon, Matthew

    2017-04-25

    Solid base catalysts and their use for the base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin to compounds such as aromatics are presented herein. Exemplary catalysts include layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for BCD of lignin.

  1. Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Gregg T; Biddy, Mary J.; Kruger, Jacob S.; Chmely, Stephen C.; Sturgeon, Matthew

    2017-10-17

    Solid base catalysts and their use for the base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin to compounds such as aromatics are presented herein. Exemplary catalysts include layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for BCD of lignin.

  2. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor); Antony, Leo V. M. (Inventor); O'Dell, Scott (Inventor); Power, Chris (Inventor); Tabor, Terry (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  3. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Timothy N [Brownsboro, AL; Antony, Leo V. M. [Huntsville, AL; O'Dell, Scott [Arab, AL; Power, Chris [Guntersville, AL; Tabor, Terry [Huntsville, AL

    2009-11-10

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  4. Activated carbon derived from chitosan as air cathode catalyst for high performance in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhao, Yong; Li, Kexun; Wang, Zhong; Tian, Pei; Liu, Di; Yang, Tingting; Wang, Junjie

    2018-02-01

    Chitosan with rich of nitrogen is used as carbon precursor to synthesis activated carbon through directly heating method in this study. The obtained carbon is activated by different amount of KOH at different temperatures, and then prepared as air cathodes for microbial fuel cells. Carbon sample treated with double amount of KOH at 850 °C exhibits maximum power density (1435 ± 46 mW m-2), 1.01 times improved, which ascribes to the highest total surface area, moderate micropore and mesoporous structure and the introduction of nitrogen. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and powder resistivity state that carbon treated with double amount of KOH at 850 °C possesses lower resistance. The other electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the best kinetic activity make the above treated sample to show the best oxygen reduction reaction activity. Besides, the degree of graphitization of samples increases with the activated temperature increasing, which is tested by Raman. According to elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, all chitosan samples are nitrogen-doped carbon, and high content nitrogen (pyridinic-N) improves the electrochemical activity of carbon treated with KOH at 850 °C. Thus, carbon materials derived from chitosan would be an optimized catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in microbial fuel cell.

  5. Hydroprocessing catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorman, P.M.; Kydd, R.A.; Sorensen, T.S.; Chong, K.; Lewis, J.

    1992-08-01

    Co-Mo and Ni-Mo hydroprocessing catalysts were examined for their activity in removal of sulfur from thiophene in model compounds, and in the cracking and hydrocracking of cumene. Three types of support materials were examined: carbon, modified carbon, and carbon covered alumina. The objective of the study was to examine the correlation between catalyst activity in the hydrodenitrogenation of model compounds, and the resistance of the catalyst to nitrogen poisoning during use in the hydroprocessing of gas oils. The use of model compound testing provided information on the individual catalytic reactions promoted by those materials. Infrared spectroscopy was used to study surface species on the catalysts and to explain many of the trends in activity observed, revealing the role of fluoride and phosphorus as a secondary promoter. Testing of the catalysts in hydrotreating of gas oils allowed comparison of model compound results with those from a real feedstock. The gas oil was also spiked with a model nitrogen compound and the results from catalytic hydrotreating of this material were compared with those from unspiked material. A key finding was that the carbon supported catalysts were the most effective in treating high-nitrogen feeds. The very favorable deactivation properties of carbon and carbon-covered alumina supported catalysts make these promising from an industrial point of view where catalyst deactivation is a limiting factor. 171 refs., 25 figs., 43 tabs.

  6. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  7. Catalyst for Ammonia Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation, a method for producing a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation and a method for tuning the catalytic activity of a transition metal. By depositing an overlayer of less catalytic active metal onto a more catalytic...

  8. Magnetic catalyst bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, Wendy; Bol, A.A.; Geus, John W.

    1999-01-01

    After a discussion about the importance of the size of the catalyst bodies with reactions in the liquid-phase with a suspended catalyst, the possibilities of magnetic separation are dealt with. Deficiencies of the usual ferromagnetic particles are the reactivity and the clustering of the

  9. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  10. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  11. From chelating precursors to La0.05Sr0.95CoO3-y oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.; Guo, F.; Lin, J.

    1999-01-01

    Several La 0.05 Sr 0.95 CoO 3-y (LSCO-95) powders were synthesized by means of a chelated complex-based precursor approach, which involved pyrolysis of chelating precursors and subsequent calcination of the resulting oxides. This paper focuses on the coordination effects of the precursors on the formation of the crystalline phases of the LSCO-95 oxide, showing that when the precursor is composed of EDTA-metal complexes, the perovskite-type oxide LSCO-95, an electronic-ionic mixed conducting ceramic material, can be achieved. In contrast, those LSCO-95 powders obtained initially from the pyrolysis of the precursors containing other coordination ligands possess only the undesirable hexagonal structure

  12. Influences of precursor constitution and processing speed on microstructure and wear behavior during laser clad composite coatings on γ-TiAl intermetallic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiubo; Yu Rongli

    2009-01-01

    The effects of constitution of precursor mixed powders and scan speed on microstructure and wear properties were designed and investigated during laser clad γ/Cr 7 C 3 /TiC composite coatings on γ-TiAl intermetallic alloy substrates with NiCr-Cr 3 C 2 precursor mixed powders. The results indicate that both the constitution of the precursor mixed powders and the beam scan rate have remarkable influence on microstructure and attendant hardness as well as wear resistance of the formed composite coatings. The wear mechanisms of the original TiAl alloy and laser clad composite coatings were investigated. The composite coating with an optimum compromise between constitution of NiCr-Cr 3 C 2 precursor mixed powders as well as being processed under moderate scan speed exhibits the best wear resistance under dry sliding wear test conditions

  13. Weighing fluidized powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomitis, J.T.; Larson, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    Fluidized powder is discharged from a fluidizing vessel into a container. Accurate metering is achieved by opening and closing the valve to discharge the powder in a series of short-duration periods until a predetermined weight is measured by a load cell. The duration of the discharge period may be increased in inverse proportion to the amount of powder in the vessel. Preferably the container is weighed between the discharge periods to prevent fluctuations resulting from dynamic effects. The gas discharged into the container causes the pressures in the vessel and container to equalize thereby decreasing the rate of discharge and increasing the accuracy of metering as the weight reaches the predetermined value. (author)

  14. Chemical Reduction Synthesis of Iron Aluminum Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita-Méndez, N. N.; la Torre, G. Carbajal-De; Ballesteros-Almanza, L.; Villagómez-Galindo, M.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Espinosa-Medina, M. A.

    In this study, a chemical reduction synthesis method of iron aluminum (FeAl) nano-dimensional intermetallic powders is described. The process has two stages: a salt reduction and solvent evaporation by a heat treatment at 1100°C. The precursors of the synthesis are ferric chloride, aluminum foil chips, a mix of Toluene/THF in a 75/25 volume relationship, and concentrated hydrochloric acid as initiator of the reaction. The reaction time was 20 days, the product obtained was dried at 60 °C for 2 h and calcined at 400, 800, and 1100 °C for 4 h each. To characterize and confirm the obtained synthesis products, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used. The results of morphology and chemical characterization of nano-dimensional powders obtained showed a formation of agglomerated particles of a size range of approximately 150 nm to 1.0 μm. Composition of powders was identified as corundum (Al2O3), iron aluminide (FeAl3), and iron-aluminum oxides (Fe0. 53Al0. 47)2O3 phases. The oxide phases formation were associated with the reaction of atmospheric concentration-free oxygen during synthesis and sintering steps, reducing the concentration of the iron aluminum phase.

  15. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-functionalized ionic liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3......COCHCOCH3), Pd (CF3COO)2, Pd(PPh3)4 or Pd2(dibenzylideneacetone)3. Such catalyst systems can be used for e.g. alkoxycarbonylation reactions, carboxylation reactions, and/or in a co-polymerization reaction, e.g. in the production of methyl propionate and/or propanoic acid, optionally in processes forming...... methyl methacrylate and/or methacrylic acid. Catalyst systems according to the invention are suitable for reactions forming separable product and catalyst phases and supported ionic liquid phase SILP applications....

  16. Boehmite-An Efficient and Recyclable Acid-Base Bifunctional Catalyst for Aldol Condensation Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshma, P C Rajan; Vikneshvaran, Sekar; Velmathi, Sivan

    2018-06-01

    In this work boehmite was used as an acid-base bifunctional catalyst for aldol condensation reactions of aromatic aldehydes and ketones. The catalyst was prepared by simple sol-gel method using Al(NO3)3·9H2O and NH4OH as precursors. The catalyst has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy (DRS), BET surface area analyses. Boehmite is successfully applied as catalyst for the condensation reaction between 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and acetone as a model substrate giving α, β-unsaturated ketones without any side product. The scope of the reaction is extended for various substituted aldehydes. A probable mechanism has been suggested to explain the cooperative behavior of the acidic and basic sites. The catalyst is environmentally friendly and easily recovered from the reaction mixture. Also the catalyst is reusable up to 3 catalytic cycles.

  17. Hexagonal ferrite powder synthesis using chemical coprecipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang, H.-I; Yao, R.-Q.

    2007-01-01

    The formation mechanism of 3BaO.2CoO.12Fe 2 O 3 (Co 2 Z), 2BaO.2CoO.6Fe 2 O 3 (Co 2 Y) and BaO.6Fe 2 O 3 (BaM) powders were prepared using chemical coprecipitation methods in this study using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo-gravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was found that the BaM phase was formed directly through the reaction of the preceding ε-Fe 2 O 3 and amorphous BaCO 3 for BaM precursor. For the Co 2 Y precursor, the intermediate phase, BaM, was obtained through the reaction of the earlier formed BaFe 2 O 4 and α-Fe 2 O 3 . The Co 2 Y phase was obtained through a BaM and BaFe 2 O 4 reaction. However, for the Co 2 Z precursors, the BaM phase was obtained directly from the BaCO 3 and amorphous iron hydroxide reaction, with no α-Fe 2 O 3 and BaFe 2 O 4 formed as intermediates. Co 2 Z phase was obtained through the reaction of the two previous formed BaM and Co 2 Y phases

  18. Baking Powder Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Civitello, Linda

    2017-01-01

    How did a mid-nineteenth century American invention, baking powder, replace yeast as a leavening agent and create a culinary revolution as profound as the use of yeast thousands of years ago?The approach was two-pronged and gendered: business archives, U.S. government records and lawsuits revealed how baking powder was created, marketed, and regulated. Women’s diaries and cookbooks—personal, corporate, community, ethnic—from the eighteenth century to internet blogs showed the use women made o...

  19. Catalysts for Efficient Production of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ted X.; Dong, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Several metal alloys have shown promise as improved catalysts for catalytic thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon gases to produce carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Heretofore almost every experiment on the production of carbon nanotubes by this method has involved the use of iron, nickel, or cobalt as the catalyst. However, the catalytic-conversion efficiencies of these metals have been observed to be limited. The identification of better catalysts is part of a continuing program to develop means of mass production of high-quality carbon nanotubes at costs lower than those achieved thus far (as much as $100/g for purified multi-wall CNTs or $1,000/g for single-wall CNTs in year 2002). The main effort thus far in this program has been the design and implementation of a process tailored specifically for high-throughput screening of alloys for catalyzing the growth of CNTs. The process includes an integral combination of (1) formulation of libraries of catalysts, (2) synthesis of CNTs from decomposition of ethylene on powders of the alloys in a pyrolytic chemical-vapor-decomposition reactor, and (3) scanning- electron-microscope screening of the CNTs thus synthesized to evaluate the catalytic efficiencies of the alloys. Information gained in this process is put into a database and analyzed to identify promising alloy compositions, which are to be subjected to further evaluation in a subsequent round of testing. Some of these alloys have been found to catalyze the formation of carbon nano tubes from ethylene at temperatures as low as 350 to 400 C. In contrast, the temperatures typically required for prior catalysts range from 550 to 750 C.

  20. La2O3/CaO CATALYSTS AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE OXIDATIVE COUPLING OF METHANE

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido-Schaeffer, A.; Dedios Yenque, G.; Ponce Alvaréz, S.

    2014-01-01

    La2O3/CaO catalysts were prepared at different weight percentages of La2O3.Por the coprecipitation method described porRaO, CaCO3 is prepared and then it was impregnated in a solution of La (NO) 3.6H2O thus obtaining the catalyst precursor . precursors dried at 393K and calcined at 973K, obtaining 0-15% La2O3/CaO catalysts. XRF elemental qualitative analysis was performed. By FTIR carbonates adsorbed species was observed. The presence of La2O3 and CaO phases was confirmed by XRD and BET surfa...

  1. Synthesis of ultrafine alumina powders using egg white as complexing medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, R.E.P.; Guilherme, K. A.; Chinelatto, A.S.A.; Chinelatto, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis of alumina powders through chemical methods has been attracting much attention of researchers in the past few years, due to the ability to produce powders in nanometric scale with high degree of purity. In this work, there were synthesized alumina powders through a chemical route, using egg white as a complexing medium and aluminium nitrate as the source of Al 3+ cations. Egg white contains ovalbumin, a protein which acts effectively on the isolation of aluminium cations during the mixing process, enabling the formation of ultrafine alumina powders in a relatively economic and environmentally friendly way. The powders obtained by calcinations of the precursor resin were characterized by X-ray diffraction, specific surface area measurements, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that the egg white, present at the reaction medium, allowed obtaining transition alumina powders, with high degree of purity. (author)

  2. Characterization of ceramic powder compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, K.; Ishimoto, S.; Kubo, T.; Ito, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Hayashi, H.

    1995-01-01

    UO 2 and Al 2 O 3 powder packing structures in cylindrical powder compacts are observed by scanning electron microscopy using polished cross sections of compacts fixed by low viscosity epoxy resin. Hard aggregates which are not destroyed during powder compaction are observed in some of the UO 2 powder compacts. A technique to measure local density in powder compacts is developed based on counting characteristic X-ray intensity by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The local density of the corner portion of the powder compact fabricated by double-acting dry press is higher than that of the inner portion. ((orig.))

  3. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  4. ENTIRELY AQUEOUS SOLUTION-GEL ROUTE FOR THE PREPARATION OF ZIRCONIUM CARBIDE, HAFNIUM CARBIDE AND THEIR TERNARY CARBIDE POWDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Changrui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An entirely aqueous solution-gel route has been developed for the synthesis of zirconium carbide, hafnium carbide and their ternary carbide powders. Zirconium oxychloride (ZrOCl₂.8H₂O, malic acid (MA and ethylene glycol (EG were dissolved in water to form the aqueous zirconium carbide precursor. Afterwards, this aqueous precursor was gelled and transformed into zirconium carbide at a relatively low temperature (1200 °C for achieving an intimate mixing of the intermediate products. Hafnium and the ternary carbide powders were also synthesized via the same aqueous route. All the zirconium, hafnium and ternary carbide powders exhibited a particle size of ∼100 nm.

  5. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospišková, K.; Šafařík, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 380, APR 2015 (2015), s. 197-200 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13021 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : enzyme powders * cross-linking * magnetic modification * magnetic separation * magnetic iron oxides particles * microwave-assisted synthesis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  6. Powder neutron diffractometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    2002-01-01

    Basic properties and applications of powder neutron Diffractometers are described for optimum use of the continuous neutron beams. These instruments are equipped with position sensitive detectors, neutron guide tubes, and both high intensity and high resolution modes of operation are possible .The principles of both direct and Fourier reverse time-of-flight neutron Diffractometers are also given

  7. Low Temperature Powder Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) • Legacy primers contain hexavalent chrome • Conventional powder coatings...coatings both in laboratory and field service evaluations • LTCPC allows environmental cost reductions through VOC/HAP elimination and hexavalent ... chrome reduction. • The LTCPC process greatly shortens the coating operation (LTCPC cures much more rapidly then conventional wet coatings) resulting in

  8. Laser cladding with powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, M.F.; Schneider, Marcel Fredrik

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is directed to laser cladding with powder and a CO2 laser as heat source. The laser beam intensity profile turned out to be an important pa6 Summary rameter in laser cladding. A numerical model was developed that allows the prediction of the surface temperature distribution that is

  9. ALKALI RESISTANT CATALYST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention concerns the selective removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from gasses. In particular, the invention concerns a process, a catalyst and the use of a catalyst for the selective removal of nitrogen oxides in the presence of ammonia from gases containing a significant amount...... of alkali metal and/or alkali-earth compounds which process comprises using a catalyst combined of (i) a formed porous superacidic support, said superacidic support having an Hammett acidity stronger than Ho=-12, and (ii) a metal oxide catalytic component deposited on said superacidic support selected from...

  10. Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

    2000-09-01

    The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

  11. Microstructure and hydrogen sorption kinetics of Mg nanopowders with catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, A.; Fatay, D.; Spassov, T.

    2007-01-01

    MgH 2 powders were ball-milled with and without catalysts (Nb 2 O 5 ) under hydrogen in a high-energy mill for 10 h. Morphological, structural and microstructural characterization of the nanocomposites, including particle and crystallite size distribution were carried out before and after hydrogen absorption. In order to study the above-mentioned microstructural parameters imaging and X-ray scattering techniques (high-resolution X-ray diffractometry) have been employed. The effect of the particle and grain size on the hydriding/dehydriding kinetics of ball-milled MgH 2 + catalyst powders was analyzed. The grain and particle size reduction enhances substantially the hydriding/dehydriding

  12. Improvement of activated carbons as oxygen reduction catalysts in neutral solutions by ammonia gas treatment and their performance in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.

    2013-11-01

    Commercially available activated carbon (AC) powders from different precursor materials (peat, coconut shell, coal, and hardwood) were treated with ammonia gas at 700 C to improve their performance as oxygen reduction catalysts in neutral pH solutions used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The ammonia treated ACs exhibited better catalytic performance in rotating ring-disk electrode tests than their untreated precursors, with the bituminous based AC most improved, with an onset potential of Eonset = 0.12 V (untreated, Eonset = 0.08 V) and n = 3.9 electrons transferred in oxygen reduction (untreated, n = 3.6), and the hardwood based AC (treated, E onset = 0.03 V, n = 3.3; untreated, Eonset = -0.04 V, n = 3.0). Ammonia treatment decreased oxygen content by 29-58%, increased nitrogen content to 1.8 atomic %, and increased the basicity of the bituminous, peat, and hardwood ACs. The treated coal based AC cathodes had higher maximum power densities in MFCs (2450 ± 40 mW m-2) than the other AC cathodes or a Pt/C cathode (2100 ± 1 mW m-2). These results show that reduced oxygen abundance and increased nitrogen functionalities on the AC surface can increase catalytic performance for oxygen reduction in neutral media. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An optimization study of PtSn/C catalysts applied to direct ethanol fuel cell: Effect of the preparation method on the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, T. S.; Palma, L. M.; Leonello, P. H.; Morais, C.; Kokoh, K. B.; De Andrade, A. R.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work was to perform a systematic study of the parameters that can influence the composition, morphology, and catalytic activity of PtSn/C nanoparticles and compare two different methods of nanocatalyst preparation, namely microwave-assisted heating (MW) and thermal decomposition of polymeric precursors (DPP). An investigation of the effects of the reducing and stabilizing agents on the catalytic activity and morphology of Pt75Sn25/C catalysts prepared by microwave-assisted heating was undertaken for optimization purposes. The effect of short-chain alcohols such as ethanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol as reducing agents was evaluated, and the use of sodium acetate and citric acid as stabilizing agents for the MW procedure was examined. Catalysts obtained from propylene glycol displayed higher catalytic activity compared with catalysts prepared in ethylene glycol. Introduction of sodium acetate enhanced the catalytic activity, but this beneficial effect was observed until a critical acetate concentration was reached. Optimization of the MW synthesis allowed for the preparation of highly dispersed catalysts with average sizes lying between 2.0 and 5.0 nm. Comparison of the best catalyst prepared by MW with a catalyst of similar composition prepared by the polymeric precursors method showed that the catalytic activity of the material can be improved when a proper condition for catalyst preparation is achieved.

  14. Electrical properties of a novel lead alkoxide precursor: Lead glycolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangboriboon, Nuchnapa; Pakdeewanishsukho, Kittikhun; Jamieson, Alexander; Sirivat, Anuvat; Wongkasemjit, Sujitra

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of lead acetate trihydrate Pb(CH 3 COO) 2 .3H 2 O and ethylene glycol, using triethylenetetramine (TETA) as a catalyst, provides in one step access to a polymer-like precursor of lead glycolate [-PbOCH 2 CH 2 O-]. On the basis of high-resolution mass spectroscopy, chemical analysis composition, FTIR, 13 C-solid state NMR and TGA, the lead glycolate precursor can be identified as a trimer structure. The FTIR spectrum demonstrates the characteristics of lead glycolate; the peaks at 1086 and 1042 cm -1 can be assigned to the C-O-Pb stretchings. The 13 C-solid state NMR spectrum gives notably only one peak at 68.639 ppm belonging to the ethylene glycol ligand. The phase transformations of lead glycolate and lead acetate trihydrate to lead oxide, their microstructures, and electrical properties were found to vary with increasing temperature. The lead glycolate precursor has superior electrical properties relative to those of lead acetate trihydrate, suggesting that the lead glycolate precursor can possibly be used as a starting material for producing electrical and semiconducting ceramics, viz. ferroelectric, anti-ferroelectric, and piezoelectric materials

  15. D2B, a new high resolution neutron powder diffractometer at ILL Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Applications of high resolution neutron powder diffraction to materials science have grown rapidly in the past 10 years, with the development of Rietveld methods of profile refinement, and new high resolution diffractometers and multidetectors. Materials studied range from catalysts to zeolites, and from battery electrodes to prestressed superconducting wires. Although the techniques have now been adapted for X-ray and synchrotron radiation, neutron powder diffraction retains unique advantages. In this paper we describe the design and first test measurements on the latest high resolution powder diffractometer D2B at ILL Grenoble. A review of the applications is published in Chemica Scripta (1986). (author) 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Thermal and electrochemical stability of tungsten carbide catalyst supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhina, H. [Ballard Power Systems, 9000 Glenlyon Parkway, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Campbell, S. [Ballard Power Systems, 9000 Glenlyon Parkway, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Kesler, O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-02-10

    The thermal and electrochemical stability of tungsten carbide (WC), with and without a catalyst dispersed on it, have been investigated to evaluate the potential suitability of the material as an oxidation-resistant catalyst support. Standard techniques currently used to disperse Pt on carbon could not be used to disperse Pt on WC, so an alternative method was developed and used to disperse Pt on both commercially available WC and on carbon for comparison of stability. Electrochemical testing was performed by applying oxidation cycles between +0.6 V and +1.8 V to the support-catalyst material combinations and monitoring the activity of the supported catalyst over 100 oxidation cycles. Comparisons of activity change with cumulative oxidation cycles were made between C and WC supports with comparable loadings of catalyst by weight, solid volume, and powder volume. WC was found to be more thermally and electrochemically stable than currently used carbon support material Vulcan XC-72R. However, further optimization of the particle sizes and dispersion of Pt/WC catalyst/support materials and of comparison standards between new candidate materials and existing carbon-based supports are required. (author)

  17. Hydroformylation of 1-Hexene over Rh/Nano-Oxide Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Suvanto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nanostructured supports on the activity of Rh catalysts was studied by comparing the catalytic performance of nano- and bulk-oxide supported Rh/ZnO, Rh/SiO2 and Rh/TiO2 systems in 1-hexene hydroformylation. The highest activity with 100% total conversion and 96% yield of aldehydes was obtained with the Rh/nano-ZnO catalyst. The Rh/nano-ZnO catalyst was found to be more stable and active than the corresponding rhodium catalyst supported on bulk ZnO. The favorable morphology of Rh/nano-ZnO particles led to an increased metal content and an increased number of weak acid sites compared to the bulk ZnO supported catalysts. Both these factors favored the improved catalytic performance. Improvements of catalytic properties were obtained also with the nano-SiO2 and nano-TiO2 supports in comparison with the bulk supports. All of the catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, BET, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD and NH3- temperature-programmed desorption (TPD.

  18. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Sopchak, David A [Livermore, CA; Upadhye, Ravindra S [Pleasanton, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA; Satcher, Joseph H [Patterson, CA; Gash, Alex E [Brentwood, CA

    2010-06-29

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  19. Epoxidation catalyst and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip

    2010-10-26

    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  20. Method to blend separator powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Andazola, Arthur H.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  1. More active and sulfur resistant bimetallic Pd-Ni catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betti, Carolina; Carrara, Nicolás; Badano, Juan; Lederhos, Cecilia; Vera, Carlos; Quiroga, Mónica, E-mail: mquiroga@fiq.unl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catálisis y Petroquímica, INCAPE (FIQ-UNL, CONICET), Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2018-02-15

    The influence of the kind of metal precursor and the sequence of impregnation on the properties of Pd-Ni catalysts was evaluated during the test reaction of selective hydrogenation of styrene to ethylbenzene by means of physicochemical characterization. The focus was put on the final hydrogenating activity and the resistance to deactivation by sulfide compounds (thiophene). The used techniques of characterization were ICP, XPS, XDR, TPR, CO chemisorption and TEM. XPS results indicated the presence of different Pd species: Pd{sup δ-}, Pd{sup 0} and Pd{sup δ+}. In the case of the Ni containing catalysts, Ni{sup 0} and NiO species were also detected. These palladium and nickel species would be responsible of the variation of activity and sulfur resistance of the catalysts. NiClPd catalysts had a higher resistance to deactivation by sulfur poisoning. This was associated to a higher concentration of Pd{sup η+}Cl{sub x}O{sub y} species that would prevent the adsorption of thiophene by both steric and electronic effects. It could also be due to the lower concentration of Pd{sup 0} and Ni{sup 0} on these catalysts, as compared to those shown by the PdNiCl catalysts. Both the Pd{sup 0} and Ni{sup 0} species are more prone to poisoning because of their higher electronic availability. (author)

  2. Toward a theory of precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freivogel, Ben; Giddings, Steven B.; Lippert, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the possible breakdown of locality in quantum gravitational systems, we pursue the identity of precursors in the context of the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence. Holography implies a breakdown of standard bulk locality which we expect to occur only at extremely high energy. We consider precursors that encode bulk information causally disconnected from the boundary and whose measurement involves nonlocal bulk processes. We construct a toy model of holography which encapsulates the expected properties of precursors and compare it with previous such discussions. If these precursors can be identified in the gauge theory, they are almost certainly Wilson loops, perhaps with decorations, but the relevant information is encoded in the high-energy sector of the theory and should not be observable by low energy measurements. This would be in accord with the locality bound, which serves as a criterion for situations where breakdown of bulk locality is expected

  3. Plasma technology for powder particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, E. (Technische Hochschule, Ilmenau (German Democratic Republic))

    1983-03-01

    A survey is given of principles and applications of plasma spraying and of powder transformation and generation in plasma considering spheroidization, grain size transformation, powder particle formation, powder reduction, and melting within the power range of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 7/ W. The products are applied in many industrial fields such as nuclear engineering, hard metal production, metallurgy, catalysis, and semiconductor techniques.

  4. MORE ACTIVE AND SULFUR RESISTANT BIMETALLIC Pd-Ni CATALYSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Betti, Carolina; Carrara, Nicolás; Badano, Juan; Lederhos, Cecilia; Vera, Carlos; Quiroga, Mónica

    2018-01-01

    The influence of the kind of metal precursor and the sequence of impregnation on the properties of Pd-Ni catalysts was evaluated during the test reaction of selective hydrogenation of styrene to ethylbenzene by means of physicochemical characterization. The focus was put on the final hydrogenating activity and the resistance to deactivation by sulfided compounds (thiophene). The used techniques of characterization were ICP, XPS, XDR, TPR, CO chemisorption and TEM. XPS results indicated the pr...

  5. Technology development for iron F-T catalysts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

    1994-08-01

    The objectives of this work were twofold. The first objective was to design and construct a pilot plant for preparing precipitated iron oxide F-T precursors and demonstrate that the rate of production from this plant is equivalent to 100 lbs/day of dried metal oxide. Secondly, these precipitates were to be used to prepare catalysts capable of achieving 88% CO + H{sub 2} conversion with {le} 5 mole percent selectivity to methane + ethane.

  6. Synthesis of Uranium nitride powders using metal uranium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong Joo; Oh, Jang Soo; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Keon Sik

    2012-01-01

    Uranium nitride (UN) is a potential fuel material for advanced nuclear reactors because of their high fuel density, high thermal conductivity, high melting temperature, and considerable breeding capability in LWRs. Uranium nitride powders can be fabricated by a carbothermic reduction of the oxide powders, or the nitriding of metal uranium. The carbothermic reduction has an advantage in the production of fine powders. However it has many drawbacks such as an inevitable engagement of impurities, process burden, and difficulties in reusing of expensive N 15 gas. Manufacturing concerns issued in the carbothermic reduction process can be solved by changing the starting materials from oxide powder to metals. However, in nitriding process of metal, it is difficult to obtain fine nitride powders because metal uranium is usually fabricated in the form of bulk ingots. In this study, a simple reaction method was tested to fabricate uranium nitride powders directly from uranium metal powders. We fabricated uranium metal spherical powder and flake using a centrifugal atomization method. The nitride powders were obtained by thermal treating those metal particles under nitrogen containing gas. We investigated the phase and morphology evolutions of powders during the nitriding process. A phase analysis of nitride powders was also a part of the present work

  7. Synthesis and characterization of CNTs using polypropylene waste as precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajad, Ganesh S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur 440010 (India); Tiwari, Saurabh K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Vijayakumar, R.P., E-mail: vijayakumarrp@che.vnit.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur 440010 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile method for producing CNTs from polypropylene waste is proposed. • Optimization of Ni/Mo mole ratio using RSM suggests the adequacy of cubic model. • Process parameters were optimized by RSM using Box–Behnken four factorial design. • Maximum desirability of one suggested that 514% of CNTs would yield over Ni{sub 4}Mo{sub 0.2}MgO{sub 1}. • Increase in Ni/Mo ratio from 0.5 to 20, inner diameter of CNTs decreases from 25 to 2 nm. - Abstract: We study the synthesis of MWCNTs using polypropylene waste as a precursor and Ni/Mo/MgO as a catalyst by the combustion technique. Molar ratios of Ni, Mo and MgO in the Ni/Mo/MgO catalyst were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the maximum yield of CNTs. The mole ratio 4/0.2/1 was found to yield more carbon product. Further, process parameters such as combustion temperature, combustion time, polymer and catalyst weight were optimized by RSM using Box–Behnken three-level and four-factorial design. The best possible combination of process parameters (combustion time of 10 min, combustion temperature of 800 °C, polymer weight of 5 g and catalyst weight of 150 mg) for maximum yield of CNTs was obtained. HRTEM indicates that the diameter of CNTs depends on the catalyst composition used for the synthesis of CNTs. The results of the study indicate a facile method for producing CNTs from polypropylene waste.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of CNTs using polypropylene waste as precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajad, Ganesh S.; Tiwari, Saurabh K.; Vijayakumar, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile method for producing CNTs from polypropylene waste is proposed. • Optimization of Ni/Mo mole ratio using RSM suggests the adequacy of cubic model. • Process parameters were optimized by RSM using Box–Behnken four factorial design. • Maximum desirability of one suggested that 514% of CNTs would yield over Ni 4 Mo 0.2 MgO 1 . • Increase in Ni/Mo ratio from 0.5 to 20, inner diameter of CNTs decreases from 25 to 2 nm. - Abstract: We study the synthesis of MWCNTs using polypropylene waste as a precursor and Ni/Mo/MgO as a catalyst by the combustion technique. Molar ratios of Ni, Mo and MgO in the Ni/Mo/MgO catalyst were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the maximum yield of CNTs. The mole ratio 4/0.2/1 was found to yield more carbon product. Further, process parameters such as combustion temperature, combustion time, polymer and catalyst weight were optimized by RSM using Box–Behnken three-level and four-factorial design. The best possible combination of process parameters (combustion time of 10 min, combustion temperature of 800 °C, polymer weight of 5 g and catalyst weight of 150 mg) for maximum yield of CNTs was obtained. HRTEM indicates that the diameter of CNTs depends on the catalyst composition used for the synthesis of CNTs. The results of the study indicate a facile method for producing CNTs from polypropylene waste

  9. Dispersing powders in liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, RD

    1988-01-01

    This book provides powder technologists with laboratory procedures for selecting dispersing agents and preparing stable dispersions that can then be used in particle size characterization instruments. Its broader goal is to introduce industrial chemists and engineers to the phenomena, terminology, physical principles, and chemical considerations involved in preparing and handling dispersions on a commercial scale. The book introduces novices to: - industrial problems due to improper degree of dispersion; - the nomenclature used in describing particles; - the basic physica

  10. Template-mediated, Hierarchical Engineering of Ordered Mesoporous Films and Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zheng

    Hierarchical control over pore size, pore topology, and meso/mictrostructure as well as material morphology (e.g., powders, monoliths, thin films) is crucial for meeting diverse materials needs among applications spanning next generation catalysts, sensors, batteries, sorbents, etc. The overarching goal of this thesis is to establish fundamental mechanistic insight enabling new strategies for realizing such hierarchical textural control for carbon materials that is not currently achievable with sacrificial pore formation by 'one-pot' surfactant-based 'soft'-templating or multi-step inorganic 'hard-templating. While 'hard'-templating is often tacitly discounted based upon its perceived complexity, it offers potential for overcoming key 'soft'-templating challenges, including bolstering pore stability, accommodating a more versatile palette of replica precursors, realizing ordered/spanning porosity in the case of porous thin films, simplifying formation of bi-continuous pore topologies, and inducing microstructure control within porous replica materials. In this thesis, we establish strategies for hard-templating of hierarchically porous and structured carbon powders and tunable thin films by both multi-step hard-templating and a new 'one-pot' template-replica precursor co-assembly process. We first develop a nominal hard-templating technique to successfully prepare three-dimensionally ordered mesoporous (3DOm) and 3DOm-supported microporous carbon thin films by exploiting our ability to synthesize and assemble size-tunable silica nanoparticles into scalable, colloidal crystalline thin film templates of tunable mono- to multi-layer thickness. This robust thin film template accommodates liquid and/or vapor-phase infiltration, polymerization, and pyrolysis of various carbon sources without pore contraction and/or collapse upon template sacrifice. The result is robust, flexible 3DOm or 3DOm-supported ultra-thin microporous films that can be transferred by stamp

  11. Hydroprocessing with self-promoted molybdenum and tungsten sulfide catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Candish, L.E.; Ho, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    A hydroprocessing process is described comprising contacting a hydrocarbon feed at elevated temperature of at least about 100 0 C and in the presence of hydrogen with a supported, self-promoted catalyst obtained by compositioning one or more catalyst precursors of the formula (ML) (Mo/sub y/W/sub 1-y/O/sub 4/) with an inorganic refractory oxide support and heating the composition in a non-oxidizing atmosphere in the presence of sulfur at elevated temperature for a time sufficient to form the catalyst. M comprises one or more divalent promoter metals, y is any value ranging from 0 to 1, and wherein L is one or more, neutral, nitrogen-containing ligands at least one of which is a chelating polydentate ligand. The contacting occurs for a time sufficient to convert at least a portion of the feed

  12. High resolution Neutron and Synchrotron Powder Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of high-resolution powder diffraction has grown rapidly in the past years, with the development of Rietveld (1967) methods of data analysis and new high-resolution diffractometers and multidetectors. The number of publications in this area has increased from a handful per year until 1973 to 150 per year in 1984, with a ten-year total of over 1000. These papers cover a wide area of solid state-chemistry, physics and materials science, and have been grouped under 20 subject headings, ranging from catalysts to zeolites, and from battery electrode materials to pre-stressed superconducting wires. In 1985 two new high-resolution diffractometers are being commissioned, one at the SNS laboratory near Oxford, and one at the ILL in Grenoble. In different ways these machines represent perhaps the ultimate that can be achieved with neutrons and will permit refinement of complex structures with about 250 parameters and unit cell volumes of about 2500 Angstrom/sp3/. The new European Synchotron Facility will complement the Grenoble neutron diffractometers, and extend the role of high-resolution powder diffraction to the direct solution of crystal structures, pioneered in Sweden

  13. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E.; Kirby, S.; Song, Chunshan; Schobert, H.H.

    1994-04-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more, efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts can be superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires infinite contact between the catalyst and coal. The primary objective of this research is to explore the potential of bimetallic dispersed catalysts from heterometallic molecular precursors in their use in model compound liquefaction reactions. This quarterly report describes the use of three precursors in model compound reactions. The first catalyst is a heterometallic complex consisting of two transition metals, Mo and Ni, and sulfur in a single molecule. The second is a thiocubane type complex consisting of cobalt, molybdenum and sulfur. The third is a thiocubane type cluster consisting of iron and sulfur and the fourth, the pure inorganic salt ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATM). It was found that the structure and the ligands in the model complexes affect the activity of the resulting catalyst significantly. The optimum reaction at a pressure of 6.9 MPa hydrogen gas varied for different catalysts. The bimetallic catalysts generated in situ from the organometallic precursor are more active than monometallic catalysts like ATTM and the thiocubane type cluster Fe{sub 4}. Main products are hydrogenated phenanthrene derivatives, like DBP, THP, sym-OHP, cis- and trans-unsym-OHP with minor isomerization products such as sym-OHA. Our results indicate that other transition metal and ligand combinations in the organometallic precursors and the use of another model compound could result in substantially higher conversion activity.

  14. Container for nuclear fuel powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etheredge, B.F.; Larson, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    A critically safe container is disclosed for the storage and rapid discharge of enriched nuclear fuel material in powder form is disclosed. The container has a hollow, slab-shaped container body that has one critically safe dimension. A powder inlet is provided on one side wall of the body adjacent to a corner thereof and a powder discharge port is provided at another corner of the body approximately diagonal the powder inlet. Gas plenum for moving the powder during discharge are located along the side walls of the container adjacent the discharge port

  15. A Robust Fiber Bragg Grating Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using Platinum-Supported Silica Catalyst Film

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Kurohiji; Seiji Ichiriyama; Naoki Yamasaku; Shinji Okazaki; Naoya Kasai; Yusuke Maru; Tadahito Mizutani

    2018-01-01

    A robust fiber Bragg grating (FBG) hydrogen gas sensor for reliable multipoint-leakage monitoring has been developed. The sensing mechanism is based on shifts of center wavelength of the reflection spectra due to temperature change caused by catalytic combustion heat. The sensitive film which consists of platinum-supported silica (Pt/SiO2) catalyst film was obtained using sol-gel method. The precursor solution was composed of hexachloroplatinic acid and commercially available silica precursor...

  16. Surface treated carbon catalysts produced from waste tires for fatty acids to biofuel conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Zachary D.; Adhikari, Shiba P.; Wright, Marcus W.; Lachgar, Abdessadek; Li, Yunchao; Naskar, Amit K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2018-02-06

    A method of making solid acid catalysts includes the step of sulfonating waste tire pieces in a first sulfonation step. The sulfonated waste tire pieces are pyrolyzed to produce carbon composite pieces having a pore size less than 10 nm. The carbon composite pieces are then ground to produce carbon composite powders having a size less than 50 .mu.m. The carbon composite particles are sulfonated in a second sulfonation step to produce sulfonated solid acid catalysts. A method of making biofuels and solid acid catalysts are also disclosed.

  17. Application of sodium carbonate prevents sulphur poisoning of catalysts in automated total mercury analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLagan, David S.; Huang, Haiyong; Lei, Ying D.; Wania, Frank; Mitchell, Carl P. J.

    2017-07-01

    Analysis of high sulphur-containing samples for total mercury content using automated thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectroscopy instruments (USEPA Method 7473) leads to rapid and costly SO2 poisoning of catalysts. In an effort to overcome this issue, we tested whether the addition of powdered sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) to the catalyst and/or directly on top of sample material increases throughput of sulphur-impregnated (8-15 wt%) activated carbon samples per catalyst tube. Adding 5 g of Na2CO3 to the catalyst alone only marginally increases the functional lifetime of the catalyst (31 ± 4 g of activated carbon analyzed per catalyst tube) in relation to unaltered catalyst of the AMA254 total mercury analyzer (17 ± 4 g of activated carbon). Adding ≈ 0.2 g of Na2CO3 to samples substantially increases (81 ± 17 g of activated carbon) catalyst life over the unaltered catalyst. The greatest improvement is achieved by adding Na2CO3 to both catalyst and samples (200 ± 70 g of activated carbon), which significantly increases catalyst performance over all other treatments and enables an order of magnitude greater sample throughput than the unaltered samples and catalyst. It is likely that Na2CO3 efficiently sequesters SO2, even at high furnace temperatures to produce Na2SO4 and CO2, largely negating the poisonous impact of SO2 on the catalyst material. Increased corrosion of nickel sampling boats resulting from this methodological variation is easily resolved by substituting quartz boats. Overall, this variation enables an efficient and significantly more affordable means of employing automated atomic absorption spectrometry instruments for total mercury analysis of high-sulphur matrices.

  18. Catalytic performance and characterization of cobalt-nickel nano catalysts for CO hydrogenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyzi, Mostafa; Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Babakhanian, Arash

    2014-01-01

    A series of Co-Ni nano catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation method. We investigated the effect of Co/Ni molar ratios precipitate and calcination conditions on the catalytic performance of cobalt nickel catalysts for Fisher-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). The catalyst containing 90%Co/10%Ni was found to be optimal for the conversion of synthesis gas to light olefins. The activity and selectivity of the optimal catalyst were studied in different operational conditions. The results show that the best operational conditions are the H 2 /CO=2/1 molar feed ratio at 310 .deg. C and GHSV=1,200 h - 1 under 5 bar of pressure. The prepared catalysts were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption-desorption measurements such as BET and BJH methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA)

  19. Thermal evolution of nitrate precursors for processing of lanthanide perovskites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhukharov, V. S.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on thermal decomposition of ceramic powder with a general formula of (La1-x Ba x (Co0.8 Fe0.2O3 have been achieved. Precursors as nitrate solutions with additive of EDTA as complexion agent are used for powder processing. The black powders obtained are dried and their thermal evolution up to 1000ºC has been investigated by Differential Thermal Analysis. The powders was analyzed by EDX and ICP- AES, as well. It was established that the powder compositions are very close to the nominal one. The resulting DTA, TA, TG and DTG curves are analyzed as function of the composition and heating rate applied. At polythermal scanning regime three regions the powder thermal evolution are discussed. The correlation dependence has been examined for both Sr- and Ba- doped multicomponent lanthanide samples. The multicomponent nature of the samples have been shown on the base of the thermal treatment applied and XRD phase control carried out.

    Se han realizado estudios sobre la descomposición térmica de polvos cerámicos de fórmula general (La1-x Ba x (Co0.8 Fe0.2O3. Se utilizaron como precursores soluciones de nitratos con EDTA como agente acomplejante. La evolución térmica del polvo negro obtenido se estudió hasta la temperatura de 1000 ºC por medio de análisis térmico diferencial. Los polvos se analizaron así mismo por EDX e ICP-A ES. Se estableció que la composición de los polvos esta muy próxima a la composición nominal. Se distingue tres regímenes en la evolución térmica. Se examina la dependencia con el contenido en lantanidas multicomponentes de pulsos con Sr y Ba. La naturaleza multicomponente se ha mostrado sobre la base del tratamiento térmico empleado y el análisis de las fases cristalinas.

  20. Precursors for use in vapour and solution phase thermolysis routes to II-VI thin films and nanodispersed oxide materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chunggaze, M.

    1999-12-01

    -7 are formed in the vapour phase from (3) and (4). Compounds (3), (4) and (7) also form significant quantities of diethyl diselenide (EtSe 2 Et), as detected by GC-MS; whereas (5) and (6) do not. A series of precursors with pendant amine functions have also been synthesised in an effort to reduce the degree of association seen in the simple parent diethyl-dithiocarbamates. The preparation of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and cerium oxide powders, which are used in dye-sensitised photovoltaic cells (Graetzel cells) and as catalysts respectively were prepared by the thermolysis of a series of suitable single source precursor in a thermolysing/passivating solvent such as tri-octyl-phosphine oxide (TOPO). The nano-particulate oxides formed have the unique property of being coated with TOPO and hence are stable in the solid form without leading to aggregation and are re-dispersible in organic solvents. The oxides formed were generally amorphous in nature and required further annealing to induce crystallinity. Other routes to preparing nano-porous titanium dioxide such as aerosol assisted CVD were also used in an attempt to deposit nano-porous films of titanium dioxide. Cerium oxide particles were synthesised at relatively low thermolysis temperatures (200-300 deg C) and were characterised to exist in the fluorite phase (CeO 2 ). The interaction of TOPO with the precursor was found to aid in lowering the thermolysing temperatures as well as favour the growth of the CeO 2 particles. Lowering the thermolysis temperature to 100 deg C allowed for the preparation of the pyramidal Ce 2 O 3 particles. (author)

  1. ZrO2/bamboo leaves ash (BLA) Catalyst in Biodiesel Conversion of Rice Bran Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, Is; Taushiyah, Ana; Badriatun Najah, Fitri; Azmi, Ulil

    2018-04-01

    Preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of ZrO2/bamboo leaves ash (BLA) catalyst for conversion of rice bran oil to biodiesel have been investigated. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation method of ZrOCl2 as ZrO2 precursor with BLA at a theoretical content of 20% wt. followed by calcination. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst material were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and surface acidity measurement. Activity test of materials in biodiesel conversion of rice bran oil was used by reflux method and microwave (MW) assisted method. Reaction variables studied in the investigation were the effect of catalyst weight and time of MW irradiation compared with the use reflux method. The results showed that ZrO2/BLA catalyst exhibited competitively effective and efficient processes for the production of biodiesel. The reflux method demonstrated an higher conversion (%) compared to MW method, however MW method showed the better reusable properties.

  2. Improved Catalysts for Heavy Oil Upgrading Based on Zeolite Y Nanoparticles Encapsulated Stable Nanoporous Host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

    2006-09-30

    The addition of hydrothermally-aged zeolite Y precursor to an SBA-15 synthesis mixture under a mildly acidic condition resulted in the formation of mesoporous aluminosilicate catalyst, Al-SBA-15, containing strong Broensted acid sites and aluminum (Al) stabilized in a totally tetrahedral coordination. The physicochemical characteristics of the catalyst varied as a function of the synthesis conditions. The catalyst possessed surface areas ranging between 690 and 850 m{sup 2}/g, pore sizes ranging from 5.6 to 7.5 nm, and pore volumes up 1.03 cm{sup 3}, which were comparable to the parent SBA-15 synthesized under similar conditions. Two wt% Al was present in the catalyst that was obtained from the reaction mixture that contained the highest Al content. The Al remained stable in totally tetrahedral coordination after calcination at 550 C. The Al-SBA-15 mesoporous catalyst showed significant catalytic activity for cumene dealkylation, and the activity increased as the amount of zeolite precursor added to the SBA-15 mixture was increased. In preparation for the final phase of the project, the catalyst was embedded into psuedoboemite alumina (catapal B) matrix and then formed into pellets. In the final phase of the project, the pelletized catalyst will be evaluated for the conversion of heavy petroleum feedstocks to naphtha and middle distillates.

  3. Industrial wastewater advanced treatment via catalytic ozonation with an Fe-based catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xufang; Chen, Weiyu; Ma, Luming; Wang, Hongwu; Fan, Jinhong

    2018-03-01

    An Fe-based catalyst was used as a heterogeneous catalyst for the ozonation of industrial wastewater, and key operational parameters (pH and catalyst dosage) were studied. The results indicated that the Fe-based catalyst significantly improved the mineralization of organic pollutants in wastewater. TOC (total organic carbon) removal was high, at 78.7%, with a catalyst concentration of 200 g/L, but only 31.6% with ozonation alone. The Fe-based catalyst significantly promoted ozone decomposition by 70% in aqueous solution. Hydroxyl radicals (·OH) were confirmed to be existed directly via EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) experiments, and ·OH were verified to account for about 34.4% of TOC removal with NaHCO 3 as a radical scavenger. Through characterization by SEM-EDS (field emission scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive spectrometer), XRD (X-ray powder diffraction) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), it was deduced that FeOOH on the surface of the catalyst was the dominant contributor to the catalytic efficiency. The catalyst was certified as having good stability and excellent reusability based on 50 successive operations and could be used as a filler simultaneously. Thereby, it is a promising catalyst for practical industrial wastewater advanced treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Niobium, catalyst repair kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that niobium oxides, when small amounts are added to known catalysts, enhance catalytic activity and selectivity and prolong catalyst life. Moreover, niobium oxides exhibit a pronounced effect as supports of metal or metal oxide catalysts. Recently we found that the surface acidity of hydrated niobium pentoxide, niobic acid (Nb 2 O 5 · nH 2 O), corresponds to the acidity of 70% sulfuric acid and exhibits high catalytic activity, selectivity, and stability for acid-catalyzed reactions in which water molecules participate. Although there are few differences in electronegativity and ionic radius between niobium and its neighbors in the periodic table, it is interesting that the promoter effect, support effect, and acidic nature of niobium compounds are quite different from those of compounds of the surrounding elements. Here we review what's known of niobium compounds from the viewpoint of their pronounced catalytic behavior

  5. Ultrafine yttria-stabilized zirconia powders prepared by pyrolysis of a metal-oxalate-cellulose complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solov`eva, L.V.; Bashmakov, I.A.; Kaputskii, F.N. [Research Institute of Physicochemical Problems, Minsk (Belarus)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Preparation of high-purity submicron powders with uniform particles is a key stage in the fabrication of high-quality ceramics. For this purpose, chemical methods are commonly used. Recently, pyrolysis of salt-cellulose compositions has gained acceptance for the preparation of mixed oxide powders. This method ensures control of the morphology and particle size of the resultant powders. In this work, the authors present an environmentally safe method for preparing ZrO{sub 2}-based powders from metal-oxalate-cellulose complexes (MOCC) used as precursors instead of soluble metal salts physisorbed on the cellulose surface. The powders obtained by this method feature higher dispersity than their commercially available analogs.

  6. Elaboration of the hydroxyapatite with different precursors and application for the retention of the lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meski, S; Ziani, S; Khireddine, H; Yataghane, F; Ferguene, N

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHAP) was synthesized from different precursors; synthetic (CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2) and natural (egg shell before and after calcinations at 900 degrees C) under different conditions and characterized by using TG/DTG analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) method and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. The results of these analyses indicate that the four powders present the same structure of hydroxyapatite. Furthermore the four powders obtained were used for the retention of lead. The results obtained indicated that all powders present high adsorption capacity for lead, but from environmental and economic views, the hydroxyapatite synthesized from eggshell no calcined (HA2) is most advantageous. The influence of different sorption parameters, such as: initial metal concentration, equilibration time, solution pH and sorbent dosage was studied and discussed.

  7. Diffraction. Powder, amorphous, liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnowska, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction is a unique tool to observe all possible diffraction effects appearing in crystal. High-resolution neutron diffractometers have to be used in this study. Analysis of the magnetic structure of polycrystalline materials requires the use of high-resolution neutron diffraction in the range of large interplanar distances. As distinguished from the double axis diffractometers (DAS), which show high resolution only at small interplanar distances, TOF (time-of-flight) diffractometry offers the best resolution at large interplanar distances. (K.A.)

  8. LARC powder prepreg system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1990-01-01

    Thermoplastic prepregs of LARC-TPI have been produced in a fluidized bed unit on spread continuous fiber tows. The powders are melted on the fibers by radiant heating to adhere the polymer to the fiber. This process produces tow prepreg uniformly without imposing severe stress on the fibers or requiring long high temperature residence times for the polymer. Unit design theory and operating correlations have been developed to provide the basis for scale up to commercial operation. Special features of the operation are the pneumatic tow spreader, fluidized bed and resin feed systems.

  9. Y2O3-MgO Nano-Composite Synthesized by Plasma Spraying and Thermal Decomposition of Solution Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muoto, Chigozie Kenechukwu

    This research aims to identify the key feedstock characteristics and processing conditions to produce Y2O3-MgO composite coatings with high density and hardness using solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) and suspension plasma spray (SPS) processes, and also, to explore the phenomena involved in the production of homogenized nano-composite powders of this material system by thermal decomposition of solution precursor mixtures. The material system would find potential application in the fabrication of components for optical applications such as transparent windows. It was shown that a lack of major endothermic events during precursor decomposition and the resultant formation of highly dense particles upon pyrolysis are critical precursor characteristics for the deposition of dense and hard Y2O3-MgO coatings by SPPS. Using these principles, a new Y2O3-MgO precursor solution was developed, which yielded a coating with Vickers hardness of 560 Hv. This was a considerable improvement over the hardness of the coatings obtained using conventional solution precursors, which was as low as 110 Hv. In the thermal decomposition synthesis process, binary solution precursor mixtures of: yttrium nitrate (Y[n]) or yttrium acetate (Y[a]), with magnesium nitrate (Mg[n]) or magnesium acetate (Mg[a]) were used in order to study the effects of precursor chemistry on the structural characteristics of the resultant Y2O3-MgO powders. The phase domains were coarse and distributed rather inhomogeneously in the materials obtained from the Y[n]Mg[n] and Y[a]Mg[a] mixtures; finer and more homogeneously-distributed phase domains were obtained for ceramics produced from the Y[a]Mg[n] and Y[n]Mg[a] mixtures. It was established that these phenomena were related to the thermal characteristics for the decomposition of the precursors and their effect on phase separation during oxide crystallization. Addition of ammonium acetate to the Y[n[Mg[n] mixture changed the endothermic process to exothermic

  10. Preparation of TiO2 Nanocrystallite Powders Coated with 9 mol% ZnO for Cosmetic Applications in Sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Chin Wang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of TiO2 nanocrystallite powders coated with and without 9 mol% ZnO has been studied for cosmetic applications in sunscreens by a co-precipitation process using TiCl4 and Zn(NO32·6H2O as starting materials. XRD results show that the phases of anatase TiO2 and rutile TiO2 coexist for precursor powders without added ZnO (T-0Z and calcined at 523 to 973 K for 2 h. When the T-0Z precursor powders are calcined at 1273 K for 2 h, only the rutile TiO2 appears. In addition, when the TiO2 precursor powders contain 9 mol% ZnO (T-9Z are calcined at 873 to 973 K for 2 h, the crystallized samples are composed of the major phase of rutile TiO2 and the minor phases of anatase TiO2 and Zn2Ti3O8. The analyses of UV/VIS/NIR spectra reveal that the absorption of the T-9Z precursor powders after being calcined has a red-shift effect in the UV range with increasing calcination temperature. Therefore, the TiO2 nanocrystallite powders coated with 9 mol% ZnO can be used as the attenuate agent in the UV-A region for cosmetic applications in sunscreens.

  11. Dynamics of Catalyst Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Cavalca, Filippo; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    and pharmaceuticals, and the cleanup of exhaust from automobiles and stationary power plants. Sintering, or thermal deactivation, is an important mechanism for the loss of catalyst activity. In order to initiate a systematic study of the dynamics and sintering of nanoparticles, various catalytic systems have been...... under gas exposure, dynamic phenomena such as sintering and growth can be observed with sub-Ångstrøm resolution. Metal nanoparticles contain the active sites in heterogeneous catalysts, which are important for many industrial applications including the production of clean fuels, chemicals...

  12. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...... increasing focus. Activity of the catalyst is important, but stability is essential. In the presented perspective paper, we review recent efforts to investigate fuel cell catalysts ex-situ in electrochemical half-cell measurements. Due to the amount of different studies, this review has no intention to give...

  13. Synthesis of nano-sized ceria (CeO2 particles via a cerium hydroxy carbonate precursor and the effect of reaction temperature on particle morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Farahmandjou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide (CeO2 or ceria has been shown to be an interesting support material for noble metals in catalysts designed for emission control, mainly due to its oxygen storage capacity. Ceria nanoparticles were prepared by precipitation method. The precursor materials used in this research were cerium nitrate hexahydrate (as a basic material, potassium carbonate and potassium hydroxide (as precipitants. The morphological properties were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. XRD results showed face centered cubic CeO2 nanoparticles for annealed nanoparticles at 1000°C. SEM measurement showed that by increasing the calcinations temperature from 200 to 600°C, the crystallite size decreased from 90 to 28 nm. The SEM results showed that the size of the CeO2 nanoparticles decreased with increasing temperature. The particle size of CeO2 was around 25 nm as estimated by XRD technique and direct HRTEM observation. SEM and TEM studies showed that the morphology of the prepared powder was sphere-like with a narrow size distribution. The sharp peaks in FTIR spectrum determined the purity of CeO2 nanoparticles and absorbance peak of UV-Vis spectrum showed the small band gap energy of 3.26 ev.

  14. Degradation of Highly Alloyed Metal Halide Perovskite Precursor Inks: Mechanism and Storage Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Benjia [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wheeler, Lance M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christians, Jeffrey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moore, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Harvey, Steven P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Berry, Joseph J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Hest, Marinus F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barnes, Frank S. [University of Colorado; Shaheen, Sean E. [University of Colorado

    2018-03-02

    Whereas the promise of metal halide perovskite (MHP) photovoltaics (PV) is that they can combine high efficiency with solution-processability, the chemistry occurring in precursor inks is largely unexplored. Herein, we investigate the degradation of MHP solutions based on the most widely used solvents, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). For the MHP inks studied, which contain formamidinium (FA+), methylammonium (MA+), cesium (Cs+), lead (Pb2+), bromide (Br-), and iodide (I-), dramatic compositional changes are observed following storage of the inks in nitrogen in the dark. We show that hydrolysis of DMF in the precursor solution forms dimethylammonium formate, which subsequently incorporates into the MHP film to compromise the ability of Cs+ and MA+ to stabilize FA+-based MHP. The changes in solution chemistry lead to a modification of the perovskite film stoichiometry, band gap, and structure. The solid precursor salts are stable when ball-milled into a powder, allowing for the storage of large quantities of stoichiometric precursor materials.

  15. Coercivities of hot-deformed magnets processed from amorphous and nanocrystalline precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xin; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Hioki, K.; Hattori, A.; Hono, K.

    2017-01-01

    Hot-deformed magnets have been processed from amorphous and nanocrystalline precursors and their hard magnetic properties and microstructures have been investigated in order to explore the optimum process route. The hot-deformed magnets processed from an amorphous precursor exhibited the coercivity of 1.40 T that is higher than that processed from nanocrystalline powder, ∼1.28 T. The average grain size was larger in the magnets processed from amorphous precursor. Detailed microstructure analyses by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Nd + Pr concentrations in the intergranular phases were higher in the hot-deformed magnet processed from the amorphous precursor, which is considered to lead to the enhanced coercivity due to a stronger pinning force against magnetic domain wall motion.

  16. Investigation of the Dependences of the Attenuation Properties of Cryogenic Metal-Powder Filters on the Preparation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hoon; Lee, Soon-Gul

    2018-04-01

    We fabricated low-pass metal powder filters for use in low-noise measurements at cryogenic temperatures and investigated their attenuation characteristics for different wire-turn densities, metalpowder shapes, and preparation methods at frequencies up to 20 GHz. We used nominally 30-μmsized stainless-steel 304L powder and mixed it with low-temperature binders. The low-temperature binders used were Stycast 2850FT (Emerson and Cumming) with catalyst 23LV and GE-7031 varnish. A 0.1-mm insulated copper wire was wound on preformed powder-mixture bobbins in the shape of a circular rod and was encapsulated in metal tubes with the powder mixture. All the fabricated powder filters showed a large attenuation at high frequencies with a cut-off frequency near 1 GHz. For filters of the same wire length, a lower wiring density showed a larger attenuation, which implies that the amount of powder in close contact with the wire determines the attenuation. Filters made of a powder/varnish mixture showed significantly larger attenuations than those of a powder/stycast mixture, and the attenuation improved with increasing powder ratio in the mixture. The low-temperature thermal conductivities of a 2 : 1 powder/Stycast mixture and a 5 : 1 powder/varnish mixture showed similar values at temperatures up to 4.2 K.

  17. Control of core structure in MgB{sub 2} wire through tailoring boron powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Minoru, E-mail: maeda.minoru70@nihon-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Uchiyama, Daisuke [Department of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Ma, Zongqing [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Shahabuddin, Mohammed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Kim, Jung Ho, E-mail: jhk@uow.edu.au [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia)

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • The typical void structure in the wire is obtained by using large-sized B powder. • In contrast, void alignment can be achieved by using fine B powder. • The sintering at lower temperatures improves the critical current density in fields. - Abstract: A common fabrication process for MgB{sub 2} wire, namely, the in situ powder-in-tube process, forms numerous voids within the wire core, and void formation cannot be completely avoided. The orientation is, however, known to be aligned more or less along the current-flow direction when ductile coarse magnesium powder is used as a precursor, and further tailoring approaches could open up the way to improving the transport critical current density. Herein, we have used boron powders with different particle sizes, in combination with the coarse magnesium powder, and evaluated their size effects on the phase composition, microstructure, and transport properties. A mixture of the coarse magnesium powder with large-sized boron powder in the wire core, after cold working and sintering, forms a granular morphology. In contrast, an aligned core appears during the reduction process for wire which is prepared by using fine boron powder. The sintering process, especially at a low temperature, where magnesium evaporation hardly occurs, yields an aligned structure, mainly consisting of MgB{sub 2} phase, along the wire direction. These findings demonstrate that the initial size of the starting materials is critical for the tailored structure.

  18. Morphological effect of BiVO4 catalysts on degradation of aqueous paracetamol under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changying; Xu, Jie; Zhu, Yaqi; Chen, Acong; Bian, Zhaoyong; Wang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Morphological effect of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) on visible light-driven catalytic degradation of aqueous paracetamol was carefully investigated using four monoclinic BiVO4 catalysts. The catalysts with different morphologies were controllably prepared by a hydrothermal method without any additions. The prepared catalysts were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Under the visible light irradiation, these catalysts with different morphology were investigated to degrade aqueous paracetamol contaminant. The degradation effects were evaluated based on the catalyst morphology, solution pH, initial paracetamol concentration, and catalyst dosage. Cube-like BiVO4 powders exhibited excellent photocatalytic performance. The optimal photocatalytic performance of the cube-like BiVO4 in degrading paracetamol was achieved.

  19. A combined in situ XAS-XRPD-Raman study of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over a carbon supported Co catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakoumis, Nikolaos E.; Dehghan, Roya; Johnsen, Rune

    2013-01-01

    A cobalt based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalyst, supported on a carbon nanofibers/carbon felt composite (Co/CNF/CF) was studied in situ at realistic conditions. The catalyst was monitored by Xray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction (HR-XRPD) and Raman...... spectroscopy, while changes in the gas phase were observed by mass spectrometry (MS). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also applied to characterise the catalyst. The catalyst has a bimodal particle size distribution and exhibits a high deactivation rate. During the in situ study the catalyst appears...... to reduce further at the induction period of FTS, while crystallite growth is been detected in the same period. At steady state FTS the amount of metallic Co is constant. A change in the volumetric flow towards higher conversions did not affect the degree of reduction or the crystallite size of the catalyst...

  20. Innovative sol–gel route in neutral hydroalcoholic condition to obtain antibacterial cotton finishing by zinc precursor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poli, R.; Colleoni, C.; Calvimontes, A.; Polaskova, H.; Dutschk, Victoria; Rosace, G.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a possibility to realize a transparent sol by zinc-based precursors in a neutral medium without acidic or alkaline catalyst was investigated.Moreover, to study the influence of an inorganic–organic hybrid polymer on the proposed antibacterial finishing, the Zn-based sol was

  1. Solution precursor plasma deposition of nanostructured ZnO coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tummala, Raghavender; Guduru, Ramesh K.; Mohanty, Pravansu S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The solution precursor route employed is an inexpensive process with capability to produce large scale coatings at fast rates on mass scale production. → It is highly capable of developing tailorable nanostructures. → This technique can be employed to spray the coatings on any kind of substrates including polymers. → The ZnO coatings developed via solution precursor plasma spray process have good electrical conductivity and reflectivity properties in spite of possessing large amount of particulate boundaries, porosity and nanostructured grains. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconducting material that has various applications including optical, electronic, biomedical and corrosion protection. It is usually synthesized via processing routes, such as vapor deposition techniques, sol-gel, spray pyrolysis and thermal spray of pre-synthesized ZnO powders. Cheaper and faster synthesis techniques are of technological importance due to increased demand in alternative energy applications. Here, we report synthesis of nanostructured ZnO coatings directly from a solution precursor in a single step using plasma spray technique. Nanostructured ZnO coatings were deposited from the solution precursor prepared using zinc acetate and water/isopropanol. An axial liquid atomizer was employed in a DC plasma spray torch to create fine droplets of precursor for faster thermal treatment in the plasma plume to form ZnO. Microstructures of coatings revealed ultrafine particulate agglomerates. X-ray diffraction confirmed polycrystalline nature and hexagonal Wurtzite crystal structure of the coatings. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed fine grains in the range of 10-40 nm. Observed optical transmittance (∼65-80%) and reflectivity (∼65-70%) in the visible spectrum, and electrical resistivity (48.5-50.1 mΩ cm) of ZnO coatings are attributed to ultrafine particulate morphology of the coatings.

  2. Solution precursor plasma deposition of nanostructured ZnO coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tummala, Raghavender [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan - Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Guduru, Ramesh K., E-mail: rkguduru@umich.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan - Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Mohanty, Pravansu S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan - Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} The solution precursor route employed is an inexpensive process with capability to produce large scale coatings at fast rates on mass scale production. {yields} It is highly capable of developing tailorable nanostructures. {yields} This technique can be employed to spray the coatings on any kind of substrates including polymers. {yields} The ZnO coatings developed via solution precursor plasma spray process have good electrical conductivity and reflectivity properties in spite of possessing large amount of particulate boundaries, porosity and nanostructured grains. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconducting material that has various applications including optical, electronic, biomedical and corrosion protection. It is usually synthesized via processing routes, such as vapor deposition techniques, sol-gel, spray pyrolysis and thermal spray of pre-synthesized ZnO powders. Cheaper and faster synthesis techniques are of technological importance due to increased demand in alternative energy applications. Here, we report synthesis of nanostructured ZnO coatings directly from a solution precursor in a single step using plasma spray technique. Nanostructured ZnO coatings were deposited from the solution precursor prepared using zinc acetate and water/isopropanol. An axial liquid atomizer was employed in a DC plasma spray torch to create fine droplets of precursor for faster thermal treatment in the plasma plume to form ZnO. Microstructures of coatings revealed ultrafine particulate agglomerates. X-ray diffraction confirmed polycrystalline nature and hexagonal Wurtzite crystal structure of the coatings. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed fine grains in the range of 10-40 nm. Observed optical transmittance ({approx}65-80%) and reflectivity ({approx}65-70%) in the visible spectrum, and electrical resistivity (48.5-50.1 m{Omega} cm) of ZnO coatings are attributed to ultrafine particulate morphology of the coatings.

  3. Molecular metal catalysts on supports: organometallic chemistry meets surface science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Pedro; Gates, Bruce C

    2014-08-19

    Recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of small, essentially molecular metal complexes and metal clusters on support surfaces have brought new insights to catalysis and point the way to systematic catalyst design. We summarize recent work unraveling effects of key design variables of site-isolated catalysts: the metal, metal nuclearity, support, and other ligands on the metals, also considering catalysts with separate, complementary functions on supports. The catalysts were synthesized with the goal of structural simplicity and uniformity to facilitate incisive characterization. Thus, they are essentially molecular species bonded to porous supports chosen for their high degree of uniformity; the supports are crystalline aluminosilicates (zeolites) and MgO. The catalytic species are synthesized in reactions of organometallic precursors with the support surfaces; the precursors include M(L)2(acetylacetonate)1-2, with M = Ru, Rh, Ir, or Au and the ligands L = C2H4, CO, or CH3. Os3(CO)12 and Ir4(CO)12 are used as precursors of supported metal clusters, and some such catalysts are made by ship-in-a-bottle syntheses to trap the clusters in zeolite cages. The simplicity and uniformity of the supported catalysts facilitate precise structure determinations, even in reactive atmospheres and during catalysis. The methods of characterizing catalysts in reactive atmospheres include infrared (IR), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and complementary methods include density functional theory and atomic-resolution aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy for imaging of individual metal atoms. IR, NMR, XANES, and microscopy data demonstrate the high degrees of uniformity of well-prepared supported species. The characterizations determine the compositions of surface metal complexes and clusters, including the ligands and the metal

  4. Luminescence properties of YAG:Nd nano-sized ceramic powders ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Nano-sized ceramic powders with weaker aggregation of Nd3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet. (YAG:Nd3+) were synthesized via co-microemulsion and microwave heating. This method provides a limited small space in a micelle for the formation of nano-sized precursors. It also requires a very short heating time, ...

  5. Deactivation-resistant catalyst for selective catalyst reduction of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NOx in alkali metal containing flue gas using ammonia as reductant, the catalyst comprising a surface with catalytically active sites, wherein the surface is at least partly coated with a coating comprising at least...... one metal oxide. In another aspect the present invention relates to the use of said catalyst and to a method of producing said catalyst. In addition, the present invention relates to a method of treating an catalyst for conferring thereon an improved resistance to alkali poisoning....

  6. Trending analysis of precursor events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio

    1998-01-01

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program of United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC) identifies and categorizes operational events at nuclear power plants in terms of the potential for core damage. The ASP analysis has been performed on yearly basis and the results have been published in the annual reports. This paper describes the trends in initiating events and dominant sequences for 459 precursors identified in the ASP Program during the 1969-94 period and also discusses a comparison with dominant sequences predicted in the past Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) studies. These trends were examined for three time periods, 1969-81, 1984-87 and 1988-94. Although the different models had been used in the ASP analyses for these three periods, the distribution of precursors by dominant sequences show similar trends to each other. For example, the sequences involving loss of both main and auxiliary feedwater were identified in many PWR events and those involving loss of both high and low coolant injection were found in many BWR events. Also, it was found that these dominant sequences were comparable to those determined to be dominant in the predictions by the past PRAs. As well, a list of the 459 precursors identified are provided in Appendix, indicating initiating event types, unavailable systems, dominant sequences, conditional core damage probabilities, and so on. (author)

  7. Synthesis of labelled ecdysone precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, T.; Hetru, C.; Nakatani, Y.; Luu, B.; Meister, M.; Pichat, L.; Audinot, M.

    1985-01-01

    High specific activity tritiated 3β,14α-dihydroxy-5β-cholest-7-en-6-one, has been prepared using a precursor which permits rapid and easy labelling. This compound is converted to ecdysone under in vitro conditions by insect prothoracic glands, a well known site of ecdysone biosynthesis. (author)

  8. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  9. Heterogeneous chromium catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heterogeneous chromium catalyst system for the polymerisation of ethylene and/or alpha olefins prepared by the steps of: (a) providing a silica-containing support, (b) treating the silica-containing support with a chromium compound to form a chromium-based

  10. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  11. Catalysts for Environmental Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, B. L.; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2013-01-01

    The properties of catalysts used in environmental remediation are described here through specific examples in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. In the area of heterogeneous catalysis, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx was used as an example reaction with vanadia and tungsta...

  12. Templating Routes to Supported Oxide Catalysts by Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notestein, Justin M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2016-09-08

    The rational design and understanding of supported oxide catalysts requires at least three advancements, in order of increasing complexity: the ability to quantify the number and nature of active sites in a catalytic material, the ability to place external controls on the number and structure of these active sites, and the ability to assemble these active sites so as to carry out more complex functions in tandem. As part of an individual investigator research program that is integrated with the Northwestern University Institute for Catalysis in Energy Processes (ICEP) as of 2015, significant advances were achieved in these three areas. First, phosphonic acids were utilized in the quantitative assessment of the number of active and geometrically-available sites in MOx-SiO2 catalysts, including nanocrystalline composites, co-condensed materials, and grafted structures, for M=Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta. That work built off progress in understanding supported Fe, Cu, and Co oxide catalysts from chelating and/or multinuclear precursors to maximize surface reactivity. Secondly, significant progress was made in the new area of using thin oxide overcoats containing ‘nanocavities’ from organic templates as a method to control the dispersion and thermal stability of subsequently deposited metal nanoparticles or other catalytic domains. Similar methods were used to control surface reactivity in SiO2-Al2O3 acid catalysts and to control reactant selectivity in Al2O3-TiO2 photocatalysts. Finally, knowledge gained from the first two areas has been combined to synthesize a tandem catalyst for hydrotreating reactions and an orthogonal tandem catalyst system where two subsequent reactions in a reaction network are independently controlled by light and heat. Overall, work carried out under this project significantly advanced the knowledge of synthesis-structure-function relationships in supported

  13. Characterization of deposits formed on catalyst surfaces during hydrotreatment of coal-derived liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1982-04-01

    Loss of catalyst activity is attributed to the formation of polynuclear aromatic structures on the surface. Heavy species containing N and O heteroatoms were also present in deposits. Phenols, aromatic and heterocyclic compounds are considered to be the precursors for the formation of the deposits. (16 refs.)

  14. Nonalloyed carbon-supported PtRu catalysts for PEMFC applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papageorgopoulos, D.C.; De Heer, M.P.; Keijzer, M.; Pieterse, J.A.Z.; de Bruijn, F. A.

    2004-01-01

    PtRu(1:1)/C catalysts were prepared by a process that was claimed previously to lead to non-alloyed Pt and Ru particles, using two different precursors, Ru nitrosyl nitrate and Ru chloride hydrate. Both X-ray diffraction and characterization by cyclic voltammetry point toward Pt and Ru being present

  15. Nonalloyed carbon-supported PtRu catalysts for PEMFC applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papageorgopoulos, D.C.; Heer, de M.P.; Keijzer, M.; Pieterse, J.A.Z.; Bruijn, de F.A.

    2004-01-01

    PtRu(1:1)/C catalysts were prepared by a process that was claimed previously to lead to nonalloyed Pt and Ru particles, using twodifferent precursors, Ru nitrosyl nitrate and Ru chloride hydrate. Both X-ray diffraction and characterization by cyclic voltammetrypoint toward Pt and Ru being present as

  16. Electrocatalytic activity of atomic layer deposited Pt-Ru catalysts onto N-doped carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, A.-C.; Larsen, J.V.; Verheijen, M.A.; Haugshøj, K.B.; Clausen, H.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Christensen, L.H.; Thomsen, E.V.

    2014-01-01

    Pt-Ru catalysts of various compositions, between 0 and 100 at.% of Ru, were deposited onto N-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 250 C. The Pt and Ru precursors were trimethyl(methylcyclopentadienyl)platinum (MeCpPtMe3) and

  17. Microemulsion flame pyrolysis for hopcalite nanoparticle synthesis: a new concept for catalyst preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaskel, Stefan; Biemelt, Tim; Wegner, Karl; Teichert, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    A new route to highly active hopcalite catalysts via flame spray pyrolysis of an inverse microemulsion precursor is reported. The nitrate derived nanoparticles are around 15 nm in diameter and show excellent conversion of CO under ambient conditions, outperforming commercial reference hopcalite materials produced by co-precipitation.

  18. Microemulsion flame pyrolysis for hopcalite nanoparticle synthesis: a new concept for catalyst preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemelt, T; Wegner, K; Teichert, J; Kaskel, S

    2015-04-07

    A new route to highly active hopcalite catalysts via flame spray pyrolysis of an inverse microemulsion precursor is reported. The nitrate derived nanoparticles are around 15 nm in diameter and show excellent conversion of CO under ambient conditions, outperforming commercial reference hopcalite materials produced by co-precipitation.

  19. Impregnation of mesoporous silica for catalyst preparation studied with differential scanning calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggenhuisen, T.M.; van Steenbergen, M.J.; Talsma, H.; de Jongh, P.E.; de Jong, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous impregnation of mesoporous silica as a first step in catalyst preparation was studied to investigate the distribution of the metal-precursor solution over the support. The degree of pore-filling after impregnation was determined using the freezing point depression of confined liquids. A

  20. Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Prepared by Solvent-Deficient Precipitation (SDP: Effects of Washing, Promoter Addition Step, and Drying Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M. Brunner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel, solvent-deficient precipitation (SDP method for catalyst preparation in general and for preparation of iron FT catalysts in particular is reported. Eight catalysts using a 23 factorial design of experiments to identify the key preparation variables were prepared. The catalysts were characterized by electron microprobe, N2 adsorption, TEM, XRD, and ICP. Results show that the morphology of the catalysts, i.e., surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, crystallite sizes, and promoter distribution are significantly influenced by (1 whether or not the precursor catalyst is washed, (2 the promoter addition step, and (3 the drying condition (temperature. Consequently, the activity, selectivity, and stability of the catalysts determined from fixed-bed testing are also affected by these three variables. Unwashed catalysts prepared by a one-step method and dried at 100 °C produced the most active catalysts for FT synthesis. The catalysts of this study prepared by SDP compared favorably in activity, productivity, and stability with Fe FT catalysts reported in the literature. It is believed that this facile SDP approach has promise for development of future FT catalysts, and also offers a potential alternate route for the preparation of other catalysts for various other applications.

  1. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.

    2017-05-09

    Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

  2. Tritium labelling of PACAP-38 using a synthetic diiodinated precursor peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Holst Friborg; Baun, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In the interest of developing efficient methods for tritium labelling peptides, we here demonstrate the successful labelling of PACAP-38 (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide), a 38-mer peptide, using a synthetic diiodinated PACAP-38 precursor. In this example, we employ standard hy...... hydrogenation chemistry with the use of a heterogeneous palladium catalyst and carrier-free tritium gas on a tritium manifold system....

  3. Characterization of VPO ammoxidation catalysts by in situ methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Luecke, B.; Brueckner, A.; Steinike, U. [Institut fuer Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V., Berlin (Germany); Brzezinka, K.W. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Meisel, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie

    1998-12-31

    In-situ methods are well known as powerful tools in studying catalyst formation processes, their solid state properties under working conditions and the interaction with the feed, intermediates and products to reveal reaction mechanisms. This paper gives a short overview on results of intense studies using in-situ techniques to reveal VPO catalyst generation processes, interaction of educts, intermediates and products with VPO catalyst surfaces and mechanistic insights. Catalytic data of the ammoxidation of toluene on different VPOs complete these findings. The precursor-catalyst transformation processes were preferently investigated by in-situ XRD, in-situ Raman and in-situ ESR spectroscopy. The interaction of aromatic molecules and intermediates, resp., and VPO solid surfaces was followed by in-situ ESR and in-situ FTIR spectroscopy. Mechanistic information was mainly obtained using in-situ FTIR spectroscopy and the temporal-analysis-of-products (TAP) technique. Catalytic studies were carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor on pure (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(VO){sub 3}(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}, generated [(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(VO{sub 3})(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}+V{sub x}O{sub y}] catalysts, having different V{sub x}O{sub y} proportions by use of VOHPO{sub 4} x 1/2H{sub 2}O (V/P=1) and recently studied (VO){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} x 7 H{sub 2}O (V/P=1.5) precursors; the well-known (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} was used for comparison. (orig.)

  4. Preparation of supported heterogeneous catalysts by pulse impregnation: Application to Ru[sub 3](CO)[sub 12]/2,2[prime]-bipyridine/SiO[sub 2] catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukka, M.; Pakkanen, T.A. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland))

    1994-07-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce pulse impregnation, a method for preparing supported heterogeneous catalysts by successive impregnation cycles. Pulse impregnation is a method for preparing supported heterogeneous catalysts from the liquid phase. In the pulse-impregnation technique the catalyst surface is grown gradually in consecutive cycles, with each cycle consisting of separate deposition and activation steps. During the deposition step, the catalyst precursor or precursors are deposited onto the support from a suitable solvent. The actual chemically bonded catalyst phase is formed during the activation step (e.g., thermal activation). Pulse impregnation was tested in the separate deposition of 2,2[prime]-bipyridine and Ru[sub 3](CO)[sub 12] onto a silica support, and in the preparation of Ru[sub 3](CO)[sub 12]/2,2[prime]-bipyridine/SiO[sub 2] catalyst, in a column-type reactor system. Macroscopically uniform deposition was achieved with both 2,2[prime]-bipyridine and Ru[sub 3](CO)[sub 12]. Various solvent systems were used to control the amount of solute adsorbed during deposition. In the preparation of the Ru[sub 3](CO)[sub 12]/2,2[prime]-bipyridine/SiO[sub 2] catalyst, the ruthenium content increased nearly linearly with the number of preparation cycles. The effects of the preparation method on the catalyst activity was also tested in 1-hexane hydroformylation. 31 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Catalysts for synthetic liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, L.A.; Turney, T.W.

    1987-12-01

    Fischer-Tropsch catalysts have been designed, characterized and tested for the selective production of hydrocarbons suitable as synthetic liquid transport fuels from synthesis gas (i.e., by the reduction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen). It was found that hydrocarbons in the middle distillate range, or suitable for conversion to that range, could be produced over several of the new catalyst systems. The various catalysts examined included: (1) synthetic cobalt clays, mainly cobalt chlorites; (2) cobalt hydrotalcites; (3) ruthenium metal supported on rare earth oxides of high surface area; and (4) a novel promoted cobalt catalyst. Active and selective catalysts have been obtained, in each category. With the exception of the clays, reproducibility of catalyst performance has been good. Catalysts in groups 2 and 4 have exhibited very high activity, with long lifetimes and easy regeneration.

  6. Nuclear fuel powder transfer device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komono, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A pair of parallel rails are laid between a receiving portion to a molding portion of a nuclear fuel powder transfer device. The rails are disposed to the upper portion of a plurality of parallel support columns at the same height. A powder container is disposed while being tilted in the inside of the vessel main body of a transfer device, and rotational shafts equipped with wheels are secured to right and left external walls. A nuclear powder to be mixed, together with additives, is supplied to the powder container of the transfer device. The transfer device engaged with the rails on the receiving side is transferred toward the molding portion. The wheels are rotated along the rails, and the rotational shafts, the vessel main body and the powder container are rotated. The nuclear powder in the tilted powder container disposed is rotated right and left and up and down by the rotation, and the powder is mixed satisfactory when it reaches the molding portion. (I.N.)

  7. Superconductors by powder metallurgy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickus, M.R.; Wang, J.L.F.

    1976-05-01

    Fabrication methods for Nb 3 Sn type compounds are described. Information is included on the Bell Telephone process, the General Electric tape process, superconductor stability, the bronze process, powder metallurgy multifilamentary tapes and wires, and current assessment of powder metallurgy superconducting wire

  8. Vibration measurements of automobile catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatola, Seppo

    1994-09-01

    Vibration of catalyst cell, which is inside the casing of the catalyst, is difficult to measure with usual measuring instrumentation. When catalyst is in use, there is hot exhaust gas flow though the catalyst cell and temperature of the cell is approximately +900 degree(s)C. Therefore non-contact Laser- Doppler-Vibrometer was used to measure vibration velocity of the catalyst cell. The laser beam was directed towards the cell through pipe which was put through and welded to the casing of the catalyst. The outer end of the pipe was screw down with a tempered class to prevent exhaust gas flow from the pipe. The inner end of the pipe was open and few millimeters away from the measuring point. Catalyst was attached to the engine with two ways, rigidly close to the engine and flexible under the engine. The engine was running in test bench under controlled conditions. Vibration measurements were carried out during constant running speeds of the engine. Vibration signals were captured and analyzed with FFT-analyzer. Vibration of catalyst cell was strongest at running speed of 5000 rpm, from 10 to 20 g (1 g equals 9.81 ms-2), when catalyst was attached rigidly close to the engine. At running speed of 3000 rpm, vibration of catalyst cell was from 2 to 3 g in most cases, when catalyst was attached either rigidly or flexible to the engine. It is estimated that in real life, i.e. when catalyst is attached to car with same engine, vibration of catalyst cell at running speed of 5000 rpm is somewhere between 1 and 10 g. At running speed of 3000 rpm, which may be more often used when driving car (car speed approximately 100 kmh-1), vibration of catalyst cell is probably few g's.

  9. Graphitized Carbon: A Promising Stable Cathode Catalyst Support Material for Long Term PEMFC Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Paritosh Kumar; Regnet, Fabian; Jörissen, Ludwig

    2018-05-28

    Stability of cathode catalyst support material is one of the big challenges of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) for long term applications. Traditional carbon black (CB) supports are not stable enough to prevent oxidation to CO₂ under fuel cell operating conditions. The feasibility of a graphitized carbon (GC) as a cathode catalyst support for low temperature PEMFC is investigated herein. GC and CB supported Pt electrocatalysts were prepared via an already developed polyol process. The physical characterization of the prepared catalysts was performed using transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis, and their electrochemical characterizations were conducted via cyclic voltammetry(CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE) and potential cycling, and eventually, the catalysts were processed using membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for single cell performance tests. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SEM) have been used as MEA diagonostic tools. GC showed superior stability over CB in acid electrolyte under potential conditions. Single cell MEA performance of the GC-supported catalyst is comparable with the CB-supported catalyst. A correlation of MEA performance of the supported catalysts of different Brunauer⁻Emmett⁻Teller (BET) surface areas with the ionomer content was also established. GC was identified as a promising candidate for catalyst support in terms of both of the stability and the performance of fuel cell.

  10. Promising SiC support for Pd catalyst in selective hydrogenation of acetylene to ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhanglong; Liu, Yuefeng; Liu, Yan; Chu, Wei

    2018-06-01

    In this study, SiC supported Pd nanoparticles were found to be an efficient catalyst in acetylene selective hydrogenation reaction. The ethylene selectivity can be about 20% higher than that on Pd/TiO2 catalyst at the same acetylene conversion at 90%. Moreover, Pd/SiC catalyst showed a stable catalytic life at 65 °C with 80% ethylene selectivity. With the detailed characterization using temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2 adsorption/desorption analysis, CO-chemisorption and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), it was found that SiC owns a lower surface area (22.9 m2/g) and a broad distribution of meso-/macro-porosity (from 5 to 65 nm), which enhanced the mass transfer during the chemical process at high reaction rate and decreased the residence time of ethylene on catalyst surface. Importantly, SiC support has the high thermal conductivity, which favored the rapid temperature homogenization through the catalyst bed and inhabited the over-hydrogenation of acetylene. The surface electronic density of Pd on Pd/SiC catalyst was higher than that on Pd/TiO2, which could promote desorption of ethylene from surface of the catalyst. TGA results confirmed a much less coke deposition on Pd/SiC catalyst.

  11. Improved Catalysts for Heavy Oil Upgrading Based on Zeolite Y Nanoparticles Encapsulated Stable Nanoporous Host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

    2007-03-31

    The addition of hydrothermally-aged zeolite Y precursor to an SBA-15 synthesis mixture under a mildly acidic condition resulted in the formation of a mesoporous aluminosilicate catalyst, AlSBA-15. The Al-SBA-15 mesoporous catalyst contains strong Br{umlt o}nsted acid sites and aluminum (Al) stabilized in a totally tetrahedral coordination. The physicochemical characteristics of the catalyst varied as a function of the synthesis conditions. The catalyst possessed surface areas ranging between 690 and 850 m{sup 2}/g, pore sizes ranging from 5.6 to 7.5 nm, and pore volumes up 1.03 cm{sup 3}, which were comparable to the parent SBA-15 synthesized under similar conditions. Two wt % Al was present in the catalyst that was obtained from the reaction mixture that contained the highest Al content. The Al remained stable in totally tetrahedral coordination after calcination at a temperature of 550 C. The Al-SBA-15 mesoporous catalyst showed significant catalytic activity for cumene dealkylation, and the activity increased as the amount of zeolite precursor added to the SBA-15 mixture was increased. In preparation for the final phase of the project, the catalyst was embedded into a psuedoboemite alumina (catapal B) matrix and then formed into pellets. In the final phase of the project, the pelletized catalyst is being evaluated for the conversion of a heavy petroleum feedstock to naphtha and middle distillates. This phase was significantly delayed during the past six months due to a serious malfunction of the fume hoods in the Clark Atlanta University's Research Center for Science and Technology, where the project is being conducted. The fume hood system was repaired and the catalyst evaluation is now underway.

  12. New Ir Bis-Carbonyl Precursor for Water Oxidation Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Daria L. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Beltrán-Suito, Rodrigo [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Thomsen, Julianne M. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Hashmi, Sara M. [Department of Chemical and Environmental; Materna, Kelly L. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Sheehan, Stafford W. [Catalytic Innovations LLC, 70 Crandall; Mercado, Brandon Q. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Brudvig, Gary W. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Crabtree, Robert H. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225

    2016-02-05

    This paper introduces IrI(CO)2(pyalc) (pyalc = (2-pyridyl)-2-propanoate) as an atom-efficient precursor for Ir-based homogeneous oxidation catalysis. This compound was chosen to simplify analysis of the water oxidation catalyst species formed by the previously reported Cp*IrIII(pyalc)OH water oxidation precatalyst. Here, we present a comparative study on the chemical and catalytic properties of these two precursors. Previous studies show that oxidative activation of Cp*Ir-based precursors with NaIO4 results in formation of a blue IrIV species. This activation is concomitant with the loss of the placeholder Cp* ligand which oxidatively degrades to form acetic acid, iodate, and other obligatory byproducts. The activation process requires substantial amounts of primary oxidant, and the degradation products complicate analysis of the resulting IrIV species. The species formed from oxidation of the Ir(CO)2(pyalc) precursor, on the other hand, lacks these degradation products (the CO ligands are easily lost upon oxidation) which allows for more detailed examination of the resulting Ir(pyalc) active species both catalytically and spectroscopically, although complete structural analysis is still elusive. Once Ir(CO)2(pyalc) is activated, the system requires acetic acid or acetate to prevent the formation of nanoparticles. Investigation of the activated bis-carbonyl complex also suggests several Ir(pyalc) isomers may exist in solution. By 1H NMR, activated Ir(CO)2(pyalc) has fewer isomers than activated Cp*Ir complexes, allowing for advanced characterization. Future research in this direction is expected to contribute to a better structural understanding of the active species. A diol crystallization agent was needed for the structure determination of 3.

  13. A novel process for heavy residue hydroconversion using a recoverable pseudo-homogenous catalyst PHC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romocki, S.M.; Rhodey, W.G. [Mobis Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This paper described a pseudo-homogenous catalyst (PHC) designed to refine heavy hydrocarbon residues containing sulfur, nitrogen, metals, and asphaltene impurities known to clog pores and deactivate traditional hydrocrackers. The heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH) process incorporated a single particle, chemically generated PHC uniformly distributed in the feed. Thermal decomposition within the reaction system of a water-in-oil emulsion containing ammonium paramolybdate was used to form molybdenum oxide, which was then sulfided within the feed in order to create an ultra-dispersed suspension of catalytically active molybdenum disulfide particles measuring between 2 and 9 nm. A proprietary online catalyst recovery and regeneration step was used to maintain high catalyst activity. The molybdenum was then recovered from a purge stream and then reintroduced to the catalyst preparation area as a catalyst precursor. After being conditioned, the feed was combined with hydrogen and a water-oil catalyst emulsion and introduced into a furnace. Heavy components were cracked, hydrogenated and converted to lighter products. The high performance catalyst system was able to convert 95 per cent of residues at pressures below 7.3 Mpa and at reaction temperatures ranging between 400 and 460 degrees C. The catalyst was tested at a pilot plant using Athabasca vacuum bottoms. It was concluded that the HRH process is now being successfully used to produce 200 barrels of heavy oil per day. Designs for commercial installations are now being prepared. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Powder compaction characteristics and tube dimensions in PIT fabrication of Ag/BPSCCO superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, M.S.; Syamaprasad, U.; Guruswamy, P.; Warrier, K.G.K.; Damodaran, A.D.; Mukherjee, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    Density variations of the superconductor core during the powder-in-tube (PIT) fabrication of Ag/BPSCCO monolayer tapes have been studied. The PIT procedure involved steps such as filling the tubes with precursor powder, rich in 2212 phase, with packing densities in the range 20-55% of theoretical density, groove rolling, flat rolling and finally a four-stage repeated rolling-annealing cycle. The two types of precursor powders used in this study were prepared by a conventional ceramic route and an amorphous acrylate route (AR). The core density was found to saturate after a few passes of just groove rolling for both powders. However, better compaction was achieved by rolling for the AR powder which also exhibited a better uniaxial compaction response. A further increase in core density was observed only during the final annealing step. Based on the experimentally observed constancy of core density through most of the mechanical working steps, a relation connecting silver sheath thickness, total thickness and cross-section ratio at saturation of compaction has been worked out. Apart from explaining the influence of starting packing density and compaction response of powder in determining the sheath thickness of the final tapes, the relationship was found to be useful in choosing the starting packing density appropriate to the silver tube dimensions and prevailing rolling conditions. (author)

  15. Light extinction in metallic powder beds: Correlation with powder structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rombouts, M.; Froyen, L.; Gusarov, A.V.; Bentefour, E.H.; Glorieux, C.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical correlation between the effective extinction coefficient, the specific surface area, and the chord length distribution of powder beds is verified experimentally. The investigated powder beds consist of metallic particles of several tens of microns. The effective extinction coefficients are measured by a light-transmission technique at a wavelength of 540 nm. The powder structure is characterized by a quantitative image analysis of powder bed cross sections resulting in two-point correlation functions and chord length distributions. The specific surface area of the powders is estimated by laser-diffraction particle-size analysis and by the two-point correlation function. The theoretically predicted tendency of increasing extinction coefficient with specific surface area per unit void volume is confirmed by the experiments. However, a significant quantitative discrepancy is found for several powders. No clear correlation of the extinction coefficient with the powder material and particle size, and morphology is revealed, which is in line with the assumption of geometrical optics

  16. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages.

  17. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  18. Precursor incident program at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourest, B.; Maliverney, B.; Rozenholc, M.; Piovesan, C.

    1998-01-01

    The precursor program was started by EDF in 1994, after an investigation of the US NRC's Accident Sequence Precursor Program. Since then, reported operational events identified as Safety Outstanding Events have been analyzed whenever possible using probabilistic methods based on PSAs. Analysis provides an estimate of the remaining protection against core damage at the time the incident occurred. Measuring the incidents' severity enables to detect incidents important regarding safety. Moreover, the most efficient feedback actions can be derived from the main accident sequences identified through the analysis. Therefore, incident probabilistic analysis provides a way to assess priorities in terms of treatment and resource allocation, and so, to implement countermeasures preventing further occurrence and development of the most significant incidents. As some incidents cannot be analyzed using this method, probabilistic analysis can only be one among the methods used to assess the nuclear power plants' safety level. Nevertheless, it provides an interesting complement to classical methods of deterministic studies. (author)

  19. Single step synthesis of GdAlO3 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Amit; Nair, S.R.; Sinha, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → First report on direct formation of GdAlO 3 powder using a novel combustion process. → Study of combustion characteristics of Gd(NO 3 ) 3 and Al(NO 3 ) 3 towards three fuels. → Preparation of highly sinterable GdAlO 3 powders through fuel-mixture approach. → Significant reduction in energy consumption for production of GdAlO 3 sintered body. - Abstract: A novel method for preparation of nano-crystalline gadolinium aluminate (GdAlO 3 ) powder, based on combustion synthesis, is reported. It was observed that aluminium nitrate and gadolinium nitrate exhibit different combustion characteristics with respect to urea, glycine and β-alanine. While urea was proven to be a suitable fuel for direct formation of crystalline α-Al 2 O 3 from its nitrate, glycine and β-alanine are suitable fuels for gadolinium nitrate for preparation of its oxide after combustion reaction. Based on the observed chemical characteristics of gadolinium and aluminium nitrates with respect to above mentioned fuels for the combustion reaction, the fuel mixture composition could be predicted that could lead to phase pure perovskite GdAlO 3 directly after the combustion reaction without any subsequent calcination step. The use of single fuel, on the other hand, leads to formation of amorphous precursor powders that call for subsequent calcination for the formation of crystalline GdAlO 3 . The powders produced directly after combustion reactions using fuel mixtures were found to be highly sinterable. The sintering of the powders at 1550 o C for 4 h resulted in GdAlO 3 with sintered density of more than 95%. T.D.

  20. Preparation of lanthanum ferrite powder at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoulsi, R.; Horchani-Naifer, K.; Ferid, M., E-mail: karima_horchani@yahoo.com [Physical Chemistry Laboratory of Mineral Materials and their Applications, Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2012-01-15

    Single lanthanum ferrite phase was successfully prepared at low processing temperature using the polymerizable complex method. To implement this work, several techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and BET surface area measurements were used. Throw the obtained results, it was shown that steps of preparing the powder precursor and temperature of its calcination are critical parameters for avoiding phase segregation and obtaining pure lanthanum ferrite compound. Thus, a single perovskite phase was obtained at 600 deg C. At this temperature, the powder was found to be fine and homogeneous with an average crystallite size of 13 nm and a specific surface area of 12.5 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}. (author)

  1. Particle and powder characterisation of Bi-based superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, M.; Guo, Y. C.; Liu, H. L.; Dou, S. X.; Vance, E. R.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Superconductor precursor powder was ground in a planetary and an attrition mill using various combinations of grinding container, balls and carrier (dry and wet). Dry milling was found to be more effective than wet milling for reducing particle size irrespective of container and ball materials used in the planetary milling. On the other hand, wet milling was found more effective in the attrition milling. Serious Si contamination was observed in powders milled using agate grinding materials. Some C from polypropylene container was found after milling, but no Zr from YSZ balls. Effect of particle size on the property of Bi 2223/Ag tapes was investigated in terms of critical current density (J c ). Fine particle size was found to show high J c

  2. A Catalyst for Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    This case study of a team in an international workplace investigates processes of language socialization in a transient multilingual setting. Using interview and observational data, the analysis shows how social and linguistic norms are negotiated, with the newcomer positioned as a catalyst...... for changing language practices toward more English, with the ultimate aim of creating a 'global mindset' in the organization. Language socialization in a transient multilingual setting is shown to focus on and assign positive value to new linguistic norms that experienced members are socialized...... into in a process that hinges on new members functioning as tools for management to bring about the desired change. The article shows that while the newcomer is used as a catalyst for increased use of English and for the creation of a 'global mindset,' she is at the same time socialized into the existing Danish...

  3. Photo catalyst; Ko shokubai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    While titanium oxide is excited by the light, electrons of titanium oxide are taken away by the light energy to form positive holes. Water will be decomposed into hydrogen ion and hydroxy radical (OH) by these positive holes. This hydroxy radical is a strong reactive substance called active oxygen, it decomposes organisms. Besides this photo- catalyst function, the titanium oxide can also make surface of a substance superhydrophilic. The super hydrophilicity results in not forming water drops on the glass surface but spreading all over the surface to prevent a covering of fog on the glass surface. The published patents concerning the photo catalysts were 593 from Jan. 1998 to Jan. 1999. The applicant order is the first TOTO 143, the second Daikin Industry 19, the third Toshiba Raitech, Nitto Denko, Hitachi 17 respectively. (NEDO)

  4. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongkanand, Anusorn [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Reduction of costly Pt usage in proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes is one of the major challenges towards development and commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. Although few have met the initial-kinetic activity requirements in a realistic fuel cell device, no catalyst material has ever met the demanding fuel cell durability targets set by DOE. In this project, a team of 4 universities and 2 companies came together to investigate a concept that appeared promising in preliminary non-fuel cell tests then to further develop the catalyst to a mature level ready for vehicle implementation. The team consists of academia with technical leadership in their respective areas, a catalyst supplier, and a fuel cell system integrator.The tightly collaborative project enabled development of a highly active and durable catalyst with performance that significantly exceeds that of previous catalysts and meets the DOE targets for the first time (Figure 1A). The catalyst was then further evaluated in full-active-area stack in a realistic vehicle operating condition (Figure 1B). This is the first public demonstration that one can realize the performance benefit and Pt cost reduction over a conventional pure Pt catalyst in a long-term realistic PEMFC system. Furthermore, systematic analyses of a range of catalysts with different performance after fuel cell testing allowed for correlation between catalyst microstructure and its electrocatalytic activity and durability. This will in turn aid future catalyst development.

  5. Studies on the sintering behaviour of uranium dioxide powder compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.; Chowdhury, R.

    1988-01-01

    Uranium dioxide fuel pellets are normally made from their precursor ammonium diuranate, followed by calcination, subsequent reduction to sinterable grade powders and a post operation treatment of pressing and sintering. The low temperature calcined powders, usually exhibiting non-crystalline behaviour (under X-ray diffraction studies) progressively transforms into a crystalline variety on subsequent heat treatment at higher temperature. It is observed however that powders calcined between 800 to 900 0 C exhibit enhanced densification behaviour when sintered at higher temperatures. The isothermal shrinkage versus time plot of the sintered compacts are well described by a hyperbolic relationship which takes care of the observed shrinkage (λ) as caused due to a cumulative effect from the initial sintering of the powder compacts at zero time (α) and that caused due to the structural transformation from a non-crystalline modification with increased thermal treatment (β). The derived equation is a modification of the sintering mechanism of the viscous flow type proposed by Frenkel, involving sintering of an amorphous phase, the viscosity of the latter is presumed to increase with increasing thermal treatment to assume the final modified form as λ=t/(α+βt), where t = time, λ = shrinkage and α and β are the unknown parameters. (orig.)

  6. Synthesis and characterization of bulk and coatings of hydroxyapatite using methanol precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khongwar, Jasper K.; Kannan, K.R.; Buvaneswari, G.

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite, an important bioceramic was synthesized in the bulk form and developed as a coating by a sol-gel route using alcoholic precursor. The bioactive coating was developed on bio-inert α-alumina and yttria stabilized zirconia substrates. The apatite phase began to form after the heat treatment of the precursor at 500 deg. C for 10 min. The complete crystallization of the apatite was obtained at 800 deg. C heat treatment for 10 min. The phase composition of the bulk and the coatings was identified by FT-IR spectroscopic and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Surface morphology was determined by scanning electron microscopy. The study indicates different surface textures for the powder and for the coatings on α-alumina and yttria stabilized zirconia substrates

  7. Microencapsulation of silicon nitride particles with yttria and yttria-alumina precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.K.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    Procedures are described to deposit uniform layers of yttria and yttria-alumina precursors on fine powders and whiskers of silicon nitride. The coatings were produced by aging at elevated temperatures aqueous systems containing the silicon nitride core particles, yttrium and aluminum nitrates, and urea. Optimum concentrations of the core particles, in relation to the reactants, were established to promote surface deposition of the oxide precursors. Polymeric dispersants were used effectively to prevent agglomeration of the solids during the microencapsulation process. The morphology of the powders was characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanisms for the formation of the coated layers are discussed. A description is provided that allows qualitative assessment of the experimental factors that determine microencapsulation by a slurry method

  8. Magnetic response of superconducting mesoscopic-size YBCO powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deimling, C.V. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: cesard@df.ufscar.br; Motta, M.; Lisboa-Filho, P.N. [Laboratorio de Materiais Supercondutores, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Bauru, SP Brazil (Brazil); Ortiz, W.A. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    In this work it is reported the magnetic behavior of submicron and mesoscopic-size superconducting YBCO powders, prepared by a modified polymeric precursors method. The grain size and microstructure were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Measurements of magnetization and AC-susceptibility as a function of temperature were performed with a quantum design SQUID magnetometer. Our results indicated significant differences on the magnetic propreties, in connection with the calcination temperature and the pressure used to pelletize the samples. This contribution is part of an effort to study vortex dynamics and magnetic properties of submicron and mesoscopic-size superconducting samples.

  9. Application of laser in powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolochko, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    Modern status of works in the field of laser application in powder metallurgy (powders preparation, sintering, coatings formation, powder materials processing) is considered. The attention is paid to the new promising direction in powder products shape-formation technology - laser layer-by-layer selective powders sintering and bulk sintering of packaged layered profiles produced by laser cutting of powder-based sheet blanks. 67 refs

  10. Black powder in gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherik, Abdelmounam [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite its common occurrence in the gas industry, black powder is a problem that is not well understood across the industry, in terms of its chemical and physical properties, source, formation, prevention or management of its impacts. In order to prevent or effectively manage the impacts of black powder, it is essential to have knowledge of its chemical and physical properties, formation mechanisms and sources. The present paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this paper is a synopsis of published literature. The second part reviews the recent laboratory and field work conducted at Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center to determine the compositions, properties, sources and formation mechanisms of black powder in gas transmission systems. Microhardness, nano-indentation, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to analyze a large number of black powder samples collected from the field. Our findings showed that black powder is generated inside pipelines due to internal corrosion and that the composition of black powder is dependent on the composition of transported gas. The final part presents a summary and brief discussion of various black powder management methods. (author)

  11. (TECTONA GRANDIS LEAF POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption potential of Teak (Tectona grandis leaf powder (TLP toremove Methylene blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG dye molecules from aqueoussolution was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influenceof operational parameters such as, pH (2−9, adsorbent dosage (1−7 g/L, contact time(15−150 minutes and initial dye concentration (20−120 mg/L at stirring speed of 150rpm for the adsorption of MB and MG on TLP. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.4%and 95.1% was achieved for MB and MG dye, respectively. The experimentalequilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isothermmodels and it was found that, it fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Thesurface structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized using scanningelectron microscopy (SEM and the presence of functional groups and its interactionwith the dye molecules were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR. Based on the investigation, it has been demonstrated that the teak leaf powderhas good potential for effective adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dye.

  12. Synthesis of poly(dimethylsilylene-co-diphenylsilylene) polymers as precursors for SiC ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnell-Watson, S.M.; Emsley, R.J.P.; Morris, M.J.; Sharp, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    Silicon carbide ceramics, especially fibres, are being fabricated via polymeric precursors. Although such fibres are commercially available, there is a demand for improved performance particularly at elevated temperatures. A range of copolymers has been synthesized from the monomers, dimethyldichlorosilane and diphenyldichlorosilane, by a Wurtz reaction involving dechlorination using sodium metal in xylene. The products of reaction were characterised by a range of techniques, including gel permeation chromatography (GPC), infra-red spectroscopy (IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry (TG). (orig.)

  13. Low pressure powder injection moulding of stainless steel powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampieron, J.V.; Soares, J.P.; Mathias, F.; Rossi, J.L. [Powder Processing Center CCP, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Filho, F.A. [IPEN, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Cidade Univ., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Low-pressure powder injection moulding was used to obtain AISI 316L stainless steel parts. A rheological study was undertaken using gas-atomised powders and binders. The binders used were based on carnauba wax, paraffin, low density polyethylene and microcrystalline wax. The metal powders were characterised in terms of morphology, particle size distribution and specific surface area. These results were correlated to the rheological behaviour. The mixture was injected in the shape of square bar specimens to evaluate the performance of the injection process in the green state, and after sintering. The parameters such as injection pressure, viscosity and temperature were analysed for process optimisation. The binders were thermally removed in low vacuum with the assistance of alumina powders. Debinding and sintering were performed in a single step. This procedure shortened considerably the debinding and sintering time. (orig.)

  14. Development of CuxFe/Al2O3 catalysts for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide guided by magnetic methods, Moessbauer and infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boellaard, E.; Geus, J.W.; Bruggen, J.M. van; Kraan, A.M. van der

    1993-01-01

    A copper-iron catalyst for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide has been prepared using a supported stoichiometric cyanide complex. Conversion of the cyanide precursor to a metallic catalyst appeared to be a precious process. Copper and iron in the bimetallic particles easily separate by thermal treatment and upon exposure to carbon monoxide, as revealed from Moessbauer and infrared spectroscopy. During Fischer-Tropsch reaction the catalyst exhibits a rapid decline of activity. Magnetisation measurements on spent catalysts indicate that the deactivation is caused by a fast conversion of metallic iron to initially unstable carbides which transform ultimately to more stable carbides. (orig.)

  15. Shock compaction of molybdenum powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

    1983-01-01

    Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

  16. Non-PGM cell catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon-Mercado, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Elvington, M. [Savannah River Consulting, Aiken, SC (United States); Ganesan, P. [Savannah River Consulting, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2017-09-27

    A unique approach has been developed to probe the non-PGM catalyst active site for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) for PEMFCs. Iron based functionalities have been engineered into a variety of catalysts to evaluate their impact on activity for the ORR. A series of high surface area catalysts were synthesized and the impact of the chemical structure on the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties was investigated. Elemental and surface analyses of the prepared catalysts reveal the incorporation of iron in a targeted and controlled manner. A high surface area framework catalyst was prepared that shows exceptional activity, comparable to state-of-the-art materials. The results of this research project provided critical seed data for the newly awarded ElectroCat project, which focuses on rationally designed framework catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction.

  17. Structure of alumina supported vanadia catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane prepared by flame spray pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høj, Martin; Jensen, Anker Degn; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2013-01-01

    .%. The catalysts were subsequently characterized by BET surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, UV–vis diffuse reflectance and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as well as measurement of the catalytic performance. The catalysts had specific surface areas from 143 to 169 m2/g corresponding to average......A series of five vanadia on alumina catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane to propene were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) using vanadium(III)acetylacetonate and aluminium(III)acetylacetonate dissolved in toluene as precursors. The vanadium loading was 2, 3, 5, 7.5 and 10wt...... X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy showed that the vanadia can be reduced when operating at low oxygen concentrations. The catalyst performance was determined in fixed bed reactors with an inlet gas composition of C3H8/O2/N2=5/25/70. The main products were propene, CO and CO2...

  18. Nitrogen-doped carbon-supported cobalt-iron oxygen reduction catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenay, Piotr; Wu, Gang

    2014-04-29

    A Fe--Co hybrid catalyst for oxygen reaction reduction was prepared by a two part process. The first part involves reacting an ethyleneamine with a cobalt-containing precursor to form a cobalt-containing complex, combining the cobalt-containing complex with an electroconductive carbon supporting material, heating the cobalt-containing complex and carbon supporting material under conditions suitable to convert the cobalt-containing complex and carbon supporting material into a cobalt-containing catalyst support. The second part of the process involves polymerizing an aniline in the presence of said cobalt-containing catalyst support and an iron-containing compound under conditions suitable to form a supported, cobalt-containing, iron-bound polyaniline species, and subjecting said supported, cobalt-containing, iron bound polyaniline species to conditions suitable for producing a Fe--Co hybrid catalyst.

  19. Study on the poisoning effect-of non-vanadium catalysts by potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanmu; Liu, Ying; Yu, Xiaowei; Lin, Yasi

    2018-02-01

    The poisoning effect of catalyst by alkali metals is one of the problems in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH3. Serious deactivation by alkali poisoning have been proved to take place in the commercial vanadium catalyst. Recently, non-vanadium catalysts such as copper oxides, manganese oxides, chromium oxides and cerium oxides have attracted special attentions in SCR application. However, their tolerance in the presence of alkali metals is still doubtful. In this paper, copper oxides, manganese oxides, chromium oxides and cerium oxides supported on TiO2 nanoparticle was prepared by impregnating method. Potassium nitrate was chosen as the precursor of poisoner. Catalytic activities of these catalysts were evaluated before and after the addition of potassium. Some characterization methods including X-ray diffraction and temperature programmed desorption was utilized to reveal the main reason of alkali deactivation.

  20. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P [Maplewood, MN; Schmoeckel, Alison K [Stillwater, MN; Vernstrom, George D [Cottage Grove, MN; Atanasoski, Radoslav [Edina, MN; Wood, Thomas E [Stillwater, MN; Yang, Ruizhi [Halifax, CA; Easton, E Bradley [Halifax, CA; Dahn, Jeffrey R [Hubley, CA; O'Neill, David G [Lake Elmo, MN

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  1. Catalyst systems and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Umit S [Worthington, OH; Holmgreen, Erik M [Columbus, OH; Yung, Matthew M [Columbus, OH

    2012-07-24

    A method of carbon monoxide (CO) removal comprises providing an oxidation catalyst comprising cobalt supported on an inorganic oxide. The method further comprises feeding a gaseous stream comprising CO, and oxygen (O.sub.2) to the catalyst system, and removing CO from the gaseous stream by oxidizing the CO to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) in the presence of the oxidation catalyst at a temperature between about 20 to about 200.degree. C.

  2. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benavides, Pahola T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cronauer, Donald C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of five different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5], Mo/Co/ γ-Al2O3, and Pt/ γ-Al2O3) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module.

  3. Combined wet-chemical process to synthesize 65PMN-35PT nanosized powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Luis P.S.; Longo, Elson; Leite, Edson R.; Camargo, Emerson R.

    2004-01-01

    Columbite MgNb 2 O 6 precursors were synthesized by a wet-chemical method by means of the dissolution of Nb 2 O 5 .5H 2 O and magnesium carbonate in a solution of oxalic acid. Pure 65PMN-35PT powders could be obtained by the columbite method with the use of the partial oxalate and oxidant peroxo methods. Powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and FT-Raman spectroscopy showing that pure 65PMN-35PT are obtained when the powders are calcined up to 800 deg. C, without any trace of Pb-Nb pyrochlore. Cubic Pb 1,86 Mg 0.24 Nb 1.76 O 6.5 pyrochlore phase is formed by lead loss in the powders calcined at 900 deg. C and higher temperatures as undoubtedly characterized by Raman spectroscopy

  4. Synthesis characterization and sintering of cobalt-doped lanthanum chromite powders for use in SOFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, Chieko; Mello-Castanho, Sonia R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Doped lanthanum chromite is a promising as interconnect material because of its good conductivity at high temperatures and its stability in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. Perovskite oxide powders of Co-doped lanthanum chromite were synthesized by dispersing precursor metal salt solutions in a polymer matrix followed by a thermal treatment. XRD patterns showed that a highly crystalline cobalt-doped lanthanum chromite was obtained. Fine perovskite powder with a surface area of 6.15 m 2 g -1 calcined at 700 deg C for 1 h, were obtained. After the sample sintered at 1450 deg C for 3h, the powder reached high densities exceeding 97% of the theoretical density. The proposed here has proved to be a very promising technique for the synthesis of lanthanum chromite powders. (author)

  5. Monodisperse Platinum and Rhodium Nanoparticles as Model Heterogeneous Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grass, Michael Edward [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Model heterogeneous catalysts have been synthesized and studied to better understand how the surface structure of noble metal nanoparticles affects catalytic performance. In this project, monodisperse rhodium and platinum nanoparticles of controlled size and shape have been synthesized by solution phase polyol reduction, stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Model catalysts have been developed using these nanoparticles by two methods: synthesis of mesoporous silica (SBA-15) in the presence of nanoparticles (nanoparticle encapsulation, NE) to form a composite of metal nanoparticles supported on SBA-15 and by deposition of the particles onto a silicon wafer using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayer deposition. The particle shapes were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM) and the sizes were determined by TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and in the case of NE samples, room temperature H2 and CO adsorption isotherms. Catalytic studies were carried out in homebuilt gas-phase reactors. For the nanoparticles supported on SBA-15, the catalysts are in powder form and were studied using the homebuilt systems as plug-flow reactors. In the case of nanoparticles deposited on silicon wafers, the same systems were operated as batch reactors. This dissertation has focused on the synthesis, characterization, and reaction studies of model noble metal heterogeneous catalysts. Careful control of particle size and shape has been accomplished though solution phase synthesis of Pt and Rh nanoparticles in order to elucidate further structure-reactivity relationships in noble metal catalysis.

  6. Current Progress in Solution Precursor Plasma Spraying of Cermets: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romnick Unabia

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic and metal composites, known also as cermets, may considerably improve many material properties with regards to that of initial components. Hence, cermets are frequently applied in many technological fields. Among many processes which can be employed for cermet manufacturing, thermal spraying is one of the most frequently used. Conventional plasma spraying of powders is a popular and cost-effective manufacturing process. One of its most recent innovations, called solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS, is an emerging coating deposition method which uses homogeneously mixed solution precursors as a feedstock. The technique enables a single-step deposition avoiding the powder preparation procedures. The nanostructured coatings developed by SPPS increasingly find a place in the field of surface engineering. The present review shows the recent progress in the fabrication of cermets using SPPS. The influence of starting solution precursors, such as their chemistry, concentration, and solvents used, to the micro-structural characteristics of cermet coatings is discussed. The effect of the operational plasma spray process parameters such as solution injection mode to the deposition process and coatings’ microstructure is also presented. Moreover, the advantages of the SPPS process and its drawbacks compared to the conventional powder plasma spraying process are discussed. Finally, some applications of SPPS cermet coatings are presented to understand the potential of the process.

  7. Antisolvent-assisted powder engineering for controlled growth of hybrid CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chan Choi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We develop antisolvent-assisted powder engineering for the controlled growth of hybrid inorganic-organic CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3 perovskite thin films. The powders, which are used as the precursors for solution processing, are synthesized by pouring a MAPbI3 precursor solution into various antisolvents, such as dichloromethane, chloroform, diethyl ether, and toluene. Two types of powders having different colors are obtained, depending on the antisolvent used. The choice of the antisolvent used for synthesizing the powders strongly influences not only the phases of the powders but also the morphology and structure of the thin films subsequently fabricated by solution processing. This, in turn, affects the photovoltaic performance.

  8. Kinetics of phase transformation and optical property of pink coral zirconia powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Wang, Cheng-Li; Hwang, Weng-Sing; Lee, Kuen-Chan; Zhou, Xuedong; Wang, Moo-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The single phase of tetragonal ZrO 2 formed when calcined at 1223 K for 1 h. • The tetragonal ZrO 2 fully converted to ZrSiO 4 when calcined at 1323–1473 K for 1 h. • The activation energy of t-ZrO 2 formed is 399.9 kJ/mol when 5 mol% Fe 2 O 3 added. • The activation energy of the Fe/ZrSiO 4 formed is 257.7 kJ/mol when 5 mol% Fe 2 O 3 added. • The growth morphology parameter and crystallization index are about 2.0 and 1.0. - Abstract: The kinetics of phase transformation and optical property of pink coral zircon powders have been studied. The ZrO 2 –SiO 2 –Fe 2 O 3 precursor powders were synthesized using Zr(NO 3 ) 4 ⋅4H 2 O, Si(C 2 H 5 O) 4 and Fe(NO 3 ) 3 ⋅9H 2 O as initial materials via the hot–wet routes. The kinetics of phase transformation of the ZrO 2 –SiO 2 –Fe 2 O 3 precursor powders was characterized by thermo-gravimetric (TG)/differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nano-beam electron diffraction (NBED), and spectrophotometry. The crystallization temperatures of tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO 2 ) and zircon (ZrSiO 4 ) of ZrO 2 –SiO 2 precursor powders with 1 mol% Fe 2 O 3 were estimated to be approximately 1204 K and 1496 K, respectively, based on a DSC analysis conducted at a heating rate of 20 K/min. The activation energies of t-ZrO 2 formulation are 428.2, 403.2, and 399.9 kJ/mol, respectively, for ZrO 2 –SiO 2 precursor powders containing 1, 3, and 5 mol% Fe 2 O 3 , respectively, whereas the activation energies of the Fe/ZrSiO 4 formulation are 271.9, 261.9, and 257.7 kJ/mol, respectively. The parameter of growth morphology (n) and index of crystallization (m) were approximated as 2.0 and 1.0, respectively, meaning that two-dimensional growth with plate-like morphology was the primary mechanism of ZrO 2 crystallization from ZrO 2 –SiO 2 –Fe 2 O 3 precursor powders. The XRD results show that when the precursor powders of ZrO 2 –SiO 2 –1 mol

  9. Reuse of Hydrotreating Spent Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, A.M.; Menoufy, M.F.; Amhed, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    All hydro treating catalysts used in petroleum refining processes gradually lose activity through coking, poisoning by metal, sulfur or halides or lose surface area from sintering at high process temperatures. Waste hydrotreating catalyst, which have been used in re-refining of waste lube oil at Alexandria Petroleum Company (after 5 years lifetime) compared with the same fresh catalyst were used in the present work. Studies are conducted on partial extraction of the active metals of spent catalyst (Mo and Ni) using three leaching solvents,4% oxidized oxalic acid, 10% aqueous sodium hydroxide and 10% citric acid. The leaching experiments are conducting on the de coked extrude [un crushed] spent catalyst samples. These steps are carried out in order to rejuvenate the spent catalyst to be reused in other reactions. The results indicated that 4% oxidized oxalic acid leaching solution gave total metal removal 45.6 for de coked catalyst samples while NaOH gave 35% and citric acid gave 31.9 % The oxidized leaching agent was the most efficient leaching solvent to facilitate the metal removal, and the rejuvenated catalyst was characterized by the unchanged crystalline phase The rejuvenated catalyst was applied for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of vacuum gas oil as a feedstock, under different hydrogen pressure 20-80 bar in order to compare its HDS activity

  10. Role of Precursor-Conversion Chemistry in the Crystal-Phase Control of Catalytically Grown Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fudong; Buhro, William E

    2017-12-26

    Crystal-phase control is one of the most challenging problems in nanowire growth. We demonstrate that, in the solution-phase catalyzed growth of colloidal cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum wires (QWs), the crystal phase can be controlled by manipulating the reaction chemistry of the Cd precursors and tri-n-octylphosphine telluride (TOPTe) to favor the production of either a CdTe solute or Te, which consequently determines the composition and (liquid or solid) state of the Bi x Cd y Te z catalyst nanoparticles. Growth of single-phase (e.g., wurtzite) QWs is achieved only from solid catalysts (y ≪ z) that enable the solution-solid-solid growth of the QWs, whereas the liquid catalysts (y ≈ z) fulfill the solution-liquid-solid growth of the polytypic QWs. Factors that affect the precursor-conversion chemistry are systematically accounted for, which are correlated with a kinetic study of the composition and state of the catalyst nanoparticles to understand the mechanism. This work reveals the role of the precursor-reaction chemistry in the crystal-phase control of catalytically grown colloidal QWs, opening the possibility of growing phase-pure QWs of other compositions.

  11. Catalytic cracking of iso-hexene over sapo-34 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Z.; Shu, Q.

    2009-01-01

    The catalytic cracking of model feed compound, iso-hexene (2-methyl-1-pentene) was experimentally studied over 100% pure SAPO-34 zeolite catalyst. The critical focus was given to obtain maximum propylene selectivity. The product distributions were analyzed at temperature between 450-600 degree C. time-on-stream (TOS) from 1 to 5 min. and at WHSV = 7.9 h/sub -1/ The reaction behavior was quantified on both direct and indirect carbenium ion mechanisms owing to catalyst's small pore diameter with respect to 2-methyl-l-pentene kinetic diameter. The propylene yield and selectivity obtained was 41.2% and 43.1% respectively. with higher overall olefins selectivity 90.3%. The small pore size and week surface acid sites of 1000 percent pure SAPO-34 catalyst were found to be suitable for light olefins production and eliminate chances of bimolecular reactions. It was observed that both conversion and selectivity were strongly effected by TOS, as coke precursors become dominant and deactivate catalyst at higher TOS. (author)

  12. High Throughput In Situ XAFS Screening of Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapatsaris, Nikolaos; Beesley, Angela M.; Weiher, Norbert; Tatton, Helen; Schroeder, Sven L. M.; Dent, Andy J.; Mosselmans, Frederick J. W.; Tromp, Moniek; Russu, Sergio; Evans, John; Harvey, Ian; Hayama, Shu

    2007-01-01

    We outline and demonstrate the feasibility of high-throughput (HT) in situ XAFS for synchrotron radiation studies. An XAS data acquisition and control system for the analysis of dynamic materials libraries under control of temperature and gaseous environments has been developed. The system is compatible with the 96-well industry standard and coupled to multi-stream quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) analysis of reactor effluents. An automated analytical workflow generates data quickly compared to traditional individual spectrum acquisition and analyses them in quasi-real time using an HT data analysis tool based on IFFEFIT. The system was used for the automated characterization of a library of 91 catalyst precursors containing ternary combinations of Cu, Pt, and Au on γ-Al2O3, and for the in situ characterization of Au catalysts supported on Al2O3 and TiO2

  13. Ultrasonic wave propagation in powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lashi, R. S.; Povey, M. J. W.; Watson, N. J.

    2018-05-01

    Powder clumps (cakes) has a significant effect on the flowability and stability of powders. Powder caking is mainly caused by moisture migration due to wetting and environmental (temperature and humidity) changes. The process of moisture migration caking involves creating liquid bridges between the particles during condensation which subsequently harden to form solid bridges. Therefore, an effective and reliable technique is required to quantitatively and non-invasively monitor caking kinetics and effective stiffness. This paper describes two ultrasonic instruments (ultrasonic velocity pulse and airborne ultrasound systems) that have been used to monitor the caking phenomenon. Also, it discusses the relationship between the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements and tracking caking kinetics and the effective stiffness of powders.

  14. Neutron Powder Diffraction in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellgren, R.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction in Sweden has developed around the research reactor R2 in Studsvik. The article describes this facility and presents a historical review of research results obtained. It also gives some ideas of plans for future development

  15. Powder metallurgy - some economic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    As a forming process powder metallurgy offers reductions in material and energy consumption. The engineering prerequisites and economics are discussed in relation to several industrial applications including automobile parts. 14 refs.

  16. Powder metallurgy of refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports on the powder metallurgical methods for the production of high-melting materials, such as pure metals and their alloys, compound materials with a tungsten base and hard metals from liquid phase sintered carbides. (author)

  17. Combined sol–gel and carbothermal synthesis of ZrC–TiC powders for composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umalas, Madis [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014, Tartu (Estonia); Estonian Nanotechnology Competence Centre, Riia 142, 51014, Tartu (Estonia); Hussainova, Irina, E-mail: irina.hussainova@ttu.ee [Department of Materials Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate 5, 19086, Tallinn (Estonia); ITMO University, Kronverksky 49, St. Petersburg, 197101 (Russian Federation); Reedo, Valter [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014, Tartu (Estonia); Young, Der-Liang [Department of Materials Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate 5, 19086, Tallinn (Estonia); Cura, Erkin; Hannula, Simo-Pekka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, POB 16200, Aalto, 00076 (Finland); Lõhmus, Rünno [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014, Tartu (Estonia); Estonian Nanotechnology Competence Centre, Riia 142, 51014, Tartu (Estonia); Lõhmus, Ants [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014, Tartu (Estonia)

    2015-03-01

    The TiC–ZrC binary compound of nanostructured powders was synthesised by combination of sol–gel and carbothermal reduction. The polymeric precursor of the blend was produced by sol–gel process from titanium tetrabutoxide, zirconium tetrabutoxide and benzene-1.4-diol; then carbothermally reduced to the TiC–ZrC blend at 1600 °C in an inert environment. The chemical reactions occurring in the system were monitored by infrared spectrometry. Stable alkoxide solution was obtained by adding acetylacetone to avoid premature gelation of the metal alkoxide mixture. A solid solution of ZrTiC{sub 2} was produced by spark plasma sintering at temperature of 2000 °C. - Highlights: • A polymeric precursor of TiC–ZrC blend was synthesised by sol–gel process. • The polymeric precursor synthesis was studied by infrared spectroscopy. • TiC–ZrC powder blend was carbothermally reduced from polymeric precursor. • TiC–ZrC powder blend was sintered to ZrTiC{sub 2} solid solution by spark plasma sintering. • Sintered ZrTiC{sub 2} have good mechanical properties.

  18. Combined sol–gel and carbothermal synthesis of ZrC–TiC powders for composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umalas, Madis; Hussainova, Irina; Reedo, Valter; Young, Der-Liang; Cura, Erkin; Hannula, Simo-Pekka; Lõhmus, Rünno; Lõhmus, Ants

    2015-01-01

    The TiC–ZrC binary compound of nanostructured powders was synthesised by combination of sol–gel and carbothermal reduction. The polymeric precursor of the blend was produced by sol–gel process from titanium tetrabutoxide, zirconium tetrabutoxide and benzene-1.4-diol; then carbothermally reduced to the TiC–ZrC blend at 1600 °C in an inert environment. The chemical reactions occurring in the system were monitored by infrared spectrometry. Stable alkoxide solution was obtained by adding acetylacetone to avoid premature gelation of the metal alkoxide mixture. A solid solution of ZrTiC 2 was produced by spark plasma sintering at temperature of 2000 °C. - Highlights: • A polymeric precursor of TiC–ZrC blend was synthesised by sol–gel process. • The polymeric precursor synthesis was studied by infrared spectroscopy. • TiC–ZrC powder blend was carbothermally reduced from polymeric precursor. • TiC–ZrC powder blend was sintered to ZrTiC 2 solid solution by spark plasma sintering. • Sintered ZrTiC 2 have good mechanical properties

  19. Radon as an earthquake precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.

    2004-01-01

    Radon concentrations in soil gas were continuously measured by the LR-115 nuclear track detectors during a four-year period. Seismic activities, as well as barometric pressure, rainfall and air temperature were also observed. The influence of meteorological parameters on temporal radon variations was investigated, and a respective equation of the multiple regression was derived. The earthquakes with magnitude ≥3 at epicentral distances ≤200 km were recognized by means of radon anomaly. Empirical equations between earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance and precursor time were examined, and respective constants were determined

  20. Radon as an earthquake precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planinic, J. E-mail: planinic@pedos.hr; Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B

    2004-09-11

    Radon concentrations in soil gas were continuously measured by the LR-115 nuclear track detectors during a four-year period. Seismic activities, as well as barometric pressure, rainfall and air temperature were also observed. The influence of meteorological parameters on temporal radon variations was investigated, and a respective equation of the multiple regression was derived. The earthquakes with magnitude {>=}3 at epicentral distances {<=}200 km were recognized by means of radon anomaly. Empirical equations between earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance and precursor time were examined, and respective constants were determined.

  1. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of iron doped TiO2 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Rohini; Gogate, Parag R

    2018-01-01

    The present work deals with synthesis of Fe (III) doped TiO 2 catalyst using the ultrasound assisted approach and conventional sol-gel approach with an objective of establishing the process intensification benefits. Effect of operating parameters such as Fe doping, type of solvent, solvent to precursor ratio and initial temperature has been investigated to get the best catalyst with minimum particle size. Comparison of the catalysts obtained using the conventional and ultrasound assisted approach under the optimized conditions has been performed using the characterization techniques like DLS, XRD, BET, SEM, EDS, TEM, FTIR and UV-Vis band gap analysis. It was established that catalyst synthesized by ultrasound assisted approach under optimized conditions of 0.4mol% doping, irradiation time of 60min, propan-2-ol as the solvent with the solvent to precursor ratio as 10 and initial temperature of 30°C was the best one with minimum particle size as 99nm and surface area as 49.41m 2 /g. SEM analysis, XRD analysis as well as the TEM analysis also confirmed the superiority of the catalyst obtained using ultrasound assisted approach as compared to the conventional approach. EDS analysis also confirmed the presence of 4.05mol% of Fe element in the sample of 0.4mol% iron doped TiO 2 . UV-Vis band gap results showed the reduction in band gap from 3.2eV to 2.9eV. Photocatalytic experiments performed to check the activity also confirmed that ultrasonically synthesized Fe doped TiO 2 catalyst resulted in a higher degradation of Acid Blue 80 as 38% while the conventionally synthesized catalyst resulted in a degradation of 31.1%. Overall, the work has clearly established importance of ultrasound in giving better catalyst characteristics as well as activity for degradation of the Acid Blue 80 dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation, characterization and testing of SiC-based catalytic sponges as structured catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudry, A.; Schaub, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Solid sponges (open-cell foams) may be used as catalyst support, due to favorable thermal properties and low pressure drop. As an example, they may lead to improved temperature control in Fischer-Tropsch applications, if compared to fixed beds of catalyst particles. The aim of this study was to develop and test a wet method for impregnating ceramic foam materials with a CoRe/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Defined catalyst layers were generated on 20 ppi SiC-sponges. Resulting catalytic activities are nearly identical to those of the corresponding powder catalyst material. The difference observed can be explained by either mass transfer limitation or backmixing in the fixed bed configuration used. (orig.)

  3. Determination of palladium content in palladium-alumina/palladium-silica/palladium-tin oxide catalyst for nuclear reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.K.; Bassan, M.K.T.; Avhad, D.K.; Singhal, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Alumina and silica act as support for finely divided palladium metal powder in synthesis of catalyst. These catalyst (Pd-Al 2 O 3 , Pd-SiO 2 and Pd-SnO 2 ) used in nuclear power reactor (moderator cover gas system) for the conversion of hydrogen. In Indian nuclear power programme these catalyst are regularly used in Kaiga 1 and 2 and Rajasthan atomic power plant 3 and 4. The performance of the catalyst, solely depends on the concentration of palladium, which is the active component in this catalyst composition. Therefore it is highly desirable to have rouged analytical methodology for the accurate estimation of palladium. Leaching of Pd from the bulk matrix is tedious due to the less reactive nature of Pd therefore complete solubilization of the matrix is carried out by fusion method

  4. Dry and coating of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.; Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a review on the mixing and coating of powders by dry processes. The reviews surveys fundamental works on mixture characterization (mixing index definitions and sampling techniques), mixing mechanisms and models, segregation with especial emphasis on free-surface segregation, mixing of cohesive powders and interparticle forces, ordered mixing (dry coating) including mechanism, model and applications and mixing equipment selection. (Author) 180 refs

  5. Pressurized Anneal of Consolidated Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemir, David Charles (Inventor); Rubio, Edward S. (Inventor); Beck, Jan Bastian (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods for producing a dense, well bonded solid material from a powder may include consolidating the powder utilizing any suitable consolidation method, such as explosive shockwave consolidation. The systems and methods may also include a post-processing thermal treatment that exploits a mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion between the consolidated material and the container. Due to the mismatch in the coefficients, internal pressure on the consolidated material during the heat treatment may be increased.

  6. Characterization of the Sol-Gel Transition for Zirconia-Toughened Alumina Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeti, I.; Karikari, E.; Chen, J.

    1998-01-01

    High purity ZTA ceramic powders with and without yttria were produced using metal alkoxide precursors. ZTA ceramic powders with varying volume percents of zirconia were prepared (7, 15, and 22%). Aluminum tri-sec butoxide, zirconium propoxide, and yttrium isopropoxide were the reagents used. Synthesis conditions were varied to control the hydrolysis and the aging conditions for the sol to gel transition. FTIR analysis and theological characterization were used to follow the structural evolution during the sol to gel transition. The greater extent of hydrolysis and the build-up of structure measured from viscoelastic properties were consistent. Heat treatment was conducted to produce submicron grain fully crystalline ZTA ceramic powders. In all experimental cases a-alumina and tetragonal zirconia phases were confirmed even in the absence of yttria.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of catalysts for the selective transformation of biomass-derived materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghampson, Isaac Tyrone

    The experimental work in this thesis focuses on generating catalysts for two intermediate processes related to the thermal conversion of lignocellulosic biomass: the synthesis and characterization of mesoporous silica supported cobalt catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch reaction, and an exploration of the reactivity of bulk and supported molybdenum-based nitride catalysts for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of guaiacol, a lignin model compound. The first section of the work details the synthesis of a series of silica-supported cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts with pore diameters ranging from 2-23 nm. Detailed X-ray diffraction measurements were used to determine the composition and particle diameters of the metal fraction, analyzed as a three-phase system containing Cofcc, Cohcp and CoO particles. Catalyst properties were determined at three stages in catalyst history: (1) after the initial calcination step to thermally decompose the catalyst precursor into Co3O4, (2) after the hydrogen reduction step to activate the catalyst to Co and (3) after the FT reaction. From the study, it was observed that larger pore diameters supported higher turnover frequency; smaller pore diameters yielded larger mole fraction of CoO; XRD on post-reduction and post-FTS catalyst samples indicated significant changes in dispersivity after reduction. In the next section, the catalytic behaviors of unsupported, activated carbon-, alumina-, and SBA-15 mesoporous silica-supported molybdenum nitride catalysts were evaluated for the hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol) at 300°C and 5 MPa. The nitride catalysts were prepared by thermal decomposition of bulk and supported ammonium heptamolybdate to form MoO 3 followed by nitridation in either flowing ammonia or a nitrogen/hydrogen mixture. The catalytic properties were strongly affected by the nitriding and purging treatment as well as the physical and chemical properties of support. The overall reaction was influenced by the

  8. Effect of precursor concentration and spray pyrolysis temperature upon hydroxyapatite particle size and density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    In the synthesis of hydroxyapatite powders by spray pyrolysis, control of the particle size was investigated by varying the initial concentration of the precursor solution and the pyrolysis temperature. Calcium phosphate solutions (Ca/P ratio of 1.67) with a range of concentrations from 0.1 to 2.0 mol/L were prepared by dissolving calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate in deionized water and subsequently adding nitric acid. Hydroxyapatite powders were then synthesized by spray pyrolysis at 900°C and at 1500°C, using these calcium phosphate precursor solutions, under the fixed carrier gas flow rate of 10 L/min. The particle size decreased as the precursor concentration decreased and the spray pyrolysis temperature increased. Sinterability tests conducted at 1100°C for 1 h showed that the smaller and denser the particles were, the higher the relative densities were of sintered hydroxyapatite disks formed from these particles. The practical implication of these results is that highly sinterable small and dense hydroxyapatite particles can be synthesized by means of spray pyrolysis using a low-concentration precursor solution and a high pyrolysis temperature under a fixed carrier gas flow rate. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Hydrophilic cobalt sulfide nanosheets as a bifunctional catalyst for oxygen and hydrogen evolution in electrolysis of alkaline aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingchao; Zhang, Zhongyi; Zhang, Hu; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lixue; Wang, Shicai

    2018-01-01

    Hydrophilic medium and precursors were used to synthesize a hydrophilic electro-catalyst for overall water splitting. The cobalt sulfide (Co 3 S 4 ) catalyst exhibits a layered nanosheet structure with a hydrophilic surface, which can facilitate the diffusion of aqueous substrates into the electrode pores and towards the active sites. The Co 3 S 4 catalyst shows excellent bifunctional catalytic activity for both the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline solution. The assembled water electrolyzer based on Co 3 S 4 exhibits better performance and stability than that of Pt/C-RuO 2 catalyst. Thereforce the hydrophilic Co 3 S 4 is a highly promising bifunctional catalyst for the overall water splitting reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Uniformly active phase loaded selective catalytic reduction catalysts (V_2O_5/TNTs) with superior alkaline resistance performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haiqiang; Wang, Penglu; Chen, Xiongbo; Wu, Zhongbiao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • VOSO_4 exhibited better synergistic effect with titanate nanotubes than NH_4VO_3. • Ion-exchange reaction occurs between VOSO_4 and titanate nanotubes. • Ion-exchange resulting in uniformly vanadium distribution on titanate nanotubes. • VOSO_4-based catalyst exhibited impressive SCR activity and alkaline resistance. - Abstract: In this work, protonated titanate nanotubes was performed as a potential useful support and different vanadium precursors (NH_4VO_3 and VOSO_4) were used to synthesize deNO_x catalysts. The results showed that VOSO_4 exhibited better synergistic effect with titanate nanotubes than NH_4VO_3, which was caused by the ion-exchange reaction. Then high loading content of vanadium, uniformly active phase distribution, better dispersion of vanadium, more acid sites, better V"5"+/V"4"+ redox cycles and superior oxygen mobility were achieved. Besides, VOSO_4-based titanate nanotubes catalysts also showed enhanced alkaline resistance than particles (P25) based catalysts. It was strongly associated with its abundant acid sites, large surface area, flexible redox cycles and oxygen transfer ability. For the loading on protonated titanate nanotubes, active metal with cation groups was better precursors than anion ones. V_2O_5/TNTs catalyst was a promising substitute for the commercial vanadium catalysts and the work conducted herein provided a useful idea to design uniformly active phase loaded catalyst.

  11. Novel Reforming Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L

    2012-10-16

    Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

  12. Catalysts for petroleum desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.; Diemann, E.; Baumann, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    In order to obtain marketable products from low-quality oils, efficient hydrogenation processes are required for removing sulfur (hydrodesulfurization, HDS), nitrogen (hydrodenitrification, HDN), and oxygen (hydrodeoxygenation, HDO), which would poison the noble metal catalysts of the downstream petrochemical processes. Hydrogenation will produce low-sulfur, low-nitrogen fuels and thus contribute to the reduction of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions which is long overdue from the ecological point of view (forest decline, acidification of surface bodies of water, etc.).

  13. Hydrothermally Stable Fe–W–Ti SCR Catalysts Prepared by Deposition–Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Schill, Leonhard; Mossin, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Fe/TiO2 based catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and deposition–precipitation (DP). The catalysts were characterized by activity measurements, N2 physisorption, X-ray powder diffraction, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, H2......-temperature programmed reduction and NH3-temperature programmed desorption. The 3 wt% Fe–10 wt% WO3/TiO2 (3Fe–10WTi-DP) catalyst prepared by DP using ammonium carbamate as a precipitating agent was found to be the most active and hydrothermally stable with 11 vol% H2O in air at 650 °C for 3 h....... The hydrothermal stability of the catalyst can be attributed to the retained crystal structure, and mild change in acidic and redox properties of the catalyst. Furthermore, hydrothermal stability of the 3Fe–10WTi-DP catalyst is competitive with that of 3Fe–ZSM-5 and much better than 3V2O5–10WO3–TiO2 catalysts...

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon nanofibers on Co and Cu Catalysts by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eunsil; Kim, Jongwon; Lee, Changseop

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on the synthesis of carbon nanofibers via chemical vapor deposition using Co and Cu as catalysts. In order to investigate the suitability of their catalytic activity for the growth of nanofibers, we prepared catalysts for the synthesis of carbon nanofibers with Cobalt nitrate and Copper nitrate, and found the optimum concentration of each respective catalyst. Then we made them react with Aluminum nitrate and Ammonium Molybdate to form precipitates. The precipitates were dried at a temperature of 110 .deg. C in order to be prepared into catalyst powder. The catalyst was sparsely and thinly spread on a quartz tube boat to grow carbon nanofibers via thermal chemical vapor deposition. The characteristics of the synthesized carbon nanofibers were analyzed through SEM, EDS, XRD, Raman, XPS, and TG/DTA, and the specific surface area was measured via BET. Consequently, the characteristics of the synthesized carbon nanofibers were greatly influenced by the concentration ratio of metal catalysts. In particular, uniform carbon nanofibers of 27 nm in diameter grew when the concentration ratio of Co and Cu was 6:4 at 700 .deg. C of calcination temperature; carbon nanofibers synthesized under such conditions showed the best crystallizability, compared to carbon nanofibers synthesized with metal catalysts under different concentration ratios, and revealed 1.26 high amorphicity as well as 292 m 2 g -1 high specific surface area

  15. Effects of impregnation methods and drying conditions on quinoline hydrodenitrogenation over Ni-W based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Fang; Qiu, Zegang; Zhao, Liangfu; Xiang, Hongwei [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Guo, Shaoqing [Taiyuan University of Science and Technology (China)

    2014-04-15

    The effects of impregnation methods (co-impregnation and sequential impregnation) and drying conditions (air and vacuum) on the structure and catalytic behavior of MCM-41 supported Ni-W catalysts were investigated. The catalysts were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), diffuse reflectance UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy (DRS), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and pyridine adsorbed infrared spectroscopy (Py-IR) techniques. They were tested for hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of quinoline at temperatures of 300-400 deg C. The HDN results showed that the catalysts prepared by co-impregnation were more active than the catalysts prepared by sequential impregnation and the catalysts prepared by drying under vacuum were more active than the catalysts dried in air. Characterization revealed that the co-impregnation method and drying under vacuum promoted the dispersion of W, the formation of the active phases, and the formation of acidic sites on the catalysts. (author)

  16. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Huang, Y.Y.

    1998-07-28

    Methods are disclosed for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physical sorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics. 17 figs.

  17. POROUS ALUMINOPHOSPHATES :From Molecular Sieves to Designed Acid Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, H. O.; Coluccia, S.; Marchese, L.

    2005-08-01

    This review covers the synthesis, characterization, and physico-chemical properties of microporous and mesoporous aluminophosphates and silicoaluminophosphates molecular sieves. Particular emphasis is given to the materials that have found applications as acid catalysts. We consider the evolution of the synthesis procedures from the first discoveries to the current methodologies and give perspectives for new possible synthesis strategies. Emphasis is given to the use of specially prepared precursors/reactants designed for the use as molecular sieves. Experimental (especially MAS-NMR and FTIR spectroscopy) and theoretical approaches to the description of the Si insertion into the ALPO framework and to the acidic properties of SAPOs and MeAPSOs materials are discussed.

  18. Cu–Co–O nano-catalysts as a burn rate modifier for composite solid propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chaitanya Kumar Rao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nano-catalysts containing copper–cobalt oxides (Cu–Co–O have been synthesized by the citric acid (CA complexing method. Copper (II nitrate and Cobalt (II nitrate were employed in different molar ratios as the starting reactants to prepare three types of nano-catalysts. Well crystalline nano-catalysts were produced after a period of 3 hours by the calcination of CA–Cu–Co–O precursors at 550 °C. The phase morphologies and crystal composition of synthesized nano-catalysts were examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR methods. The particle size of nano-catalysts was observed in the range of 90 nm–200 nm. The prepared nano-catalysts were used to formulate propellant samples of various compositions which showed high reactivity toward the combustion of HTPB/AP-based composite solid propellants. The catalytic effects on the decomposition of propellant samples were found to be significant at higher temperatures. The combustion characteristics of composite solid propellants were significantly improved by the incorporation of nano-catalysts. Out of the three catalysts studied in the present work, CuCo-I was found to be the better catalyst in regard to thermal decomposition and burning nature of composite solid propellants. The improved performance of composite solid propellant can be attributed to the high crystallinity, low agglomeration and lowering the decomposition temperature of oxidizer by the addition of CuCo-I nano-catalyst.

  19. Fluorescing macerals from wood precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, S A; Bensley, D F

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary investigation into the origin of wood-derived macerals has established the existence of autofluorescent maceral precursors in the secondary xylem of swamp-inhabiting plant species. The optical character and fluorescent properties of microtomed thin-sections of modern woods from the Florida Everglades and Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia are compared to the character and properties of their peatified equivalents from various Everglades and Okefenokee peat horizons and their lignitic equivalents from the Brandon lignite of Vermont and the Trail Ridge lignitic peat from northern Florida. The inherent fluorescence of woody cell walls is believed to be caused by lignin though other cell wall components may contribute. The fluorescence spectra for several wood and cell types had a ..gamma../sub m//sub a//sub x/ of 452 nm and Q value of 0.00. The color as observed in blue light and the spectral geometry as measured in UV light of peatified and lignitic woody cell walls (potential textinites) may change progressively during early coalification. Cell wall-derived maceral material is shown to maintain its fluorescing properties after being converted to a structureless material, perhaps a corpohuminite or humodetrinite precursor. Fluorescing xylem cell contents, such as condensed tannins or essential oils, can maintain the fluorescent character through early coalification. Xylem cell walls and xylem cell contents are shown to provide fluorescing progenitor materials which would not require subsequent infusion with 'lipid' materials to account for their fluorescence as phytoclast material or as macerals in coal. 35 references.

  20. In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jose A; Chupas, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

  1. High activity PtRu/C catalysts synthesized by a modified impregnation method for methanol electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Liu Changpeng; Liao Jianhui; Lu Tianhong; Xing Wei; Zhang Jiujun

    2009-01-01

    A modified impregnation method was used to prepare highly dispersive carbon-supported PtRu catalyst (PtRu/C). Two modifications to the conventional impregnation method were performed: one was to precipitate the precursors ((NH 4 ) 2 PtCl 6 and Ru(OH) 3 ) on the carbon support before metal reduction; the other was to add a buffer into the synthetic solution to stabilize the pH. The prepared catalyst showed a much higher activity for methanol electro-oxidation than a catalyst prepared by the conventional impregnation method, even higher than that of current commercially available, state-of-the-art catalysts. The morphology of the prepared catalyst was characterized using TEM and XRD measurements to determine particle sizes, alloying degree, and lattice parameters. Electrochemical methods were also used to ascertain the electrochemical active surface area and the specific activity of the catalyst. Based on XPS measurements, the high activity of this catalyst was found to originate from both metallic Ru (Ru 0 ) and hydrous ruthenium oxides (RuO x H y ) species on the catalyst surface. However, RuO x H y was found to be more active than metallic Ru. In addition, the anhydrous ruthenium oxide (RuO 2 ) species on the catalyst surface was found to be less active.

  2. Preparation and application of zirconium sulfate supported on SAPO-34 molecular sieve as solid acid catalyst for esterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Dongyan, E-mail: xdy0156@sina.com; Ma, Hong; Cheng, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SAPO-34 supported zirconium sulfate solid acid catalyst was prepared. • Esterification of acetic acid with ethanol can be catalyzed by ZS/SAPO-34. • The hydration of ZS is vital to the acidic property and catalytic performance. • The ZS/SAPO-34 catalyst treated at 200 °C shows good reusability. - Abstract: Zirconium sulfate (ZS) was supported on SAPO-34 molecular sieve by using an incipient wetness impregnation method with zirconium sulfate as the precursor. The as-prepared catalysts were used as solid acid catalyst for esterification reaction of acetic acid with ethanol. The influence of calcination temperature on the acidic property, catalytic activity, and reusability of ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts were mainly investigated. FT-IR, SEM, EDS and TG analysis have been carried out to demonstrate the characteristics of ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts. It was found that the 30 wt%ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts display the property of superacid irrespective of calcination temperature. The ZS/SAPO-34 catalyst treated at 200 °C can enhance the interaction between the supported ZS and SAPO-34 and keep the catalyst remaining substantially active after several reaction cycles. However, further increasing calcination temperature will cause the transfer of ZS from hydrate to anhydrous phase, and thus the decrease of activity.

  3. Preparation and application of zirconium sulfate supported on SAPO-34 molecular sieve as solid acid catalyst for esterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Dongyan; Ma, Hong; Cheng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SAPO-34 supported zirconium sulfate solid acid catalyst was prepared. • Esterification of acetic acid with ethanol can be catalyzed by ZS/SAPO-34. • The hydration of ZS is vital to the acidic property and catalytic performance. • The ZS/SAPO-34 catalyst treated at 200 °C shows good reusability. - Abstract: Zirconium sulfate (ZS) was supported on SAPO-34 molecular sieve by using an incipient wetness impregnation method with zirconium sulfate as the precursor. The as-prepared catalysts were used as solid acid catalyst for esterification reaction of acetic acid with ethanol. The influence of calcination temperature on the acidic property, catalytic activity, and reusability of ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts were mainly investigated. FT-IR, SEM, EDS and TG analysis have been carried out to demonstrate the characteristics of ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts. It was found that the 30 wt%ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts display the property of superacid irrespective of calcination temperature. The ZS/SAPO-34 catalyst treated at 200 °C can enhance the interaction between the supported ZS and SAPO-34 and keep the catalyst remaining substantially active after several reaction cycles. However, further increasing calcination temperature will cause the transfer of ZS from hydrate to anhydrous phase, and thus the decrease of activity

  4. Homogeneous and Supported Niobium Catalysts as Lewis Acid and Radical Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Tikkanen

    2006-12-31

    The synthesis of tetrachlorotetraphenylcyclopentadienyl group 5 metal complexes has been accomplished through two routes, one a salt metathesis with lithiumtetraphenylcyclopentadiende and the other, reaction with trimethyltintetraphenylcyclopentadiene. The reactants and products have been characterized by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) NMR spectroscopy. The niobium complex promotes the silylcyanation of butyraldehyde. The grafting of metal complexes to silica gel surfaces has been accomplished using tetrakisdimethylamidozirconium as the metal precursor. The most homogeneous binding as determined by CP-MAS {sup 13}C NMR and infrared spectroscopy was obtained with drying at 500 C at 3 mtorr vacuum. The remaining amido groups can be replaced by reaction with alcohols to generate surface bound metal alkoxides. These bound catalysts promote silylcyanation of aryl aldehydes and can be reused three times with no loss of activity.

  5. MAGNETO-CHEMICAL CHARACTER STUDIES OF NOVEL Fe CATALYSTS FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murty A. Akundi; Jian H. Zhang; A.N. Murty; S.V. Naidu

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the present study are: (1) To synthesize iron catalysts: Fe/MoO{sub 3}, and Fe/Co/MoO{sub 3} employing two distinct techniques: Pyrolysis with organic precursors and Co-precipitation of metal nitrates; (2) To investigate the magnetic character of the catalysts before and after exposure to CO and CO+H{sub 2} by (a) Mossbauer study of Iron (b) Zerofield Nuclear Magnetic Resonance study of Cobalt, and (c) Magnetic character of the catalyst composite; (3) To study the IR active surface species of the catalyst while stimulating (CO--Metal, (CO+H{sub 2})--Metal) interactions, by FTIR Spectroscopy; and (4) To analyze the catalytic character (conversion efficiency and product distribution) in both direct and indirect liquefaction Process and (5) To examine the correlations between the magnetic and chemical characteristics. This report presents the results of our investigation on (a) the effect of metal loading (b) the effect of intermetallic ratio and (c) the effect of catalyst preparation procedure on (i) the magnetic character of the catalyst composite (ii) the IR active surface species of the catalyst and (iii) the catalytic yields for three different metal loadings: 5%, 15%, and 25% (nominal) for three distinct intermetallic ratios (Fe/Co = 0.3, 1.5, 3.0).

  6. CATALYTIC PERFORMANCES OF Fe2O3/TS-1 CATALYST IN PHENOL HYDROXYLATION REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Prasetyoko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxylation reaction of phenol into diphenol, such as hydroquinone and catechol, has a great role in many industrial applications. Phenol hydroxylation reaction can be carried out using Titanium Silicalite-1 (TS-1 as catalyst and H2O2 as an oxidant. TS-1 catalyst shows high activity and selectivity for phenol hydroxylation reaction. However, its hydrophobic sites lead to slow H2O2 adsorption toward the active site of TS-1. Consequently, the reaction rate of phenol hydroxylation reaction is tends to be low. Addition of metal oxide Fe2O3 enhanced hydrophilicity of TS-1 catalyst. Liquid phase catalytic phenol hydroxylation using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant was carried out over iron (III oxide-modified TS-1 catalyst (Fe2O3/TS-1, that were prepared by impregnation method using iron (III nitrate as precursor and characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, pyridine adsorption, and hydrophilicity techniques. Catalysts 1Fe2O3/TS-1 showed maximum catalytic activity of hydroquinone product. In this research, the increase of hydroquinone formation rate is due to the higher hydrophilicity of Fe2O3/TS-1 catalysts compare to the parent catalyst, TS-1.   Keywords: Fe2O3/TS-1, hydrophilic site, phenol hydroxylation

  7. TiO2 nanotubes supported NiW hydrodesulphurization catalysts: Characterization and activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palcheva, R.; Dimitrov, L.; Tyuliev, G.; Spojakina, A.; Jiratova, K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► NiW catalysts supported on TiO 2 nanotubes, titania and alumina. ► The best results are obtained with NiW/TiO 2 nanotubes in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene. ► Active phase is Ni-WO x S y . ► Electronic promotion of W by Ti. - Abstract: High surface area TiO 2 nanotubes (Ti-NT) synthesized by alkali hydrothermal method were used as a support for NiW hydrodesulphurization catalyst. Nickel salt of 12-tungstophosphoric acid – Ni 3/2 PW 12 O 40 was applied as oxide precursor of the active components. The catalyst was characterized by S BET , XRD, UV–vis DRS, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, TPR and HRTEM. The results obtained were compared with those for the NiW catalysts prepared over high surface area titania and alumina supports. A polytungstate phase evidenced by Raman spectroscopy was observed indicating the destruction of the initial heteropolyanion. The catalytic experiments revealed two times higher thiophene conversion on NiW catalyst supported on Ti-NT than those of catalysts supported on alumina and titania. Increased HDS activity of the NiW catalyst supported on Ti-NT could be related to a higher amount of W oxysulfide entities interacting with Ni sulfide particles as consequence of the electronic effects of the Ti-NT observed with XPS analysis.

  8. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper. It...

  9. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of uranium and thorium powders and uranium ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, Elizabeth J. [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Barefield, James E., E-mail: jbarefield@lanl.gov [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Berg, John M. [Manufacturing Engineering and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Clegg, Samuel M.; Havrilla, George J.; Montoya, Velma M.; Le, Loan A.; Lopez, Leon N. [Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to analyze depleted uranium and thorium oxide powders and uranium ore as a potential rapid in situ analysis technique in nuclear production facilities, environmental sampling, and in-field forensic applications. Material such as pressed pellets and metals, has been extensively studied using LIBS due to the high density of the material and more stable laser-induced plasma formation. Powders, on the other hand, are difficult to analyze using LIBS since ejection and removal of the powder occur in the laser interaction region. The capability of analyzing powders is important in allowing for rapid analysis of suspicious materials, environmental samples, or trace contamination on surfaces since it most closely represents field samples (soil, small particles, debris etc.). The rapid, in situ analysis of samples, including nuclear materials, also reduces costs in sample collection, transportation, sample preparation, and analysis time. Here we demonstrate the detection of actinides in oxide powders and within a uranium ore sample as both pressed pellets and powders on carbon adhesive discs for spectral comparison. The acquired LIBS spectra for both forms of the samples differ in overall intensity but yield a similar distribution of atomic emission spectral lines. - Highlights: • LIBS analysis of mixed actinide samples: depleted uranium oxide and thorium oxide • LIBS analysis of actinide samples in powder form on carbon adhesive discs • Detection of uranium in a complex matrix (uranium ore) as a precursor to analyzing uranium in environmental samples.

  10. In situ synthesis of NiAl–NbB2 composite powder through combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokati, Ali Akbar; Parvin, Nader; Sabzianpour, Naser; Shokati, Mohammad; Hemmati, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A Novel NiAl matrix composite powder with 0–40 wt.% NbB 2 was synthesized. ► Composite powders were synthesized by thermal explosion reaction of Ni–Al–Nb–B system. ► Microhardness of NiAl considerably increased with raising NbB 2 content. ► Synthesized composite powders is a good candidate as precursor for thermal barrier application. - Abstract: Synthesis of a novel NiAl matrix composite powder reinforced with 0–40 wt.% NbB 2 by combustion synthesis in thermal explosion mode was investigated. The elemental powders of Ni, Al, Nb, and amorphous boron were used as starting material. For all compositions final products consisted of only the NiAl and NbB 2 phases. Coarser NbB 2 with a relatively uniform distribution in NiAl matrix was formed with rising NbB 2 content. Microhardness of NiAl considerably increased from 377 ± 13 HV 0.05 to 866 ± 81 HV 0.05 for NiAl with 40 wt.% NbB 2 . High microhardness, proper size and distribution of NbB 2 in NiAl matrix make it a good candidate as precursor for thermal spray application.

  11. Photoluminescence of sol–gel synthesized PZT powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Aranda, M.C. [Coordinación para la Innovación y Aplicación de la Ciencia y la Tecnología-Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Sierra Leona No.550,Col. Lomas 2a. sección, C.P. 78210 San Luis Potosí, SLP, México (Mexico); Calderón-Piñar, F. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N. Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, C.P. 7623 Querétaro, Qro, México (Mexico); Facultad de Física/IMRE, San Lázaro y L, Universidad de la Habana, C.P. 10400 Habana (Cuba); Hernández-Landaverde, M.A. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N. Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, C.P. 7623 Querétaro, Qro, México (Mexico); and others

    2016-11-15

    A wide band of photoluminescence (PL) emission in structurally disordered lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powders, prepared by sol–gel route, was observed at room temperature excited with a laser line (488 nm). Powders with PbZr{sub 0.53}Ti{sub 0.47}O{sub 3} nominal composition annealed at different temperatures were studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Luminescence, Diffuse Reflectance and Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (EPR). Our results indicate that the PL response can be associated to order–disorder degree in the perovskite structure, with the exception of samples annealed at low temperature, where a mixture of oxides precursorsГ—Ві phases was observed. Furthermore, in quasi-crystalline ordered samples (95% of crystallinity) a small generation of PL remains. In these experiments, the band gap increases with the formation of crystalline structure. EPR experiments were conducted in order to follow the evolution of paramagnetic species with thermal treatment from the mixture of oxides precursors to the perovskite phase and paramagnetic point defects were identified (Pb{sup +3} and Ti{sup +3}). EPR data suggest the presence of order–disorder within the lattice network. Paramagnetic species are similar in samples treated at 700 and 800 °C, nevertheless the emission intensity decreases by a factor of 6, indicating that the defects associated with PL are not paramagnetic at both temperatures.

  12. Optimization of calcium phosphate fine ceramic powders preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezanova, K.; Tepavitcharova, S.; Rabadjieva, D.; Gergulova, R.; Ilieva, R.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of biomimetic synthesis method, reaction medium and further precursor treatments on the chemical and phase composition, crystal size and morphology of calcium phosphates was examined. Nanosized calcium phosphate precursors were biomimetically precipitated by the method of continuous precipitation in three types of reaction media at pH 8: (i) SBF as an inorganic electrolyte system; (ii) organic (glycerine) modified SBF (volume ratio of 1:1); (iii) polymer (10 g/l xanthan gum or 10 g/l guar gum) modified SBF (volume ratio of 1:1). After maturation (24 h) the samples were lyophilized, calcinated at 300°C for 3 hours, and washed with water, followed by new gelation, lyophilization and step-wise (200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000°C, each for 3 hours) sintering. The reaction medium influenced the chemical composition and particle size but not the morphology of the calcium phosphate powders. In all studied cases bi-phase calcium phosphate fine powders with well-shaped spherical grains, consisting of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) with a Ca/P ratio of 1.3 - 1.6 were obtained. The SBF modifiers decreased the particle size of the product in the sequence guar gum ˜ xanthan gum < glycerin < SBF medium.

  13. Activating catalysts with mechanical force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piermattei, A.; Karthikeyan, S.; Sijbesma, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    Homogeneously catalysed reactions can be ‘switched on’ by activating latent catalysts. Usually, activation is brought about by heat or an external chemical agent. However, activation of homogeneous catalysts with a mechanical trigger has not been demonstrated. Here, we introduce a general method to

  14. Fabrication and characterization of nanostructured mechanically alloyed Pt-Co catalyst for oxygen gas-diffusion-electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharkya, P.; Farhat, Z.; Czech, E.; Hawthorne, H.; Alfantazi, A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of PEM fuel cells depends largely upon the cost of materials, processing and fabrication. The cost of Pt catalyst is a significant cost of a fuel cell. Alternative low cost catalyst that promotes high rate of oxygen reduction is needed. To achieve this, a mechanochemical technique was employed to refine the catalyst layer structure (i.e. increasing the effective catalyst surface area) and reducing the amount of Pt used, by alloying with a cheaper element. An investigation is carried out to study the relationship between the new catalyst structure refinement, morphology, microstructure and its electrocatalytic behaviour. Nanostructured Pt, Co and Pt 0.2 5 Co 0.75 alloy was fabricated from high purity Pt (99.9%) and Co (99.5%) powders using a Laboratory Planetary Ball Mill 'Pulverisette 6'. Optimum milling conditions, that produce fine, uniform and mechanically alloyed microstructure, were determined during fabrication, by varying process parameters (i.e., rpm, milling time, ball to powder ratio, milling atmosphere, surface-agents and milling/cooling cycle). Mechanically induced chemical and physical reactions and thermal effects were monitored 'in-situ' using a GTM system, which recorded temperature and pressure changes during milling. The alloy catalysts were characterized using TEM, SEM, EDX, XRD and BET techniques. Electrochemical tests were carried out on prepared powders. Exchange currents were determined from a potentiodynamic polarization tests and used to compare relative electrocatalytic behaviour of the new catalyst. Structure/property relationships were discussed and conclusions were drawn on the production of improved low cost catalyst. (author)

  15. Synthesis and characterization of nanosized ceria powders by microwave-hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonamartini Corradi, A.; Bondioli, F.; Ferrari, A.M.; Manfredini, T.

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ceria powders (CeO 2 ) have been prepared by adding NaOH to a cerium ammonium nitrate aqueous solution under microwave-hydrothermal conditions. In particular the effect of the synthesis conditions (time, pressure and concentration of both the precursor and the precipitant agent solutions) on the physical properties of the crystals have been evaluated. Microwave-hydrothermal treatment of 5 min at 13.4 atm allows to obtain almost crystallized powders (amorphous phase 4%) as underlined by Rietveld-reference intensity ratio (RIR) results

  16. Method of making metal oxide ceramic powders by using a combustible amino acid compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Larry R.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is directed to the formation of homogeneous, aqueous precursor mixtures of at least one substantially soluble metal salt and a substantially soluble, combustible co-reactant compound, typically an amino acid. This produces, upon evaporation, a substantially homogeneous intermediate material having a total solids level which would support combustion. The homogeneous intermediate material essentially comprises highly dispersed or solvated metal constituents and the co-reactant compound. The intermediate material is quite flammable. A metal oxide powder results on ignition of the intermediate product which combusts same to produce the product powder.

  17. Al-doped ZnO mechanical milled powders for dye sensitized cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damonte, L.C.; Donderis, V.; Ferrari, S.; Orozco, J.; Hernandez-Fenollosa, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Mixtures of Al 2 O 3 and ZnO powders were prepared by mechanical milling. The resulting samples were analyzed and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical reflection spectroscopy (OPS). XRD and PALS measurements confirm Al incorporation into ZnO wurtzite structure. Powders obtained from Al 2 O 3 precursors display better reflectivity than those prepared from Al metal so they might be better materials for implementation in photovoltaic solar devices.

  18. Al-doped ZnO mechanical milled powders for dye sensitized cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damonte, L.C., E-mail: damonte@fisica.unlp.edu.a [Departamento de Fisica, UNLP, IFLP-CCT-CONICET, C.C.67(1900), La Plata (Argentina); Dto. de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Donderis, V. [Dto. de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ferrari, S. [Departamento de Fisica, UNLP, IFLP-CCT-CONICET, C.C.67(1900), La Plata (Argentina); Orozco, J. [ITM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Hernandez-Fenollosa, M.A. [Dto. de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-04-16

    Mixtures of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZnO powders were prepared by mechanical milling. The resulting samples were analyzed and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical reflection spectroscopy (OPS). XRD and PALS measurements confirm Al incorporation into ZnO wurtzite structure. Powders obtained from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} precursors display better reflectivity than those prepared from Al metal so they might be better materials for implementation in photovoltaic solar devices.

  19. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of B, Y co-doped nanosized TiO_2 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石中亮; 刘富梅; 姚淑华

    2010-01-01

    The catalysts of un-doped, single-doped and co-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) powders were prepared by sol-gel method with Ti(OC4H9)4 as a raw material. The photocatalytic decomposition of phenol in aqueous solution under UV light was used as a probe reaction to evaluate their photocatalytic activities. The effects of B, Y co-doping on the crystallite sizes, crystal pattern, surface composition, and optical property of the catalyst were investigated by thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis, X-ray d...

  20. Same Precursor, Two Different Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Suzannah R.; Woods, Keenan N.; Plassmeyer, Paul N.

    2017-01-01

    with significantly larger coherence lengths. This amorphous β-Ga2O3 phase could not be identified using the conventional Bragg diffraction techniques traditionally used to study crystalline metal oxide thin films. The combination of Bragg diffraction and tfPDF provides a much more complete description of film...... with temperature, forming mixtures of Ga-substituted In2O3 and In-substituted β-Ga2O3 with different degrees of substitution. X-ray total scattering and PDF analysis indicate that the majority phase for both the powders and films is an amorphous/nanocrystalline β-Ga2O3 phase, with a minor constituent of In2O3...

  1. Shock diffraction in alumina powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venz, G.; Killen, P.D.; Page, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    In order to produce complex shaped components by dynamic compaction of ceramic powders detailed knowledge of their response under shock loading conditions is required. This work attempts to provide data on release effects and shock attenuation in 1 μm and 5 μm α-alumina powders which were compacted to between 85 % and 95 % of the solid phase density by the impact of high velocity steel projectiles. As in previous work, the powder was loaded into large cylindrical dies with horizontal marker layers of a contrasting coloured powder to provide a record of powder displacement in the recovered specimens. After recovery and infiltration with a thermosetting resin the specimens were sectioned and polished to reveal the structure formed by the passage of the projectile and shock wave. Results indicate that the shock pressures generated were of the order of 0.5 to 1.4 GPa and higher, with shock velocities and sound speeds in the ranges 650 to 800 m/s and 350 to 400 m/s respectively

  2. Fabrication of superconducting wire using organometallic precursors and infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.J.

    1991-01-01

    Organometallic precursors from naphthenic acid and metal nitrates were used for the synthesis of YBCO oxide superconducting compounds. The characteristics of metal naphthenates as organometallic precursors were investigated by IR spectra, viscosity measurements, and infiltration. 123 superconducting compound obtained from 123 naphthenate showed a Tc of 90 degree K and a rather dense and elongated microstructure. Also, the melting behavior of Ba-cuprates which were used for 123 making was studied. A low-temperature melting process was developed to fabricate silver-sheathed superconducting wire with the powder-in-tube method; flowing argon gas is introduced to the system at 930-945 degree C to reduce the melting temperature of the 123 compound without silver sheath melting. It resulted in a 90 degree K Tc superconducting core with dense and locally aligned microstructure. SEM-EDS and XRD analysis, 4-probe resistance and Jc measurements, and carbon-content determinations were carried out to characterize the microstructure, grain alignment, and superconducting properties of the samples

  3. Silica-Supported Catalyst for Enantioselective Arylation of Aldehydes under Batch and Continuous-Flow Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Nakaya, Naoyuki; Akai, Junichiro; Kanaori, Kenji; Harada, Toshiro

    2018-05-04

    A silica-supported 3-aryl H 8 -BINOL-derived titanium catalyst exhibited high performance in the enantioselective arylation of aromatic aldehydes using Grignard and organolithium reagents not only under batch conditions but also under continuous-flow conditions. Even with a simple pipet reactor packed with the heterogeneous catalyst, the enantioselective production of chiral diarylmethanols could be achieved through a continuous introduction of aldehydes and mixed titanium reagents generated from the organometallic precursors. The pipet reactor could be used repeatedly in different reactions without appreciable deterioration of the activity.

  4. Synthesis of Carbon Nano tubes Using Anadara Granosa Shells as Catalyst Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zobir Hussein; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Salwani Asyikin Zakarya; Siti Halimah Sarijo

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of carbon nano tubes (CNTs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method using natural calcite prepared from Anadara granosa shells (CS), as metal catalyst support was studied. Hexane and iron were used as carbon precursor and catalyst, respectively. The as synthesised CNTs was characterized using XRD, TEM and FESEM. From the XRD patterns the CNTs peak can be seen more incisive after purification process and from the FESEM micrographs the CNTs can be seen as a bunch of rope-like structures. (author)

  5. Numerical simulation and analysis of single grain YBCO processed from graded precursor powders

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, J; Ainslie, Mark Douglas; Hu, D; Zhai, W; Kumar, N Devendra; Durrell, John Hay; Shi, Yunhua; Cardwell, David Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Large single-grain bulk high-temperature superconducting materials can trap high magnetic fields in comparison with conventional permanent magnets, making them ideal candidates to develop more compact and efficient devices, such as actuators, magnetic levitation systems, flywheel energy storage systems and electric machines. However, macro-segregation of Y-211 inclusions in melt processed Y–Ba–Cu–O (YBCO) limits the macroscopic critical current density Jc of such bulk supercond...

  6. Efficient Pd@MIL-101(Cr) hetero-catalysts for 2-butyne-1,4-diol hydrogenation exhibiting high selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Dongdong; Li, Chuang; Ren, Hangxing; Shekhah, Osama; Liu, Jinxuan; Liang, Changhai

    2017-01-01

    Pd@MIL-101(Cr) hetero-catalysts have been successfully prepared using the metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) approach, by choosing [Pd(η-CH)(η-CH)] as a volatile precursor, and the hydrothermally stable metal-organic framework, MIL-101

  7. Microwave sintering of nano size powder β-TCP bioceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhadi B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A nano sized beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP powder was conventional sintered (CS and microwave sintered (MW, in order to obtain dense β-TCP ceramics. In this work the effect of microwave sintering conditions on the microstructure, phase composition and mechanical properties of materials based on tricalcium phosphate (TCP was investigated by SEM (scanning electron microscopyand XRD(X-ray diffraction and then compared with conventional sintered samples. Nano-size β-TCP powders with average grain size of 80 nm were prepared by the wet chemical precipitation method with calcium nitrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate as calcium and phosphorus precursors, respectively. The precipitation process employed was also found to be suitable for the production of submicrometre β-TCP powder in situ. The β-TCP samples microwave (MW sintered for 15 min at 1100°C, with average grain size of 3μm, showed better densification, higher density and certainly higher hardness than samples conventionally sintered for 2 h at the same temperature. By comparing sintered and MW sintered β-TCP samples, it was concluded that MW sintered β-TCP samples have superior mechanical properties.

  8. Tailoring the synthesis of supported Pd catalysts towards desired structure and size of metal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Gatla; Radnik, Jörg; Kalevaru, Venkata Narayana; Pohl, Marga-Martina; Schneider, Matthias; Lücke, Bernhard; Martin, Andreas; Madaan, Neetika; Brückner, Angelika

    2010-05-14

    In a systematic study, the influence of different preparation parameters on phase composition and size of metal crystallites and particles in Pd-Cu/TiO(2) and Pd-Sb/TiO(2) catalyst materials has been explored. Temperature and atmosphere of thermal pretreatment (pure He or 10% H(2)/He), nature of metal precursors (chlorides, nitrates or acetates) as well as of ammonium additives (ammonium sulfate, nitrate, carbonate) and urea were varied with the aim of tailoring the synthesis procedure for the preferential formation of metal particles with similar size and structure as observed recently in active catalysts after long-term equilibration under catalytic reaction conditions in acetoxylation of toluene to benzylacetate. Among the metal precursors and additives, the chloride metal precursors and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) were most suitable. Upon thermal pretreatment of Pd-Sb or Pd-Cu precursors, chloroamine complexes of Pd and Cu are formed, which decompose above 220 degrees C to metallic phases independent of the atmosphere. In He, metallic Pd particles were formed with both the co-components. In H(2)/He flow, Pd-Cu precursors were converted to core-shell particles with a Cu shell and a Pd core, while Sb(1)Pd(1) and Sb(7)Pd(20) alloy phases were formed in the presence of Sb. Metal crystallites of about 40 nm agglomerate to particles of up to 150 nm in He and to even larger size in H(2)/He.

  9. Recyclable Aggregates of Mesoporous Titania Synthesized by Thermal Treatment of Amorphous or Peptized Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Mascolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recyclable aggregates of mesoporous titania with different anatase–rutile ratios have been prepared by thermal treatments of either amorphous or peptized precursors. These last two have been obtained by hydrolysis of either Ti(OC2H54 or of Ti(OC2H54 in mixture with 5 mol % Zr(OC3H74 at room temperature in the presence of NH4OH as a catalyzing agent. The anatase–rutile ratio, the recyclable aggregates of the nano-sized particles, the mesoporosity, the surface area and the crystallinity of the resulting crystallized products of titania can be controlled by the synthesis parameters including: concentration of ammonia catalyst, stirring time and concentration of the peptizing HNO3, drying method of peptized precursors, calcination temperature, and finally the ramp rate up to the titania crystallization temperature. A broad range of synthesis parameters control the crystal sizes of titania particles produced. This allows catalyst preparation with very different crystal size, surface area, anatase to rutile crystal ratio and various mesoporous structures. Drying by lyophilization of precursors reduce the aggregation of the primary particles giving micro-/macroporous structures.

  10. Development of Dynamic Compaction Technology for Ultra High Strength Powder Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, M. K.; Uhm, Y. R.; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. G.; Ivanov, V. V.; Hong, S. J.

    2007-04-01

    A synthesis of ultra fine powder and its compaction have been considered as a new generation and high value added technology in various industrial fields such as automobile, machine tool, electronic chip, sensor and catalyst because of its special characteristics of high toughness, strength and wear resistance which are not shown in conventional process. In this study, ultra hard and fine powders, such as Fe-Si, CuNi and Al 2 O 3 , have been fabricated by the pulsed wire evaporation (PWE) method and mechanical alloying (MA) method. In addition, with ultra hard and fine powders, the magnetic core, diamond tool and water jet nozzle with high density were made by a uniaxial dynamic compaction for the purpose of the real industrial application

  11. Annihilation characteristics of positrons in oxide powders in relation to catalytic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, K.; Ohtsu, Y.; Tanigawa, S.; Enomura, A.; Tsuda, N.

    1982-01-01

    The annihilation chaaracteristics in magnesium oxide powders were studied by the measurements of Doppler broadening of annihilation radiations. MgO powders are well known as a solid base and are utilized as a catalyst for the reactions which start by extracting protons from molecules such as decomposition of alcohol. The isochronal annealing behavior of annihilation characteristics in the process Mg(OH) 2 → MgO was found to correspond just to the change in the number of basic points, specific surface area and catalytic activities in some reactions. From the results of the thermal equilibrium measurements of MgO powders after dehydration, the temperature dependence of S parameter can be considered as the thermal activation process of the escape of positrons from trapped states at surface to form positroniums. The derived value of this activation energy was 0.187 eV. (Auth.)

  12. Hydrogen production from nano-porous Si powder formed by stain etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, S.; Alekseev, S.; Kuznetsov, G.; Skryshevsky, V. [Institute of High Technology of National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Volodymyrs' ka 64, Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Lysenko, V.; Barbier, D. [Lyon Institute of Nanotechnologies (INL), CNRS UMR-5270, University of Lyon, INSA de Lyon, 7 avenue Jean Capelle, Bat. Blaise Pascal, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Venturello, A.; Geobaldo, F.; Garrone, E. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, 10129 Torino (Italy); Gulina, L.; Tolstoy, V. [St-Petersburg State University, Chemical Department (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-15

    Hydrogen reservoirs based on porous silicon (PS) nanostructures are considered. Silicon-based hydrogen tanks are believed to be applicable for portable device energy supply and compatible with micro-sources of energy of new generation. Stain etching of silicon powder to produce PS is studied as a technology alternative to conventional electrochemical etching and application of the PS powder for hydrogen production is also described. Size selection of initial Si micro-particles constituting the powders was carried out by sedimentation technique. Hydrogen content in PS was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. Extraction of hydrogen in water environment in presence of small amount of NH{sub 3} as catalyst was shown to have advantages such as safety and tunability, additional production of hydrogen from water dissociation, and a possibility to characterize PS as a hydrogen source material in terms of hydrogen effective shell and crystalline core conception. (author)

  13. Method of solidifying powderous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakimoto, Akira; Miyake, Takashi; Sato, Shuichi; Inagaki, Yuzo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the properties of solidification products, in the case of solidifying powderous wastes with thermosetting resins. Method. A solvent for the solution of the thermosetting resin is admixed with the powderous wastes into a paste-like form prior to adding the resin to the wastes, which are then mixed with the resin solution. As the result, those solidification products having the specific gravity and the compression strength more excellent than those of the conventional ones, and much higher than the reference values can be obtained. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Cronauer, Donald C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    Catalysts are critical inputs for many pathways that convert biomass into biofuels. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the production of catalysts and chemical inputs influence the life-cycle energy consumption, and GHG emissions of biofuels and need to be considered in biofuel life-cycle analysis (LCA). In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of three different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5]) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module. They were selected because they are consumed in existing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) analyses of biofuel processes. For example, a thermochemical ethanol production pathway (indirect gasification and mixed alcohol synthesis) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses olivine, DEPG, and tar reforming and alcohol synthesis catalysts (Dutta et al., 2011). ZSM-5 can be used in biofuel production pathways such as catalytic upgrading of sugars into hydrocarbons (Biddy and Jones, 2013). Other uses for these compounds and catalysts are certainly possible. In this report, we document the data sources and methodology we used to develop material and energy flows for the catalysts and compounds in the GREET catalyst module. In Section 2 we focus on compounds used in the model Dutta et al. (2011) developed. In Section 3, we report material and energy flows associated with ZSM-5 production. Finally, in Section 4, we report results.

  15. Development of titanium based biocomposite by powder metallurgy processing with in situ forming of Ca-P phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karanjai, Malobika [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Balapur P.O., Hyderabad 500005, Andhra Pradesh (India)]. E-mail: malobika@arci.res.in; Sundaresan, Ranganathan [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Balapur P.O., Hyderabad 500005, Andhra Pradesh (India); Rao, Gummididala Venkata Narasimha [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Balapur P.O., Hyderabad 500005, Andhra Pradesh (India); Mohan, Tallapragada Raja Rama [Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India); Kashyap, Bhagwati Prasad [Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India)

    2007-02-25

    Composites of titanium and calcium-phosphorus phases were developed by powder metallurgy processing and evaluated for bioactivity. Titanium hydride powder and precursors of calcium and phosphorus in the form of calcium carbonate and di-ammonium hydrogen orthophosphate were mixed in different proportions, compacted and calcined in different atmospheres. The calcined compacts were subsequently crushed, recompacted and sintered in vacuum. In situ formation of bioactive phases like hydroxylapatite, tricalcium phosphate and calcium titanate during the calcination and sintering steps was studied using X-ray diffraction. The effect of calcination atmosphere on density, interconnected porosity, phase composition and modulus of rupture of sintered composites was examined. The sintered composites were immersed in simulated body fluid for 7 days to observe their in vitro behaviour with XRD and FTIR spectroscopic identification of deposits. Composites with 10 wt% precursors sintered from vacuum calcined powder gave the best results in terms of bioactive phases, density and strength.

  16. Green synthesis of nanocrystalline α-Al2O3 powders by both wet-chemical and mechanochemical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huiying; Li, Zhiyong; Zhao, Peng

    2018-03-01

    Nanosized α-Al2O3 powders were prepared with AlCl3ṡ6H2O and NH4HCO3 as raw materials by both wet-chemical and mechanochemical methods, through the synthesis of the ammonium aluminum carbonate hydroxide (AACH) precursor followed by calcination. The environmentally benign starch was used as an effective dispersant during the preparation of nanocrystalline α-Al2O3 powders. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to characterize the precursor AACH and products. The results show that nanosized spherical α-Al2O3 powders without hard agglomeration and with particle size in the range of 20-40 nm can be obtained by the two methods. Comparing the two “green” processes, the mechanochemical method has better prospects for commercial production.

  17. Deactivation and regeneration of refinery catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1979-08-01

    A discussion covers the mechanisms of catalyst aging, poisoning, coke deposition, and metals deposition; feedstock pretreatment to extend catalyst life; the effects of operating conditions; the effects of catalyst composition and structure on its stability; nonchemical deactivation processes; and methods of catalyst regeneration, including coke burn-off and solvent extraction.

  18. Increasing the lifetime of fuel cell catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latsuzbaia, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, I discuss a novel idea of fuel cell catalyst regeneration to increase lifetime of the PEM fuel cell electrode/catalyst operation and, therefore, reduce the catalyst costs. As many of the catalyst degradation mechanisms are difficult to avoid, the regeneration is alternative option to

  19. Impeded solid state reactions and transformations in ceramic catalysts supports and catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernő E. Kiss

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Impeded chemical reactions and impeded polymorphous transformation in materials are discussed, as desired effects, for stabilization of ceramic catalyst supports and ceramic based catalysts. This paper gives a short overview about the possibilities of slowing down the aging processes in ceramic catalyst supports and catalysts. Special attention is given to alumina and titania based catalysts.

  20. Utilization of eggshell waste as low-cost solid base catalyst for biodiesel production from used cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asri, N. P.; Podjojono, B.; Fujiani, R.; Nuraini

    2017-05-01

    A solid CaO-based catalyst of waste eggshell was developed for biodiesel production from used cooking oil. The waste eggshell powder was calcined in air at 90° C for 4 h to convert calcium species in the eggshells into active CaO catalysts. The characterization of CaO catalyst was done by XRD and BET analysis. The CaO catalyst was then introduced for transesterification of used cooking oil (UCO) for testing of its catalytic activity. The experiment was conducted in batch type reactor that consists of three-neck glass equipped by reflux condenser and magnetic stirrer. Before tranesterification process, the UCO was treated by coconut coir powder in order to reduce the free fatty acid content. The result showed that the catalyst was potentially use for transesterification of used cooking oil into biodiesel with relatively high yield of 75.92% was achieved at reaction temperature, reaction time, molar ratio UCO to methanol and catalyst amount of 65° C, 7 h, 1:15 and 6%, respectively.

  1. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.V. [Global Environmental Solutions, Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.

  2. Synthesis of Pt/rGO catalysts with two different reducing agents and their methanol electrooxidation activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Thu Ha Thi, E-mail: ptntd2004@yahoo.fr [Key Laboratory for Petrochemical and Refinery Technologies, 2 Pham Ngu Lao street, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tran, Thanh Thuy Thi, E-mail: tranthithanhthuygl@gmail.com [Key Laboratory for Petrochemical and Refinery Technologies, 2 Pham Ngu Lao street, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Le, Hong Ngan Thi; Tran, Lien Thi; Nguyen, Phuong Hoa Thi; Nguyen, Minh Dang [Key Laboratory for Petrochemical and Refinery Technologies, 2 Pham Ngu Lao street, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Quynh, Bui Ngoc [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l’environnement de Lyon, UMR5256, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Pt/rGO catalysts were successfully synthesized using either NaBH{sub 4} or ethylene glycol. • Synthesis using NaBH{sub 4} could improve electrocatalytic towards methanol oxidation of Pt/rGO catalyst. • 40%Pt/rGO synthesized using NaBH{sub 4} showed the best electrocatalytic performance. - Abstract: The synthesis processes of Platinum (Pt) on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) catalysts from graphene oxide (GO) using two reducing agents including sodium borohydride and ethylene glycol is reported. Structure and morphology of Pt/rGO catalysts are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrocatalytic methanol oxidation properties of these catalysts are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The results show that catalyst synthesized using sodium borohydride has a higher metallic Pt content and an improved catalytic performance in comparison to catalyst synthesized using ethylene glycol. Moreover, effect of Pt loading amount on electrocatalytic methanol oxidation performance of catalysts synthesized using sodium borohydride is systematically investigated. The optimal Pt loading amount on graphene is determined to be 40%.

  3. The analysis of powder diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, W.I.F.; Harrison, W.T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews neutron powder diffraction data analysis, with emphasis on the structural aspects of powder diffraction and the future possibilities afforded by the latest generation of very high resolution neutron and x-ray powder diffractometers. Traditional x-ray powder diffraction techniques are outlined. Structural studies by powder diffraction are discussed with respect to the Rietveld method, and a case study in the Rietveld refinement method and developments of the Rietveld method are described. Finally studies using high resolution powder diffraction at the Spallation Neutron Source, ISIS at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory are summarized. (U.K.)

  4. Novel synthesis of highly durable and active Pt catalyst encapsulated in nitrogen containing carbon for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoon; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choi, Insoo; Lim, Taeho; Kwon, Oh Joong

    2017-09-01

    Novel synthesis of a Pt catalyst encapsulated in a N-containing carbon layer for use in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell is described in this study. A Pt-aniline complex, formed by mixing Pt precursor and aniline monomer, was used as the source of Pt, C, and N. Heat treatment of the Pt-aniline complex with carbon black yielded 5 nm Pt nanoparticles encapsulated by a N-containing carbon layer originating from aniline carbonization. The synthesized Pt catalyst exhibited higher mass specific activity to oxygen reduction reaction than that shown by conventional Pt/C catalyst because pyridinic N with graphitic carbon in the carbon layer provided active sites for oxygen reduction reaction in addition to those provided by Pt. In single cell testing, initial performance of the synthesized catalyst was limited because the thick catalyst layer increased resistance related to mass transfer. However, it was observed that the carbon layer successfully prevented Pt nanoparticles from growing via agglomeration and Ostwald ripening under fuel cell operation, thereby improving durability. Furthermore, a mass specific performance of the synthesized catalyst higher than that of a conventional Pt/C catalyst was achieved by modifying the synthesized catalyst's layer thickness.

  5. Rapid synthesis of macrocycles from diol precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Magnus; Madsen, Charlotte Marie; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2009-01-01

    A method for the formation of synthetic macrocycles with different ring sizes from diols is presented. Reacting a simple diol precursor with electrophilic reagents leads to a cyclic carbonate, sulfite or phosphate in a single step in 25-60% yield. Converting the cyclization precursor to a bis-ele...

  6. Precursors in photonic crystals - art. no. 618218

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitham, R.; Hoenders, B. J.; DeLaRue, RM; Viktorovitch, P; Lopez, C; Midrio, M

    2006-01-01

    We derive the Sommerfeld precursor and present the first calculations for the Brillouin precursor that result from the transmission of a pulse through a photonic crystal. The photonic crystal is modelled by a one-dimensional N-layer medium and the pulse is a generic electromagnetic plane wave packet

  7. The Sommerfeld precursor in photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitham, R; Hoenders, BJ

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the Sommerfeld precursor that results after transmission of a generic electromagnetic plane wave pulse with transverse electric polarization, through a one-dimensional rectangular N-layer photonic crystal with two slabs per layer. The shape of this precursor equals the shape of the

  8. Bioinspired magnetite synthesis via solid precursor phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, J.J.M.; Mirabello, G.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms often exploit solid but poorly ordered mineral phases as precursors in the biomineralization of their inorganic body parts. Generally speaking, such precursor-based approaches allow the organisms-without the need of high supersaturation levels-to accumulate significant quantities of

  9. Metallography of powder metallurgy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawley, Alan; Murphy, Thomas F.

    2003-01-01

    The primary distinction between the microstructure of an ingot metallurgy/wrought material and one fabricated by the powder metallurgy route of pressing followed by sintering is the presence of porosity in the latter. In its various morphologies, porosity affects the mechanical, physical, chemical, electrical and thermal properties of the material. Thus, it is important to be able to characterize quantitatively the microstructure of powder metallurgy parts and components. Metallographic procedures necessary for the reliable characterization of microstructures in powder metallurgy materials are reviewed, with emphasis on the intrinsic challenges presented by the presence of porosity. To illustrate the utility of these techniques, five case studies are presented involving powder metallurgy materials. These case studies demonstrate problem solving via metallography in diverse situations: failure of a tungsten carbide-coated precipitation hardening stainless steel, failure of a steel pump gear, quantification of the degree of sinter (DOS), simulation of performance of a porous filter using automated image analysis, and analysis of failure in a sinter brazed part assembly

  10. Electro/powder separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    A report is presented to introduce the ELECTRO/POWDER process to the P/M Industry. The process effectively uses electrostatic forces to convey, sort, meter, and blend fine powders. The major advantages of this separating process consist of the processing of primary particles, low particle energy due to particle velocity control and the pattern of particle movement over the sieve (vertical oscillation of particles above the sieve aperture). The report briefly describes the forces involved in both mechanical and sieving devices, with major emphasis on the operating principles of this process. Sieve separation of particulates is basically the result of two physical separating processes which occur simultaneously or independently; separation (dispersion) of particulates from each other and the size separation by passage through fixed apertures. In order to accomplish this goal, mechanical sieving devices utilize various motions to induce shear forces between the sieve surface and the particulates, and between the particulates themselves. It is noted that the ELECTRO/POWDER process is making steady progress in becoming an industrial tool for sieving and feeding of fine particles. Its potential extends into both the blending and admixing of powders, either by incorporating two opposing feeders, one being charged with the opposite polarity or by modifying the ELECTRO/SIEVE to incorporate more than one input and a solid electrode to replace the sieve electrode

  11. Recycling of waste spent catalyst in road construction and masonry blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ramzi; Al-Kamyani, Zahran; Al-Jabri, Khalifa; Baawain, Mahad; Al-Shamsi, Khalid

    2012-08-30

    Waste spent catalyst is generated in Oman as a result of the cracking process of petroleum oil in the Mina Al-Fahl and Sohar Refineries. The disposal of spent catalyst is of a major concern to oil refineries. Stabilized spent catalyst was evaluated for use in road construction as a whole replacement for crushed aggregates in the sub-base and base layers and as a partial replacement for Portland cement in masonry blocks manufacturing. Stabilization is necessary as the waste spent catalyst exists in a powder form and binders are needed to attain the necessary strength required to qualify its use in road construction. Raw spent catalyst was also blended with other virgin aggregates, as a sand or filler replacement, for use in road construction. Compaction, unconfined compressive strength and leaching tests were performed on the stabilized mixtures. For its use in masonry construction, blocks were tested for unconfined compressive strength at various curing periods. Results indicate that the spent catalyst has a promising potential for use in road construction and masonry blocks without causing any negative environmental impacts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Palm Frond and Spikelet as Environmentally Benign Alternative Solid Acid Catalysts for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Muhammad Sani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A carbonization-sulfonation method was utilized in synthesizing sulfonated mesoporous catalysts from palm tree biomass. Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, and field emission scanning emission microscopy (FE-SEM analyses were used to evaluate the structural and textural properties of the catalysts. Further, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and titrimetric analyses measured the strong acid value and acidity distribution of the materials. These analyses indicated that the catalysts had large mesopore volume, large surface area, uniform pore size, and high acid density. The catalytic activity exhibited by esterifying used frying oil (UFO containing high (48% free fatty acid (FFA content further indicated these properties. All catalysts exhibited high activity, with sPTS/400 converting more than 98% FFA into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs. The catalyst exhibited the highest acid density, 1.2974 mmol/g, determined by NaOH titration. This is outstanding considering the lower reaction parameters of 5 h, 5:1 methanol-to-oil ratio, and a moderate temperature range between 100 and 200 °C. The study further illustrates the prospect of converting wastes into highly efficient, benign, and recyclable solid acid catalysts.

  13. thesis of high-purity carbon nanotubes over alumina and silica supported bimetallic catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Ratković

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs were synthesized by a catalytic chemical vapor deposition method (CCVD of ethylene over alumina and silica supported bimetallic catalysts based on Fe, Co and Ni. The catalysts were prepared by a precipitation method, calcined at 600 °C and in situ reduced in hydrogen flow at 700 °C. The CNTs growth was carried out by a flow the mixture of C2H4 and nitrogen over the catalyst powder in a horizontal oven. The structure and morphology of as-synthesized CNTs were characterized using SEM. The as-synthesized nanotubes were purified by acid and basic treatments in order to remove impurities such as amorphous carbon, graphite nanoparticles and metal catalysts. XRD and DTA/TG analyses showed that the amounts of by-products in the purified CNTs samples were reduced significantly. According to the observed results, ethylene is an active carbon source for growing high-density CNTs with high yield but more on alumina-supported catalysts than on their silica- supported counterparts. The last might be explained by SMSI formed in the case of alumina-supported catalysts, resulting in higher active phase dispersion.

  14. Evaluation of mechanical properties in metal wire mesh supported selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajath, S.; Siddaraju, C.; Nandakishora, Y.; Roy, Sukumar

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate certain specific mechanical properties of certain stainless steel wire mesh supported Selective catalytic reduction catalysts structures wherein the physical properties of the metal wire mesh and also its surface treatments played vital role thereby influencing the mechanical properties. As the adhesion between the stainless steel wire mesh and the catalyst material determines the bond strength and the erosion resistance of catalyst structures, surface modifications of the metal- wire mesh structure in order to facilitate the interface bonding is therefore very important to realize enhanced level of mechanical properties. One way to enhance such adhesion properties, the stainless steel wire mesh is treated with the various acids, i.e., chromic acid, phosphoric acid including certain mineral acids and combination of all those in various molar ratios that could generate surface active groups on metal surface that promotes good interface structure between the metal- wire mesh and metal oxide-based catalyst material and then the stainless steel wire mesh is dipped in the glass powder slurry containing some amount of organic binder. As a result of which the said catalyst material adheres to the metal-wire mesh surface more effectively that improves the erosion profile of supported catalysts structure including bond strength.

  15. Effect of chemically reduced palladium supported catalyst on sunflower oil hydrogenation conversion and selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajid Alshaibani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrogenation of sunflower oil was studied in order to improve the conversion and to reduce the trans-isomerization selectivity. The hydrogenation was performed using Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 prepared catalyst and Pd/Al2O3 commercial catalyst under similar conditions. The Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation and chemical reduction processes. It was characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis (BET, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The result of sunflower oil hydrogenation on Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst showed a 17% higher conversion and a 23% lower trans-isomerization selectivity compared to the commercial Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. The chemical reduction of palladium supported catalyst using potassium borohydride (KBH4 has affected the Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst’s structure and particle size. These most likely influenced its catalytic performance toward higher conversion and lower trans-isomerization selectivity.

  16. Transition metal sulfide promoted molybdenum or tungsten sulfide catalysts and their uses for hydroprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.J.; Chianelli, R.R.; Pecoraro, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    A process is described for hydrorefining a hydrocarbon feed which comprises contacting the feed at a temperature of at least about 150 0 C and in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst obtained by heating one or more precursor salts at elevated temperature of at least about 150 0 C, in the presence of sulfur or one or more sulfur-bearing compounds and under oxygen-free conditions for a time sufficient to form the catalyst. The precursor salt contains a tetrathiometallate anion of Mo, W or mixture thereof and a cation comprising one or more divalent promoter metals which are chelated by at least one neutral, nitrogen-containing polydentate ligand. The divalent promoter metal is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Co, Zn, Cu and mixture thereof. The contacting occurs for a time sufficient to hydrorefine at least a portion of the feed

  17. Rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinjoh, Hirohumi

    2006-01-01

    The usage of rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts is demonstrated in this paper. Rare earth metals have been widely used in automotive catalysts. In particular, three-way catalysts require the use of ceria compounds as oxygen storage materials, and lanthana as both a stabilizer of alumina and a promoter. The application for diesel catalysts is also illustrated. Effects of inclusion of rare earth metals in automotive catalysts are discussed

  18. Biomass processing over gold catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Simakova, Olga A; Murzin, Dmitry Yu

    2014-01-01

    The book describes the valorization of biomass-derived compounds over gold catalysts. Since biomass is a rich renewable feedstock for diverse platform molecules, including those currently derived from petroleum, the interest in various transformation routes has become intense. Catalytic conversion of biomass is one of the main approaches to improving the economic viability of biorefineries.  In addition, Gold catalysts were found to have outstanding activity and selectivity in many key reactions. This book collects information about transformations of the most promising and important compounds derived from cellulose, hemicelluloses, and woody biomass extractives. Since gold catalysts possess high stability under oxidative conditions, selective oxidation reactions were discussed more thoroughly than other critical reactions such as partial hydrogenation, acetalization, and isomerization. The influence of reaction conditions, the role of the catalyst, and the advantages and disadvantages of using gold are pre...

  19. The interrelationships of mathematical precursors in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Paul T

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the interrelations among cognitive precursors across quantitative, linguistic, and spatial attention domains that have been implicated for math achievement in young children. The dimensionality of the quantity precursors was evaluated in 286 kindergarteners via latent variable techniques, and the contribution of precursors from each domain was established for small sums addition. Results showed a five-factor structure for the quantity precursors, with the major distinction being between nonsymbolic and symbolic tasks. The overall model demonstrated good fit and strong predictive power (R(2)=55%) for addition number combinations. Linguistic and spatial attention domains showed indirect relationships with outcomes, with their effects mediated by symbolic quantity measures. These results have implications for the measurement of mathematical precursors and yield promise for predicting future math performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Catalytic conversion of 11CO2 and 11CO into synthesis precursors for 11C labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patt, J.T.

    1994-03-01

    The positron emitter carbon-11 (T 1/2 =20.3 min) is an ideal radio nuclide for tracers in positron emission tomography (PET). In this study catalytic methods for the synthesis of [ 11 C]alcohols have been investigated. The formation of [ 11 C]methanol has been studied on Pd/Al 2 O 3 and Cu/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 catalysts with respect to CO and CO 2 carrier addition to the synthesis gas. Carbon monoxide was identified as the precursor of methanol formation on the Pd/Al 2 O 3 -catalyst. In contrast on the Cu/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 -catalyst methanol was formed on a reaction pathway via an adsorbed CO 2 -species. A n.c.a.-[ 11 C]methanol synthesis basing on the Cu/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 -catalyst has been developed by substitution of the oxygen containing components CO and CO 2 in the synthesis gas by N 2 O. The radiochemical yield, the low selectivity of [ 11 C]methanol production and the rather slow kinetics of this process were arguments against the practical use of this process in the synthesis of 11 C-labelling agents. (orig.)

  1. Model studies of methanol synthesis on copper catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, J.; Nakamura, I.; Uchijima, T. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Research Inst. of Innovative Technology for Earth, Kyoto (Japan); Fujitani, T. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The synthesis of methanol by the hydrogenation of CO{sub 2} over Zn-deposited and Zn-free copper surfaces has been studied using an XPS apparatus combined with a high-pressure flow reactor (18 atm). It was shown that the Zn deposited on Cu(111) and poly-Cu acted as a promoter for methanol synthesis, while the Zn on Cu(110) and Cu(100) had no such a promotional effect. The turnover frequency (TOF) for Zn/Cu(111) linearly increased with Zn coverage below {Theta}Zn--0.19, and then decreased above {Theta}Zn=0.20. The optimum TOF obtained at {Theta}Zn--0-19 was thirteen-fold larger than TOF for the Zn-free Cu(111) surface. On the other hand, no promotional effect of Zn was observed for the reverse water-gas shift reaction on all the surfaces. The results indicate the formation of special sites for methanol synthesis on Zn/Cu(111). The Zn-deposited Cu(111) can be regarded as a model of Cu/ZnO catalysts because the TOF and the activation energy for methanol formation over the Zn-deposited Cu(111) were in fairly good agreement with those for the Cu/ZnO powder catalysts. The post-reaction surface analysis by XPS showed the formation of formate species (HCOOa). The formate coverage was proportional to the activity for methanol formation below {Theta}Zn=0.20, suggesting that the hydrogenation of the formate species is the rate-determining step of methanol formation. The formate species was stabilized by Zn species on Cu(111) in the absence of ZnO species. STM results on the Zn-deposited Cu(111) suggested the formation of a Cu-Zn surface alloy. The presence of special sites for methanol synthesis was also indicated in the results of powder catalysts.

  2. Characterization of Catalyst Materials for Production of Aerospace Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Lauren M.; De La Ree, Ana B.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    Due to environmental, economic, and security issues, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to non-petroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. Additionally, efforts are concentrated on reducing costs coupled with fuel production from non-conventional sources. One solution to this issue is Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid technology. Fischer-Tropsch processing of synthesis gas (CO/H2) produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fisher-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur or aromatic compounds. This process is most commonly catalyzed by heterogeneous (in this case, silver and platinum) catalysts composed of cobalt supported on alumina or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Physisorption, chemisorptions, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are described to better understand the potential performance of Fischer-Tropsch cobalt on alumina catalysts promoted with silver and platinum. The overall goal is to preferentially produce C8 to C18 paraffin compounds for use as aerospace fuels. Progress towards this goal will eventually be updated and achieved by a more thorough understanding of the characterization of catalyst materials. This work was supported by NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing and In-situ Resource Utilization projects.

  3. A tailored catalyst for the sustainable conversion of glycerol to acrolein: mechanistic aspect of sequential dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Danim; Kim, Tae Yong; Park, Dae Sung; Yun, Yang Sik; Han, Jeong Woo; Yi, Jongheop

    2014-08-01

    Developing a catalyst to resolve deactivation caused from coke is a primary challenge in the dehydration of glycerol to acrolein. An open-macropore-structured and Brønsted-acidic catalyst (Marigold-like silica functionalized with sulfonic acid groups, MS-FS) was synthesized for the stable and selective production of acrolein from glycerol. A high acrolein yield of 73% was achieved and maintained for 50 h in the presence of the MS-FS catalyst. The hierarchical structure of the catalyst with macropores was found to have an important effect on the stability of the catalyst because coke polymerization and pore blocking caused by coke deposition were inhibited. In addition, the behavior of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) during the sequential dehydration was studied using density functional theory (DFT) calculations because 3-HPA conversion is one of the main causes for coke formation. We found that the easily reproducible Brønsted acid sites in MS-FS permit the selective and stable production of acrolein. This is because the reactive intermediate (3-HPA) is readily adsorbed on the regenerated acid sites, which is essential for the selective production of acrolein during the sequential dehydration. The regeneration ability of the acid sites is related not only to the selective production of acrolein but also to the retardation of catalyst deactivation by suppressing the formation of coke precursors originating from 3-HPA degradation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Fischer-Tropsch Cobalt Catalyst Activation and Handling Through Wax Enclosure Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klettlinger, Jennifer L. S.; Yen, Chia H.; Nakley, Leah M.; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2016-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis is considered a gas to liquid process which converts syn-gas, a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, into liquids of various hydrocarbon chain length and product distributions. Cobalt based catalysts are used in F-T synthesis and are the focus of this paper. One key concern with handling cobalt based catalysts is that the active form of catalyst is in a reduced state, metallic cobalt, which oxidizes readily in air. In laboratory experiments, the precursor cobalt oxide catalyst is activated in a fixed bed at 350 ?C then transferred into a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with inert gas. NASA has developed a process which involves the enclosure of active cobalt catalyst in a wax mold to prevent oxidation during storage and handling. This improved method allows for precise catalyst loading and delivery into a CSTR. Preliminary results indicate similar activity levels in the F-T reaction in comparison to the direct injection method. The work in this paper was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project.

  5. Characterization of a surface modified carbon cryogel and a carbon supported Pt catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILJANA M. BABIĆ

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A carbon cryogel, synthesized by carbonization of a resorcinol/formaldehyde cryogel and oxidized in nitric acid, was used as catalyst support for Pt nano-particles. The Pt/C catalyst was prepared by a modified polyol synthesis method in an ethylene glycol (EG solution. Characterization by nitrogen adsorption showed that the carbon cryogel support and the Pt/C catalyst were mesoporous materials with high specific surface areas (SBET > 400 m2 g-1 and large mesoporous volumes. X-Ray diffraction of the catalyst demonstrated the successful reduction of the Pt precursor to metallic form. TEM Images of the Pt/C catalyst and Pt particle size distribution showed that the mean Pt particle size was about 3.3 nm. Cyclic voltammetry (CV experiments at various scan rates (from 2 to 200 mV s-1 were performed in 0.5 mol dm-3 HClO4 solution. The large capacitance of the oxidized carbon cryogel electrode, which arises from a combination of the double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance, associated with the participation of surface redox-type reactions was demonstrated. For the oxidized carbon cryogel, the total specific capacitance determined by 1/C vs. ν0.5 extrapolation method was found to be 386 F g-1. The hydrogen oxidation reaction at the investigated Pt/C catalyst proceeded as an electrochemically reversible, two-electron direct discharge reaction.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of Al2O3 obtained from the polymeric precursor method using glycerin as a poly alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elicker, C.; Gaier, M.; Almeida, S.R.; Vieiraaa, B.M.; Ratmann, C.W.R.; Pereira, C.M.P. de; Cava, S.S.; Egea, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, calcium aluminate was synthesized using glycerin to replace ethylene glycol in the polymeric precursor method. The resulting resin was pre-calcined in a muffle at 300 °C for 2 h and the resulting material was calcined at 900 °C for 2 h. The powders were analyzed by XRD, SEM and EDX, TEM, Micro-Raman and IR. The results demonstrated the possibility of using glycerin as an alternative to ethylene glycol in the polymeric precursor method. (author)

  7. Synthesis of Nanoparticles of the Giant Dielectric Material, CaCu3Ti4O12 from a Precursor Route

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, P.; Dwarakanath, K.; Varma, K. B. R.; Kutty, T. R. N.

    2013-01-01

    A complex oxalate precursor, CaCu3(TiO)4(C2O4)8.9H2O, was synthesized and the precipitate that obtained was confirmed to be monophasic by the wet chemical analyses, X-ray diffraction, FTIR absorption and TG, DTA analyses. The thermal decomposition of this oxalate precursor led to the formation of phase-pure calcium copper titanate, CaCu3Ti4O12, at 680oC. The bright field TEM micrographs revealed that the size of the as synthesized crystallites to be in the 30 to 80 nm range. The powders so ob...

  8. Nanoparticles of the giant dielectric material, CaCu3Ti4O12 from a precursor route

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, P.; Dwarakanath, K.; Varma, K. B. R.; Kutty, T. R. N.

    2013-01-01

    A method of preparing the nanoparticles of CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) with the crystallite size varying from 30 to 200 nm is optimized at a temperature as low as 680 1C from the exothermic thermal decomposition of an oxalate precursor, CaCu3(TiO)4(C2O4)8 ? 9H2O. The phase singularity of the complex oxalate precursor is confirmed by the wet chemical analyses, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and TGA,DTA analyses. The UV Vis reflectance and ESR spectra of CCTO powders indicate that the Cu(II) coordination chan...

  9. Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Fleischhauer, Grier; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  10. Ceramic Inclusions In Powder Metallurgy Disk Alloys: Characterization and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacuse, Pete; Kantzos, Pete; Telesman, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Powder metallurgy alloys are increasingly used in gas turbine engines, especially as the material chosen for turbine disks. Although powder metallurgy materials have many advantages over conventionally cast and wrought alloys (higher strength, higher temperature capability, etc.), they suffer from the rare occurrence of ceramic defects (inclusions) that arise from the powder atomization process. These inclusions can have potentially large detrimental effect on the durability of individual components. An inclusion in a high stress location can act as a site for premature crack initiation and thereby considerably reduce the fatigue life. Because these inclusions are exceedingly rare, they usually don't reveal themselves in the process of characterizing the material for a particular application (the cumulative volume of the test bars in a fatigue life characterization is typically on the order of a single actual component). Ceramic inclusions have, however, been found to be the root cause of a number of catastrophic engine failures. To investigate the effect of these inclusions in detail, we have undertaken a study where a known population of ceramic particles, whose composition and morphology are designed to mimic the 'natural' inclusions, are added to the precursor powder. Surface connected inclusions have been found to have a particularly large detrimental effect on fatigue life, therefore the volume of ceramic 'seeds' added is calculated to ensure that a minimum number will occur on the surface of the fatigue test bars. Because the ceramic inclusions are irregularly shaped and have a tendency to break up in the process of extrusion and forging, a method of calculating the probability of occurrence and expected intercepted surface and embedded cross-sectional areas were needed. We have developed a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the distributions of these parameters and have verified the simulated results with observations of ceramic inclusions found in macro

  11. Efficient Air Desulfurization Catalysts Derived from Pig Manure Liquefaction Char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Wallace

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biochar from the liquefaction of pig manure was used as a precursor of H2S desulfurization adsorbents. In its inorganic matter, it contains marked quantities of calcium, magnesium and iron, which are known as hydrogen sulfide oxidation catalysts. The char was used either as-received or mixed with 10% nanographite. The latter was added to increase both the content of the carbon phase and conductivity. ZnCl2 in two different ratios of char to an activation agent (1:1 and 1:2 was used to create the porosity in the carbon phase. The content of the later was between 18–45%. The activated samples adsorbed 144 mg/g H2S. Sulfur was the predominant product of reactive adsorption. Its deposition in the pore system and blockage of the most active pores ceased the materials’ activity. The presence of the catalytic phase was necessary but not sufficient to guarantee good performance. The developed porosity, which can store oxidation products in the resulting composite, is essential for the good performance of the desulfurization process. The surface of the composite with nanographite showed the highest catalytic activity, similar to that of the commercial Midas® carbon catalyst. The results obtained indicate that a high quality reactive adsorbent/catalyst for H2S removal can be obtained from pig manure liquefaction wastes.

  12. Microstructure of SiC ceramics fabricated by pyrolysis of electron beam irradiated polycarbomethylsilane containing precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yunshu; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    A modified gel-casting method was developed to form the ceramics precursor matrix by using polycarbomehylsilane (PCMS) and SiC powder. The polymer precursor was mixed with SiC powder in toluene, and then the slurry samples were cast into designed shapes. The pre-ceramic samples were then irradiated by 2.0 MeV electron beam generated by a Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator in He gas flow to about 15 MGy. The cured samples were pyrolyzed and sintered into SiC ceramics at 1300degC in Ar gas. The modified gel-casting method leaves almost no internal stress in the pre-ceramic samples, and the electron beam curing not only diminished the amount of pyrolysis gaseous products but also enhanced the interface binding of the polymer converted SiC and the grains of SiC powder. Optical microscope, AFM and SEM detected no visible internal or surface cracks in the final SiC ceramics matrix. A maximum value of 122 MPa of flexural strength of the final SiC ceramics was achieved. (author)

  13. Cross-Aldol condensation of isobutyraldehyde and formaldehyde using phase transfer catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Hashmi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The hydroxypivaldehyde (HPA precursor intermediate for the synthesis of neopentyl glycol (NPG is prepared by novel cross Aldol condensation of isobutyraldehyde and formaldehyde at 20 °C using benzyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, a basic phase transfer catalyst. A feed mole ratio of 1.1:1.0:0.04 (isobutyraldehyde:formaldehyde:benzyltrimethylammonium hydroxide afforded hydroxypivaldehyde as white solid in almost quantitative yield with ∼100% selectivity.

  14. Cross-Aldol condensation of isobutyraldehyde and formaldehyde using phase transfer catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Azhar Hashmi

    2016-01-01

    The hydroxypivaldehyde (HPA) precursor intermediate for the synthesis of neopentyl glycol (NPG) is prepared by novel cross Aldol condensation of isobutyraldehyde and formaldehyde at 20 °C using benzyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, a basic phase transfer catalyst. A feed mole ratio of 1.1:1.0:0.04 (isobutyraldehyde:formaldehyde:benzyltrimethylammonium hydroxide) afforded hydroxypivaldehyde as white solid in almost quantitative yield with ∼100% selectivity.

  15. The innovation catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roger L

    2011-06-01

    A few years ago the software development company Intuit realized that it needed a new approach to galvanizing customers. The company's Net Promoter Score was faltering, and customer recommendations of new products were especially disappointing. Intuit decided to hold a two-day, off-site meeting for the company's top 300 managers with a focus on the role of design in innovation. One of the days was dedicated to a program called Design for Delight. The centerpiece of the day was a PowerPoint presentation by Intuit founder Scott Cook, who realized midway through that he was no Steve Jobs: The managers listened dutifully, but there was little energy in the room. By contrast, a subsequent exercise in which the participants worked through a design challenge by creating prototypes, getting feedback, iterating, and refining, had them mesmerized. The eventual result was the creation of a team of nine design-thinking coaches--"innovation catalysts"--from across Intuit who were made available to help any work group create prototypes, run experiments, and learn from customers. The process includes a "painstorm" (to determine the customer's greatest pain point), a "soljam" (to generate and then winnow possible solutions), and a "code-jam" (to write code "good enough" to take to customers within two weeks). Design for Delight has enabled employees throughout Intuit to move from satisfying customers to delighting them.

  16. Preparation of powders Ag3PO4 and study of their photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badurova, K.

    2014-01-01

    In our thesis we dealt with preparing powders of Ag 3 PO 4 by using Na 2 HPO 4 ·12H 2 O and Na 3 PO 4 ·12H 2 O as two different precursors. Samples were prepared by precipitation and mechanochemical methods. Photocatalytic efficiency of individual samples was studied by irradiation of suspensions of prepared powders with methylene blue (MB) solution and with phenol solution using source of light similar to solar light. Photocatalytic efficiency was determined via method of determination of total organic carbon (TOC) as the time dependence of phenol concentration and also via monitoring spectrophotometric parameters of solution as the time dependence of MB solution colouring intensity. Effect of sample preparation method on photocatalytic efficiency and morphology of particles was studied. After that, samples were characterised by X-ray powder diffraction method (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy (authors)

  17. Obtainment of TiO2 powders solar cells photo electrodes dye sensitized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbeck, Guilherme; Folgueras, Marilena V.; Chinelatto, Adilson L.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide in its polymorphic anatase phase, presents interesting properties for solar cells photo electrodes dye sensitized such as the forbidden energy band, high refractive index and high constant dielectric. In this study, powders of nanometric titanium dioxide were produced with predominantly the anatase phase and high surface area. We used the sol-gel method, and titanium tetraisopropoxide as a precursor, which was hydrolyzed in nitric acid solution. The obtained powder was heated to 450 ° C, varying the time for each lot (0, 20 or 120 minutes). The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and surface area analysis. For all lots nanosized crystallites predominated. It was observed that in the batch with 120min heating an increase rutile content. The TiO 2 with 20min heating showed high surface area, greater than that of TiO 2 as taken reference

  18. Synthesis and characterization of lead zirconate titanate powders obtained by the oxidant peroxo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Emerson R. [LIEC-Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Department of Chemistry, UFSCar-Federal University of Sao Carlos, Rod. Washington Luis km 235, CP 676, Sao Carlos SP, 13565-905 (Brazil)], E-mail: camargo@ufscar.br; Leite, Edson R. [LIEC-Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Department of Chemistry, UFSCar-Federal University of Sao Carlos, Rod. Washington Luis km 235, CP 676, Sao Carlos SP, 13565-905 (Brazil)], E-mail: derl@power.ufscar.br; Longo, Elson [Department of Biochemistry, Chemistry Institute of Araraquara, UNESP, Sao Paulo State University Rua Francisco Degni, CP 355 Araraquara SP, 14801-907 Brazil (Brazil)], E-mail: elson@iq.unesp.br

    2009-02-05

    Lead zirconate titanate (PbZr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3}) was synthesized by the 'oxidant peroxo method (OPM)' with 'x' between 0.25 and 0.50. Titanium metal was dissolved into a hydrogen peroxide/ammonia aqueous solution, followed by the addition of lead and zirconium nitrate solution. The amorphous precipitated precursor obtained was crystallized by heat treatment between 400 and 1000 deg. C. Images of transmission microscopy showed spherical particles with average diameter between 20 and 60 nm, and the presence of necks between particles treated at 700 deg. C. All of the unpressed powders were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Powder samples with 'x' up to 0.35 showed rhombohedral structure when treated at temperatures higher than 500 deg. C, and tetragonal structure when 'x' was higher than 0.40. Analysis of XRD and Raman spectroscopy of the precursor powders showed amorphous-like structures, however powders treated at 400 deg. C showed a structure identified as an intermediate pyrochlore phase, independently of the Zr and Ti mole ratio.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of lead zirconate titanate powders obtained by the oxidant peroxo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Emerson R.; Leite, Edson R.; Longo, Elson

    2009-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PbZr 1-x Ti x O 3 ) was synthesized by the 'oxidant peroxo method (OPM)' with 'x' between 0.25 and 0.50. Titanium metal was dissolved into a hydrogen peroxide/ammonia aqueous solution, followed by the addition of lead and zirconium nitrate solution. The amorphous precipitated precursor obtained was crystallized by heat treatment between 400 and 1000 deg. C. Images of transmission microscopy showed spherical particles with average diameter between 20 and 60 nm, and the presence of necks between particles treated at 700 deg. C. All of the unpressed powders were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Powder samples with 'x' up to 0.35 showed rhombohedral structure when treated at temperatures higher than 500 deg. C, and tetragonal structure when 'x' was higher than 0.40. Analysis of XRD and Raman spectroscopy of the precursor powders showed amorphous-like structures, however powders treated at 400 deg. C showed a structure identified as an intermediate pyrochlore phase, independently of the Zr and Ti mole ratio

  20. Nano Transition Metal Sulfide Catalyst for Solvolysis Liquefaction of Soda Lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei-Ling, P.; Chin-Hua, C.; Sarani Zakaria; Soon-Keong, N.; Tze-Khong, L.

    2011-01-01

    Solvolysis liquefaction of soda lignin in the presence of various transition metal sulfide catalysts was studied to investigate the catalyst effects on the oil and gas yields, conversion rate and higher heating value (HHV) of oil. Nano sized copper sulfide, iron sulfide and molybdenum sulfide were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method under reaction temperature 200 degree Celsius for 90 min. The addition of transition metal sulfide based catalysts (CuS, MoS 2 and FeS 2 ) enhanced both production of the oils and gas and the higher heating value (HHV) of oil products. A high oil and gas yields of 82.1 % and 2890 cm 3 was obtained with MoS 2 at 250 degree Celsius for 60 min. Elemental analyses for the oils revealed that the liquid products have much higher heating values than the crude soda lignin powder. (author)