WorldWideScience

Sample records for catalyst poisoning

  1. Deactivation and poisoning of fuel cell catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P. N., Jr.

    1985-06-01

    The deactivation and poisoning phenomena reviewed are: the poisoning of anode (fuel electrode) catalyst by carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide; the deactivation of the cathode (air electrode) catalyst by sintering; and the deactivation of the cathode by corrosion of the support. The anode catalyst is Pt supported on a conductive, high area carbon black, usually at a loading of 10 w/o. This catalyst is tolerant to some level of carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide or both in combination, the level depending on temperature and pressure. Much less is known about hydrogen sulfide poisoning. Typical tolerance levels are 2% CO, and 10 ppM H2S. The cathode catalyst is typically Pt supported on a raphitic carbon black, usually a furnace black heat-treated to 2700 C. The Pt loading is typically 10 w/o, and the dispersion (or percent exposed) as-prepared is typically 30%. The loss of dispersion in use depends on the operational parameters, most especially the cathode potential history, i.e., higher potentials cause more rapid decrease in dispersion. The mechanism of loss of dispersion is not well known. The graphitic carbon support corrodes at a finite rate that is also potential dependent. Support corrosion causes thickening of the electrolyte film between the gas pores and the catalyst particles, which in turn causes increased diffusional resistance and performance loss.

  2. POISON RESISTANT CATALYST DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew W. Wang

    2001-03-29

    The Alternative Fuels Field Test Unit (AFFTU) is a portable laboratory designed specifically to provide on-site evaluation of potential feedstocks for processes that produce alternative fuels from indigenous raw materials such as coal, natural gas or environmentally disadvantaged carbonaceous feedstocks. Since conversion of these raw materials into feed gas streams can produce a variety of bulk gas compositions, which furthermore can contain a myriad of trace components, it is necessary to evaluate each new feedstock on an individual basis. While it is possible to prepare blended gas mixtures to simulate the bulk composition of a known feedstock, it is neither possible nor cost-effective to simulate adequately the variety of trace chemicals present in that feedstock--some of which may not even be detected by routine analysis. Additionally, the transient composition of the gas during upsets or routine process changes may have an impact on the proposed process that is not foreseen in standard design. To address these concerns, the AFFTU was constructed with the following experimental capabilities: (1) A state-of-the-art gas chromatograph system to perform semi-continuous monitoring of both bulk composition and the concentration of key trace poisons down to one part per billion (ppb). (2) A 30-mL reactor system that can accept up to two feed streams from the customer, allowing a true life test with the actual gas projected for use in the proposed facility. (3) A manifold of four adsorbent beds, located upstream of the reactor, which permits the testing of adsorbents for the removal of contaminants from the feed stream. The effectiveness of these adsorbents may be evaluated either by analysis of the gas upstream and downstream of the bed (or at an intermediate point within the bed) or by observing the impact of the presence or absence of that bed on the actual stability of the catalyst activity. To achieve portability, the AFFTU was constructed in a commercial 48-foot

  3. POISONING OF ACTIVE SITES ON ZIEGLER-NATTA CATALYST FOR PROPYLENE POLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitti Tangjituabun; Sang Yull Kim; Yuichi Hiraoka; Toshiaki Taniike; Minoru Terano; Bunjerd Jongsomjit; Piyasan Praserthdam

    2008-01-01

    The effects of poisoning materials on catalytic activity and isospecificity of the supported Ziegler-Natta catalyst were investigated.A minor amount of simple structure of Lewis base,i.e.,methanol,acetone,ethyl acetate,was introduced into the catalyst slurry for partial poisoning catalytic active centers.It was found that the variations in deactivation power were in the order of methanol>acetone>ethyl acetate.The kinetic investigation via stopped-flow polymerization showed that poisoning compounds caused a decrease in activity through the reduction of the number of active sites whereas no effect on the degree of isotacticity was observed.

  4. Design strategies for development of SCR catalyst: improvement of alkali poisoning resistance and novel regeneration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yue; Li, Junhua; Shi, Wenbo; Xu, Jiayu; Hao, Jiming

    2012-11-20

    Based on the ideas of the additives modification and regeneration method update, two different strategies were designed to deal with the traditional SCR catalyst poisoned by alkali metals. First, ceria doping on the V(2)O(5)-WO(3)/TiO(2) catalyst could promote the SCR performance even reducing the V loading, which resulted in the enhancement of the catalyst's alkali poisoning resistance. Then, a novel method, electrophoresis treatment, was employed to regenerate the alkali poisoned V(2)O(5)-WO(3)/TiO(2) catalyst. This novel technique could dramatically enhance the SCR activities of the alkali poisoned catalysts by removing approximately 95% K or Na ions from the catalyst and showed less hazardous to the environment. Finally, the deactivation mechanisms by the alkali metals were extensively studied by employing both the experimental and DFT theoretical approaches. Alkali atom mainly influences the active site V species rather than W oxides. The decrease of catalyst surface acidity might directly reduce the catalytic activity, while the reducibility of catalysts could be another important factor.

  5. Tungstated zirconia as promising carrier for DeNOx catalysts with improved resistance towards alkali poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Kustov, Arkadii; Rasmussen, Søren Birk;

    2006-01-01

    Use of biomass as an alternative to fossil fuels has achieved increasing interest since it is considered neutral regarding CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere. The by far most energy-efficient use of solid bio-resources in energy production is combustion in combined biomass and coal or oilfired po......, and NH3-TPD methods. The influence of calcination temperature of zirconia modified with tungsten oxide on the textural characteristics, acidity and catalytic performance was studied. The resistance of the catalysts towards model poisoning with potassium was found to depend dramatically...... on the crystallinity of the zirconia and on the surface acidity. Vanadia supported on tungstated zirconia calcined at 700 8C revealed superior catalytic performance and resistance towards alkali poisoning in comparison with a traditional catalyst. The improved poisoning resistance of the samples based on tungstated...

  6. The different poisoning behaviors of various alkali metal containing compounds on SCR catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xuesen; Yang, Guangpeng; Chen, Yanrong; Ran, Jingyu; Zhang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Alkali metals are poisonous to the metal oxide catalyst for NO removal. The chemical configuration of alkali containing substance and interacting temperature can affect the poisoning profile. A computational method based on Frontier Molecular Orbital analysis was proposed to determine the reacting behavior of various alkali-containing substances with SCR catalyst. The results reveal that the poisoning reactivities of various substances can be ranked as: E (MOH) > E (M2SO4) > E(MCl) > E(MNO3) > E(MHSO4). The experimental activity tests of the catalysts calcined at stepped temperatures show that NaOH can react with the catalyst below 200 °C. NaCl and NaNO3 start to react with the catalyst at a temperature between 300 and 400 °C. Unlike MOH, MCl and MNO3, which can produce volatile or decomposable species for the anions after reacting with the catalyst, M2SO4 and MHSO4 will leave both cations and anions on the catalyst surface. The sulfate ions left on the catalyst can generate active acid sites for NH3 adsorption. The experimental results also show that Na2SO4 and NaHSO4 will not lower the NO conversion. The after-reaction influences of various alkali metals were studied using theoretical and experimental methods. The theoretical results show that the acidity decreases with doping of alkali metal. Experiments show a consistent result that the NO conversion decreases as undoped >LiCl > NaCl > KCl.

  7. Poisoning of noble metal catalysts by arsenic and silicon compounds in an oxidizing atmosphere. Die Vergiftung von Edelmetall-Katalysatoren durch Arsen- und Siliziumverbindungen unter oxidierenden Verbindungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaizik, A.

    1984-01-12

    The dissertation deals with the poisoning of noble metal catalysts by arsenic and silicon compounds in an oxidizing atmosphere. The problem was studied in the field of catalytic exhaust and waste air post-combustion, but the findings can be applied to other catalytic processes in which arsenic and silicon compounds may occur as catalyst poisons. The following issues were investigated: 1. Kinetics of arsenic and silicon poisoning of platinum-containing carrier catalysts; 2. Regeneration of poisoned catalysts; 3. mathematical modelling of the poisoning processes.

  8. Influence of H2S poisoned biomethane on catalyst performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijstens, A.J.; Beuman, W.P.H.; Molen, M. van de; Bleuanus, W.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the level of H2S in the fuel on catalyst performance was investigated. The main conclusion is that at H2S levels of 30ppm and above, it is probable that the exhaust gas emissions of NGV’s are negatively influenced. Further research is suggested to: 1) Determine the effect of differe

  9. Effect of matrix on the metal poisoning of REY catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.J.; Chen, Y.W. [National Central Univ., Chungli (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Li, C. [Chinese Petroleum Corp., Chiayi (Taiwan, Province of China). Refining and Manufacturing Research Inst.

    1995-04-01

    The effect of matrix on the resistance of vanadium and nickel poisoning of the REY zeolite has been investigated by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, and n-hexane cracking reaction. Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnesia-alumina (MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), alumina-aluminum phosphate (AAP), and magnesia-alumina-aluminum phosphate (MgAAP) were used as matrices of REY. The presence of matrix can increase the resistance of REY to steam deactivation. AAP has a better hydrothermal stability than the other matrics. MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix demonstrates the highest ability to capture vanadium due to the basicity of magnesia. There is an interaction between vanadium and nickel. This interaction inhibits the destruction of REY structure caused by vanadium. AAP has a strong interaction with nickel. The stronger the nickel-matrix interaction, the less poison effect of nickel. In addition, the strong interaction leads to the decrease in nickel`s ability to retard the destruction of REY structure by vanadium.

  10. Poisoning and regeneration of Pt-Pd/WO3-ZrO2 short paraffin isomerization catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Canavese

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available WO3-ZrO2 catalysts promoted with Pt and Pd were tested as paraffin isomerization catalysts using n-hexane as model compound. Sulfur and amine poisoning and regeneration tests were used to assess the impact of the addition of Pt and Pd on the deactivation resistance and regenerability. Pt and PtPd catalysts were the most active for n-hexane isomerization. The low activity of the Pd catalyst was attributed to poor Pd metal properties when supported over WO3-ZrO2 and to a decrease of the number of BrQnsted acid sites. PtPd was the only catalyst capable of full regeneration after S poisoning. Amine poisoning completely supressed the isomerization activity and the original activity could only be restored by calcination and reduction.

  11. Poisoning and regeneration of Pt-Pd/WO{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} short paraffin isomerization catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavese, Sergio; Finelli, Zunilda; Busto, Mariana; Benitez, Viviana M.; Vera, Carlos R.; Yori, Juan C., E-mail: jyori@fiq.unl.edu.a [Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL), Santa Fe (Argentina). Inst. de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica

    2010-07-01

    WO{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} catalysts promoted with Pt and Pd were tested as paraffin isomerization catalysts using n-hexane as model compound. Sulfur and amine poisoning and regeneration tests were used to assess the impact of the addition of Pt and Pd on the deactivation resistance and regenerability. Pt and Pt Pd catalysts were the most active for n-hexane isomerization. The low activity of the Pd catalyst was attributed to poor Pd metal properties when supported over WO{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} and to a decrease of the number of Broensted acid sites. Pt Pd was the only catalyst capable of full regeneration after S poisoning. Amine poisoning completely suppressed the isomerization activity and the original activity could only be restored by calcination and reduction. (author)

  12. Interaction of different poisons with MgCl{sub 2}/TiCl{sub 4} based Ziegler-Natta catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahri-Laleh, Naeimeh, E-mail: n.bahri@ippi.ac.ir

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • The interactions between different classes of poison molecules and TiCl{sub 4}/MgCl{sub 2} type Ziegler-Natta catalyst is considered. • Poisons strongly stabilize MgCl{sub 2} crystal surfaces, mostly Ti active center relative to the unpoisoned solid. • Poison molecules decrease catalyst activity by increasing E{sub TS} in olefin polymerization. • Poison molecules do not have significant effect in stereospecifity of ZN catalysts in propylene polymerization. - Abstract: Adsorption of different poison molecules on activated MgCl{sub 2} is investigated within DFT using a cluster model of the MgCl{sub 2} surface with (MgCl{sub 2}){sub 16} formula containing four 4-coordinated and eight 5-coordinated Mg atoms as (110) and (104) surfaces, respectively. Studied poison molecules are chosen as possible impurities in hydrocarbon solvents and monomer feeds and contain water, hydrogensulfide, carbondioxide, molecular oxygen and methanol. First, adsorption of 1–4 molecules of different poisons to the (104) and (110) lateral cuts of MgCl{sub 2}, as well as their adsorption on [MgCl{sub 2}]/TiCl{sub 2}Et active center and AlEt{sub 3} cocatalyst is considered. Results reveal that poisons strongly stabilize both crystal surfaces, mostly Ti active center relative to the unpoisoned solid. Second, energy barrier (E{sub TS}) for ethylene insertion in the presence of different poisons located on the first and second Mg atom relative to the active Ti is calculated. While poison molecule located on the second Mg does not change E{sub TS}, coordination of it into the first Mg atom increases E{sub TS} by 0.9–1.2 kcal mol{sup −1}. In the last part of this manuscript, the stereoselective behavior of active Ti species, with and without poison molecules and external electron donor, is fully explored.

  13. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... team will provide additional treatment. They can use methods to get rid of the poison before it causes more harm. Some types of poison have antidotes. These work by reversing the poison’s effects and curing it. Treatment also includes measures to relieve symptoms. ...

  14. Poisoning of vanadia based SCR catalysts by potassium:influence of catalyst composition and potassium mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Kjærgaard; Kügler, Frauke; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2016-01-01

    aerosol (mass based distribution mode:1.3 μm) compared to that of the KCl aerosol (mass based distribution mode: 0.12 μm). The relative activities of exposed catalysts indicate that promotion with WO3 accelerates the deactivation, likely due to theenhanced Brønsted acidity which appears to promote...... the transport of potassium. Using a newly developed experimental protocol consisting of two-layer pellets of SCR catalysts, where one side is impregnated with KCl or K2SO4, the potassium transport in such systems, which is assumed to take place through reactionand diffusion over acid sites, was investigated...

  15. Correlating metal poisoning with zeolite deactivation in an individual catalyst particle by chemical and phase sensitive X-ray microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Martinez, J.; Beale, A.M.; Deka, U.; O'Brien, M.G.; Quinn, P.D.; Mosselmans, J.F.W.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the main conversion process used in oil refineries. An X-ray microscopy method is used to show that metal poisoning and related structural changes in the zeolite active material lead to a non-uniform core–shell deactivation of FCC catalyst particles. The study links

  16. A novel mechanism for poisoning of metal oxide SCR catalysts: base-acid explanation correlated with redox properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huazhen; Li, Junhua; Su, Wenkang; Shao, Yuankai; Hao, Jiming

    2014-09-11

    A novel mechanism is proposed for the poisoning effect of acid gases and N2O formation on SCR catalysts involving base-acid properties correlated with redox ability of M-O or M-OH (M = Ce or V) of metal oxides and the strength of their basicity responsible for resistance to HCl and SO2 at medium and low temperatures.

  17. Accelerating Oxygen-Reduction Catalysts through Preventing Poisoning with Non-Reactive Species by Using Hydrophobic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-Rong; Munoz, Macarena; Etzold, Bastian J M

    2016-02-05

    Developing cost-effective electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a prerequisite for broad market penetration of low-temperature fuel cells. A major barrier stems from the poisoning of surface sites by nonreactive oxygenated species and the sluggish ORR kinetics on the Pt catalysts. Herein we report a facile approach to accelerating ORR kinetics by using a hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL), which protects Pt sites from surface oxidation, making the IL-modified Pt intrinsically more active than its unmodified counterpart. The mass activity of the catalyst is increased by three times to 1.01 A mg(-1) Pt @0.9 V, representing a new record for pure Pt catalysts. The enhanced performance of the IL-modified catalyst can be stabilized after 30 000 cycles. We anticipate these results will form the basis for an unprecedented perspective in the development of high-performing electrocatalysts for fuel-cell applications.

  18. Understanding of catalyst deactivation caused by sulfur poisoning and carbon deposition in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chao

    2011-12-01

    species on the used Ni catalyst, while sulfonate and sulfate predominate on the used Rh catalyst. The superior sulfur tolerance of the Rh/CeO2-Al2O3 catalyst at 800 °C may be associated with its capability in sulfur oxidation. It is very likely that the oxygenshielded sulfur structure of sulfonate and sulfate can suppress the poisoning impact of sulfur on Rh through inhibiting direct rhodium-sulfur interaction. Although the Rh-Ni catalyst exhibited better sulfur tolerance than the monometallic ones at 550 °C, its catalytic performance was inferior compared with the Rh catalyst in the sulfur-containing reaction at 800 °C probably due to the severe carbon deposition on the bimetallic catalyst. The last part of this work focuses on the influence of sulfur on the carbon deposition in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels over CeO2-Al2O3 supported monometallic Ni and Rh catalysts at 800 ºC. Though abundant carbon deposits can accumulate on the pure CeO2-Al2O3 support due to fuel thermal cracking, the metal addition substantially mitigated the carbon deposition in the sulfur-free reaction. The presence of sulfur increased the carbon deposition on both catalysts, which has a much more significant impact for the Ni catalyst. Our results indicate that (I) the presence of sulfur can suppress carbon gasification and promote the formation of graphitic carbon on reforming catalysts, and (II) the Rh catalyst possesses stronger capability to maintain carbon gasification activity than the Ni catalyst in the presence of sulfur.

  19. Sulfur poisoning and regeneration of the Ag/γ-Al2O3 catalyst for H2-assisted SCR of NOx by ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doronkin, Dmitry E.; Khan, Tuhin Suvra; Bligaard, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur poisoning and regeneration mechanisms for a 2% Ag/γ-Al2O3 catalyst for the H2-assisted selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH3 are investigated. The catalyst has medium sulfur tolerance at low temperatures, however a good capability of regeneration at 670°C under lean conditions when H...

  20. The potential of model studies for the understanding of catalyst poisoning and temperature effects in polymer electrolyte fuel cell reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, R. J.; Jusys, Z.

    In this contribution we demonstrate the potential of model studies for the understanding of electrocatalytic reactions in low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) operated by H 2-rich anode feed gas, in particular of the role of temperature effects and catalyst poisoning. Reviewing previous work from our laboratory and, for better comparison, focussing on carbon-supported Pt catalysts, the important role of using fuel cell relevant reaction and mass transport conditions will be outlined. The latter conditions include continuous reaction, elevated temperatures, realistic supported catalyst materials and controlled mass transport. The data show the importance of combining electrochemical techniques such as rotating disc electrode (RDE), wall-jet and flow cell measurements, and on-line differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) under controlled mass transport conditions.

  1. SO2 poisoning and regeneration of Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalyst for low temperature NOx reduction with NH3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Zhongyi; HU Yufeng; XUE Jiaoming; WANG Xiaoming; LIAO Weiping

    2012-01-01

    SO2 poisoning and regeneration of Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalyst prepared by a novel co-precipitation method for low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia were investigated in this study.When 700 ppm SO2 was fed in,the Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalyst had good resistance to SO2,but the deactivation of Mn-Ce/TiO2 poisoned by SO2 still occurred.The NO conversion of Mn-Ce/TiO2 (the molar ratio of Ce to Ti is 0.075) catalyst decreased from 92.5% to 34.6% in 13 h.Characterizations of fresh and SO2-poisoned Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalysts were carried out by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET),ion chromatography (IC),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The characterized results indicated that the deposition of sulfates and nitrates on the surface made the catalyst deactivated.Water washing,thermal regeneration and reductive regeneration were used to regenerate the deactivated Mn-Ce/TiO2.And water washing showed best performance on the regeneration of poisoned catalysts,especially with ultrasonic vibration.The Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalyst showed high stability under a series of deactivation-regeneration experiments for ten cycles.

  2. The Method for Avoidance of Palladium/Carbon Catalyst Poisoning and Its Commercial Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaoxin; Zong Baoning; Meng Xiangkun; Min Enze

    2005-01-01

    After utilizing an improved method for adding a non-precious promoter to the precious Pd/C catalyst during hydrogenation of benzoic acid, a new understanding concerning regeneration of deactivated Pd/C catalyst has been obtained, and an improved process has emerged. The improved process can avoid the conventional technical shortcomings related with hydrogenation of benzoic acid such as the quick decline of catalyst activity in a relatively short period of time and low palladium recovery from the spent catalyst. Furthermore, according to this process, cyclohexane carboxylic acid (CCA) can be produced favorably in a commercial scale at a high selectivity and product yield with a extended catalyst life.

  3. Comparison of titania nanotubes and titanium dioxide as supports of low-temperature selective catalytic reduction catalysts under sulfur dioxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, TsungYu; Liou, Sihyu; Bai, Hsunling

    2017-03-01

    A series of iron-manganese oxide catalysts supported on TiO2 and titanium nanotubes (TNTs) were studied for low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 in the presence of SO2. The results showed that the specific surface area and the amount of Brønsted acid sites were highly correlated. The results also demonstrated that higher Mn(4+)/Mn(3+) ratios and larger specific surface areas might be the main reasons for the excellent performance of MnFe-TNTs catalyst after SO2 poisoning. The SO2 poisoning effect could be minimized by reducing the GHSV, increasing the reaction temperature, or increasing the [NH3]/[NO] molar ratio. The results also indicated that the formation of ammonium sulfate had a stronger effect on the NO conversion efficiency as compared to the formation of metal sulfate. Thus operating the low temperature SCR at above 230 (o)C to avoid the formation of ammonium sulfate would be the priority choice when SO2 poisoning is a concerned issue. Implications: Low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has attracted increasing attention due to that it can reduce the energy consumption for the SCR process employed in industries such as steel plants and glass manufacturing plants. However, it also suffers from the sulfur dioxide (SO2) poisoning problem. This study investigates the possibility of using titania nanotubes (TNTs) as the support of Mn/Fe bimetal oxide catalysts for low-temperature SCR to reduce the SO2 poisoning. The results indicated that the MnFe-TNT catalyst can tolerate SO2 for a longer time as compared with the MnFe-TiO2 catalyst.

  4. The poisoning effect of potassium ions doped on MnOx/TiO2 catalysts for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangjing; Cui, Suping; Guo, Hongxia; Ma, Xiaoyu; Luo, Xiaogen

    2015-11-01

    The poisoning of alkali metal on MnOx/TiO2 catalysts used for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH3 was investigated. KNO3, KCl and K2SO4 were doped on MnOx/TiO2 catalysts by sol-gel method, respectively. The SCR activity of each catalyst was measured for the removal of NOx with NH3 in the temperature range 90-330 °C. The experimental results showed that catalyst with KNO3 have a stronger deactivation effect than other catalysts. The properties of the catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, XPS, H2-TPR, NH3-TPD and in situ DRIFTS analyses. The characterized results indicated that KNO3, KCl and K2SO4 caused the similar decrease of specific surface area and pore volume, but the quantity of acid sites for KNO3-MnOx/TiO2 catalyst reduced sharply. The main reason for catalyst deactivation is attributed to two aspects: one was physical influences for the decrease of surface area and pore volume, another was chemical influences that the K+ ions decomposed by KNO3 neutralized Brønsted acid sites of catalyst and reduced their reducibility. The chemical influence played a leading role on the deactivation of catalysts.

  5. Hydrogenation of fructose to 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran using a sulfur poisoned Pt/C catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to expand the number of biobased chemicals available, fructose has been hydrogenated to 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran using a sulfided Pt/C catalyst. The reaction was carried out in a stirred reactor at 10.3 MPa H2 and 175°C which allowed a 10% fructose solution to be converted in about 2 h. ...

  6. "Smart poisoning" of Co/SiO2 catalysts by sulfidation for chirality-selective synthesis of (9,8) single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yang; Karahan, H Enis; Yıldırım, Cansu; Wei, Li; Birer, Özgür; Zhai, Shengli; Lau, Raymond; Chen, Yuan

    2016-10-14

    The chirality-selective synthesis of relatively large (diameter > 1 nm) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is of great interest for a variety of practical applications, but only a few catalysts are available so far. Previous studies suggested that S (compounds) can enhance the chirality-selectivity of Co catalysts in SWCNT synthesis, however, the mechanism behind is not fully understood, and no tailorable methodology has yet been developed. Here, we demonstrate a facile approach to achieve the chirality-selective synthesis of SWCNTs by the sulfidation-based poisoning of silica-supported Co catalysts using a mixture of H2S and H2. The UV-vis-NIR, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy results together show that the resulting SWCNTs have a narrow diameter distribution of around 1.2 nm, and (9,8) nanotubes have an abundance of ∼38% among the semiconducting species. More importantly, the carbon yield achieved by the sulfided catalyst (2.5 wt%) is similar to that of the nonsulfided one (2.7 wt%). The characterization of the catalysts by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and H2 temperature-programmed reduction shows that the sulfidation leads to the formation of Co9S8 nanoparticles. However, Co9S8 nanoparticles are reduced back to regenerate metallic Co nanoparticles during the synthesis of SWCNTs, which maintain a high carbon yield. In this process, Co9S8 nanoparticles seemingly intermediate the production of Co nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. Due to the fact that the poisoning step improves the quality of the end-product rather than hampering the growth process, we have coined the process developed as "smart poisoning". This study not only reveals the mechanism behind the beneficial role of S in the selective synthesis of relatively large SWCNTs but also presents a promising method to create chirality-selective catalysts with high activity for scalable synthesis.

  7. The poisoning effect of Na and K on Mn/TiO2 catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui-tang; Wang, Qing-shan; Pan, Wei-guo; Zhen, Wen-long; Chen, Qi-lin; Ding, Hong-lei; Yang, Ning-zhi; Lu, Chen-zi

    2014-10-01

    Mn/TiO2 catalyst is of high activity for low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3. And the deposition of alkali metal would lead to the deactivation of Mn/TiO2 catalyst. In this paper, the poisoning effect of Na and K on Mn/TiO2 was investigated based on experimental and theoretical study. It was found that K had a stronger poisoning effect than that of Na. The bad performance of K-Mn/TiO2 may be due to its small surface area, high crystallinity, weak surface acidity, low content of Mn4+ and chemisorbed oxygen, and bad redox ability. The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by DFT calculations.

  8. Effect of type of combustion on the poisoning of DENOX catalysts by arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H.

    1988-03-01

    Ceramic DENOX catalysts available at the present time are generally deactivated by reaction with gaseous arsenic compounds in the flue gas in front of the air heater. This problem, which in particular occurs suspiciously in slag tap pulverized coal combustion with fly ash return, has been investigated in detail on various types of combustion. The effects of the fuel, of the fly ash quality and of the mode of operation of the combustion equipment on the concentration of gaseous arsenic in the flue gas have been established. The investigation of the flows of all major substances is leading to statements about the behaviour of the arsenic in the combustion process which differs significantly from that of other trace elements. Measures can be derived from the results of the investigation in order to optimize the conditions of application of SCR-DENOX catalysts in the flue gas in front of the air heater in slag tap pulverized coal combustion chambers. (orig.)

  9. 碳三加氢催化剂的常见毒物%Common Poisons of C3 Fraction Hydrogenation Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晖; 卫国宾; 易水生; 李前; 戴伟

    2014-01-01

    介绍了乙烯装置碳三馏分液相加氢反应及工艺,毒物是碳三液相加氢催化剂失活的重要原因之一。重点介绍了砷、硫、水、重金属对碳三催化剂运行的影响及毒物的脱除方法,控制好碳三反应器进料中的毒物,可以减缓催化剂活性下降,延长使用寿命。%The poison is one of important reasons to cause C3 fraction liquid phase hydrogenation catalyst deactivation. In this paper, the reaction and the process of C3 fraction liquid phase hydrogenation were introduced. The impact of arsenic, sulfur, water, heavy metals on C3 fraction hydrogenation catalyst was discussed as well as the removal methods of these poisons. The results show that, to better control the poison in the feedstock of C3 hydrogenation reactor can slow down the decrease of catalyst activity, prolong the service life.

  10. The poisoning effect of PbO on Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingling; Li, Caiting; Zhao, Lingkui; Zeng, Guangming; Gao, Lei; Wang, Yan; Yu, Ming'e.

    2016-12-01

    Lead oxide (PbO) as one of the typical heavy metals in flue gas from power plants has strong accumulation as well as poisoning effects on SCR catalysts. In this paper, a series of PbO-doped Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The poisoning effects of PbO over Mn-Ce/TiO2 samples for selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3 were investigated based on catalytic activity test and characterizations. The NO conversion of Mn-Ce/TiO2 was greatly decreased after the addition of PbO. It was obvious that the NO conversion efficiency of Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalyst declined from 96.75% to about 40% at 200 °C when Pb:Mn molar ratio reached 0.5. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), Ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were carried out to study the deactivation reasons of PbO poisoned catalysts. Manganese oxides' crystallization, less reducible of manganese and cerium oxides, the decreasing of surface area, Mn4+ as well as Ce3+ concentration and chemisorbed oxygen (Ob) after the introduction of PbO, all of these resulted in a poor SCR performance. Furthermore, the alteration of acid sites (especially Brönsted acid sites), low ammonia adsorbance, an obvious reducing of ad-NOx species (only a spot of bidentate nitrates remained) and the vanishing of amide species contributed to the deactivation of Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalyst by PbO doping as well.

  11. Insights on the SO{sub 2} poisoning of Pt{sub 3}Co/VC and Pt/VC fuel cell catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baturina, Olga A., E-mail: olga.baturina@nrl.navy.mi [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6113, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Gould, Benjamin D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6113, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Garsany, Yannick [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6113, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [EXCET, Inc., Springfield, VA 22151 (United States); Swider-Lyons, Karen E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6113, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2010-09-01

    SO{sub 2} poisoning of carbon-supported Pt{sub 3}Co (Pt{sub 3}Co/VC) catalyst is performed at the cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) in order to link previously reported results at the electrode/solution interface to the FC environment. First, the surface area of Pt{sub 3}Co/VC catalyst is rigorously characterized by hydrogen adsorption, CO stripping voltammetry and underpotential deposition (upd) of copper adatoms. Then the performance of PEMFC cathodes employing 30 wt.% Pt{sub 3}Co/VC and 50 wt.% Pt/VC catalysts is compared after exposure to 1 ppm SO{sub 2} in air for 3 h at constant cell voltage of 0.6 V. In agreement with results reported for the electrode/solution interface, the Pt{sub 3}Co/VC is more susceptive to SO{sub 2} poisoning than Pt/VC at a given platinum loading. Both catalysts can be recovered from adsorbed sulfur species by running successive polarization curves in air or cyclic voltammetry (CV) in inert atmosphere. However, the activity of Pt{sub 3}Co/VC having {approx}3 times higher sulfur coverage is recovered more easily than Pt/VC. To understand the difference between the two catalysts in terms of activity recovery, platinum-sulfur interaction is probed by thermal programmed desorption at the catalyst/inert gas interface and CV at the electrode/solution interface and in the FC environment.

  12. Investigation of the Poisoning Mechanism of Lead on the CeO2-WO3 Catalyst for the NH3-SCR Reaction via in Situ IR and Raman Spectroscopy Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yue; Si, Wenzhe; Li, Xiang; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Junhua; Crittenden, John; Hao, Jiming

    2016-09-01

    The in situ IR and Raman spectroscopy measurements were conducted to investigate lead poisoning on the CeO2-WO3 catalysts. The deactivation mechanisms were studied with respect to the changes of surface acidity, redox property, nitrate/nitrite adsorption behaviors, and key active sites (note that the results of structure-activity relationship of CeO2-WO3 were based on our previous research). (1) Lewis acid sites originated from CeO2 and crystalline WO3, whereas Brønsted acid sites originated from Ce2(WO4)3. The poisoned catalysts exhibited a lower surface acidity than the fresh catalysts: the number of acid sites decreased, and their thermal stability weakened. (2) The reducibility of catalysts and the amount of active oxygen exhibited a smaller influence after poisoning because lead preferred to bond with surface WOx species rather than CeO2. (3) The quantity of active nitrate species decreased due to the lead coverage on the catalyst and the partial bridged-nitrate species induced by lead exhibited a low degree of activity at 200 °C. (4) Crystalline WO3 and Ce2(WO4)3 originated from the transformation of polytungstate sites. These sites were the key active sites during the SCR process. The formation temperatures of polytungstate on the poisoned catalysts were higher than those on the fresh catalysts.

  13. 商用SCR催化剂的钠中毒及再生%Sodium poisoning mechanism and regeneration of commercial De-NOx SCR catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凤雨; 唐晓龙; 易红宏; 赵顺征; 李东; 马玎; 张佟佟

    2015-01-01

    Sodium poisoning of commercial De-NOx SCR catalysts (V2O5-WO3/TiO2) and the regeneration of deactivated catalysts by water and 0.5 mol/L H2SO4 were studied under simulated condition in laboratory. The physicochemical properties of catalysts were characterized by SEM, BET and XPS measurements, the reaction and deactivation mechanism of V2O5/TiO2 were also analyzed and discussed. The results indicate that catalysts are poisoned seriously with low-capacity Na2O, the catalytic activity of deactivated catalysts are recovered at varying degrees by washing with water and sulfuric acid, and the regeneration effect of washing with sulfuric acid is better than that of washing with water. Deposition of sodium salts particles and blocking of the pores and channels cause the physical poisoning of catalysts, and the main reason of chemical poisoning is attributed to the reaction of Na and V—OH to V—O—Na on the Brönsted acid sites, which results in the changes of the chemical environment of metallic oxide on the surface of catalysts, thus blocking the spread of NO and NH3 to the inner of catalysts. The results also indicate that the denitration performance of SCR catalysts has certain positive correlation with the contents of chemical adsorbed oxygen and the ratio ofw(V4+)/w(V5+) on the surface of catalysts.%实验室模拟商用SCR催化剂(V2O5-WO3/TiO2)碱金属钠中毒,并通过水洗和0.5 mol/L H2SO4洗对失活催化剂进行再生。通过SEM,BET和XPS等方法对催化剂表面的理化性能进行分析,并探讨钒钛系催化剂的反应及失活机理。结果表明:较低负载量的Na2O会引发严重的催化剂中毒现象,通过水洗和酸洗再生可以使失活催化剂的表面活性得到不同程度的恢复,酸洗再生效果比水洗再生效果好;碱金属钠盐引起的催化剂物理中毒主要是盐颗粒的沉积和孔道的堵塞,但不是催化剂失活的主要原因,化学中毒主要是因为Na与催化剂表面的B

  14. 火电厂SCR脱硝催化剂中毒原因分析%Analysis of poisoning causes of SCR catalyst for thermal power plant denitration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盘思伟; 韦正乐; 赵宁

    2013-01-01

    SCR脱硝催化剂在某火电厂SCR脱硝装置运行30660 h后,将新鲜催化剂活性与使用后催化剂活性进行比较,得出催化剂的活性损失值.采用SEM、BET、TG和XRF对催化剂结构特性进行表征,研究催化剂中毒原因,提出燃煤电厂催化剂运行及管理建议.%The activities of the fresh and used SCR catalysts for thermal power plant denitration were compared after running for 30 660 h and the loss values of the catalyst activity were attained. The catalysts were characterized by SEM,BET,TG and XRF in order to investigate the causes of the catalyst poisoning. Based on these, some suggestions of operation and management of the catalyst in coal-fired power plant were put forward.

  15. Interaction of different poisons with MgCl2/TiCl4 based Ziegler-Natta catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri-Laleh, Naeimeh

    2016-08-01

    Adsorption of different poison molecules on activated MgCl2 is investigated within DFT using a cluster model of the MgCl2 surface with (MgCl2)16 formula containing four 4-coordinated and eight 5-coordinated Mg atoms as (110) and (104) surfaces, respectively. Studied poison molecules are chosen as possible impurities in hydrocarbon solvents and monomer feeds and contain water, hydrogensulfide, carbondioxide, molecular oxygen and methanol. First, adsorption of 1-4 molecules of different poisons to the (104) and (110) lateral cuts of MgCl2, as well as their adsorption on [MgCl2]/TiCl2Et active center and AlEt3 cocatalyst is considered. Results reveal that poisons strongly stabilize both crystal surfaces, mostly Ti active center relative to the unpoisoned solid. Second, energy barrier (ETS) for ethylene insertion in the presence of different poisons located on the first and second Mg atom relative to the active Ti is calculated. While poison molecule located on the second Mg does not change ETS, coordination of it into the first Mg atom increases ETS by 0.9-1.2 kcal mol-1. In the last part of this manuscript, the stereoselective behavior of active Ti species, with and without poison molecules and external electron donor, is fully explored.

  16. Impact of Support and Potassium-Poisoning on the V2O5-WO3/ZrO2 Catalyst Performance in Ammonia Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Kustov, Arkadii; Christensen, Claus H.

    2009-01-01

    A series of WO3-promoted zirconia supports were synthesized and calcined between 400 and 800C. Subsequently vanadium oxide was introduced to obtain 3.5 wt% V2O5. The influence of the calcination temperature and potassium-poisoning (K/V = 0.2, molar ratio) on the catalytic activity in the selective...... catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 was previously studied. Here, we focus on the influence of these parameters on the catalytic activity for the undesirable oxidation of ammonia, which decrease the N2 selectivity of the SCR process. It is found that potassium doping of the catalysts results...... in a considerable decrease in the overall ammonia conversion while selectivity to NO increases....

  17. 中温商业SCR催化剂碱和碱土中毒特性研究%Study on alkali and alkaline earths poisoning characteristics for a commercial SCR catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伯雄; 卢凤菊; 高兰君; 岳时吉

    2016-01-01

    The poisoning of a commercial selective catalytic reduction ( SCR ) catalysts by alkali ( K ) and alkaline earths ( Ca) has been simulated in the laboratory. The techniques of N2 adsorption, scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, NH3-temperature program desorption, H2-temperature program reduction were used to identify the changes of physical chemical characteristics of the catalysts before and after the simulated poisoning. The results indicated that the poisoning of K and Ca did not damage the basic pore structure of the SCR catalyst, but decreased the BET surface area and pore volume. The poisoning by K and Ca changed the chemical valence state of V and decreased the reducibility of V. The poisoning by K and Ca decreased the amount of chemically adsorbed oxygen on the catalyst surface as well as acidity of the catalysts. The poisoning by K and Ca lowered the SCR activity of the catalysts and the poisoning by Ca was more serious than K.%在实验室条件下对选择性催化还原( SCR)商业催化剂的碱( K)和碱土( Ca)中毒进行了模拟,并采用液氮吸附、扫描电镜、能谱分析、NH3-程序升温脱附、H2-程序升温还原等方法对催化剂中毒前后的物理化学性质变化进行了表征。结果表明, K和Ca的中毒没有破坏商业中温SCR催化剂孔的基本结构,但K和Ca的中毒使催化剂的比表面积和孔容减小。 K和Ca的中毒在一定程度上改变了催化剂表面钒的价态,导致了钒的还原能力减弱,同时降低催化剂表面化学吸附氧。钾中毒和钙中毒使催化剂的表面酸量降低。钾和钙中毒造成中温SCR催化剂的脱硝活性降低,并且Ca中毒造成的催化剂活性降低要明显高于K中毒。

  18. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  19. Sulfur poisoning and regeneration of MnOx-CeO2-Al2O3 catalyst for soot oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiaodong; LEE Hyeong-Ryeol; LIU Shuang; WENG Duan

    2012-01-01

    MnOx-CeO2-Al2O3 mixed oxides were prepared by impregnating manganese and cerium precursors on alumina powders via a solgel deposition method.The oxide catalyst exhibited a poor resistance to sulfur dioxide after the treatment in 100 ppm SO2/air at 350 ℃ for 50 h.The formation of manganese sulfate and especially cerium sulfate reduced the availability of surface active metal oxides,blocked the pore structure and decreased the surface area of the catalyst.These changes in chemical and structural and textural properties resulted in a severe loss in the activities of the sulfated catalyst for NO and soot oxidation.The decomposition of sulfates was almost complete during the calcination in air at 800 ℃ for 30 min,which partially recovered the surface active sites and the catalyst surface area despite the significant sintering of metal oxides.Consequently,the NOx-assisted soot oxidation activity of the catalyst was regenerated to some extent by the oxidation treatment.

  20. Insights on the SO2 Poisoning of Pt3Co/VC and Pt/VC Fuel Cell Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    stripping voltammetry and underpotential deposition (upd) of copper adatoms. Then the performance of PEMFC cathodes employing 30wt.% Pt3Co/VC and 50wt.% Pt/VC...atoms (Pt and Cu atomic radii are 0.139 and 0.128nm, respectively [15]) makes copper underpotential deposition a perfect tool for evaluating the plat...the surface area of Pt3Co/VC catalyst is rigorously characterized by hydrogen adsorption,CO stripping voltammetry and under potential deposition (upd

  1. COS和H2S毒化F-T合成催化剂热力学分析%Thermodynamics of COS and H2S poisoning on F-T synthesis catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏国富; 侯朝鹏; 李明丰; 聂红; 李大东

    2011-01-01

    利用热力学基础数据和相关软件对F-T合成催化剂COS和H2S中毒的热力学进行了计算.在热力学上,Ru、Fe、Co的COS中毒在F-T合成反应可以发生的条件下均是自发过程.F-T合成反应体系中10-9级的COS即可使Ru基催化剂中的金属Ru生成RuS2而中毒.Fe和Co毒化后生成的硫化物种类较多,对这些反应的热力学计算结果表明,对于不同的反应,其平衡常数的差异很大,对应中毒反应发生时,所需的COS和H2S的浓度也不同,对COS的要求更为严格.由于Fe基F-T合成催化剂活性相的复杂性,利用对催化剂相关性质的修饰开发具有一定抗硫性的铁基F-T合成催化剂是可行的:对于Co催化剂,利用F-T合成的反应特点和催化剂改性开发具有一定抗硫性催化剂是可能的.%The thermodynamics of poisoning on F-T synthesis catalyst with carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen sulfide were calculated according to some thermodynamic data and related software. Poisoning of Ru, Fe and Co can occur spontaneously under the conditions of F-T synthesis reaction because of the low negative value of AC thermodynamically. Ruthenium in Ru-based F-T synthesis catalyst can be poisoned by the COS even on 10"' level. There are many types of Fe and Co sulfide generated in the poisoning reactions. Their equilibrium constants are much different for different reactions, so their necessary concentrations of COS are also different and more stringent requirements on the COS than H2S. As the active phases of the Fe-based F-T synthesis catalyst are complex, it is feasible to develop some sulfur resistant catalysts. And for the Co catalyst, the characteristics of F-T synthesis reaction and the modification of catalysts may contribute to the development of sulfur tolerant catalyst possibly.

  2. Hybrid Regeneration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Denitration Catalyst Poisoned by Arsenic and Potassium%砷、钾复合中毒选择性催化还原脱硝催化剂的再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾勇; 周军; 柏家串; 李睦; 王烨; 钟秦

    2016-01-01

    The commercial denitration catalyst of V2O5-WO3/TiO2 poisoned by arsenic (As) and potassium (K) was prepared by a gas-phase impregnation method and a liquid-phase impregnation method, respectively. The regeneration of denitration catalyst of V2O5-WO3/TiO2 poisoned by As and K with ammonia and oxalic acid solutions was investigated. The structural characteristics of catalysts before and after regeneration were characterized. The results show that the regenerated catalyst regains 94.3%–97.4% at 300–400℃ when the ammonia and oxalic acid concentrations are 0.001 5mol/L and 0.001mol/L. The As and K on the surface of the poisoned catalysts can be efficiently removedvia ammonia and oxalic hybrid regeneration. The specific surface area and the Brønsted acid sites of poisoned catalysts can be restored effectively. The surface of the regenerated catalyst does not generate any harmful substances.%依次采用气相和液相浸渍的方法对商用脱硝催化剂V2O5-WO3/TiO2进行模拟砷(As)和碱金属(K)复合中毒处理,以氨水和乙二酸溶液对中毒催化剂进行了联合再生;并对中毒及再生前后的催化剂进行了表征。结果表明:控制氨的浓度为0.0015mol/L,乙二酸浓度为0.001mol/L时,再生催化剂的脱硝率在300~400℃范围内可恢复至新催化剂的94.3%~97.4%。采用氨水和乙二酸溶液联合再生可有效去除中毒催化剂表面的As和K,同时再生催化剂的比表面积和表面酸性得到恢复,且再生催化剂表面没有生成新的有害物质。

  3. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Jimsonweed poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  6. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Nicotine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Bee poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002847.htm Bee poison To use the sharing features on this page, ... of insect, if possible Time of the sting Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  10. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition Time the gasoline was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Poison Ivy KidsHealth > For Kids > Poison Ivy Print A ... the leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the ...

  13. Novel synthesis of thick wall coatings of titania supported Bi poisoned Pd catalysts and application in selective hydrogenation of acetylene alcohols in capillary microreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasov, Nikolay; Ibhadon, Alex O; Rebrov, Evgeny V

    2015-04-21

    Catalysis in microreactors allows reactions to be performed in a very small volume, reducing the environmental problems and greatly intensifying the processes through easy pressure control and the elimination of heat- and mass-transfer limitations. In this study, we report a novel method for the controlled synthesis of micrometre-thick mesoporous TiO2 catalytic coatings on the walls of long channels (>1 m) of capillary microreactors in a single deposition step. The method uses elevated temperature and introduces a convenient control parameter of the deposition rate (displacement speed controlled by a stepper motor), which allows deposition from concentrated and viscous sols without channel clogging. A capillary microreactor wall-coated with titania supported Bi-poisoned Pd catalyst was obtained using the method and used for the semihydrogenation of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol providing 93 ± 1.5% alkene yield for 100 h without deactivation. Although the coating method was applied only for TiO2 deposition, it is nonetheless suitable for the deposition of volatile sols.

  14. 商业钒钛基选择性催化还原法脱硝催化剂的抗毒改性%Improvement on the for the poisoning resistance of commercial de-NOx SCR catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程华; 韦正乐; 杨超; 黄碧纯

    2014-01-01

    通过浸渍法向商业V2 O5( WO3)/TiO2催化剂中掺杂了不同浓度的Ni或Zr元素,并对催化剂进行了K中毒前后的活性测试以及EDS、BET、XRD、FT-IR、H2-TPR、XPS表征测试.结果表明,掺杂Ni或Zr后催化剂抗K中毒能力显著增强, EDS和XRD结果显示Ni和Zr能进入催化剂体系,催化剂载体TiO2保持原有锐钛矿晶型,其他元素则以高度分散或无定形状态存在.NH3吸附FT-IR实验证明掺杂Ni后催化剂表面形成了新的Lewis酸位,而Zr的加入使原有Bronsted酸位得以增强,这是两种元素的掺杂均能提高催化剂抗K中毒能力的原因.H2-TPR和XPS实验证实掺杂后催化剂氧化还原能力得到了增强,弥补了比表面积减少的不利因素.%To improve the resistance towards alkali metal poisoning, Ni or Zr with different concentrations was introduced to commercial SCR catalysts by a wet impregnation. The catalysts before and after modifications were characterized by energy dispersive spectrometry ( EDS ) , N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray powder diffraction ( XRD ) , Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),temperature-programmed reduction(TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results show that the modifications of the catalysts significantly improved their resistance towards K poisoning. Ni and Zr were doped sucessfully into the commercial catalysts, and the crystalline structure of the catalysts was maintained. FTIR results showed that the catalysts doped with Ni formed new Lewis acid sites. Brønsted acid sites were strengthened by loading Zr.The increased acid sites might be the reason why the catalysts after modification showed higher resistance to K poisoning. H2-TPR and XPS results showed enhanced Redox properties of the catalysts after doping which balanced the negative effect of the reduced specific surface area.

  15. An operando DRIFTS investigation into the resistance against CO2 poisoning of a Rh/alumina catalyst during toluene hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalbert, Julien; Meunier, Frederic C; Daniel, Cecile; Schuurman, Yves

    2012-02-21

    CO(2) is a major contaminant of renewable H(2) derived from biomass fermentation. The effect of the presence of CO(2) on the activity of alumina-supported Pt and Rh catalysts used for the hydrogenation of toluene at 348 K was investigated. The use of operando diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was crucial in unravelling the changes in the nature and abundance of species adsorbed at the sample surface and relating those to the changes of catalytic activity. Rhodium supported on alumina was only partly deactivated by the introduction of CO(2) during the hydrogenation of toluene, contrary to the case of Pt/alumina. Rh was only partially covered by carbonyl species derived from CO(2) and it was shown that toluene could successfully compete with some of the linearly adsorbed carbonyls for adsorption. The alumina support stored many CO(2)-derived adsorbates (carbonates, hydrogenocarbonates, carboxylates) that could spill over to the metal and form carbonyl species even after the removal of CO(2) from the feed.

  16. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin ... tips to avoid it. back to top Recognizing Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, and Poison Sumac Open PDF ...

  17. Preventing self-poisoning in [Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}-ZrO{sub 2}] mixed catalysts for isomerization-cracking of heavy alkanes by prereduction of the acid function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau, Javier Mario; Vera, Carlos Roman; Parera, Jose Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica, INCAPE, FIQ-UNL, CONICET, Santiago del Estero 2654, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2002-03-08

    The activity and stability of composite catalysts obtained by mixing Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}-ZrO{sub 2}, were studied in the reaction of hydroisomerization-cracking of n-octane (300C, 1.5MPa, WHSV=4h{sup -1}, H{sub 2}/n-C{sub 8}=6) obtaining light isoalkanes (isobutane, isopentane, isohexane), very important components of the pool of reformulated gasoline. Both components of the composites were pretreated in H{sub 2} before mixing. Prereduction eliminated the fraction of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} reducible at low temperature, thought to produce SO{sub 2} during reaction, a poison for the metal function. A reduction in the poisoning of the metal, produced by adsorption of S compounds, was tried in order to get a higher metal activity for the production of atomic H, needed for the hydrogenation of coke precursors and the prevention of deactivation. The pretreatment temperature was adjusted between 300 and 500C in order to keep a suitable amount of sulfate, needed for a sustainable isomerizing-cracking activity and for the stabilization of the tetragonal crystal phase of ZrO{sub 2}, the most catalytically active crystal phase. When compared to non-reduced catalysts, composites reduced at 300-350C displayed improved activity and stability for benzene hydrogenation, a metal-catalyzed reaction, and the results were addressed to a decrease in S poisoning. In the pretreated composites the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}-ZrO{sub 2} active tetragonal phase was maintained in spite of the loss of S. For isomerization-cracking of n-octane, the pretreated catalysts showed a higher selectivity to isobutane and a fairly longer stability than non-pretreated catalysts, like Pt/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}-ZrO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}-ZrO{sub 2} mixed with Pt/Al. TPO tests showed that the catalysts were essentially free of coke. This fact was addressed to a lower coking rate on prereduced sites and to a higher metal activity for hydrogenation of coke precursors.

  18. 含氮化合物对FCC催化剂的中毒机理及其应对措施%Poisoning Mechanisms of FCC Catalysts with Azotic Compounds and Nitrogen-Resistant Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈本贤; 陈小博; 王劲; 杨朝合; 山红红

    2013-01-01

    介绍了含氮化合物对FCC催化剂的中毒作用机理,对酸碱中和理论、竞争吸附理论、诱导效应及空间位阻效应等多种理论的分析表明,含氮化合物对FCC催化剂的毒害作用强弱与其质子亲和力、吸附络合能力、分子大小和分子结构,以及催化剂活性组分的孔结构等密切相关.概述了各种抗氮催化剂和抗氮工艺的研究进展,列举了抑制含氮化合物毒害FCC催化剂的应对措施,展望了提高FCC装置加工高含氮原料的发展方向.%The poisoning mechanisms of FCC catalysts with azotic compounds,including the acidalkali neutralization theory,competitive adsorption theory,inductive effect and steric hindering effect,were summarized.The poisoning extent is closely related to proton affinity,adsorption and complexing capability,molecular size and structure of the azotic compounds and pore structure of the catalysts.The measures of improving the nitrogen-resistant performance of the FCC catalysts were reviewed,such as increasing the acid sites,choosing active matrixes,modifying the zeolites and heightening the reaction temperature and the ratio of the catalysts to oil.The processes for treating coker gas oil with high content of azotic compounds were introduced.The trend of improving FCC unit to process feedstocks with high content of azotic compounds was prospected.

  19. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  20. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 76. Borron SW. Pyrethins, repellants, ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ...

  1. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  2. Methylmercury poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grain that was treated with this from of mercury. Poisoning from eating fish from water that is contaminated ... into the body. Many of the symptoms of mercury poisoning are similar to symptoms of cerebral palsy . In ...

  3. Merbromin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a vein (by IV) Laxatives Medicine called an antidote to reverse the effect of the poison Tube ... chance for recovery. If the person takes an antidote to reverse the poison within 1 week, recovery ...

  4. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning — even if you don't see the ... immediately. Never assume the person will sleep off alcohol poisoning. Be prepared to provide information. If you ...

  5. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  6. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

    2009-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

  7. Photographic fixative poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form ...

  8. Study on arsenic poisoning for loading catalyst of V2O5-WO3/TiO2%负载型V2O5-WO3/TiO2催化剂的砷中毒研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伯雄; 熊丽仙; 刘亭

    2011-01-01

    The process of arsenic poisoning for the loading catalyst of V2O5-WO3/TiO2 was simulated in the experiment. The poisoning characters of the catalyst were studied by means of activity testing, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR and XPS. The results show that after the poisoning of arsenic, the activity of catalyst decreases greatly. Meanwhile, the NH3-TPD, H2-TPR and XPS analyses show that the acidity of catalyst decreases with the poisoning of arsenic. The chemical forms of W and Ti do not change with the interaction of arsenic, but the chemical form of V changes greatly. So the poisoning of the catalyst is attributed to the changing of chemical form of V and the decreasing of acidity of the catalyst.%在实验室模拟了负载型V2O5-WO3/TiO2催化剂砷的中毒.采用催化剂活性测试,NH3-TPD、H2-TPR、XPS技术表征催化剂中毒特性.实验表明,砷中毒使催化剂活性降低明显.NH3-TPD、H2-TPR、XPS表征结果表明,As中毒使催化剂表面酸性降低,催化剂中W、Ti化学形态不受砷中毒的影响,而砷中毒改变了催化剂表面钒的化学形态,认为酸性降低和钒化学形态的改变引起了催化剂的中毒.

  9. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

    2011-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H

  10. Poison Ivy Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Poison ivy rash By Mayo Clinic Staff Poison ivy rash is caused by an allergic reaction to an oily resin ... is in the leaves, stems and roots of poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac. Wash your ...

  11. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) ... to kill and control insects on crops and in gardens. The government also uses it to kill mosquitoes in large ...

  12. Application of demetalization agent in preventing metal poisoning of heavy oil FCC catalysts%脱金属剂在防止重油催化裂化催化剂金属中毒中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈艺; 张震

    2011-01-01

    Subei crude contains a higher amount of iron and calcium compounds as organic metals, which are difficult to be removed by electro-static desalting. These organic metals will decompose and deposit in the downstream catalytic processes and poison and deactivate the catalysts. When this crude is processed in the primary electro-static desalter with composite desalting agent containing chelator, extraction agent and solubility promoter, most of the metal impurities like iron, calcium, magnesium, etc can be removed from crude, and iron removal rate is about 80%. As the result, the metals in vacuum residue is lowered, which has solved the catalyst poisoning problem in downstream processing.%苏北原油中的铁、钙化合物较多,它们以有机化合物方式存在,在通常的脱盐工艺中不易去除,这些有机金属会在后序的催化剂工艺中分解、沉积从而造成催化剂中毒或失活.对此类原油用一种含有螯合剂、萃取剂和增溶剂的复合脱盐剂进行处理,在一次原油电脱盐工艺中工业应用,可以脱除原油中大量的铁、钙和镁等金属杂质,脱铁率在80%左右,从而减少减压渣油中的金属杂质,缓解了二次加工装置催化剂的金属中毒问题.

  13. Preparation and anti-poisoning behavior of V-Sb-Nb/TiO2 catalysts%V-Sb-Nb/TiO2催化剂的制备及其抗中毒性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜振; 付银成; 钱徐悦; 朱跃

    2014-01-01

    The effects of representative poisoning components on catalytic activity of V-Sb-Nb/TiO2 catalyst were investigated,and its performance was compared with that of V2 O5/TiO2 and V2 O5-WO3/TiO2 cata-lyst.The results show that the catalytic activity of V-Sb-Nb/TiO2 catalyst doped with metal oxides(such as K2 O,Na2 O,CaO,PbO)is still higher than that of the fresh V2 O5/TiO2 catalyst.Besides,V-Sb-Nb/TiO2 catalyst doped with chlorides(such as KCl,NaCl,CaCl2 )has a higher NO reduction efficiency than V2 O5-WO3/TiO2 under the same condition.It can be concluded that the V-Sb-Nb/TiO2 catalyst has good anti-poisoning ability from metal oxides and chlorides.In addition,in the denitration activity of the V-Sb-Nb/TiO2 catalyst can be further enhanced by introducing WO3 .In conclusion,the substitution of Sb,Nb for W in commercial commonly used V2 O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst is economically and technically feasible.%采用浸渍法制备了负载 Sb、Nb 的 V-Sb-Nb/TiO2催化剂,研究了典型中毒物质对其脱硝活性的影响,并将其催化性能与 V2 O5/TiO2、V2 O5-WO3/TiO2做了比较.结果表明,与 V2 O5/TiO2相比,V-Sb-Nb/TiO2具有良好的抗金属氧化物及氯化物中毒的能力,同时其抗氯化物中毒的性能优于 V2 O5-WO3/TiO2.另外,在 V-Sb-Nb/TiO2催化剂的基础上添加少量的WO3可以进一步提高催化剂脱硝活性.试验表明,Sb 和 Nb 氧化物替代 V2 O5-WO3/TiO2催化剂(VWTi催化剂)中的 WO3在经济技术上可行.

  14. Mordenite - Type Zeolite SCR Catalysts with Iron or Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Cu/mordenite catalysts were found to be highly active for the SCR of NO with NH3 and exhibited high resistance to alkali poisoning. Redox and acidic properties of Cu/mordenite were well preserved after poisoning with potassium unlike that of vanadium catalysts. Fe-mordenite catalysts also reveale...... to be essential requirements for the high alkali resistance. Mordenite-type zeolite based catalysts could therefore be attractive alternatives to conventional SCR catalysts for biomass fired power plant flue gas treatment....

  15. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill; 2006. Hall AH, Shannon MW. Other heavy metals. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ,eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA. Elsevier ...

  16. Shellac poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in shellac that can be harmful are: Ethanol Isopropanol Methanol Methyl isobutyl ketone ... Isopropanol and methanol are extremely poisonous. As little as 2 tablespoons (14.8 mL) of methanol can ...

  17. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. The gastrointestinal tract appears to suffer the greatest though there may also be injury to the liver and kidneys. The treatments discussed were in relation to very early poisoning in which the owner had observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning were evident. Early observation treatment included emptying the stomach before the arsenic passed in quantity into the intestine. If the signs of toxicity were already advanced, then the treatment consisted of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. l reference.

  18. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1971-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. Treatment was discussed in relation to two circumstances: very early poisoning in which the owner has observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning are evident. Treatment for early ingestion involves emptying the stomach before the arsenic can pass in quantity into the intestine. This is followed with a 1% solution of sodium bicarbonate, with the administering of 3 to 6 mg of apomorphine. When signs of arsenic toxicity are already advanced, there is little advantage to be gained by either gastric lavage or administration of an emetic. The treatment then consists of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. This is the specific antidote for arsenic. 1 reference.

  19. Paraffin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax poisoning - paraffin ... Paraffin ... Eating a lot of paraffin can lead to intestinal obstruction, which can cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and possible constipation. If the paraffin contains a ...

  20. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and toxins may cause food poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Toxins in spoiled or tainted fish or shellfish ... Read More Botulism Campylobacter infection Cholera E. coli enteritis Fish tapeworm infection Pericarditis Salmonella enterocolitis Shigellosis Patient ...

  1. Menthol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  2. Naphthalene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  3. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  4. SO2 Poisoning Behaviors of Ca-Mn/TiO2 Catalysts for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with NH3 at Low Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Qingqing Tian; Hongfeng Liu; Weiyuan Yao; Yan Wang; Yue Liu; Zhongbiao Wu; Haiqiang Wang; Xiaole Weng

    2014-01-01

    The sulfur tolerance of Ca modified MnOx /TiO2 catalysts in low-temperature SCR process was investigated. Experimental results revealed that the durability of developed catalysts in the presence of SO2 could be improved by Ca modification. After being subjected to a range of analytical techniques, it was found that the surface Ca species could act as a SO2 trap by preferentially reacting with SO2 to form bulk-like CaSO4, inhibiting the sulfation of active phase. Furthermore, the introducti...

  5. The Poisoning Effect of Na Doping over Mn-Ce/TiO2 Catalyst for Low-Temperature Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by NH3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, sodium nitrate (NaNO3, and sodium chloride (NaCl were chosen as the precursors to prepare the Na salts deposited Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalysts through an impregnation method. The influence of Na on the performance of the Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalyst for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH3 was investigated. Experimental results showed that Na salts had negative effects on the activity of Mn-Ce/TiO2 and the precursors of Na salts also affected the catalytic activity. The precursor Na2CO3 had a greater impact on the catalytic activity, while NaNO3 had minimal effect. The characterization results indicated that the significant changes in physical and chemical properties of Mn-Ce/TiO2 were observed after Na was doped on the catalysts. The significant decreases in surface areas and NH3 adsorption amounts were observed after Na was doped on the catalysts, which could be considered as the main reasons for the deactivation of Na deposited Mn-Ce/TiO2.

  6. 高活性、高抗毒性的甲酸燃料电池阳极催化剂%Highly Active and Highly Poison Tolerant Anodic Catalysts for Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢学毅; 廖世军; 宋慧宇

    2012-01-01

    甲酸燃料电池是一种近年发展起来的新型燃料电池,具有极好的商业化前景,但其发展受到很多因素的制约,其中阳极催化剂是影响其性能的关键因素。本文从催化剂的制备方法、催化剂载体和掺杂其他元素等方面介绍了近年来国内外在提高催化剂的活性和抗毒性方面所做的重要研究工作。具体包括:电沉积法、有机溶胶法等重要制备方法,碳纳米管、石墨烯和复合材料作为催化剂载体的研究以及通过掺杂其他元素制备合金催化剂和复合催化剂来提高催化剂活性和抗毒性的相关研究工作。本文还对甲酸燃料电池的发展做了展望。%Formic acid fuel cell is a kind of fuel cell developed in recent years with promising commercial prospects. However, its development and commercialization are restricted by some factors, in which anodic catalyst is recognized as one of the most important factors. In this paper, some significant researches and attempts of promoting catalytic activity and poison tolerance are introduced, including novel preparation approaches, usage of novel supporting materials, as well as the design of multi-component catalyst by doping hetero elements. Concretely, the researches cover synthetic methods such as electrolytic deposition, organic colloid method, impregnation, study of using carbon nanotubes, graphene and complex materials as supports, and relevant work of adding other elements to prepare alloy catalysts and complex catalysts. Furthermore, the future development of formic acid fuel cell is also prospected.

  7. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoolmeester, W.L.; White, D.R.

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  8. Deactivation-resistant catalyst for selective catalyst reduction of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NOx in alkali metal containing flue gas using ammonia as reductant, the catalyst comprising a surface with catalytically active sites, wherein the surface is at least partly coated with a coating comprising at least...... one metal oxide. In another aspect the present invention relates to the use of said catalyst and to a method of producing said catalyst. In addition, the present invention relates to a method of treating an catalyst for conferring thereon an improved resistance to alkali poisoning....

  9. Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H

    1981-01-01

    Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates.

  10. 净化黄磷尾气中铁基高温水汽变换催化剂中毒机理%Poisoning Mechanism of Iron-Based High Temperature Catalyst in Water-Gas Shift Reaction of Purified Yellow Phosphorous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田森林; 杨玲菲; 宁平

    2011-01-01

    根据非均相反应体系的热力学有关理论,分析了高温水汽变换温度范围(623~803 K)内B112型铁基水汽变换催化剂在净化黄磷尾气气氛下受磷化氢、砷化氢、氟化氢和硫化氢作用而中毒可能发生的化学反应及产物,讨论了铁基高温变换催化剂的中毒机理.结果表明:磷酸盐、砷酸盐、硫酸盐、单质硫和积炭主要造成催化剂的暂时性中毒;磷铁化合物、砷铁化合物、氟铁化合物和硫铁化合物主要造成催化剂的永久性中毒.在一氧化碳变换气氛下,氮气不参与中毒反应,一氧化碳、二氧化碳、水蒸气和氧气都参与催化剂毒物与活性组分间的中毒反应,从而为催化剂中毒提供了条件,其中氧气会明显加快催化剂中毒.由热力学分析催化剂的中毒程度由强至弱为PH3,H2S,AsH3,HF.%The possible chemical reactions and products in the process of the iron-based high temperature water-gas shift catalyst B112 poisoned by PH3, AsH3, HF and H2S in the water-gas shift reaction of purified yellow phosphorous at 623-803 K was analyzed by the thermodynamics of heterogeneous reactions and the poisoning mechanisms were discussed. The results showed that the phosphate, arsenate, sulfate, sulfur and carbon deposit led to the catalyst temporary poisoning, FeP, FeP2, Fe2P, Fe3P, FeAs, FeAs2, FeF3, FeF2, Fe2S3, FeS2, Fe7Sg and FeS led to the catalyst permanent poisoning. In the water-gas shift process, N2 did not participate in toxic reactions, while CO, CO2, H2O and O2 participated poisoning reactions and provided conditions for catalyst poisoning, especially, O2 could speed up the catalyst poisoning. Based on the thermodynamic analysis, the toxicities for the water-gas shift catalyst from strong to weak was as follows:PH3, H2S, AsH3, HF.

  11. Mercuric oxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of mercury salt. There are different types of mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric oxide. ... Disinfectants Fungicides There have been reports of inorganic mercury poisoning from the use of skin-lightening creams. Note: ...

  12. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002886.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac To use the sharing features ... the plant, if known Amount swallowed (if swallowed) Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  13. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Nail polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  17. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  18. [Mercury poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  19. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  20. Mania following organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakam Mohapatra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  1. Mania following organophosphate poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Satyakam Mohapatra; Neelmadhav Rath

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  2. Mania following organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  3. Ciguatera poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaibar, Kira C; Moore, Simon; Bain, Peter G

    2007-10-01

    Ciguatera is a form of poisoning that occurs after eating tropical and subtropical ciguatoxic fish. The ciguatoxins are a family of heat stable, lipid soluble cyclic polyether compounds that bind to and open voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels at resting membrane potential, resulting in neural hyperexcitability, as well as swelling of the nodes of Ranvier. The authors describe a 45-year-old man who developed acute gastrointestinal symptoms in Antigua soon after eating red snapper and grouper, potentially "ciguatoxic fish". This was followed by neurological symptoms 24-48 hours later, including temperature reversal (paradoxical dysaesthesia), intense pruritus and increased nociception as a result of a small fibre peripheral neuropathy. The patient's symptoms and small fibre neuropathy improved over a period of 10 months.

  4. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it ... has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical ...

  5. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  6. Organic chemistry: A cure for catalyst poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Marcus E.; Baran, Phil S.

    2015-08-01

    Compounds that are sensitive to the components of air are difficult to use in chemical reactions, requiring conditions that are tedious to set up. A simple, practical solution to this problem has finally been devised. See Letter p.208

  7. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  8. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms.

  9. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  10. deNOx catalysts for biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Steffen Buus

    industrial reference catalyst, after impregnation of 225 mole potassium/g of catalyst. A catalyst plate was synthesised using 20 wt.% sepiolite mixed with nano catalyst, supported by a SiO2-fibre mesh. Realistic potassium poisoning was performed on the catalyst plate, by exposure in a potassium aerosol...... for 632 hours at 350 C. Owing to physical blocking of potassium by sepiolite fibres the composite catalyst showed a further increase in potassium resistance compared with the unsupported catalyst. Finally a refined mechanism was proposed for the nano particle SCR catalyst explaining insitu FTIR...... observation done on the system. Most importantly it indicated that the V=O bond did not break during the SCR reaction, suggesting that another oxygen is responsible for the activity of the active vanadia site....

  11. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  12. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  13. Oxidation catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  14. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  15. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning.

  16. Sulphur poisoning of the active materials used in SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, R.H.; Fowles, M. [Synetix Ltd. (United Kingdom); Ormerod, R.M.; Staniforth, J. [Keele Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the work done and main results of a project examining the Rolls-Royce Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell in order to determine the impact of sulphur poisoning of the anode, and sulphur and carbon poisoning of the reforming catalyst. The reversibility/irreversibility of the damage caused by sulphur was examined along with the development of a strategy involving changing operating conditions, catalysts, and processing of the natural gas feed to protect the fuel cell, and methods to minimise the deposition of carbon. The deactivation of the reforming catalyst brought about by hydrogen sulphide addition to the methane/steam mixtures, the rate of the deactivation of anodes resulting from the addition of hydrogen sulphide, problems due to cell leakage, and the module porous support are discussed. Recommendation presented cover safe concentrations of sulphur, the desulphurisation of the fuel, and the prevention of carbon deposition on the support material.

  17. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  18. The effects of yttrium on the hydrogenation performance and surface properties of a ruthenium-supported catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAITAO LUO

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of yttrium on the hydrogenation performance and surface properties of a Ru/sepiolite catalyst were studied. With CO2 methanation and CS2 poisoning as the testing reactons, TPR, TPD, XRD and CO chemisorption as the characterizations, the results showed that the presence of yttrium can increase the hydrogenation activity and anti-poisoning capacity of the Ru/sepiolite catalyst, which is due to a change of surface properties of the Ru/sepiolite. In the process of the catalytic reaction, the adjusting behavior of yttrium for the Ru/sepiolite catalyst aids in increasing the catalytic activity and anti-poisoning capacity of the catalyst.

  19. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  20. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  1. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  2. [Suicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the period from 1987 to 1996, 103 patients with suicidal benzodiazepines poisoning were treated, including 62 women and 41 men from 16 to 79 (mean 34) years old. 23 persons were poisoned only by benzodiazepines, in 80 remaining cases intoxications were mixed eg. including benzodiazepines and alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opioids, phenothiazines. The main causes of suicides were mainly depression, drug addiction and alcoholism. Nobody died in the benzodiazepines group, while mortality rate in the group of mixed poisoning was 4%. Prescribing benzodiazepines by physicians was quite often not justified and facilitated, among others, accumulation of the dose sufficient for suicide attempt. Flumazenil was efficient for leading out from coma in 86% of cases with poisoning only by benzodiazepines and 13% of cases with mixed intoxications mainly containing benzodiazepines and alcohol or carbamazepine.

  3. Hand lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lotion or cream can be harmful if swallowed: Dimethicone Mineral oil Paraffins (waxes) Petrolatum Various alcohols Where ... Hand cream poisoning References Caraccio TR, McFee RB. Cosmetics and toilet articles. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, ...

  4. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  5. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  6. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidneys. The poisoning causes disturbances in the body's chemistry, including metabolic acidosis . The disturbances may be severe enough to cause profound shock , organ failure, and death. As little as 120 milliliters (approximately 4 fluid ...

  7. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and smokers. Carbon monoxide can harm a fetus (unborn baby still in the womb). Symptoms of carbon ... symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. For those who survive, recovery is slow. How ...

  8. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... debilitating (Miller, 1991). To date there is no antidote or effectivc treatment, so supportive care and medications ... Diagnosis, Management and Treatment, Chemical Structure, and Molecular Mechanism of Action. Additional Resources Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, ...

  9. Poison plants (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by poor circulation, even stress. An example of contact dermatitis is the reaction of a sensitive person's skin to poison ivy, oak or sumac. Contact with these plants, which contain a chemical called ...

  10. Oximes in organophosphorus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organic insecticide poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries, where organophosphates (OPs are the most common suicidal poisons with high morbidity and mortality and account for a large proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units. Other insecticides less commonly used are organocarbamates, organochlorides, and pyrethroids, which are less toxic and are associated with less morbidity and mortality. Patients with poisoning present with a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiac manifestations. A strong clinical suspicion is necessary to make an early diagnosis and to start appropriate therapy. Treatment is primarily supportive and includes decontamination, anticholinergics, protection of the airway, and cardiac and respiratory support. The use of oximes has been controversial and may be associated with higher mortality owing to a higher incidence of type-II paralysis. They may have other toxic side effects. This paper reviews the literature on OP poisoning.

  11. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  12. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  13. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and tissues that need it, thus causing anemia. Most lead ends up in the bone, where it causes ... vomiting or nausea constipation pallor (pale skin) from ... look for lead poisoning or other health problems. Treatment Treatment for ...

  14. Pine oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... Mosby; 2013:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  15. Occupational lead poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Augusto V; Médico del Trabajo. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

    2013-01-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous heavy metal, has been found in places as unlikely as Greenland’s fossil ice. Egyptians and Hebrews used it. In Spain, Phoenicians c. 2000 BC worked ores of lead. At the end of the XX century, occupational lead’s poisoning became a public health problem in developed countries. In non-developed countries occupational lead poisoning is still frequent. Diagnosis is directed to recognize lead existence at the labor environment and good clinical and occupational documentation. Di...

  16. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtron Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Dennis Sparks; Wilson Shafer

    2010-09-30

    The successful adaptation of conventional cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts for use in converting biomass-derived syngas hinges in part on understanding their susceptibility to byproducts produced during the biomass gasification process. With the possibility that oil production will peak in the near future, and due to concerns in maintaining energy security, the conversion of biomass-derived syngas and syngas derived from coal/biomass blends to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products to liquid fuels may provide a sustainable path forward, especially considering if carbon sequestration can be successfully demonstrated. However, one current drawback is that it is unknown whether conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt will be suitable without proper development because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using an entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier) than solely from coal, other byproducts may be present in higher concentrations. The current project examines the impact of a number of potential byproducts of concern from the gasification of biomass process, including compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the second year, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities.

  17. Accidental dapsone poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P M; Philip, E

    1984-12-01

    Accidental poisoning in children shows a trend towards poisoning with various newer drugs and chemicals used in the household. Sixty-one cases of accidental poisoning in children were seen in Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, (S.A.T.H.), Trivandrum, South India during the year 1982, constituting 0.61% of the total pediatric admissions. Dapsone poisoning constituted 9.8% of the total accidental poisonings, emphasising the need for safe storage of drugs out of the reach of young children. Dapsone poisoning with resultant methaemoglobinaemia responded well to intravenous ascorbic acid and other supportive measures.

  18. Heterogeneous Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris D. Argyle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Deactivation of heterogeneous catalysts is a ubiquitous problem that causes loss of catalytic rate with time. This review on deactivation and regeneration of heterogeneous catalysts classifies deactivation by type (chemical, thermal, and mechanical and by mechanism (poisoning, fouling, thermal degradation, vapor formation, vapor-solid and solid-solid reactions, and attrition/crushing. The key features and considerations for each of these deactivation types is reviewed in detail with reference to the latest literature reports in these areas. Two case studies on the deactivation mechanisms of catalysts used for cobalt Fischer-Tropsch and selective catalytic reduction are considered to provide additional depth in the topics of sintering, coking, poisoning, and fouling. Regeneration considerations and options are also briefly discussed for each deactivation mechanism.

  19. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  20. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  1. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  2. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets Anyone who takes medication prescribed ... of all phone calls to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) are about human medications. Your ...

  3. Heteropoly acid promoted Cu and Fe catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Mossin, Susanne L.; Riisager, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Cu/TiO2, Fe/TiO2 and heteropoly acid promoted Cu/TiO2, Fe/TiO2 catalysts were prepared and characterized by N2 physisorption, XRPD, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR and EPR. The catalysts exhibited only crystalline TiO2 phases with the active metals and promoters in highly dispersed state. The acidic properties...... activity and acidity was lower for promoted catalysts than for unpromoted catalysts. In the heteropoly acid promoted catalysts the SCR active Cu and Fe metals were protected from potassium poisons by bonding of the potassium to the Brønsted acid centres. Thus heteropoly acid promoted catalysts might...... were studied and compared with the catalytic activity for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with ammonia. The SCR activities and acidity values of heteropoly acid promoted catalysts were found to be much higher than unpromoted catalysts. The influence of potassium poisons on the SCR...

  4. Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia

    2009-09-22

    A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

  5. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  6. Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Due-Hansen, Johannes;

    2012-01-01

    Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts were prepared using three different supports ZrO2, TiO2 and Mordenite zeolite. The majority of the catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of a commercial support, with vanadium, copper or iron precursor, one catalyst was prepared...... by onepot sol–gel method. All catalysts were characterized by BET, XRPD and NH3-TPD. Initial SCR activities of 8 out of 9 catalysts showed higher NO conversion at least at one temperature in the temperature range 300–500 ◦C compared to the conventional V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst. After potassium poisoning (100......–130 µmol of K/g of catalyst) the relative drop in SCR activity and acidity was lower for all the alternative catalysts compared to the industrial V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst. Furthermore, Cu/MOR and Nano-V2O5/Sul-TiO2 catalysts showed 8–16 times higher SCR activities than the conventional even after high...

  7. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac Print A A A The oil in poison ivy /oak/sumac plants (called urushiol ) can cause ...

  8. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  9. Study on Modification of Sm2O3 by Ni/Sepiolite Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗来涛; 李松军; 邓庚凤

    2003-01-01

    A series of Ni-Sm/sepiolite catalysts were prepared by impregnation. The modification of Sm2O3 for Ni/sepiolite was investigated by TPR, XPS and poisoning of CS2, respectively. The results indicate that the addition of Sm2O3 improves the activity of hydrogenation and anti-poisoning ability of Ni/sepiolite catalyst, and it also increases the dispersion of nickel atoms over support and the amount of active nickel atoms in catalyst. Effect of Sm2O3 on Ni/sepiolite catalyst includes not only electronic effect but also steric effect, whereas electronic effect seems to be principal.

  10. Cow dung powder poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  11. Used solid catalysts from chemical and petrochemical industries; Les catalyseurs solides uses de l`industrie chimique et du raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive survey of the solid catalysts used in the chemical and petrochemical industries is presented; information on solid catalyst market demand prospective for 1998, the nature of solid catalysts used in the various industrial sectors and for the various chemical products production, the european catalysts manufacturers, solid catalyst poisons and inhibitors according to the various types of chemical reactions, mean compositions of used solid catalysts, an assessment of the volume of used solid catalysts generated by chemical and petrochemical industries, the various ways of solid catalyst regeneration and disposal, the potential for off-site regeneration of used catalysts, and French and European regulations, is presented

  12. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  13. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  14. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  15. Homogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, John C; Freixa, Zoraida; van Leeuwen, Piet W N M

    2011-01-01

    This first book to illuminate this important aspect of chemical synthesis improves the lifetime of catalysts, thus reducing material and saving energy, costs and waste.The international panel of expert authors describes the studies that have been conducted concerning the way homogeneous catalysts decompose, and the differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. The result is a ready reference for organic, catalytic, polymer and complex chemists, as well as those working in industry and with/on organometallics.

  16. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, M.W.; Dodson, M.E.

    1972-06-01

    A case of acute arsenic poisoning in cattle was reported. The losses occurred on a property in the south east of South Australia. The weather had been hot for two or three days before the death occurred. The tank supplying the water trough had almost run dry. The cattle then attempted to meet their water requirements by drinking from the sheep dipping vat. A sample of rumen contents and a sample of water from the dipping vat were checked for arsenic. The rumen sample contained 45 ppM As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the sample of dipping fluid contained 200 ppM As. The lesions observed were similar to earlier reported arsenic poisoning. 5 references.

  17. Arsenic poisoning in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Bahri, L; Ben Romdane, S

    1991-06-01

    Arsenic is an important heavy metal intoxicant to livestock. Arsenical pesticides present significant hazards to animal health. The toxicity of arsenic varies with several factors--its chemical form, oxidation states, solubility. The phenylarsonic compounds are the least toxic and are used as feed additives in swine and poultry rations. However, roxarsone has a higher absolute toxicity than arsanilic acid. The mechanism of action is related to its reaction with sulfhydryl groups values to enzyme function and to its ability to uncouple oxydative phosphorylation. Most animals excrete arsenic quite readily. Toxicoses caused by inorganic and aliphatic organic arsenicals result in a different clinical syndrome than that from the phenylarsonic compounds. Arsenic poisoning may be confused with other types of intoxication. The specific antidote for inorganic arsenical poisoning is dimercaprol (BAL).

  18. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  19. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  20. nsect poisons in museums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eirik Granqvist

    2015-01-01

    Since natural history museums existed, there have been problems concerning how to protect the collections from damages caused by insects. In 1740s', French Chemist Becoeur started to use arsenic-soap to protect his taxidermy specimens against insects. But in the years of 1770s', it was discovered the terrible strong arsenic poison which was dangerous to human beings. Finally taxidermy specimens leave the use of ar- senic and borax to history and use Eulan in their place.

  1. Methaemoglobinemia in nitrobenzene poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongtham D

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A young girl with nitrobenzene induced methaemoglobinaemia was saved by the timely use of mechanical ventilator, administration of oral methylene blue and parenteral ascorbic acid. Though parenteral methylene blue is the antidote of choice, due to its non-availability, the laboratory preparation of methylene blue have been utilized orally. The rare occurrence of such cases, and the efficacy of oral methylene blue and other supportive measures in evading death due to Nitrobenzene poisoning have been highlighted.

  2. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations.

  3. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  4. Organophosphate poisoning : A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmod K. Sinha

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate pesticides are used extensively worldwide, and poisoning by these agents, particularly in developing nations is a public health problem. Organophosphorous nerve agents are still considered as potential threat in both military or terrorism situations. The mechanism of toxicity is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, resulting in accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors both in central and peripheral nervous systems. Beside acute cholinergic crisis, organophosphates are capable of producing several subacute or chronic neurological syndromes. The well described intermediate syndrome (IMS emerges 1-4 days after an apparently well treated cholinergic crisis. The standard treatment consists of reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase with an oxime antidote (pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6 and Hlo7 and reversal of the biochemical effects of acetylcholine with atropine. The newer oximes HI-6 and Hlo& are much more suitable and efficacious acetylcholinesterase reactivator for severe acute nerve agent induced poisoning than currently used pralidoxime or obidoxime. Patients who receive treatment promptly usually recover from acute toxicity but may suffer from neurologic sequelae. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 120-6 Keywords: poisoning, insecticide, organophosphate (OP, carbamates, acetylcholinesterase, oxime, pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6, HLo7

  5. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  6. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  7. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Poison Data System Our Work Alerts Keep Up-to-Date on the Latest Poison News The AAPCC works ... the latest poison safety and prevention news! Sign Up! Save the Date! Medication Safety 101 Twitter Chat Medication Safety 101: ...

  8. Treatment of toxicodendron dermatitis (poison ivy and poison oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, J D

    2001-04-01

    Toxicodendron dermatitis results from a reaction to an oil soluble oleoresin that is present in many parts of the poison ivy and poison oak plants. Prophylactic measures include avoidance, protective clothing, barrier creams and hyposensitization. Treatments include washing the area immediately with a solvent suitable for lipids and the use of anti-inflammatory agents, especially corticosteroids.

  9. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers.

  10. Design of colloidal Pt catalysts encapsulated by silica nano membranes for enhanced stability in H2S streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderone, V.R.; Schütz-Widoniak, J.; Bezemer, G.L.; Bakker, G.; Steurs, C.; Philipse, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    Poisoning of platinum catalysts by sulphur compounds is a significant problem that prevents their application in untreated gas streams. We introduce a novel concept to circumvent the poisoning problem by encapsulating individual platinum nano-particles with silica layers that act as selective membra

  11. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    1999-01-01

    This review reports information on the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) syndrome and the ASP toxins causing this poisoning, of which domoic acid is the major component. Data includes chemical structures and detection methods of ASP toxins, sources of ASP toxins, marine organisms associated with ASP

  12. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  13. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxico......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li...... treatment (1D), but continuous RRT is an acceptable alternative (1D). The workgroup supported the use of extracorporeal treatment in severe lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity...

  14. [Accidental oral mercurochrome poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Curiel J; Nieto Conde C; Santana Rodríguez C; Urbón Artero A; Gracia Remiro R

    2000-11-01

    Neonatal mercury poisoning, especially that due to merbromin ingestion, is uncommon. We describe the case of a 10 day old newborn infant who was given mercurochrome orally for 7 days due to misunderstanding of medical instructions. Initial symptoms included loss of appetite and low weight increase. Elevated blood mercury concentrations were found. Chelating therapy with dimercaprol was initiated and the patient's evolution was good. We discuss the potential toxicity of mercury and emphasise the importance of the transmission of information by physicians, especially to the immigrant population.

  15. Juniper tar poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruk, Suda Tekin; Ozyilkan, Esin; Kaya, Pinar; Colak, Dilsen; Donderici, Omer; Cesaretli, Yildirim

    2005-01-01

    Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, and is used for many purposes in folk medicine. A case is reported of a previously healthy man who ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever, severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day.

  16. Cow dung powder poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen; Senthil Kumar Kaliannan; Pavan Kumar Dammalapati

    2015-01-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as “saani powder” in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of ...

  17. Suicide through doxylamine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockholdt, B; Klug, E; Schneider, V

    2001-06-01

    Doxylamine is an antihistamine of the ethanolamine class. It is used primarily as a sleep-inducing agent. Only a few reports can be found in the literature about lethal intoxications with doxylamine, but many with combined intoxications. Doxylamine is, aside from diphenhydramine, the only chemically defined active ingredient in some sleeping medications which is available without a prescription in the Federal Republic of Germany. Two cases of doxylamine poisoning are presented, in which high doxylamine concentrations were found in the blood and organs.

  18. CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panduranga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute poisoning is an important medical emergency. Studies of this nature will be useful tool in planning, early diagnosis and management of acute poisoning cases. The objective of the study are to study the clinical features, diagnosis and management, morbidity and mortality of various acute poisoning. METHODOLOGY: This study comprises of 350 patients of acute poisoning admitted to Chigateri General Hospital and Bapuji Hospital attached to J. J. M. Medical College, Davangere, between 1st March 2011 to 31st October 2011. REUSLTS: Out of 350 cases of acute poisoning studied, there were 268 males and 82 females. Males comprised 76.57%and females 23.42% of the total, in this series, Organophosphorous compounds were the commonest (30%, majority of the patients hailed from rural area 70%. Mortality is 10.57%.

  19. Catalyst mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard I.; Rosen, Brian A.

    2017-02-14

    Catalysts that include at least one catalytically active element and one helper catalyst can be used to increase the rate or lower the overpotential of chemical reactions. The helper catalyst can simultaneously act as a director molecule, suppressing undesired reactions and thus increasing selectivity toward the desired reaction. These catalysts can be useful for a variety of chemical reactions including, in particular, the electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2 or formic acid. The catalysts can also suppress H.sub.2 evolution, permitting electrochemical cell operation at potentials below RHE. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts are also disclosed, including processes to produce CO, OH.sup.-, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, O.sub.2, H.sub.2, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  20. Stimulated-healing of proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latsuzbaia, R.; Negro, E.; Koper, G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Platinum nanoparticles, which are used as catalysts in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC), tend to degrade after long-term operation. We discriminate the following mechanisms of the degradation: poisoning, migration and coalescence, dissolution, and electrochemical Ostwald ripening. There a

  1. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping; Smith, R. Davis

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  2. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  3. Cleistanthus collinus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anugrah Chrispal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms "Cleistanthus collinus," "Euphorbiaceae," "Diphyllin," "Cleistanthin A," Cleistanthin B" and "Oduvanthalai." Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones - Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality.

  4. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  5. Occupational poison ivy and oak dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, W L

    1994-07-01

    Among the growing and diverse groups of outdoor and environmental workers, poison ivy and poison oak continue to be the major cause of occupational contact dermatitis. This article reviews the practical and theoretic means to prevent poison ivy and poison oak dermatitis in workers occupationally exposed to these weeds.

  6. Sulphur poisoning and regeneration of precious metal catalysed methane combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.M.; Dupont, V.A.; Fullerton, D.J.; Ross, A.B.; Westwood, A.V.K. [Department of Fuel and Energy, SPEME, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brydson, R. [Department of Materials, SPEME, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Nasri, N.S. [Gas Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai Johor (Malaysia)

    2003-07-01

    In many of the applications of catalytic combustion small amounts of sulphur compounds are present in the feed gas. In the case of natural gas combustion, and solid fuel syngas, the sulphur compounds are in reduced forms. The present work investigates the influence of small quantities of reduced sulphur compounds on the combustion of methane over alumina-supported precious metal catalysts. The kinetics of the methane combustion in the presence of low concentrations of a mixture of sulphur compounds (ethyl mercaptan, methyl mercaptan, carbonyl sulphide and hydrogen sulphide) are compared with those in the absence of sulphur compounds. The ease of regeneration of the poisoned catalysts, via low temperature reduction with hydrogen, is also examined. In the conditions studied all catalysts have reduced activity in the presence of the sulphur-based gas mixture, but Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are more strongly poisoned than Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Qualitative studies using gas chromatography with atomic emission detection of the exhaust gases, and FTIR spectroscopy of the spent Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, suggest that the catalysts experience a mixture of reduced and oxidised species under reaction conditions, and that sulphating of the support occurs. The regeneration step facilitates metal mobility and meets with varying success depending upon the metal. Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in particular is difficult to regenerate by reduction in hydrogen (400C for 0.5h), and agglomeration is observed by TEM. Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} regenerates well, and low metal particle size is maintained. A non-linear deactivation model is tested to separate sulphur-induced deactivation from 'natural' deactivation in the reaction mixture and preliminary results are presented.

  7. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  8. Highly dispersed metal catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xin; West, William L.; Rhodes, William D.

    2016-11-08

    A supported catalyst having an atomic level single atom structure is provided such that substantially all the catalyst is available for catalytic function. A process of forming a single atom catalyst unto a porous catalyst support is also provided.

  9. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  10. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future.

  11. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated

  12. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  13. Organophosphate Poisoning and Intermediate Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yilmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects that occur after acute organophosphate poisoning (OP can manifest three phases, namely, acute cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome and delayed-type polyneuropathy. Clinical signs and symptoms of organophosphate poisoning depend on the accumulation of acetylcholine at the nerve junction. Organophosphate poisoning causes three main clinical findings; acute cholinergic crisis consisting of muscarinic, nicotinic and central nervous system symptoms, intermediate syndrome with recurrence of cholinergic symptoms or muscle weakness without fasciculation 24-96 hours after poisoning and delayed-type polyneuropathy that can usually occur several days or weeks after acute exposure to organic phosphorus compounds. In this article, intermediate syndrome, which is a late complication, has been reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(1.000: 70-83

  14. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  15. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  16. Heterogeneous Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dakka, J.; Sheldon, R.A.; Sanderson, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of GB 2309655 (A) Heterogeneous catalysts comprising one or more metal compounds selected from the group consisting of tin, molybdenum, tungsten, zirconium and selenium compounds deposited on the surface of a silicalite are provided. Preferably Sn(IV) and/or Mo(VI) are employed. The cat

  17. Carbon-based metal-free catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xien; Dai, Liming

    2016-11-01

    Metals and metal oxides are widely used as catalysts for materials production, clean energy generation and storage, and many other important industrial processes. However, metal-based catalysts suffer from high cost, low selectivity, poor durability, susceptibility to gas poisoning and have a detrimental environmental impact. In 2009, a new class of catalyst based on earth-abundant carbon materials was discovered as an efficient, low-cost, metal-free alternative to platinum for oxygen reduction in fuel cells. Since then, tremendous progress has been made, and carbon-based metal-free catalysts have been demonstrated to be effective for an increasing number of catalytic processes. This Review provides a critical overview of this rapidly developing field, including the molecular design of efficient carbon-based metal-free catalysts, with special emphasis on heteroatom-doped carbon nanotubes and graphene. We also discuss recent advances in the development of carbon-based metal-free catalysts for clean energy conversion and storage, environmental protection and important industrial production, and outline the key challenges and future opportunities in this exciting field.

  18. Commercial Application of the ICR Series Lube Isodewaxing Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Sijue

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates the application of the ICR series lube oil isodewaxing catalysts in commercial scale and proposes the strategy on long cycle operation and optimization of catalysts. The results of commercial application of the catalyst have revealed that the catalyst after pretreatment including drying, sulfidation and reduction can process VGO into base oils meeting the HVI Ⅱ and HVI Ⅱ+ standards, and can manufacture base oils meeting the HVI Ⅲ standard after incorporating the filtrate oil or gatch from acetone-benzene solvent dewaxing unit. The nitrogen content of the feed oil to the IDW reactor should be controlled at 1.0-1.5 ppm, while the CO and CO2 contents in fresh hydrogen is strictly controlled to avoid poisoning of the IDW-HDF catalysts.

  19. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning prevention...

  20. Identification and treatment of poison ivy dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briant, D; Brouder, G

    1983-01-01

    Poison ivy dermatitis is an acute self-limiting problem of two or three weeks' duration that can cause significant discomfort. Poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac cause more cases of allergic contact dermatitis than all the other contact allergens combined. Treatment of poison ivy dermatitis depends on the severity of the reaction. The nurse practitioner can manage the majority of poison ivy cases. However, if there is systemic involvement, a physician consultation is necessary. The patient can best be assisted by assessing the severity of the dermatitis, prescribing an appropriate supportive therapy and teaching preventive measures.

  1. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Hammond

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented.

  2. Reaction Engineering with Metal-Organic Framework Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkonian, Arek Viken

    To date, there has been no comprehensive attempt to perform and/or describe catalytic reactions in the gas phase that utilize metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as catalysts. In addition, there has been no attempt to reaction engineer these MOF catalysts in order to determine their regimes of optimal catalytic activity and possible limitations to their use. A zinc-based MOF that has been post-synthetically modified with a homogeneous palladium catalyst, Pd(CH 3CN)2Cl2, is used to catalyze the hydrogenation of propylene. The catalyst is assembled in a packed-bed reactor under a continuous flow of reactants. The reaction is optimized with respect to isoreticular metalation, reactant flow rate, and reactor temperature. Maximum catalytic conversion is found at intermediate metalations of 40% and 60%, high hydrogen flow of 50 ccm, and intermediate reactor temperatures of 100 °C and 150 °C. The MOF-60 catalyst is exposed to a traditional catalyst poison, carbon monoxide (CO). It is found that the MOF is reversibly poisoned upon introduction of CO. Upon poisoning, catalytic conversions rates of 90%-100% are dramatically reduced to less than 10%-30%, depending on the CO flow rate and the reactor temperature. The CO poisoning is shown to be reversible, a similar effect as found with palladium on carbon (Pd/C). The time scale of poisoning and recovery is very fast for both the MOF catalyst and Pd/C (approximately 10-30 seconds). Other effects of temperature on the MOF-40 are also investigated. At fixed reactant flow, the temperature grid is partitioned into finer steps of 10 °C to determine the temperature that yields the highest catalytic conversion. It is found that conversion is nearly uniform in the range between the highest conversions, i.e., conversion plateaus between the optimum temperatures. The catalyst also exhibits a weak thermal hysteresis. There is no significant improvement in conversion with thermal cycling after alternating the reactor temperature between

  3. Selective catalytic NOx reduction on Antimony promoted V2O5-Sb/TiO2 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HA Heon Phil; CHUNG Soon Hyo; OH Young Joo

    2006-01-01

    Quantum chemical calculation was carried out to choose a promoter which can reduce the poisoning of V2O5/TiO2 catalysts by SO2.Several atoms were chosen as candidates and new catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method.The NOx conversion rate was measured at temperatures between 100 and 400 ℃ and poisoning effect was investigated.The most promising candidate promoter, Se, was excluded because of its high vapor pressure.On the other hand, Sb shows best promoting properties.Sb promoted catalyst reaches the maximum NOx conversion rate at 250 ℃.It also shows considerably enhanced resistance to poisoning of V2O5/TiO2 catalysts by SO2.

  4. Poisoning of bubble propelled catalytic micromotors: the chemical environment matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanjia; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Pumera, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Self-propelled catalytic microjets have attracted considerable attention in recent years and these devices have exhibited the ability to move in complex media. The mechanism of propulsion is via the Pt catalysed decomposition of H2O2 and it is understood that the Pt surface is highly susceptible to poisoning by sulphur-containing molecules. Here, we show that important extracellular thiols as well as basic organic molecules can significantly hamper the motion of catalytic microjet engines. This is due to two different mechanisms: (i) molecules such as dimethyl sulfoxide can quench the hydroxyl radicals produced at Pt surfaces and reduce the amount of oxygen gas generated and (ii) molecules containing -SH, -SSR, and -SCH3 moieties can poison the catalytically active platinum surface, inhibiting the motion of the jet engines. It is essential that the presence of such molecules in the environment be taken into consideration for future design and operation of catalytic microjet engines. We show this effect on catalytic micromotors prepared by both rolled-up and electrodeposition approaches, demonstrating that such poisoning is universal for Pt catalyzed micromotors. We believe that our findings will contribute significantly to this field to develop alternative systems or catalysts for self-propulsion when practical applications in the real environment are considered.

  5. The Pittsburgh Poison Center profile of an American poison information center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzelok, Edward P

    2005-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Poison Center (PPC), a department of Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, was established in 1971 to provide emergency poison information to the residents of western Pennsylvania, especially the children. The PPC provides comprehensive poison information center services to the lay public and to medical professionals, poison prevention education, professional education and specialized services to the business and industry sector and governmental agencies.

  6. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  7. Poison ivy on the leg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a typical early appearance of a poison ivy rash, located on the leg. These early lesions ... line where the skin has brushed against the poison ivy plant. The rash is caused by skin contact ...

  8. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  9. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J;

    2015-01-01

    diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed. A two-round modified Delphi method......BACKGROUND: Metformin toxicity, a challenging clinical entity, is associated with a mortality of 30%. The role of extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis is poorly defined at present. Here, the Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning workgroup, comprising international experts representing......) and made the following recommendations: extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe metformin poisoning (1D). Indications for extracorporeal treatment include lactate concentration greater than 20 mmol/L (1D), pH less than or equal to 7.0 (1D), shock (1D), failure of standard supportive measures (1D...

  10. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle;

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed all...... articles, extracted data, summarized key findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 617 articles met...... depression necessitating mechanical ventilation, shock, persistent toxicity, or increasing or persistently elevated serum barbiturate concentrations despite treatment with multiple-dose activated charcoal. (3) Intermittent hemodialysis is the preferred mode of ECTR, and multiple-dose activated charcoal...

  11. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function.

  12. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  13. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  14. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  15. Mercury poisoning: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezer, Hasan; Kaya, Aysenur; Kalkan, Gokhan; Erkocoglu, Mustafa; Ozturk, Kubra; Buyuktasli, Muge

    2012-11-01

    Clinical features of mercury poisoning are nonspecific, and a detailed history is very valuable. The silvery, shiny appearance of mercury makes it very exciting and attractive for children. The overall half-life of elemental mercury in the body averages approximately 2 months. Chelation therapy with dimercaptosuccinic acid is the treatment of choice if the urine or blood level of mercury is high or the symptoms are profound. Here, we describe a 14-year-old boy with fever, respiratory distress, and body rash. Investigation leading to a diagnosis of mercury poisoning was made only after his mother presented with the similar symptoms a few days later.

  16. Extracorporeal Treatment in Phenytoin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A;

    2016-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles......, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 51 articles met the inclusion...

  17. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, we present our results for digoxin. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxicokinetic data were...... extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled and discussed in person...

  18. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. METHODS: After a systematic...... review of the literature, a subgroup reviewed articles, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a pre-determined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method...

  19. Catalyst Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans; Marling, Gitte; Hansen, Peter Mandal

    2014-01-01

    of programs, have a role in mediating positive social and/or cultural development. In this sense, we talk about architecture as a catalyst for: sustainable adaptation of the city’s infrastructure appropriate renovation of dilapidated urban districts strengthening of social cohesiveness in the city development...... meaningful for everyone. The exhibited works are designed by SANAA, Diller Scofidio + Renfro, James Corner Field Operation, JBMC Arquitetura e Urbanismo, Atelier Bow-Wow, Ateliers Jean Nouvel, COBE, Transform, BIG, Topotek1, Superflex, and by visual artist Jane Maria Petersen....

  20. Oral hyposensitization to poison ivy and poison oak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, J G; Trautlein, J J; Epstein, W L; Laws, D M; Sicard, G R

    1987-04-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a 1:1 mixture of pentadecylcatechol (PDC) and heptadecylcatechol (HDC) diacetate in reducing hypersensitivity to poison ivy and poison oak. The study was double-blind, parallel, randomized, and placebo controlled. The 44 subjects receiving the active drug ingested a cumulative dose of 306.5 mg over a five-week period. Subsequently, 14 patients were continued on a maintenance phase, ingesting an additional 960 mg of drug. The PDC-HDC diacetate was well tolerated, with no significant side effects. Evaluation of efficacy compared poststudy and prestudy reactions to patch tests using urushiol in doses of 0.025, 0.05, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 micrograms applied to the forearm. The results indicated that the induction phase as well as the maintenance phase did not induce a statistically significant hyposensitivity to urushiol, and we were thus unable to decrease sensitivity to poison ivy and poison oak in humans using orally ingested PDC-HDC diacetate.

  1. Modelling Catalyst Surfaces Using DFT Cluster Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kröcher

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We review our recent theoretical DFT cluster studies of a variety of industrially relevant catalysts such as TiO2, γ-Al2O3, V2O5-WO3-TiO2 and Ni/Al2O3. Aspects of the metal oxide surface structure and the stability and structure of metal clusters on the support are discussed as well as the reactivity of surfaces, including their behaviour upon poisoning. It is exemplarily demonstrated how such theoretical considerations can be combined with DRIFT and XPS results from experimental studies.

  2. Modelling catalyst surfaces using DFT cluster calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekaj, Izabela; Wambach, Jörg; Kröcher, Oliver

    2009-11-20

    We review our recent theoretical DFT cluster studies of a variety of industrially relevant catalysts such as TiO(2), gamma-Al(2)O(3), V(2)O(5)-WO(3)-TiO(2) and Ni/Al(2)O(3). Aspects of the metal oxide surface structure and the stability and structure of metal clusters on the support are discussed as well as the reactivity of surfaces, including their behaviour upon poisoning. It is exemplarily demonstrated how such theoretical considerations can be combined with DRIFT and XPS results from experimental studies.

  3. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  4. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T

    2014-01-01

    and an APAP concentration over 900 mg/L (5960 mmol/L) if NAC is administered (1D). Intermittent hemodialysis (HD) is the preferred ECTR modality in APAP poisoning (1D). CONCLUSION: APAP is amenable to extracorporeal removal. Due to the efficacy of NAC, ECTR is reserved for rare situations when the efficacy...... of NAC has not been definitively demonstrated....

  5. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T

    2015-01-01

    that salicylates are dialyzable by hemodialysis and hemoperfusion (level of evidence=B) and recommended extracorporeal treatment in patients with severe salicylate poisoning (1D), including any patient with altered mental status (1D), with acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring supplemental oxygen (1D...

  6. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months.

  7. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    1999-01-01

    Deze literatuurstudie bevat informatie betreffende het 'amnesic shellfish poisoning' (ASP) syndroom en de veroorzakende ASP toxines, van welke "domoic acid" de belangrijkste component is. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van ASP toxines, de bronnen voor ASP toxines,

  8. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  9. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) wordt veroorzaakt door consumptie van schelpdieren die PSP toxinen bevatten. Er zijn 18 verschillende PSP toxinen, waarvan saxitoxine de meest bekende en de meest toxische is. PSP toxinen kunnen worden aangetoond met de muis bioassay, waarbij de dood van het d

  10. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by ingestion of shellfish containing PSP toxins. The PSP toxins are a group of 18 closely related tetrahydropurines. The first PSP toxin chemically characterised was saxitoxin. The various PSP toxins significantly differ in toxicity, with saxitoxin being

  11. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  12. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning.

  13. Halogen poisoning effect of Pt-TiO{sub 2} for formaldehyde catalytic oxidation performance at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Bei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122#, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Jiaguo, E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122#, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Ho, Wingkei, E-mail: keithho@ied.edu.hk [Department of Science and Environmental Studies and Centre for Education in Environmental Sustainability, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Tai Po, N.T. Hong Kong (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The Pt-TiO{sub 2} catalyst is deactivated by adsorption of halogen ions. • The halogen poison is mainly attributed to the active site blocking of the Pt surface. • Halogen ions and Pt form Pt−X coordination bonds. • Large halogen diameter exhibits severe poisoning effect. - Abstract: Catalytic decomposition of formaldehyde (HCHO) at room temperature is an important method for HCHO removal. Pt-based catalysts are the optimal catalyst for HCHO decomposition at room temperature. However, the stability of this catalyst remains unexplored. In this study, Pt-TiO{sub 2} (Pt-P25) catalysts with and without adsorbed halogen ions (including F{sup −}, Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −}, and I{sup −}) were prepared through impregnation and ion modification. Pt-TiO{sub 2} samples with adsorbed halogen ions exhibited reduced catalytic activity for formaldehyde decomposition at room temperature compared with the Pt-TiO{sub 2} sample; the catalytic activity followed the order of F-Pt-P25, Cl-Pt-P25, Br-Pt-P25, and I-Pt-P25. Characterization results (including XRD, TEM, HRTEM, BET, XPS, and metal dispersion) showed that the adsorbed halogen ions can poison Pt nanoparticles (NPs), thereby reducing the HCHO oxidation activity of Pt-TiO{sub 2}. The poison mechanism is due to the strong adsorption of halogen ions on the surface of Pt NPs. The adsorbed ions form coordination bonds with surface Pt atoms by transferring surplus electrons into the unoccupied 5d orbit of the Pt atom, thereby inhibiting oxygen adsorption and activation of the Pt NP surface. Moreover, deactivation rate increases with increasing diameter of halogen ions. This study provides new insights into the fabrication of high-performance Pt-based catalysts for indoor air purification.

  14. Amitraz: a mimicker of organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-10-01

    Amitraz is used as an ectoparasiticide for dogs and cattle. Human poisoning due to amitraz may be misdiagnosed as organophosphate/carbamate (OPC) toxicity, since amitraz poisoning shares several clinical features (miosis, bradycardia and hypotension) encountered with OPC poisoning. A 19-year-old man with an alleged history of suicidal ingestion of a pesticide presented with drowsiness and was found to have constricted pupils, hypotension and bradycardia. He was diagnosed as a case of OPC poisoning and was treated with atropine and pralidoxime prior to presentation to our centre. Absence of a hypersecretory state, and the presence of hyperglycaemia and hypothermia along with a normal serum cholinesterase level suggested an alternate possibility. Retrieval of the poison container confirmed the diagnosis of amitraz poisoning. The patient made a rapid recovery with supportive management. Clinician awareness is key to successful management of this poisoning, which carries a good prognosis.

  15. Metal Poisoning: Threat and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJS Flora

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to toxic metals remains a wide spread occupational and environmental problems in world. Due to their widespread use in human activities such as industry, agriculture and even as medicine numerous health risks may be associated with exposure to these substances. Lead, arsenic and cadmium generally interferes with a number of body functions such as the haematopoietic system, central nervous system (CNS, liver and kidneys. Over the past few decades there have been growing awareness and concern that the toxic biochemical and functional effects are occurring at lower level of metal exposure than those that produce overt clinical and pathological signs and symptoms. Despite many years of research we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic heavy metal poisoning. The main therapeutic option for chronic metal poisoning relies in chelation therapy. Chelating agents are capable of linking together metal ions to form complex structures which can be easily excreted from the body. They have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic poisoning. 2, 3-dimercaprol (BAL has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy of lead or arsenic poisoning. Meso 2, 3, -dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA has been tried successfully in animals as well as in few cases of human lead or arsenic poisoning. However, one of the major disadvantages of chelation with DMSA has been its inability to remove heavy metal from the intracellular sites because of its lipophobic nature. Further, it does not provide protection in terms of clinical/ biochemical recovery. A new trend in chelation therapy has emerged to use combined treatment. This includes use of structurally different chelating agents or a combination of an antioxidant and a chelator to provide better clinical/biochemical recovery in addition to mobilization of heavy metal form intracellular sites. The present review article attempts to provide update information about the current strategies being

  16. Commercial Application of Technique for Removing Sulfates from Reforming Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiChangqing

    2002-01-01

    In the course of reduction of reforming catalyst by not hydrogen a certain amount of chlorine containing compounds is added to the recycle hydrogen to facilitate the reduction of sulfates.The outcome of commercial application of this technique has revealed that the procedure of "regeneration by chlorination→reduction→sulfate removal→sulfiding and oil feed-in"aimed at sulate removal is very simple and can recover the reaction activity of reforming catalyst after having been poisoned by sulfates.This procedure can be disseminated for application in refineries.

  17. Iron Contamination Mechanism and Reaction Performance Research on FCC Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracking catalyst iron poisoning would not only influence units’ product slate; when the poisoning is serious, it could also jeopardize FCC catalysts’ fluidization in reaction-regeneration system and further cause bad influences on units’ stable operation. Under catalytic cracking reaction conditions, large amount of iron nanonodules is formed on the seriously iron contaminated catalyst due to exothermic reaction. These nodules intensify the attrition between catalyst particles and generate plenty of fines which severely influence units’ smooth running. A dense layer could be formed on the catalysts’ surface after iron contamination and the dense layer stops reactants to diffuse to inner structures of catalyst. This causes extremely negative effects on catalyst’s heavy oil conversion ability and could greatly cut down gasoline yield while increasing yields of dry gas, coke, and slurry largely. Research shows that catalyst’s reaction performance would be severely deteriorated when iron content in E-cat (equilibrium catalyst exceeds 8000 μg/g.

  18. Low-temperature SCR of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} over carbon-ceramic supported catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes-Solis, Teresa; Marban, Gregorio; Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), c/Francisco Pintado Fe No. 26, 33011 Oviedo (Spain)

    2003-11-10

    A new method for preparing vanadium oxide supported on carbon-ceramic cellular monoliths is described. This includes a support oxidation step with HNO{sub 3}, followed by ionic exchange with a NaOH solution, equilibrium adsorption impregnation of VO{sup 2+} and thermal treatment. As a result an active catalyst for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction is obtained. The V-catalyst is more resistant to SO{sub 2} poisoning than the previously developed Mn-catalyst. Inhibition by water is reversible for both types of catalysts. Testing of the vanadium catalyst after subjecting it to the outlet gas stream of a power plant shows fast deactivation until constant residual activity is reached. Deactivation seems to be caused by arsenic poisoning and the formation of superficial sulphates.

  19. Nano-gold Catalyst for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Ogumi; K.Miyazaki; Y.Iriyama; T.Abe

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Direct alcohol fuel cells have been regarded as attractive power sources for portable electric devices. One of the major roadblocks to the implementation of direct alcohol fuel cells is the exploration of the anode catalyst that can electrochemically oxidize alcohols at lower potentials. Carbon-monoxide (CO) produced through alcohol oxidation deteriorates catalytic activity of Pt, and therefore, the high tolerance for CO poisoning is an important issue to attain high voltage from direct alcoho...

  20. The role of arsine in the deactivation of methanol synthesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, R.; Mebrahtu, T.; Dahl, T.A.; Lucrezi, F.A.; Toseland, B.A. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Adsorption Technology Center, 7201 Hamilton Boulevard, Allentown, PA 18195-1501 (United States)

    2004-06-18

    The liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH) process is successfully producing methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas on an industrial scale. This process uses a standard copper, zinc oxide, and alumina catalyst suspended in an inert mineral oil in a slurry bubble column reactor. An arsenic-containing species, most reasonably arsine, was found in the feed to the LPMEOH commercial demonstration facility located at Eastman Chemical Company's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, TN. Laboratory testing showed that arsine is, in fact, a powerful methanol synthesis catalyst poison. At levels as low as 150ppbv, arsine results in a rapid deactivation of the catalyst. Removal of arsine results in a deactivation rate consistent with a clean synthesis gas feed; that is, arsine poisoning stops when it is removed from the feed. We infer that arsine reacts irreversibly with the catalyst under the methanol synthesis conditions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of arsenic-containing used catalyst indicated the presence of zero-valent arsenic in an intermetallic surface phase that is structurally related to Domeykite (Cu{sub 3}As). Experimental evidence, thermodynamics, and literature relating to other metal-arsine chemistry were consistent with dissociative adsorption of arsine on the copper surface to form gaseous H{sub 2} and Cu{sub 3}As. To deal with arsine poisoning, we have developed adsorption technology that can remove arsine to levels low enough that catalyst performance is unaffected.

  1. Deactivation of La-Fe-ZSM-5 catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH{sup 3}. Field study results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Gongshin; Yang, Ralph T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Chang, Ramsay; Cardoso, Sylvio [Air Pollution Control, Power Generation, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1395 (United States); Smith, Randall A. [Fossil Energy Research Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA 92653 (United States)

    2004-11-08

    Results are summarized for a study on the effects of poisons on the La-Fe-ZSM-5 catalyst activity for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by ammonia. The deactivation of La-Fe-ZSM-5 honeycombs was studied in field tests. A honeycomb catalyst containing 25%La-Fe-ZSM-5 had an overall activity similar to that of a commercial vanadia honeycomb catalyst. Long-term activity test results show that the 25%La-Fe-ZSM-5 catalyst activity decreased to 50% after 300h and 25% after 1769h of on-stream flue gas exposure. The deactivation is correlated to the amounts of poisons deposited on the catalyst. Poisons include alkali and alkaline earth metals, As and Hg. Hg was found to be ion-exchanged from HgCl{sup 2} to form Hg-ZSM-5, and Hg was found to be among the strongest poisons. The poisoning effects of these elements appeared to be additive. Thus, from the chemical analysis of the deactivated catalyst, the deactivation of Fe-ZSM-5 can be predicted.

  2. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  3. Extracorporeal treatment for carbamazepine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais F

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence and consensus-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic review and provide clinical recommendations for ECTR...... Method to quantify disagreement. Anonymous votes were compiled, returned, and discussed in person. A second vote determined the final recommendations. RESULTS: Seventy-four articles met inclusion criteria. Articles included case reports, case series, descriptive cohorts, pharmacokinetic studies, and in......-vitro studies; two poor-quality observational studies were identified, yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 173 patients, including 6 fatalities, were reviewed. The workgroup concluded that carbamazepine is moderately dialyzable and made the following recommendations: ECTR...

  4. Alsike clover poisoning: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, P. Nicholas

    1989-01-01

    Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the b...

  5. Vanadia-based SCR Catalysts Supported on Tungstated and Sulfated Zirconia: Influence of Doping with Potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Boghosian, Soghomon; Kustov, Arkadii

    2007-01-01

    preparation parameters were examined, including the choice of precipitant, variation of carrier surface area, potassium poisoning, crystallinity, and ZrO2-phase composition. The results show that the catalysts structure and SCR activity is affected from the synthesis route by means of support crystallinity...

  6. Characterization and Regeneration of Pt-Catalysts Deactivated in Municipal Waste Flue Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Kustov, Arkadii; Due-Hansen, Johannes;

    2006-01-01

    that siloxanes were the most severe catalyst poisons, although acidic sulfur compounds also caused deactivation. Furthermore, a method for on-site regeneration without shutdown of the catalytic flue gas cleaning system has been developed, i.e. an addition of H-2/N-2 gas to the off-gas can completely restore...

  7. Insight into deactivation of commercial SCR catalyst by arsenic: an experiment and DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yue; Li, Junhua; Si, Wenzhe; Luo, Jinming; Dai, Qizhou; Luo, Xubiao; Liu, Xin; Hao, Jiming

    2014-12-01

    Fresh and arsenic-poisoned V2O5–WO3/TiO2 catalysts are investigated by experiments and DFT calculations for SCR activity and the deactivation mechanism. Poisoned catalyst (1.40% of arsenic) presents lower NO conversion and more N2O formation than fresh. Stream (5%) could further decrease the activity of poisoned catalyst above 350 °C. The deactivation is not attributed to the loss of surface area or phase transformation of TiO2 at a certain arsenic content, but due to the coverage of the V2O5 cluster and the decrease in the surface acidity: the number of Lewis acid sites and the stability of Brønsted acid sites. Large amounts of surface hydroxyl induced by H2O molecules provide more unreactive As–OH groups and give rise to a further decrease in the SCR activity. N2O is mainly from NH3 unselective oxidation at high temperatures since the reducibility of catalysts and the number of surface-active oxygens are improved by As2O5. Finally, the reaction pathway seems unchanged after poisoning: NH3 adsorbed on both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites is reactive.

  8. Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A

    2012-10-15

    Black-spot poison ivy is an uncommon presentation of poison ivy (Toxicodendron) allergic contact dermatitis. A 78-year-old sought evaluation of a black spot present on her right hand amid pruritic vesicles. The presentation of a black spot on the skin in a clinical context suggesting poison ivy is indicative of black-spot poison ivy. Dermoscopy revealed a jagged, centrally homogeneous, dark brown lesion with a red rim. A skin sample was obtained and compared against a poison ivy standard using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). This finding confirmed the presence of multiple urushiol congeners in the skin sample. Black-spot poison ivy may be added to the list of diagnoses that show a specific dermoscopic pattern.

  9. Formic acid oxidation at platinum-bismuth catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Ksenija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of heterogeneous catalysis, specifically catalysis on bimetallic surfaces, has seen many advances over the past few decades. Bimetallic catalysts, which often show electronic and chemical properties that are distinct from those of their parent metals, offer the opportunity to obtain new catalysts with enhanced selectivity, activity, and stability. The oxidation of formic acid is of permanent interest as a model reaction for the mechanistic understanding of the electrooxidation of small organic molecules and because of its technical relevance for fuel cell applications. Platinum is one of the most commonly used catalysts for this reaction, despite the fact that it shows a few significant disadvantages: high cost and extreme susceptibility to poisoning by CO. To solve this problem, several approaches have been used, but generally, they all consist in the modification of platinum with a second element. Especially, bismuth has received significant attention as Pt modifier. According to the results presented in this survey dealing with the effects influencing the formic acid oxidation it was found that two types of Pt-Bi bimetallic catalysts (bulk and low loading deposits on GC showed superior catalytic activity in terms of the lower onset potential and oxidation current density, as well as exceptional stability compared to Pt. The findings in this report are important for the understanding of mechanism of formic acid electrooxidation on a bulk alloy and decorated surface, for the development of advanced anode catalysts for direct formic acid fuel cells, as well as for the synthesis of novel low-loading bimetallic catalysts. The use of bimetallic compounds as the anode catalysts is an effective solution to overcoming the problems of the formic acid oxidation current stability for long term applications. In the future, the tolerance of both CO poisoning and electrochemical leaching should be considered as the key factors in the development

  10. Extracorporeal treatment for tricyclic antidepressant poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais; Sowinski, Kevin M;

    2014-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its results for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). After an extensive literature search, using a predefined...... methodology, the subgroup responsible for this poison reviewed the articles, extracted the data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and RAND...

  11. Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case report...

  12. Unilateral Antidotes to DNS Cache Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Herzberg, Amir; Shulman, Haya

    2012-01-01

    We investigate defenses against DNS cache poisoning focusing on mechanisms that can be readily deployed unilaterally by the resolving organisation, preferably in a single gateway or a proxy. DNS poisoning is (still) a major threat to Internet security; determined spoofing attackers are often able to circumvent currently deployed antidotes such as port randomisation. The adoption of DNSSEC, which would foil DNS poisoning, remains a long-term challenge. We discuss limitations of the prominent r...

  13. Application of the Solvothermal Process in the Synthesis of High-performance Ag/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Qing; LI Rui-xing; YIN Shu; Shingo Goto; Daisuke Nagai; Tsugio Sato

    2006-01-01

    Ag/γ-Al2O3 is a kind of promising catalyst with the relatively lower cost compared with those using noble metals,good resistance against catalytic poisoning and excellent behaviour for NOx removal. In the present study, Ag/γ-Al2O3 catalysts were synthesized by the solvothermal process and characterized by XRD, TG-DTA, TEM, UV-Vis and FT-IR. It was found that high-performance Ag/γ-Al2O3 catalysts could be synthesized by properly selecting starting materials,controlling the composition of solvent and other reaction conditions. The microstructure evolution of the catalysts was also discussed.

  14. Regeneration of Commercial SCR Catalysts: Probing the Existing Forms of Arsenic Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Junhua; Peng, Yue; Si, Wenzhe; He, Xu; Hao, Jiming

    2015-08-18

    To investigate the poisoning and regeneration of SCR catalysts, fresh and arsenic-poisoned commercial V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalysts are researched in the context of deactivation mechanisms and regeneration technology. The results indicate that the forms of arsenic oxide on the poisoned catalyst are related to the proportion of arsenic (As) on the catalyst. When the surface coverage of (V+W+As) is lower than 1, the trivalent arsenic species (As(III)) is the major component, and this species prefers to permeate into the bulk-phase channels. However, at high As concentrations, pentavalent arsenic species (As(IV)) cover the surface of the catalyst. Although both arsenic species lower the NOx conversion, they affect the formation of N2O differently. In particular, N2O production is limited when trivalent arsenic species predominate, which may be related to As2O3 clogging the pores of the catalyst. In contrast, the pentavalent arsenic oxide species (As2O5) possess several As-OH groups. These As-OH groups could not only enhance the ability of the catalyst to become reduced, but also provide several Brønsted acid sites with weak thermal stability that promote the formation of N2O. Finally, although our novel Ca(NO3)2-based regeneration method cannot completely remove As2O3 from the micropores of the catalyst, this approach can effectively wipe off surface arsenic oxides without a significant loss of the catalyst's active components.

  15. POISONOUS PLANTS IN GARDENS AND GRAZING LANDS

    OpenAIRE

    A. AGANGA; M. NSINAMWA; K. OTENG; B. MAULE

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a review of poisonous plants, their toxic agents and the symptoms of poisoning. Poisonous plants are plants, which as a whole or part thereof under all or certain conditions and in amount likely to be taken or into contact with an organism will exert harmful effects or causes death either immediately or by reason of cumulative action of toxic property due to presence of known or unknown chemical action. There are different types of diseases caused by some poisonous plants. Poiso...

  16. Poison ivy dermatitis. Nuances in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, P M; Sheretz, E F

    1994-02-01

    Acute allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy or poison oak is a common presenting complaint in the practices of many primary care physicians. While the clinical features are well described, reported treatment regimens vary in both topical and systemic therapies. We review herein the variability of presenting morphologic features of the disease and common treatment regimens, with attention given to complications of therapy. We also comment on the correct botanical designation, incidence, and immune mechanisms of the disease state and review measures to avoid allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy and poison oak.

  17. Foundation Flash Catalyst

    CERN Document Server

    Goralski, Greg

    2010-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to Flash Catalyst for designers with intermediate to advanced skills. It discusses where Catalyst sits within the production process and how it communicates with other programs. It covers all of the features of the Flash Catalyst workspace, teaching you how to create designs from scratch, how to build application designs and add functionality, and how to master the Catalyst/Flex workflow. * Introduces Flash Catalyst * Focuses on production process * Covers the interrelation between Flash Catalyst and Photoshop/Illustrator/Flex/Flash What you'll learn Starting f

  18. Catalytic Oxidation of NO over MnOx-CeO₂ and MnOx-TiO₂ Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaolan; Huo, Xiaoyue; Zhu, Tianle; Hong, Xiaowei; Sun, Ye

    2016-11-14

    A series of MnOx-CeO₂ and MnOx-TiO₂ catalysts were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method and their catalytic activities for the NO oxidation in the absence or presence of SO₂ were evaluated. Results show that the optimal molar ratio of Mn/Ce and Mn/Ti are 0.7 and 0.5, respectively. The MnOx-CeO₂ catalyst exhibits higher catalytic activity and better resistance to SO₂ poisoning than the MnOx-TiO₂ catalyst. On the basis of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning transmission electron microscope with mapping (STEM-mapping) analyses, it is seen that the MnOx-CeO₂ catalyst possesses higher BET surface area and better dispersion of MnOx over the catalyst than MnOx-TiO₂ catalyst. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements reveal that MnOx-CeO₂ catalyst provides the abundance of Mn(3+) and more surface adsorbed oxygen, and SO₂ might be preferentially adsorbed to the surface of CeO₂ to form sulfate species, which provides a protection of MnOx active sites from being poisoned. In contrast, MnOx active sites over the MnOx-TiO₂ catalyst are easily and quickly sulfated, leading to rapid deactivation of the catalyst for NO oxidation. Furthermore, temperature programmed desorption with NO and O₂ (NO + O₂-TPD) and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared transform spectroscopy (in situ DRIFTS) characterizations results show that the MnOx-CeO₂ catalyst displays much stronger ability to adsorb NOx than the MnOx-TiO₂ catalyst, especially after SO₂ poisoning.

  19. Computational Chemistry-Based Identification of Ultra-Low Temperature Water-Gas-Shift Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manos Mavrikakis

    2008-08-31

    The current work seeks to identify novel, catalytically-active, stable, poison-resistant LWGS catalysts that retain the superior activity typical of conventional Cu catalysts but can be operated at similar or lower temperatures. A database for the Binding Energies (BEs) of the LWGS relevant species, namely CO, O and OH on the most-stable, close-packed facets of a set of 17 catalytically relevant transition metals was established. This BE data and a database of previously established segregation energies was utilized to predict the stability of bimetallic NSAs that could be synthesized by combinations of the 17 parent transition metals. NSAs that were potentially stable both in vacuo and under the influence of strong-binding WGS intermediates were then selected for adsorption studies. A set of 40 NSAs were identified that satisfied all three screener criteria and the binding energies of CO, O and OH were calculated on a set of 66, 43 and 79 NSA candidates respectively. Several NSAs were found that bound intermediates weaker than the monometallic catalysts and were thus potentially poison-resistant. Finally, kinetic studies were performed and resulted in the discovery of a specific NSA-based bimetallic catalyst Cu/Pt that is potentially a promising LWGS catalyst. This stable Cu/Pt subsurface alloy is expected to provide facile H{sub 2}O activation and remain relatively resistant from the poisoning by CO, S and formate intermediates.

  20. Layered SiC Sheets: A Potential Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.; Xiao, B. B.; Hou, X. L.; Zhu, Y. F.; Jiang, Q.

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale practical application of fuel cells cannot come true if the high-priced Pt-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) cannot be replaced by other efficient, low-cost, and stable electrodes. Here, based on density functional theory (DFT), we exploited the potentials of layered SiC sheets as a novel catalyst for ORR. From our DFT results, it can be predicted that layered SiC sheets exhibit excellent ORR catalytic activity without CO poisoning, while the CO poisoning is the major drawback in conventional Pt-based catalysts. Furthermore, the layered SiC sheets in alkaline media has better catalytic activity than Pt(111) surface and have potential as a metal-free catalyst for ORR in fuel cells.

  1. Layered SiC sheets: a potential catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P; Xiao, B B; Hou, X L; Zhu, Y F; Jiang, Q

    2014-01-22

    The large-scale practical application of fuel cells cannot come true if the high-priced Pt-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) cannot be replaced by other efficient, low-cost, and stable electrodes. Here, based on density functional theory (DFT), we exploited the potentials of layered SiC sheets as a novel catalyst for ORR. From our DFT results, it can be predicted that layered SiC sheets exhibit excellent ORR catalytic activity without CO poisoning, while the CO poisoning is the major drawback in conventional Pt-based catalysts. Furthermore, the layered SiC sheets in alkaline media has better catalytic activity than Pt(111) surface and have potential as a metal-free catalyst for ORR in fuel cells.

  2. Treatment of severe chloroquine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, B; Barriot, P; Rimailho, A; Baud, F J

    1988-01-07

    No therapy has been proved to be effective for patients with severe chloroquine poisoning, which is usually fatal. In a retrospective study of 51 cases, we found that ingestion of more than 5 g of chloroquine was an accurate predictor of a fatal outcome, and therefore chose this dose as the criterion for severe chloroquine poisoning. We selected as a control group 11 consecutive patients who had ingested more than 5 g of chloroquine between July 1983 and December 1985. We then undertook a prospective study to determine whether a better outcome could be obtained with immediate mechanical ventilation and the administration of diazepam and epinephrine. Eleven consecutive patients who ingested more than 5 g of chloroquine in 1986 received this combination therapy. Ten of these patients survived, whereas only one control had survived (P = 0.0003). There was no significant difference between the combination-therapy and control groups in age (29 +/- 3 vs. 27 +/- 2 years), amount of chloroquine ingested (7.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 8.5 +/- 0.8 g), systolic arterial pressure (74 +/- 2 vs. 74 +/- 3 mm Hg), or QRS duration (0.14 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.14 +/- 0.01 second). In our combination-therapy group, blood chloroquine levels ranged from 40 to 80 mumol per liter, whereas a literature search showed that no patient in whom blood levels were more than 25 mumol per liter had survived. These preliminary data suggest that combining early mechanical ventilation with the administration of diazepam and epinephrine may be effective in the treatment of severe chloroquine poisoning.

  3. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  4. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  5. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy.

  6. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  7. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  8. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from Winthrop University to the New York City Health & Hospitals Corporation d.b.a. the New York City...

  9. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark in...

  10. Neuropsychiatric manifestations following acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakam Mohapatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute muscarinic and nicotinic side effects of organophosphate (OP poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 22-year-old male who developed psychotic features and motor neuropathy following acute OP poisoning.

  11. Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

  12. Neuromuscular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Pekoz

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: There is no evoked potential studies performed in organophosphate poisoning althoung electroneurography repetitive and P300 studies exist in literature. More further studies are needed to evaluate the cardiac and neuromuscular effects of organophosphate poisoning. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 795-800

  13. [Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M

    2012-01-01

    Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye.

  14. [Hydrofluoric acid poisoning: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Tatiana Judith; Ferrero, Hilario Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is a highly dangerous substance with industrial and domestically appliances. Clinical manifestations of poisoning depend on exposure mechanism, acid concentration and exposed tissue penetrability. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms do not correlate with injury severity. Patients with history of hydrofluoric acid ingestion should undergo an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intoxication requires immediate intervention because systemic toxicity can take place. We present a 5 year old girl who accidentally swallowed 5 ml of 20% hydrofluoric acid. We performed gastrointestinal tract endoscopy post ingestion, which revealed erythematous esophagus and stomach with erosive lesions. Two months later, same study was performed and revealed esophagus and stomach normal mucous membrane.

  15. Accidental haloperidol poisoning in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona P Gajre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Haloperidol, a butyrophenone neuroleptic drug, is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of adult schizophrenia and mania. It is used in children with neurological disorders like chorea and developmental disorders such as hyperactivity. With the advent of newer selective neuroleptics use of haloperidol is now on decline. However, in adults it is still the preferred drug especially in resource challenged settings. Extrapyramidal reactions occur frequently with haloperidol predominantly as parkinsonian symptoms. There are few case reports of accidental haloperidol poisoning in children and this one of them.

  16. Pd Close Coupled Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Hua SHI; Mao Chu GONG; Yao Qiang CHEN

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst comprised novel high surface area alumina support was prepared to control emission of automobiles. The results showed that prepared catalyst could satisfy the requirements of a high performance close coupled catalyst for its good catalytic activity at low temperature and good stability at high temperature.

  17. SUPERVASMOL POISONING: AN EMERGING ENT EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicide in India. Supervasmol poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicidal attempt in our region. The common cause for consumption of hair dye is by suicidal intent or accidental oral ingestion. There is no specific antidote for Supervasmol poisoning. Management is only symptomatic and supportive with emergency tracheostomy in majority of cases. Hence, we conducted this study to emphasize the role of ENT surgeon in Supervasmol poisoning. STUDY DESIGN Prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We present a total of 79 cases of Supervasmol poisoning who attended the Emergency Department of Narayana Medical College and General Hospital, Nellore. RESULTS All patients were between age group 15-35 yrs. Females are more than males. More patients were in second decade; 55 cases presented in acute phase, 51 patients underwent tracheostomy and four patients were brought dead. CONCLUSION Emergency tracheostomy is a life saving measure in severe stridor

  18. Levothyroxine Poisoning - Symptoms and Clinical Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birgitte; Saedder, Eva A.; Dalhoff, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Levothyroxine (LT), T4, poisoning is rarely associated with a severe outcome. However, cases with significant complications have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with symptoms of poisoning including late-onset symptoms. All enquiries to the Danish Poison...... Information Centre (DPIC) concerning LT poisoning between March 2007 and September 2012 were reviewed and the following parameters were recorded: age, dose, time from ingestion, multiple drug intake and symptoms. To evaluate the frequency of late-onset symptoms, a subgroup of patients without initial symptoms...... patients, neither in children nor in adults (age 16-92 years) (p symptoms of poisoning at the time of enquiry; however, in 9 of 21 (43%) patients, we were able to contact, late-onset symptoms existed. In none of the cases...

  19. Halogen poisoning effect of Pt-TiO2 for formaldehyde catalytic oxidation performance at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Bei; Yu, Jiaguo; Ho, Wingkei

    2016-02-01

    Catalytic decomposition of formaldehyde (HCHO) at room temperature is an important method for HCHO removal. Pt-based catalysts are the optimal catalyst for HCHO decomposition at room temperature. However, the stability of this catalyst remains unexplored. In this study, Pt-TiO2 (Pt-P25) catalysts with and without adsorbed halogen ions (including F-, Cl-, Br-, and I-) were prepared through impregnation and ion modification. Pt-TiO2 samples with adsorbed halogen ions exhibited reduced catalytic activity for formaldehyde decomposition at room temperature compared with the Pt-TiO2 sample; the catalytic activity followed the order of F-Pt-P25, Cl-Pt-P25, Br-Pt-P25, and I-Pt-P25. Characterization results (including XRD, TEM, HRTEM, BET, XPS, and metal dispersion) showed that the adsorbed halogen ions can poison Pt nanoparticles (NPs), thereby reducing the HCHO oxidation activity of Pt-TiO2. The poison mechanism is due to the strong adsorption of halogen ions on the surface of Pt NPs. The adsorbed ions form coordination bonds with surface Pt atoms by transferring surplus electrons into the unoccupied 5d orbit of the Pt atom, thereby inhibiting oxygen adsorption and activation of the Pt NP surface. Moreover, deactivation rate increases with increasing diameter of halogen ions. This study provides new insights into the fabrication of high-performance Pt-based catalysts for indoor air purification.

  20. The epidemiology of childhood poisonings in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliou, Maria; Ioannou, Chrystalla; Andreou, Kyriaki; Petridou, Alexandra; Soteriades, Elpidoforos Soterakis

    2010-07-01

    Information on childhood poisonings in Cyprus is limited. Our objective was to examine the epidemiology of poisonings among children in Cyprus. All children up to 15 years of age admitted for poisoning to the Archbishop Makarios Hospital in Nicosia, Cyprus between 2005 and 2008 were included in our study. All hospital poisoning records were reviewed. A total of 257 children were admitted for poisoning. The mean age of children was 3.1 years, of which 83.7% were below the age of 5 years old, while 53% were boys. The poisoning hospitalizations accounted for about 3% of all admissions to the pediatric department during the study period (4 years). The annual cumulative incidence of childhood poisoning hospitalizations was 116 per 100,000 children. Medications accounted for 46.1% of all poisonings, the most frequent cause being paracetamol (9.8%), cardiovascular medications (5.3%), antitussive medications (4.5%), and other painkillers (4.1%). Another 37.6% of hospitalizations involved household products such as household cleaning products (11.8%), petroleum products (11.0%), and rodenticides (5.7%). Among children who ingested petroleum distillates, 55.6% developed clinical symptomatology. The vast majority of cases were accidental (93.8%). Suicidal cases involved children 8-14 years old, mainly girls, and the most frequent poisoning ingested was paracetamol (46.7%). Poisoning hospitalizations represent an important cause of morbidity among children in Cyprus. Preventive strategies should include the education of caregivers on the handling of medications and household products as well as legislation requiring child-resistant packaging for all medications and household products including petroleum distillates.

  1. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically

  2. Preparation and Commercial Application of ZHC-01 Hydrocracking Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xuejun; Liu Dongxiang; Wang Haitao; Feng Xiaoping; Wang Jifeng

    2007-01-01

    The ZHC-01 hydrocracking catalyst,characterized by high hydrogenation activity,good selectivity for middle distillates,strong resistance to nitrogen poisoning,was prepared by co-gelling.The catalyst is not only suited to the single-stage hydrocracking process,but also to the first stage of serial hydrocracking process.In parallel with the fully loaded operation of the 1.4 Mt/a hydrocracking unit at the SINOPEC Qilu Petrochemical Company,a pilot test of the ZHC-01 catalyst was also carried out on the hydrocracking unit.The test results indicated that the activity,the yield of major target products and quality of the ZHC-01 catalyst could comply with the design requirements for the hydrocracking unit,and this catalyst could be applied in the hydrocracking unit.The commercial test results showed that the ZHC-01 catalyst,featuring good activity,stability,and flexibility in production,not only could meet the demand for producing environmentally friendly middle distillates,but could also increase the resource of optimized steam cracking feedstock.

  3. Arsenic – Poison or medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kulik-Kupka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. Med Pr 2016;67(1:89–96

  4. Chronic lead poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, H.D.; Burau, R.G.

    1973-05-01

    Chronic lead poisoning in horses was manifested as anorexia, loss of body weight, muscular weakness, anemia, laryngeal hemiplegia, and, terminally, inhalation pneumonia. Some deaths were sudden and unexplained. The lead content in liver specimens from 10 horses was greater than that considered indicative of lead intoxication; however, the lead content of blood was equivocal. The most conclusive laboratory finding was increased urine lead concentration after chelation therapy. The concentration of lead in a sample of vegetation considered to be representative of what a horse would eat if he was grazing in the area sampled was 325 ppM (oven-dry basis). It was determined that a 450-kg horse grazing grass of this lead content would consume 2.9 Gm of lead daily (6.4 mg/kg of body weight), an amount considered toxic for horses. Leaching lowered the calcium content of the forage but failed to reduce the lead concentration of the plants significantly, thus opening the possibility that winter rains might have influenced the onset of poisoning. Airborne fallout from a nearby lead smelter was proposed as the primary mode of pasture contamination.

  5. The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, L.F.; Critchley, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective treatment. They showed that the metabolic activation of acetaminophen resulted in the formation of a reactive arylating intermediate, and that hepatic reduced glutathione played an essential protective role by preferential conjugation and inactivation of the metabolite. Early treatment with sulphydryl compounds and glutathione precursors has been dramatically effective in preventing liver damage, renal failure, and death following acetaminophen overdosage. It seems likely that these agents act primarily by stimulating glutathione synthesis. Inhibition of the metabolic activation of acetaminophen is another potential therapeutic approach that has not yet been put to the test clinically. The clinical management of acetaminophen poisoning has been transformed and it is particularly gratifying to have effective treatment based on a well established biochemical mechanism of toxicity. It is likely that effective treatment will be developed for toxicity caused through similar mechanisms by other agents.

  6. Congenital abnormalities in methylmercury poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, S.H.

    1975-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the teratogenic potential of methylmercury on chick embryogenesis. Methylmercuric chloride was dissolved in sodium bicarbonate (0.2%) and administered to the chick embryos at doses ranging from 0.0009 to 0.010 mg per egg. The injections were made at days 2 and 3 on incubation (Groups A and B). All the embryos including controls were examined on the 7th day of incubation. Methylmercury poisoning was observed to be both embryolethal and teratogenic. Within the two groups, embryolethality was higher in Group A. The following congenital abnormalities were observed: exencephaly, shortened and twisted limbs, microphthalmia, shortened and twisted neck, beak abnormalities, everted viscera, reduced body size and hemorrhage all over the body. Exencephaly and limb abnormalities were very common. No differences in the incidence and types of gross abnormalities within both the groups (A and B) were noted. The incidence of malformations among the controls was low. The results of present investigation show that methylmercury poisoning is both embryolethal and teratogenic to early chick embryogenesis. (auth)

  7. Sulfur poisoning of hydrocarbon oxidation by palladium. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Using a differential bed recycle reactor the oxidation of ethane and diethyl ketone by a Pd catalyst was studied at the 0-30 ppm level in air. In both cases first order kinetics were observed. The ethane oxidation rate was characterized n the Arrhenius form by a pre-exponential of 1.0 x 10 to the 8th power cm/sec and an E sub a of 27 kcal/mole. The diethyl ketone oxidation rate was characterized by a pre-exponential of 5.7 x -1000 cm/sec and E sub a of 14 kcal/mole. Poisoning of ethan oxidation was also investigated by hydrogen sulfide and to a smaller extent by the refrigerants Freon 22 and Gentron 142-B. Poisoning by Gentron 142-B was much more severe than by hydrogen sulfide. Kinetic experiments indicated that only the pre-exponential was changing.

  8. Evaluation of PEMFC System Contaminants on the Performance of Pt Catalyst via Cyclic Voltammetry: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Macomber, C.; Dinh, H. N.

    2012-07-01

    Using electrochemical cyclic voltammetry as a quick ex-situ screening tool, the impact of the extracted solution and the individual leachable constituents from prospective BOP component materials on the performance and recoverability of the platinum catalyst were evaluated. Taking an extract from Zytel{trademark} HTN51G35HSLR (PPA) as an example, the major leachable organic components are caprolactam and 1,6 hexanediol. While these organic compounds by themselves do poison the Pt catalyst to some extent, such influence is mostly recoverable by means of potential holding and potential cycling. The extracted solution, however, shows a more drastic poisoning effect and it was not recoverable. Therefore the non-recoverable poisoning effect observed for the extracted solution is not from the two organic species studied. This demonstrates the complexity of such a contaminant study. Inorganic compounds that are known poisons like sulfur even in very low concentrations, may have a more dominant effect on the Pt catalyst and the recoverability.

  9. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  10. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  11. 75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8484 of March 15, 2010 National Poison... National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers of accidental poisonings and... million poison exposures reported each year, we must take every precaution to guard against...

  12. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

  13. Wire gauze and cordierite supported noble metal catalysts for passive autocatalytic recombiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanap, Kiran K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Varma, S., E-mail: svarma@barc.gov.in [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Waghmode, S.B. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Bharadwaj, S.R. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis by electroless deposition method and chemical reduction route. • Particle size of 0.1–0.5 μm & 3.5–5 nm for Pt–Pd/Wg & Pt–Pd/Cord catalysts. • Active for H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} reaction with initial H{sub 2} concentration of 1.5 to 7% in air. • Active in presence of different contaminants like CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO & relative humidity. • Enhanced resistance of Pt–Pd/Cord catalyst towards the poisoning of CO. - Abstract: Hydrogen released in nuclear reactor containment under severe accident scenario poses a threat to containment and hence needs to be regulated by catalytic recombination. Mixed noble metal catalysts with platinum–palladium supported on stainless steel wire gauze and cordierite support have been developed for this purpose. The developed catalysts have been found to be highly efficient for removal of hydrogen concentration in the range of 1.5 to 7.0% v/v in air. Though both the catalysts exhibit similar kinetics for lower hydrogen concentration, cordierite supported catalysts exhibits better kinetic rate at higher hydrogen concentration. The performances of these catalysts in presence of various probable catalytic poison like carbon monoxide and catalytic inhibitors like moisture, carbon dioxide, and hydrocarbons provide data for use of these catalysts under the actual scenario. Compared to stainless steel wire gauze supported catalyst, the cordierite based catalyst are found to exhibit enhanced resistance towards carbon monoxide and limited temperature rise for safer application at higher hydrogen concentrations.

  14. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  15. Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2012-08-01

    We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale.

  16. Tropical fish poisoning in temperate climates: food poisoning from ciguatera toxin presenting in Avonmouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, Ruth; Eastcott, Howard; Sarangi, Joyshri

    2006-12-01

    Ciguatera toxin causes a range of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological symptoms that occur within 1-6 h of ingesting fish with the toxin and can last for days, months or years. It is a well-recognized problem in the tropics. Avon Health Protection Team investigated food poisoning on a ship at Avonmouth, which was thought by the crew to be related to a white snapper fish from the Caribbean. The symptoms were initially thought to be scombroid fish poisoning but were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. Cases of fish poisoning from fish imported from the Caribbean and Pacific or travellers returning from tropical countries may be ciguatera fish poisoning, but mistakenly diagnosed as scombroid fish poisoning.

  17. Lead Poisoning in the World and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Azizi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a relatively ubiquitous heavy metal with particular features such as resistance to corrosion, high malleability and wide variety of industrial applications. In medicine, however, it is considered as a slow-acting toxic substance affecting multiple body systems, specifically functioning as a potent neurotoxin in the central nervous system. Lead poisoning may be acute or chronic and can be due to occupational or environmental exposures. The history of lead poisoning dates back to ancient times. The present paper briefly describes the worldwide historical accounts of lead poisoning with a special focus on Iran.

  18. Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Cahide; Okur, Mesut; Geylani, Hadi; Caksen, Hüseyin; Tuncer, Oğuz; Ataş, Bülent

    2010-01-01

    Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl) are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood.

  19. Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Cahide

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood.

  20. Toxicodendron dermatitis: poison ivy, oak, and sumac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladman, Aaron C

    2006-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well.

  1. Intractable Seizures and Rehabilitation in Ciguatera Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derian, Armen; Khurana, Seema; Rothenberg, Joshua; Plumlee, Charles

    2016-08-31

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most frequently reported seafood toxin illness associated with the ingestion of contaminated tropical fish. Diagnosis relies on a history of recent tropical fish ingestion and subsequent development of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological symptoms. Ciguatera poisoning usually has a self-limited time course, and its management involves symptomatic control and supportive care. This case report presents an uncommon case of ciguatera poisoning with prolonged intractable seizures refractory to standard antiseizure medications. The patient also had significant functional decline that responded to rigorous inpatient rehabilitation not previously described in literature.

  2. Pesticide Poisoning of Honeybees: A Review of Symptoms, Incident Classification, and Causes of Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiljanek Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2000s, the problem of pesticide poisoning of honeybees seemed to be almost solved. The number of cases has decreased in comparison to the 1970s. The problem of acute honeybee poisoning, however, has not disappeared, but instead has transformed into a problem of poisoning from ‘traditional’ pesticides like organophosphorus pesticides or pyrethroids, to poisoning from additional sources of ‘modern’ systemic neonicotinoids and fipronil. In this article, the biological activity of pesticides was reviewed. The poisoning symptoms, incident definitions, and monitoring systems, as well as the interpretation of the analytical results, were also reviewed. The range of pesticides, and the detected concentrations of pesticides in poisoned honeybee samples, were reviewed. And, for the first time, cases of poisoning related to neonicotinoids were reviewed. The latter especially is of practical importance and could be helpful to analysts and investigators of honeybee poisoning incidents. It is assumed that secondary poisoning induced by plant collected materials contaminated with systemic pesticides occurs. Food stored in a hive and contaminated with systemic pesticides consumed continuously by the same generation of winter bees, may result in sub-lethal intoxication. This leads to abnormal behaviour identified during acute intoxication. The final result is that the bees discontinue their social role in the honeybee colony super organism, and colony collapse disorder (CCD takes place. The process described above refers primarily to robust and strong colonies that were able to collect plenty of food due to effective plant protection.

  3. GLC analysis of poison ivy and poison oak urushiol components in vegetable oil preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsohly, M A; Turner, C E

    1980-05-01

    A procedure is described for the analysis of urushiol content of pharmaceutical preparations containing extracts of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) and poison oak (T. diversilobum) in vegetable oils. The procedure involves extraction of the urushiols from the oily solutions using 90% methanol in water followed by GLC analysis of the extracts. Recoveries of both poison ivy and poison oak urushiols from solutions in corn oil, olive oil, sesame seed oil, and cottonseed oil were calculated. Correlation coefficients (r2) ranged from 0.97 to 1.00, and the coefficients of variations ranged from 3.08 to 7.90%.

  4. New catalysts for miniaturized methanol fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christoffer Mølleskov

    The methanol fuel cell is an interesting energy technology, capable of converting the chemical energy of methanol directly into electricity. The technology is specifically attractive for small mobile applications such as laptops, smartphones, tablets etc. since it offers almost instantaneously...... recharging by simply replacing the methanol liquid. The technology is currently being developed for hearing instruments in order to ease the handling of the device for users complaining about difficulties replacing the very small batteries in the hearing instrument. The technology has already been...... and methanol poisoning of the oxygen reduction are studied. Consequently, promising new candidates for replacing the standard catalyst are identified. One of these, Pt5Gd, exhibits improved oxygen reduction reaction activity even in the presence of methanol, thus making Pt5Gd an interesting candidate...

  5. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xincai

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  6. Water-Soluble Pd-Imidate Complexes: Broadly Applicable Catalysts for the Synthesis of Chemically Modified Nucleosides via Pd-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayakhe, Vijay; Ardhapure, Ajaykumar; Kapdi, Anant R; Sanghvi, Yogesh S; Serrano, Jose Luis; García, Luis; Pérez, Jose; García, Joaquím; Sánchez, Gregorio; Fischer, Christian; Schulzke, Carola

    2016-04-01

    A broadly applicable catalyst system consisting of water-soluble Pd--imidate complexes has been enployed for the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of four different nucleosides in water under mild conditions. The efficient nature of the catalyst system also allowed its application in developing a microwave-assisted protocol with the purpose of expediting the catalytic reaction. Preliminary mechanistic studies, assisted by catalyst poison tests and stoichiometric tests performed using an electrospray ionization spectrometer, revealed the possible presence of a homotopic catalyst system.

  7. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  8. Inorganic arsenic poisoning in pastured feeder lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H.A.; Crane, M.R.; Tomson, K.

    1971-01-01

    Clinical signs and necropsy findings in a group of feeder lambs were suggestive of inorganic arsenic poisoning. Source of exposure was established and toxic concentrations of arsenic were detected in the tissues. 13 references, 1 table.

  9. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahajal Dhooria

    2016-01-01

    Results: The original search yielded 239 articles, of which 52 articles described human cases. After following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 studies describing 310 cases (151 females, 175 children of human poisoning with amitraz were included in this systematic review. The most commonly reported clinical features of amitraz poisoning were altered sensorium, miosis, hyperglycaemia, bradycardia, vomiting, respiratory failure, hypotension and hypothermia. Amitraz poisoning carried a good prognosis with only six reported deaths (case fatality rate, 1.9%. Nearly 20 and 11.9 per cent of the patients required mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, respectively. The role of decontamination methods, namely, gastric lavage and activated charcoal was unclear. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that amitraz is an important agent for accidental or suicidal poisoning in both adults and children. It has a good prognosis with supportive management.

  10. Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Mª Jesús; Martos, Nieves; Zilberschtein, José; Ruíz, Isidro; Motas, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony is described; this condition has not previously been reported in ponies. Discussion of what factors in the pony’s history and treatment may have predisposed to the severity and ultimate death is provided.

  11. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  12. Lead poisoning in captive wild animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B.C.; Sauer, R.M.; Garner, F.M.

    1972-07-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed post-mortem in 34 simian primates, 11 parrots, and 3 Australian fruit bats at the National Zoological Park. Diagnoses were made by the finding of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelia or hepatocytes and, in most cases, by finding excess lead in samples of liver. The estimated prevalence of lead intoxication among autopsied primates and parrots was 44% and 50% respectively. Leaded paint was found in many animal enclosures at this zoo and it was available to all the lead-poisoned animals in this study. The finding of renal intranuclear inclusion bodies in animals at several zoos, scattered reports of lead intoxication of animals dwelling in various zoos, the occurrence of leaded paint in many zoos and the high incidence of lead poisoning at this zoo, indicated that lead poisoning of zoo animals is much more common than was previously thought.

  13. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... situations, criminal prosecution. back to top Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  14. Colchicine Poisoning in Children: 7 Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Karacan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Colchicine is a drug that has been used primarily in several diseases. Colchicine poisoning is an infrequent but potentially life-threatening problem characterized by multiorgan involvement. We present seven children with colchicine poisoning. Their ages ranged between 1 and 9 years. In six children, the amount of colchicine consumed was between 0.16 and 0.39 mg/kg; the most frequent findings were diarrhea and vomiting. In one patient, the ingested amount was unknown. One of the patients died and all others recovered without sequelae. The severity of colchicine poisoning tends to be related to the dosage of ingested drug and the time of admission to hospital. Symptomatic treatment should be started as soon as possible in colchicine poisoning. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2009; 7: 96-100

  15. Causes of rhabdomyolysis in acute poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Snežana R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Rhabdomyolysis (RM is potentially lethal syndrome, but there are no enough published data on its frequency and characteristics in acute poisonings. The aim of this study was to determine the causes and severity of RM in acute poisonings. Methods. Patients hospital charts were retrospectively screened during a one-year period in order to identify patients with RM among 656 patients treated due to acute poisonings with different agents. All the patients with RM were selected. Entrance criterion was the value of creatine kinase (CK over 250 U/L. The severity of RM was assessed according to the Poison Severity Score. The patients were divided into three groups: the first one with mild RM (CK from 250 to 1,500 U/L, the second with moderate RM (CK from 1,500 to 10,000 U/L and the third with severe RM (CK greater than 10,000 U/L. Results. RM occurred in 125 (19% of the patients with acute poisonings. It was mainly mild (61%, or moderate (36%, and only in 3% of the patients was severe RM. The incidence of RM was the highest in poisonings with opiates (41%, pesticides (38%, neuroleptics (26%, anticonvulsants (26%, ethyl alcohol (20%, and gases (19%. Psychotropic agents were the most common causes of poisoning, and consequently of RM. Fatal outcomes were registered in 32 (25.60% of all RM patients. The incidence of fatal outcomes in poisonings with mild, moderate and severe RM was 19.73%, 31.11% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion. RM syndrome occurs at a relatively high rate in acute poisonings. Although agent’s toxicity is crucial for the outcome, severe RM and its complications may significantly influence the clinical course and prognosis of poisoning. Routine analysis of CK, as a relevant marker for RM may indicate the development of RM in acute poisoning and initiate prompt therapeutic measures in preventing acute renal failure as the most frequent consequence of extensive rhabdomyolysis.

  16. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  17. A CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaddadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 100 patients were studied to know the common poisons, age, sex, clinical manifestations, response to treatment, motive behind the consumption and prognostic factors. Out of 100 cases, most of them committed this with suicidal intention, 21 - 30 age group, males, insecticide poison consumed were affected. 70% of them had domestic problems as the main reason to commit this extreme step. Those who reached early to the hospital had recovered well with a mortality rate of 7%.

  18. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  19. Clinical Review: Emergency management of acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. van Hoving

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this commissioned review was to establish concise guidelines for the initial management of the acutely poisoned patient in the Emergency Centre. The American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists are the international leaders in the field of toxicology and the guidelines in their position papers were generally followed. Most of the dosage regimes are according to the South African Medicines Formulary.

  20. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  1. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-06-25

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full recovery within 10 weeks.

  2. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full...

  3. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Praveen Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  4. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    A S Praveen Kumar; Deepak Amalnath; T K Dutta

    2011-01-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  5. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A S Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T K

    2011-10-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  6. Aluminum phosphide poisoning: an unsolved riddle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, R; Binukumar, B K; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2011-08-01

    Aluminum phosphide (ALP), a widely used insecticide and rodenticide, is also infamous for the mortality and morbidity it causes in ALP-poisoned individuals. The toxicity of metal phosphides is due to phosphine liberated when ingested phosphides come into contact with gut fluids. ALP poisoning is lethal, having a mortality rate in excess of 70%. Circulatory failure and severe hypotension are common features of ALP poisoning and frequent cause of death. Severe poisoning also has the potential to induce multi-organ failure. The exact site or mechanism of its action has not been proved in humans. Rather than targeting a single organ to cause gross damage, ALP seems to work at the cellular level, resulting in widespread damage leading to multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) and death. There has been proof in vitro that phosphine inhibits cytochrome c oxidase. However, it is unlikely that this interaction is the primary cause of its toxicity. Mitochondria could be the possible site of maximum damage in ALP poisoning, resulting in low ATP production followed by metabolic shutdown and MOD; also, owing to impairment in electron flow, there could be free radical generation and damage, again producing MOD. Evidence of reactive oxygen species-induced toxicity owing to ALP has been observed in insects and rats. A similar mechanism could also play a role in humans and contribute to the missing link in the pathogenesis of ALP toxicity. There is no specific antidote for ALP poisoning and supportive measures are all that are currently available.

  7. Toad poisoning in three dogs: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad poisoning is frequent in dogs, but has been infrequently addressed in published case reports and review articles. Dogs can be poisoned when they bite a toad or otherwise ingest the venom. The venom effects manifest soon after the accident, since the toxin is rapidly absorbed by the mucous membrane of the digestive system. Hospital records of three dogs, diagnosed with toad poisoning, were retrospectively reviewed from January 2005 to July 2007. Poisoned dogs may present only local irritation or systemic signs in the gastrointestinal, cardiac and neurological systems. All three cases presented herein had clinical signs of gastrointestinal alterations including vomiting, sialorrhea and diarrhea. Two dogs developed abnormal cardiac rhythm and two exhibited neurological signs. A poisoned animal requires emergency care and symptomatic therapy with intense monitoring of its clinical parameters. Although there have been reports on the low mortality of dogs poisoned by toads, one animal died even after appropriate therapy. The severity of clinical signs and the risk of death must be considered by the veterinarian.

  8. Deactivation mechanisms of Ni-based tar reforming catalysts as monitored by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Matthew M; Kuhn, John N

    2010-11-02

    Deactivation mechanisms of alumina-supported, Ni-based catalysts for tar reforming in biomass-derived syngas were evaluated using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Catalysts were characterized before and after catalytic reaction cycles and regeneration procedures, which included oxidation by a mixture of steam and air, and reduction in hydrogen. Qualitative analysis of the EXAFS spectra revealed that oxidation of a portion of the Ni in the catalysts to form an oxide phase and/or a sulfide phase were likely scenarios that led to catalyst deactivation with time-on-stream and with increased reaction cycles. Deactivation through carbon deposition, phosphorus poisoning, or changes in particle size were deemed as unlikely causes. Quantitative analysis of the EXAFS spectra indicated sulfur poisoning occurred with time-on-stream, and the contaminating species could not be completely removed during the regeneration protocols. The results also verified that Ni-containing oxide phases (most likely a spinel also containing Mg and Al) formed and contributed to the deactivation. This study validates the need for developing catalyst systems that will protect Ni from sulfur poisoning and oxide formation at elevated reaction and regeneration temperatures.

  9. SO{sub 2} influence on the K/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} soot combustion catalyst deactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, M.A.; Ulla, M.A.; Querini, C.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica-INCAPE-(FIQ, UNL-CONICET) Santiago del Estero 2654, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2008-04-15

    In the present work, K/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} was prepared and tested as a potential catalyst to be used in a diesel engine exhaust. The soot combustion activity was evaluated by temperature-programmed-oxidation (TPO), and the NO{sub x}-catalyst interaction was studied using a microbalance experiment. The SO{sub 2} poisoning process and the regeneration of a poisoned K/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst were analyzed. The fresh catalyst presented a good soot combustion activity. After being treated with a 1000 ppm SO{sub 2} stream, the catalyst was poisoned due to lanthanum sulfate and potassium sulfate formation. The NO{sub x} treatment contributed to the K{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}) decomposition at the expense of extra La{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} formation and the H{sub 2} treatment contributed to the La{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} decomposition. (author)

  10. 75 FR 66771 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning...

  11. 76 FR 8942 - Poison Prevention Packaging Requirements; Proposed Exemption of Powder Formulations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1700 Poison Prevention Packaging Requirements; Proposed Exemption of Powder... 1. The Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970 and Implementing Regulations The Poison Prevention... children, Packaging and containers, Poison prevention, Toxic substances. For the reasons given above,...

  12. Analysis of Nine Cases of Acute Thallium Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiwei; HUANG Xiaojiang; LIU Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this study nine cases of thallium poisoning in a series of homicidal poisoning were analyzed in order to provide more information concerning thallium poisoning. It was found that the most common clinical feature of thallium poisoning was peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesia was more common than amyasthenia. Understanding of these clinical characteristics of thallium poisoning was helpful to early identification and differential diagnosis. Since the early administration of Prussian Blue, as a specific antidote for thallium poisoning, can substantially improve the prognosis, it is of great importance to establish a correct and early diagnosis.

  13. Pick your poison: what's new in poison control for the preschooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Accidental childhood poisonings are a major public health concern despite many efforts to alleviate this problem. While the rate of pediatric fatalities due to poisonings have decreased over the last two decades, poison control centers around the US have collectively fielded over one million calls with regard to toxic exposures in the preschool age group. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers nearly half of all human exposures reported last year involved children under six. By focusing poison prevention efforts on the preschooler, we can attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality in the most vulnerable age group affected. Although the subject is still prevalent, current discussion on this topic is limited. Newer literature discusses past initiatives such as child resistant packaging and sticker deterrent programs and addresses their efficacy. This article revisits older mechanisms of prevention as well as the science behind the human motivation to change one's own practice and behavior.

  14. ARE THE SO-CALLED POISONOUS FOOD-COMBINATIONS REALLY POISONOUS?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin T CHENG

    2009-01-01

    @@ The idea that to eat certain two foods simultaneously is to get poisoned has been entertained by柄Chinese people for many years. There are about 184 pairs of the so-called poisonous food-combinations, and 180 of them are mentioned in Chinese Ancient Materia Medica, Ben-Tsao-Gung-Mu (本草纲目) or other books. (1a,2a) This belief was based upon some personal sketch, old-fashioned doctors' notes, stories and other false facts. Although these statements were originated without any experimental ground, yet many of the Chinese, even at present time, still believe them firmly. Whenever any poisoning outbreak occurs accidentally after having taken the so-called poisonous food-combination, they always attribute the cause of the poisoning to the two foods served simultaneously.

  15. Alloy catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...

  16. Catalyst for Ammonia Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation, a method for producing a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation and a method for tuning the catalytic activity of a transition metal. By depositing an overlayer of less catalytic active metal onto a more catalytic...

  17. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  18. Magnetic catalyst bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, Wendy; Bol, A.A.; Geus, John W.

    2001-01-01

    After a discussion about the importance of the size of the catalyst bodies with reactions in the liquid-phase with a suspended catalyst, the possibilities of magnetic separation are dealt with. Deficiencies of the usual ferromagnetic particles are the reactivity and the clustering of the particles.

  19. Toxicological management of chlorophacinone poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrange, F; Corniot, A G; Titier, K; Bedry, R; Pehourcq, F

    1999-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was admitted 8 hours after voluntary ingestion of 1875 mg of chlorophacinone (C'Operat 750 mL). The examination revealed excitation and nausea, with a normal prothrombin index (PI). Comprehensive testing for abused and therapeutic drugs in blood confirmed chlorophacinone (maximum plasma level: 27.6 mg/L), an antivitamin K (AVK) rodenticide. In a search for easy toxicological management of chlorophacinone poisoning treated by phytomenadione and a cytochrome P450 inducer (phenobarbital), PI and chlorophacinone plasma levels were monitored concomitantly during 17 days. A simple HPLC procedure for the determination of chlorophacinone in human plasma is reported for that purpose. Under phenobarbital 200 mg/day, chlorophacinone exhibited an apparent elimination half-life (3.27 days) shorter than in previously reported cases. If PI is useful for planning phytomenadione treatment and used for therapeutic monitoring of AVK, the chlorophacinone concentrations follow-up may provide a better estimation of the duration of hospitalisation. Chlorophacinone accumulation in target cells or existence of an unidentified metabolite may explain persistence of the hypocoagulability syndrome at low plasmatic concentrations of chlorophacinone. This case illustrates how toxicological management may facilitate toxicokinetics and therapeutic data acquisition.

  20. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  1. Neurological syndromes following organophosphate poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorous compounds, the anticholinesterases, produce significant morbidity and mortality in India. Although exact estimates are not available, hospital based statistics suggest that nearly half of the admissions to emergency with acute poisoning are due to organophosphates. Following accidental or suicidal exposure, these anticholinesterases lead to three well defined neurological syndromes i.e. initial life threatening acute cholinergic crisis which often requires management in intensive care unit, intermediate syndrome in which cranial nerve palsies, proximal muscle weakness and respiratory muscle weakness are common and patients often require respiratory support and delayed organophosphate induced polyneuropathy. In addition to these three classical neurological syndromes following acute exposure and in some following low dose chronic exposure, several neurobehavioural changes have been observed and these have been termed together as ′chronic organophosphate induced neuropsychiatric disorders′ (COPIND. Organo-phosphate compounds produce significant pesticide related illness in developing countries. There is, thus, a need to determine exact extent of the problem and to develop appropriate strategies to manage these cases with available resources in these countries.

  2. Researching nature's venoms and poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, David A

    2009-09-01

    Our environment hosts a vast diversity of venomous and poisonous animals and plants. Clinical toxinology is devoted to understanding, preventing and treating their effects in humans and domestic animals. In Sri Lanka, yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana, Sinhala 'kaneru'), a widespread and accessible ornamental shrub, is a popular means of self-harm. Its toxic glycosides resemble those of foxglove, against which therapeutic antibodies have been raised. A randomised placebo-controlled trial proved that this treatment effectively reversed kaneru cardiotoxicity. There are strong scientific grounds for the use of activated charcoal, but encouraging results with multiple-dose activated charcoal were not confirmed by a recent more powerful study. Venom of Russell's viper (Daboia siamensis) in Burma (Myanmar) produces lethal effects in human victims. The case of a 17-year-old rice farmer is described with pathophysiological interpretations. During the first 9 days of hospital admission he suffered episodes of shock, coagulopathy, bleeding, acute renal failure, local tissue necrosis, generally increased capillary permeability and acute symptomatic hypoglycaemia with evidence of acute pituitary/adrenal insufficiency. Antivenom rapidly restored haemostatic function but failed to correct other effects of venom toxins incurred during the 3h before he could be treated.

  3. Neurotoxic Syndromes in Marine Poisonings a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Mohebbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine neurotoxins as of Marine biotoxins are natural toxins that produced mainly by dinoflagellates, diatoms and several species of invertebrates and fish. Marine poisoning results from the ingestion of marine animals contain these toxins and causes considerable adverse effects. Materials and methods: This review provides some facts about the structures of marine neurotoxins, their molecular target and pharmacology, analytical methods for their detection and quantitation, diagnosis and laboratory testing, clinical manifestations, as well as prevention and treatment, if were obtainable. Furthermore, we focus on marine poisoning and various associated neurological syndromes like ciguatera, tetrodotoxin poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning, after ingestion of the common marine toxins. Results: A number of neurotoxins that prescribed according to their potency (LD50 are: Maitotoxin, Ciguatoxins and Palytoxin, Tetrodotoxin and Saxitoxin, Brevetoxins, Azaspiracid, Yessotoxin, Cooliatoxin, Domoic acid and Conotoxins, Respectively. The primary target of most marine neurotoxins is voltage gated sodium channels and the resulting block of ion conductance through these channels. Moreover, these compounds interact with voltage-gated potassium and calcium channels and modulate the flux of stated ions into many cell types. As well, the target recognized for palytoxin is the Na+- K+ /ATPase. Conclusion: Results of reviewed studies revealed that, the Ciguatera is the commonest syndrome of marine poisoning, but is rarely lethal. Puffer fish poisoning results from the ingestion of fish containing tetrodotoxin and paralytic shellfish poisoning are less common, but have a higher fatality rate than ciguatera. Despite their high toxicity, no much research has been done on some of the toxins, like maitotoxin. In addition, there have remained unknown the pharmacological effects, mechanism of action and molecular target of some toxins such as

  4. Resistance to SO2 poisoning of V2O5/TiO2-PILC catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3%氨法选择性还原氮氧化物 V2O5/TiO2-PILC催化剂的抗硫性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧思淼; 张桂臻; 邱文革; 宋丽云; 张然; 何洪

    2016-01-01

    A titania pillared interlayered clay (Ti‐PILC) supported vanadia catalyst (V2O5/TiO2‐PILC) was pre‐pared by wet impregnation for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with ammonia. Com‐pared to the traditional V2O5/TiO2 and V2O5‐MoO3/TiO2 catalysts, the V2O5/TiO2‐PILC catalyst exhib‐ited a higher activity and better SO2 and H2O resistance in the NH3‐SCR reaction. Characterization using TPD, in situ DRIFT and XPS showed that surface sulfate and/or sulfite species and ionic SO42-species were formed on the catalyst in the presence of SO2. The ionic SO42-species on the catalyst surface was one reason for deactivation of the catalyst in SCR. The formation of the ionic SO42-spe‐cies was correlated with the amount of surface adsorbed oxygen species. Less adsorbed oxygen species gave less ionic SO42-species on the catalyst.%选择性催化还原(SCR)是目前去除氮氧化物最有效的方法之一. V2O5/TiO2催化剂被广泛应用于氨法选择性还原氮氧化物(NH3-SCR)反应,但该催化剂存在工作温度高(300–400oC)及 SO2氧化率高引起设备腐蚀和管路堵塞等问题,开发低温 SCR催化剂具有重要意义.过渡金属氧化物(如 Fe2O3, MnOx和 CuO等)催化剂用于低温SCR先后见诸文献报道,但这些催化剂在 SO2和 H2O存在下易失活.近年来柱撑黏土(PILC)引起科学家广泛关注, Yang等首次将 V2O5/TiO2-PILC催化剂应用于 NH3-SCR反应,发现其催化活性高于传统 V2O5/TiO2催化剂.柱撑黏土基催化剂在 NH3-SCR反应中也显示出良好抗硫性能,但 V2O5/TiO2-PILC催化剂的抗硫机理至今尚未见深入研究.因此我们制备了一系列 V2O5/TiO2-PILC催化剂,采用原位漫反射红外等方法详细研究了其抗硫性能较好的原因.  首先采用离子交换法制备出 TiO2-PILC载体,之后采用浸渍法制备了不同钒含量(质量分数x/%=0,3,4,5)的xV2O5/TiO2-PILC催化剂.同时,制备了传统 V2O5/TiO2和 V2O5-MoO3/TiO2催化剂作为

  5. Pt-Ru Catalysts Prepared by a Modified Polyol Process for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junmin; ZHU Fangfang; ZHANG Kunhua; LIU Weiping; GUAN Weiming

    2012-01-01

    Supported PtRu/C catalysts used in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) were prepared by a new modified polyol method.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammograms (CVs) were carried out to characterize the morphology,composition and the electrochemical properties of the PtRu/C catalyst.The results revealed that the PtRu nanoparticles with small average particle size (≈2.5 nm),and highly dispersed on the carbon support.The PtRu/C catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity and anti-poisoned performance than that of the JM PtRu/C.It is imply that the modified polyol method is efficient for PtRu/C catalyst preparation.

  6. [Accreditation criteria and quality standards for Poisons centres: development of a quality management system within the Milan Poisons centre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Puppa, Tiziana; Manfrè, Sergio; Grezzi, Marinella

    2006-01-01

    Poisons centres throughout Italy and Europe vary considerably in terms of their institutions and organisation. The European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT) has laid down the activities that a poisons centre must carry out, specifying minimum and maximum standards required. These directions allow an evaluation of the service provided. In 2002 Milan Poisons Centre began a project aiming to introduce concepts and methodology proper of the quality systems within poisons centres' institutional activity. Concluded, the project resulted in the centre's certification and the documentation of its procedures: this may now contribute to help define the status and activity of poisons centres in Italy.

  7. Plant Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning is a common presentation in paediatric practice and an important cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in Sri Lanka. The burden of plant poisoning is largely underexplored. The current multicenter study based in rural Sri Lanka assessed clinical profiles, poison related factors, clinical management, complications, outcomes, and risk factors associated with plant poisoning in the paediatric age group. Among 325 children, 57% were male with 64% being below five years of age. 99.4% had ingested the poison. Transfer rate was 66.4%. Most had unintentional poisoning. Commonest poison plant was Jatropha circus and poisoning event happened mostly in home garden. 29% of parents practiced harmful first-aid practices. 32% of children had delayed presentations to which the commonest reason was lack of parental concern regarding urgency of seeking medical care. Presence of poisonous plants in home garden was the strongest risk factor for plant poisoning. Mortality rate was 1.2% and all cases had Oleander poisoning. The study revealed the value of community awareness regarding risk factors and awareness among healthcare workers regarding the mostly benign nature of plant poisoning in children in view of limiting incidence of plant poisoning and reducing expenditure on patient management.

  8. Modelling of CO poisoning and its dynamics in HTPEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, A.; Gerteisen, D.; Kurz, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    In this work, a dynamic, 2-dimensional, non-isothermal model of a PBI-based HTPEM fuel cell has been developed. The model consists of a five-layer geometry with gas channels, gas diffusion layers (GDL) and membrane. The catalyst layers are taken into account as infinitesimal thin reaction layers between GDL and membrane. The overall cell behaviour is simulated considering conservation of mass, momentum, species, charge and energy. The model is focussed on CO poisoning of the anode in steady state as well as in dynamic operation. Therefore, a temperature and time-dependent approach of adsorption/desorption of CO and H{sub 2} on the catalyst sites and the electrochemical reactions of the adsorbed species is applied. The temperature dependency of the fuel cell performance is investigated in a temperature range between 125 and 160 C at pure hydrogen operation. CO poisoning of the anode is analysed with polarisation curves for different CO concentrations as well as the dynamic response during a CO pulse. The model results are validated by experimental data of in-house measurements. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson; Mateo, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  10. Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case reports We present here three patients with proven severe dimethoate poisoning. Clinically, all had inappropriate peripheral vasodilatation and profound hypotension on presentation, which progressed despite treatment with atropine, i.v. fluids, pralidoxime chloride, and inotropes. All died 2.5–32 h post-admission. Continuous cardiac monitoring and quantification of troponin T provided little evidence for a primary cardiotoxic effect of dimethoate. Conclusion Severe dimethoate self-poisoning causes a syndrome characterized by marked hypotension with progression to distributive shock and death despite standard treatments. A lack of cardiotoxicity until just before death suggests that the mechanism is of OP-induced low systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Further invasive studies of cardiac function and SVR, and post-mortem histology, are required to better describe this syndrome and to establish the role of vasopressors and high-dose atropine in therapy. PMID:19003596

  11. Does organophosphate poisoning cause cardiac injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghabiklooei, Abbas; Mostafazadeh, Babak; Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Morteza, Afsaneh

    2013-11-01

    Organophosphates are insecticides which are widely used as a suicidal agent in Iran. They are associated with different types of cardiac complications including cardiac arrest and arrhythmia, however their role in cardiac injury is not known yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of myocardial damage in patients with cholinesterase poisoning.It was a prospective study conducted from January 2008 to March 2010. Cohorts of patients with cholinesterase poisoning due to suicidal attempt who have been referred to Loghman hospital were selected. Patients who have taken more than one poison or were used concomitant drugs were excluded. Physical examination was performed on admission to discover warning sign. Peripheral arterial blood gases, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-myocardial band, troponin-T measurements were performed in all cases. There were 24 patients, 7 of them women, with the mean age of 41.2±15.05 who were included in this study. Non-survivors had significantly higher levels of systolic blood pressure, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate Glasgow Coma Scale scoring and longer duration of mechanical ventilation. Our findings showed that cardiac injury is an important cause of death in organophosphate poisoning. It could be hypothesized that cardiac injury is a strong predictor of death in patients with organophosphate poisoning.

  12. Catalysts, methods of making catalysts, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Renard, Laetitia

    2014-03-06

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for catalysts, methods of making catalysts, methods of using catalysts, and the like. In an embodiment, the method of making the catalysts can be performed in a single step with a metal nanoparticle precursor and a metal oxide precursor, where a separate stabilizing agent is not needed.

  13. ONE CASE REPORT OF ACUTE POISONING BY BARIUM CARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Qin-min; BIAN Fan; WANG Shu-yun; SHEN Sheng-hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Most barium poisoning cases were caused by oral intake by mistake. Recent years, barium carbonate poisoning has been rare to be reported. Here we reported a case of acute barium carbonate toxication taken orally on purpose.

  14. Pot-Laced Goodies Can Poison a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_164157.html Pot-Laced Goodies Can Poison a Child These pastries and candies pose serious ... to kids -- but eating even one treat might poison them, a leading group of U.S. pediatricians warns. ...

  15. Milia after allergic contact dermatitis from poison ivy: two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, David R; Hurt, Mark A; Reese, Lester T; Wagner, Laura; Bayliss, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    Milia have rarely been reported as a complication of severe allergic contact dermatitis. To our knowledge, milia have not previously been associated with poison ivy dermatitis. We present two cases of milia after allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy.

  16. Evidence of Scrambling over Ruthenium-based Catalysts in Supercritical-water Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Andrew A.; Dreher, Marian; Wambach, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    of the 1/4- or 1/2-substituted species CH3D and CH2D2. The experiment was repeated with an in-house impregnated RuO2-on-carbon catalyst, with similar results. Although other criteria such as the ability to cleave C, C and C, O bonds and resistance to poisoning will also prove important, this study suggests...

  17. Unusual case of methanol poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. (St. James' s Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. (St. James' s Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

    1993-01-09

    A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

  18. [Ergotamine poisoning: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapalska-Pozarowska, Karolina; Szponar, Jarosław; Górska, Agnieszka; Niewiedzioł, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Ergotamine is a well known pharmacological remedy applied in neurology (treatment of vascular headache) and in obstetrics (abortive remedy, uterus atony). But today it is rarely used, because of new safer anti-migraine medicine (triptanes) which cause fewer side effects. According to obstetrical indications ergotamine is applied only in hospital treatment. For that reason, cases of intoxication by this class of drugs are rarely observed. Ergotamine causes constriction of the blood vessels through the blockade of alpha-receptors and stimulation of the serotonin-receptors on the walls of blood vessels both in the central nervous system and in peripheral circulation. Intoxication/overdose symptoms may appear on application of therapeutic dose by sensitive patients, mostly by patients with migraine headache using ergotamine preparation for relief of migraine attacks. In the Regional Centre of Clinical Toxicology, a 21-year-old patient was hospitalized. She took about 20 tablets of Cafergot (complex preparation containing 1mg ergotamine tartare and 100mg caffeine). During her stay on the ward, typical symptoms of severe poisoning were observed: nausea, severe vomiting, dizziness, decreased blood pressure without perceptible pulse, narrowing of the blood vessels in the extremities of the body (peripheral vasoconstriction) - paresthesia, digital cyanosis, refrigeration of legs, angina. Due to taking once of a great dose of the drug by the patient, violent process of intoxication, possibility of dangerous complication and also the unavailability of specific antidotes and lack of efficient methods of extracorporeal elimination of the drug, the patient was intensively controlled and symptomatic treatments according to the law of intensive therapy was applied.

  19. Poison Center Data for Public Health Surveillance: Poison Center and Public Health Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Royal K.; Schier, Josh; Schauben, Jay; Wheeler, Katherine; Mulay, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of poison center data for public health surveillance from the poison center, local, state, and federal public health perspectives and to generate meaningful discussion on how to address the challenges to collaboration. Introduction Since 2008, poisoning has become the leading cause of injury-related death in the United States (US); since 1980, the poisoning-related fatality rate in the US has almost tripled.1 Many poison-related injuries and deaths are reported to regional poison centers (PCs) which receive about 2.4 million reports of human chemical and poison exposures annually.2 Federal, state, and local public health (PH) agencies often collaborate with poison centers and use PC data for public health surveillance of poisoning-related health issues. Many state and local PH agencies have partnerships with regional PCs for direct access to local PC data which help them perform this function. At the national level, CDC conducts public health surveillance for exposures and illnesses of public health significance using the National Poison Data System (NPDS), the national PC reporting database. Though most PC and PH officials agree that PC data play an important role in PH practice and surveillance, collaboration between PH agencies and PCs has been hindered by numerous challenges. To address these challenges and bolster collaboration, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations Community of Practice (CoP) was created in 2010 by CDC as a means to share experiences, identify best practices, and facilitate relationships among federal, state and local public health agencies and PCs. To date, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP includes over 200 members from state and local public health, regional PCs, CDC, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A leadership team was created with representatives of the many stakeholders of the community to drive its

  20. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Dadpour

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  1. ALKALI RESISTANT CATALYST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention concerns the selective removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from gasses. In particular, the invention concerns a process, a catalyst and the use of a catalyst for the selective removal of nitrogen oxides in the presence of ammonia from gases containing a significant amount...... of alkali metal and/or alkali-earth compounds which process comprises using a catalyst combined of (i) a formed porous superacidic support, said superacidic support having an Hammett acidity stronger than Ho=-12, and (ii) a metal oxide catalytic component deposited on said superacidic support selected from...

  2. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Christoffersen, Dorte J; Banner, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. METHODS: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark......%) continued, declining to 44% in 2002, 33% in 2007 and finally to 27% in 2012. Few deaths from central stimulants (amphetamine and cocaine) occurred. Multiple drug use was common and consisted mainly of opioids, cocaine, amphetamine, cannabis, benzodiazepines and alcohol. Heroin/morphine use was most frequent...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone...

  3. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  4. Toxicological criterion of the heroin poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeev, S

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents toxicological characteristics of 198 cases of acute parenteral heroin intoxication, analyzes the clinically encountered range of blood and urinary concentrations of its metabolites. The principal causes of death are elucidated in victims of heroin poisoning at the hospital stage. Where there is a relationship of death probability to the detection of morphine in the victims' biological fluids is considered; its blood and urinary concentrations are determined, which undoubtedly suggests the occurrence of poisoning-related death. It has been established that death from poisoning by heroin may occur in the whole range of its detectable concentrations. There is no doubt that the blood morphine concentrations of at least 2.0 microg/ml should be considered to be fatal.

  5. The EXTRIP (EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning) workgroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, Valéry; Nolin, Thomas D; Hoffman, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs), such as hemodialysis and hemoperfusion, are used in poisoning despite a lack of controlled human trials demonstrating efficacy. To provide uniform recommendations, the EXTRIP group was formed as an international collaboration among recognized experts from nephro...... of recommendation. This approach will permit the production of the first important practice guidelines on this topic....... nephrology, clinical toxicology, critical care, or pharmacology and supported by over 30 professional societies. For every poison, the clinical benefit of ECTR is weighed against associated complications, alternative therapies, and costs. Rigorous methodology, using the AGREE instrument, was developed...... to retrieve all original publications regardless of language. Data were extracted on a standardized instrument. Quality of the evidence was assessed by GRADE as: High = A, Moderate = B, Low = C, Very Low = D. For every poison, dialyzability was assessed and clinical effect of ECTR summarized. All pertinent...

  6. Using Poison Center Data for Postdisaster Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H.; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25205009

  7. Dual control of low concentration CO poisoning by anode air bleeding of low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klages, Merle; Tjønnås, Johannes; Zenith, Federico; Halvorsen, Ivar J.; Scholta, Joachim

    2016-12-01

    Fuel impurities, fed to a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, can affect stack performance by poisoning of catalyst layers. This paper describes the dynamic behaviour of a stack, including state-of-the-art membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) of three different manufacturers, at different operating conditions. The voltage transients of the step responses to CO poisoning as well as air bleed recovery are compared, revealing differences in performance loss: slow poisoning versus fast recovery, incomplete recovery and voltage oscillation. The recorded behaviour is used to develop a model, based on Tafel equation and first order dynamic response, which can be calibrated to each MEA type. Using this model to predict voltage response, a controller is built with the aim of reducing the total amount of air bleed and monitoring upstream stack processes without the need of sensors measuring the poisoning level. Two controllers are implemented in order to show the concept from a heuristic, easy to implement, and a more technical side allowing more detailed analysis of the synthesis. The heuristic algorithm, based on periodic perturbations of the manipulated variable (air-bleed), is validated on a real stack, revealing a stabilized performance without the need of detailed stack properties knowledge.

  8. Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

  9. CLINICAL PROFILE OF CHILDHOOD POISONING IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Accidents including poisoning are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children in the west. Poisoning, while never accounting for a large number of accidental deaths, have acquired prominence now because they have not decreased at the same rate as the infectious diseases. METHODS An observational study was done in Department of Paediatrics KIMS Bangalore to know the incidence and pattern of childhood poisoning, to know the morbidity and mortality resulting from childhood poisoning. 86 children aged between 0-18 years were admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with history of poisoning during the 2-year period of the study (Nov 13-Nov 15 were included. Diagnosis of poisoning was made on the basis of history and examination findings, Relevant investigations were done and Profile of patients with poisoning, their symptoms, type of poisoning and outcome were analysed. RESULTS The average duration of stay in the hospital was 2.7 days. Poisoning was accidental in 80 (93% patients whereas suicidal intent was present in only 6 (7% patients. Total 5 (5.8% patients died of which 4 were due to insecticide and pesticide poisoning and one was due to kerosene poisoning. CONCLUSION In the present study the probable reason for higher incidence of poisoning by insecticides & pesticides could be the involvement of higher age group and more involvement of adolescent children.

  10. 76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... March 23, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 #0; #0..., 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... cases, these tragic incidents are preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage...

  11. 78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8940 of March 15, 2013 National Poison..., Americans have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to protect... encouraging common-sense precautions and raising awareness about how to respond in a poison emergency....

  12. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  13. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  14. 77 FR 16645 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... March 21, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8784--National Poison Prevention Week, 2012... Poison Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... thousands of lives every year. On the 50th anniversary of National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage...

  15. Development of Optimized Guidelines for Therapeutic Strategies for Organophosphate Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    STRATEGIES FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING THESIS Craig A. Holder, Captain, USAF AFIT/GIH/ENV/11-M02 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Systems and Engineering Management...STRATEGIES FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING Craig A. Holder, BS Captain, USAF Approved: //signed

  16. Evaluation of nanostructured Pt-Ru catalyst for application in DMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, A.L.; Gamboa, S.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, Morelos (Mexico); Sebastien, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, Morelos (Mexico)]|[Chiapas Politecnica Univ., Chiapas (Mexico); Morgado, J.; Montoya, J.A. [IMP, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas, (Mexico); Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire d' electrochimie et de materiaux energetiques

    2006-07-01

    Slow methanol oxidation kinetics and the poisoning of the anode catalyst are the major factors that limit the performance of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Catalysts with higher catalytic activity are needed in order to overcome these challenges. Although platinum (Pt) is a good catalyst for methanol oxidation, it can be highly affected by carbon monoxide (CO) reaction intermediates. Superior catalytic activity occurs in Pt based alloys, such as platinum ruthenium (Pt-Ru), platinum molybdenum (Pt-Mo), platinum tin (Pt-Sn), and platinum osmium (Pt-Os). This is due to the bifunctional mechanism and/or by the electronic effect, which indicates a promotional effect of the alloyed metal on Pt. The most studied binary system is the Pt-Ru (ruthenium), which has shown the best catalytic activity. There are many factors that influence the physical properties and the electrochemical performance of the Pt-Ru catalyst. These include the preparation method; the atomic ratio between platinum and ruthenium; the nature of the catalyst support; and, an optional heat treatment. Other important factors such as the particle size, the morphology, the electrochemically active area, and the crystalline phase influence the physical properties. In this study, nanostructured Pt-Ru catalysts were fabricated and evaluated physicochemically and electrochemically for its use in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The catalysts were synthesized from the carbonyl compounds of Pt and Ru via a pyrolysis-condensation reaction. The high resolution results showed a homogenous distribution of the nanostructured catalysts on Vulcan support. The catalyst was evaluated by XRD, HRTEM, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the methanol oxidation on the catalyst was studied using volt-amperometry. The performance of the catalyst was found to be similar or better than the commercial one. It was concluded that it is possible to synthesize Pt-Ru/C with good morphological characteristics and improve it

  17. [Acute toloxatone poisoning. Apropos of 122 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoyan, P; Garnier, R; Baud, F J; Efthymiou, M L

    1990-01-01

    Toloxatone is a new monoamine oxidase inhibitor. One hundred and twenty two cases of poisoning with this drug are reported. In this series, the minimal toxic dose was 2 g. The first symptoms appeared about one hour after ingestion. In most cases, only drowsiness and mild adrenergic effects were observed. In a few cases of massive overdose, coma, pyramidal irritation, and myoclonic jerks occurred. In 3 cases of severe poisoning, toloxatone was associated with tricyclic antidepressants. Symptoms were similar to those reported in intoxications associating classical monoamine oxidase inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants: muscular rigidity, hyperthermia and cardiovascular collapse. Two of these patients died.

  18. Ciguatera-like poisoning in the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhlin-Eisenkraft, B; Finkelstein, Y; Spanier, E

    1988-12-01

    A case of group poisoning from the consumption of the fish Sarpa salpa, caught in the Mediterranean coastal waters of Israel, is presented. Mullets and rabbitfish caught at the same site caused no harm. This is the third case of ciguatera poisoning in the region and the first to be transferred by a fish which is not a Red Sea immigrant. It implies that toxic algae dinoflagellates, originating from the Red Sea, crossed the Suez Canal and found their way to the Mediterranean coastal waters.

  19. Certain cases of poisoning by arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristol, P.; Fourcade, J.; Ravoire, J.; Bezenech, C.

    1939-05-01

    Cases of acute and chronic poisoning by arsenic are reported. Diffuse pains, angor, edema of the limbs and genitals, complicated by heptic insufficiency and chronic bronchitis were determined in a subject having lived near an industrial plant processing arseniferous ores for several years. The plant emitted several hundred kg of finely dispersed arsenic oxide daily which settled on forage and vegetables. Symptoms of poisoning by arsenic were also detected in cattle in the same area. The installation of Cottrell type dust separators has helped to suppress the arsenic oxide emissions.

  20. The Management of Food Poisoning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiTai-ran

    2001-01-01

    This article introduced the characteristics of food poisoning management in China.Food borne diseases are managed in two separate parts by the Ministry of Health in China,Based on different but related laws.Sporadic occurrence of food-borne diseases such as diarrhea,typhoid and dysentery are managed by the "Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control Law" ,while food poisoning outbreaks are managed by the "Food Hygiene Law".Some advantages and disadvantages of this management system will be discussed in the presentation.

  1. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing.

  2. [Recommendations for the prevention of poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintegi, S; Esparza, M J; González, J C; Rubio, B; Sánchez, F; Vila, J J; Yagüe, F; Benítez, M T

    2015-12-01

    Poisoning is the fifth leading cause of death from unintentional injury in the WHO European region, while Spain is in the group with a lower rate. Most involuntary poisonings occur in young children while they are at the home, due to unintentional ingestion of therapeutic drugs or household products. Of these, a large percentage is stored in non-original containers and/or within reach of children. In this article, the Committee on Safety and Non-Intentional Injury Prevention in Childhood of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides a series of recommendations, educational as well as legal, to prevent such cases.

  3. Ciguatera neurotoxin poisoning mimicking burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heir, Gary M

    2005-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a condition in which the patient perceives a sensation of intraoral burning, typically of the anterior tongue. This article presents a case report of a patient presenting for orofacial pain evaluation in whom ciguatera neurotoxin poisoning is diagnosed. The clinician should be aware of neurotoxin poisoning as a possible cause of symptoms of burning mouth, especially among patients who have recently traveled to a tropical area. Recognition of this condition in this case highlights the need for a detailed and accurate patient history.

  4. [Venomous and poisonous animals--I. Overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P; Goyffon, M

    2006-06-01

    Venomous animals that are able to innoculate or inject venom and poisonous animals that cannot inject venom but are toxic when ingested belong to all zoological groups. They can be encountered worldwide in any ecosystem on land and at sea but they are more common and more dangerous in tropical areas. This first article of a series to appear in the next issues of Medecine Tropicale presents an overview of species involved in envenomations and poisonings. In addition to a brief reviewing geographic risks and circumstances in which bites, stings or ingestion occur, some information is provided about antivenim therapy, the only etiological treatment.

  5. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Sopchak, David A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Reynolds, John G.; Satcher, Joseph H.; Gash, Alex E.

    2010-06-29

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  6. Epoxidation catalyst and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip

    2010-10-26

    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  7. Study on Deactivation by Sulfur and Regeneration of Pd/C Catalyst in Hydrogenation of N-(3-nitro-4-methoxyphenyl) Acetamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qunfeng; L(U) Jinghui; MA Lei; LU Chunshan; LIU Wei; LI Xiaonian

    2013-01-01

    Deactivation of Pd/C catalyst often occurs in liquid hydrogenation using industrial materials.For instance,the Pd/C catalyst is deactivated severely in the hydrogenation of N-(3-nitro-4-methoxyphenyl) acetamide.In this study,the chemisorption of sulfur on the surface of deactivated Pd/C was detected by energy dispersive spectrometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.Sulfur compounds poison the Pd/C catalyst and increase the formation of azo deposit,reducing the activity of catalyst.We report a mild method to regenerate the Pd/C catalyst:wash the deposit by N,N-dimethylformamide and oxidize the chemisorbed sulfur by hot air.The regenerated Pd/C catalyst can be reused at least ten runs with stable activity.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of catalysts and electrocatalysts using combinatorial methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Ramnarayanan

    This thesis documents attempts at solving three problems. Bead-based parallel synthetic and screening methods based on matrix algorithms were developed. The method was applied to search for new heterogeneous catalysts for dehydrogenation of methylcyclohexane. The most powerful use of the method to date was to optimize metal adsorption and evaluate catalysts as a function of incident energy, likely to be important in the future, should availability of energy be an optimization parameter. This work also highlighted the importance of order of addition of metal salts on catalytic activity and a portion of this work resulted in a patent with UOP LLC, Desplaines, Illinois. Combinatorial methods were also investigated as a tool to search for carbon-monoxide tolerant anode electrocatalysts and methanol tolerant cathode electrocatalysts, resulting in discovery of no new electrocatalysts. A physically intuitive scaling criterion was developed to analyze all experiments on electrocatalysts, providing insight for future experiments. We attempted to solve the CO poisoning problem in polymer electrolyte fuel cells using carbon molecular sieves as a separator. This approach was unsuccessful in solving the CO poisoning problem, possibly due to the tendency of the carbon molecular sieves to concentrate CO and CO 2 in pore walls.

  9. New Catalysts for ROMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Berke; C. Frech; A. Lhamazares; O. Blacque; H.W. Schmalle; C. Adlhart; P. Chen

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) is based on the olefin metathesis reaction, which requires transition metal catalysts. Mainly molybdenum, tungsten and ruthenium based catalysts have up to now been used. The "in-between" metal rhenium was only rarely applied in olefin metathesis reactions, and not at all in ROMP processes.We have found that cationic phosphine substituted dinitrosyl rhenium complexes[1]1a and 1b effectively catalyze ROMP of norbonene, dicyclopentadiene and of cyclooctene. See Fig. 1.

  10. Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Churi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The poison information center provided requested services in a skillful, efficient and evidence-based manner to meet the needs of the requestor. The enquiries and information provided is documented in a clear and systematic manner.

  11. Transdermal carbamate poisoning – a case of misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Kumar Rajbanshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pesticide poisoning is a common mode of intentional self harm. Oral ingestion is the usual mode of poisoning. However, inhalation, accidental or occupational transdermal exposure leading to acute or chronic poisoning can be the other route of poisoning. It has been seen that the purpose of poising is suicidal intensity in most of the cases. We report an unusual case where the victim had acute pesticide poisoning through transdermal route that was intended for non suicidal purpose. The patient was managed successfully with immediate decontamination and adequate antidote.

  12. Toxic Agents Responsible for Acute Poisonings Treated at Four Medical Settings in Iran during 2012-2013: A Report from Iran's National Drug and Poison Information Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat Ghane

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Pharmaceutical products, substances of abuse and pesticides are the most common causes of poisoning-related admissions to referral Iranian poison treatment centers. Effective measures to reduce poisoning with these substances should be done.

  13. Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-28

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-cholestane-3α, 7α, 12α, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans.

  14. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Riet-Correa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.

  15. Poisonings by Cardiovascular Drugs in Yekaterinburg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin M. Brusin

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The most common drugs causing hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias were clonidine, CCBs, drotaverine and the veterinary drug “veratrine”. Drotaverine, clonidine and CCBs were the most common drugs causing death. Poisonings with these agents are rare in other countries. Measures to reduce the availability of drotaverine and veratrine should be taken in Russia.

  16. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl;

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...

  17. Mercury poisoning: an unusual cause of polyarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, G K; Tosun, A K; Karacehennem, E; Sepici, V

    2002-02-01

    Mercury is a toxic metal that is widely used in everyday life. It has organic and inorganic forms that are both toxic. As acute mercury poisoning is uncommon, diagnosis is difficult if the exposure is not manifest. It has usually a slow onset and non-specific symptoms. In this paper we report a patient who developed polyarthritis after mercury exposure.

  18. Protect the Ones You Love From Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from poisoning, one of the leading causes of child injury.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 12/10/2008.

  19. Toxidrome-based Approach to Common Poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mégarbane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning remains a major cause of hospital admission into the emergency department and intensive care unit. Proper diagnosis is the cornerstone for optimal management of poisoned patients. Since the definitive analytical confirmation of the nature of the toxicant involved in the poisoning cannot be rapidly obtained in the majority of healthcare facilities, diagnosis relies on the medical history and the rigorous clinical examination of the patients well as results of the routine biological tests and the electrocardiogram. Identification of the toxidromes addresses not only the correct diagnosis but also rules out other differential diagnoses. Despite no definitive predictive value, this clinical approach facilitates making decision on empirical treatments and emergent antidotes. Pharmacodynamic tests using specific antidotes including naloxone for opioids and flumazenil for benzodiazepines and its analogues are also helpful to assess the final diagnosis in comatose patients. The objective of this article is to review the toxidrome-based approach to common poisonings before toxicological analysis enables the confirmation of the initially suspected toxic etiology.

  20. Cardiac Glycoside Plants Self-Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenkova-Saeva J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides are found in a diverse group of plants including Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata (foxgloves, Nerium oleander, Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley, Strophanthus gratus, etc. Nerium Oleander is an indoor and ornamental plant of an evergreen shrub. It’s widespread in countries with a Mediterranean climate. Oleander is one of the most poisonous plants known to humans. All parts of the nerium oleander are poisonous, primarily due to the contained cardiac glycosides - oleandrin, nerin, digitoxigenin, and olinerin of which oleandrin is the principal toxin. The bark contains the toxic substances of rosagenin which causes strychnine-like effects. Signs of poisoning appear a few hours after the adoption of the parts of the plant. Two cases of Nerium Oleander poisoning were presented. Clinical picture included gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and central nervous system effects. The clinical symptoms were characterized by nausea, vomiting, salivation, colic, diarrhoea, ventricular tachycardia, dysrhythmia, heart block, ataxia, drowsiness, muscular tremor. Treatment included administration of activated charcoal, symptomatic and supportive care.

  1. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  2. Acute oral poisoning due to chloracetanilide herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Su-Jin; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2012-02-01

    Chloracetanilide herbicides (alachlor, butachlor, metachlor) are used widely. Although there are much data about chronic low dose exposure to chloracetanilide in humans and animals, there are few data about acute chloracetanilide poisoning in humans. This study investigated the clinical feature of patients following acute oral exposure to chloracetanilide. We retrospectively reviewed the data on the patients who were admitted to two university hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Among them, 28, 5, and 2 cases of acute alachlor, metachlor, butachlor poisoning were included. The mean age was 49.8 ± 15.4 yr. The poison severity score (PSS) was 17 (48.6%), 10 (28.6%), 5 (14.3%), 2 (5.7%), and 1 (2.9%) patients with a PSS of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The age was higher for the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that for the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS) (43.6 ± 15.2 vs 55.7 ± 13.5). The arterial blood HCO₃⁻ was lower in the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that in the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS). Three patients were a comatous. One patient died 24 hr after the exposure. In conclusion, although chloracetanilide poisoning is usually of low toxicity, elder patients with central nervous system symptoms should be closely monitored and cared after oral exposure.

  3. Parathion poisoning of Mississippi kites in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian

    1994-01-01

    Parathion(phosphorothioic acid O, O-diethyl O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) is a broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, used on a variety of crops and occasionally for mosquito control, and is highly toxic to birds (Smith 1987). Intentional poisoning with parathion is reported to have killed more than 8000 red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in two separate instances (Stone et al. 1984). Use of parathion on wheat fields has resulted in the mortality of about 1600 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and other waterfowl in one instance (White et al. 1982) and about 200 Canada geese in another (Flickinger et al. 1991). More than 200 laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) died near cotton fields treated with parathion (White et al. 1979). Secondary poisoning of raptors resulting from the consumption of prey exposed to parathion, has been reported experimentally and in the field. Stone et al. (1984) found two dead red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) and an American kestrel (Falco sparverius) that had fed on blackbirds killed by parathion. One of four American kestrels died after being fed cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) that had been exposed to 10ppm parathion for 96 hr (Fleming et al. 1982). The Mississippi kite (Ictinia mississippensis) is highly insectivorous (Brown and Amadon 1968) and is thus subject to secondary poisoning resulting from consumption of insects exposed to pesticides. I report here an instance of secondary parathion poisoning in wild Mississippi kites.

  4. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  5. Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

  6. [A relational database to store Poison Centers calls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Alessandro; Biondi, Immacolata; Tafani, Chiara; Pellegrini, Aristide; Soave, Maurizio; Gaspari, Rita; Annetta, Maria Giuseppina

    2006-01-01

    Italian Poison Centers answer to approximately 100,000 calls per year. Potentially, this activity is a huge source of data for toxicovigilance and for syndromic surveillance. During the last decade, surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks have drawn the attention of public health institutions due to the threat of terrorism and high-profile disease outbreaks. Poisoning surveillance needs the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of harmonised data about poisonings from all Poison Centers for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health. The entity-relationship model for a Poison Center relational database is extremely complex and not studied in detail. For this reason, not harmonised data collection happens among Italian Poison Centers. Entities are recognizable concepts, either concrete or abstract, such as patients and poisons, or events which have relevance to the database, such as calls. Connectivity and cardinality of relationships are complex as well. A one-to-many relationship exist between calls and patients: for one instance of entity calls, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity patients. At the same time, a one-to-many relationship exist between patients and poisons: for one instance of entity patients, there are zero, one, or many instances of entity poisons. This paper shows a relational model for a poison center database which allows the harmonised data collection of poison centers calls.

  7. Recent Advances in the Clinical Management of Lead Poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Kianoush

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is a historic universal disease. Acute or chronic lead exposure may cause reversible or even permanent damages in human beings. Environmental lead exposure is a global health concern in children. Occupational lead poisoning is still a health issue, particularly in developing countries. During the last decades, new methods and medications have been advocated for the prevention and treatment of lead poisoning. This review deals mainly with recent developments in the management of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure are introduced, and methods for the primary prevention of lead poisoning are discussed. Details for the screening of adults and children are also explained to serve as a practical guideline for the secondary prevention. Standard chelation therapy in different groups and up-to-date less toxic new medications for the treatment of lead poisoning are finally discussed. Our published clinical research on the therapeutic effects of garlic tablets in mild to moderate occupational lead poisoning will also be discussed.

  8. Supported organoiridium catalysts for alkane dehydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R. Thomas; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Li, Hongbo

    2013-09-03

    Solid supported organoiridium catalysts, a process for preparing such solid supported organoiridium catalysts, and the use of such solid supported organoiridium catalysts in dehydrogenation reactions of alkanes is provided. The catalysts can be easily recovered and recycled.

  9. An Overview on Bongkrekic Acid Food Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXiu-mei

    2001-01-01

    Bongkrekic acid(BA) is a fatal bacterial toxin which was found in poisonous fermented cocnut product in indonesia in 1934 and the molecular structure was identified as C28H33O7 in 1960,In the 1950s,food poisoning outbreak of undnown cause occurred cause in the northeast part of China.A new toxin-producing bacterium,pseudomonas cocovenans subsp.Farinofermentans.was identified as the causal pathioge,and its metabolite BA was isolated.purfied and identified in 1979 and 1984.After that ,deteriorated tremella poisoning and viegar jelly poisoning were identified as being caused by the consumption of BA-contaminated foods.About 103 food poisoning outbreaks occurred in 16 provinces in China from 1985 to 1994,A total of 301 (out of 667) patients died.The overall fatality rate(45.13%) was the highest among all microbiological food poisonings in China.Various fermented cereal foods,deteriorated fresh tremella,potato products,sticky rice flur,polished glutious rice,sweet potato starch,noodles and vinegar jelly were in volved in the outbreaks,BA Was detected form leftover fermented corn flour,deteriorated tremella and the P.Cocovenenans subsp.farinofermentans was identifed as the source bascteria.The toxigenic strains have been found not only from the leftover food samples collected from the outbreaks.but also from normal fresh cultivated tremella in Henan and corn flour products from supermarkets in Beijing,TLC,HPLC,and MaAb-ELISA were used to detect BA in the food samples,The minimum detected levels were 0.25,0.1 and 0.2mg/kg,respectively,Further studies showed that Ba could be producted at 26 C for 5 days in potato dextrose agar(PDA) medium.Exposure to ultravioled ligh significantly reduced the level of BA in fresh tremella(96.7%-97.3%) as well as the toxin-producing ability of toxigenic stains in culture medium.

  10. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...... increasing focus. Activity of the catalyst is important, but stability is essential. In the presented perspective paper, we review recent efforts to investigate fuel cell catalysts ex-situ in electrochemical half-cell measurements. Due to the amount of different studies, this review has no intention to give...

  11. Aerogel derived catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J. G., LLNL

    1996-12-11

    Aerogels area class of colloidal materials which have high surface areas and abundant mesoporous structure. SiO{sub 2} aerogels show unique physical, optical and structural properties. When catalytic metals are incorporated in the aerogel framework, the potential exists for new and very effective catalysts for industrial processes. Three applications of these metal-containing SiO{sub 2} aerogels as catalysts are briefly reviewed in this paper--NO{sub x} reduction, volatile organic compound destruction, and partial oxidation of methane.

  12. Olefin metathesis catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukes, S.G.; Banks, R.L.

    1986-05-20

    A process is described for preparing a disproportionation catalyst comprising admixing a catalytically effective amount of a calcined and activated catalyst consisting essentially of at least one metal oxide selected from molybdenum oxide and tungsten oxide and a support containing a major proportion of silica or alumina with a promoting amount of a methylating agent selected from the group consisting of dimethyl sulfate, dimethylsulfoxide, trimethyloxonium tetrafluorborate, methyl iodide, and methyl bromide, and subjecting same to inert atmospheric conditions for the methylating agent to promote the activity of the calcined molybdenum and tungsten oxides for the disproportionation of olefins.

  13. Mesoporous molecular sieve catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Karen Thrane

    be used as solid acid catalysts but can also be used as a size-selective matrix. It was shown that it is possible to encapsulate 1-2 nm sized gold nanoparticles by silicalite-1 or ZSM-5 zeolite crystals thereby forming a sintering-stable and substrate size-selective oxidation catalyst. After carrying out...... calcination experiments, both in situ and ex situ indicated that the gold nanoparticles embedded in the crystals were highly stable towards sintering. The catalytic tests proved that the embedded gold nanoparticles were active in selective aldehyde oxidation and were only accessible through the micropores...

  14. Dynamics of Catalyst Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Cavalca, Filippo; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    under gas exposure, dynamic phenomena such as sintering and growth can be observed with sub-Ångstrøm resolution. Metal nanoparticles contain the active sites in heterogeneous catalysts, which are important for many industrial applications including the production of clean fuels, chemicals...... and pharmaceuticals, and the cleanup of exhaust from automobiles and stationary power plants. Sintering, or thermal deactivation, is an important mechanism for the loss of catalyst activity. In order to initiate a systematic study of the dynamics and sintering of nanoparticles, various catalytic systems have been...

  15. Mechanistic Investigation into the Effect of Sulfuration on the FeW Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx with NH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Qu, Zhenping; Dong, Shicheng; Tang, Chen

    2017-03-01

    Iron tungsten (FeW) catalyst is a potential candidate for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia because of its excellent performance in a wide operating window. Sulfur poisoning effects in SCR catalysts have long been recognized as a challenge in development of efficient catalysts for applications. In this paper, the impact of sulfuration on catalyst structure, NH3-SCR reaction performance and mechanism was systematically investigated through spectroscopic and temperature-programmed approaches. The sulfuration inhibited the SCR activity at low temperatures (catalyst, the organic-like with covalent S═O bonds sulfate species were mainly formed over the FeW catalysts. Combining TPD with in situ DRIFTS results, it was found that the Lewis and the Brønsted acidity were enhanced by the interaction between metal species and sulfate species due to the strong electron withdrawing effect of the S═O double bonds. The in situ DRIFTS study showed that the formation of NO2 was hindered, leading to the "fast-SCR" pathway was partly cut off by the sulfuration process and thereby the loss of SCR activity at low temperatures. However, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction pathway between adsorbed NH3/NH4(+) species and nitrate species was facilitated and dominated at high temperatures, making the as-synthesized FeW catalysts resistant to SO2 poisoning.

  16. Transesterification of Ethylene Carbonate with Dimethyl Terephthalate over Various Metal Acetate Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The reaction between ethylene carbonate and dimethyl terephthalate was carried out for the simultaneous synthesis of dimethyl carbonate and poly( ethylene terephthalate). This reaction is an excellent chemical process that is environmentally friendly and produces no poisonous substance. The metal acetate catalysts used for this reaction are discussed in detail. Lithium acetate dihydrate was found to be a novel and efficient catalyst for this reaction. Compared with other metal acetates, lithium acetate dihydrate can attain a maximum catalytic activity at a lower concentration.When the reaction was carried out under the following conditions: the reaction temperature from 230 to 250 ℃, molar ratio of ethylene carbonate(EC) to dimethyl terephthalate(DMT) 3: 1, reaction time 3 h, and a catalyst amount of 0. 4% (molar fraction to DMT), the yield of dimethyl carbonate(DMC) was 79. 1%.

  17. CIGUATERA POISONING: PACIFIC DISEASE, FOODBORNE POISONING FROM FISH IN WARM SEAS AND OCEANS. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezha Zlateva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The review is provoked because of lack of awareness of the medical practitioners in Bulgaria concerning of the ethnology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms and treatment of the ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. This can be a source of prolonged diagnostic delays, as some cases reporting in another country in Europe, for example Germany, Spain and UK. Varna is the sea town with many sailor crews returning from tropical and subtropical regions, or CFP can affect people who travel to the Pacific and Caribbean or ate exotic fish from supermarket. The information of this fish food-borne poisoning is part of student’s education in discipline “Marine medicine” in Medical University, Varna. Materials and methods: To present better information from different authors and last scientific data, we made review of published materials of 58 issues to construct definition, history, etiology, pathogenesis (toxins and mechanisms of action, clinical symptoms, treatment and prevention of the Ciguatera or ichtyosarcotoxicosis, a wide spread food-born poisoning. Results: Ciguatera poisoning is ichtyosarcotoxicosis, a wide-spread foodborne poisoning in people after consumption of flesh of different kinds of fishes in which toxins produced by poisonous microorganisms (Dinoflagellates have accumulated. The poisoning develops by accumulating toxins higher up the food chain starting with toxin producing dinoflagellates (species: Gambierdiscus toxicus, Prorocentrum concavum, Pr. lima, Ostreoposis lenticularis, Ostr. Siamensis and others, continuing with the poisoned algae (species: Portieria, Halymenia, Turbinaria, Sargassum, and after that involving small crustacea and small fishes to greater fishes (vector fishes, genus Herbivores and Carnivores, in which the toxins have been stored in amount, great enough to cause foodborne poisoning in humans. This poisoning is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, but because of its delayed toxic effects, lasting

  18. An Environmentally-Friendly and Catalytic Procedure for Mukaiyama Aldol Reaction Using Organic Catalyst DBU under Solvent Free Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN,Zhi-Liang; JI,Shun-Jun; LOH,Teck Peng

    2004-01-01

    @@ Recently, methods based exclusively on organic catalysts have become of major significance in synthetic chemistry.Mukaiyama-aldol reaction, as one of the most important and frequently utilized methods for C-C bond formation, is well documented in literatures recently. A variety of reagents, particularly metal-containing Lewis acids or bases, are known to promote the nucleophilic process. However, many of the reported strategies might have the following limitations from environmental viewpoints: (1) the use of metal-containing catalyst. Some of the catalysts are air or moisture sensitive (such as lithium amide), and crucial reaction conditions are needed; Some of the catalysts derived from poisonous metal (for example: SnCl4, SmI2 etc.) may cause harmful influence on humane body and environment; (2) the use of organic solvent (such as DMF, CH2Cl2 etc.) may bring about environmental pollution and solvent waste.

  19. The Poisoning Information Database Covers a Large Proportion of Real Poisoning Cases in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Chung, Sung Phil; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Kim, Hyun; Kang, Changwoo; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Jung Soo; Lee, Kyung Woo; Cho, Junho; Yoon, Jae Chol; Cho, Soohyung; Choe, Michael Sung Pil; Hwang, Tae Sik; Hong, Dae Young; Lim, Hoon; Kim, Yang-Weon; Kim, Seung Whan; Kang, Hyunggoo; Kim, Woo Jeong

    2016-07-01

    The poisoning information database (PIDB) provides clinical toxicological information on commonly encountered toxic substances in Korea. The aim of this study was to estimate the coverage rate of the PIDB by comparing the database with the distribution of toxic substances that real poisoning patients presented to 20 emergency departments. Development of the PIDB started in 2007, and the number of toxic substances increased annually from 50 to 470 substances in 2014. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with toxic exposure who visited 20 emergency departments in Korea from January to December 2013. Identified toxic substances were classified as prescription drug, agricultural chemical, household product, animal or plant, herbal drug, or other. We calculated the coverage rate of the PIDB for both the number of poisoning cases and the kinds of toxic substances. A total of 10,887 cases of intoxication among 8,145 patients was collected. The 470 substances registered in the PIDB covered 89.3% of 8,891 identified cases related to poisoning, while the same substances only covered 45.3% of the 671 kinds of identified toxic substances. According to category, 211 prescription drugs, 58 agricultural chemicals, 28 household products, and 32 animals or plants were not covered by the PIDB. This study suggested that the PIDB covered a large proportion of real poisoning cases in Korea. However, the database should be continuously extended to provide information for even rare toxic substances.

  20. Poisonous or non-poisonous plants? DNA-based tools and applications for accurate identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzasalma, Valerio; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Galimberti, Andrea; Cornara, Laura; Ferri, Emanuele; Labra, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Plant exposures are among the most frequently reported cases to poison control centres worldwide. This is a growing condition due to recent societal trends oriented towards the consumption of wild plants as food, cosmetics, or medicine. At least three general causes of plant poisoning can be identified: plant misidentification, introduction of new plant-based supplements and medicines with no controls about their safety, and the lack of regulation for the trading of herbal and phytochemical products. Moreover, an efficient screening for the occurrence of plants poisonous to humans is also desirable at the different stages of the food supply chain: from the raw material to the final transformed product. A rapid diagnosis of intoxication cases is necessary in order to provide the most reliable treatment. However, a precise taxonomic characterization of the ingested species is often challenging. In this review, we provide an overview of the emerging DNA-based tools and technologies to address the issue of poisonous plant identification. Specifically, classic DNA barcoding and its applications using High Resolution Melting (Bar-HRM) ensure high universality and rapid response respectively, whereas High Throughput Sequencing techniques (HTS) provide a complete characterization of plant residues in complex matrices. The pros and cons of each approach have been evaluated with the final aim of proposing a general user's guide to molecular identification directed to different stakeholder categories interested in the diagnostics of poisonous plants.

  1. NETWORK SECURITY ATTACKS. ARP POISONING CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa DEFTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Arp poisoning is one of the most common attacks in a switched network. A switch is a network device that limits the ability of attackers that use a packet sniffer to gain access to information from internal network traffic. However, using ARP poisoning the traffic between two computers can be intercepted even in a network that uses switches. This method is known as man in the middle attack. With this type of attack the affected stations from a network will have invalid entries in the ARP table. Thus, it will contain only the correspondence between the IP addresses of the stations from the same network and a single MAC address (the station that initiated the attack. In this paper we present step by step the initiation of such an attack in a network with three computers. We will intercept the traffic between two stations using the third one (the attacker.

  2. A new cutaneous sign of mercury poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzig, Paul I

    2003-12-01

    Chronic mercury poisoning is becoming a health concern because of extensive pollution of water and fish, and the increasing consumption of fish in the human diet. Mercury is extremely toxic to the body, especially the central nervous system, but diagnosis is difficult because of the lack of specific signs. A total of 11 patients were observed to have a nonpruritic or mildly pruritic discreet papular and papulovesicular eruption that correlated with high blood mercury levels. The mercury evidently came from increased seafood consumption. All of the patients improved when they were placed on either a seafood-free diet or chelation therapy. Physicians should suspect mercury poisoning in patients who eat a high-seafood diet who present with an asymptomatic or mildly pruritic papular or papulovesicular eruption.

  3. Cestrum parqui (green cestrum) poisoning in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, M W; Kelly, W R

    1984-09-01

    Naturally occurring cases of poisoning of cattle by Cestrum parqui were characterised by ataxia, depression, recumbency, convulsions and death. Three cattle were dosed experimentally by intrarumenal administration of fresh plant material. One calf died 48 h after receiving 30 g (wet weight) of plant/kg bodyweight. Doses of 11 and 17 g/kg caused only mild intoxication, with dullness and anorexia lasting 2 days. In natural and experimental cases the main lesion was hepatic periacinar necrosis. Elevated levels of plasma aspartate transaminase and prolonged prothrombin times were demonstrated in experimental cases. Haemorrhage beneath the serosa and into the intestinal lumen occurred in field cases, but not in the experimental. It is concluded that C. parqui poisoning in cattle is a primary hepatotoxicity.

  4. [What is a "poison"? Proposal of definition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Raimon; Giménez, Nuria

    2012-02-18

    We discuss different interpretations of the term poison as well as the need of bringing up to date the changes in this matter according to the science progress. A clear and exact definition is proposed after analysing the factors that affect the relativity of the concept and its boundaries. The proposal for a definition is presented taking into account the most broadly extended concepts concerning its significance. That is to say: "a poison is, for human beings and their non-pathogenic and non-harmful biological environment, an electromagnetic or corpuscular radiation, or a non-infectious chemical agent, structured no larger in size than a small particle or fibre that, after being generated internally or after contact, penetration and/or absorption by a live organism, in sufficiently high dose, can produce or produces a direct or indirect adverse effect unrelated to its temperature or measurable electrical potential difference". The scientific knowledge needs accurate definitions to avoid ambiguities.

  5. Hyperamylasaemia and acute pancreatitis in paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Dalhoff, K

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperamylasaemia and even acute pancreatitis have been reported in patients with paracetamol poisoning. AIMS: To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and prognostic implications of hyperamylasaemia in paracetamol poisoning. PATIENTS: Six hundred and two patients transferred...... in 28 of the unselected patients (13%), in 218 of the transferred patients (36%), and in 118 of 148 patients (80%) with fulminant hepatic failure. Only 33 cases of paracetamol-associated acute pancreatitis were diagnosed. A threshold serum amylase of 150 U/L to discriminate non-survivors had sensitivity......, whereas clinical acute pancreatitis occurs rarely. The incidence of hyperamylasaemia increases with the degree of hepatic dysfunction. A serum amylase exceeding 1.5 times the upper normal limit indicates a poor prognosis....

  6. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  7. Arsenic poisoning of magnetism in bcc cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David J.

    1992-04-01

    Highly converged local spin-density approximation calculations are used to determine the effectiveness of As as a poisoning agent for the magnetism of bcc Co films grown on GaAs. To do this, supercell calculations of the magnetization were performed using an extension of the general potential linearized augmented plane-wave method for Co7As, Co15As, and Co31As. The effect of the nearest-neighbor relaxation around As impurities, calculated using total energy techniques, was included. It is found that substitutional As is moderately effective as a poisoning agent, each As atom contributes a moment of -3.8μB, and this may be important in explaining the discrepancy of 0.2-0.3μB between the calculated magnetization of bcc Co and the measured magnetization of bcc Co films on GaAs.

  8. Clinical studies on mercury poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, M.; Nakamura, R.; Too, K.; Matsuhashi, A.; Ishimoto, H.; Sasaki, R.; Ishida, K.; Takahashi, M.

    1956-01-01

    A sporadic outbreak of an unknown disease occurred among dairy cattle, from early February to late May 1955, in Japan. The characteristic symptoms of this disease were dyspnea and depilation; out of 29 cases, 8 died while 2 were slaughtered. Clinical studies have disclosed that the symptoms were similar to those found in cases of mercury poisoning as described by others. So the animals' feed was suspected of being the cause of the sickness. It was confirmed that the incident was due to poisoning resulting from ingestion of linseed meal treated with a mercurial fungicide. From the results of the testing anamnesis, it was found that 171 cattle were fed with the meal and 29 cases were affected. In veiw of the wide use of mercurial preparations for treating seed grains against fungi infection, a further experimental study was made on the effects of the feed and fungicide upon calves.

  9. Detoxification of Organophosphate Poisoning Using Nanoparticle Bioscavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhiqing; Hu, Che-Ming J; Fang, Ronnie H; Luk, Brian T; Gao, Weiwei; Wang, Fei; Chuluun, Erdembileg; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Lu, Weiyue; Jiang, Xinguo; Zhang, Liangfang

    2015-06-23

    Organophosphate poisoning is highly lethal as organophosphates, which are commonly found in insecticides and nerve agents, cause irreversible phosphorylation and inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to neuromuscular disorders via accumulation of acetylcholine in the body. Direct interception of organophosphates in the systemic circulation thus provides a desirable strategy in treatment of the condition. Inspired by the presence of AChE on red blood cell (RBC) membranes, we explored a biomimetic nanoparticle consisting of a polymeric core surrounded by RBC membranes to serve as an anti-organophosphate agent. Through in vitro studies, we demonstrated that the biomimetic nanoparticles retain the enzymatic activity of membrane-bound AChE and are able to bind to a model organophosphate, dichlorvos, precluding its inhibitory effect on other enzymatic substrates. In a mouse model of organophosphate poisoning, the nanoparticles were shown to improve the AChE activity in the blood and markedly improved the survival of dichlorvos-challenged mice.

  10. Chest radiographic findings in acute paraquat poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, Hee Jun; Sun, In O [Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To describe the chest radiographic findings of acute paraquat poisoning. 691 patients visited the emergency department of our hospital between January 2006 and October 2012 for paraquat poisoning. Of these 691, we identified 56 patients whose initial chest radiographs were normal but who developed radiographic abnormalities within one week. We evaluated their radiographic findings and the differences in imaging features based on mortality. The most common finding was diffuse consolidation (29/56, 52%), followed by consolidation with linear and nodular opacities (18/56, 32%), and combined consolidation and pneumomediastinum (7/56, 13%). Pleural effusion was noted in 17 patients (30%). The two survivors (4%) showed peripheral consolidations, while the 54 patients (96%) who died demonstrated bilateral (42/54, 78%) or unilateral (12/54, 22%) diffuse consolidations. Rapidly progressing diffuse pulmonary consolidation was observed within one week on follow-up radiographs after paraquat ingestion in the deceased, but the survivors demonstrated peripheral consolidation.

  11. [Fatal outcome of an hydrogen sulfide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querellou, E; Jaffrelot, M; Savary, D; Savry, C; Perfus, J-P

    2005-10-01

    We report a case of fatal outcome poisoning by massive exposure to hydrogen sulfide of a sewer worker. This rare event was associated with a moderate intoxication of two members of the rescue team. The death was due to asystole and massive lung oedema. Autopsy analysis showed diffuse necrotic lesions in lungs. Hydrogen sulfide is a direct and systemic poison, produced by organic matter decomposition. The direct toxicity mechanism is still unclear. The systemic toxicity is due to an acute toxicity by oxygen depletion at cellular level. It is highly diffusable and potentially very dangerous. At low concentration, rotten egg smell must trigger hydrogen sulfide suspicion since at higher concentration it is undetectable, making intoxication possible. In case of acute intoxication, there is an almost instantaneous cardiovascular failure and a rapid death. Hydrogen sulfide exposure requires prevention measures and more specifically the use of respiratory equipment for members of the rescue team.

  12. Extracorporeal treatment for valproic acid poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Laliberté, Martin; Nolin, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in valproic acid (VPA) poisoning. METHODS: The lead authors reviewed all of the articles from a systematic literature....... Anonymous votes were compiled, returned, and discussed in person. A second vote was conducted to determine the final workgroup recommendations. RESULTS: The latest literature search conducted in November 2014 retrieved a total of 79 articles for final qualitative analysis, including one observational study......); suggestions for ECTR include a VPA concentration > 900 mg/L (6250 μmol/L)(2D), coma or respiratory depression requiring mechanical ventilation (2D), acute hyperammonemia (2D), or pH ≤ 7.10 (2D). Cessation of ECTR is indicated when clinical improvement is apparent (1D) or the serum VPA concentration is between...

  13. Ciguatera fish poisoning: treatment, prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Melissa A; Fleming, Lora E; Fernandez, Mercedes; Bienfang, Paul; Schrank, Kathleen; Dickey, Robert; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Backer, Lorraine; Ayyar, Ram; Weisman, Richard; Watkins, Sharon; Granade, Ray; Reich, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients.

  14. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reich

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol, the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients.

  15. The functionalities of Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in simultaneous HDS and HDA reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.G. Baldovino-Medrano; Sonia A. Giraldo; Aristobulo Centeno [Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), Bucaramanga (Colombia). Centro de Investigaciones en Catalisis (CICAT)

    2008-08-15

    A Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was tested in simultaneous hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene and hydrodearomatization (HDA) of naphthalene reactions. Samples of it were subjected to different pretreatments: reduction, reduction-sulfidation, sulfidation with pure H{sub 2}S and non-activation. The reduced catalyst presented the best performance, even comparable to that of Co(Ni)Mo catalysts. All catalyst samples were selective to the HDS reaction over HDA, and to the direct desulfurization pathway of dibenzothiophene HDS over the hydrogenation reaction pathway of HDS. The effect of H{sub 2}S partial pressure on the functionalities of the reduced Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was studied. The results showed that an increase in H{sub 2}S partial pressure does not cause poisoning, but an inhibition effect, without changing the catalyst selectivity. Accordingly, the activity trends were ascribed to adsorption differences between the different reactive molecules over the same catalytic active site. TPR characterization along with a thermodynamics analysis showed that the active phase of reduced Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is constituted by Pt{sup 0} particles. However, presulfidation of the catalyst leads to a mixture of PtS and Pt{sup 0}which has a negative effect on the catalytic performance without changing catalyst functionalities. 61 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. TiO{sub 2} nanotubes promoted PT-NI/C catalyst with low PT content as anode catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, L.; Jiang, Q.Z.; Gan, T.G.; Ma, Z.F. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Shen, M. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, Sarkeys Energy Center; Rodriguez Varela, F.J. [Cinvestav Unidad Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico). Grupo de Recursos Naturales y Energeticos; Ocampo, A.L. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2010-07-15

    Although direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC) have more energy density than direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC), their widespread use has been hampered by the fact that metallic platinum (Pt) catalysts are readily poisoned by strongly absorbed reaction intermediates such as CO{sub ads} at low operating temperatures. The addition of a second transition metal or a metal oxide component has been considered as a means to improve performance of DEFCs by forming a binary anode based on Pt. In this study, titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotubes (TiO{sub 2}NTs) were added into a low-platinum content Pt-Ni/C catalyst to improve its catalytic activity for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). The promotion effect of TiO{sub 2}NTs on Pt-Ni/C catalyst was examined. Cyclic voltametry (CV) and chronoamperometry showed that TiO{sub 2}NTs can improve the catalytic activity of the Pt-Ni/C catalyst considerably. Compared to a commercial Pt-Ru/C catalyst, the Pt-Ni-TiO{sub 2}NT/C catalyst has a larger electrochemical active surface (EAS) and has lower onset potential for the EOR. The elemental composition and electronic structure of the catalyst were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphological properties of these catalysts. The study showed that onset oxidation potential can be lowered by the presence of TiO{sub 2}NTs because they retain more of the Pt metallic species and provide more hydroxides groups. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  17. Optimization of Therapeutic Strategies for Organophosphate Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    exposed person survives the initial effects of organophosphate poisoning, other symptoms may persist for weeks and include “irritability, anxiety ...an anticonvulsant, and diazepam is the preferred medicine (Cannard, 2006:92). Diazepam reduces the severity of seizures and epilepsy, which are...addition, medical doctors may administer 5 mg of diazepam intravenously for patients with convulsions (CDC, 2008:19). The New York Department of Health

  18. [Peripheral neuropathy caused by acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campos, J; Ramos-Peek, J; Martínez-Barros, M; Zamora-Peralta, M; Martínez-Cerrato, J

    1998-01-01

    Although peripheral neuropathy is a fairly common finding in chronic arsenic poisoning, little is known about the acute effects of this metal on peripheral nerves. This report shows clinical and electrophysiological findings in a patient who developed peripheral neuropathy only three days after a high-dose ingestion of this metal due to a failed suicide attempt. We speculate that peripheral nerves and some cranial nerves can show not only clinical but also subclinical involvement that can only be detected by neurophysiological studies.

  19. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Exogenous Poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Díaz Mesa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Exogenous Poisoning. Medical emergencies determined by the exposure to different substances (drugs, medicines, physical or chemical corrosive agents, etc. It includes the classification of toxic substances, clinical diagnosis (main syndromes, and description of therapeutic variations (vital support, antidotes, absorption measurements and increase of elimination and depuration of the toxic substance. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  20. Poison Ivy Dangers: Preventable Occupational Health Costs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The impact of poison ivy can be felt in every aspect of highway construction and maintenance. The toxin associated with this plant can disrupt productivity for days for multiple employees at many jobsites and projects. Lost time for workers, workers’ compensation claims, and employee suffering are all issues of great concern. This presentation will cover the characteristics and photographs of these plants, common and unusual symptoms, and statistics and costs associated with this disease stat...

  1. Pancreatic Pseudocyst after Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Kawabe, Ken; Ito, Tetsuhide; Arita, Yoshiyuki; Sadamoto, Yojiro; Harada, Naohiko; Yamaguchi, Koji; Tanaka, Masao; Nakano, Itsuro; Nawata, Hajime; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2006-01-01

    Acute organophosphate poisoning(OP) shows several severe clinical symptoms due to its strong blocking effect on cholinesterase. Acute pancreatitis is one of the complications associated with acute OP, but this association still may not be widely recognized. We report here the case of a 73-year-old man who had repeated abdominal pain during and after the treatment of acute OP. Hyperamylasemia and a 7-cm pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail were noted on investigations. We diagnosed pancreatic pse...

  2. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sumesh Raj; Sheetal S.

    2014-01-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a thiocarbamate insecticide used for control of chewing and sucking insects of all stages of development, on many crops. It is an analogue of nereistoxin. Poisoning with cartap is very rarely reported from India. We report a 46 year old man who consumed cartap with alcohol, presented with nausea & vomiting and improved with supportive measures. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000): 360-361

  3. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: A clinical experience

    OpenAIRE

    Hari K Boorugu; Anugrah Chrispal

    2012-01-01

    Cartap hydrochloride, a nereistoxin analog, is a commonly used low toxicity insecticide. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency department with alleged history of ingestion of Cartap hydrochloride as an act of deliberate self-harm. The patient was managed conservatively. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Cartap hydrochloride suicidal poisoning. Cartap toxicity has been considered to be minimal, but a number of animal models have shown significant neuromuscular to...

  4. Staphylococcal food poisoning on a cruise ship.

    OpenAIRE

    Waterman, S H; Demarcus, T. A.; Wells, J G; Blake, P A

    1987-01-01

    Two waves of vomiting and/or diarrhoea affected approximately 215 of the 715 passengers on a Caribbean cruise ship. The outbreak was independently associated with eating cream-filled pastries at two separate meals. Staphylococcus aureus phage type 85/+ was isolated from cases and pastry cooks, but not from controls. This is the first well-documented outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning on a cruise ship.

  5. Neurological Complications Resulting from Non-Oral Occupational Methanol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Keun; Gil, Young-Eun; Kim, Hyunjoo; Choi, Jun Young

    2017-01-01

    Methanol poisoning results in neurological complications including visual disturbances, bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis, parkinsonism, cerebral edema, coma, or seizures. Almost all reported cases of methanol poisoning are caused by oral ingestion of methanol. However, recently there was an outbreak of methanol poisoning via non-oral exposure that resulted in severe neurological complications to a few workers at industrial sites in Korea. We present 3 patients who had severe neurological complications resulting from non-oral occupational methanol poisoning. Even though initial metabolic acidosis and mental changes were improved with hemodialysis, all of the 3 patients presented optic atrophy and ataxia or parkinsonism as neurological complications resulting from methanol poisoning. In order to manage it adequately, as well as to prevent it, physicians should recognize that methanol poisoning by non-oral exposure can cause neurologic complications. PMID:28049252

  6. Appendectomy due to lead poisoning: a case-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghilinejad M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries and many misdiagnoses and malpractices may occur due to unawareness of lead poisoning symptoms. Case presentation We report a case of occupational lead poisoning in an adult battery worker with abdominal colic who initially underwent appendectomy with removal of normal appendix. Later on he was diagnosed with lead poisoning and was treated appropriately with lead chelator (CaNa2EDTA. Conclusion Lead poisoning is frequently overlooked as the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen which may result in unnecessary surgery. Appropriate occupational history taking is helpful in making a correct diagnosis. Occupational lead poisoning is a preventable disorder and a serious challenge for the health and labor authorities in developing countries.

  7. Rapid reduction of N-nitrosamine disinfection byproducts in water with hydrogen and porous nickel catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierdich, Andrew J; Shapley, John R; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    There is a need for new technologies to rapidly and economically treatwater contaminated with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and related compounds because of their high toxicity and recent detection in drinking water sources as a consequence of industrial releases and chlorine disinfection of wastewater effluent Treatment of N-nitrosamines with H2 in conjunction with a high surface area porous nickel material, a model nonprecious metal catalyst, has been evaluated. Experiments show that NDMA is reduced rapidly and catalytically to dimethylamine and N2 (e.g., t1/2 = 1.5 min for 500 mg/L catalyst and PH2 = 1 atm), and kinetic trends are consistent with a surface-mediated mechanism involving scission of the N-nitrosamine N-N bond and subsequent reactions with adsorbed atomic hydrogen. The metal-loading-normalized pseudo-first-order rate constant (77.9 +/- 13.1 L g(Ni)(-1) h(-1)) exceeds values reported for Pd-based catalysts. Several related N-nitrosamines react at rates similar to those of NDMA, indicating a weak dependence on structure. The reaction rates for NDMA reduction are not significantly affected by changing pH, and the presence of high concentrations of many common water constituents (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4(2-), HCO(3-), and NOM) exerts only a small effect on reaction rates. Nitrate is also reduced by the Ni catalyst, and high nitrate concentrations competitively inhibit the reduction of NDMA. (Bi)sulfide poisons the catalyst by strong chemisorption to the Ni surface. Cost-normalized rate constants for the Ni catalyst are highly favorable compared to Pd-based catalysts, indicating that, with further development, Ni-based catalysts may become attractive alternatives to precious metal catalysts.

  8. Poisoning, envenomation, and trauma from marine creatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R Allen; Morgan, Shannon S

    2004-02-15

    In the course of their clinical work or during leisure activity, family physicians occasionally may encounter patients with injuries from marine creatures. Poisoning, envenomation, and direct trauma are all possible in the marine environment. Ciguatera poisoning can result from ingestion of predatory fish that have accumulated biotoxins. Symptoms can be gastrointestinal or neurologic, or mixed. Management is mostly symptomatic. Scombroid poisoning results from ingestion of fish in which histamine-like substances have developed because of improper refrigeration. Gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms occur. Treatment is based on antihistamines. Envenomations from jellyfish in U.S. waters and the Caribbean are painful but rarely deadly. Household vinegar deactivates the nematocysts, and manual removal of tentacles is important. Treatment is symptomatic. Heat immersion may help with the pain. Stingrays cause localized damage and a typically severe envenomation. The venom is deactivated by heat. The stingray spine, including the venom gland, typically is difficult to remove from the victim, and radiographs may be necessary to localize the spine or fragment. Surgical débridement occasionally is needed. Direct trauma can result from contact with marine creatures. Hemorrhage and tissue damage occasionally are severe. Infections with organisms unique to the marine environment are possible; antibiotic choices are based on location and type of injury. Shark attacks, although rare, require immediate attention.

  9. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  10. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  11. Changes in plasma osmolality in food poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanović Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Changes in plasma osmolality may occur during acute intestinal infections due to dehydration (loss of water and/or electrolytes. Depending on whether the water and electrolyte deficit is primary, or a proportional loss of water and electrolytes, dehydration can be classified into three categories: hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic. Material and methods. Thirty (30 patients with food poisoning were included in this research. All patients were hospitalized because of frequent vomiting, with resultant dehydration. A diagnosis of food poisoning was made based on the clinical picture, short incubation period and positive epidemiological history. Plasma osmolality was measured by a freezing point depression with an osmometer, while effective plasma osmolality was determined by using the following formula: EPO (eff. plasma osmolality = 2 x serum sodium concentration + serum glucose level. Apart from plasma osmolality, other parameters were also measured in patients' sera: sodium, chloride, potassium, urea, glucose and hematocrit. In order to follow-up the changes in these parameters, they were also measured after treatment of the gastrointestinal disorder. Statistical analysis was performed using the equality of mean values for 2 basic groups. Results. The statistical results showed that the values of total and effective plasma osmolality (TPO and EPO among patients with gastrointestinal disorders were not significantly higher than values after the alimentary infection. Discussion. Such results suggest that food poisoning is associated with disorders of water and electrolyte metabolism, that is isotonic type of dehydration. .

  12. Digitalis poisoning: historical and forensic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, H B

    1983-02-01

    Since the introduction of digitalis into therapy approximately 200 years ago, there have been continuing admonitions concerning its toxicity. Over 400 years ago, herbalists listed the plant as being poisonous. In fiction, the homicidal use of digitalis has appeared in the writings of Mary Webb, Dorothy Sayers and Agatha Christie. Ten instances in real life of alleged homicide by digitalis and trials of the accused are listed. The drug has been used with suicidal intent rather infrequently, compared with other medications. Possibly, it is more commonly used for such a purpose in France than in England or the United States. The fraudulent use of digitalis in the support of claims for disability because of heart disease has occurred, and one large conspiracy of physicians and lawyers in the swindle of insurance companies during the 1930s is a shameful episode in the record of these professions. Although innocent, one professor of medicine who was involved committed suicide. Two pharmaceutical (manufacturing) blunders that occurred in Belgium and Holland with mislabeling are mentioned. These resulted in numerous deaths and the profession seemed rather slow to recognize the nature of these small epidemics of poisoning. Instances of psychiatric illness with digitalis seem well documented. The story of digitalis toxicity continues into the present and physicians should be vigilant regarding the drug's potential for poisoning that can result from prescribing digitalis with ignorance of proper dosage, pharmacodynamics or drug interactions, as well as from accidental overdose as in children and use with self-destructive or homicidal intent.

  13. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine.

  14. Microbiology of infected poison ivy dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, I; Frazier, E H; Yeager, J K

    2000-05-01

    We report the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of secondarily infected poison ivy dermatitis. The study involved retrospective review of clinical and microbiology laboratory records of patients with secondarily infected poison ivy lesions. Bacterial growth was noted in 33 specimens. Aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria only were present in 18 (55%) patients, anaerobic bacteria only in seven (21%), and mixed anaerobic-aerobic bacteria in eight (24%). Forty-five isolates were recovered (1.4 per specimen): 27 aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria, and 18 strict anaerobes. The predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (13 isolates) and group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (six). The predominant anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus spp. (seven isolates), pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp. (four) and Fusobacterium spp. (two). Single bacterial isolates were recovered in 18 (55%) patients, eight of which were S. aureus. Nineteen of the organisms isolated from 16 (48%) patients produced the enzyme beta-lactamase. Organisms that resided in the mucous membranes close to the lesions predominated in those infections. Enteric gram-negative rods and Bacteroides fragilis group predominated in leg and buttock lesions. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas and Fusobacterium spp. were most frequently recovered from lesions of the finger, face and neck. The polymicrobial aetiology of secondarily infected poison ivy lesions, and the association of bacterial flora with the anatomical site of the lesions, are demonstrated.

  15. Redotex ingestions reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although the multi-component weight loss supplement Redotex is banned in the United States, the supplement can be obtained in Mexico. The intent of this report was to describe the pattern of Redotex calls received by a statewide poison center system. Cases were all Redotex calls received by Texas poison centers during 2000-2008. The distribution of total calls and those involving ingestion of the supplement were determined for selected demographic and clinical factors. Of 34 total Redotex calls received, 55.9% came from the 14 Texas counties that border Mexico. Of the 22 reported Redotex ingestions, 77.3% of the patients were female and 45.5% 20 years or more. Of the 17 ingestions involving no co-ingestants, 52.9% were already at or en route to a health care facility, 41.2% were managed on site, and 5.9% was referred to a health care facility. The final medical outcome was no effect in 23.5% cases, minor effect in 5.9%, moderate effect in 11.8%, not followed but minimal clinical effects possible in 47.1%, and unable to follow but judged to be potentially toxic in 11.8%. Most Redotex calls to the Texas poison center system originated from counties bordering Mexico.

  16. Understanding lactic acidosis in paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anoop D; Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I

    2011-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly taken drugs in overdose in many areas of the world, and the most common cause of acute liver failure in both the UK and USA. Paracetamol poisoning can result in lactic acidosis in two different scenarios. First, early in the course of poisoning and before the onset of hepatotoxicity in patients with massive ingestion; a lactic acidosis is usually associated with coma. Experimental evidence from studies in whole animals, perfused liver slices and cell cultures has shown that the toxic metabolite of paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-benzo-quinone imine, inhibits electron transfer in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and thus inhibits aerobic respiration. This occurs only at very high concentrations of paracetamol, and precedes cellular injury by several hours. The second scenario in which lactic acidosis can occur is later in the course of paracetamol poisoning as a consequence of established liver failure. In these patients lactate is elevated primarily because of reduced hepatic clearance, but in shocked patients there may also be a contribution of peripheral anaerobic respiration because of tissue hypoperfusion. In patients admitted to a liver unit with paracetamol hepatotoxicity, the post-resuscitation arterial lactate concentration has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality, and is included in the modified King's College criteria for consideration of liver transplantation. We would therefore recommend that post-resuscitation lactate is measured in all patients with a severe paracetamol overdose resulting in either reduced conscious level or hepatic failure.

  17. Low temperature selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 over Mn-based catalyst: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TsungYu Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The removals of NOx by catalytic technology at low temperatures (100–300 °C for industrial flue gas treatment have received increasing attention. However, the development of low temperature catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR of NOx with ammonia is still a challenge especially in the presence of SO2. The current status of using Mn-based catalysts for low temperature SCR of NOx with ammonia (NH3-SCR is reviewed. Reaction mechanisms and effects of operating factors on low temperature NH3-SCR are addressed, and the SCR efficiencies of Mn-based metal oxides with and without SO2 poisoning have also been discussed with different supports and co-metals. The key factors for enhancing low temperature NH3-SCR efficiency and SO2 resistance with Mn-based catalysts are identified to be (1 high specific surface area; (2 high surface acidity; (3 oxidation states of manganese; (4 well dispersion of manganese oxide metals; (5 more surface adsorbed oxygen; (6 more absorbed NO3− on the catalyst surface; (7 easier decomposition of ammonium sulfates. Moreover, the regenerative methods such as water washing, acid and/or alkali washing and heat treatment to the poisoned catalysts could help to recover the low temperature SCR efficiency to its initial level.

  18. Nanopore and nanoparticle catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Raja, R

    2001-01-01

    The design, atomic characterization, performance, and relevance to clean technology of two distinct categories of new nanocatalysts are described and interpreted. Exceptional molecular selectivity and high activity are exhibited by these catalysts. The first category consists of extended, crystallographically ordered inorganic solids possessing nanopores (apertures, cages, and channels), the diameters of which fall in the range of about 0.4 to about 1.5 nm, and the second of discrete bimetallic nanoparticles of diameter 1 to 2 nm, distributed more or less uniformly along the inner walls of mesoporous (ca. 3 to 10 nm diameter) silica supports. Using the principles and practices of solid-state and organometallic chemistry and advanced physico-chemical techniques for in situ and ex situ characterization, a variety of powerful new catalysts has been evolved. Apart from those that, inter alia, simulate the behavior of enzymes in their specificity, shape selectivity, regio-selectivity, and ability to function under ambient conditions, many of these new nanocatalysts are also viable as agents for effecting commercially significant processes in a clean, benign, solvent-free, single-step fashion. In particular, a bifunctional, molecular sieve nanopore catalyst is described that converts cyclohexanone in air and ammonia to its oxime and caprolactam, and a bimetallic nanoparticle catalyst that selectively converts cyclic polyenes into desirable intermediates. Nanocatalysts in the first category are especially effective in facilitating highly selective oxidations in air, and those in the second are well suited to effecting rapid and selective hydrogenations of a range of organic compounds.

  19. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  20. Heterogeneous chromium catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heterogeneous chromium catalyst system for the polymerisation of ethylene and/or alpha olefins prepared by the steps of: (a) providing a silica-containing support, (b) treating the silica-containing support with a chromium compound to form a chromium-based silica-c

  1. Deactivation of Oxidation Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    Levenspiel (Reference 10) have proposed an equivalent general expression of the form dS _KST (4) dtk to account for deactivation due to catalyst pore...Voorhies, A., IEC, 1954, vol. 37, p. 318. 10. Szepe, S., and 0. Levenspiel , Proc. 4th Europ. Symp. Chem. React. Eng., Pergamon Press, p. 265. 11. U.S

  2. Olefin metathesis and catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukes, S. G.; Banks, R. L.

    1985-05-14

    Olefins are converted into other olefins having different numbers of carbon atoms by contact with a catalyst comprising an inorganic refractory oxide support containing at least one of tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide and a promoting amount of at least one methylating agent under conditions suitable for the methylating agent compounds to promote the activity of tungsten and molybdenum oxides for the disproportionation reaction.

  3. Catalysts for Environmental Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, B. L.; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2013-01-01

    The properties of catalysts used in environmental remediation are described here through specific examples in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. In the area of heterogeneous catalysis, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx was used as an example reaction with vanadia and tungsta...

  4. Production of biofuels from synthesis gas using microbial catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-Acevedo, Oscar; Chinn, Mari S; Grunden, Amy M

    2010-01-01

    World energy consumption is expected to increase 44% in the next 20 years. Today, the main sources of energy are oil, coal, and natural gas, all fossil fuels. These fuels are unsustainable and contribute to environmental pollution. Biofuels are a promising source of sustainable energy. Feedstocks for biofuels used today such as grain starch are expensive and compete with food markets. Lignocellulosic biomass is abundant and readily available from a variety of sources, for example, energy crops and agricultural/industrial waste. Conversion of these materials to biofuels by microorganisms through direct hydrolysis and fermentation can be challenging. Alternatively, biomass can be converted to synthesis gas through gasification and transformed to fuels using chemical catalysts. Chemical conversion of synthesis gas components can be expensive and highly susceptible to catalyst poisoning, limiting biofuel yields. However, there are microorganisms that can convert the CO, H(2), and CO(2) in synthesis gas to fuels such as ethanol, butanol, and hydrogen. Biomass gasification-biosynthesis processing systems have shown promise as some companies have already been exploiting capable organisms for commercial purposes. The discovery of novel organisms capable of higher product yield, as well as metabolic engineering of existing microbial catalysts, makes this technology a viable option for reducing our dependency on fossil fuels.

  5. Evaluation Of Methadone Poisoning in Hospitalized Children: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Maamouri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Upload poisoning is one of the most dangerous and common poisoning in Iranian children. Depression of the respiratory and central nervous systems may lead to significant toxicity. Even low doses of uploads are dangerous in pediatrics under 6 years old. Methadone is the most toxic of the uploads; small doses as low as a single tablet can lead to death. According to this information we decided to evaluate methadone poisoning in Hospitalized Children

  6. ANAESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF A ECTOPIC PREGNANCY PATIENT WITH ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus poisoning is the most common poisoning in India because of its easy availability. Anaesthesiologists may come across rarely to give anaesthesia for emergency life - saving surgeries. Problems while anaesthetising an emergency patient following organophosphorous poisoning are many. Necessary precautions are to be taken while anaesthetising the patient. During anaesthesia many drugs are used which are linked with acetylcholine, cholinesterase and other cardio - vascul ar effects.

  7. Case report: an unusual heart rhythm associated with organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Enes Elvin; Can, Ilknur; Kusumoto, Fred M

    2012-09-01

    Organophosphate pesticides have emerged as a common cause of poisoning, particularly in developing countries. The most common electrocardiographic abnormalities observed in organophosphate poisoning are sinus tachycardia, QT interval prolongation, and, very rarely, ventricular arrhythmias. We report a case of organophosphate poisoning associated with atrial fibrillation, right bundle branch block, QT interval prolongation, and intermittent narrow QRS complexes that were most likely due to automaticity from the region of the left posterior fascicle.

  8. Poisoning severity score, Glasgow coma scale, corrected QT interval in acute organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdur, Okhan; Durukan, Polat; Ozkan, Seda; Avsarogullari, Levent; Vardar, Alper; Kavalci, Cemil; Ikizceli, Ibrahim

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effectiveness of the poisoning severity score (PSS), Glasgow coma scale (GCS), and corrected QT (QTc) interval in predicting outcomes in acute organophosphates (OP) poisoning. Over a period of 2 years, 62 patients with OP poisoning were admitted to emergency department (ED) of Erciyes University Medical School Hospital. The age, sex, cause of contact, compound involved, time elapsed between exposure and admission to the ED, duration of hospital stay, and cardiac manifestations at the time of presentation were recorded. GCS and poisoning severity score (PSS) was calculated for each patient. Electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis included the rate, rhythm, ST-T abnormalities, conduction defects, and measurement of PR and QT intervals. Sixty-two patients with OP poisoning presented to our ED from January 2007 to December 2008 from which 54 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 34.1 +/- 14.8 years. Of the cases, 53.7% were female. Twenty-six patients had a prolonged QTc interval. Mean PSS of men and women was 1.8 +/- 1.0. No statistically significant correlation was found between the PSS and QTc intervals of the cases. A significant correlation was determined between the GCS and PSS of grade 3 and grade 4 cases. GCS is a parameter that helps clinician to identify advanced grade OP poisoning patients in the initial assessment in the ED. However, ECG findings, such as prolonged QTc interval, are not effective in determination of short-term prognosis and show no relationship with PSS.

  9. Molybdenum sulfide/carbide catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Gabriel; Chianelli, Russell R.; Fuentes, Sergio; Torres, Brenda

    2007-05-29

    The present invention provides methods of synthesizing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2) and carbon-containing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2-xC.sub.x) catalysts that exhibit improved catalytic activity for hydrotreating reactions involving hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrogenation. The present invention also concerns the resulting catalysts. Furthermore, the invention concerns the promotion of these catalysts with Co, Ni, Fe, and/or Ru sulfides to create catalysts with greater activity, for hydrotreating reactions, than conventional catalysts such as cobalt molybdate on alumina support.

  10. 76 FR 62071 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention(ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... developments and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and...

  11. Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina poisoning: two syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramin, Andreja; Brvar, Miran

    2014-11-01

    Amanita muscaria contains more excitatory ibotenic acid and less depressant muscimol compared to Amanita pantherina. In this study A. muscaria poisoned patients were more often confused (26/32, p = 0.01) and agitated (20/32, p = 0.03) compared to those poisoned with A. pantherina (8/17 and 5/17). Patients poisoned with A. pantherina were more commonly comatose (5/17) compared to those poisoned with A. muscaria (2/32) (p = 0.03). In conclusion, the so-called ibotenic or pantherina-muscaria syndrome might be divided into two subtypes.

  12. The CO poisoning effect in PEMFCs operational at temperatures up to 200 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; He, Ronghuan; Gao, Ji-An;

    2003-01-01

    The CO poisoning effect on carbon-supported platinum catalysts (at a loading of 0.5 mg Pt/cm(2) per electrode! in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) has been investigated in a temperature range from 125 to 200 degreesC with the phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole membranes...... as electrolyte. The effect is very temperature-dependent and can be sufficiently suppressed at elevated temperature. By defining the CO tolerance as a voltage loss less than 10 mV, it is evaluated that 3% CO in hydrogen can be tolerated at current densities up to 0.8 A/cm(2) at 200 degreesC, while at 125 degrees...

  13. Hemoperfusion for the treatment of poisoning: technology, determinants of poison clearance, and application in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Bouchard, Josée; Nolin, Thomas D; Ouellet, Georges; Roberts, Darren M

    2014-01-01

    Hemoperfusion is an extracorporeal treatment based on adsorption, historically reserved for the treatment of acute poisonings. Its use was popularized in the 1970s after several in vitro and animal experiments had demonstrated its efficacy, and was even preferred over hemodialysis in the management of overdosed patients. With the advent of new and more efficient dialytic modalities, hemoperfusion is now less frequently performed in the Western world. However, hemoperfusion still remains popular in developing countries. The present article reviews the technique of hemoperfusion, the factors influencing poison clearance through adsorption and its current applications.

  14. Patterns of hospital transfer for self-poisoned patients in rural Sri Lanka: implications for estimating the incidence of self-poisoning in the developing world.

    OpenAIRE

    Eddleston, Michael; Sudarshan, K; Senthilkumaran, M.; Reginald, K.; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Senarathna, Lalith; de Silva, Dhammika; Rezvi Sheriff, M. H.; Buckley, Nick A.; Gunnell, David

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Most data on self-poisoning in rural Asia have come from secondary hospitals. We aimed to: assess how transfers from primary to secondary hospitals affected estimates of case-fatality ratio (CFR); determine whether there was referral bias according to gender or poison; and estimate the annual incidence of all self-poisoning, and of fatal self-poisoning, in a rural developing-world setting. METHODS: Self-poisoning patients admitted to Anuradhapura General Hospital, Sri Lanka, were ...

  15. An updated checklist of poisonous ifshes of Turkish Aegean Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahar Bayhan; Murat Kaya

    2015-01-01

    The current status of marine poisonous fish species ranging in the Aegean Sea coastline in Turkey were introduced. Turkey is a peninsula surrounded by seas with different ecological features on three sides. The total length of shoreline is 8 333 km including the islands. The total number of fish species in Turkish seas is 512, of which 449 live in the Aegean Sea followed by the Mediterranean Sea (441 species), the Marmara Sea (257 species) and the Black Sea (154species). On the Aegean Sea coasts, the richest sea regarding fish diversity, the number of poisonous fish species is also high. This mini-review revealed 51 poisonous fish species belonging to 14 families in the Turkish Aegean Sea. On the Aegean Sea coasts poisonous fish species can be categorized into three groups: (i) Fish that contain venomous spines on the tail or on the operculum (ii) Fish that carry poisonous bite and (iii) Fish having poisonous flesh or liver. Poisoning fish that contain venomous spines on the tail or on the operculum mostly are dangerous because of their poisonous thorns whereas the passive poisonous fish species poison when they are eaten. These toxins can cause morbidity and rarely, mortality in humans. Apart from these, swallowing the blood of species such as European eelAnguilla anguillaand European congerConger congermight also cause poisoning. Besides, as there has been an invasion of puffer fish especially on the Turkish Mediterranean and Aegean coasts in recent years, there is a danger in question. Thus, it is very important to particularly draw attention to these fish on the Turkish coasts.

  16. An updated checklist of poisonous fishes of Turkish Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayhan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The current status of marine poisonous fish species ranging in the Aegean Sea coastline in Turkey were introduced. Turkey is a peninsula surrounded by seas with different ecological features on three sides. The total length of shoreline is 8 333 km including the islands. The total number of fish species in Turkish seas is 512, of which 449 live in the Aegean Sea followed by the Mediterranean Sea (441 species, the Marmara Sea (257 species and the Black Sea (154species. On the Aegean Sea coasts, the richest sea regarding fish diversity, the number of poisonous fish species is also high. This mini-review revealed 51 poisonous fish species belonging to 14 families in the Turkish Aegean Sea. On the Aegean Sea coasts poisonous fish species can be categorized into three groups: (i Fish that contain venomous spines on the tail or on the operculum (ii Fish that carry poisonous bite and (iii Fish having poisonous flesh or liver. Poisoning fish that contain venomous spines on the tail or on the operculum mostly are dangerous because of their poisonous thorns whereas the passive poisonous fish species poison when they are eaten. These toxins can cause morbidity and rarely, mortality in humans. Apart from these, swallowing the blood of species such as European eel Anguilla anguilla and European conger Conger conger might also cause poisoning. Besides, as there has been an invasion of puffer fish especially on the Turkish Mediterranean and Aegean coasts in recent years, there is a danger in question. Thus, it is very important to particularly draw attention to these fish on the Turkish coasts.

  17. Fluorination process using catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochel, R.C.; Saturday, K.A.

    1983-08-25

    A process is given for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/, AgF/sub 2/ and NiF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/ and AgF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

  18. Fluorination process using catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochel, Robert C.; Saturday, Kathy A.

    1985-01-01

    A process for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3, AgF.sub.2 and NiF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3 and AgF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

  19. Photo catalyst; Ko shokubai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    While titanium oxide is excited by the light, electrons of titanium oxide are taken away by the light energy to form positive holes. Water will be decomposed into hydrogen ion and hydroxy radical (OH) by these positive holes. This hydroxy radical is a strong reactive substance called active oxygen, it decomposes organisms. Besides this photo- catalyst function, the titanium oxide can also make surface of a substance superhydrophilic. The super hydrophilicity results in not forming water drops on the glass surface but spreading all over the surface to prevent a covering of fog on the glass surface. The published patents concerning the photo catalysts were 593 from Jan. 1998 to Jan. 1999. The applicant order is the first TOTO 143, the second Daikin Industry 19, the third Toshiba Raitech, Nitto Denko, Hitachi 17 respectively. (NEDO)

  20. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongkanand, Anusorn [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Reduction of costly Pt usage in proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes is one of the major challenges towards development and commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. Although few have met the initial-kinetic activity requirements in a realistic fuel cell device, no catalyst material has ever met the demanding fuel cell durability targets set by DOE. In this project, a team of 4 universities and 2 companies came together to investigate a concept that appeared promising in preliminary non-fuel cell tests then to further develop the catalyst to a mature level ready for vehicle implementation. The team consists of academia with technical leadership in their respective areas, a catalyst supplier, and a fuel cell system integrator.The tightly collaborative project enabled development of a highly active and durable catalyst with performance that significantly exceeds that of previous catalysts and meets the DOE targets for the first time (Figure 1A). The catalyst was then further evaluated in full-active-area stack in a realistic vehicle operating condition (Figure 1B). This is the first public demonstration that one can realize the performance benefit and Pt cost reduction over a conventional pure Pt catalyst in a long-term realistic PEMFC system. Furthermore, systematic analyses of a range of catalysts with different performance after fuel cell testing allowed for correlation between catalyst microstructure and its electrocatalytic activity and durability. This will in turn aid future catalyst development.

  1. Olefin metathesis and catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukes, S. G.; Banks, R. L.

    1985-03-12

    Olefins are converted into other olefins having different numbers of carbon atoms by contact with a catalyst comprising an inorganic refractory material containing at least one of tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide and a promoting amount of at least one treating agent selected from chlorinated silicon compounds, thionyl chloride, and sulfuryl chloride under conditions suitable for the treating agent to promote the activity of tungsten and molybdenum oxides for the disporoportionation reaction.

  2. [Poisoning with Jatropha curcas: 24 cases reported to Paris and Marseille Poisons Centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrand, J; Médernach, C; Schmitt, C; Blanc-Brisset, I; Villa, A F; de Haro, L; Garnier, R

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is an inedible plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family that is growing in subtropical zones of all continents. We report a series of 24 cases of poisoning with J. curcas seeds or fruits reported to poison centers in Paris and Marseille between December 2000 and June 2014. Fifteen adults and 9 children ingested J. curcas seeds or fruits. All patients experienced gastrointestinal disorders, within the first hours following ingestion: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Laboratory investigations performed in 10 patients revealed minor abnormalities: CK elevation (8 cases), dehydration (5 cases) with moderate elevation of serum creatinine levels (3 cases), and mildly increased serum bilirubin (8 cases). Complete remission of all clinical signs was observed within 48 hours in the 20 cases for which the outcome was known. Previously published cases of J. curcas poisoning were very similar to ours: As in our series, gastrointestinal disorders were always present. They were sometimes associated with neurological or cardiovascular signs, and hepatic or renal disorders; these were generally interpreted as complications of severe gastroenteritis, although direct toxic effects could not be formally excluded. In most cases, simple supportive measures were sufficient to ensure complete recovery within 24-48 hours. J Curcas poisoning incidence is certainly increasing because the plant is cultivated to produce biodiesel and is now largely present in most subtropical countries. As a consequence, local health professionals should be informed of the toxic properties of this plant.

  3. Alternative catalysts and technologies for NOx removal from biomass- and wastefired plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schill, Leonhard

    poisoning problem: Use of Ag/Al2O3 as catalyt with hydrocarbons (ethanol, propene) as reductants (HCSCR), and by developing low-temperature catalysts for NH3-SCR to be used in the tail-end position at 150 C, making costly reheating redundant. The hope that HC-SCR is insensitive to potassium has been in vain...... removed with the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) using a vanadia-tungsta-titania (VWT) catalyst and ammonia (NH3) as reductant. For application in coal- and gas-red power plants this technology is mature. However, when ring biomass the ue gas contains potassium in large amounts which deactivates....... The deNOx activity over Ag/Al2O3 used in ethanol-SCR is practically as much reduced as in the NH3-SCR case over the traditional VWT catalyst. Furthermore, poisoning with potassium leads to unselective oxidation of the hydrocarbons instead of NO reduction and SO2 concentrations as low as 20 ppm can...

  4. Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Green, Benedict T

    2013-12-01

    Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Additionally, spin-off benefits resulting from the animal research have provided novel compounds, new techniques, and animal models to study human health conditions (biomedical research). The Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory has become an international leader of poisonous plant research as evidenced by the recent completion of the ninth International Symposium on Poisonous Plant Research held July 2013 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. In this article, we review plants that negatively impact embryo/fetal and neonatal growth and development, with emphasis on those plants that cause birth defects. Although this article focuses on the general aspects of selected groups of plants and their effects on the developing offspring, a companion paper in this volume reviews current understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of toxicoses and teratogenesis.

  5. Retrospective Evaluation of Poisoning Patients in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur DAL

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Intoxication is the problem of young women and drugs are the most frequent agents. The cases poisoned by Tricyclic antidepressant or antipsychotic or anxiolytic or beta blockers had more the physical examination abnormalities than the cases poisoned by without these drugs. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(1.000: 22-27

  6. Xenon poisoning calculation code for miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In line with the actual requirements and based upon the specific char acteristics of MNSR, a revised point-reactor model was adopted to model MNSR's xenon poisoning. The corresponding calculation code, MNSRXPCC (Xenon Poison ing Calculation Code for MNSR), was developed and tested by the Shanghai MNSR data.

  7. Gloriosa superba L. (family Colchicaceae): Remedy or poison?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroyi, A.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    This article gives an overview of medicinal uses and poisonous properties of Gloriosa superba L., and the available literature related to these aspects drawn from studies done in areas where the species is utilized as traditional medicine or reported as poisonous. A list of 45 ethnobotanical applica

  8. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Donald P.

    This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

  9. Cypermethrin Poisoning and Anti-cholinergic Medication- A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Sudip Parajuli

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A 30 years old male was brought to emergency department of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal with alleged history of consumption of pyrethroid compound ‘cypermethrin’. It was found to be newer insecticide poisoning reported in Nepal. We reported this case to show effectiveness of anti-cholinergic like hyosciane and chlorpheniramine maleate in the treatment of cypermethrin poisoning.

  10. Risk factors for acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    -poisoning. Case fatality was 18% with extremely high case fatality for poisoning with the insecticide endosulfan and the herbicide paraquat. Cases were generally younger than controls, of lower educational status and were more often unemployed. No agricultural risk factors were found but a family history...

  11. Self-poisoning of the mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elster, Jon

    2010-01-27

    Rational-choice theory tries to explain behaviour on the assumption that individuals optimize. Some forms of irrational behaviour can be explained by assuming that the individual is subject to hedonic, pleasure-seeking mechanisms, such as wishful thinking or adaptive preference formation. In this paper, I draw attention to psychic mechanisms, originating in the individual, which make her worse off. I first consider the ideas of counterwishful thinking and of counteradaptive preference formation and then, drawing heavily on Proust, the self-poisoning of the mind that occurs through the operation of amour-propre.

  12. Elemental mercury poisoning probably causes cortical myoclonus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragothaman, Mona; Kulkarni, Girish; Ashraf, Valappil V; Pal, Pramod K; Chickabasavaiah, Yasha; Shankar, Susarla K; Govindappa, Srikanth S; Satishchandra, Parthasarthy; Muthane, Uday B

    2007-10-15

    Mercury toxicity causes postural tremors, commonly referred to as "mercurial tremors," and cerebellar dysfunction. A 23-year woman, 2 years after injecting herself with elemental mercury developed disabling generalized myoclonus and ataxia. Electrophysiological studies confirmed the myoclonus was probably of cortical origin. Her deficits progressed over 2 years and improved after subcutaneous mercury deposits at the injection site were surgically cleared. Myoclonus of cortical origin has never been described in mercury poisoning. It is important to ask patients presenting with jerks about exposure to elemental mercury even if they have a progressive illness, as it is a potentially reversible condition as in our patient.

  13. Organophosphate poisoning: Diagnosis of intermediate syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poojara L

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate compound (OPC poisoning with suicidal intent is common in Indian ICUs. The effect of OPCs is to produce a persistent depolarization of the neuromuscular junction leading to muscle weakness. After initial recovery from cholinergic crisis, some patients have resurgence of respiratory muscle paralysis requiring continued ventilatory support. This is termed intermediate syndrome (IMS. This could be due to a change in the type of neuromuscular block to a non depolarisation block characterized by a fade on tetanic stimulation. However peripheral nerve stimulation using train-of-four ratio (TOF and/tetanus have failed to consistently show such a change. We elected to study whether electro physiological monitoring using repetitive nerve stimulation might show a decremental response during IMS. Material & Methods: This was a prospective blinded study done from April 2002 to March 2003 in our ICU. 45 consecutive patients of OPC poisoning admitted during this period were included in this study. Repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS using a train of ten at 3Hz 10Hz and 30Hz (slow , intermediate and fast speeds respectively at the median nerve was done on all patients on day 1, 4, 7 and every 4th day thereafter until discharge. Patients were ventilated until ready to wean as per our usual protocol. The results of the RNS study were not revealed to the intensivist. Results: 9 out of 45 patients required ventilation for more than 6 days and showed overt signs of intermediate syndrome - proximal muscle weakness, twitching and respiratory weakness. Only 2 patients out of the 9 had a decremental response on RNS at 3Hz indicating a post-junctional dysfunction at the motor end-plate, Both patients had consumed a very large quantity of OPC and were deeply comatose for >4 days and required ventilation for >12 days. All other patients with IMS showed no changes on RNS. The exact type of poison consumed varied with each individual patient. Conclusion: RNS

  14. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2013-01-01

    Kratom use is a growing problem in the United States. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers between January 1998 and September 2013 were identified. No kratom exposures were reported from 1998 to 2008 and 14 exposures were reported from 2009 to September 2013. Eleven patients were male, and 11 patients were in their 20s. The kratom was ingested in 12 patients, inhaled in 1, and both ingested and inhaled in 1. Twelve patients were managed at a healthcare facility and the remaining 2 were managed at home.

  15. [Problems caused by poisonous tropical marine animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lääveri, Tinja; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Jama, Timo

    2014-01-01

    A Finnish physician encounters problems caused by tropical marine animals either during her/his own travelling or while treating travelers who have returned home. Certain species of medusae and cone shells as well as the stings by some fish species are life-threateningly poisonous. A person stung or bitten by any of the most dangerous species must immediately be admitted to the hospital. Foreign material remaining in tissues after stings by echinoderms and spiky fish may cause problems months after the actual injury. The injuries become easily infected, and antimicrobial drug therapy must thus cover gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria as well.

  16. Studies of Immobilized Homogeneous Metal Catalysts on Silica Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanger, Keith James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The tethered, chiral, chelating diphosphine rhodium complex, which catalyzes the enantioselective hydrogenation of methyl-α-acetamidocinnamate (MAC), has the illustrated structure as established by 31P NMR and IR studies. Spectral and catalytic investigations also suggest that the mechanism of action of the tethered complex is the same as that of the untethered complex in solution. The rhodium complexes, [Rh(COD)H]4, [Rh(COD)2]+BF4-, [Rh(COD)Cl]2, and RhCl3• 3H2O, adsorbed on SiO2 are optimally activated for toluene hydrogenation by pretreatment with H2 at 200 C. The same complexes on Pd-SiO2 are equally active without pretreatments. The active species in all cases is rhodium metal. The catalysts were characterized by XPS, TEM, DRIFTS, and mercury poisoning experiments. Rhodium on silica catalyzes the hydrogenation of fluorobenzene to produce predominantly fluorocyclohexane in heptane and 1,2-dichloroethane solvents. In heptane/methanol and heptane/water solvents, hydrodefluorination to benzene and subsequent hydrogenation to cyclohexane occurs exclusively. Benzene inhibits the hydrodefluorination of fluorobenzene. In DCE or heptane solvents, fluorocyclohexane reacts with hydrogen fluoride to form cyclohexene. Reaction conditions can be chosen to selectively yield fluorocyclohexane, cyclohexene, benzene, or cyclohexane. The oxorhenium(V) dithiolate catalyst [-S(CH2)3s-]Re(O)(Me)(PPh3) was modified by linking it to a tether that could be attached to a silica support. Spectroscopic investigation and catalytic oxidation reactivity showed the heterogenized catalyst's structure and reactivity to be similar to its homogeneous analog. However, the immobilized catalyst offered additional advantages of recyclability, extended stability, and increased resistance to deactivation.

  17. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, L.A.; Case, A.A.; Osweiler, G.D.; Hayes, H.M. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic.

  18. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, L A; Case, A A; Osweiler, G D; Hayes, H M

    1977-01-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals. Two species--dogs and cattle--are intoxicated more frequently than other animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic. PMID:908297

  19. Abamectin: an uncommon but potentially fatal cause of pesticide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Bansod

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human intoxication with abamectin is not frequently reported. It is an uncommon but potentially fatal cause of pesticide poisoning. In contrast to common organophosphate poisoning the toxic effects of avermectin in humans are not clearly defined. Ingestion of a large dose of avermectin may be associated with life-threatening complications. The therapy for avermectin poisoning is mainly symptomatic and supportive. The prognosis of patients with avermectin poisoning is likely to be favorable unless they are complicated by severe hypotension or aspiration. We hereby report a case with abamectin poisoning with neurological toxicity and respiratory failure which responded to supportive line of therapy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 285-286

  20. Poisonous plants of veterinary and human importance in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, C J; Penrith, M-L

    2008-10-28

    Southern Africa is inherently rich in flora, where the habitat and climatic conditions range from arid environments to lush, sub-tropical greenery. Needless to say, with such diversity in plant life there are numerous indigenous poisonous plants, and when naturalised exotic species and toxic garden varieties are added the list of potential poisonous plants increases. The economically important poisonous plants affecting livestock and other plant poisonings of veterinary significance are briefly reviewed. In addition, a synopsis of the more common plant poisonings in humans is presented. Many of the plants mentioned in this review are also used ethnobotanically for treatment of disease in humans and animals and it is essential to be mindful of their toxic potential.