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Sample records for catalyst development possibilities

  1. Strategies for catalyst development: possibilities of the ``rational approach`` illustrated with partial oxidation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W.; Schedel-Niedrig, T.; Schloegl, R. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Oberflaechenphysik

    1998-12-31

    The paper discusses two petrochemical selective oxidation reactions namely the practised formation of styrene (STY) and the desired oxidative functionalisation of propane. The present knowledge about the mode of operation of oxide catalysts is critically considered. The dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene (EB) should be described by an oxidehydration with water acting as oxidant. The potential role of the coke formed during catalytic reaction as co-catalyst will be discussed. Selective oxidation is connected with the participation of lattice oxygen mechanism which transforms unselective gas phase oxygen into selective oxygen. The atomistic description of this process is still quite unclear as well as the electron structural properties of the activated oxygen atom. The Role of solid state acidity as compared to the role of lattice oxygen is much less well investigated modern multiphase-multielement oxide (MMO) catalysts. The rationale is that the significant efforts made to improve current MMO systems by chemical modifications can be very much more fruitful when in a first step the mode of action of a catalyst is clarified on the basis of suitable experiments. Such time-consuming experiments at the beginning of a campaign for catalyst improvement pay back their investment in later stages of the project when strategies of chemical development can be derived on grounds of understanding. (orig.)

  2. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benavides, Pahola T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cronauer, Donald C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of five different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5], Mo/Co/ γ-Al2O3, and Pt/ γ-Al2O3) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module.

  3. NEW REFORMING CATALYST DEVELOPED BY RIPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PUZhong-ying

    2003-01-01

    To meet the demands for high-octane gasoline and aromatics,catalytic reforming process has been advancing quickly in China.The reforming catalysts developed by RIPP have been used in more than 80% capacity of domestic CCR and SR units.This paper introduces the properties of PSVI CCR catalyst developed by RIPP in recent years and also the result from commercial units.The PS-VI catalyst has high activity and good selectivity,under the same reaction conditions,the carbon on catalyst was lowered by 26% in mass as compared with that of the reference catalyst.Among the SR reforming catalysts,the new type of PRT series catalysts have excellent performance at low reaction pressure compared with the ref.Cat A.The aromatics and reformate mass yields of PRT catalyst were 2%-3% and 3%,respectively ,higher than those of Cat A,and the run length was 30%-40% longer as well,which exhibits good prospect of application.

  4. Possibility of Wastewater Treatment Using MFC with Ni-Co Catalyst of Fuel Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Paweł P.; Włodarczyk, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    One of the problems with microbial fuel cells is a low current density of those energy sources. Nonetheless, it is possible to increase the current density by using the catalyst for fuel electrode (anode) - as long as a low cost catalyst can be found. The possibility of wastewater treatment using the Ni-Co alloy as catalyst for MFC's is presented in this paper. The alloys were obtained with different concentrations of Co (15 and 50% of Co). The increase of current density with Ni-Co catalyst is approximately 0,1 mA/cm2. So, a fundamental possibility wastewater treatment using the Ni-Co alloy as catalyst for microbial fuel cells was presented.

  5. Development and Commercial Application of Third Generation Resid Hydrotreating Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Dawei; Yang Qinghe; Dai Lishun; Zhao Xinqiang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the mechanism of resid hydrotreating reaction by coordinating the catalyst activity and stability, the diffusion mechanism and catalyst reactivity, the cost and catalyst performance, and the production and application re-quirements, the third-generation series catalysts for residue hydrotreating have been developed by Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, SINOPEC. The new series RHT catalysts possess higher activity for HDS, HDM and HDCCR per-formance as well as longer run length. The commercial results for application of these catalysts have demonstrated that the new catalyst system performs better than the reference ones.

  6. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  7. Development of radioactive platinum group metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fission product nuclides generated during the irradiation of reactor fuel include many useful elements, among them platinum group metals such as ruthenium, rhodium and palladium which are of great industrial importance, occur rarely in nature and are highly valuable. In this research, the authors reviewed various PGM recovery methods. Recovery of palladium from seven-component simulated waste solutions was conducted by selective precipitation method. The recovery yield was more than 99.5% and the purity of the product was more than 99%. Wet-proof catalyst was prepared with the recovered palladium. The specific surface area of the catalyst support was more than 400m2/g. The content of palladium impregnated on the support was 1 to 10 wt. %. Hydrogen isotope exchange efficiency of more than 93% to equilibrium with small amount of the catalyst was obtained. It was turned out possible to consider using such palladium or other very low active PGM materials in applications where its activity is unimportant as in nuclear industries. (author). 86 refs., 44 tabs., 88 figs

  8. Development of radioactive platinum group metal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.S.; Kim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.E. [and others

    1999-03-01

    The fission product nuclides generated during the irradiation of reactor fuel include many useful elements, among them platinum group metals such as ruthenium, rhodium and palladium which are of great industrial importance, occur rarely in nature and are highly valuable. In this research, the authors reviewed various PGM recovery methods. Recovery of palladium from seven-component simulated waste solutions was conducted by selective precipitation method. The recovery yield was more than 99.5% and the purity of the product was more than 99%. Wet-proof catalyst was prepared with the recovered palladium. The specific surface area of the catalyst support was more than 400m{sup 2}/g.The content of palladium impregnated on the support was 1 to 10 wt. %. Hydrogen isotope exchange efficiency of more than 93% to equilibrium with small amount of the catalyst was obtained. It was turned out possible to consider using such palladium or other very low active PGM materials in applications where its activity is unimportant as in nuclear industries. (author). 86 refs., 44 tabs., 88 figs.

  9. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The use of combinatorial methods is proposed to rapidly screen catalyst formulations for the advanced development of aqueous phase oxidation catalysts with greater...

  10. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combinatorial methods are proposed to develop advanced Aqueous Oxidation Catalysts (AOCs) with the capability to mineralize organic contaminants present in...

  11. Development of a Catalyst/Sorbent for Methane Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.H. Shans; T.D. Wheelock; Justinus Satrio; Karl Albrecht; Tanya Harris Janine Keeley; Ben Silva; Aaron Shell; Molly Lohry; Zachary Beversdorf

    2008-12-31

    This project led to the further development of a combined catalyst and sorbent for improving the process technology required for converting CH{sub 4} and/or CO into H{sub 2} while simultaneously separating the CO{sub 2} byproduct all in a single step. The new material is in the form of core-in-shell pellets such that each pellet consists of a CaO core surrounded by an alumina-based shell capable of supporting a Ni catalyst. The Ni is capable of catalyzing the reactions of steam with CH{sub 4} or CO to produce H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, whereas the CaO is capable of absorbing the CO{sub 2} as it is produced. The absorption of CO{sub 2} eliminates the reaction inhibiting effects of CO{sub 2} and provides a means for recovering the CO{sub 2} in a useful form. The present work showed that the lifecycle performance of the sorbent can be improved either by incorporating a specific amount of MgO in the material or by calcining CaO derived from limestone at 1100 C for an extended period. It also showed how to prepare a strong shell material with a large surface area required for supporting an active Ni catalyst. The method combines graded particles of {alpha}-alumina with noncrystalline alumina having a large specific surface area together with a strength promoting additive followed by controlled calcination. Two different additives produced good results: 3 {micro}m limestone and lanthanum nitrate which were converted to their respective oxides upon calcination. The oxides partially reacted with the alumina to form aluminates which probably accounted for the strength enhancing properties of the additives. The use of lanthanum made it possible to calcine the shell material at a lower temperature, which was less detrimental to the surface area, but still capable of producing a strong shell. Core-in-shell pellets made with the improved shell materials and impregnated with a Ni catalyst were used for steam reforming CH{sub 4} at different temperatures and pressures. Under all

  12. Bioplastics: Development, Possibilities and Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aistė Karpušenkaitė

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New possible ways of plastics manufacture and waste treatment are being searched when trying to tackle the problems related to the growth of waste quantities and decline in non-renewable resources. Presently, the most promising and effective way to solve the mentioned problems is production of bioplastics, but its way to recognition is very slow. One of the barriers is the absence of clear and united opinion throughout the EU Arising new discussions about biodegradable and biobased plastics will allow responsible authorities to update and adapt the legal law, which now almost does not include any reglement on bioplastics production and usage. The other issues of bioplastics are social aspects as this material can be made of primal food sources like crops, and the ecological ones because of their unknown effects on human health and the environment. Nevertheless, the main problem remains the same - the price of petro-plastics is still lower than that of bioplastics. Despite this, the biggest companies of the world are starting an initiative to manufacture this new kind of plastics and to widen the range of bioplastics usage in packaging. Considering today’s situation and tendencies, at the end of this paper the recommendations for the improvement and speeding up of the processes related to bioplastics manufacture, usage and its waste management in Europe and Lithuania are presented. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.68.2.6777

  13. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.H.

    1998-07-22

    The goal of the proposed work described in this Final Report was the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The work described here has optimized the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for a low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work has been conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies have been conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors have been studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance has been determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERIOR RESID DEMETALLIZATION CATALYST AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the pore structure of the bimodal catalyst on the residue hydrodemetallization were studied. The simulation of the intra-particle reaction model suggested that an increase in the diffusivity of the macro pore increase the demetallization. The activity tests of several catalyst samples with different pore structure supported the predicted results. The new bimodal dematallization catalyst with high demetallization activity as well as large metal uptake capacity was developed, by improving the pore structure and the hydrogenation activity. The pilot runs demonstrated that the new catalyst possesses longer catalytic life as well as higher demetallization activity in the residue desulfurization process.

  15. POISON RESISTANT CATALYST DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew W. Wang

    2001-03-29

    The Alternative Fuels Field Test Unit (AFFTU) is a portable laboratory designed specifically to provide on-site evaluation of potential feedstocks for processes that produce alternative fuels from indigenous raw materials such as coal, natural gas or environmentally disadvantaged carbonaceous feedstocks. Since conversion of these raw materials into feed gas streams can produce a variety of bulk gas compositions, which furthermore can contain a myriad of trace components, it is necessary to evaluate each new feedstock on an individual basis. While it is possible to prepare blended gas mixtures to simulate the bulk composition of a known feedstock, it is neither possible nor cost-effective to simulate adequately the variety of trace chemicals present in that feedstock--some of which may not even be detected by routine analysis. Additionally, the transient composition of the gas during upsets or routine process changes may have an impact on the proposed process that is not foreseen in standard design. To address these concerns, the AFFTU was constructed with the following experimental capabilities: (1) A state-of-the-art gas chromatograph system to perform semi-continuous monitoring of both bulk composition and the concentration of key trace poisons down to one part per billion (ppb). (2) A 30-mL reactor system that can accept up to two feed streams from the customer, allowing a true life test with the actual gas projected for use in the proposed facility. (3) A manifold of four adsorbent beds, located upstream of the reactor, which permits the testing of adsorbents for the removal of contaminants from the feed stream. The effectiveness of these adsorbents may be evaluated either by analysis of the gas upstream and downstream of the bed (or at an intermediate point within the bed) or by observing the impact of the presence or absence of that bed on the actual stability of the catalyst activity. To achieve portability, the AFFTU was constructed in a commercial 48-foot

  16. Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, R.J.; Raje, A.; Keogh, R.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this research project is to develop the technology for the production of physically robust iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that have suitable activity, selectivity and stability to be used in the slurry phase synthesis reactor development. The catalysts that are developed shall be suitable for testing in the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas, to produce either low-or high-alpha product distributions. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the {open_quotes}standard-catalyst{close_quotes} developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst this is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  17. Discovery, Development, and Commercialization of Gold Catalysts for Acetylene Hydrochlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter; Carthey, Nicholas; Hutchings, Graham J

    2015-11-25

    Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is a major chemical intermediate for the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which is the third most important polymer in use today. Hydrochlorination of acetylene is a major route for the production of vinyl chloride, since production of the monomer is based in regions of the world where coal is abundant. Until now, mercuric chloride supported on carbon is used as the catalyst in the commercial process, and this exhibits severe problems associated with catalyst lifetime and mercury loss. It has been known for over 30 years that gold is a superior catalyst, but it is only now that it is being commercialized. In this Perspective we discuss the use and disadvantages of the mercury catalyst and the advent of the gold catalysts for this important reaction. The nature of the active site and the possible reaction mechanism are discussed. Recent advances in the design and preparation of active gold catalysts containing ultralow levels of gold are described. In the final part, a view to the future of this chemistry will be discussed as well as the possible avenues for the commercial potential of gold catalysis. PMID:26529366

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF PRECIPITATED IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. X. Lang; Dr. S. Chokkaram; Dr. L. Nowicki; G. Wei; Dr. Y. Ding; Dr. B. Reddy; Dr. S. Xiao

    1999-07-22

    Despite the current worldwide oil glut, the US will ultimately require large-scale production of liquid (transportation) fuels from coal. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, with its versatile product slate, may be expected to play a major role in production of transportation fuels via indirect coal liquefaction. Some of the F-T catalysts synthesized and tested at Texas A and M University under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC89868 were more active than any other known catalysts developed for maximizing production of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (waxes). The objectives of the present contract were to demonstrate repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of preparation procedures of two of these catalysts on a laboratory scale. Improvements in the catalyst performance were attempted through the use of: (a) higher reaction pressure and gas space velocity to maximize the reactor productivity; (b) modifications in catalyst preparation steps; and (c) different pretreatment procedures. Repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of catalyst synthesis procedure have been successfully demonstrated in stirred tank slurry reactor tests. Reactor space-time-yield was increased up to 48% by increasing reaction pressure from 1.48 MPa to 2.17 MPa, while maintaining the gas contact time and synthesis gas conversion at a constant value. Use of calcination temperatures above 300 C, additional CaO promoter, and/or potassium silicate as the source of potassium promoter, instead of potassium bicarbonate, did not result in improved catalyst performance. By using different catalyst activation procedures they were able to increase substantially the catalyst activity, while maintaining low methane and gaseous hydrocarbon selectivities. Catalyst productivity in runs SA-0946 and SA-2186 was 0.71 and 0.86 gHC/g-Fe/h, respectively, and this represents 45-75% improvement in productivity relative to that achieved in Rheinpreussen's demonstration

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF PRECIPITATED IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the current worldwide oil glut, the US will ultimately require large-scale production of liquid (transportation) fuels from coal. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, with its versatile product slate, may be expected to play a major role in production of transportation fuels via indirect coal liquefaction. Some of the F-T catalysts synthesized and tested at Texas A and M University under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC89868 were more active than any other known catalysts developed for maximizing production of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (waxes). The objectives of the present contract were to demonstrate repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of preparation procedures of two of these catalysts on a laboratory scale. Improvements in the catalyst performance were attempted through the use of: (a) higher reaction pressure and gas space velocity to maximize the reactor productivity; (b) modifications in catalyst preparation steps; and (c) different pretreatment procedures. Repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of catalyst synthesis procedure have been successfully demonstrated in stirred tank slurry reactor tests. Reactor space-time-yield was increased up to 48% by increasing reaction pressure from 1.48 MPa to 2.17 MPa, while maintaining the gas contact time and synthesis gas conversion at a constant value. Use of calcination temperatures above 300 C, additional CaO promoter, and/or potassium silicate as the source of potassium promoter, instead of potassium bicarbonate, did not result in improved catalyst performance. By using different catalyst activation procedures they were able to increase substantially the catalyst activity, while maintaining low methane and gaseous hydrocarbon selectivities. Catalyst productivity in runs SA-0946 and SA-2186 was 0.71 and 0.86 gHC/g-Fe/h, respectively, and this represents 45-75% improvement in productivity relative to that achieved in Rheinpreussen's demonstration plant

  20. Development and Commercial Application of DZC Ⅱ-1 Type Catalyst for Hydrogenation of Pyrolysis Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ye; Wang Fucun

    2006-01-01

    Commercial application of the DZC Ⅱ-1 catalyst developed on the basis of the DZ-1 catalyst was introduced. The application tests of the catalyst under overload had proved that this catalyst demon-strated satisfactory adaptability to feedstock after continued operation for 20 months with little changes in the bed pressure drop, the reactor inlet temperature and the bed temperature rise. The DZC Ⅱ-1 catalyst was regarded as the best catalyst for the second-stage hydrogenation of pyrolysis gasoline.

  1. Development of high performance catalyst for off-gas treatment system in BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high performance catalyst for off-gas treatment system in boiling water reactor (BWR) has been developed. The hydrogen concentration in the outlets of off-gas recombiners increased at several BWR plants in Japan. These phenomena were caused by deactivation of catalysts for the recombiners, and we assumed two types of deactivation mechanisms. The first cause was an increase of the amount of boehmite in the catalyst support due to alternation of the manufacturing process. The other cause was catalysts being poisoned by cyclic siloxanes that were introduced from the silicone sealant used in the upstream of the off-gas recombiners. The catalysts were manufactured by Pt adhering on alumina support. The conventional catalyst (CAT-A) used the aqueous solution of the chloroplatinic acid for adhesion of Pt. A dechlorination process by autoclave was applied to prevent the equipment at the downstream of the recombiners from stress corrosion cracking, but this process caused the support material to transform into boehmite. The boehmite-rich catalysts were deactivated more easily by organic silicon than gamma alumina-rich catalysts. Therefore, the CAT-A was replaced at many Japanese BWR plants by the improved catalyst (CAT-B), and their support was transformed into more stable gamma alumina by heating at 500degC. However, the siloxanes keep being detected in the off-gas though the source of siloxane had been removed and there still remain possibilities to deactivate the catalysts. Therefore, we have been developing high performance catalyst (CAT-C) that has higher activity and durability against poisoning. We investigated the properties of CAT-C by performance tests and instrumental analyses. The dependency of thermal output of nuclear reactor, and durability against siloxane poisoning were investigated. We found that CAT-C showed higher performance and better properties than CAT-B did. Moreover, we have been developing a modeling method to evaluate the hydrogen recombination

  2. In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jose A; Chupas, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

  3. Indigenous People: Emancipatory Possibilities in Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurchy-Pilkington, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I argue that emancipatory possibilities for Maori, the Indigenous people of New Zealand, rely on structural changes that enable them to have control over resources, decision making, and meaning, and that emancipation is a journey traveled by oppressed groups as they exercise their collective agency. The 1990s development of…

  4. Vocational Education: Catalyst for Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Paul V.; Paul, Krishan K.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews vocational education's role in private-sector retraining programs, reducing unemployment, attracting new industries, and developing human resources. Briefly discusses recent federal initiatives toward economic development and their relationship to vocational education. (LRA)

  5. Thermal desalination in GCC and possible development

    KAUST Repository

    Darwish, Mohamed Ali

    2013-06-28

    The Water Desalination and Reuse Center in King Abdulla University of Science and Technology, in Saudi Arabia, held a workshop on thermal desalination on the 11th and 12th of March, 2013. This paper was presented as part of a lecture at the workshop. It presents the status and possible developments of the two main thermal desalination systems processing large quantities of seawater in the Gulf Cooperation Council, multi-stage flash, and thermal vapor compression systems. Developments of these systems were presented to show how these systems are competing with the more energy-efficient seawater reverse osmosis desalting. © 2013 © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  6. An overview of recent development in composite catalysts from porous materials for various reactions and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zaiku; Liu, Zhicheng; Wang, Yangdong; Yang, Qihua; Xu, Longya; Ding, Weiping

    2010-01-01

    Catalysts are important to the chemical industry and environmental remediation due to their effective conversion of one chemical into another. Among them, composite catalysts have attracted continuous attention during the past decades. Nowadays, composite catalysts are being used more and more to meet the practical catalytic performance requirements in the chemical industry of high activity, high selectivity and good stability. In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on development of composite catalysts, mainly focusing on the composite catalysts obtained from porous materials such as zeolites, mesoporous materials, carbon nanotubes (CNT), etc. Six types of porous composite catalysts are discussed, including amorphous oxide modified zeolite composite catalysts, zeolite composites prepared by co-crystallization or overgrowth, hierarchical porous catalysts, host-guest porous composites, inorganic and organic mesoporous composite catalysts, and polymer/CNT composite catalysts. PMID:20559508

  7. An Overview of Recent Development in Composite Catalysts from Porous Materials for Various Reactions and Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiku Xie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts are important to the chemical industry and environmental remediation due to their effective conversion of one chemical into another. Among them, composite catalysts have attracted continuous attention during the past decades. Nowadays, composite catalysts are being used more and more to meet the practical catalytic performance requirements in the chemical industry of high activity, high selectivity and good stability. In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on development of composite catalysts, mainly focusing on the composite catalysts obtained from porous materials such as zeolites, mesoporous materials, carbon nanotubes (CNT, etc. Six types of porous composite catalysts are discussed, including amorphous oxide modified zeolite composite catalysts, zeolite composites prepared by co-crystallization or overgrowth, hierarchical porous catalysts, host-guest porous composites, inorganic and organic mesoporous composite catalysts, and polymer/CNT composite catalysts.

  8. ECONOMIC FREEDOM – A CATALYST FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalia Iuliana KICSI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Liberal doctrine, in its various attempts to find legitimacy, has exerted a real influence on the ”architecture” of the world economy. Liberal rhetoric, validated by historical reality, has shown that liberalism, through its virtues, design a proper environment for both individuals and nations development. In this equation of development the catalytic role of economic freedom and free trade was a theme of reflections during the evolution of many nations, but emphasis on the quantitative dimensions was obvious. In the last decades, attention has been focused on the quality of development too, understanding that the wealth of a nation is reflected not only in the improvement of macroeconomic indicators, but in the better quality of individuals’ life.

  9. Development of a stable cobalt-ruthenium Fisher-Tropsch catalyst. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

    1995-02-01

    The reverse micelle catalyst preparation method has been used to prepare catalysts on four supports: magnesium oxide, carbon, alumina- titania and steamed Y zeolite. These catalysts were not as active as a reference catalyst prepared during previous contracts to Union Carbide Corp. This catalyst was supported on steamed Y zerolite support and was impregnated by a pore-filling method using a nonaqueous solvent. Additional catalysts were prepared via pore- filling impregnation of steamed Y zeolites. These catalysts had levels of cobalt two to three and a half times as high as the original Union Carbide catalyst. On a catalyst volume basis they were much more active than the previous catalyst; on an atom by atom basis the cobalt was about of the same activity, i.e., the high cobalt catalysts` cobalt atoms were not extensively covered over and deactivated by other cobalt atoms. The new, high activity, Y zerolite catalysts were not as stable as the earlier Union Carbide catalyst. However, stability enhancement of these catalysts should be possible, for instance, through adjustment of the quantity and/or type of trace metals present. A primary objective of this work was determination whether small amounts of ruthenium could enhance the activity of the cobalt F-T catalyst. The reverse micelle catalysts were not activated by ruthenium, indeed scanning transmission electronic microscopy (STEM) analysis provided some evidence that ruthenium was not present in the cobalt crystallites. Ruthenium did not seem to activate the high cobalt Y zeolite catalyst either, but additional experiments with Y zeolite-supported catalysts are required. Should ruthenium prove not to be an effective promoter under the simple catalyst activation procedure used in this work, more complex activation procedures have been reported which are claimed to enhance the cobalt/ruthenium interaction and result in activity promotion by ruthenium.

  10. Development of MIP Technology and Its Proprietary Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Jianhong; Xu Youhao; Xie Chaogang; Long Jun; Jiang Wenbin; Qiu Zhonghong

    2009-01-01

    A novel catalytic cracking process named the MIP process was developed by the Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (RIPP), SINOPEC, to manufacture clean gasoline with lower olefin contents. The MIP pro-cess features a unique riser consisting of two sequential reaction zones with different radii, in which different kinds of chemical reactions are intensified respectively to achieve better product slates and product properties. In order to fully implement the MIP potentials, a proprietary catalyst RMI tailored to the needs of the MIP process was devel-oped by adopting an AIRY zeolite having improved accessibility to active sites, which could result in better heavy oil cracking, coke selectivity and olefin reduction performance compared with the conventional REUSY zeolite. Its commercial application showed that the RMI catalyst could further reduce the olefin content in gasoline and raise the gasoline octane number while increasing the total liquid yield. On the basis of the MIP process, the MIP-CGP process was also developed to significantly reduce the olefin content in FCC naphtha and to enhance the propylene yield simultaneously. As far as the MIP-CGP process itself is concerned, both the MIP-CGP process and the MIP process have the similar reactor configuration but with different reactor size and operating parameters. The proprietary catalyst CGP-1 is also proposed to tailor for the MIP-CGP process. The specific features of the CGP-1 catalyst cover the new matrix, which possesses excellent capability to accommodate coke formation in the first reaction zone; the modified Y zeolite, which exhibits high hydrogen transfer activity in the second reaction zone; and the MFI zeolite, which has good gasoline olefm cracking activity. The commercial test results of MIP-CGP process applied along with the CGP-1 catalyst showed that the olefin content of gasoline was less than 18 v% and the propylene yield was more than 8 m%. Furthermore, as compared with the conventional

  11. Anging Petrochemical Co.Adopts Novel Acrvlonitrile Catalyst Developed by Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The SANC catalyst for synthesis of acrylonitrile developed by the SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute (SPRI) has been successfully applied in the 80 kt/a acrylonitrile unit at the Anqing Petrochemical Company.At present the bulk catalyst used in the acrylonitrile unit at Anqing Petrochemical Company cannot meet the requirements for increasingly elevating operating level.Starting May 2008 the novel SANC catalyst,developed by SPRI and manufactured by the SINOPEC Catalyst Branch Company

  12. Developing the smallest possible medical cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Imagine a portable medical cyclotron operated in a conventional radioactive facility at a hospital. Imagine a nurse or technician switching it on and producing isotopes at the patient’s bedside. Sounds like science fiction? Think again.   CERN has teamed up with Spain’s national scientific research centre (CIEMAT) to develop an avant-garde cyclotron to be used for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). “We plan to make a cyclotron that doesn't need an insulated building or ‘vault’: a cyclotron small enough to fit inside a hospital lift,” explains Jose Manuel Perez, who is leading the CIEMAT/CERN collaboration. “It will be the smallest possible medical cyclotron for single patient dose production and will dramatically reduce costs for hospitals.” While PET technology has transformed imaging techniques, many of its medical benefits have remained confined to highly specialised hospitals. “Studies have foun...

  13. Entrepreneurship as a Catalyst for Rural Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Sharif Norhafiza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry is seen as capable of being an agent of change in the landscape of economic, social and environment of a tourist destination. Tourism activity has also generated employment and entrepreneurship opportunities to the local community as well as using available resources as tourist attractions. The tourism sector has the potential to be a catalyst for the development of entrepreneurship and small business performance. Through the development of tourism, the rural community has the opportunity to offer services or sell products to the both local and foreign tourists. To fulfill this purpose, local community participation in entrepreneurship is very important in order to develope the economic potential and to determine the direction of a development in rural areas. In the context of entrepreneurship, local participation is important not only as an entrepreneur and labor in this sector as well as complementary sectors of the others, but they can serve to encourage the involvement of other residents to join together to develop this entrepreneurial. This article aims to discuss the extent of entrepreneurship as a catalyst to the development of tourism in rural areas. Through active participation among community members, rural entrepreneurship will hopefully move towards prosperity and success of rural development.

  14. RIPP开发的催化重整技术%NEW REFORMING CATALYST DEVELOPED BY RIPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    濮仲英

    2003-01-01

    To meet the demands for high-octane gasoline and aromatics, catalytic reforming process has been advancing quickly in China. The reforming catalysts developed by RIPP have been used in more than 80% capacity of domestic CCR and SR units. This paper introduces the properties of PS-VI CCR catalyst developed by RIPP in recent years and also the result from commercial units. The PS-VI catalyst has high activity and good selectivity, under the same reaction conditions, the carbon on catalyst was lowered by 26% in mass as compared with that of the reference catalyst. Among the SR reforming catalysts, the new type of PRT series catalysts have excellent performance at low reaction pressure compared with the ref. Cat A. The aromatics and reformate mass yields of PRT catalyst were 2%~3% and 3%, respectively, higher than those of Cat A, and the run length was 30%~40% longer as well, which exhibits good prospect of application.

  15. Development of Novel Resid Hydrometallization Catalyst RDM-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Dawei; Niu Chuanfeng; Yang Qinghe; Liu Tao

    2007-01-01

    Based on the reaction mechanism of resid hydrodemetallization,a new catalyst carrier was designed and prepared.As compared with the similar type of catalyst carder,the said new carrier featured a higher pore volume,a larger pore diameter and a weaker surface acidity,which could improve the diffusion performance and stable reaction performance of the catalyst.The active metal components were loaded on the said carrier by a new technique for better metal dispersion,thus the impurity removal rate of the new catalyst,RDM-3,was improved significantly.The commercial test of the RDM-3 catalyst showed that the process of catalyst preparation was stable,the catalyst performance was slightly better than the catalyst prepared in the lab,therefore,the catalyst could be manufactured in commercial scale.

  16. Development of Granular Catalysts and Natural Gas Combustion Technology for Small Gas Turbine Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ismagilov, Z. R.; Kerzhentsev, M.A.; Yashnik, S.A.; N. V. Shikina; Zagoruiko, A.N.; Parmon, V.N.; Zakharov, V.M.; Braynin, B.I.; Favorski, O.N.

    2010-01-01

    Granular catalysts for natural gas combustion in gas turbine power plants were developed: Pd-Ce-Al2O3 catalyst for initiation of methane combustion at low temperatures and the catalysts based on oxides of Mn, hexaaluminates of Mn and La for high temperature

  17. Development of a Novel Type Catalyst SY-2 for Two-Stage Hydrogenation of Pyrolysis Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Linmei; Zhang Xuejun; Zhang Zhihua; Wang Fucun

    2004-01-01

    By using the group ⅢB or groupⅦB metals and modulating the characteristics of electric charges on carrier surface, improving the catalyst preparation process and techniques for loading the active metal components, a novel type SY-2 catalyst earmarked for two-stage hydrogenation of pyrolysis gasoline has been developed. The catalyst evaluation results have indicated that the novel catalyst is characterized by a better hydrogenation reaction activity to give higher aromatic yield.

  18. DEVELOPMENT POSSIBILITIES OF THE HUNGARIAN-UKRAINIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasztor Szabolcs

    2012-12-01

    questionnaire-based survey. With 432 cases collected from 6 micro regions from the Ukrainian side I can measure the possible cross-border dynamics of the borderless situation. With this method I follow the empirical approach of other regionalists who have come to the conclusion that the opening-up of borders can lead to different dynamism. In this way I try to shed new light on the development possibilities and more increased economic interactions the Hungarian-Ukrainian borderland. The most important conclusion of this paper is the fact that with more intensive cross-border interactions not the neighbouring borderaland benefits but centrally located or larger towns in Hungary. In this way I can point to the fact that borderland dynamics could be quite limited in the research area. With this paper I could confirm previous studies and point to the fact that empirical analysis is needed to understand the local dynamism of a borderless space.

  19. Study and Pilot Scale Development of Catalyst for Ethylebenzene Synthesis Through Transalkylation of Benzene and Polyethylbenzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jin; Zhang Fengmei; Li Minglin; Hao Xiaoming; Shu Xingtian; He Mingyuan

    2002-01-01

    This paper refers to the results of study and development of benzene and polyethylbenzene transalkylation catalyst (type AEB-1) for synthesis of ethylbenzene. The effect of reaction conditions on the reaction performance of the catalyst was investigated in the pressurized microreactor CDS-900. A transalkylation catalyst with high activity, good selectivity and stability was developed following a 2000-hour test on the activity and stability of the catalyst. The preparation of this catalyst was implemented in pilot scale and this catalyst was tested for activity and stability in a 150 t/a pilot unit for production of ethylbenzene. The test results have shown that this transalkylation catalyst has excellent activity, selectivity and stability. The operation of pilot test unit ran smoothly and the process scheme is viable.

  20. Development of New Generation Catalysts for Selective Hydrodesulfurization of FCC Naphtha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Yang; Li Mingfeng; Li Huifeng; Qu Jinhua; Nie Hong; Li Dadong

    2009-01-01

    The influence of active metal components of catalyst, additives and catalyst preparation method on the reactiv-ity of catalyst for selective hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of FCC naphtha was investigated, and the RSDS-21 catalyst with high HDS performance and the RSDS-22 catalyst with high selectivity were developed by RIPP. The composite loading of a new series of catalysts for selective HDS of FCC gasoline has demonstrated excellent desulfurization activity and selectivity and can under conventional hydrotreating conditions manufacture clean gasoline product meeting the national Ⅳ emission standard and the Euro Ⅴ emission standard with less loss in antiknock index. The finalized new series of FCC catalysts upon being adopted for selective HDS of FCC naphtha have good adaptability to different feedstocks along with good stability.

  1. Possible ways of future social development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zak L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors deal with a question, which is hard to answer considering the context of the future of the social evolution. The authors suppose that one should ask rather about overcoming the current wave of individualism than about overcoming the current form of capitalism. Individualism dismantles any society and it is necessary to react by building stable dual relationships. It highlights the key role of a family. Collectivism, as well as individualism, are not able to create any kind of social structure and lead the society into the liquid of chaos or into the motionless totality. It states that the economic security of various societies is to certain extent affected by all possible production factors and that the reason of the success of their functioning is a balance between power, wealth and public support. It points out that it is necessary to keep a couple and its relationship as a basic element in theory as well as in practice. In legitimate cases of a production practise, it is possible to consider the human individual as the element. It condemns inhumane artificial terms such as “homo economicus”, human resources or human capital. In the conclusions, the authors appeal to restore humanity in society by the contribution of each individual and his interpersonal relationships.

  2. Development of FHDS Type Catalyst for Deep Hydrodesulfurization of Diesel Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Rong; Yao Yunhai; Zhou Yong

    2005-01-01

    The FHDS type catalyst for deep hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of diesel fuel is a highactivity catalyst developed by FRIPP in order to meet the requirements of Chinese refiners for production of low-sulfur clean diesel fuel containing less than 300 ppm of sulfur. The FH-DS type catalyst has excellent HDS and HDN activity thanks to modification of alumina through incorporating additives, optimization of catalyst preparation and optimal combination of active ingredients.Under low pressure the HDS activity of this catalyst is by 50% higher than that of domestic reference catalysts available in the market and is slightly better than that of foreign reference catalyst. When this catalyst is used for manufacture of clean ultra-low sulfur diesel (containing <30 ppm of S), its volumetric relative desulfurization activity is 46% higher than that of foreign reference catalyst, and this catalyst is an excellent catalyst for manufacture of low-sulfur clean diesel fuel derived from imported high-sulfur Kuwaiti and Arabian crude oils.

  3. Development of highly active and stable hybrid cathode catalyst for PEMFCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Won Suk

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are attractive power sources of the future for a variety of applications including portable electronics, stationary power, and automobile application. However, sluggish cathode kinetics, high Pt cost, and durability issues inhibit the commercialization of PEMFCs. To overcome these drawbacks, research has been focused on alloying Pt with transition metals since alloy catalysts show significantly improved catalytic properties like high activity, selectivity, and durability. However, Pt-alloy catalysts synthesized using the conventional impregnation method exhibit uneven particle size and poor particle distribution resulting in poor performance and/or durability in PEMFCs. In this dissertation, a novel catalyst synthesis methodology is developed and compared with catalysts prepared using impregnation method and commercial catalysts. Two approaches are investigated for the catalyst development. The catalyst durability was studied under U. S. DRIVE Fuel Cell Tech Team suggested protocols. In the first approach, the carbon composite catalyst (CCC) having active sites for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is employed as a support for the synthesis of Pt/CCC catalyst. The structural and electrochemical properties of Pt/CCC catalyst are investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while RDE and fuel cell testing are carried out to study the electrochemical properties. The synergistic effect of CCC and Pt is confirmed by the observed high activity towards ORR for the Pt/CCC catalyst. The second approach is the synthesis of Co-doped hybrid cathode catalysts (Co-doped Pt/CCC) by diffusing the Co metal present within the CCC support into the Pt nanoparticles during heat-treatment. The optimized Co-doped Pt/CCC catalyst performed better than the commercial catalysts and the catalyst prepared using the impregnation method in PEMFCs and showed high

  4. An Overview of Recent Development in Composite Catalysts from Porous Materials for Various Reactions and Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Zaiku Xie; Zhicheng Liu; Yangdong Wang; Qihua Yang; Longya Xu; Weiping Ding

    2010-01-01

    Catalysts are important to the chemical industry and environmental remediation due to their effective conversion of one chemical into another. Among them, composite catalysts have attracted continuous attention during the past decades. Nowadays, composite catalysts are being used more and more to meet the practical catalytic performance requirements in the chemical industry of high activity, high selectivity and good stability. In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on development of comp...

  5. CATALYST TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FROM MACRO-,MICRO- DOWN TO NANO-SCALE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Liu

    2005-01-01

    Catalyst and catalytic process technology has been an ever-growing field that involves chemical engineering, chemistry, and material science. A number of excellent review articles and books have been published on the subject. In this work, the author reviews the evolution and development of catalyst products with multi-scale methodology.The catalyst technologies are classified into three levels, macro-scale (reactor size), mini- and micro-scale (catalyst unit),and nano-scale (catalyst intrinsic structures). Innovation at different scales requires different sets of expertise, method,and knowledge. Specific examples of significant impact to practical application are used to illustrate technology development at each scale. The multi-scale analysis enables clear delineation of technology components and their relationship for a catalyst product and catalytic process. Manipulation of catalyst structures at nano-scale to increase intrinsic activity and/or selectivity is considered of large potential for future catalyst product development. Recent research results on Cu-CeO2 and Au-CeO2 composite catalysts for air pollution control and hydrogen production are used to show how novel catalytic properties can be discovered by unique combination of different but common materials at the nano-scale.

  6. Development of hydrophobic catalysts for deuterium exchange between hydrogen and water (Preprint No. CI-4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the salient features of catalyst development work carried out in Chemistry Division for isotopic exchange between hydrogen and water. The catalysts with noble metals dispersed over PTFE coated supports (such as activated charcoal, zeolites etc) or over polymer supports (such as polyester, nylon) are prepared. Catalysts with Pt dispersed over PTFE coated charcoal are found to be highly active and resistant to water poisoning. These catalysts maintained their physical form and catalytic property at temperatures upto 200degC and performed better than the catalysts prepared by reported method, viz, supporting Pt on charcoal blended with teflon powder. A laboratory scale plant is set up to evaluate catalyst activity under continuous countercurrent flow of hydrogen and water under experimental conditions of elevated temperatures (∼150degC) and pressures (10 atm). (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  7. Development and Commercial Application of High-Platinum CCR Catalyst with Low Coke Deposition Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Aizeng; Pan Jincheng; Yang Sennian

    2007-01-01

    By means of selecting proper additives and optimizing catalyst composition and preparation procedures,a high-platinum and low coke deposition catalyst PS-Ⅶ for continuous catalytic reforming (CCR)without reducing its specific surface area has been successfully developed.This catalyst PS-Ⅶ was evaluated in a 100-mL pilot test unit.Study results showed that under the same reaction conditions the newly developed catalyst PS-Ⅶ achieved a 26%reduction in coke deposition as compared to the existing high-platinum CCR catalyst.This catalyst upon its first commercial application in a 1.39Mt/a CCR unit had exhibited good anti-attrition performance and good stability in terms of its specific surface area.Compared to the original CCR catalyst this PS-Ⅶ type catalyst could reduce the coke deposition by 27.32%when operating on feedstock with low potential aromatic content,along with apparent increase in C6+liquid yield,hydrogen yield and aromatics yield,which could grapple with the problem associated with the catalyst regeneration constraints after CCR capacity expansion to ensure the longcycle high-load operation of the CCR unit.

  8. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON AND COBALT FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of activation procedure on the phase composition of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts has been studied. Catalyst samples taken during activation and FT synthesis have been characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Formation of iron carbide is necessary for high FT activity. Hydrogen activation of precipitated iron catalysts results in reduction to predominantly metallic iron and Fe(sub 3)O(sub 4). Metallic iron is not stable under FT 3 4 conditions and is rapidly converted to(epsilon)(prime)-Fe(sub 2.2)C. Activation with carbon monoxide or syngas 2.2 with low hydrogen partial pressure reduces catalysts to(chi)-Fe(sub 5)C(sub 2) and a small amount of 5 2 superparamagnetic carbide. Exposure to FT conditions partially oxidizes iron carbide to Fe(sub 3)O(sub 4); however, catalysts promoted with potassium or potassium and copper maintain a constant carbide content and activity after the initial oxidation. An unpromoted iron catalyst which was activated with carbon monoxide to produce 94%(chi)-Fe(sub 5)C(sub 2), deactivated rapidly as the carbide was oxidized to Fe(sub 3)O(sub 4). No difference in activity, stability or deactivation rate was found for(chi)-Fe(sub 5)C(sub 2) and(epsilon)(prime)-Fe(sub 2.2)C

  9. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON AND COBALT FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtron H. Davis

    1999-04-30

    The impact of activation procedure on the phase composition of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts has been studied. Catalyst samples taken during activation and FT synthesis have been characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Formation of iron carbide is necessary for high FT activity. Hydrogen activation of precipitated iron catalysts results in reduction to predominantly metallic iron and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Metallic iron is not stable under FT 3 4 conditions and is rapidly converted to {epsilon}{prime}-Fe{sub 2.2}C. Activation with carbon monoxide or syngas 2.2 with low hydrogen partial pressure reduces catalysts to {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and a small amount of 5 2 superparamagnetic carbide. Exposure to FT conditions partially oxidizes iron carbide to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}; however, catalysts promoted with potassium or potassium and copper maintain a constant carbide content and activity after the initial oxidation. An unpromoted iron catalyst which was activated with carbon monoxide to produce 94% {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2}, deactivated rapidly as the carbide was oxidized to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. No difference in activity, stability or deactivation rate was found for {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and {epsilon}{prime}-Fe{sub 2.2}C.

  10. A theoretical evaluation of possible transition metal electro-catalysts for N2 reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skulason, Egill; Bligaard, Thomas; Gudmundsdottir, Sigrıdur;

    2012-01-01

    such as Sc, Y, Ti, and Zr bind N-adatoms more strongly than H-adatoms, a significant production of ammonia compared with hydrogen gas can be expected on those metal electrodes when a bias of 1 V to 1.5 V vs. SHE is applied. Defect-free surfaces of the early transition metals are catalytically more active......Theoretical studies of the possibility of forming ammonia electrochemically at ambient temperature and pressure are presented. Density functional theory calculations were used in combination with the computational standard hydrogen electrode to calculate the free energy profile for the reduction...... scales with the free energy difference in each elementary step. The most active surfaces, on top of the volcano diagrams, are Mo, Fe, Rh, and Ru, but hydrogen gas formation will be a competing reaction reducing the faradaic efficiency for ammonia production. Since the early transition metal surfaces...

  11. Development of new deactivation method for simulation of fluid catalytic cracking equilibrium catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Chiranjeevi; D T Gokak; V Ravikumar; P S Viswanathan

    2014-03-01

    Selection of a good catalyst is the easiest way to increase profitability of a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit. During operation, these catalysts get deactivated due to operation at high temperatures, steam and deposition of metals on the catalyst. Developing a proper catalyst deactivation method is crucial for optimization of a good catalyst for FCC. Conventional laboratory deactivation procedures include direct metal impregnation method, cyclic deactivation method (CDM) and cyclic propylene steaming (CPS). Direct metal impregnation method gives higher coke and gas yields. CDM and CPS methods implementation is very difficult and time-consuming and there is a deviation in coke and gas yield. New rapid deactivation method has been developed to simulate plant equilibrium catalyst (E-Cat) by modifying metal impregnation, steaming and oxidation/reduction procedures. The E-Cat generated through a new deactivation method was characterized for physico-chemical properties using X ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), and SEM-EDX and activity studies. XRD studies show that metals are dispersed well on catalyst samples. SEMEDX studies reveal that the morphology of simulated E-Cat and plant E-Cat catalyst particles appear to be same. E-Cat obtained by new deactivationmethod gives better coke and gas yields. Two E-Cats were also generated through CDM and direct metal impregnation method for comparing with the one generated through new method. New deactivation method also significantly reduces the evaluation time.

  12. Development of heterogeneous base catalysts for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Ayato; Matsubara, Koh; Honda, Katsuhisa

    2008-06-01

    Investigations were conducted on heterogeneous base catalysts for the transesterification of oil aimed at effective production of biodiesel. Thirteen different kinds of metal oxides containing calcium, barium, magnesium, or lanthanum were prepared as catalysts. Their catalytic activities were tested for transesterification at 60 degrees C with a 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil and a reaction time of 10h. The calcium-containing catalysts - CaTiO3, CaMnO3, Ca2Fe2O5, CaZrO3, and CaO-CeO2 - showed high activities and approximately 90% yields of methyl ester. Furthermore, catalytic durability tests were performed by repeating the transesterification reaction several times with the calcium-containing catalysts recovered from the previous reaction mixture. It was found that CaZrO3 and CaO-CeO2 show high durability and have the potential to be used in biodiesel production processes as heterogeneous base catalysts.

  13. Scientist-teacher interactions: Catalysts for developing transformational classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Robbie Von

    Professional development leading to standards-based teaching practices in U.S. schools is a remarkably subtle and lengthy process. Research indicates that there are many effective tools for teaching through inquiry available to teachers (Lawson, Abraham, & Renner, 1989), but also that teachers continue to present traditional positivistic views of science (Hashweh, 1985; Maor & Taylor, 1995; Zucker, Young, & Luczak, 1996) and appear to view constructivism as a "method" of teaching rather than a way of thinking about learning (Tobin, Tippins, & Gallard, 1984). Teachers are expected to create enriched environments where students can develop the thinking skills of scientists (Roth & Roychoudhury, 1993) but the majority of teachers have never experienced such environments; the involvement of scientists in science education is encouraged by the NRC, AAAS, and NSTA. Teachers and students are expected to act as coresearchers, where negotiation, debate, consensus, and reflection are key. It is believed that scientist and teachers interacting as co-researchers could assist teachers in developing attitudes of freedom in exploration: the essence of science and a mindset that constructivism is a referent, or tool for critical reflection (Tobin, Tippins & Gallard, 1994). This study seeks to identify aspects of scientist-teacher interactions in the field that could serve as catalysts for developing transformational classrooms. Multiple data sources were collected for this study: audiotapes and transcripts of laboratory interactions and informal interviews, written narratives from applications and funding documents, field notes, and personal communications. Data were simultaneously collected, analyzed and coded as a perpetual review of the literature was conducted as in the grounded theory methodology defined by Glaser (1967) and later by Strauss & Corbin (1990). Findings indicate all four teachers valued field experiences in personal ways, developed new understandings of

  14. Accelerating process and catalyst development in reforming reactions with high throughput technologies under industrially relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, S.A.; Bollmann, G.; Froescher, A.; Kaiser, H.; Lange de Oliveira, A.; Roussiere, T.; Wasserschaff, G. [hte Aktiengesellschaft, Heidelberg (Germany); Domke, I. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    The generation of hydrogen via reforming of a variety of carbon containing feed-stocks in the presence of water is up to date one of the most versatile technologies for the production of hydrogen and syngas. Although these reforming technologies are in principle well established, understood and commercialized, there are still a number of technological challenges that are not solved up to a satisfactorily degree and there is a constant demand for appropriate answers to the challenges posed. High throughput experimentation can be a valuable tool in helping accelerate the development of suitable solutions on the catalyst and process development side. In order to be able to generate test data that are close or identical to process relevant conditions, hte has developed a new technology portfolio of test technologies named Stage-IV technology. In contrast to earlier developments which address more small scale testing on the basis of catalyst volumes of 1ml up to 10 ml under isothermal conditions, our new technology portfolio offers the advantage of test volumes at sub-pilot scale also realizing reactor dimensions close to technical applications. This does not only ensure a good mimic of the hydrodynamic conditions of the technical scale, but also allows a fingerprinting of features like temperature gradients in the catalyst bed which play a large role for catalyst performance. Apart from catalyst tests with granulates when screening for optimized catalyst compositions, the units are designed to accommodate tests with shaped catalysts. In order to demonstrate how these technologies can accelerate catalyst and process development we have chosen technically challenging application examples: (I) Pre-reforming and reforming of methane based feeds which accelerate coking and catalyst deactivation. Higher reaction pressures, high CO{sub 2} contents in the feedgas (which occur typically in sources like bio-gas or certain types of natural gas), the presence of higher alkanes

  15. Development of new type passive autocatalytic recombiner. Part 1. Characterization of monolithic catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For hydrogen mitigation, a new type passive autocatalytic recombiner has been developed, as one of safety accident managements at a nuclear power plant. This new recombiner has an automotive monolithic substrate catalyst in order to reduce weight and to improve hydrogen treating capacity, environmental resistance, and product quality. The activation energy has been experimentally estimated at 5.75 kJ/mol with stoichiometric composition gas flow. The fed hydrogen and oxygen to the monolithic catalyst were immediately recombined in both the dry and the humid atmospheres. Moreover, it has been found that gamma-ray irradiation up to 1.0 MGy could promote catalytic activity, because the specific area of the catalyst and the surface area of the precious metals increased. In addition, no significant difference was observed in the compositional distribution in the monolithic catalyst by EPMA. As the result, an automotive monolithic catalyst is applicable to practical installation of PAR into NPPs. (author)

  16. Development of new transition metal oxide catalysts for the destruction of PCDD/Fs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming-Feng; Li, Wen-Wei; Li, Xiao-Dong; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Tong; Yan, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Various transition metal oxide and vanadium-containing multi-metallic oxide catalysts were developed for the destruction of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans). A stable PCDD/Fs generating system was installed to support the catalytic destruction tests in this study. Nano-titania supported vanadium catalyst (VOx/TiO2) showed the highest activity, followed by CeOx, MnOx, WOx and finally MoOx. Multi-metallic oxide catalysts, prepared by doping WOx, MoOx, MnOx and CeOx into VOx/TiO2 catalysts, showed different activities on the decomposition of PCDD/Fs. The highest destruction efficiency of 92.5% was observed from the destruction test over VOxCeOx/TiO2 catalyst. However, the addition of WOx and MoOx even played a negative role in multi-metallic VOx/TiO2 catalysts. Characterizations of transition metal oxides and multi-metallic VOx/TiO2 catalysts were also investigated with XRD and TPR. After the catalysts were used, the conversion from high valent metals to low valence states was observed by XPS. PMID:27186687

  17. Development of catalysts and ligands for enantioselective gold catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Ming; Lackner, Aaron D; Toste, F Dean

    2014-03-18

    During the past decade, the use of Au(I) complexes for the catalytic activation of C-C π-bonds has been investigated intensely. Over this time period, the development of homogeneous gold catalysis has been extraordinarily rapid and has yielded a host of mild and selective methods for the formation of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. The facile formation of new bonds facilitated by gold naturally led to efforts toward rendering these transformations enantioselective. In this Account, we survey the development of catalysts and ligands for enantioselective gold catalysis by our research group as well as related work by others. We also discuss some of our strategies to address the challenges of enantioselective gold(I) catalysis. Early on, our work with enantioselective gold-catalyzed transformations focused on bis(phosphinegold) complexes derived from axially chiral scaffolds. Although these complexes were highly successful in some reactions like cyclopropanation, the careful choice of the weakly coordinating ligand (or counterion) was necessary to obtain high levels of enantioselectivity for the case of allene hydroamination. These counterion effects led us to use the anion itself as a source of chirality, which was successful in the case of allene hydroalkoxylation. In general, these tactics enhance the steric influence around the reactive gold center beyond the two-coordinate ligand environment. The use of binuclear complexes allowed us to use the second gold center and its associated ligand (or counterion) to exert a further steric influence. In a similar vein, we employed a chiral anion (in place of or in addition to a chiral ligand) to move the chiral information closer to the reactive center. In order to expand the scope of reactions amenable to enantioselective gold catalysis to cycloadditions and other carbocyclization processes, we also developed a new class of mononuclear phosphite and phosphoramidite ligands to supplement the previously widely

  18. Development and Commercial Application of RFCC Catalyst for Reducing Sulfur Content in Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Mingde; Zhu Yuxia; Huang Lei; Hou Dianguo

    2007-01-01

    The sulfur-reducing functional component-the Lewis acid-base pair compound-and associated active zeolite component were developed to prepare the RFCC catalyst DOS for reducing sulfur content in gasoline.The results of catalyst evaluation have revealed that the Lewis acid-base pair compound developed hereby could enhance the conversion of macromolecular sulfur compounds by the catalyst to promote the proceeding of desulfurization reactions,and the synergetic action of the selected zeolite and the Lewis acid-base pair compound could definitely reduce the olefins and sulfur contents in gasoline.The heavy oil conversion capability of the catalyst DOS thus developed was higher coupled with an enhanced resistance to heavy metals contamination to reduce the sulfur content in gasoline by over 20%.The commercial application of this catalyst at the SINOPEC Jiujiang Branch Company has revealed that compared to the GRV-C catalyst the oil slurry yield obtained by the catalyst DOS was reduced along with an improved coke selectivity,an increased total liquid yield,and a decreased olefin content in gasoline.The ratio of sulfur in gasoline/sulfur in feed oil could be reduced by 20.3 m%.

  19. Water–gas shift catalyst development for energy efficient applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakeem, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The water–gas shift (WGS) is a reversible, moderately exothermic reaction (1) and is used for the production of hydrogen from CO rich gas streams (synthesis gas). CO + H2O ⇆ CO2 + H2 ΔH°= –41 kJ mol−1 (1) This research has focused on the catalyst

  20. PROGRESS IN CATALYST AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR LOW SULFUR AND LOW AROMATICS DIESEL PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUYong; HANChong-ren

    2003-01-01

    The article includes three parts:①The development and performance of FH-DS catalyst for deep and ultra -deep distillate HDS;②The single stage HDS/HDA hydrotreating process for the production of low sulfur and low aromatics diesels from straight run and coker AGO by using highly active base metal catalyst at moderate pressure;③A two-stage aromatics saturation system utilizing noble metal catalyst in the second stage developed for production of low sulfur and low aromatics diesel from LCO.FDA catalyst developed by FRIPP has high activity for aromatics saturation together with high tolerance for sulfur and nitrogen in the feed.The process is effective in reducing density and increasing cetane number.

  1. Metalloporphyrin catalysts for oxygen reduction developed using computer-aided molecular design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryba, G.N.; Hobbs, J.D.; Shelnutt, J.A. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a new class of metalloporphyrin materials used as catalsyts for use in fuel cell applications. The metalloporphyrins are excellent candidates for use as catalysts at both the anode and cathode. The catalysts reduce oxygen in 1 M potassium hydroxide, as well as in 2 M sulfuric acid. Covalent attachment to carbon supports is being investigated. The computer-aided molecular design is an iterative process, in which experimental results feed back into the design of future catalysts.

  2. ADVANCES ON THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CATALYSTS FOR TOLUENE DISPROPORTIONATION AND C9 AROMATICS TRANSALKYLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qingling; Xie Zaiku

    2001-01-01

    Advances on the development of commercial catalysts using in the processes such as Tatoray(Toluene Disproportionation and C9 Aromatics Transalkylation of UOP Company), MTDP (Toluene Disproportionation Process of Mobil Company), S-TDT (Toluene Disproportionation and C9 Aromatics Transalkylation of SRIPT), Trans-Plus, PX-Plus (Selective Toluene Disproportionation of UOP Company) and MSTDP (Selective Toluene Disproportionation Process on Mobils ZSM-5 catalyst) have been reviewed. The trends on the research of the new catalysts such as ZSM-5,Beta, MCM-22, Omega, SAPO and modified Y for the selective toluene disproportionation process and for the toluene disproportionation and C9 aromatics transalkylation have been described.

  3. Development and reactivity tests of Ce-Zr-based Claus catalysts for coal gas cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No-Kuk Park; Dong Cheul Han; Gi Bo Han; Si Ok Ryu; Tae Jin Lee; Ki Jun Yoon [Yeungnam University, Gyeongbuk (Republic of Korea). National Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2007-09-15

    Claus reaction (2H{sub 2}S + SO{sub 2} {leftrightarrow} 3/nS{sub n} + 2H{sub 2}O) was used to clean the gasified coal gas and the reactivity of several metal oxide-based catalysts on Claus reaction was investigated at various operating conditions. In order to convert H{sub 2}S contained in the gasified coal gas to elemental sulfur during Claus reaction, the catalysts having the high activity under the highly reducing condition with the moisture should be developed. CeO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and Ce{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}O{sub 2} catalysts were prepared for Claus reaction and their reactivity changes due to the existence of the reducing gases and H{sub 2}O in the fuel gas was investigated in this study. The Ce-based catalysts shows that their activity was deteriorated by the reduction of the catalyst due to the reducing gases at higher than 220{sup o}C. Meanwhile, the effect of the reducing gases on the catalytic activity was not considerable at low temperature. The activities of all three catalysts were degraded on the condition that the moisture existed in the test gas. Specifically, the Ce-based catalysts were remarkably deactivated by their sulfation. The Ce-Zr-based catalyst had a high catalytic activity when the reducing gases and the moisture co-existed in the simulated fuel gas. The deactivation of the Ce-Zr-based catalyst was not observed in this study. The lattice oxygen of the Ce-based catalyst was used for the oxidation of H{sub 2}S and the lattice oxygen vacancy on the catalyst was contributed to the reduction of SO{sub 2}. ZrO{sub 2} added to the Ce-Zr-based catalyst improved the redox properties of the catalyst in Claus reaction by increasing the mobility of the lattice oxygen of CeO{sub 2}. 21 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Development of MCM-41 based catalysts for the photo-Fenton's degradation of dye pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Leung Yuk Frank

    The continuous advancement in most industries has resulted in serious water pollution problems. The industrial effluents contain a variety of highly toxic organics such as dye pollutants. Numerous processes have been demonstrated for treating such pollutants. Among them, photo-Fenton's reaction is effective for organic mineralization by hydroxyl radicals generated from the Fenton's reagents (Fe2+ and H2O2). However, there is a drawback in that it requires a separation system to recover the homogeneous ferrous ion in the treated wastewater. In this research, new heterogeneous Fenton's catalysts are developed to solve such a problem and to achieve an efficient mineralization of dye pollutants. Two methods for catalyst preparation, including sol-gel hydrothermal (SG) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques, were studied in this work. For SG-prepared catalysts, the iron element was successfully doped into the MCM-41 structure. These catalysts demonstrated a good catalytic efficiency but leaching of metal ions from the developed catalyst was found. In the MOCVD technique, a rotated tubular reactor system was developed to synthesize Fe/MCM-41 catalyst with uniform metal dispersion. It was found that using oxygen as a carrier gas during metal deposition was able to increase the stability of the deposited metal. In degradation of a model dye pollutant, Orange II, a total of 85% TOC mineralization was achieved at pH 3. A disadvantage of using Fe/MCM-41 was the reduced efficiency at higher pH. Cu/MCM-41 was thus developed and showed better catalytic activities than Fe/MCM-41 at neutral pH. Having the specific catalytic properties of Fe/MCM-41 and Cu/MCM-41, bimetallic (Fe+Cu) catalysts supported on MCM-41 were developed which show better activities in the Orange II mineralization than those monometallic (Fe or Cu) catalysts. The preparation conditions of the catalysts were experimentally optimized. The effects of catalyst dosage, metal loading

  5. Development of Self-Assembled Supramolecular Catalysts and Their Applications to Organic Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiro IKEGAMI

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In modern synthetic organic chemistry, the development of efficient reagent or catalyst recycling systems is regarded as one of the most important topics. We have previously reported a self-assembled process between poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) based polymer ligands and an inorganic species[1]. This process afforded a networked supramolecular complex where the polymers are cross-linked together by the inorganic species. Thus obtained complex was insoluble in water and worked as an efficient triphase catalyst.

  6. Recent development of supported monometallic gold as heterogeneous catalyst for selective liquid phase hydrogenation reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thushara Kandaramath Hari; Zahira Yaakob

    2015-01-01

    The great potential of gold catalysts for chemical conversions in both industrial and environmental concerns has attracted increasing interest in many fields of research. Gold nanoparticles supported by metal oxides with high surface area have been recognized as highly efficient and effective green heterogeneous catalyst even at room temperature under normal reaction conditions, in gas and liquid phase reactions. In the present review, we dis-cuss the recent development of heterogeneous, supported monometal ic gold catalysts for organic transforma-tions emphasizing mainly liquid phase hydrogenation reactions. Discussions on the catalytic synthesis procedures and the promoting effect of other noble metals are omitted since they are already worked out. Appli-cations of heterogeneous, supported monometal ic catalysts for chemoselective hydrogenations in liquid phase are studied including potential articles during the period 2000–2013.

  7. Synthesis of Gold Catalysts Supported on Mesoporous Silica Materials: Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Belkacemi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica materials (MSM with ordered and controllable porous structure, high surface area, pore volume and thermal stability are very suitable catalyst supports, because they provide high dispersion of metal nanoparticles and facilitate the access of the substrates to the active sites. Since the conventional wet-impregnation and deposition-precipitation methods are not appropriate for the incorporation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs into MSM, considerable efforts have been made to develop suitable methods to synthesize Au/MSM catalysts, because the incorporation of AuNPs into the channel system can prevent their agglomeration and leaching. In this review, we summarize the main methods to synthesize active gold catalysts supported on MSM. Examples and details of the preparative methods, as well as selected applications are provided. We expect this article to be interesting to researchers due to the wide variety of chemical reactions that can be catalyzed by gold supported catalysts.

  8. Development of Advanced ISS-WPA Catalysts for Organic Oxidation at Reduced Pressure/Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Nalette, Tim; Kayatin, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The Water Processor Assembly (WPA) at International Space Station (ISS) processes a waste stream via multi-filtration beds, where inorganic and non-volatile organic contaminants are removed, and a catalytic reactor, where low molecular weight organics not removed by the adsorption process are oxidized at elevated pressure in the presence of oxygen and elevated temperature above the normal water boiling point. Operation at an elevated pressure requires a more complex system design compared to a reactor that could operate at ambient pressure. However, catalysts currently available have insufficient activity to achieve complete oxidation of the organic load at a temperature less than the water boiling point and ambient pressure. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop a more active and efficient catalyst at ambient pressure and a moderate temperature that is less than water boiling temperature. This paper describes our efforts in developing high efficiency water processing catalysts. Different catalyst support structures and coating metals were investigated in subscale reactors and results were compared against the flight WPA catalyst. Detailed improvements achieved on alternate metal catalysts at ambient pressure and 200 F will also be presented in the paper.

  9. Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barger, P.T.; Spehlmann, B.C.; Gajda, G.J.

    1996-10-01

    The initial objective of this program was to develop a catalyst and process for the conversion of synthesis gas to isobutylene via the isosynthesis process. Preliminary work directed at identifying potential catalysts for this reaction did not have promising results. Therefore, the objectives of this program were revised to the development of a catalyst and process for the conversion of synthesis gas to isobutanol. Two approaches have been investigated in this area: the direct conversion of synthesis gas to higher alcohols and indirect conversion via methanol produced using conventional methanol synthesis technology. The isosynthesis reaction for the conversion of synthesis gas to branched hydrocarbons was pioneered by German workers during World War II The primary products of this reaction are either isobutane or isobutylene depending on the catalyst system used. Thoria-based catalysts were found to give the highest yields, but virtually all of the products were alkanes. More recently, there have been several reports of olefin production using ZrO{sub 2}-based. The preliminary work in this program focussed on the evaluation of ZrO{sub 2} and modified ZrO{sub 2} catalysts for the direct conversion of CO/H{sub 2} to isobutylene via the isosynthesis reaction. All of the catalysts and conditions evaluated in this work gave isobutylene yields of less than 4% which is far below that required for an economically viable process. A summary of the key results from this portion of the project is given in Section 3.6. In view of the poor performance of these catalysts and the lack any encouraging results from other research groups working in the isosynthesis area, this approach was abandoned in favor of approaches related to higher alcohols synthesis.

  10. Refusal as a democratic catalyst for mathematics education development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalene Swanson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about the connections between mathematics and democracy amongst the general populace have not been explicitly well rehearsed. A critical relationship with democracy for mathematics education may involve directing and redirecting its purposes. But, we ask, what if the ‘choice’ to not participate in experiences of mathematics education, or in its (redirection, were itself also a critical relationship with mathematics education? What if this refusal and disobedience to the evocative power of mathematics were a democratic action? We argue that consideration of mathematics education for democracy and development must take seriously specific acts of refusal that directly confront the construction of inequality common in most development contexts. Globalisation and development discourses, via citizenship and nationalism, construct relationships with learners and mathematics education in very specific ways that delimit possibilities for egalitarianism and democratic action. But, might such action not be recognised, not as refusal to participate per se, but as a refusal to participate in mathematics education’s colonising and/or globalising neo-liberal gaze? In arguing for the opening of a position of radical equality, we introduce Jacques Rancière to mathematics education theory, noting that for Rancière emancipation is the intentional disregard for ideological narratives such as the ones produced by mathematics education discourses. Thus, we provoke serious reconsideration of the assumptions behind most school improvement and professional development projects, as well as mathematics education policies and practices framed by globalising development discourses, and in the process we challenge our colleagues to consider ‘refusal’ not as deficit or failure, but as a critical position of radical equality in relation to mathematics education.

  11. [Novel possibilities of development and therapeutical application of liposomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozó, Tamás; Pál, Szilárd; Dévay, Attila

    2008-01-01

    Properties and possibilities of application of liposomal drug delivery systems are summarized in this review. Technological and biopharmeceutical criteria that have to be taken into consideration in the course of development of biocompatible liposomes are discussed. The manner and possibilities of active and passive targeting are shown according to the literary data and special liposome-based drug delivery systems responsible for pathologic or arteficial stimuli are introduced. PMID:18986087

  12. Combinatorial Development of Water Splitting Catalysts Based on the Oxygen Evolving Complex of Photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodbury, Neal [Arizona State University

    2010-03-31

    The use of methods to create large arrays of potential catalysts for the reaction H2O ½ O2 + 2H+ on the anode of an electrolysis system were investigated. This reaction is half of the overall reaction involved in the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen gas. This method consisted of starting with an array of electrodes and developing patterned electrochemical approaches for creating a different, defined peptide at each position in the array. Methods were also developed for measuring the rate of reaction at each point in the array. In this way, the goal was to create and then tests many thousands of possible catalysts simultaneously. This type of approach should lead to an ability to optimize catalytic activity systematically, by iteratively designing and testing new libraries of catalysts. Optimization is important to decrease energy losses (over-potentials) associated with the water splitting reaction and thus for the generation of hydrogen. Most of the efforts in this grant period were focused on developing the chemistry and analytical methods required to create pattern peptide formation either using a photolithography approach or an electrochemical approach for dictating the positions of peptide bond formation. This involved testing a large number of different reactions and conditions. We have been able to find conditions that have allowed us to pattern peptide bond formation on both glass slides using photolithographic methods and on electrode arrays made by the company Combimatrix. Part of this effort involved generating novel approaches for performing mass spectroscopy directly from the patterned arrays. We have also been able to demonstrate the ability to measure current at each electrode due to electrolysis of water. This was performed with customized instrumentation created in collaboration with Combimatrix. In addition, several different molecular designs for peptides that bound metals (primarily Mn) were developed and synthesized and metal

  13. Quality Service in the International Hotel Sector: A Catalyst for Strategic Human Resource Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gill; Watson, Sandra; Quail, Samantha

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the nature of, and relationship between, a quality service initiative and the concept of strategic human resource development. Hilton International is the case study used for this analysis. The principal finding is that the quality initiative is acting as a catalyst for a strategic approach to human resource development to…

  14. Development of catalyst for diesel engine; Diesel engine yo shokubai no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, H.; Furutani, T.; Nagami, T. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Aono, N.; Goshima, H.; Kasahara, K. [Cataler Industrial Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The new concept catalyst for diesel engine has been developed. When the exhaust temperature is low, SOF and HC are temporarily adsorbed by the adsorbent within the catalyst and are oxidized as the temperature rise. The process of this development have manifested as follows. (1) The coating material is important factor to govern the oxidation activity. (2) SOF is reduced by the coating material in low temperature less than 200degC. (3) The coating material, which has low SO2 adsorbing rate suppress the sulfate formation at high temperature. 2 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Possibilities of tourism development in the Visegrad countries

    OpenAIRE

    Glozová, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis analyzes the tourism of the Visegrad countries and the possibilities of its development. Member countries of the Visegrad Group are the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia. In this paper are described and analyzed indicators of tourism, their structure, execution conditions and the importance of tourism. Further you can find information about the Visegrad group, history and current trends in development. The next section is focused on different Visegrad states, th...

  16. Development of Hydrocracking Catalyst to Produce High Quality Clean Middle Distillates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xuejun; Zhang Zhihua

    2004-01-01

    A novel hydrocracking Ni-W binary catalyst was tentatively designed and prepared by means of impregnation on mixed supports of modified Y zeolite and amorphous aluminosilicate. The structure and properties of catalyst were extensively characterized by XRD, NH3-TPD, IR and XRF techniques. The performance of catalyst was evaluated by a 100-ml hydrogenation laboratory test unit with two single-stage fixed-bed reactors connected in series. The characterization results showed that the catalyst has a developed and concentrated mesopores distribution, suitable acid sites and acid strength distribution, and uniform and high dispersion of metal sites. Under a high conversion rate of 73.8% with the >350℃ feedstock, a 98. 1m% of C5+yield and 83.5% of middle distillates selectivity were obtained. The yield of middle distillates boiling between 140℃and 370℃ was 68.70m% and its quality could meet the WWFC category Ⅲ specification. It means that this catalyst could be used to produce more high quality clean middle distillates derived from heavy oil hydrocracking. The potential aromatic content of heavy naphtha from 65℃ to 140℃ was 37.5m%. The BMCI value of >370℃ tail oil was 6.6. The heavy naphtha and tail oil are premium feedstocks for catalytic reforming and steam cracker units.

  17. Development of Ni-Based Catalysts for Steam Reforming of Tar Derived from Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dalin LI; Yoshinao NAKAGAWA; Keiichi TOMISHIGE

    2012-01-01

    Nickel catalysts are effective for the steam reforming of tar derived from biomass pyrolysis,but the improvement is needed in terms of activity,stability,suppression of coke deposition and aggregation,and regeneration.Our recent development of Ni-based catalysts for the steam reforming of tar is reviewed including the modification with CeO2 (or MnO),trace Pt,and MgO.The role of additives such as CeO2,MnO,Pt,and MgO is also discussed.

  18. Request for Information from entities interested in commercializing Laboratory-developed homogeneous catalyst technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intrator, Miranda Huang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-25

    Many industrial catalysts used for homogeneous hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of unsaturated substrates are derived from metal complexes that include (air-sensitive) ligands that are often expensive and difficult to synthesize. In particular, catalysts used for many hydrogenations are based on phosphorus containing ligands (in particular PNP pincer systems). These ligands are often difficult to make, are costly, are constrained to having two carbon atoms in the ligand backbone and are susceptible to oxidation at phosphorus, making their use somewhat complicated. Los Alamos researchers have recently developed a new and novel set of ligands that are based on a NNS (ENENES) skeleton (i.e. no phosphorus donors, just nitrogen and sulfur).

  19. Research and Development of Novel Heavy Oil Catalytic Cracking Catalyst RCC-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiexiao; Zhou Yan; Xu Yun; Tian Huiping

    2014-01-01

    A novel heavy oil catalytic cracking catalyst RCC-1 was developed by using the ultra-stable zeolite, which was hydrothermally treated and modiifed through cleaning its pores to serve as the active component. The chemical composi-tion and physicochemical properties of RCC-1 catalyst were studied by XRF, BET, pore volume analysis, attrition index analysis, and particle size distribution determination methods, and its catalytic cracking performance was also evaluated by a microreactor for light oil cracking and the ACE device. The test results showed that the new type of heavy oil catalytic cracking catalyst RCC-1 had good physicochemical properties and heavy oil cracking ability, strong anti-metallic contami-nation capability, good product distribution, good coke selectivity and gasoline selectivity, and excellent reduction of gaso-line oleifn content characteristics.

  20. Visible-Light-Responsive Catalyst Development for Volatile Organic Carbon Remediation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Hintze, Paul E.; Coutts, Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysis is a process in which light energy is used to 'activate' oxidation/reduction reactions. Unmodified titanium dioxide (TiO2), a common photocatalyst, requires high-energy UV light for activation due to its large band gap (3.2 eV). Modification of TiO2 can reduce this band gap, leading to visible-light-responsive (VLR) photocatalysts. These catalysts can utilize solar and/or visible wavelength LED lamps as an activation source, replacing mercury-containing UV lamps, to create a "greener," more energy-efficient means for air and water revitalization. Recently, KSC developed several VLR catalysts that, on preliminary evaluation, possessed high catalytic activity within the visible spectrum; these samples out-performed existing commercial VLR catalysts.

  1. Development and Commercial Application of Ultra-Low Pressure Naphtha Reforming Technology with Continuous Catalyst Regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Aizeng; Xu Youchun; Yang Dong; Zhang Xinkuan; Wang Jieguang

    2013-01-01

    The development history and major technological innovations of the ultra-low pressure naphtha reforming tech-nology with continuous catalyst regeneration in China were introduced. This technology had been adopted by the 1.0 Mt/a CCR unit at the Guangzhou Company. The appropriate catalyst was selected to meet the demand of the unit capacity, the feedstock, and the product slate. The design parameters, including the reaction pressure, the octane number of C5+ liquid product, the reaction temperature, the space velocity, the hydrogen/oil molar ratio, and the catalyst circulating rate, were chosen based on the study of process conditions and parameters. The commercial test results showed that the research oc-tane number of C5+ product reached 104 when the capacity of the CCR unit was 100% and 115% of the design value. The other technical targets attained or exceeded the expected value.

  2. Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, A.H.

    1993-12-14

    The goal of this project is the development of a commercially viable, cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst for use in a slurry bubble column reactor. Cobalt-based catalysts have long been known as being active for F-T synthesis. They typically possess greater activity than iron-based catalysts, historically the predominant catalyst being used commercially for the conversion of syngas based on coal, but possess two disadvantages that somewhat lessen its value: (1) cobalt tends to make more methane than iron does, and (2) cobalt is less versatile with low H2/CO ratio syngas due to its lack of water-gas shift activity. Therefore, the major objectives of this work are (1) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with low ( < 5 %) methane selectivity, (2) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with water-gas shift activity, and (3) to combine both these improvements into one catalyst. It will be demonstrated that these catalysts have the desired activity, selectivity, and life, and can be made reproducibly. Following this experimental work, a design and a cost estimate will be prepared for a plant to produce sufficient quantities of catalyst for scale-up studies.

  3. Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, A.H.

    1994-05-31

    The goal of this project is the development of a commercially viable, cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst for use in a slurry bubble column reactor. Cobalt-based catalysts have long been known as being active for F-T synthesis. They typically possess greater activity than iron-based catalysts, historically the predominant catalyst being used commercially for the conversion of syngas based on coal, but possess two disadvantages that somewhat lessen its value: (1) cobalt tends to make more methane than iron does, and (2) cobalt is less versatile with low H{sub 2}/CO ratio syngas due to its lack of water-gas shift activity. Therefore, the major objectives of this work are (1) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with low (< 5 %) methane selectivity, (2) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with water-gas shift activity, and (3) to combine both these improvements into one catalyst. It will be demonstrated that these catalysts have the desired activity, selectivity, and life, and can be made reproducibly. Following this experimental work, a design and a cost estimate will be prepared for a plant to produce sufficient quantities of catalyst for scale-up studies.

  4. Development of group IV molecular catalysts for high temperature ethylene-α-olefin copolymerization reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosin, Jerzy; Fontaine, Philip P; Figueroa, Ruth

    2015-07-21

    This Account describes our research related to the development of molecular catalysts for solution phase olefin polymerization. Specifically, a series of constrained geometry and nonmetallocene (imino-amido-type) complexes were developed for high temperature olefin polymerization reactions. We have discovered many highly active catalysts that are capable of operating at temperatures above 120 °C and producing copolymers with a useful range of molecular weights (from medium to ultrahigh depending on precatalyst identity and polymerization conditions) and α-olefin incorporation capability. Constrained geometry catalysts (CGCs) exhibit very high activities and are capable of producing a variety of copolymers including ethylene-propylene and ethylene-1-octene copolymers at high reactor temperatures. Importantly, CGCs have much higher reactivity toward α-olefins than classical Ziegler-Natta catalysts, thus allowing for the production of copolymers with any desired level of comonomer. In search of catalysts with improved performance, we discovered 3-amino-substituted indenyl-based CGCs that exhibit the highest activity and produce copolymers with the highest molecular weight within this family of catalysts. Phenanthrenyl-based CGCs were found to be outstanding catalysts for the effective production of high styrene content ethylene-styrene copolymers under industrially relevant conditions. In contrast to CGC ligands, imino-amido-type ligands are bidentate and monoionic, leading to the use of trialkyl group IV precatalysts. The thermal instability of imino-amido complexes was addressed by the development of imino-enamido and amidoquinoline complexes, which are not only thermally very robust, but also produce copolymers with higher molecular weights, and exhibit improved α-olefin incorporation. Imido-amido and imino-enamido catalysts undergo facile chain transfer reactions with metal alkyls, as evidenced by a sharp decrease in polymer molecular weight when the

  5. Development of Auto Exhaust Catalysts and Associated Application of Rare Earths in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓东; 翁端

    2004-01-01

    There are at least three obvious trends in the developments of automotive market in China: the evolution of emission standards from Euro Ⅱ to Euro Ⅲ, the demand of lean-burn gasoline engine and the time of diesel vehicles. The latest application and advances of exhaust catalysts by Chinese researchers, using some high effcient, economical and durable methods to meet these changes in emission regulations laws and engine technologies, were described. Rare earth oxides, such as lanthana, ceria-based solid solutions and perovskite-type oxides, are widely used as excellent promoters for thermal stability, oxygen storage capacity and oxidation/reduction activity in these catalysts. Four phases in the development of the auto exhaust catalyst industry in China since the mid 1970s were reviewed. It is argued that China will become the center of global auto exhaust catalysts industry in the next decades with its economic, technical and environmental incentives, which greatly depends on the research and development of rare earth.

  6. Hydrocracking for oriented conversion of heavy oils. Recent trends for catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoncini, F.; Bonduelle, A.; Simon, L.J. [IFP Energies nouvelles, Lyon Establishment, Solaize (France). Catalysis and separation Division; Raybaud, P.; Dulot, H. [IFP Energies nouvelles, Lyon Establishment, Solaize (France). Process Desing Modeling Division

    2011-07-01

    As a result of the global economic crisis since the end of 2008, HCK operators have been looking to increase the profitability of the unit by processing heavier feed streams, including sourer VGO. These feeds present the drawbacks of increased H{sub 2} consumption, lower products yields and quality, and reduction in cycle lengths. Along with optimised process parameters, catalysts manufacturers are also investigating novel formulations to deal with challenging feeds. This lecture briefly summarizes the market trends (fuel demand, refinery's product specification) and the driving forces for HCK catalyst development in order to face these new challenges. Finally, this lecture highlights the innovating trends for HCK catalyst's development. Overview of various ideas developed recently in our research laboratory about (i) rational approaches for the atomic scale design of active phases (morphology, preparation, inhibitor effects), (ii) new preparations of transition metal sulphides for maximising the hydrogenating function (precursors, activation,.), (iii) rational approaches of HCK acidic supports for maximizing the selectivity and (iv) better understanding of HCK reactions. These improvements will be discussed in term of improvement of activity and selectivity of HCK catalyst to cope with future market needs. (orig.)

  7. Development and Commercial Application of a Novel Catalyst DVR-1 for Catalytic Cracking of Daqing Vacuum Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yinan; Tian Huiping; Chen Yun; Wang Yamin

    2002-01-01

    A newly developed catalyst type DVR- 1 for catalytic cracking of Daqing vacuum resid was put into use in a commercial VRFCC unit. This catalyst features uniquely active matrix and modified ultrastable zeolite. The commercial application results show that the DVR-1 type catalyst has the advantage of high heavy oil conversion, good metal tolerance and good stability for catalyst regeneration. The FCC tests have shown favorable product distribution, acceptable product quality and enormous economic benefits when processing the feedstock containing 75%-100% Daqing VR.

  8. Development of hydrophobic catalyst for hydrogen isotope exchange between hydrogen gas and liquid water (Preprint No. CI-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exchange of deuterium between hydrogen and water is important for heavy water production. The exchange reaction is too slow and requires a catalyst for any practicability. However usual catalysts lose their catalytic activity in contact with liquid water probably because of water engulfing all the catalytic sites and preventing hydrogen from reaching them. This problem has been overcome by imparting hydrophobicity to these catalysts. A brief account of the development of a hydrophobic catalyst Pt-C-PTFE is given. (author). 16 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Development of wet-proofed catalyst and catalytic exchange process for tritium extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Myung Jae; Son, Soon Hwan; Chung, Yang Gun; Lee, Gab Bock [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    To apply a liquid phase catalytic exchange(LPCE) process for the tritium extraction from tritiated heavy water, the wet proofed catalyst to allow the hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction between liquid water and hydrogen gas was developed. A styrene divinyl benzene copolymer was selected as am effective catalyst support and prepared by suspension copolymerization. After post-treatment, final catalyst supports were dipped in chloroplatinic acid solution. The catalyst support had a good physical properties at a particular preparation condition. The catalytic performance was successfully verified through hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction in the exchange column. A mathematical model for the tritium removal process consisted of LPCE front-ended process and cryogenic distillation process was established using the NTU-HTU method for LPCE column and the FUG method for cryogenic distillation column, respectively. A computer program was developed using the model and then used to investigate optimum design variables which affect the size of columns and tritium inventory (author). 84 refs., 113 figs.

  10. Development of improved iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Final technical report: Project 6464

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukur, D.B.; Ledakowicz, S.; Koranne, M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [and others

    1994-02-28

    Despite the current worldwide oil glut, the United States will ultimately require large-scale production of liquid (transportation) fuels from coal. Slurry phase Fischer Tropsch (FT) technology, with its versatile product slate, may be expected to play a major role in production of transportation fuels via indirect coal liquefaction. Texas A&M University (TAMU) with sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, Center for Energy and Mineral Resources at TAMU, Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., has been working on development of improved iron FT catalysts and characterization of hydrodynamic parameters in two- and three-phase bubble columns with FT derived waxes. Our previous studies have provided an improved understanding of the role of promoters (Cu and K), binders (silica) and pretreatment procedures on catalyst activity, selectivity and longevity (deactivation). The objective of the present contract was to develop improved catalysts with enhanced slurry phase activity and higher selectivity to liquid fuels and wax. This was accomplished through systematic studies of the effects of pretreatment procedures and variations in catalyst composition (promoters and binders). The major accomplishments and results in each of these two main areas of research are summarized here.

  11. Novel Catalyst Development for Synthetic Endothermic Fuels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Incorporated (PSI) and United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) propose to develop, characterize, and evaluate the performance of innovative...

  12. Development of sustainable Palladium-based catalysts for removal of persistent contaminants from drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Danmeng

    Pd-based catalytic reduction has emerged as an advanced treatment technology for drinking water decontamination, and a suite of persistent contaminants including oxyanions, N-nitrosoamines, and halogenated compounds are amenable to catalytic reduction. The primary goal of this study is to develop novel Pd-based catalysts with enhanced performance (i.e., activity, selectivity, and sustainability) to remove contaminants from drinking water. The effects of water quality (i.e., co-contaminants in water matrix), catalyst support, and catalyst metal were explored, and they provide insights for preparing catalysts with faster kinetics, higher selectivity, and extended lifetime. Azo dyes are wide-spread contaminants, and they are potentially co-exisiting with target contaminants amenable for catalytic removal. The probe azo dye methyl orange (MO) enhanced catalytic reduction kinetics of a suite of oxyanions (i.e., nitrate, nitrite, bromate, chlorate, and perchlorate) and diatrizoate significantly but not N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) with a variety of Pd-based catalysts. Nitrate was selected as a probe contaminant, and several different azo dyes (i.e., (methyl orange, methyl red, fast yellow AB, metanil yellow, acid orange 7, congo red, eriochrome black T, acid red 27, acid yellow 11, and acid yellow 17) were evaluated for their ability to enhance reduction. A hydrogen atom shuttling mechanism was proposed and a kinetic model was proposed based on Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) theory, and they suggest sorbed azo dyes and reduced hydrazo dyes shuttle hydrogen atoms to oxyanions or diatrizoate to enhance their reduction kinetics. Next, vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports were used to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). In order to evaluate the amount of interior versus exterior loading of Pd nanoparticles, a fast and accurate geometric

  13. Irish experiences of the rural development possible lessons for Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Krstan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available For the last fifteen years or so there has been an intensive discussion about the Irish "economic miracle". Since Irish economy has experienced a highest degree of sustained growth among the EU states in this very period this perception is an accurate one. The average GDP growth rate in this period has constantly been above five percent. The national income per capita rose dramatically to 27000 Euro and is the highest in the EU. The rate of employment is permanently on the increase while (qualified workforce is becoming imported as well. In a very short period of time Ireland has achieved not only an impressive level of economic development but has also experienced a radical social transformation. From predominantly agrarian and traditionally emigrant country, Ireland has rapidly become a highly developed (postindustrial immigrant society. There is no doubt that the adequate strategy and the politics of rural development had an important role to play in achieving these enviable results. Regardless of how much this development is conditioned and influenced by the rural development policies of the EU, Irish model still has many authentic features. This paper explores the possibilities of using some of these experiences from the Irish developmental strategies in the context of an integral rural development of Serbia in the period of transition.

  14. Development of biogas reforming Ni-La-Al catalysts for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, M.; García, S.; Ferreira-Aparicio, P.; Serrano, L. García; Daza, L.

    In this work, the results obtained for Ni-La-Al catalysts developed in our laboratory for biogas reforming are presented. The catalyst 5% Ni/5% La 2O 3-γ-Al 2O 3 has operated under kinetic control conditions for more than 40 h at 700 °C and feeding CH 4/CO 2 ratio 1/1, similar to the composition presented in biogas streams, being observed a stable behaviour. Reaction parameters studied to evaluate the catalyst activity were H 2/CO and CH 4/CO 2 conversion ratio obtained. On the basis of a CH 4 conversion of 6.5%, CH 4/CO 2 conversion ratio achieved 0.48 and H 2/CO ratio obtained was 0.43. By comparison of experimental results to equilibrium prediction for such conditions, is detectable a lower progress of reverse water gas shift reaction. This fact increases the H 2/CO ratio obtained and therefore the hydrogen production. The higher H 2/CO and a CH 4/CO 2 conversion ratio in comparison to CH 4 one close to equilibrium is due to the carbon deposits gasification which avoids catalyst deactivation. A thermodynamic analysis about the application of dry and combined methane reforming to hydrogen production for fuel cells application is presented. Data obtained by process simulation considering a Peng-Robinson thermodynamic model, allows optimizing process conditions depending on biogas composition.

  15. The development of isomerization catalysts for production of high-octane products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, A.M. Garrido; Melo, D.M.A.; Araujo, A.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, M.J.B.; Silva, A.O.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    In current petroleum industry, paraffins larger than C5 are used for catalytic reform. The catalytic reform is one of the most important processes for petroleum refine in reason of all reactions they drive to production of high-octane products. Reformate has high-octane products, but they contain 60% aromatics. Isomerization of C5- C7 can improve the octane number. The octane number of n-heptane is zero and increases after isomerization. For tri branched C7, the octane number reaches 113, which is higher than that of benzene. So, isomerization of C5-C7 is suggested to be a reasonable way to replace or partly replace the catalytic reforming process. It can decrease aromatics content with enhancement of octane number. Liquid acid catalysts were widely used in chemical industry in past decades. However, they face strong environmental challenges. The heavy corrosion of the reactor system is one of the main problems. Thus, solid acid catalysts are investigated for the isomerization reactions. The aim of this work is to develop a catalysts for the production of reformate products. Isomerization is catalyzed by metal-acid bifunctional catalysts. The metal components aid in hydrogenation, while the support, such as, zirconium, clays or zeolites, is the acidic component. (author)

  16. Development of a wetproofed catalyst recombiner for removal of airborne tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For cleanup of airborne tritium at tritium handling facilities, it is generally agreed that the most reliable method is to convert the tritium in a recombiner into water vapor followed by adsorption of the vapor in a molecular sieve drier. Decontamination factors of 103 to 106 have been reported. Wetproofed catalysts developed at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories have been shown to maintain their activities when exposed to liquid water or air at 100% relative humidity. When a wetproofed catalyst recombiner is used, operation can be carried out at room temperatures thus greatly simplifying the system. Two catalysts, Pt/carbon and Pt/silica, were prepared for this study. The activity of Pt/carbon was measured with hydrogen and found to be comparable to the published results for conventional Pt/alumina catalysts at similar conditions. Experiments were carried out for the following range of operating conditions: flows from 0.3 to 3.0 m/s, pressure from 100 to 500 kPa. Tritium was added to the air stream at 1-5 MBq.m-3 (30-140 μCi.m-3). No significant isotope and/or pressure effects were observed. To date lifetime data of greater than four months have been obtained

  17. Recent advances in the development of alkyne metathesis catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Tamm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of well-defined molybdenum and tungsten alkylidyne complexes that are able to catalyze alkyne metathesis reactions efficiently has been significantly expanded in recent years.The latest developments in this field featuring highly active imidazolin-2-iminato- and silanolate–alkylidyne complexes are outlined in this review.

  18. Development of Asymmetric Hydrogenation Catalysts via High Throughput Experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.G. de; Lefort, L.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of drugs discovery imposes severe time constraints on the development chemist in charge of implementing the large scale production of a new Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). This results in the use of well-established and robust transformations at the expense of the cost-efficienc

  19. Corporate Universities: A Catalyst for Strategic Human Resource Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Peter; Pyman, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the extent to which the concept of the corporate university is emerging as a simple re-labelling of the functional training area or a key strategic platform in developing organisational competitive advantage. Design/methodology/approach: A case study approach was taken to provide an in-depth…

  20. Development of tailored porous microstructures for infiltrated catalyst electrodes by aqueous tape casting methods

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, Mark; Doherty, D.J.; Yue, Xiangling; Irvine, John Thomas Sirr

    2015-01-01

    The authors acknowledge the EPSRC Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Supergen Fuels Cells Challenge Programme project EP/M014304/1 “Tailoring of microstructural evolution in impregnated SOFC electrodes” and the University of St Andrews for funding this work. Recent SOFC research has shown that impregnating fine catalyst structures into porous scaffolds to be an extremely promising route for electrode development. It is clear that in optimising the advantages offered by this technique there will be an...

  1. CATALYST ACTIVITY MAINTENANCE FOR THE LIQUID PHASE SYNTHESIS GAS-TO-DIMETHYL ETHER PROCESS PART II: DEVELOPMENT OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE AS THE DEHYDRATION CATALYST FOR THE SINGLE-STEP LIQUID PHASE SYNGAS-TO-DME PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang-Dong Peng

    2002-05-01

    At the heart of the single-step liquid phase syngas-to-DME process (LPDME{trademark}) is a catalyst system that can be active as well as stable. In the Alternative Fuels I program, a dual-catalyst system containing a Cu-based commercial methanol synthesis catalyst (BASF S3-86) and a commercial dehydration material ({gamma}-alumina) was demonstrated. It provided the productivity and selectivity expected from the LPDME process. However, the catalyst system deactivated too rapidly to warrant a viable commercial process [1]. The mechanistic investigation in the early part of the DOE's Alternative Fuels II program revealed that the accelerated catalyst deactivation under LPDME conditions is due to detrimental interaction between the methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst [2,3]. The interaction was attributed to migration of Cu- and/or Zn-containing species from the synthesis catalyst to the dehydration catalyst. Identification of a dehydration catalyst that did not lead to this detrimental interaction while retaining adequate dehydration activity was elusive. Twenty-nine different dehydration materials were tested, but none showed the desired performance [2]. The search came to a turning point when aluminum phosphate was tested. This amorphous material is prepared by precipitating a solution containing Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with NH{sub 4}OH, followed by washing, drying and calcination. The aluminum phosphate catalyst has adequate dehydration activity and good stability. It can co-exist with the Cu-based methanol synthesis catalyst without negatively affecting the latter catalyst's stability. This report documents the details of the development of this catalyst. These include initial leads, efforts in improving activity and stability, investigation and development of the best preparation parameters and procedures, mechanistic understanding and resulting preparation guidelines, and the accomplishments of this work.

  2. Commercial Application of the CTV-IV Type Catalyst for Synthesis of Vinyl Acetate Developed by Shanghai Petrochemical Research Instit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The CTV-IV type catalyst for synthesis of vinyl acetate developed by the SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute (SPRI) has been successfully applied on the #2 vinyl acetate unit at SINOPEC's Shanghai Petrochemical Company.

  3. Processes on the "young" Mars: possible developments of events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    Collected by Mars rovers and orbiters data allowed to reconstruct the possible stages in the development on the planet Mars. It is believed that the first geological era of the planet - Fillotsian - started 4.5 billion years ago. It lasted for 500-700 million years. At that time, Mars was a wet planet. Today Mars is a desert. However, when about 4 billion years ago there began an eruption of numerous volcanoes. The planet slowly cooled, volcanic activity has decreased - and ejection of gases into the atmosphere has decreased. Evidence of the impact of a large asteroid on Mars is the Hellas Planitia, which is located near the southern polar region. Thanks to the theory, methods of calculation and programs that are designed for tasks of penetration projectiles - managed to reconstruct the shape of Hellas and determine the parameters of asteroids. Upon impact, could have formed a powerful shock wave that has passed to the opposite hemisphere, and was focused symmetrically to the crater of Hellas. As a result by the shock wave was formed the highest volcano in Solar system - Olympus

  4. Acetylcholine synthesis and possible functions during sea urchin development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Angelini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neurotransmitter system molecules were found to play a role during fertilisation and early cell cycles of a large number of invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. In this study, we investigated the presence and possible function of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the biosynthetic enzyme of acetylcholine in gametes of the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, through localisation and functional studies. ChAT-like molecules were detected in oocytes, mature eggs and zygotes with indirect immunofluorescence methods. Positive immunoreactivity was found in the ovarian egg cytoplasm and surface as well as at the zygote surface. This suggests the eggs' capacity to autonomously synthesise acetylcholine (ACh, the signal molecule of the cholinergic system. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, the lytic enzyme of acetylcholine was also found in ovarian eggs, with a similar distribution; however, it disappeared after fertilisation. Ultrastructural ChAT localisation in sperms, which was carried out with the immuno-gold method, showed immunoreactivity in the acrosome of unreacted sperms and at the head surface of reacted sperms. In order to verify a functional role of ACh during fertilization and sea urchin development, in vivo experiments were performed. Exposure of the eggs before fertilisation to 1 mM ACh + 1 ?M eserine caused an incomplete membrane depolarisation and consequently enhanced polyspermy, while lower concentrations of ACh caused developmental anomalies. The exposure of zygotes to 0,045 AChE Units/mL of sea water caused developmental anomalies as well, in 50% of the embryos. Altogether, these findings and other previously obtained results, suggest that the cholinergic system may subserve two different tasks during development, according to which particular type of ACh receptor is active during each temporal window. The first function, taking place in the course of fertilisation is a result of autonomously synthesised ACh in sperms, while the

  5. Development of Self-Organized Polymeric Lewis Acid-Catalysts for the Zero-Emission Synthesis of 2-Amino Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Inanaga

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction β-Amino alcohols are versatile synthetic intermediates for a wide range of biologically active natural and unnatural products. They can also serve as good chiral ligands for some asymmetric metal complex catalysts.The nucleophilic ring-opening of epoxides with an amine is one of the most efficient routes to obtain such β-amino alcohols with 1,2-trans stereochemistry. Therefore, various homogeneous catalysts have been developed for this transformation. Meanwhile, the development of efficient heterogeneous catalysts that can be easily prepared, recovered, and reused without losing their activities has currently received much attention from a practical and environmental point of view, and not a few such reusable heterogeneous catalysts (e. g., supported on inorganic materials or insoluble polymers) have been developed[1]. In general, however, they tend to show lower catalytic activities and selectivities compared to the corresponding homogeneous one, and the preparation of them are often tedious.

  6. Carbon monoxide oxidation over three different states of copper: Development of a model metal oxide catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernigan, G G [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-10-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation was performed over the three different oxidation states of copper -- metallic (Cu), copper (I) oxide (Cu{sub 2}O), and copper (II) oxide (CuO) as a test case for developing a model metal oxide catalyst amenable to study by the methods of modern surface science and catalysis. Copper was deposited and oxidized on oxidized supports of aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, tantalum, stainless steel, and iron as well as on graphite. The catalytic activity was found to decrease with increasing oxidation state (Cu > Cu{sub 2}O > CuO) and the activation energy increased with increasing oxidation state (Cu, 9 kcal/mol < Cu{sub 2}O, 14 kcal/mol < CuO, 17 kcal/mol). Reaction mechanisms were determined for the different oxidation states. Lastly, NO reduction by CO was studied. A Cu and CuO catalyst were exposed to an equal mixture of CO and NO at 300--350 C to observe the production of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. At the end of each reaction, the catalyst was found to be Cu{sub 2}O. There is a need to study the kinetics of this reaction over the different oxidation states of copper.

  7. Development status und future possibilities for martensitic creep resistant steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hald, J. [Technical Univ. Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    In the last four decades new stronger modified 9%Cr martensitic creep resistant steels have been introduced in power plants, which has enabled increases in maximum achievable steam conditions from the previous 250 bar and 540-560 C up to the values of 300 bar and 600-620 C currently being introduced all over the world. In order to further increase the steam parameters of steel based power plants up to a target value of 650 C/325 bar it is necessary to double the creep strength of the martensitic steels. At the same time the resistance against steam oxidation must be improved by an increase of the chromium content in the steels from 9% to 12%. However, so far all attempts to make stronger 12%Cr steels have led to breakdowns in long-term creep strength. Significant progress has been achieved in the understanding of microstructure stability of the martensitic 9-12%Cr steels: Observed microstructure instabilities in 11-12%Cr steels are explained by Z-phase precipitation, which dissolves fine MN nitrides. Improved understanding of effects of B and N on long-term creep properties has formed the basis of a series of new stronger 9%Cr test alloys with improved creep strength. In parallel 9%Cr test steels with low C content show very promising behavior in long-term tests. However, the 9%Cr steels must be surface coated to protect against steam oxidation at high temperature applications above 620%C. A possibility to use fine Z-phases for strengthening of the martensitic steels has been identified, and this opens a new pathway for development of stable strong 12%Cr steels. There are still good prospects for the realization of a 325 bar / 650 C steam power plant all based on steel. (orig.)

  8. Development of structural characterisation tools for catalysts; Developpement d'outils de caracterisation structurale de catalyseurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, J.

    1999-10-01

    Because of the diversity of their compositions and structures, and the treatments needed to render them active, heterogeneous catalysts present a major challenge in structural characterisation. Electron microscopy provides textural and structural information at the scale of the individual particle. We have been able to analyse epitaxial relationships between nanometer size particles and their support and to determine which crystal faces are most exposed. Chemical analysis can be carried out on individual particles in a bimetallic catalyst. Limitations of this technique are shown for characterisation of catalysts at the atomic scale or in reactive conditions. Here, global analysis methods based on X-ray absorption and diffraction provide more information. W-ray absorption fine structure analysis has been applied to sub-nanometer size particles in platinum based catalysts to explore interactions between the metal and reactive gases such as hydrocarbons and H{sub 2}S. Differences observed between mono-metallic and bimetallic solids lead to structural models to explain differences in catalyst reactivity. X-ray diffraction, combined with electron microscopy, shows the presence of different forms of extra-framework aluminium is steamed zeolites. Quantification of some these forms has been possible and a study of their reactivity towards different de-aluminating agents has been achieved. Work in progress shows the advantages of a combination of X-ray diffraction and absorption to study decomposition of hydrotalcites to form mixed oxides as well as possibilities in infra-red spectroscopy of adsorbed CO to determine surface sites in Fischer Tropsch catalysts. Use of in-situ analysis cells enables a detailed description of catalyst structure in reactive atmospheres and opens the possibility of correlating structure with catalytic activity. (author)

  9. Recent Technological Developments in Cobalt Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junling Zhang; Jiangang Chen; Yongwang Li; Yuhan Sun

    2002-01-01

    Co-based catalysts are often utilized due to their high Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) activity,C+5 hydrocarbon selectivity, low water-gas shift reaction (WGS) activity and relatively low cost. Selective control of C5+ hydrocarbons and the catalyst longevity are critical in the design of cobalt catalysts.Thus, various methods to improve the performance of Co catalysts have been suggested. The progress in cobalt catalysts reviewed in the last few decades, mainly involved the support, promoter, preparation and deactivation of Co-based catalysts.

  10. Catalyst for Gas Phase Hydrogenation of Aldehydes Successfully Developed by Daqing Chemical Research Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A national invention patent has been granted to the method for preparation of the Cu-Zn-Al system catalyst for gas phase hydrogenation of aldehydes developed by the Daqing Chemi-cal Research Center (DCRC) under the PetroChina Petro-chemical Research Institute. This technology is mainly ap-plied to the gas phase process for hydrogenation of butanal/crotonaldehyde to manufacture butanol/octanol and has brought about hundreds of million RMB of economic ben-efits since its application.

  11. Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Final report, September 1, 1990--January 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

    1994-05-06

    Previous work on isosynthesis (conversion of synthesis gas to isobutane and isobutylene) was performed at very low conversions or extreme process conditions. The objectives of this research were (1) determine the optimum process conditions for isosynthesis; (2) determine the optimum catalyst preparation method and catalyst composition/properties for isosynthesis; (3) determine the kinetics for the best catalyst; (4) develop reactor models for trickle bed, slurry, and fixed bed reactors; and (5) simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for isosynthesis. More improvement in catalyst activity and selectivity is needed before isosynthesis can become a commercially feasible (stand-alone) process. Catalysts prepared by the precipitation method show the most promise for future development as compared with those prepared hydrothermally, by calcining zirconyl nitrate, or by a modified sol-gel method. For current catalysts the high temperatures (>673 K) required for activity also cause the production of methane (because of thermodynamics). A catalyst with higher activity at lower temperatures would magnify the unique selectivity of zirconia for isobutylene. Perhaps with a more active catalyst and acidification, oxygenate production could be limited at lower temperatures. Pressures above 50 atm cause an undesirable shift in product distribution toward heavier hydrocarbons. A model was developed that can predict carbon monoxide conversion an product distribution. The rate equation for carbon monoxide conversion contains only a rate constant and an adsorption equilibrium constant. The product distribution was predicted using a simple ratio of the rate of CO conversion. This report is divided into Introduction, Experimental, and Results and Discussion sections.

  12. Large Scale Manufacture of Catalyst for Making DME Developed by Southwest Chemical Research and Design Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Southwest Chemical Research and Design Institute (SCRDI) after tackling the key technology related with the catalyst for manufacture of DME through gas phase dehydration of methanol has made great breakthroughs in large scale preparation of catalyst for DME production.

  13. Development of a CO2 Tolerant Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst:from Laboratory to Commercial-Scale Demonstration in Alaska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joep J H M Font Freide; Tim D Gamlin; J Richard Hensman; Barry Nay; Christopher Sharp

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the development of BP's Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, used for the conversion of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons. It covers the 18 year period from the early eighties, when laboratory scale preparations and micro-reactors were heavily used, right through to the present day with the commercial scale manufacture and proving of the finished catalyst in BP's new $86 million gas to liquids demonstration facility in Nikiski, Alaska. Extensive performance testing and scale-up experiments have been successfully carried out, all proof that a laboratory preparation can indeed be translated into a commercial manufacturing process. In addition, the resulting catalyst does not only meet the process design targets, but also exhibits enhanced stability and is tolerant to carbon dioxide.Above all, a commercial scale, fixed bed Fischer-Tropsch catalyst is now available and ready for licensing.Manufacturing procedures and quality control have all been successfully detailed and transferred to the commercial manufacturer.

  14. Novel growth method of carbon nanotubes using catalyst-support layer developed by alumina grit blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiromichi; Ishii, Juntaro; Ota, Keishin

    2016-08-19

    We propose an efficient method of growing carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays on a variety of metals, alloys, and carbon materials using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) assisted by a simple surface treatment of the materials. The main feature of this method is the application of grit blasting with fine alumina particles to the development of a catalyst-support layer required for the growth of CNTs on various conductive materials, including ultra-hard metals such as tungsten. Auger electron spectroscopy shows that grit blasting can form a non-continuous layer where alumina nanoparticles are embedded as residues in the blasting media left on the treated surfaces. This work reveals that such a non-continuous alumina layer can behave as the catalyst-support layer, which is generally prepared by sputter or a vacuum evaporation coating process that considerably restricts the practical applications of CNTs. We have attempted to grow CNTs on grit-blasted substrates of eighteen conventionally used conductive materials using CVD together with a floating iron catalyst. The proposed method was successful in growing multi-walled CNT arrays on the grit-blasted surfaces of all the examined materials, demonstrating its versatility. Furthermore, we found that the group IV metal oxide films thermally grown on the as-received substrates can support the catalytic activity of iron nanoparticles in the CVD process just as well as the alumina film developed by grit blasting. Spectral emissivity of the CNT arrays in the visible and infrared wavelength ranges has been determined to assess the applicability of the CNT arrays as a black coating media. PMID:27389659

  15. Novel growth method of carbon nanotubes using catalyst-support layer developed by alumina grit blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiromichi; Ishii, Juntaro; Ota, Keishin

    2016-08-01

    We propose an efficient method of growing carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays on a variety of metals, alloys, and carbon materials using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) assisted by a simple surface treatment of the materials. The main feature of this method is the application of grit blasting with fine alumina particles to the development of a catalyst-support layer required for the growth of CNTs on various conductive materials, including ultra-hard metals such as tungsten. Auger electron spectroscopy shows that grit blasting can form a non-continuous layer where alumina nanoparticles are embedded as residues in the blasting media left on the treated surfaces. This work reveals that such a non-continuous alumina layer can behave as the catalyst-support layer, which is generally prepared by sputter or a vacuum evaporation coating process that considerably restricts the practical applications of CNTs. We have attempted to grow CNTs on grit-blasted substrates of eighteen conventionally used conductive materials using CVD together with a floating iron catalyst. The proposed method was successful in growing multi-walled CNT arrays on the grit-blasted surfaces of all the examined materials, demonstrating its versatility. Furthermore, we found that the group IV metal oxide films thermally grown on the as-received substrates can support the catalytic activity of iron nanoparticles in the CVD process just as well as the alumina film developed by grit blasting. Spectral emissivity of the CNT arrays in the visible and infrared wavelength ranges has been determined to assess the applicability of the CNT arrays as a black coating media.

  16. Women And Development: The Good, The Bad, And The Possible

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinic, Ariana

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation is based on data I collected during periods of ethnographic field research from 2006-2012 in Chiapas and Guerrero, Mexico; Kerala and Uttarakhand, India; and Addis Ababa and Lalibela, Ethiopia. Through my discussion of my experiences in these places, I explore some of the ways in which women-centered development projects are affecting the lives of the women such projects claim to represent, educate, and empower. I hope to contribute to a conversation in which development sch...

  17. A possible protocognitive role for odor in human infant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Toller, S; Kendal-Reed, M

    1995-12-01

    Concepts relating to semiochemistry are now prevalent in the current literature on olfaction. Two fundamental tools of semiotics are metaphors, involving cognitive and verbal processes, and metonyms, involving nonverbal associations. By extending the concept of metonymy to non-linguistic transmission, we propose a possible explanation of how olfaction acts as a semiotic sense. Consideration of the sense of smell in animals and humans demonstrates its excellence for the formation of learned associations. In animals we find salient and complex information transmitted via biological odors. In this review, the olfactory dyadic relationship between mother and child is used for the theoretical proposal that the sense of smell plays an important protocognitive role in the genesis of cognition via mechanisms of in utero and postnatal nonlinguistic metonymic learning processes. PMID:8838386

  18. THE POSSIBILITIES OF MARICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Katavić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A stronger development of national mariculture that would be compatible with natural potentialities has not been acheived yet, primarily because of uncertain political and global macroeconomic environment in which mariculture is being developed. Such a characterization can be applied for finfish production in the floating cages and hanging shellfish culture on longline systems while breeding of tuna fish in cages is expanding. An intensive development of tuna culture is a consequence of increased demands of Japan market, eventhough one can expect slow down of such a production because of limited catch of subadult fish on which tuna production is based. The mariculture development is looked upon as controlled breeding of existing and newly introduced autochthonous fish and shellfish species with constant efforts made to make these products competitive on national and interantional market. Thus the reduction of costs, better product quality and constant advancement of ecological and health standards are the main tasks of further mariculture development in Croatia. It is also indispensable to create the necessary preconditions for further development of tuna culture in floating cages particularly paying attention to ecological aspects of such a production. There are also needs to medernise the production of sea bass and gilthead sea bream, to reinforce mariculture infrastructure and logistic, in addition to sistematic support to research and development of new mariculture projects. That will be a way how mariculture can provide market with high valued marine products, to contribute improvement of trade and economic growth, and finaly to advance the living standards in rural and island communities in particular.

  19. Manufacture of Catalyst Systems for Ammonia Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAKH S.V.; SAVENKOV D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Platinum catalyst gauzes have been in use since the moment of development of the process of catalyst oxidation of ammonia for production of nitric acid or hydrocyanic acid.Catalyst gauzes are usually made of platinum or its alloys with rhodium and palladium.These precious metals have remarkable properties that make them ideal catalysts for acceleration of the ammonia/oxygen reaction.In 2008,OJSC "SIC ‘Supermetal’" and Umicore AG&Co.KG launched a production line for Pt-alloy-based catalyst systems to be used for ammonia oxidation in the production of weak nitric acid.Catalyst systems consist of a pack of catalyst gauzes and a pack of catchment gauzes,which are made using flat-bed knitting machines and wire-cloth looms.Today,up-to-date catalyst systems MKSpreciseTM are being manufactured,the basic advantages of which are an individual structure of gauzes and composition of the material,which allows to define precisely the position of each gauze in the catalyst pack,a high activity of the catalyst pack,direct catching of platinum and rhodium in the catalyst system,and a reasonable combination of single- and multilayer types of gauzes.This makes it possible to vary the configuration of the catalyst and select an optimum composition of the system to ensure the maximum efficiency of the ammonia oxidation process.We also produce the catchment systems that allow to find the best decision from the economic point view for each individual case.

  20. Possible Effects of Internet Use on Cognitive Development in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Mills

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rise of digital media use and the ability to be in almost constant connection to the Internet has raised a number of concerns about how Internet use could impact cognitive abilities. In particular, parents and policy makers are concerned with how being ‘constantly online’ might disrupt social and cognitive development. This review integrates the latest empirical evidence on Internet use with relevant experimental studies to discuss how online behaviors, and the structure of the online environment, might affect the cognitive development of adolescents. Popular concerns are discussed in light of the reviewed evidence, and remaining gaps in knowledge are highlighted.

  1. Electric bicycles in The Netherlands: Current developments and future possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van

    2010-01-01

    Developments with electric bicycles in the Netherlands are progressing rapidly. The number of electric bicycles sold is rises every year. Cycling is a very popular mode of transport in The Netherlands. In 2008 more than one million bicycles were sold. At the moment one out of ten bicycles sold is al

  2. Using Evidence to Encourage Inclusive School Development: Possibilities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscow, Mel; Kaplan, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that inquiry-based approaches can be powerful in stimulating the development of inclusive practices. However, the implementation of such approaches can be difficult, particularly in contexts where there is a strong emphasis on improving standards, as measured by test and examination scores. This article describes and…

  3. Counterfactual Reasoning: Developing a Sense of "Nearest Possible World"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafetseder, Eva; Cristi-Vargas, Renate; Perner, Josef

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated at what point in development 3- to 6-year-old children begin to demonstrate counterfactual reasoning by controlling for fortuitously correct answers that result from basic conditional reasoning. "Basic conditional reasoning" occurs when one applies typical regularities (such as "If 'whenever' it doesn't rain the street is…

  4. Monocausalism versus systems approach to development - The possibility of natural resource-based development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan; Johnson, Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    Development economics have over the years produced several one-factor explanations by one-sidedly focusing on specific development factors or mechanisms as for example saving and investment, human capital, free markets, technology, institutions and production structure. In this paper we term...... is possible. The latter is illustrated by examples from Norway, the US and especially Brazil. We conclude that it is not the various endowments per se that are ‘fundamental’ for development, but rather the by institutions sustained interdependency and interaction between the different types of development...

  5. Environmental exposure scenarios: development, challenges and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Andreas; Traas, Theo P

    2007-12-01

    Under the new REACH system, companies importing, producing and marketing chemical substances will be obliged to register the single substances and to carry out a safety assessment for all identified uses during the life cycle of the substance. This duty will apply to about 10,000 existing substances in the EU market exceeding an annual production or import volume of 10 t per company. If the substance is already known to be dangerous or turns out to be dangerous(1) during the hazard assessment, the registrant is obliged to carry out an exposure assessment and a risk characterisation for all identified uses. The goal of the safety assessment is to define the conditions of use that allow for adequate control of risk with regard to health and safety at the work place, consumer safety and protection of the environment. Once the registrant has established and documented these conditions in the Chemicals Safety Report (CSR), that information is to be communicated down the supply chain by means of the Extended Safety Data Sheet (eSDS). The ultimate aim of the new legislation is to establish duties and mechanisms that systematically prevent or limit exposure to dangerous industrial chemicals. The current paper explains this concept with regard to environmental exposure and highlights the challenges and possible solutions.

  6. Information Support of Regions and Possibilities of Its Further Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vaněk, M. Stočes, P. Šimek, I. Hrbek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of information and communication technologies (ICT research support in the Czech Republic regions, focused mainly on the problems of mapping cultural heritage together with activities in the area of tourism and business activities connected with it (accommodation, food etc. One possible approach is demonstrated on the example of web portal “Get to know Posumavi – a tourist guide to Posumavi”. This approach integrates the advantages of standard information sources with the Internet application. Moreover, this application provides a clear topographical output. The project is being prepared in co-operation with a chosen local partner, in our case the Posumavi local action group. The under-mentioned solution can be further extended if need be, but we can also understand it as a general-purpose solution which means it can be widely used in other areas of the information support of regions.The knowledge and data presented in the paper were obtained as a result of the Research Program titled “Economy of the Czech Agriculture Resources and Their Efficient Use within the Framework of the Multifunctional Agri-food Systems” of the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports number VZ MSM 6046070906.

  7. Development of vanadium-phosphate catalysts for methanol production by selective oxidation of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, R.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The United States has vast natural gas reserves which could contribute significantly to our energy security if economical technologies for conversion to liquid fuels and chemicals were developed. Many of these reserves are small scale or in remote locations and of little value unless they can be transported to consumers. Transportation is economically performed via pipeline, but this route is usually unavailable in remote locations. Another option is to convert the methane in the gas to liquid hydrocarbons, such as methanol, which can easily and economically be transported by truck. Therefore, the conversion of methane to liquid hydrocarbons has the potential to decrease our dependence upon oil imports by opening new markets for natural gas and increasing its use in the transportation and chemical sectors of the economy. In this project, we are attempting to develop, and explore new catalysts capable of direct oxidation of methane to methanol. The specific objectives of this work are discussed.

  8. The Possible Role of Peripheral Refraction in Development of Myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, David A; Rosén, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Recent longitudinal studies do not support the current theory of relative peripheral hyperopia causing myopia. The theory is based on misunderstanding of the Hoogerheide et al. article of 1971, which actually found relative peripheral hyperopia to be present after, rather than before, myopia development. The authors present two alternative theories of the role of peripheral refraction in the development and progression of myopia. The one for which most detail is given is based on cessation of ocular growth when the periphery is at an emmetropic stage as determined by equivalent blur of the two line foci caused by oblique astigmatism. This paper is based on an invited commentary on the role of lens treatments in myopia from the 15th International Myopia Conference in Wenzhou, China in September 2015. PMID:27560691

  9. MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT POSSIBILITIES FOR SPA TOURISM IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja BERBER

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two forms of tourism, which are represented to a large extent in the world, are spa and wellness tourism. In Serbia, spa and wellness tourism are not sufficiently used, although there are excellent conditions. During twenty century the state was paying more attention and money on the sea and river tourism. However, the separation of Serbia and Montenegro in two independent counties had left Serbia without an entrance to the Adriatic Sea, so development of other tourist products and destinations became an imperative for survival and existence in the tourist map of Europe and the world. The paper presents the basic aims and policies of development of spa tourism in Serbia and data obtained in the survey regarding quality of services provided in some spa towns in Serbia. Based on the results to which the research occurred, authors wished to point out main activities and tasks that the state uses in creating a development strategy of spa tourism, the programs that have already been taken, so as the influence of the economic crisis to spa tourism.

  10. TRENDS IN OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND POSSIBILITIES OF ALTERNATIVE FINANCING MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talknice Saungweme

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses trends in Official Development Assistance (ODA to developing countries, mainly Africa, and possibilities of new financing instruments. Economies of most developing countries, especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa, are characterised by low investment flows, huge import bills and lower exports. Subsequently, development assistance is the major source of external finance and has taken the form of budget support, humanitarian and development finance. However, the noted fall in ODA in 2005, 2009 and 2012 might adversely impact directly on the attainment of millennium development goals in 2015. This negative trend in ODA is a result of a combination of factors such as economic constraints in the donor countries (for example, the debt crisis and/or a new shift in financing mechanisms to developing countries.

  11. Poly(neutral red) as a NAD{sup +} reduction catalyst and a NADH oxidation catalyst: Towards the development of a rechargeable biobattery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arechederra, Marguerite N.; Addo, Paul K. [Department of Chemistry, Saint Louis University, 3501 Laclede Ave., St. Louis, MO 63103 (United States); Minteer, Shelley D., E-mail: minteers@slu.ed [Department of Chemistry, Saint Louis University, 3501 Laclede Ave., St. Louis, MO 63103 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have established that poly(neutral red), PNR, functions as an electrocatalyst for the reduction and oxidation of NAD{sup +}/NADH in a rechargeable biobattery environment. The reversibility of this catalyst was possible only with the addition of Zn{sup 2+} for complexation to the redox polymer. The zinc ion complexation with the polymer facilitates electron and proton transfer to/from the substrate and the NAD{sup +}/NADH coenzyme without forming covalent bonds between the nicotinamide and the substrate surface. This research presents use of this reversible catalyst in a rechargeable biobattery. The rechargeable battery includes a Prussian blue cathode and a bioanode including NAD{sup +}-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase and zinc complexed PNR. This bioanode was coupled to the cathode with Nafion 212 acting as the ion exchange membrane separator between the two compartments. The biobattery has an open circuit potential of 0.545({+-}0.009) V when first assembled and 0.053({+-}0.005) V when fully discharged. However, when fully charged, the biobattery has an open circuit potential of 1.263({+-}0.051) V, a maximum power density of 16.3({+-}4.03) {mu}W cm{sup -3} and a maximum current density of 221({+-}13.2) {mu}A cm{sup -3}. The efficiency and stability of the biobattery were studied by cycling continuously at a discharging rate of 1 C and the results obtained showed reasonable stability over 50 cycles.

  12. Design strategies for the molecular level synthesis of supported catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Staci L; Marks, Tobin J; Stair, Peter C

    2012-02-21

    -resolution solid state NMR, UV-visible diffuse reflectance (DRS), UV-Raman, and X-ray absorption spectroscopies to characterize supported catalysts. We demonstrate that it is possible to tailor and isolate defined surface species using a molecularly oriented approach. We anticipate that advances in catalyst design and synthesis will lead to a better understanding of catalyst structure and function and, thus, to advances in existing catalytic processes and the development of new technologies. PMID:22004451

  13. Possible optimal development strategies of some nuclear power integrated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper approaches the optimization of some nuclear power integrated systems, defined as fast-thermal coupled systems and devoted to energy production. The thermal nuclear reactor type is represented by PHWR's and PWR's while the fast nuclear reactor type is represented by LMFBR's (PuO2), LMFBR's (CPu), or GCFBR's (PuO2). These reactor types which represent three succesive generation of fast reactors are integrated in nuclear power system with a variable time delay. The global systems which have imbedded the three FBR's are optimized from two points of view: the simultaneous maximization of annual energy and the minimization of annual energy specific cost price; the simultaneous maximization of annual energy and the minimization of natural Uranium fuel consumption. The decision variables are the development periods of the system and the optimization mathematical model used is a bimatrix game model without side payments. (author)

  14. Modern multiphase catalysis: new developments in the separation of homogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Mark J

    2010-01-14

    Homogeneous catalysts are powerful tools for the synthesis of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals and materials, however their exploitation on an industrial scale is often held back due to the challenges of separating and recycling the catalyst. This perspective focuses on approaches to multiphase catalysis that have emerged in the last decade, highlighting methods that can address the separation issues and in some cases result in superior catalyst performance and environmental benefits.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

    2003-11-30

    Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. Evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with methane. Since the replacement of ammonia by methane is commercially very attractive, in this project, the effect of promoters on the activity and selectivity of copper oxide/cerium oxide-based catalysts and the reaction mechanism for the SCR with methane was investigated. Unpromoted and promoted catalysts were investigated for their SCR activity with methane in a microreactor setup and also, by the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) technique. The results from the SCR experiments indicated that manganese is a more effective promoter than the other metals (Rh, Li, K, Na, Zn, and Sn) for the supported copper oxide-ceria catalysts under study. The effectiveness of the promoter increased with the increase in Ce/Cu ratio. Among the catalysts tested, the Cu1Ce3 catalyst promoted with 1 weight % Mn was found to be the best catalyst for the SCR of NO with methane. This catalyst was subjected to long-term testing at the facilities of our industrial partner TDA Research. TDA report indicated that the performance of this catalyst did not deteriorate during 100 hours of operation and the activity and selectivity of the catalyst was not affected by the presence of SO{sub 2}. The conversions obtained by TDA were significantly lower than those obtained at Hampton University due to the transport limitations on the reaction rate in the TDA reactor, in which 1/8th inch pellets were used while the Hampton University reactor contained 250-425-{micro}m catalyst particles. The selected catalyst was also tested at the TDA facilities with high-sulfur heavy oil as the reducing agent. Depending on the heavy oil flow rate, up to 100% NO conversions were obtained. The

  16. Enantioselective Decarboxylative Alkylation Reactions: Catalyst Development, Substrate Scope, and Mechanistic Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-11-14

    α-Quaternary ketones are accessed through novel enantioselective alkylations of allyl and propargyl electrophiles by unstabilized prochiral enolate nucleophiles in the presence of palladium complexes with various phosphinooxazoline (PHOX) ligands. Excellent yields and high enantiomeric excesses are obtained from three classes of enolate precursor: enol carbonates, enol silanes, and racemic β-ketoesters. Each of these substrate classes functions with nearly identical efficiency in terms of yield and enantioselectivity. Catalyst discovery and development, the optimization of reaction conditions, the exploration of reaction scope, and applications in target-directed synthesis are reported. Experimental observations suggest that these alkylation reactions occur through an unusual inner-sphere mechanism involving binding of the prochiral enolate nucleophile directly to the palladium center.

  17. Development and Electrochemical Studies of Ruthenium Based Mixed Oxide Catalyst Electrodes for Chlorine Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which allow comparison of the electrochemical performance of RuO2/Ti, Ru0.3Sn0.7O2/Ti and Ru0.3V0.7O2/Ti catalysts prepared on a titanium substrate by thermal decomposition from respective precursors. The highest activity for chlorine evolution is observed on the Ru0.3V0.7O2/Ti electrode, lower on Ru0.3Sn0.7O2/Ti and least on RuO2/Ti. Voltammograms obtained in the polarisable region are used to characterize the different electrodes. Further more an analysis of the catalytic activity and reaction kinetics of the developed electrodes in NaCl are presented.

  18. Possibilities to develop low-fat products: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufeanu Roxana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has proved a relationship between high fat consumption and rise in obesity, atherosclerosis, coronary heart diseases and high blood pressure. Therefore is recommended the moderate consumption of fat, such that the total fat does not exceed 30% of total energy intake. Our body needs fats because are providers of calories, essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and also they are necessary ingredients of the foods. The development of products with low-fat content can be considerate a challenge because the lipids offers aroma, texture, appearance, flavour and mouth feel, qualities that customers want in food products. A fat reduction can be achieved by using different fat replacers to ensure the functionality of the replaced fat. Functional components of fat replacers can have a significant role in promotion of wellbeing, in treating and preventing diseases. Thus, fat replacers should be recognized as safe and healthy, which have sensorial and functional properties. This paper reviews the fat replacers used to obtain foods as meat-based or dairy products. Some ways to obtain healthier meat products by reducing saturated fats content consist in the utilization of unsaturated vegetable oils, vegetable products, fibre. The utilization of fibre in products such bolognas, sausages or hamburgers, can improve the texture profile, binding properties and the characteristics regarding the cooking process. A fat reduction in dairy products can be achieved by replacing it with starches, polysaccharides, gums or fibres from cereal, vegetables and fruits. In acidified milk products, fibres have benefits as: low syneresis, sensory characteristics accepted by consumers, improvement of texture and rheological properties. In cheeses production, the fat reduction can be realised by replacing it with carbohydrate or protein-based replacers in order to obtain a final product with proper characteristics.

  19. Towards the computational design of solid catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Bligaard, Thomas; Rossmeisl, Jan;

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade the theoretical description of surface reactions has undergone a radical development. Advances in density functional theory mean it is now possible to describe catalytic reactions at surfaces with the detail and accuracy required for computational results to compare favourably...... with experiments. Theoretical methods can be used to describe surface chemical reactions in detail and to understand variations in catalytic activity from one catalyst to another. Here, we review the first steps towards using computational methods to design new catalysts. Examples include screening for catalysts...

  20. Development of mild and efficient method for synthesis of substituted flavones using oxalic acid catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhay S.Zambare; Jaiprakash N.Sangshetti; Nagnnath D.Kokare; Devanand B.Shinde

    2009-01-01

    Oxalic acid has been used as a catalyst for intramolecular cyclisation of 2-hydroxyehalcones to form flavones in good yields.The efficiency of the catalyst was proved with a variety of substrates ranging from electron-deficient to electron-rich aryl aldehydes and 2-hydroxychalcone.

  1. Design strategies for development of SCR catalyst: improvement of alkali poisoning resistance and novel regeneration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yue; Li, Junhua; Shi, Wenbo; Xu, Jiayu; Hao, Jiming

    2012-11-20

    Based on the ideas of the additives modification and regeneration method update, two different strategies were designed to deal with the traditional SCR catalyst poisoned by alkali metals. First, ceria doping on the V(2)O(5)-WO(3)/TiO(2) catalyst could promote the SCR performance even reducing the V loading, which resulted in the enhancement of the catalyst's alkali poisoning resistance. Then, a novel method, electrophoresis treatment, was employed to regenerate the alkali poisoned V(2)O(5)-WO(3)/TiO(2) catalyst. This novel technique could dramatically enhance the SCR activities of the alkali poisoned catalysts by removing approximately 95% K or Na ions from the catalyst and showed less hazardous to the environment. Finally, the deactivation mechanisms by the alkali metals were extensively studied by employing both the experimental and DFT theoretical approaches. Alkali atom mainly influences the active site V species rather than W oxides. The decrease of catalyst surface acidity might directly reduce the catalytic activity, while the reducibility of catalysts could be another important factor.

  2. Alkali promoted molybdenum (IV) sulfide based catalysts, development and characterization for alcohol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Belinda Delilah

    For more than a century transition metal sulfides (TMS) have been the anchor of hydro-processing fuels and upgrading bitumen and coal in refineries worldwide. As oil supplies dwindle and environmental laws become more stringent, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels and/or synthetic fuels. The depletion of oil reserves and a rapidly increasing energy demand worldwide, together with the interest to reduce dependence on foreign oil makes alcohol production for fuels and chemicals via the Fischer Tropsch synthesis (FTS) very attractive. The original Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction is the heart of all gas-to-liquid technologies; it creates higher alcohols and hydrocarbons from CO/H2 using a metal catalyst. This research focuses on the development of alkali promoted MoS2-based catalysts to investigate an optimal synthesis for their assistance in the production of long chain alcohols (via FTS) for their use as synthetic transportation liquid fuels. Properties of catalytic material are strongly affected by every step of the preparation together with the quality of the raw materials. The choice of a laboratory method for preparing a given catalyst depends on the physical and chemical characteristics desired in the final composition. Characterization methods of K0.3/Cs0.3-MoS2 and K0.3 /Cs0.3-Co0.5MoS2 catalysts have been carried out through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), BET porosity and surface analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Various characterization methods have been deployed to correlate FTS products versus crystal and morphological properties of these heterogeneous catalysts. A lab scale gas to liquid system has been developed to evaluate its efficiency in testing FT catalysts for their production of alcohols.

  3. Oxidation catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  4. Photocatalytic hydrogen production on SOLECTRO {sup registered} titanium dioxide layers. Development and characterization of an efficient catalyst; Photokatalytische Wasserstoffgewinnung an SOLECTRO {sup registered} -Titandioxidschichten. Entwicklung und Charakterisierung eines geeigneten Katalysators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saborowski, Sarah

    2010-03-03

    A catalyst for photocatalytic hydrogen production from methanol and water was developed on the basis of SOLECTRO {sup registered} titanium dioxide layers. A test facility was constructed in which several modified catalysts could be tested for this reaction. Detailed characterization of the electronic and optical characteristics of these catalysts made it possible to gain deeper insight into the processes involved in the reaction. (orig.) [German] Auf Basis der SOLECTRO {sup registered} -TiO{sub 2} -Schichten wurde ein Katalysator fuer die photokatalytische Wasserstoffdarstellung aus Methanol und Wasser entwickelt. Der Aufbau einer geeigneten Versuchsanlage ermoeglichte es, verschieden modifizierte Katalysatoren fuer diese Reaktion zu testen. Durch die ausfuehrliche Charakterisierung insbesondere der elektronischen und optischen Eigenschaften dieser Katalysatoren konnten vertiefende Erkenntnisse zu den waehrend der Reaktion ablaufenden Prozessen gewonnen werden. (orig.)

  5. Development of Highly Effective Nanoparticle Spinel Catalysts for Aerobic Oxidation of Benzylic Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI,Hong-Bing(纪红兵); WANG,Le-Fu(王乐夫)

    2002-01-01

    Spinel catalyst MnFe1.8Cu0.15Ru0.05O4 with particle size of about 42 nm is an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the oxidation of benzylic alcohols. The substitution of Fe for Cu improves its catalytic activity. Based on the characterization of BET, XPS and EXAFS, two factors influencing the structure and texture of the catalyst caused by the substitution of Cu for Fe may be assumed: physical factor responsible for the increasing of surface area; chemical factor responsible for the transformation of Ru-O bonds to Ru = O bonds. β-Elimination is considered to be an important step in the reaction.

  6. Impeded solid state reactions and transformations in ceramic catalysts supports and catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernő E. Kiss

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Impeded chemical reactions and impeded polymorphous transformation in materials are discussed, as desired effects, for stabilization of ceramic catalyst supports and ceramic based catalysts. This paper gives a short overview about the possibilities of slowing down the aging processes in ceramic catalyst supports and catalysts. Special attention is given to alumina and titania based catalysts.

  7. Magnetic catalyst bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, Wendy; Bol, A.A.; Geus, John W.

    2001-01-01

    After a discussion about the importance of the size of the catalyst bodies with reactions in the liquid-phase with a suspended catalyst, the possibilities of magnetic separation are dealt with. Deficiencies of the usual ferromagnetic particles are the reactivity and the clustering of the particles.

  8. Study and development of membrane electrode assemblies for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) with palladium based catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PEMFC systems are capable of generating electricity with high efficiency and low or no emissions, but durability and cost issues prevent its large commercialization. In this work MEA with palladium based catalysts were developed, Pd/C, Pt/C and alloys PdPt/C catalysts with different ratios between metals and carbon were synthesized and characterized. A study of the ratio between catalyst and Nafion Ionomer for formation of high performance triple-phase reaction was carried out, a mathematical model to implement this adjustment to catalysts with different relations between metal and support taking into account the volumetric aspects of the catalyst layer was developed and then a study of the catalyst layer thickness was performed. X-ray diffraction, Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Energy Dispersive, Gas Pycnometry, Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry, Gas adsorption according to the BET and BJH equations, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis techniques were used for characterization and particle size, specific surface areas and lattice parameters determinations were also carried out. All catalysts were used on MEAs preparation and evaluated in 5 cm2 single cell from 25 to 100 °C at 1 atm and the best composition was also evaluated at 3 atm. In the study of metals for reactions, to reduce the platinum applied to the electrodes without performance losses, Pd/C and PdPt/C 1:1 were selected for anodes and cathodes, respectively. The developed MEA structure used 0,25 mgPt.cm-2, showing power densities up to 550 mW.cm-2 and power of 2.2 kWnet per gram of platinum. The estimated costs showed that there was a reduction of up to 64.5 %, compared to the MEA structures previously known. Depending on the temperature and operating pressure, values from US$ 1,475.30 to prepare MEAs for each installed kilowatt were obtained. Taking into account recent studies, it was concluded that the cost of the developed MEA is compatible with PEMFC stationary application. (author)

  9. New catalyst developed at Argonne National Laboratory could help diesels meet NOx deadlines

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "A new catalyst could help auto makers meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's deadline to eliminate 95 percent of nitrogen-oxide from diesel engine exhausts by 2007, while saving energy" (1 page).

  10. Development of a New Heterogeneous Lewis Acid Catalyst for Chemoselective Tetrahydropyranylation of Different Hydroxyl Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kolahdoozan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino functionalized triazine supported on silica-gel was prepared and characterized. This new triazine derivative was applied as a coordinating agent for aluminum chloride. This novel Lewis acid supported on heterogeneous surface was used as an effective catalyst for protection of alcohols and phenols in the presence of 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran. This catalyst can be reused without any significant loss of activity, and it protects alcohols in the presence of phenols.

  11. Brief Communication: CATALYST - a multi-regional stakeholder Think Tank for fostering capacity development in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Hare, M.P.; Bers, van C.; Keur, van der P.

    2014-01-01

    This brief communication presents the work and objectives of the CATALYST project on "Capacity Development for Hazard Risk Reduction and Adaptation" funded by the European Commission (October 2011–September 2013). CATALYST set up a multi-regional think tank covering four regions (Central America and

  12. Performance Comparison of Two Newly Developed Bimetallic (X-Mo/Al2O3, X=Fe or Co) Catalysts for Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl Gharibi Kharaji; Ahmad Shariati

    2016-01-01

    The performance of the two newly developed bimetallic catalysts based on the precursor, Mo/Al2O3, was com-pared for reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. The structures of the precursor and the catalysts were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spec-trometry (ICP-AES), CO chemisorption, temperature programmed reduction of hydrogen (H2-TPR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The activity of Fe-Mo and Co-Mo catalysts was compared in a ifxed bed reactor at different temperatures. It is shown that the Co-Mo catalyst has higher CO2 conversion at all temperature level. The time-on-stream (TOS) analysis of the activity of catalysts for the RWGS reaction was carried out over a continuous period of 60 h for both catalysts. The Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst exhibits good stability within a period of 60 h, however, the Co-Mo/Al2O3 is gradually deactivated after 50 h of reaction time. Existence of Fe2(MoO4)3 phase in Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst makes this catalyst more stable for RWGS reaction.

  13. Development of vanadium-phosphate catalysts for methanol production by selective oxidation of methane. Quarterly technical progress report 10, July 1, 1995--September 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, R.L.

    1995-12-07

    This document is the tenth quarterly technical progress report under Contract No. DE-AC22-92PC92110 {open_quotes}Development of Vanadium-Phosphate Catalysts for Methanol Production by Selective Oxidation of Methane{close_quotes}. Activities focused on testing of additional modified and promoted catalysts and characterization of these materials. Attempts at improving the sensitivity of our GC based analytical systems were also made with some success. Methanol oxidation studies were initiated. These results are reported. Specific accomplishments include: (1) Methane oxidation testing of a suite of catalysts promoted with most of the first row transition metals was completed. Several of these materials produced low, difficult to quantify yields of formaldehyde. (2) Characterization of these materials by XRD and FTIR was performed with the goal of correlating activity and selectivity with catalyst properties. (3) We began to characterize catalysts prepared via modified synthesis methods designed to enhance acidity using TGA measurements of acetonitrile chemisorption and methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether as a test reaction. (4) A catalyst prepared in the presence of naphthalene methanol as a structural disrupter was tested for activity in methane oxidation. It was found that this material produced low yields of formaldehyde which were difficult to quantify. (5) Preparation of catalysts with no Bronsted acid sites. This was accomplished by replacement of exchangeable protons with potassium, and (6) Methanol oxidation studies were initiated to provide an indication of catalyst activity for decomposition of this desired product and as a method of characterizing the catalyst surface.

  14. Characterization and regeneration of Pt-catalysts deactivated in municipal waste flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe deactivation was observed for industrially aged catalysts used in waste incineration plants and tested in lab-scale. Possible compounds that cause deactivation of these Pt-based CO oxidation catalysts have been studied. Kinetic observations of industrial and model catalysts showed that siloxanes were the most severe catalyst poisons, although acidic sulfur compounds also caused deactivation. Furthermore, a method for on-site regeneration without shutdown of the catalytic flue gas cleaning system has been developed, i.e. an addition of H2/N2 gas to the off-gas can completely restore the activity of the deactivated catalysts. (author)

  15. Development of metal catalyst impregnation technology for membrane-based oxygen removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissolved oxygen(DO) is a primary cause of PWSCC and its content in reactor coolant system in NPPs has been strictly controlled by various DO removal methods. There are several removal methods of DO, such as vacuum degasification, thermal deaeration, and reductive removal by oxygen scavengers. Although the operation principles of vacuum degasification and thermal deaeration are simple, these methods require a lot of energy for operation and show lower efficiency. And these methods have a few handicaps such as temperature, pH, toxicity, high cost of installation and so on. For the purpose of developing the best method for DO removal from make-up water storage tank, it is necessary to overcome the disadvantages of hydrazine treatment. From this point of view, membrane-based oxygen removal system (MORS) has many advantages than other methods for example, friendly environmental process, versatility of operation conditions with high temperature and low pressure, small space, low cost, etc. Recently de-gassing membrane is widely used in power plant's feed water system for DO removal. De-gassing membrane has some advantages; it removes other dissolved gases such as CO2, N2, as well as O2, and is more economical than Catalytic resin-based Oxygen Removal System. In this study, to obtain better efficiency of MORS, we modified the polypropylene (PP) hollow fiber membrane by plasma treatment and ion beam irradiation supported platinum(Pt), palladium(Pd) as metal catalyst on the surface of the membrane

  16. Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalysis: Ag-Doped TiO2 Catalyst Development and Reactor Design Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hintze, Paul E.; Meier, Anne; Shah, Malay G.; Devor, Robert W.; Surma, Jan M.; Maloney, Phillip R.; Bauer, Brint M.; Mazyck, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the alteration of titanium dioxide to become visible-light-responsive (VLR) has been a major focus in the field of photocatalysis. Currently, bare titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactors to provide adequate levels of ultraviolet light for catalyst activation; these mercury-containing lamps, however, hinder the use of this PCO technology in a spaceflight environment due to concerns over crew Hg exposure. VLR-TiO2 would allow for use of ambient visible solar radiation or highly efficient visible wavelength LEDs, both of which would make PCO approaches more efficient, flexible, economical, and safe. Over the past three years, Kennedy Space Center has developed a VLR Ag-doped TiO2 catalyst with a band gap of 2.72 eV and promising photocatalytic activity. Catalyst immobilization techniques, including incorporation of the catalyst into a sorbent material, were examined. Extensive modeling of a reactor test bed mimicking air duct work with throughput similar to that seen on the International Space Station was completed to determine optimal reactor design. A bench-scale reactor with the novel catalyst and high-efficiency blue LEDs was challenged with several common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in ISS cabin air to evaluate the system's ability to perform high-throughput trace contaminant removal. The ultimate goal for this testing was to determine if the unit would be useful in pre-heat exchanger operations to lessen condensed VOCs in recovered water thus lowering the burden of VOC removal for water purification systems.

  17. Catalysts and process developments for two-stage liquefaction. Final technical report, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronauer, D.C.; Swanson, A.J.; Sajkowski, D.J.

    1992-12-31

    Research in this project centered upon developing and evaluating catalysts and process improvements for coal liquefaction in the two-stage, close-coupled catalytic process. The major results are summarized here and they are described in more detail under each Task. In tasks for coal pretreatment and beneficiation, it was shown for coal handling that drying of both lignite or subbituminous coals using warm air, vacuum oven or exposing to air for long time was detrimental to subsequent liquefaction. Both laboratory and bench-scale beneficiations indicated that in order to achieve increased liquefaction yield for Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, size separation with in sink-float technique should be used. For subbituminous coal, the best beneficiation was aqueous SO{sub 2} treatment, which reduced mineral matter. In the case of lignite, the fines should be rejected prior to aqueous SO{sub 2} treatment and sink-float gravity separation. In liquefying coals with supported catalysts in both first and second stages, coal conversion was highest (93%) with Illinois No. 6 coal, which also had the highest total liquid yield of 80%, however, the product contained unacceptably high level of resid (30%). Both low rank coals gave lower conversion (85--87%) and liquid yields (57--59%), but lighter products (no resid). The analysis of spent first stage catalysts indicated significant sodium and calcium deposits causing severe deactivation. The second stage catalysts were in better condition showing high surface areas and low coke and metal deposits. The use of dispersed catalyst in the first stage would combat the severe deactivation.

  18. Current status, key challenges and its solutions in the design and development of graphene based ORR catalysts for the microbial fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, M V; Gnana Kumar, G

    2016-03-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are considered as the futuristic energy device that generates electricity from the catalytic degradation of biodegradable organic wastes using microbes, which exist in waste water. In MFCs, oxygen serves as a cathodic electron acceptor and oxygen reduction kinetics played a significant role in the determination of overall efficiency. A wide range of strategies have been developed for the preparation and substantial modification of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts to improve the maximum volumetric power density of MFCs, in which the efforts on graphene based ORR catalysts are highly imperative. Although numerous research endeavors have been achieved in relation with the graphene based ORR catalysts applicable for MFCs, still their collective summary has not been developed, which hinders the acquirement of adequate knowledge on tuning the specific properties of said catalysts. The intension of this review is to outline the significant role of ORR catalysts, factors influencing the ORR activity, strategies behind the modifications of ORR catalysts and update the research efforts devoted on graphene based ORR catalysts. This review can be considered as a pertinent guide to understand the design and developmental strategies of competent graphene based ORR catalysts, which are not only applicable for MFCs but also for number of electrochemical applications. PMID:26606182

  19. Development of Ternary and Quaternary Catalysts for the Electrooxidation of Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Artem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work consisted in the preparation of platinum-based catalysts supported on carbon (Vulcan XC-72 and investigation of their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. Catalysts of the C/Pt-Ni-Sn-Me (Me = Ru or Ir type were prepared by the Pechini method at temperature of 350∘C. Four different compositions were homemade: C/Pt60Sn10Ni30, C/Pt60Sn10Ni20Ru10, C/Pt60Sn10Ni10Ru20, and C/Pt60Sn10Ni10Ir20. These catalysts were electrochemically and physically characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV, chronoamperometry (CA in the presence of glycerol 1.0 mol dm-3, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. XRD results showed the main peaks of face-centered cubic Pt. The particle sizes obtained from XRD and HRTEM experiments were close to values ranging from 3 to 8.5 nm. The CV results indicate behavior typical of Pt-based catalysts in acid medium. The CV and CA data reveal that quaternary catalysts present the highest current density for the electrooxidation of glycerol.

  20. Development of heterogeneous olympic medal metal nanoparticle catalysts for environmentally benign molecular transformations based on the surface properties of hydrotalcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Kiyotomi; Mitsudome, Takato; Mizugaki, Tomoo; Jitsukawa, Koichiro

    2010-12-08

    In this review, we describe the development by our research group of highly functionalized heterogeneous Olympic medal metal (gold, silver, and copper) nanoparticle catalysts using hydrotalcite as a support, aimed towards Green and Sustainable Chemistry. Olympic medal metal nanoparticles can cooperate with the basic sites on the hydrotalcite surface, providing unique and high performance catalysis in environmentally-benign organic transformations such as aerobic oxidation of alcohols, lactonization of diols and selective deoxygenation of epoxides and nitro aromatic compounds.

  1. Development of Heterogeneous Olympic Medal Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts for Environmentally Benign Molecular Transformations Based on the Surface Properties of Hydrotalcite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Jitsukawa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we describe the development by our research group of highly functionalized heterogeneous Olympic medal metal (gold, silver, and copper nanoparticle catalysts using hydrotalcite as a support, aimed towards Green and Sustainable Chemistry. Olympic medal metal nanoparticles can cooperate with the basic sites on the hydrotalcite surface, providing unique and high performance catalysis in environmentally-benign organic transformations such as aerobic oxidation of alcohols, lactonization of diols and selective deoxygenation of epoxides and nitro aromatic compounds.

  2. Development of niobium-promoted cobalt catalysts on carbon nanotubes for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sardar Ali; Noor Asmawati Mohd Zabidi; Duvvuri Subbarao

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt-based catalysts were prepared by a wet impregnation method on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) support and promoted with niobium.Samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption,TEM,XRD,TPR,TPO and H2-TPD.Addition of niobium increased the dispersion of cobalt but decreased the catalysts reducibility.Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor at 543 K,1 atm and H2/CO =2 for 5 h.Addition of niobium enhanced the C5+ hydrocarbons selectivity by 39% and reduced methane selectivity by 59%.These effects were more pronounced for 0.04%Nb/Co/CNTs catalyst,compared with those observed for other niobium compositions.

  3. Development of Highly Effective Nanoparticle Spinel Catalysts for Aerobic Oxidation of Benzylic Alcoho1s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪红兵; 王乐夫

    2002-01-01

    Spinel catalyst MnFe1.8Cu0.15Ru0.05O4 with partcle size of about 42nm is an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the oxidation of benzylic alcobols.The substitution of Fe for Cu improves its catalytic activity.Based on the characterization of BET,XPS and EXAFS,two factors influencing the structure and texture of the catalyst cauesd by the substitution of Cu for Fe may be assumed:physical factor responsible for the increasing of surface area;chemical factor responsible for the transformation of Ru-O bonds to Ru=O boods.β-Elimination is considered to be an important step in the reaction.

  4. The role of reaction pathways and support interactions in the development of high activity hydrotreating catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsøe, Henrik; Hinnemann, Berit; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet;

    2005-01-01

    exhibiting a metallic character are observed to be involved in adsorption, hydrogenation and C-S bond cleavage. The insight is seen to provide a new framework for understanding the DDS and HYD pathways and the role of steric hindrance and poisons. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have illustrated...... structures may be present as single sulfide sheets. Thus, stacking is not an essential feature of Type II catalysts. The article illustrates how the new scientific insight has aided the introduction of the new high activity BRIM (TM) type catalysts for FCC pre-treatment and production of ultra low sulfur...

  5. Product Protection, the Key to Developing High Performance Methane Selective Oxidation Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlquist, Mårten; Nielsen, Robert J.; Periana, Roy A.; Goddard, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Selective, direct conversion of methane to methanol might seem an impossible task since the C−H bond energy of methane is 105 kcal mol^(−1) compared to the C−H bond energy for methanol of 94. We show here that the Catalytica catalyst is successful because the methanol is protected as methyl bisulfate, which is substantially less reactive than methanol toward the catalyst. This analysis suggests a limiting performance for systems that operate by this type of protection that is well above the C...

  6. Development of advanced zeolite catalysts for the vapor phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lian-Xin; Iwaki, Yoshihide; Koyama, Katsuyuki; Tatsumi, Takashi

    1997-11-01

    The vapor phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to ɛ-caprolactam catalyzed by various zeolites was studied. The catalytic performance was greatly affected by both the zeolite structure and diluent solvent. When 1-hexanol was used in place of benzene, the catalytic performance of all catalysts except silicalite-1 was greatly improved. In particular, the selectivity and stability of H-LTL and H-OFF-ERI zeolites remarkably increased; both catalysts exhibited ca. 100% oxime conversion and ɛ-caprolactam selectivity of >95% for 6 h.

  7. Enhancement of Treatment Efficiency of Recalcitrant Wastewater Containing Textile Dyes Using a Newly Developed Iron Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 Heterogeneous Catalyst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Ahmad

    Full Text Available Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead to the formation of high volumes of sludge and secondary pollutants. To overcome these problems, an alternate option is the usage of heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed to provide an alternative solution for homogeneous Fenton oxidation. Iron Zeolite Socony Mobile-5 (Fe-ZSM-5 was synthesized using a new two-step process. Next, the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and tested against a model wastewater containing the azo dye Acid Blue 113. Results showed that the loading of iron particles reduced the surface area of the catalyst from 293.59 to 243.93 m2/g; meanwhile, the average particle size of the loaded material was 12.29 nm. Furthermore, efficiency of the developed catalyst was evaluated by performing heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Taguchi method was coupled with principal component analysis in order to assess and optimize mineralization efficiency. Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions, over 99.7% degradation and 77% mineralization was obtained, with a 90% reduction in the consumption of the developed catalyst. Furthermore, the developed catalyst was stable and reusable, with less than 2% leaching observed under optimized conditions. Thus, the present study proved that newly developed catalyst has enhanced the oxidation process and reduced the chemicals consumption.

  8. Development of chiral metal amides as highly reactive catalysts for asymmetric [3 + 2] cycloadditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Yoshimoto, Susumu; Dutton, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Summary Highly efficient catalytic asymmetric [3 + 2] cycloadditions using a chiral copper amide are reported. Compared with the chiral CuOTf/Et3N system, the CuHMDS system showed higher reactivity, and the desired reactions proceeded in high yields and high selectivities with catalyst loadings as low as 0.01 mol %. PMID:27559396

  9. Theory-assisted development of a robust and Z-selective olefin metathesis catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, Giovanni; Koudriavtsev, Vitali; Törnroos, Karl W; Jensen, Vidar R

    2014-08-01

    DFT calculations have predicted a new, highly Z-selective ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalyst that is considerably more robust than the recently reported (SIMes)(Cl)(RS)RuCH(o-OiPrC6H4) (3a, SIMes = 1,3-dimesityl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene, R = 2,4,6-triphenylbenzene) [J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 3331]. Replacing the chloride of 3a by an isocyanate ligand to give 5a was predicted to increase the stability of the complex considerably, at the same time moderately improving the Z-selectivity. Compound 5a is easily prepared in a two-step synthesis starting from the Hoveyda-Grubbs second-generation catalyst 3. In agreement with the calculations, the isocyanate-substituted 5a appears to be somewhat more Z-selective than the chloride analogue 3a. More importantly, 5a can be used in air, with unpurified and non-degassed substrates and solvents, and in the presence of acids. These are traits that are unprecedented among highly Z-selective olefin metathesis catalysts and also very promising with respect to applications of the new catalyst.

  10. Theory-assisted development of a robust and Z-selective olefin metathesis catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, Giovanni; Koudriavtsev, Vitali; Törnroos, Karl W; Jensen, Vidar R

    2014-08-01

    DFT calculations have predicted a new, highly Z-selective ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalyst that is considerably more robust than the recently reported (SIMes)(Cl)(RS)RuCH(o-OiPrC6H4) (3a, SIMes = 1,3-dimesityl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene, R = 2,4,6-triphenylbenzene) [J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 3331]. Replacing the chloride of 3a by an isocyanate ligand to give 5a was predicted to increase the stability of the complex considerably, at the same time moderately improving the Z-selectivity. Compound 5a is easily prepared in a two-step synthesis starting from the Hoveyda-Grubbs second-generation catalyst 3. In agreement with the calculations, the isocyanate-substituted 5a appears to be somewhat more Z-selective than the chloride analogue 3a. More importantly, 5a can be used in air, with unpurified and non-degassed substrates and solvents, and in the presence of acids. These are traits that are unprecedented among highly Z-selective olefin metathesis catalysts and also very promising with respect to applications of the new catalyst. PMID:24788021

  11. Development of Nitric Oxide Oxidation Catalysts for the Fast SCR Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Crocker

    2005-09-30

    This study was undertaken in order to assess the potential for oxidizing NO to NO{sub 2} in flue gas environments, with the aim of promoting the so-called fast SCR reaction. In principle this can result in improved SCR kinetics and reduced SCR catalyst volumes. Prior to commencing experimental work, a literature study was undertaken to identify candidate catalysts for screening. Selection criteria comprised (1) proven (or likely) activity for NO oxidation, (2) low activity for SO2 oxidation (where data were available), and (3) inexpensive component materials. Catalysts identified included supported base metal oxides, supported and unsupported mixed metal oxides, and metal ion exchanged ZSM-5 (Fe, Co, Cu). For comparison purposes, several low loaded Pt catalysts (0.5 wt% Pt) were also included in the study. Screening experiments were conducted using a synthetic feed gas representative of flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers: [NO] = 250 ppm, [SO{sub 2}] = 0 or 2800 ppm, [H{sub 2}O] = 7%, [CO{sub 2}] = 12%, [O{sub 2}] = 3.5%, balance = N{sub 2}; T = 275-375 C. Studies conducted in the absence of SO{sub 2} revealed a number of supported and unsupported metal oxides to be extremely active for NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}. These included known catalysts (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, FeMnO{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}), as well as a new one identified in this work, CrFeO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}. However, in the presence of SO{sub 2}, all the catalysts tested were found to be severely deactivated with respect to NO oxidation. Of these, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, Pt/ZSM-5 and Pt/CeO{sub 2} showed the highest activity for NO oxidation in the presence of SO{sub 2} (based on peak NO conversions to NO{sub 2}), although in no cases did the NO conversion exceed 7%. Reactor studies indicate there are two components to SO{sub 2}-induced deactivation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, corresponding to an irreversible deactivation due to sulfation of the surface of the Co{sub 3

  12. College Students' Possible L2 Self Development in an EFL Context during the Transition Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ying; Wan, Zhi Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the field of second language learning motivation, the studies on process-oriented nature of possible L2 selves are scarce. In order to address this research gap, this study explored how a group of five Chinese non-English-major undergraduates developed their possible L2 selves during the transition year from high school to university. The…

  13. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)-(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized.

  14. Development of refractory ceramic using waste of petrochemical catalysts; Desenvolvimento de ceramica refrataria utilizando residuos de catalisadores petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroso, M.A.; Mymrine, V. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The manufacturing of catalytic catalysts by the company FCC SA. for the Brazilian petrochemical industry is 25,000 tons per annum, which after going through the cracking process cannot undergo regeneration any longer, being wasted with humidity near 70%. To increase the economical and environmental efficiency of the use of this rejected catalyst, without preliminary drying, a method of using it as main raw material in composition like kaolin was developed, as well as in ash and glass for the manufacturing of common (regular) and refractory ceramic. The mixture of these components were burnt at temperatures of 1100 deg C, 1200°C, 1250°C and 1300°C. The ceramics with 30% and 40% in weight of wasted catalyst, sintered in 1250 deg C or 1300 deg C have flexion of 10,8 - 12,9 MPa. After burning the mixtures, the chemical interaction of the initial components was determined by the methods of RXD, MEV and EDS, synthesizing new minerals like Diopside Ca(Mg,Al)(Si,Al){sub 2}O{sub 6}, Nepheline (K,Na)AlSiO{sub 4}, Lazurite Na{sub 8}[Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}[SO{sub 4},S]{sub 2}, Magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Albite Na Al Si{sub 3}O{sub 8} and high content of vitreous amorphous phase. (author)

  15. Development of methods for orderly growth of nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, R. R.; Kotlyar, K. P.; Khrebtov, A. I.; Samsonenko, Yu B.; Soshnikov, I. P.; Dyakonov, V.; Zadiranov, U. M.; Tankelevskaya, E. M.; Kudryashov, D. A.; Shevchuk, D. S.; Cirlin, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Method of manufacturing substrates for self-catalyst/free-catalyst ordered growth of the nanowires has been developed. Experiments show the possibility of autocatalytic growth of ordered GaAs NWs on the substrates produced during the research.

  16. Dynamics of development motive capabilities, psychophysiological and functional possibilities of boys 4-6 years

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrishko S.G.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of determination of level of development motive capabilities is examined. Directions of prognostication inclination of children of early age are rotined to the certain type of motive activity. The complex testing of individual possibilities of boys is conducted 4-6 years. Comparative description of indexes of motive function is presented during six testing. Certain the loud speaker of development of motive capabilities, psychophysiological and functional possibilities of boys. The...

  17. Design and Stereoselective Preparation of a New Class of Chiral Olefin Metathesis Catalysts and Application to Enantioselective Synthesis of Quebrachamine: Catalyst Development Inspired by Natural Product Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattely, Elizabeth S.; Meek, Simon J.; Malcolmson, Steven J.; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2010-01-01

    A total synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloid quebrachamine in racemic form is first described. A key catalytic ring-closing metathesis of an achiral triene is used to establish the all-carbon quaternary stereogenic center and the tetracyclic structure of the natural product; the catalytic transformation proceeds with reasonable efficiency through the use of existing achiral Ru or Mo catalysts. Ru- or Mo-based chiral olefin metathesis catalysts have proven to be inefficient and entirely nonselective in cases where the desired product is observed. In the present study, the synthesis route thus serves as a platform for the discovery of new olefin metathesis catalysts that allow for efficient completion of an enantioselective synthesis of quebrachamine. Accordingly, on the basis of mechanistic principles, stereogenic-at-Mo complexes bearing only monodentate ligands have been designed. The new catalysts provide significantly higher levels of activity than observed with the previously reported Ru- or Mo-based complexes. Enantiomerically enriched chiral alkylidenes are generated through diastereoselective reactions involving achiral Mo-based bispyrrolides and enantiomerically pure silyl-protected binaphthols. Such chiral catalysts initiate the key enantioselective ring-closing metathesis step in the total synthesis of quebrachamine efficiently (1 mol % loading, 22 °C, 1 h, >98% conversion, 84% yield) and with high selectivity (98:2 er, 96% ee). PMID:19113867

  18. Synchrotron radiation studies of supported metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic clusters supported on refractory oxides have been used extensively for several decades in the production of chemicals and petroleum derived transportation fuels. Catalysts containing more than one metal component are of particular interest since the addition of a second metal provides a method of controlling the selectivity of the catalyst. That is, the second metal can alter the rates of competing reactions in a complex reaction sequence and thus alter the final product distribution of the reaction. In this work the reactions of cyclohexane in hydrogen over silica supported ruthenium and osmium catalysts were studied. Bimetallic catalysts represent an important class of materials that are of interest both scientifically and technologically. Despite the importance and long-standing use of supported metal catalysts, detailed information on the structure of the metal clusters has been difficult to obtain. The development of x-ray absorption spectroscopy with the increasing availability of synchrotron radiation, however, has provided a powerful and versatile tool for studying the structure of these complex systems. Using the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) technique, it is possible to obtain information on the local atomic structure of supported monometallic catalytic metals and their interaction with the support. In the discussion that follows the authors will focus on results that have been obtained on the structure of supported bimetallic cluster catalysts

  19. Sustainable Utility of Magnetically Recyclable Nano-Catalysts in Water: Applications in Organic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj B. Gawande

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetically recyclable nano-catalysts and their use in aqueous media is a perfect combination for the development of greener sustainable methodologies in organic synthesis. It is well established that magnetically separable nano-catalysts avoid waste of catalysts or reagents and it is possible to recover >95% of catalysts, which is again recyclable for subsequent use. Water is the ideal medium to perform the chemical reactions with magnetically recyclable nano-catalysts, as this combination adds tremendous value to the overall benign reaction process development. In this review, we highlight recent developments inthe use of water and magnetically recyclable nano-catalysts (W-MRNs for a variety of organic reactions namely hydrogenation, condensation, oxidation, and Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions, among others.

  20. Using ICTs (Educationally) for Development in an African Context: Possibilities and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrim, Nazir; Taruvinga, Mandi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the possibilities and limitations of using ICTs for development in an African context from an education perspective. Although we provide an account of the Pan-African Agenda on integrating ICTs, which covers many countries on the African continent, our focus is specifically on using ICTs for development in a South African…

  1. (Invited) Towards the Development of Active, Stable and Abundant Catalysts for Oxygen Evolution in Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Paoli, Elisa Antares; Frydendal, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    Ox does indeed engender MnOx with modest stability. Further development of this strategy opens up the possibility of developing active, stable and abundant non-precious metal oxides for oxygen evolution in acid. References 1. M. K. Debe, S. M. Hendricks, G. D. Vernstrom, M. Meyers, M. Brostrom, M...... to the TW level. State-of the art PEM electrolysers employ IrOx, which is both expensive and scarce, to catalyse oxygen evolution.(1) Around a decade’s worth of Ir production would be required to scale up PEM electrolysis to the TW scale: this is clearly untenable.(2) It turns out that RuOx has a higher....... However, this is not a trivial task, given the highly oxidising and corrosive environment under reaction conditions. Herein, we attempt to address this problem by stabilising MnOx with TiOx. Density functional theory calculations suggest that the undercoordinated surface sites on MnOx, which are inactive...

  2. Monocausalism Versus Systems Approach To Development? The Possibility Of Natural Resource-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan Dahl; Johnson, Björn

    2011-01-01

    Development economics have over the years produced several one-factor explanations by one-sidedly focusing on specific development factors or mechanisms as for example saving and investment, human capital, free markets, technology, institutions and production structure. In this paper we term...... such narrow monocausal explanations as ‘fundamentalisms’. We identify and discuss several types of fundamentalism. We then argue that these diverse explanations of development in reality are interdependent and complement each other, and hence that the process of economic development must be understood...... as systemic. Throughout the paper there is a focus on natural resource-based development. It has been argued that abundant natural resources are detrimental to economic development – an argument known as the resource curse, which is one type of ‘production structure fundamentalism’. We argue that abundant...

  3. Development of an Innovative XRD-DRIFTS Prototype Allowing Operando Characterizations during Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt-Based Catalysts under Representative Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalbert Julien

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An original system combining both X-Ray Diffraction and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy was developed with the aim to characterize Fischer-Tropsch catalysts in relevant reaction conditions. The catalytic properties of a model PtCo/silica catalyst tested with this prototype have shown to be in the same range of those obtained in similar conditions with classical fixed-bed reactors. No bulk cobalt oxidation nor sintering were observed on operando XRD patterns. The formation of linear carbonyls and adsorbed hydrocarbons species at the surface of the catalyst was observed on operando DRIFT spectra. The surface of the catalyst was also suspected to be covered with carbon species inducing unfavorable changes in selectivity.

  4. Heterogeneous hydrogenation catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main types of heterogeneous catalysts used for hydrogenation, the methods for their preparation, and the structure and chemistry of their surfaces are considered, as well as the catalytic activity and the mechanism of action in the hydrogenation of unsaturated and aromatic compounds, of CO, and of carbonyl compounds and in the hydrorefining of fuels. Chief attention is paid to supported Ni catalysts, to the methods for their preparation and physicochemical studies, and to the development of novel catalytic systems through modification. A novel type of catalyst for hydrogenation, viz. metal carbides, is described. Some aspects of the mechanochemical treatment of hydrogenation catalysts, including in situ methods, are discussed. Sulfide catalysts for hydrotreating are also discussed in detail. The bibliography includes 340 references.

  5. Design of heterogeneous catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anne Mette

    . Previously it has been shown that calcination of cobalt catalyst in a NO/He mixture resulted in improved catalytic activity compared to standard air calcined samples, since more homogenous cobalt particles with a narrow particle size distribution were formed. Unfortunately the C5+ selectivity decreased....... Since Mn is known to improve C5+ selectivity the addition of this promoter, combined with NO calcination, was studied. The influence of parameters such as Co:Mn ratio, drying conditions, and reduction temperatures on the catalytic performance were investigated. The promotion strategy turned out to work...... well, and the best catalyst prepared had a C5+ yield almost a factor of two higher than a standard air calcined Co catalyst. In the NH3-SCR reaction it is desirable to develop an active and stable catalyst for NOx removal in automotive applications, since the traditionally used vanadium-based catalyst...

  6. The possibilities of rural development and the potential role of hunting tourism in rural development

    OpenAIRE

    Marselek, Sandor; Fabian, Gyula

    2008-01-01

    Rural development is of great significance for the future of both the EU and Hungary. We must reduce migration, create new jobs and focus on sustainability and the principles and goals of environmental protection and nature conservation. For this reason, it is necessary to apply for EU project funding. EU priorities regarding rural development serve the creation of a ‘liveable countryside’. Rural development is connected to tourism that can help compensate for decreasing income from agric...

  7. Catalyst development and systems analysis of methanol partial oxidation for the fuel processor - fuel cell integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newson, E.; Mizsey, P.; Hottinger, P.; Truong, T.B.; Roth, F. von; Schucan, Th.H. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Methanol partial oxidation (pox) to produce hydrogen for mobile fuel cell applications has proved initially more successful than hydrocarbon pox. Recent results of catalyst screening and kinetic studies with methanol show that hydrogen production rates have reached 7000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for the dry pox route and 12,000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for wet pox. These rates are equivalent to 21 and 35 kW{sub th}/(litre reactor volume) respectively. The reaction engineering problems remain to be solved for dry pox due to the significant exotherm of the reaction (hot spots of 100-200{sup o}C), but wet pox is essentially isothermal in operation. Analyses of the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell systems show that two routes are available to satisfy the sensitivity of the fuel cell catalysts to carbon monoxide, i.e. a preferential oxidation reactor or a membrane separator. Targets for individual system components are evaluated for the base and best case systems for both routes to reach the combined 40% efficiency required for the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell system. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  8. Developing an approach for first-principles catalyst design: application to carbon-capture catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Heather J; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Lightstone, Felice C

    2014-02-01

    An approach to catalyst design is presented in which local potential energy surface models are first built to elucidate design principles and then used to identify larger scaffold motifs that match the target geometries. Carbon sequestration via hydration is used as the model reaction, and three- and four-coordinate sp(2) or sp(3) nitrogen-ligand motifs are considered for Zn(II) metals. The comparison of binding, activation and product release energies over a large range of interaction distances and angles suggests that four-coordinate short Zn(II)-Nsp(3) bond distances favor a rapid turnover for CO2 hydration. This design strategy is then confirmed by computationally characterizing the reactivity of a known mimic over a range of metal-nitrogen bond lengths. A search of existing catalysts in a chemical database reveals structures that match the target geometry from model calculations, and subsequent calculations have identified these structures as potentially effective for CO2 hydration and sequestration. PMID:24508957

  9. Developing an approach for first-principles catalyst design: application to carbon-capture catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Heather J; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Lightstone, Felice C

    2014-02-01

    An approach to catalyst design is presented in which local potential energy surface models are first built to elucidate design principles and then used to identify larger scaffold motifs that match the target geometries. Carbon sequestration via hydration is used as the model reaction, and three- and four-coordinate sp(2) or sp(3) nitrogen-ligand motifs are considered for Zn(II) metals. The comparison of binding, activation and product release energies over a large range of interaction distances and angles suggests that four-coordinate short Zn(II)-Nsp(3) bond distances favor a rapid turnover for CO2 hydration. This design strategy is then confirmed by computationally characterizing the reactivity of a known mimic over a range of metal-nitrogen bond lengths. A search of existing catalysts in a chemical database reveals structures that match the target geometry from model calculations, and subsequent calculations have identified these structures as potentially effective for CO2 hydration and sequestration.

  10. Development of Light Cycle Oil (LCO) Hydrocracking Technology over a Commercial W-Ni Based Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Chong; Yang Xuejing; Fang Xiangchen; Huang Xinlu; Cheng Zhenmin; Zeng Ronghui; Guo Rong

    2015-01-01

    Because of its high density and low cetane number, the light cycle oil (LCO) containing heavy aromatics (60%—80%) can hardly be transformed through the conventional hydro-upgrading technology. In this report, a novel LCO hydrocracking technology (FD2G) was proposed for the utilization of LCO to manufacture high value-added products. Through the ingenious combination of hydroprocessing catalyst and the hydrocracking process, the high octane gasoline and the ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) blendstocks were produced simultaneously. The inlfuence of catalyst type, reaction temperature, pressure, respectively, on the research octane number (RON) of produced gasoline was studied in a ifxed bed hydrogenation reactor. It indicated that high reaction temperature and medium pressurewould favor the production of high-octane gasoline through the conversion of bi-aromatic and tri-aromatic hydrocarbons. The typical results of FD2G tech-nology on commercial units showed that it could produce clean diesel with a sulfur content of less than 10 μg/g and clean gasoline with a research octane number (RON) of up to 92. It would be contributed to the achievement of the maximum proift of a reifnery, the FD2G technology could provide a higher economic efifciency than the other diesel quality upgrading technology under the current gasoline and diesel price system.

  11. Dynamics of development motive capabilities, psychophysiological and functional possibilities of boys 4-6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrishko S.G.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of determination of level of development motive capabilities is examined. Directions of prognostication inclination of children of early age are rotined to the certain type of motive activity. The complex testing of individual possibilities of boys is conducted 4-6 years. Comparative description of indexes of motive function is presented during six testing. Certain the loud speaker of development of motive capabilities, psychophysiological and functional possibilities of boys. The general tendencies of change of these indexes are exposed during three years.

  12. Development of a reaction cell for in-situ/operando studies of surface of a catalyst under a reaction condition and during catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luan; Tao, Franklin Feng

    2016-06-01

    Tracking surface chemistry of a catalyst during catalysis is significant for fundamental understanding of catalytic performance of the catalyst since it allows for establishing an intrinsic correlation between surface chemistry of a catalyst at its working status and its corresponding catalytic performance. Ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used for in-situ studies of surfaces of different materials or devices in a gas. To simulate the gaseous environment of a catalyst in a fixed-bed a flowing gaseous environment of reactants around the catalyst is necessary. Here, we report the development of a new flowing reaction cell for simulating in-situ study of a catalyst surface under a reaction condition in gas of one reactant or during catalysis in a mixture of reactants of a catalytic reaction. The homemade reaction cell is installed in a high vacuum (HV) or ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment of a chamber. The flowing gas in the reaction cell is separated from the HV or UHV environment through well sealings at three interfaces between the reaction cell and X-ray window, sample door and aperture of front cone of an energy analyzer. Catalyst in the cell is heated through infrared laser beam introduced through a fiber optics interfaced with the reaction cell through a homemade feedthrough. The highly localized heating on the sample holder and Au-passivated internal surface of the reaction cell effectively minimizes any unwanted reactions potentially catalyzed by the reaction cell. The incorporated laser heating allows a fast heating and a high thermal stability of the sample at a high temperature. With this cell, a catalyst at 800 °C in a flowing gas can be tracked readily.

  13. Development of a reaction cell for in-situ/operando studies of surface of a catalyst under a reaction condition and during catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luan; Tao, Franklin Feng

    2016-06-01

    Tracking surface chemistry of a catalyst during catalysis is significant for fundamental understanding of catalytic performance of the catalyst since it allows for establishing an intrinsic correlation between surface chemistry of a catalyst at its working status and its corresponding catalytic performance. Ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used for in-situ studies of surfaces of different materials or devices in a gas. To simulate the gaseous environment of a catalyst in a fixed-bed a flowing gaseous environment of reactants around the catalyst is necessary. Here, we report the development of a new flowing reaction cell for simulating in-situ study of a catalyst surface under a reaction condition in gas of one reactant or during catalysis in a mixture of reactants of a catalytic reaction. The homemade reaction cell is installed in a high vacuum (HV) or ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment of a chamber. The flowing gas in the reaction cell is separated from the HV or UHV environment through well sealings at three interfaces between the reaction cell and X-ray window, sample door and aperture of front cone of an energy analyzer. Catalyst in the cell is heated through infrared laser beam introduced through a fiber optics interfaced with the reaction cell through a homemade feedthrough. The highly localized heating on the sample holder and Au-passivated internal surface of the reaction cell effectively minimizes any unwanted reactions potentially catalyzed by the reaction cell. The incorporated laser heating allows a fast heating and a high thermal stability of the sample at a high temperature. With this cell, a catalyst at 800 °C in a flowing gas can be tracked readily. PMID:27370473

  14. Development of a reaction cell for in-situ/operando studies of surface of a catalyst under a reaction condition and during catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luan; Tao, Franklin Feng

    2016-06-01

    Tracking surface chemistry of a catalyst during catalysis is significant for fundamental understanding of catalytic performance of the catalyst since it allows for establishing an intrinsic correlation between surface chemistry of a catalyst at its working status and its corresponding catalytic performance. Ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used for in-situ studies of surfaces of different materials or devices in a gas. To simulate the gaseous environment of a catalyst in a fixed-bed a flowing gaseous environment of reactants around the catalyst is necessary. Here, we report the development of a new flowing reaction cell for simulating in-situ study of a catalyst surface under a reaction condition in gas of one reactant or during catalysis in a mixture of reactants of a catalytic reaction. The homemade reaction cell is installed in a high vacuum (HV) or ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment of a chamber. The flowing gas in the reaction cell is separated from the HV or UHV environment through well sealings at three interfaces between the reaction cell and X-ray window, sample door and aperture of front cone of an energy analyzer. Catalyst in the cell is heated through infrared laser beam introduced through a fiber optics interfaced with the reaction cell through a homemade feedthrough. The highly localized heating on the sample holder and Au-passivated internal surface of the reaction cell effectively minimizes any unwanted reactions potentially catalyzed by the reaction cell. The incorporated laser heating allows a fast heating and a high thermal stability of the sample at a high temperature. With this cell, a catalyst at 800 °C in a flowing gas can be tracked readily.

  15. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold, Michael; Crocker, Mark; Balakotaiah, Vemuri; Luss, Dan; Choi, Jae-Soon; Dearth, Mark; McCabe, Bob; Theis, Joe

    2013-09-30

    hydrocarbon component of diesel exhaust. First-principle models of the LNT and SCR converters, which utilized the mechanistic-based kinetics and realistic treatments of the flow and transport processes, in combination with bench-scale reactor experiments helped to identify the best designs for combining the NSR and SCR catalysts over a range of operating conditions encountered in practice. This included catalysts having multiple zones and layers and additives with the focus on determining the minimal precious metal component needed to meet emission abatement targets over a wide range of operating conditions. The findings from this study provide diesel vehicle and catalyst companies valuable information to develop more cost effective diesel emissions catalysts which helps to expand the use of more fuel efficient diesel power. The fundamental modeling and experimental tools and findings from this project can be applied to catalyst technologies used in the energy and chemical industries. Finally, the project also led to training of several doctoral students who were placed in research jobs in industry and academia.

  16. Homogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, John C; Freixa, Zoraida; van Leeuwen, Piet W N M

    2011-01-01

    This first book to illuminate this important aspect of chemical synthesis improves the lifetime of catalysts, thus reducing material and saving energy, costs and waste.The international panel of expert authors describes the studies that have been conducted concerning the way homogeneous catalysts decompose, and the differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. The result is a ready reference for organic, catalytic, polymer and complex chemists, as well as those working in industry and with/on organometallics.

  17. Gene-based vaccine development for improving animal production in developing countries. Possibilities and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For vaccine production, recombinant antigens must be protective. Identifying protective antigens or candidate antigens is an essential precursor to vaccine development. Even when a protective antigen has been identified, cloning of its gene does not lead directly to vaccine development. The fimbrial protein of Dichelobacter nodosus, the agent of foot-rot in ruminants, was known to be protective. Recombinant vaccines against this infection are ineffective if expressed protein subunits are not assembled as mature fimbriae. Antigenic competition between different, but closely related, recombinant antigens limited the use of multivalent vaccines based on this technology. Recombinant antigens may need adjuvants to enhance response. DNA vaccines, potentiated with genes for different cytokines, may replace the need for aggressive adjuvants, and especially where cellular immunity is essential for protection. The expression of antigens from animal pathogens in plants and the demonstration of some immunity to a disease like rinderpest after ingestion of these, suggests an alternative approach to vaccination by injection. Research on disease pathogenesis and the identification of candidate antigens is specific to the disease agent. The definition of expression systems and the formulation of a vaccine for each disease must be followed by research to establish safety and efficacy. Where vaccines are based on unique gene sequences, the intellectual property is likely to be protected by patent. Organizations, licensed to produce recombinant vaccines, expect to recover their costs and to make a profit. The consequence is that genetically-derived vaccines are expensive. The capacity of vaccines to help animal owners of poorer countries depends not only on quality and cost but also on the veterinary infrastructure where they are used. Ensuring the existence of an effective animal health infrastructure in developing countries is as great a challenge for the developed world as

  18. Development and Industrial Application of Hydrocracking Pretreatment Catalyst of FRIPP%FRIPP加氢裂化预处理催化剂的开发及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨占林; 姜虹; 唐兆吉; 温德荣; 彭绍忠; 王继锋

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocracking pretreatment catalyst research progres s and industrial application situation of Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals(FRIPP)are introduced in this article. The early development of the catalyst is mainly by adjusiting nature of the carrier to improve the performance of the catalyst, the recent development of FF-46 and FF-56 catalyst, further optimizes mode of the active sites and the carrier, signifi cantly enhancing the performance of the catalyst, the bulk catalyst is developed by the new concept, it includes a higher volume of activity, reducing the cost of product quality upgrade of refinery. Different types of hydrocracking pretreatment catalyst from FRIPP had reached cumulait ve producit on of more than 10 thousand tons by March 2015.%重点介绍了抚顺石油化工研究院(FRIPP)在加氢裂化预处理催化剂方面的研究进展及工业应用情况.早期开发的催化剂主要通过调节载体的性质来改善催化剂的性能,而近期开发的FF-46和FF-56催化剂,进一步优化了活性位及载体的作用方式,催化剂性能得到大幅度提升,基于新理念开发的体相法催化剂,具有更高的体积活性,降低炼厂产品质量升级的成本.截至2015年3月, FRIPP不同牌号的加氢预处理催化剂已累计生产万余吨,总体上达到了世界先进水平.

  19. The generation of efficient supported (Heterogeneous) olefin metathesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubbs, Robert H

    2013-04-05

    Over the past decade, a new family of homogeneous metathesis catalysts has been developed that will tolerate most organic functionalities as well as water and air. These homogeneous catalysts are finding numerous applications in the pharmaceutical industry as well as in the production of functional polymers. In addition the catalysts are being used to convert seed oils into products that can substitute for those that are now made from petroleum products. Seed oils are unsaturated, contain double bonds, and are a ready source of linear hydrocarbon fragments that are specifically functionalized. To increase the number of applications in the area of biomaterial conversion to petrol chemicals, the activity and efficiency of the catalysts need to be as high as possible. The higher the efficiency of the catalysts, the lower the cost of the conversion and a larger number of practical applications become available. Active supported catalysts were prepared and tested in the conversion of seed oils and other important starting materials. The outcome of the work was successful and the technology has been transferred to a commercial operation to develop viable applications of the discovered systems. A biorefinery that converts seed oils is under construction in Indonesia. The catalysts developed in this study will be considered for the next generation of operations.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A CATALYST FOR SOLUTION OF POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL) IN NON-AQUEOUS MEDIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prafulla Chetri; Narendra Nath Dass; Neelotpal Sen Sarma

    2008-01-01

    Chloro ethane dimethyl sulfoxide, C2H5Cl·DMSO (ECl·DMSO) was prepared by interaction of acrylic acid with conc. Hydrochloric acid in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and subsequent decarboxylation with H2O2 solution. The formation of the compound was confirmed by spectral and analytical methods; the molecular weight was determined by cryoscopic method. The solubility of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in different solvents or mixed solvents at 40℃, 50℃ and 60℃ temperature in the presence of 0.01% of ECl·DMSO was determined. It turned out that ECl·DMSO helps dissolution of PVA, and is very effective catalyst in the preparation of esters and acetals of PVA.

  1. Development of a Method for the Preparation of Ruthenium Indenylidene-Ether Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Leonel R.; Tolentino, Daniel R.; Gallon, Benjamin J.; Schrodi, Yann

    2012-01-01

    The reactions between several derivatives of 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-yn-1-ol and different ruthenium starting materials [i.e., RuCl2(PPh3)3 and RuCl2(pcymene)(L), where L is tricyclohexylphosphine di-t-butylmethylphosphine, dicyclohexylphenylphosphine, triisobutylphosphine, triisopropylphosphine, or tri-npropylphosphine] are described. Several of these reactions allow for the easy, in-situ and atom-economic preparation of olefin metathesis catalysts. Organic precursor 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol led to the formation of active ruthenium indenylidene-ether complexes, while 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-yn-1-ol and 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-methyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol did not. It was also found that a bulky and strong σ-donor phosphine ligand was required to impart good catalytic activity to the new ruthenium complexes. PMID:22580400

  2. Bimetallic Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinfelt, John H.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical reaction rates can be controlled by varying composition of miniscule clusters of metal atoms. These bimetallic catalysts have had major impact on petroleum refining, where work has involved heterogeneous catalysis (reacting molecules in a phase separate from catalyst.) Experimentation involving hydrocarbon reactions, catalytic…

  3. Development of new heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition of methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide applying high throughput methods; Entwicklung neuer heterogener Katalysatoren zur Spaltung von Methanol in Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid mittels Hochdurchsatz-Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Torsten

    2008-07-11

    The topic of this thesis has been the development of new heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition of methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. As an important constraint here, the content of noble metals of the catalysts should be as low as possible. High-throughput-methods were applied in some of the syntheses and experiments to accelerate the development, as, for example, the use of liquid based sol-gel syntheses and the examination of catalyst libraries by spatial resolution gas chromatography. This screening technique allowed to test up to 207 different substances during one single experiment. Then, different combinatorial strategies were applied. First, these methods led to a highly active and stable catalyst in the ternary system of Cu-Ni-Zn, which showed high conversion and selectivity comparable to an industrial reference catalyst. Its activity during an 18 hour long term run was constant in contrast to the reference. Second, an additional approach starting from a broader variety of elements led to a Ce- Ru- and to a Cr-Ru-catalyst. Both of them were highly active in short term experiments, but lost their outstanding performances during long term runs. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit befasste sich mit der Entwicklung neuer heterogener Katalysatoren fuer die Spaltung von Methanol zu Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid, die einen moeglichst geringen Gehalt an Edelmetallen aufweisen sollten. Um diesen Prozess zu beschleunigen, wurden in einem Teil der Synthesen und Experimente Hochdurchsatzmethoden verwendet. Neben der Roboter gestuetzten Sol-Gel-Synthese umfasste dies die Untersuchung von Katalysatorbibliotheken mittels ortsaufgeloester Gaschromatographie, die es ermoeglichte, in einem Experiment bis zu 207 verschiedene Substanzen auf ihre katalytische Aktivitaet zu testen. Unter Anwendung verschiedener kombinatorischer Strategien wurde zunaechst ein sehr aktiver und stabiler Katalysator im ternaeren Cu-Ni-Zn-System entdeckt. Neben Umsaetzen und

  4. Supported Molten Metal Catalysis. A New Class of Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindra Datta; Ajeet Singh; Manuela Serban; Istvan Halasz

    2006-06-02

    We describe a new class of heterogeneous catalysts called supported molten metal catalysis (SMMC), in which molten metal catalysts are dispersed as nanodroplets on the surface of porous supports, allowing much larger active surface area than is possible in conventional contacting techniques for catalytic metals that are molten under reaction conditions, thus greatly enhancing their activity and potential utility. Specific examples of different types of reactions are provided to demonstrate the broad applicability of the technique in designing active, selective, and stable new catalysts. It is shown that dispersing the molten metal on a support in the suggested manner can enhance the rate of a reaction by three to four orders of magnitude as a result of the concomitant increase in the active surface area. New reaction examples include {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported molten Te (melting point 450 C) and Ga (MP 30 C) catalysts for bifunctional methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation. These catalysts provide activity similar to conventional Pt-based catalysts for this with better resistance to coking. In addition, results are described for a controlled pore glass supported molten In (MP 157 C) catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with ethanol in the presence of water, demonstrating activities superior to conventional catalysts for this reaction. A discussion is also provided on the characterization of the active surface area and dispersion of these novel supported catalysts. It is clear based on the results described that the development of new active and selective supported molten metal catalysts for practical applications is entirely plausible.

  5. ORGANIZATION FOR DEMOCRACY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT-GUAM: REALITY, POSSIBILITIES, AND PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Chechelashvili, Valery

    2008-01-01

    After the Kiev summit of the Organization's member states during Ukraine's Presidency GUAM became institutionalized and cooperation within it systemized. The GUAM Baku summit was instrumental in establishing the Organization for Democracy and Economic Development-GUAM. It was important both for further institutionalizing cooperation in the GUAM format and for demonstrating the Organization's possibilities to its foreign partners. The summit was an important event that helped GUAM to assume a ...

  6. Possible causal relationships between competitive swimming in growing age and three-dimensional dentoalveolar development

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Capurro, Claudia; Ugolini, Alessandro; Butti, Andrea Carlo; Salvato, Antonino

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate possible links between competitive swimming during the growth phase and the development of the dentoalveolar arches. Methods The study sample included 100 swimmers and a control group of 100 age-matched non-swimmers who had never practised swimming or related sports. Subjects who had had previous orthodontic treatment were excluded. Overjet, overbite, sagittal and transverse parameters, arch dimension, crowding and oral habits were recorded....

  7. Development of a Method for the Preparation of Ruthenium Indenylidene-Ether Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Schrodi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The reactions between several derivatives of 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol and different ruthenium starting materials [i.e., RuCl2(PPh33 and RuCl2(p-cymene(L, where L is tricyclohexylphosphine di-t-butylmethylphosphine, dicyclohexylphenylphosphine, triisobutylphosphine, triisopropylphosphine, or tri-n-propylphosphine] are described. Several of these reactions allow for the easy, in-situ and atom-economic preparation of olefin metathesis catalysts. Organic precursor 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-1-phenyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol led to the formation of active ruthenium indenylidene-ether complexes, while 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol and 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-1-methyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol did not. It was also found that a bulky and strong σ-donor phosphine ligand was required to impart good catalytic activity to the new ruthenium complexes.

  8. New Possibilities for development of the internal health and safety organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langå

    2004-01-01

    Research from several countries indicates that the internal health and safety organisation in most companies is placed in an appendix position. A possibility for developing a stronger and more effective health and safety organisation is to introduce learning. This approach has been applied...... in a Danish network project with eleven companies. The results indicate that health and safety managers and safety representatives have difficulties in fulfilling the role as change agents in mastering such a development project. Only three of the eleven companies turned out to be able to implement successful...

  9. Base-Catalyzed Depolymerization of Lignin with Heterogeneous Catalysts: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-513

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-04

    We will synthesize and screen solid catalysts for the depolymerization of lignin to monomeric and oligomeric oxygenated species, which could be fractionated and integrated into refinery intermediate streams for selective upgrading, or catalytically upgraded to fuels and chemicals. This work will primarily focus on the synthesis and application of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for depolymerization of lignin model compounds and softwood lignin. LDHs have been shown in our group to offer good supports and catalysts to promote base-catalyzed depolymerization of lignin model compounds and in preliminary experiments for the depolymerization of lignin from an Organosolv process. We will also include additional catalyst supports such as silica, alumina, and carbon as identified in ongoing and past efforts at NREL. This work will consist of two tasks. Overall, this work will be synergistic with ongoing efforts at NREL, funded by the DOE Biomass Program, on the development of catalysts for lignin depolymerization in the context of biochemical and thermochemical conversion of corn stover and other biomass feedstocks to advanced fuels and chemicals.

  10. Changes in the Vector of Industrial Policy and Possibilities for Innovative Development of the Industrial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Romanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, reasons for the increased interest in industrial policy, both in developed and developing countries are explained. The systematization of the development results of the Russian industry from 1989 to 2014 showed a lack of systematic selection of its priorities, preventing the formation of a strategic vector of industrial policy. The desired industrial policy diversity is established at the different economic development stages of the country. In the context of economic sanctions against Russia, it is shown that the emergence of a new industrial policy vector is connected to the need for import substitution and concomitant changes in the development model of the domestic economy. The dynamics and characteristics of the industrial development area are shown by the example of a highly developed region like the Central Urals. The total level of innovation activity of organizations continues to be low and composes only 12 %, although in the manufacturing sector this index is higher than the regional economy index by four absolute percentage points. The industrial policy of the Middle Urals is analyzed, and innovation drivers of the industrial sector of the regional economy are established. The possibilities of the defense, civil engineering, mining, chemical and pharmaceutical, and forest complexes of Sverdlovsk Region to implement the import substitution policy are revealed. The most significant investment projects that will reduce the import dependence of the regional economy are presented. The possibilities of the research sector and created innovation infrastructure of the region in solving this problem are shown. The necessity of the regional laws on industrial policy elaboration, developing the basic regulations of the Federal Law "On Industrial Policy in the Russian Federation" in proved

  11. Reduction and Analysis of Low Temperature Shift Heterogeneous Catalyst for Water Gas Reaction in Ammonia Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević, N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain additional quantities of hydrogen after the reforming reactions of natural gas and protect the ammonia synthesis catalyst, it is crucial to achieve and maintain maximum possible activity, selectivity and stability of the low temperature shift catalyst for conversion of water gas reaction during its lifetime. Whereas the heterogeneous catalyst comes in oxidized form, it is of the utmost importance to conduct the reduction procedure properly. The proper reduction procedure and continuous analysis of its performance would ensure the required activity, selectivity and stability throughout the catalyst’s service time. For the proper reduction procedure ofthe low temperature shift catalyst, in addition to process equipment, also necessary is a reliable and realistic system for temperature measurements, which will be effective for monitoring the exothermal temperature curves through all catalyst bed layers. For efficiency evaluation of low shift temperature catalyst reduction and its optimization, it is necessary to determine at regular time intervals the temperature approach to equilibrium and temperature profiles of individual layers by means of "S" and "die off" temperature exothermal curves. Based on the obtained data, the optimum inlet temperature could be determined, in order to maximally extend the service life of the heterogeneous catalyst as much as possible, and achieve the optimum equilibrium for conversion of the water gas. This paper presents the methodology for in situ reduction of the low temperature shift heterogeneous catalyst and the developed system for monitoring its individual layers to achieve the minimum possible content of carbon monoxide at the exit of the reactor. The developed system for temperature monitoring through heterogeneous catalyst layers provides the proper procedure for reduction and adjustment of optimum process working conditions for the catalyst by the continuous increase of reactor inlet

  12. Development of bioinspired Mn4O4-cubane water oxidation catalysts: lessons from photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dismukes, G Charles; Brimblecombe, Robin; Felton, Greg A N; Pryadun, Ruslan S; Sheats, John E; Spiccia, Leone; Swiegers, Gerhard F

    2009-12-21

    Hydrogen is the most promising fuel of the future owing to its carbon-free, high-energy content and potential to be efficiently converted into either electrical or thermal energy. The greatest technical barrier to accessing this renewable resource remains the inability to create inexpensive catalysts for the solar-driven oxidation of water. To date, the most efficient system that uses solar energy to oxidize water is the photosystem II water-oxidizing complex (PSII-WOC), which is found within naturally occurring photosynthetic organisms. The catalytic core of this enzyme is a CaMn(4)O(x) cluster, which is present in all known species of oxygenic phototrophs and has been conserved since the emergence of this type of photosynthesis about 2.5 billion years ago. The key features that facilitate the catalytic success of the PSII-WOC offer important lessons for the design of abiological water oxidation catalysts. In this Account, we examine the chemical principles that may govern the PSII-WOC by comparing the water oxidation capabilities of structurally related synthetic manganese-oxo complexes, particularly those with a cubical Mn(4)O(4) core ("cubanes"). We summarize this research, from the self-assembly of the first such clusters, through the elucidation of their mechanism of photoinduced rearrangement to release O(2), to recent advances highlighting their capability to catalyze sustained light-activated electrolysis of water. The [Mn(4)O(4)](6+) cubane core assembles spontaneously in solution from monomeric precursors or from [Mn(2)O(2)](3+) core complexes in the presence of metrically appropriate bidentate chelates, for example, diarylphosphinates (ligands of Ph(2)PO(2)(-) and 4-phenyl-substituted derivatives), which bridge pairs of Mn atoms on each cube face (Mn(4)O(4)L(6)). The [Mn(4)O(4)](6+) core is enlarged relative to the [Mn(2)O(2)](3+) core, resulting in considerably weaker Mn-O bonds. Cubanes are ferocious oxidizing agents, stronger than analogous complexes

  13. Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene. Quarterly report, 1 January 1995--31 March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barger, P.T.; Kurek, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    The goals of this project are to develop a catalyst and process for the conversion of syngas to isobutanol. The research will identify and optimize key catalyst characteristics. In addition, the commercial potential of the new process will be evaluated by an economic analysis. Previous work identified Pt or Pd on Zn/Mn/Zr co-precipitated metal oxides as promising catalysts for the conversion of a 10/1 methanol/ethanol blend to higher oxygenates. Supports with high Zn (>45%) and low Zr (< 33%) have afforded the best selectivities for the desired branched C{sub 4} products in the standard pilot plant test after impregnation with 2% Pt. In this report the analytical characterization of this series of materials is summarized. A large scale preparation of Zn/Mn/Zr oxide support has been completed for use in future process variable studies.

  14. The Possibility to Use Genetic Algorithms and Fuzzy Systems in the Development of Tutorial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are presenting state of the art information methods and techniques that can be applied in the development of efficient tutorial systems and also the possibility to use genetic algorithms and fuzzy systems in the construction of such systems. All this topics have been studied during the development of the research project INFOSOC entitled "Tutorial System based on Eduknowledge for Work Security and Health in SMEs According to the European Union Directives" accomplished by a teaching stuff from the Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, in collaboration with the National Institute for Research and Development in Work Security, the National Institute for Small and Middle Enterprises and SC Q’NET International srl.

  15. Controlling the angiogenic switch in developing atherosclerotic plaques: Possible targets for therapeutic intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slevin Mark

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plaque angiogenesis may have an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Vasa vasorum angiogenesis and medial infiltration provides nutrients to the developing and expanding intima and therefore, may prevent cellular death and contribute to plaque growth and stabilization in early lesions. However in more advanced plaques, inflammatory cell infiltration, and concomitant production of numerous pro-angiogenic cytokines may be responsible for induction of uncontrolled neointimal microvessel proliferation resulting in production of immature and fragile neovessels similar to that seen in tumour development. These could contribute to development of an unstable haemorrhagic rupture-prone environment. Increasing evidence has suggested that the expression of intimal neovessels is directly related to the stage of plaque development, the risk of plaque rupture, and subsequently, the presence of symptomatic disease, the timing of ischemic neurological events and myocardial/cerebral infarction. Despite this, there is conflicting evidence regarding the causal relationship between neovessel expression and plaque thrombosis with some in vivo experimental models suggesting the contrary and as yet, few direct mediators of angiogenesis have been identified and associated with plaque instability in vivo. In recent years, an increasing number of angiogenic therapeutic targets have been proposed in order to facilitate modulation of neovascularization and its consequences in diseases such as cancer and macular degeneration. A complete knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for initiation of adventitial vessel proliferation, their extension into the intimal regions and possible de-novo synthesis of neovessels following differentiation of bone-marrow-derived stem cells is required in order to contemplate potential single or combinational anti-angiogenic therapies. In this review, we will examine the importance of angiogenesis in complicated plaque

  16. Long-Term Testing of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2013 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Thompson, Becky L.

    2013-09-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research since 2005 to develop a catalyst for the conversion of synthesis gas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen) into mixed alcohols for use in liquid transportation fuels. Initially, research involved screening possible catalysts based on a review of the literature, because at that time, there were no commercial catalysts available. The screening effort resulted in a decision to focus on catalysts containing rhodium and manganese. Subsequent research identified iridium as a key promoter for this catalyst system. Since then, research has continued to improve rhodium/manganese/iridium-based catalysts, optimizing the relative and total concentrations of the three metals, examining baseline catalysts on alternative supports, and examining effects of additional promoters. Testing was continued in FY 2013 to evaluate the performance and long-term stability of the best catalysts tested to date. Three tests were conducted. A long-term test of over 2300 hr duration at a single set of operating conditions was conducted with the best carbon-supported catalyst. A second test of about 650 hr duration at a single set of operating conditions was performed for comparison using the same catalyst formulation on an alternative carbon support. A third test of about 680 hr duration at a single set of operating conditions was performed using the best silica-supported catalyst tested to date.

  17. Oil refining industry in Macedonia - current problems and possibilities for further development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The declining market for fuel oil due to the gasification of Macedonia will force the Refinery to adapt to the changed market demand. There are three possibilities: (1) to decrease the production of fuel oil by precessing it into higher price products; (2) to find other markets for the fuel oil surplus or (3) to decrease the fuel oil production by decreasing the refinery capacity. The first option is the most acceptable for the Refinery and is a part of the refinery development plans. (author). 5 ills

  18. Possible development mechanisms of pre-monsoon thunderstorms over northeast and east India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sunanda; Vishwanathan, Gokul; Mrudula, G.

    2016-05-01

    Thunderstorms are mesoscale convective systems of towering cumulonimbus clouds of high vertical and horizontal extent lasting from a few minutes to several hours. Pre-monsoon thundershowers over the past 10 years have been analyzed to understand the organization, horizontal and vertical development and dissipation of such severe events. Kalbaisakhi's/ Norwester's over north east and East India is given preference in this study, while some of the other extreme events are also analyzed due to their severity. The meteorological parameters like horizontal and vertical wind, precipitable water etc., and derived variables such as Severe Weather Threat (SWEAT) Index, Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), and Convective Inhibition Energy (CINE) of the identified cases are analyzed using observations from NCEP and IMD. Satellite observations from IMD and TRMM are also used to analyze the development and moisture flow of such systems. The analysis shows that some of the parameters display a clear signature of developing thunderstorms. It is also seen that cloud parameters such as convective precipitation rate and convective cloud cover from NCEP FNL didn't show much variation during the development of storms, which may be attributed to the limitation of spatial and temporal resolution. The parameters which showed indications of a developing thunderstorm were studied in detail in order to understand the possible mechanisms behind the development and organization of thunderstorm cells.

  19. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping; Smith, R. Davis

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  20. High-Throughput Screening as a Supplemental Tool for the Development of Advanced Emission Control Catalysts: Methodological Approaches and Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Sundermann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-throughput (HT screening platform developed at hte with the application focus on automotive catalysis is described. hte HT units are configured for performing steady-state testing, as well as dynamic tests with fast feed switches, such as lean/rich excursions for the evaluation of NOx storage capacity and efficiency of lean NOx traps (LNT, ammonia storage capacity for selective catalytic reduction (SCR, evaluation of oxygen storage capacity (OSC, as well as lambda sweep tests for screening of three-way catalysts (TWC. Even though catalysts are screened on a rather small scale (~100 mg powder, experience showed that dosing rather complex gas mixtures in concentrations close to that found in real exhaust for the given application is mandatory to generate relevant data. The objective of this work is to give additional insight into HT technology. In the industrial research laboratory, HT screening has matured to become a reliable approach for rapid screening of both reaction parameter spaces, as well as material properties relevant for exhaust gas catalyst development. Due to the speed of optimized screening involving 48 parallel reactors, automated handling of primary data is an imported requirement. Software for data reduction, like estimation of light-off temperature, needs to be robust and handle results for diverse sample libraries in an unattended fashion. In combination with the statistical design of experiment and multivariate data analysis, HT testing has become a valuable enhancement to automotive catalyst development.

  1. Development of Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst for reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaji, Abolfazl Gharibi; Shariati, Ahmad; Ostadi, Mohammad

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, Mo/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared using impregnation method. Then it was promoted with Ni ions to produce Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst. The structures of the catalysts were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), CO chemisorption, temperature programmed reduction of hydrogen (H2-TPR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. Catalytic performances of the two catalysts were investigated in a fixed-bed reactor for RWGS reaction. The results indicated that addition of nickel promoter to Mo/Al2O3 catalyst enhances its activity. It is reasonable for the electron deficient state of the Ni species and existence of NiMoO4 phase to possess high activity in RWGS reaction. Stability test of Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst was carried out in a fixed bed reactor and a high CO2 conversion for 60 h time on stream was demonstrated. This study introduces a new catalyst, Ni-Mo/Al2O3, with high activity and stability for RWGS reaction. PMID:25924339

  2. New developments in ground probing radar: the possibility of reconstructing a holographic image of underground reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sambuelli

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade GPR has developed rapidly: instruments have become more compact and more digital, the field of application has broadened from non-destructive testing to humanitarian demining. Studies have been carried out to analyse the full information content of the backscattered wavefield trying to go beyond the time and amplitude analysis. In recent years, many researchers have focused on the possibility of applying holographic acquisition and processing to GPR data. This paper proposes a theoretical outline of a holographic acquisition and processing techniques; a block diagram of the proposed holographic radar; the outlines of the design and the realisation of a custom-built full-scale test-site and the results of the first simulations carried out with newly developed software. The basic rules for an optimum choice of the main acquisition parameters are also given together with a discussion of the main advantages and disadvantages of the proposed techniques.

  3. New developments in ground probing radar. The possibility of reconstructing a holographic image of underground reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giubbolini, L. [Turin Politecnico, Turin (Italy). Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca sull' Ingegneria delle Telecomunicazioni e dell' Informazione; Sambuelli, L. [Turin Politecnico, Turin (Italy). Dipt. di Georisorse e Territorio

    2000-12-01

    During the last decade GPR has developed rapidly: instruments have become more compact and more digital, the field of application has broadened form non-destructive testing to humanitarian demining. Studies have been carried out to analyse the full information content of the backscattered wave field trying to go beyond the time and amplitude analysis. In recent years, many researchers have focused on the possibility of applying holographic acquisition and processing to GPR data. This paper proposes a theoretical outline of a holographic acquisition and processing techniques; a block diagram of the proposed holographic radar; the outlines of the design and the results of the first simulations carried out with newly developed software. The basic rules for an optimum choice of the main acquisition parameters are also given together with a discussion of the main advantages and disadvantages of the proposed techniques.

  4. Development of a ruthenium/phosphite catalyst system for domino hydroformylation-reduction of olefins with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Wu, Lipeng; Fleischer, Ivana; Selent, Detlef; Franke, Robert; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    An efficient domino ruthenium-catalyzed reverse water-gas-shift (RWGS)-hydroformylation-reduction reaction of olefins to alcohols is reported. Key to success is the use of specific bulky phosphite ligands and triruthenium dodecacarbonyl as the catalyst. Compared to the known ruthenium/chloride system, the new catalyst allows for a more efficient hydrohydroxymethylation of terminal and internal olefins with carbon dioxide at lower temperature. Unwanted hydrogenation of the substrate is prevented. Preliminary mechanism investigations uncovered the homogeneous nature of the active catalyst and the influence of the ligand and additive in individual steps of the reaction sequence. PMID:24811949

  5. RS-1100柴油加氢脱硫催化剂的研制%THE DEVELOPMENT OF RS-1100 DIESEL HYDRODESULFURIZATION CATALYST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锦业; 丁石; 李会峰; 王哲

    2012-01-01

    采用合适的拟薄水铝石制备氧化铝载体,并以浸渍法制备NiMo/Al2O3催化剂,找到催化剂中适宜的Ni/(Ni+ Mo)原子比,在浸渍液中引入适量的助剂和有机络合剂可以提高NiMo/Al2O3催化剂的活性.采用拉曼光谱和紫外-可见光谱仪对浸渍液进行表征,结果表明:浸渍液中存在杂多酸阴离子[P2 Mo5 O23]6-;络合剂与Ni离子也存在相互作用.通过制备条件优化,研制出高活性加氢脱硫催化剂RS-1100.中型装置评价结果表明,RS-1100催化剂的柴油超深度加氢脱硫活性比工业参比剂RS-1000更高,采用RS-1100催化剂在合适的加氢反应条件下可以生产满足欧Ⅴ排放标准的柴油.%NiMo/A1-2O3 catalyst was prepared by impregnation method using alumina support from appropriate pseudo-boehmite. The effect of Ni/(Ni + Mo) atomic ratio on the activity of NiMo/A1-2O3catalyst was investigated and optimized ratio was acquired. The activity of NiMo/A1-2O3 catalyst could be further improved by adding optimum amount of phosphorus promoter and chelating agent into the impregnation solution. The characterization of said impregnation solution by Raman spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectrophotometer showed that phosphorus-molybdenum heteropolyanions of [P2MO5O23]6- existed in the solution, besides, some interactions between chelating agent and Ni2+cations also happened. By optimizing preparation conditions, RS-1100 hydrodesulfurization catalyst with high activity was developed. The pilot-plant test results show that the activity of RS-1100 catalyst is higher than that of commercial RS-1000 catalyst at ultra-deep hydrodesulfurization stage, whereas, the bulk density of RS-1100 catalyst is lower. Diesel oil meeting European emission standard V can be produced by RS-1100 catalyst under suitable hydrogenation reaction conditions.

  6. Possible Effect of 30K Proteins in Embryonic Development of Silkworm Bombyx mori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-Xiong ZHONG; Jian-Ke LI; Jian-Rong LIN; Jian-She LIANG; Song-Kun SU; Hai-Sheng XU; Hai-Yan YAN; Ping-Bo ZHANG; Hiroshi FUJII

    2005-01-01

    The silkworm Bombyx mori possesses a 30K protein family of 3×104 Da, the biological functions of which have not been fully identified. The relationship between the 30K protein family and the embryonic development of temperature sensitive sex-linked mutant strain of silkworm was investigated by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and Matrix assisted laser desorption ionizationtime of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The results show that protein spots 1-5 of the 30K protein family, mainly existing in normal strain, are possibly related to embryonic development. The early consumption of a 30K protein named 6G1-30K-1 and the accumulation of 30K proteins named 6G1-30K-3and 6G 1-30K-4 are likely caused by the destruction of physiological balance in normal embryonic development,which may lead to lower hatchability of the temperature sensitive strain. The results suggest that reasonable metabolism of 30K proteins is a prerequisite for the embryo's normal development.

  7. Development of Ag dendrites-reduced graphene oxide composite catalysts via galvanic replacement reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li; Sokiransky, Mika Matsunaka; Wang, James; Lai, Guosong; Yu, Aimin

    2016-09-01

    Silver dendrites/reduced graphene oxide (AgD/RGO) composites were synthesized via a facile galvanic replacement method. The successful formation of Ag dendrites and the graphene oxide reduction were proved by a series of characterization techniques. The possible formation mechanism of Ag dendrites during the galvanic replacement reaction was discussed. The catalytic activity of the as-synthesized AgD/RGO composite was evaluated by its performance on the chemical reduction of an organic dye methylene blue. The AgD/RGO composite showed a much higher catalytic performance and stability than that of Ag dendrites.

  8. Development of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 July 1995--30 September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukur, D.B.

    1995-12-20

    The following accomplishments were made on task 4. Reproducibility of Catalyst Preparation: (1) Five slurry reactor tests were completed. Three tests were conducted using catalyst C (100 Fe/3 Cu/4 K/16 SiO{sub 2}) from three different batches (runs SB-2695, SB-2145 and SA-2715), and two tests were conducted with catalyst B (100 Fe/5 Cu/6 K/24 SiO{sub 2}) from two different preparation batches (runs SA-2615 and SB-2585). Performance of catalysts from different batches (activity, selectivity and deactivation rates) was similar to that of catalysts from the original batch (synthesized during DOE Contract DE- AC22-89PC89868). Thus, another major objective of the present contract, demonstration of reproducibility of catalyst preparation procedure and performance, has been accomplished. With these tests the work on Task 4 has been successfully completed. Two fixed bed reactor tests of catalysts B and C synthesized using potassium silicate solution as the source of potassium promoter were completed during this period (Task 5. The Effect of Source of Potassium and Basic Oxide Promoter). Activity of catalysts prepared using potassium silicate as the source of potassium promotion was somewhat higher, and their methane selectivities were higher than those of the corresponding catalysts prepared by incipient wetness impregnation using KHCO{sub 3} as the source of potassium promoter. However, these differences were not large, and may have been caused by experimental artifacts (e.g. existence of local hot spots in a reactor). A slurry reactor test (SA-2405) of catalyst with nominal composition 100 Fe/5 Cu/2 Ca/24 SiO{sub 2} was completed (Task 5). In general, the catalyst activity, space-time-yield, and hydrocarbon selectivities in this run during testing at:260{degrees}C, 2.17 MPa (300 psig), 2-2.6 Nl/g-cat/h and H{sub 2}CO=0.67 were quite good, and comparable to the best results obtained in our Laboratory.

  9. Cystatin C and lactoferrin concentrations in biological fluids as possible prognostic factors in eye tumor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya A. Dikovskaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the possible role of cystatin C in eye biological fluids locally and in serum and lactoferrin revealing anti-tumor activity in eye tumor development. Background. The increased number of eye tumors was registered recently not only in the countries with high insolation, but also in the northern countries including Russia (11 cases per million of population. Search for new biological markers is important for diagnosis and prognosis in eye tumors. Cystatin C, an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine proteases, plays an important protective role in several tumors. Lactoferrin was shown to express anti-tumor and antiviral activities. It was hypothesized that cystatin C and lactoferrin could serve as possible biomarkers in the diagnosis of malignant and benign eye tumors. Study design. A total of 54 patients with choroidal melanoma and benign eye tumors were examined (part of them undergoing surgical treatment. Serum, tear fluid and intraocular fluid samples obtained from the anterior chamber of eyes in patients with choroidal melanoma were studied. Methods. Cystatin C concentration in serum and eye biological fluids was measured by commercial ELISA kits for human (BioVendor, Czechia; lactoferrin concentration – by Lactoferrin-strip D 4106 ELISA test systems (Vector-BEST, Novosibirsk Region, Russia. Results. Cystatin C concentration in serum of healthy persons was significantly higher as compared to tear and intraocular fluids. In patients with choroidal melanoma, increased cystatin C concentration was similar in tear fluid of both the eyes. Lactoferrin level in tear fluid of healthy persons was significantly higher than its serum level. Significantly increased lactoferrin concentration in tear fluid was noted in patients with benign and malignant eye tumors. Conclusion. Increased level of cystatin C in tear fluid seems to be a possible diagnostic factor in the eye tumors studied. However, it does not allow us to differentiate

  10. Development of one pot three component synthesis of 1,4-substituted, 1,2,3-triazoles, employing green catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. N arasimha Murthy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of 1,4-substituted-1H-1,2,3-triazoles was achieved employing D-glucosamine as a green ligand with CuI as catalyst. An advantage, of high water solubility, of the ligand facilitates easy catalyst removal. All the products were formed in good yields and were characterized by advanced spectral data.

  11. Possible contribution of(pro)renin receptor to development of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanako; Bokuda; Atsuhiro; Ichihara

    2014-01-01

    (Pro)renin receptor [(P)RR], a receptor for renin and prorenin, was first cloned in 2002. Since then, the pathophysiological roles of(P)RR have been growing concerns.(P)RR binds renin and prorenin, with two important consequences, nonproteolytic activation of prorenin, leading to the tissue renin-angiotensin system activation and the intracellular signalings. It is now also known to play an important role as vacuolar H+-ATPase associated protein, involving in Wnt signaling, main component of embryonic development. Extracellular domain of full-length(P)RR is cleaved in golgi-complex forming soluble(P)RR [s(P)RR]. The s(P)RR is now possible to be measured in human blood and urine. It is now measured in different pathophysiological states, and recent study showed that elevated plasma s(P)RR levels in the early stage of pregnancies are associated with higher incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus later in the pregnancies. Plasma s(P)RR levels of neonates are known to be higher than that of adults. It was also shown that, increased s(P)RR concentrations in cord blood, associated with a lower small for gestational age birth likelihood. These data suggests the involvement of(P)RR in embryo’s growth. In thisreview article, we attempt to figure out the possible pathophysiological roles of the(P)RR in maternal glucose intolerance and embryo’s growth, through reviewing previous studies.

  12. Possibility of Preparing Thematic Maps Through Developing of the Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Husnjak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is a well known fact that nowadays planning of sustainable development and land use requires a lot of reliable and good quality information, which serves as the basis for timely and adequate decision-making. One of the most important forms of information is presented in various maps. Until recently, preparing of such data was, no doubt, a rather complex and time-consuming task. However, at present, thanks to, first of all, the GIS technology it is possible to develop corresponding geographic information systems with databases which then allow comparatively simple and quick preparing of necessary thematic maps. The paper first presents the method of developing the Geographic and Land Information System (GLIS of the Karlovac County which, although developed for the purpose of agricultural development, may also be used in the development of forestry, environment protection, physical planning, water management and for soil conservation and regulation. Several examples illustrate the possibilities of preparing of specialised maps based on this GLIS. The basic data for developing of the geographic and land information system were the data of the Basic Soil Maps and topographic maps of the Republic of Croatia at the scale of 1:50 000 or 1:25 000, and the data from other studies made for the purpose of agricultural development in the area. These data, together with the results of processing and analysing of this data, by digitalisation, generalisation and interpolation, were incorporated into an integrated database of the geographic and land information system by using Microstation, AutoCad, ArcInfo, ArcWiew and Access software and the corresponding hardware. GLIS database consists of two parts. The first part includes the data referring to polygons - pedological contours, and the other part the data on pedological profiles. The base is organised in a way that enable the preparation of different thematic maps, but it can be also used in digital form

  13. The possibility of clean development mechanism in a nuclear power expansion in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, Alexandre G., E-mail: alexandre.paris@br.pwc.co [PricewaterhouseCoopers - Sustainable Business Solutions, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Wagner S., E-mail: wagner@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The nuclear power expansion is a very controversial topic in Brazil, which needs to be carefully addressed, especially because the national energy supply system is becoming more carbon-intensive. Although most of the electricity generated in Brazil is by hydropower plants, the country's electricity matrix expansion is moving towards a larger participation of fossil fuel thermo power generation which is contrarily the global objects of climate change mitigation. Climate change is a reality and the choice facing this problem is between action and delay. There will be needed a huge international mobilization, associated with a great amount of financial, political and engineering resources interested for preventing the aggravation of the greenhouse effect. This article analyses, in the possibility of including nuclear power in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) criteria, the revenue that could be generated from the trading of Certified Emission Reduction (CER) in different scenarios of nuclear power expansion in Brazil. (author)

  14. Global value chains and agrifood standards: challenges and possibilities for smallholders in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonkoo; Gereffi, Gary; Beauvais, Janet

    2012-07-31

    The rise of private food standards has brought forth an ongoing debate about whether they work as a barrier for smallholders and hinder poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper uses a global value chain approach to explain the relationship between value chain structure and agrifood safety and quality standards and to discuss the challenges and possibilities this entails for the upgrading of smallholders. It maps four potential value chain scenarios depending on the degree of concentration in the markets for agrifood supply (farmers and manufacturers) and demand (supermarkets and other food retailers) and discusses the impact of lead firms and key intermediaries on smallholders in different chain situations. Each scenario is illustrated with case examples. Theoretical and policy issues are discussed, along with proposals for future research in terms of industry structure, private governance, and sustainable value chains. PMID:21149723

  15. Possible action mechanism of the electromagnetic fields in the liver cancer development: A mathematical proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-García, Mónica Noemí [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000, México D.F (Mexico); Godina-Nava, Juan José [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000, México (Mexico)

    2012-02-08

    Currently it is known that electromagnetic field exposure can induce biological changes, although the precise effects and action mechanism of the interaction between the electromagnetic field and biological systems are not well understood. In this work we propose a possible action mechanism, concerning the effect that the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure has on the early stage of liver cancer development. The model is developed studying the phenomena called oxidative stress that it appears after it is applied a carcinogenic agent used to induce hepatic cancer chemically in an experimental animal model. This physical-chemical process involves the movement of magnetic field dependent free charged particles, called free radicals. We will consider the use of the radical pairs theory as a framework, in which we will describe the spin density operator evolution by implementing the stochastic Liouville equation with hyperfine interaction. This describes how the selectivity of the interaction between spin states of the free radicals with the applied electromagnetic field, influences the development of pre-neoplastic lesions in the liver. AIP Publishing is retracting this article due to the substantial use of content in the Results and Conclusions section without proper citation of a previously published paper in Chemical Physics Letters 361 (2012) 219-225. This article is retracted from the scientific record with effect from 15 October 2015.

  16. Blended Learning Possibilities in Enhancing Education, Training and Development in Developing Countries: A Case Study in Graphic Design Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Atef

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blended learning is not a new concept; recently, there has been a renewed focus on this learning strategy, both in the education and corporate sectors. Although the definition of blended learning is somewhat inchoate, it is generally described as an environment that includes the use of different modes of teaching and learning. Blended learning holds particular promise for developing countries because it can make availability of resources, regional, and international educational institutions. The perspective we adopt in this paper, where we aim to take a realistic look at the potential of blended learning in developing countries, giving consideration to the various possibilities and most importantly, to the accessibility of technology both today and in the future.

  17. Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene. Quarterly report number 19, October 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spehlmann, B.C.

    1996-07-01

    The goals of this project are to develop a catalyst and process for the conversion of syngas to isobutanol. After identification and optimization of key catalyst and process characteristics, the commercial potential of the process is to be evaluated by an economic analysis. From independent process variable studies to investigate the conversion of a methanol/ethanol feed to isobutanol, the best performance to date has been achieved with the 2% Pt on Zn/Mn/Zr oxide catalyst. Using Hyprotech Hysim v2.5 process simulation software, and considering both gas and liquid recycle loops in the process flow diagram, the overall carbon conversion is 98% with 22% selectivity to isobutanol. The expected production of isobutanol is 92 MT/day from 500 MT/day of methanol and 172 MT/day of ethanol feed. An additional 13 MT/day of isobutryaldehyde intermediate is recovered in the liquid product and vent streams. Because of the low selectivity (22%) of the methanol conversion catalyst to isobutanol, the process is uneconomical, even if the isobutanol is valued as a solvent ($903/MT) and not as isobutylene for MTBE production ($352/MT).

  18. RSC-2006催化剂的研发及工业应用%The Development and Industrial Application of RSC-2006 Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉坡

    2016-01-01

    RSC-2006 catalyst,which is developed by SINOPEC Research Institute of Petroleum Processing and produced by SINOPEC Catalyst Co.,Ltd.Qilu Division,has been successfully applied in the HOFCC unit of SINOPEC Jingmen Petrochemical. RSC-2006 catalyst shows excellent heavy oil converting ability and coke selectivity.The industrial application of RSC-2006 catalyst has brought considerable economic benefits to SINOPEC Jingmen Petrochemical.%由中国石油化工股份有限公司石油化工科学研究院研制、齐鲁催化剂分公司生产的RSC-2006催化剂在荆门重油催化裂化装置上进行了成功的工业应用。RSC-2006催化剂具有优异的重油转化能力和焦炭选择性,RSC-2006催化剂的工业应用为荆门分公司带来了可观的经济效益。

  19. Ceramics in Environmental Catalysis:Applications and Possibilities%Ceramics in Environmental Catalysis: Applications and Possibilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitin LABHSETWAR; P.DOGGALI; S.RAYALU; R.YADAV; T.MISTUHASHI; H.HANEDA

    2012-01-01

    Environmental catalysis has been steadily growing because of the advances in its scientific and engineering aspects,as well as due to the new environmental challenges in the industrial era.The development of new catalysts and materials is essential for new technologies for various environmental applications.Ceramics play important roles in various environmental applications including the identification,monitoring,and quantification of pollutants and their control.Ceramics have important applications as sensors and photocatalysts,and they are extensively used as catalyst carriers and supports.Many ceramics are being explored as catalysts for pollution control applications.Their low cost,thermal and chemical stability,and capability of being tailored make them especially attractive for pollution control applications.Although a wide variety of materials have been developed as catalyst supports,this area is still of interest with new or modified catalyst supports being frequently reported.It is of equal importance to develop new or modified processes for the loading of catalysts on specific supports.Applications like chemical looping combustion (CLC) and other catalytic combustion processes are raising the demands to a new scale.We have been working on the development of both new and modified support materials,including mesoporous materials without structural order for possible applications in CLC and other catalytic reactions.Successful attempts have been made in the modification of conventional γ-Al2O3 and improved synthesis processes for supporting perovskite type catalysts.Our research on environmental catalysis applications of ceramic materials and processes are also briefly discussed.

  20. Prospects of Waterway Development as a Catalyst to Improve Regional and Community Socio-Economy Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman M. Yassin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Malaysia has achieved a number of successes in its transportation development. The success of Kuala Lumpur International Airport and Northern and Southern Highway project for examples have given the community lot of benefits in term of social and economic development, but what if an inland waterway system can be developed in Malaysia especially along Pahang River and Muar River. Can this proposed waterway bring significant impact to local people in term of their social and economic development? This has become the main objective of this study which is to investigate whether the future Pahang Muar Waterway could have significant socio-economy impact on the local community or not. Approach: This is a qualitative study. Observations, structured and unstructured in-depth interview and literature analysis were used to gain the data needed the research team has traversed along the way (University Putra Malaysia to Muar to Bahau and ended in Pekan these two rivers flow. For the in-depth interviews, a total of seventeen informants among the public and government officers were selected. Data from the in depth interviews was transcribed verbatim and subsequently analyzed by identifying similarities and consistent themes. A constant comparative method was employed in order to uncover patterns in the data. The data in this study is presented descriptively. Results: From the observation, interviews and literature analysis done, it can be concluded that the Pahang Muar Waterways is believed to develop economic activities, recreational activities, tourism industry, enhance the socio-economy life of local community and provide sustainable mobility. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results gained, it can be concluded that majority of the community interviewed believed that Pahang Muar waterways offer a vast opportunity for social and economic development for the local community. It can be noted that specific planning on constructing the

  1. Catalyst composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, T.; Sakai, T.; Sumitani, K.; Yamasaki, Y.

    1984-11-27

    A catalyst composition comprising a crystalline aluminosilicate selected from the group consisting of zeolite ZSM-5, zeolite ZSM-11, zeolite ZSM-12, zeolite ZSM-35 and zeolite ZSM-38 and having a silica/alumina mole ratio of 20 to 1,000; and at least two metals which are platinum and at least one other metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, chromium, zinc, gallium, germanium, strontium, yttrium, zirconium, molybdenum, palladium, tin, barium, cerium, tungsten, osmium, lead, cadmium, mercury, indium, lanthanum and beryllium. This catalyst composition is useful particularly for the isomerization of aromatic hydrocarbons and reforming of naphtha.

  2. Mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children - possible development of myofascial trigger points in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ting-I

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is still unclear when latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs develop during early life. This study is designed to investigate the mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children in order to see the possible timing of the development of latent MTrPs and attachment trigger points (A-TrPs in school children. Methods Five hundreds and five healthy school children (age 4- 11 years were investigated. A pressure algometer was used to measure the pressure pain threshold (PPT at three different sites in the brachioradialis muscle: the lateral epicondyle at elbow (site A, assumed to be the A-TrP site, the mid-point of the muscle belly (site B, assumed to be the MTrP site, and the muscle-tendon junction as a control site (site C. Results The results showed that, for all children in this study, the mean PPT values was significantly lower (p p Conclusions It is concluded that a child had increased sensitivity at the tendon attachment site and the muscle belly (endplate zone after age of 4 years. Therefore, it is likely that a child may develop an A-Trp and a latent MTrP at the brachioradialis muscle after the age of 4 years. The changes in sensitivity, or the development for these trigger points, may not be related to the activity level of children aged 7-11 years. Further investigation is still required to indentify the exact timing of the initial occurrence of a-Trps and latent MTrPs.

  3. Possible involvement of leptin and leptin receptor in developing gastric adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zhao; Zhi-Xiang Shen; He-Sheng Luo; Lei Shen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of leptin and leptin receptor (ob-R) in intestinal-type gastric cancer and precancerous lesions, and to explore the possible mechanism and role of the leptin system in developing intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma.METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the expression of leptin and leptin receptor in archival samples of gastric adenocarcinoma and preneoplastic lesions, including intestinal metaplasia and mild to severe gastric epithelial dysplasia. Positive staining was identified and percentage of positive staining was graded.RESULTS: Dual expression of leptin and leptin receptor were detected in 80% (16/20) intestinal metaplasia,86.3% (25/30) mild gastric epithelial dysplasia, 86.7%(26/30) moderate gastric epithelial dysplasia, 93.3%(28/30) severe gastric epithelial dysplasia, 91.3% (55/60)intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma and 30.0% (9/30)difffuse-type gastric carcinoma. The percentage of dual expression of leptin and leptin receptor in intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than that in diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma (x2 = 37.022,P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Our results indicate the presence of an autocrine loop of leptin system in the development of intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma.

  4. The Interplay of Possible Language Teacher Selves in Professional Development Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiver, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research on possible selves proliferates in the literature on psychology, yet it is only in the latter half of the 2000s that possible selves were exploited in applied linguistics fields. Kubanyiova's (2007, 2009) recent mixed-methods study introduced the concept of "possible language teacher selves" as a construct through which to…

  5. Civil society: the catalyst for ensuring health in the age of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia; Buse, Kent; Gordon, Case

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Development Goal Three is rightly ambitious, but achieving it will require doing global health differently. Among other things, progressive civil society organisations will need to be recognised and supported as vital partners in achieving the necessary transformations. We argue, using illustrative examples, that a robust civil society can fulfill eight essential global health functions. These include producing compelling moral arguments for action, building coalitions beyond the health sector, introducing novel policy alternatives, enhancing the legitimacy of global health initiatives and institutions, strengthening systems for health, enhancing accountability systems, mitigating the commercial determinants of health and ensuring rights-based approaches. Given that civil society activism has catalyzed tremendous progress in global health, there is a need to invest in and support it as a global public good to ensure that the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development can be realised. PMID:27424031

  6. Civil society: the catalyst for ensuring health in the age of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia; Buse, Kent; Gordon, Case

    2016-07-16

    Sustainable Development Goal Three is rightly ambitious, but achieving it will require doing global health differently. Among other things, progressive civil society organisations will need to be recognised and supported as vital partners in achieving the necessary transformations. We argue, using illustrative examples, that a robust civil society can fulfill eight essential global health functions. These include producing compelling moral arguments for action, building coalitions beyond the health sector, introducing novel policy alternatives, enhancing the legitimacy of global health initiatives and institutions, strengthening systems for health, enhancing accountability systems, mitigating the commercial determinants of health and ensuring rights-based approaches. Given that civil society activism has catalyzed tremendous progress in global health, there is a need to invest in and support it as a global public good to ensure that the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development can be realised.

  7. Investigations into surface-confined covalent organic frameworks : towards developing novel enantioselective heterogeneous catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, John

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing necessity for the pharmaceutical industry to develop enantiomerically pure drugs. Up till now, production of enantiomerically pure molecules has been provided by harvesting them from plants or utilising homogeneous catalysis and biocatalysis. None of these methods are efficient means of production, and attention is now being directed towards heterogeneous enantioselective catalysis as the preferred technique. This is on account of the high product yield a...

  8. Civil society: the catalyst for ensuring health in the age of sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Julia; Buse, Kent; Gordon, Case

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Development Goal Three is rightly ambitious, but achieving it will require doing global health differently. Among other things, progressive civil society organisations will need to be recognised and supported as vital partners in achieving the necessary transformations. We argue, using illustrative examples, that a robust civil society can fulfill eight essential global health functions. These include producing compelling moral arguments for action, building coalitions beyond the ...

  9. Agricultural biotechnologies in developing countries and their possible contribution to food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, John; Sonnino, Andrea

    2011-12-20

    Latest FAO figures indicate that an estimated 925 million people are undernourished in 2010, representing almost 16% of the population in developing countries. Looking to the future, there are also major challenges ahead from the rapidly changing socio-economic environment (increasing world population and urbanisation, and dietary changes) and climate change. Promoting agriculture in developing countries is the key to achieving food security, and it is essential to act in four ways: to increase investment in agriculture, broaden access to food, improve governance of global trade, and increase productivity while conserving natural resources. To enable the fourth action, the suite of technological options for farmers should be as broad as possible, including agricultural biotechnologies. Agricultural biotechnologies represent a broad range of technologies used in food and agriculture for the genetic improvement of plant varieties and animal populations, characterisation and conservation of genetic resources, diagnosis of plant or animal diseases and other purposes. Discussions about agricultural biotechnology have been dominated by the continuing controversy surrounding genetic modification and its resulting products, genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The polarised debate has led to non-GMO biotechnologies being overshadowed, often hindering their development and application. Extensive documentation from the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies in Developing Countries (ABDC-10), that took place in Guadalajara, Mexico, on 1-4 March 2010, gave a very good overview of the many ways that different agricultural biotechnologies are being used to increase productivity and conserve natural resources in the crop, livestock, fishery, forestry and agro-industry sectors in developing countries. The conference brought together about 300 policy-makers, scientists and representatives of intergovernmental and international non

  10. Governmental exposure connected to possible slide scale execution for future field developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the allotment of exploitation permits the governmental and Statoil parts have in the beginning been 50 % in all. This usually is divided in 30 % to the government and 20 % to Statoil. The slide scale system gives the government the right to increase the propriety share in a development project in connection with approval of the development plans. It is also possible in some permits to use the slide scale at a later date. The slide scale system was abolished for new permits in connection with the state budget discussions in 1993. The practice of giving Statoil and SDOE a share of at least 50 % was also eased. At the allotment time the uncertainty of the resource potential and the economy in the development project was considerable. However the companies have expectations for the location potentials. On this bases they made their allotment applications for exploitation permits. The application also contained an offer for a slide scale. In connection with the allotments the companies and the authorities also negotiated for the slice scale design and level. When the final propriety composition was to be established the slide scale offers were important criterias. The background for the slide scale system is the wish of the authorities to involve a larger part of the basic interest in large findings. The slide scale is an attempt from the authorities to make the system progressive with respect to reserve size. This progressiveness is difficult to obtain by aid of the taxation system because the companies are the objects not the fields. In order to establish a portfolio of possible developments where the slide scale option is present we have used data rom Wood Mackenzie from March 1993. The fields which are used as well as the contribution to the government by the use of a slide scale for the single field in increased present value is shown. The yearly alterations in governmental income are shown for use of the slide scale system for all the fields in the portfolio as

  11. Development of Electronic Identification Measures in the Public Sector of Lithuania: Analysis of Alteration Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimantas Petrauskas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyze, assess and identify alteration possibilities of effective implementation of e-Identification technology solutions focusing on organization capabilities in the public sector of Lithuania.Design/methodology/approach – different methods were used in the research. Content analysis method was used for the issues related to application of e-Identification solutions, technology management and organizational capabilities. During the pilot research, information on specificities of organization capabilities to implement e-Identification solution in the public sector was gathered, analyzed and interlinked with content analysis via comparative and deductive methods.Findings – the research shows that the gap in the area of development of e-Identification solutions in the public sector in Lithuania is affected by the lack of organizational capabilities that need to be developed internally. The challenge is to foster organizational capabilities in the environment, influenced by rapidly emerging new technology solutions (use of smartphones and applications and limited legal regulation. Lifecycle of any technology solutions becomes shorter and jeopardizes its use and functionality in time; therefore, public sector institutions could benefit from holistic e-Identification solution diffusion strategy that incorporates aspects of organizational capabilities.Research limitations/implications – the research findings are limited by the nature of the pilot research (peer review, level of experience in their organizations and environment as well as the geographic scope of the research.Practical implications – the article portrays public sector environment of implementation of e-Identification solutions and particularities of organizational capabilities to manage its development.Originality/value – originality of the article is in the research and assessment of country specific future proof needs to alter and improve the existing

  12. Production of drugs by microbial biosynthesis and biotransformation. Possibilities, limits and future developments (1st communication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieslich, K

    1986-04-01

    Before the advent of alchemy the therapeutic aids for man and animals consisted exclusively of using natural products in many different forms. Chemical syntheses have been used for little more than 100 years as a means of obtaining drugs. The discovery of penicillin and the first industrial production of this compound in 1941/42 opened the door to a third way for the preparation of drugs by exploitation of the manifold biosynthetic capabilities of microorganisms to produce antibiotics or more recently other pharmacologically active substances. The selective use of individual enzymatic transformation stages with microorganisms in chemical production pathways in particular by biotransformations of steroids in 1950 expanded the field of biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals. The increasing knowledge in the regulation of the biosynthesis of primary and secondary metabolites, the growing experience in the use of microorganisms as biocatalysts and source of valuable enzymes and the development of new economical technical procedures raised the number and volume of drugs prepared by microbial biosynthesis and biotransformation. The modern method of the genetic engineering supported by the chemical DNA-synthesis enabled the preparation of important proteohormones and physiologically active peptides in microorganisms. Finally, the development of monoclonal antibodies, although at present still formed in mammalian cells, will lead to new ways of therapy in future. A review is given on the present state of biotechnological productions of antibiotics, vitamins, steroids, alkaloids, amino acids and pharmaceutical enzymes combined with new developments in the preparation of blood factors, enzyme inhibitors, hormones and physiologically active peptides and the possible future use of monoclonal antibodies.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-TASK CATALYSTS FOR REMOVAL OF NOx AND TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS DURING COAL COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotis G. Smirniotis; Robert G. Jenkins

    2002-02-04

    The work performed during this project focused on the identification of materials capable of providing high activity and selectivity for the selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia. The material surface characteristics were correlated with the catalytic behavior of our catalysts to increase our understanding and to help improve the DeNO{sub x} efficiency. The catalysts employed in this study include mixed oxide composite powders (TiO{sub 2}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2}, and TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) loaded with varying amounts of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, along with 5 different commercial sources of TiO{sub 2}. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was added to the commercial sources of TiO{sub 2} to achieve monolayer coverage. Since the valence state of vanadium in the precursor solution during the impregnation step significantly impacted catalytic performance, catalysts were synthesized from both V{sup +4} and V{sup +5} solutions explain this phenomenon. Specifically, the synthesis of catalysts from V{sup 5+} precursor solutions yields lower-performance catalysts compared to the case of V{sup 4+} under identical conditions. Aging the vanadium precursor solution, which is associated with the reduction of V{sup 5+} to V{sup 4+} (VO{sub 2}{sup +} {yields} VO{sup 2+}), prior to impregnation results in catalysts with excellent catalytic behavior under identical activation and operating conditions. This work also added vanadia to TiO{sub 2}-based supports with low crystallinity. These supports, which have traditionally performed poorly, are now able to function as effective SCR catalysts. Increasing the acidity of the support by incorporating oxides such as WO{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} significantly improves the SCR activity and nitrogen selectivity. It was also found that the supports should be synthesized with the simultaneous precipitation of the corresponding precursors. The mixed oxide catalysts possess

  14. Development of Non-Platinum Catalysts for Intermediate Temperature Water Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich; Petrushina, Irina Michailovna; Bjerrum, Niels J.

    2014-01-01

    Water electrolysis is recognized as an efficient energy storage (in the form of hydrogen) supplement in renewable energy production. However, industrial alkaline water electrolyzers are rather ineffective and space requiring for a commercial use in connection with energy storage. The most effective...... modern water electrolyzers are based on polymeric proton-conducting membrane electrolytes (PEM), e.g. Nafion®, a perfluorocarbon-sulfonic acid polymer. These electrolyzers work at temperatures up to around 80 °C, and, in extreme cases, up to 130-140 °C. The most developed PEM electrolyzers...

  15. Development of Pd and Pd-Co catalysts supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for formic acid oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Acosta, D.; Godinez, Luis A.; Rodriguez, H.G.; Arriaga, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, C.P. 76703 Queretaro (Mexico); Ledesma-Garcia, J. [Division de Investigacion y Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Cerro de las Campanas S/N, C.P. 76010, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Alvarez-Contreras, L. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S. C., Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    Pd-Co and Pd catalysts were prepared by the impregnation synthesis method at low temperature on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The nanotubes were synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique. Both catalysts were obtained with high homogeneous distribution and particle size around 4 nm. The morphology, composition and electrocatalytic properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical measurements, respectively. The electrocatalytic activity of Pd and PdCo/MWCNTs catalysts was investigated in terms of formic acid electrooxidation at low concentration in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution. The results obtained from voltamperometric studies showed that the current density achieved with the PdCo/MWCNTs catalyst is 3 times higher than that reached with the Pd/MWCNTs catalyst. The onset potential for formic acid electrooxidation on PdCo/MWCNTs electrocatalyst showed a negative shift ca. 50 mV compared with Pd/MWCNTs. (author)

  16. Modern trends in the development of surface science as applied to catalysis. The elucidation of the structure-activity relationships in heterogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fundamental approach to the development of heterogeneous catalysts consisting of the study of the structure-activity relationships using surface science methods and techniques is proposed. According to this approach, a study should start with an investigation into well-ordered single crystals under ultrahigh vacuum conditions and then move along the way of both increasing the gas phase pressure (to address the 'pressure gap' problem) and complicating the samples under study from single crystals to supported clusters (to address the 'material gap' problem). The case studies cited in the review prove the efficacy of the proposed approach to investigations into the reactivity of active component particles for the subsequent molecular design of catalysts with improved performance (activity, selectivity and stability) and demonstrate that it conforms with the modern trends in the development of surface science as applied to heterogeneous catalysis.

  17. Development of a complete kinetic model for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visconti, C.G.; Tronconi, E.; Lietti, L.; Forzatti, P. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' ' G.Natta' ' ; Zennaro, R. [EniTecnologie, San Donato Milanese (Italy). Catalysis and Process Technology Research Centre

    2006-07-01

    A global kinetic model of the FTS over a Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} state-of-the-art catalyst is developed in a fixed bed micro-reactor under conditions relevant to industrial operation (temperature, 210- 235 C; pressure, 8-25 bar; H{sub 2}/CO feed molar ratio, 1.8-2.7; gas hourly space velocity, 2000- 7000 cm{sup 3}(STP)/h/g{sub catalyst}). On the basis of proposed reaction mechanisms, developed according to the carbide theory and the alkyl mechanism, the kinetic expressions for n-paraffins and {alpha}-olefins formation are derived. Both the calculated CO conversion and the hydrocarbons distribution (up to N=49) in FTS reaction are satisfactorily predicted. (orig.)

  18. Tight bifunctional hierarchical catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højholt, Karen T; Vennestrøm, Peter N R; Tiruvalam, Ramchandra; Beato, Pablo

    2011-12-28

    A new concept to prepare tight bifunctional catalysts has been developed, by anchoring CoMo(6) clusters on hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolites for simultaneous use in HDS and hydrocracking catalysis. The prepared material displays a significant improved activity in HDS catalysis compared to the impregnated counterpart. PMID:22048337

  19. Possibility to predict the development of secondary depression in primary alcoholics during abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Gajić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The relationship between alcoholism and depression is observed in clinical trials. The factors which could predict persistence of secondary depression after alcohol withdrawal are not enough explored on admission. The differences between depressed (DA and non-depressed (NDA alcoholics regarding the degrees of severity of withdrawal, severity of depression and the intensity of cognitive dysfunctions were explored on admission to investigate possibility of prediction of the development of secondary depression in alcoholics. Methods. A group of primary male alcoholics (n=86 was recruited during inpatient treatment. After 4 weeks alcoholics were divided in the DA group (n=43 and NDA (n=43 group according to the score on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D. Clinical assessment of withdrawal, scoring on the Alcohol Dependency Severity Scale- ASD, and scoring on the Mini Mental Scale-MMSE were performed in all the participants on admission. The differences between the groups were tested by the Student's t-test. Results. The DA group showed the significantly higher severity of depression, higher levels of alcohol withdrawal symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions than the NDA group on admission. Conclusion. The specific group of depressive alcoholics was shown to be characterized by the higher severity of alcoholism and depression on admission, which could predict prolonged, secondary depression. Early detection and concurrent therapy of secondary depression could improve the treatment, and reduce the relapse of alcoholism.

  20. POSSIBILITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF BUSINESS CLUSTER NETWORK BETWEEN SMEs FROM VISEGRAD COUNTRIES AND SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mihajlović

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Serbian Journal of Management (SJM 9(2 2014, besides containing regular research papers, is containing the papers which resulted from the project “Possibilities for development of business cluster network between SMEs from Visegrad countries and Serbia” and the International May Conference on Strategic Management – IMKSM2014 (http://mksm.sjm06.com . The manuscripts: Entrepreneurs of the Future (Lazani, 2014; The level of process management principles application in SMEs in the selected region of the Czech Republic (Rolinek et al., 2014 and Roles of Socialisation in Strengthening the labour-market positions of young entrants (Marosi, 2014 are the direct result of the Project, which was approved and financially supported by the Visegrad Fund (http://visegradfund.org . On the other hand, the manuscript Workspace as a factor of job satisfaction in the banking and ICT industries in Macedonia (Tomovska, et al., 2014 and Organizational routines in russian companies - review of practicesis (Valieva, 2014 are resulting from the IMKSM2014.

  1. The innovation catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roger L

    2011-06-01

    A few years ago the software development company Intuit realized that it needed a new approach to galvanizing customers. The company's Net Promoter Score was faltering, and customer recommendations of new products were especially disappointing. Intuit decided to hold a two-day, off-site meeting for the company's top 300 managers with a focus on the role of design in innovation. One of the days was dedicated to a program called Design for Delight. The centerpiece of the day was a PowerPoint presentation by Intuit founder Scott Cook, who realized midway through that he was no Steve Jobs: The managers listened dutifully, but there was little energy in the room. By contrast, a subsequent exercise in which the participants worked through a design challenge by creating prototypes, getting feedback, iterating, and refining, had them mesmerized. The eventual result was the creation of a team of nine design-thinking coaches--"innovation catalysts"--from across Intuit who were made available to help any work group create prototypes, run experiments, and learn from customers. The process includes a "painstorm" (to determine the customer's greatest pain point), a "soljam" (to generate and then winnow possible solutions), and a "code-jam" (to write code "good enough" to take to customers within two weeks). Design for Delight has enabled employees throughout Intuit to move from satisfying customers to delighting them. PMID:21714388

  2. The innovation catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roger L

    2011-06-01

    A few years ago the software development company Intuit realized that it needed a new approach to galvanizing customers. The company's Net Promoter Score was faltering, and customer recommendations of new products were especially disappointing. Intuit decided to hold a two-day, off-site meeting for the company's top 300 managers with a focus on the role of design in innovation. One of the days was dedicated to a program called Design for Delight. The centerpiece of the day was a PowerPoint presentation by Intuit founder Scott Cook, who realized midway through that he was no Steve Jobs: The managers listened dutifully, but there was little energy in the room. By contrast, a subsequent exercise in which the participants worked through a design challenge by creating prototypes, getting feedback, iterating, and refining, had them mesmerized. The eventual result was the creation of a team of nine design-thinking coaches--"innovation catalysts"--from across Intuit who were made available to help any work group create prototypes, run experiments, and learn from customers. The process includes a "painstorm" (to determine the customer's greatest pain point), a "soljam" (to generate and then winnow possible solutions), and a "code-jam" (to write code "good enough" to take to customers within two weeks). Design for Delight has enabled employees throughout Intuit to move from satisfying customers to delighting them.

  3. Highly Dispersed Alloy Catalyst for Durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthi, Vivek S.; Izzo, Elise; Bi, Wu; Guerrero, Sandra; Protsailo, Lesia

    2013-01-08

    Achieving DOE's stated 5000-hr durability goal for light-duty vehicles by 2015 will require MEAs with characteristics that are beyond the current state of the art. Significant effort was placed on developing advanced durable cathode catalysts to arrive at the best possible electrode for high performance and durability, as well as developing manufacturing processes that yield significant cost benefit. Accordingly, the overall goal of this project was to develop and construct advanced MEAs that will improve performance and durability while reducing the cost of PEMFC stacks. The project, led by UTC Power, focused on developing new catalysts/supports and integrating them with existing materials (membranes and gas diffusion layers (GDLs)) using state-of-the-art fabrication methods capable of meeting the durability requirements essential for automotive applications. Specifically, the project work aimed to lower platinum group metals (PGM) loading while increasing performance and durability. Appropriate catalysts and MEA configuration were down-selected that protects the membrane, and the layers were tailored to optimize the movements of reactants and product water through the cell to maximize performance while maintaining durability.

  4. Challenges for new electro catalysts development for the ORR in acid medium for PEM fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratory of New Materials for Electrochemistry and Energy

    2010-07-01

    The low kinetic rate at the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) of platinum (Pt) electrocatalysts in acid mediums is one of the most limiting factors for the industrial mass production of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). New electrocatalyst materials are currently being investigated by researchers as a replacement for Pt include lignited ruthenium-based chalcogenides; pyrolized iron (Fe) porphyrins; metal carbides; and molybdenum (Mo), iridium (Ir) and cobalt (Co) based catalysts. Co-polypyrrole is also being considered as a non-noble catalyst. This presentation discussed the main parameters that limit the ORR of non-noble catalysts in PEMFC applications. Palladium (Pa) based bi-metallic alloys were investigated. The study showed that Pd-alloy catalysts exhibit excellent activity for the ORR in acidic media. The highest electrocatalytic activity was demonstrated in an alloy composition of 60 per cent Pd. The cost of Pd was compared to the cost of Pt. The intrinsic metal surface properties of Pd-alloys were also discussed, and the onset potential of the ORR was compared for various alloys. 31 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Nano-magnetite (Fe3O4) as a support for recyclable catalysts in the development of sustainable methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawande, Manoj B; Branco, Paula S; Varma, Rajender S

    2013-04-21

    Surface functionalization of nano-magnetic nanoparticles is a well-designed way to bridge the gap between heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis. The introduction of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in a variety of solid matrices allows the combination of well-known procedures for catalyst heterogenization with techniques for magnetic separation. Magnetite is a well-known material, also known as ferrite (Fe3O4), and can be used as a versatile support for functionalization of metals, organocatalysts, N-heterocyclic carbenes, and chiral catalysts. It is used as a support for important homogeneous catalytically active metals such as Pd, Pt, Cu, Ni, Co, Ir, etc. to obtain stable and magnetically recyclable heterogeneous catalysts. Homogeneous organocatalysts can be successfully decorated with linkers/ligands on the surface of magnetite or alternatively the organocatalysts can be directly immobilized on the surface of magnetite. The functionalized magnetically retrievable catalysts or nanocatalysts that are increasingly being used in catalysis, green chemistry and pharmaceutically significant reactions are summarized in this review.

  6. Catalyst Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans; Marling, Gitte; Hansen, Peter Mandal

    2014-01-01

    How can architecture promote the enriching experiences of the tolerant, the democratic, and the learning city - a city worth living in, worth supporting and worth investing in? Catalyst Architecture comprises architectural projects, which, by virtue of their location, context and their combinatio...... meaningful for everyone. The exhibited works are designed by SANAA, Diller Scofidio + Renfro, James Corner Field Operation, JBMC Arquitetura e Urbanismo, Atelier Bow-Wow, Ateliers Jean Nouvel, COBE, Transform, BIG, Topotek1, Superflex, and by visual artist Jane Maria Petersen....

  7. Efficient Nd Promoted Rh Catalysts for Vapor Phase Methanol Carbonylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Feng ZHANG; Qing Li QIAN; Ping Lai PAN; Yi CHEN; Guo Qing YUAN

    2005-01-01

    A Nd promoted-Rh catalysts supported on polymer-derived carbon beads for vapor-phase methanol carbonylation was developed. Rh-Nd bimetallic catalysts obviously have higher activity than that of supported Rh catalyst under similar reaction condition. The difference between the activity of above two catalyst systems is clearly caused by the intrinsic properties generated by the introduction of Nd.

  8. On the possible effects of homeostatic shifts in human embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible etiological factors of congenital malformations, as well as of human trisomies are considered. We discuss the evidence that hyperthermia in particular may be an etiological factor for trisomies in humans. (author). 19 refs

  9. Oxidation Catalysts for Elemental Mercury in Flue Gases—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Lazar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The removal of mercury from flue gases in scrubbers is greatly facilitated if the mercury is present as water-soluble oxidized species. Therefore, increased mercury oxidation upstream of scrubber devices will improve overall mercury removal. For this purpose heterogeneous catalysts have recently attracted a great deal of interest. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR, noble metal and transition metal oxide based catalysts have been investigated at both the laboratory and plant scale with this objective. A review article published in 2006 covers the progress in the elemental mercury (Hgel catalytic oxidation area. This paper brings the review in this area up to date. To this end, 110 papers including several reports and patents are reviewed. For each type of catalyst the possible mechanisms as well as the effect of flue gas components on activity and stability are examined. Advantages and main problems are analyzed. The possible future directions of catalyst development in this environmental research area are outlined.

  10. MECHANICAL STRENGTH AND RELIABILITY OF SOLID CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongdan Li; Dongfang Wu; Y.S. Lin

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical strength of solid catalysts is one of the key parameters for reliable and efficient performance of a fixed bed reactor. Some recent developments and their basic mechanics within this context are reviewed. The main concepts discussed are brittle fracture which leads to the mechanical failure of the catalyst pellets, measurement and statistical properties of the catalyst strength data, and mechanical reliability of the catalyst pellets and their packed bed. The scientific basis for the issues on the catalyst mechanical properties calls yet for further elucidation and advancement.

  11. A Materials-Based Mitigation Strategy for SU/SD in PEM Fuel Cells: Properties and Performance-Specific Testing of IrRu OER Catalysts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasoski, Radoslav [3M Industrial Mineral Products; Cullen, David A [ORNL; Vernstrom, George [3M Industrial Mineral Products; Haugen, Gregory [3M Industrial Mineral Products; Atanasoska, Liliana [3M Industrial Mineral Products

    2013-01-01

    Catalysts that enable proton exchange membrane fuel cells to weather the damaging conditions experienced during transient periods of fuel starvation have been developed. The addition of minute amounts of iridium and ruthenium to the cathode enhances the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) during start-up/shutdown events, thus lowering the peak cell voltage closer to the onset of water oxidation. The catalyst loadings ranged from 1 to 10 g/cm2, but showed surprisingly high activity and durability. At such low loadings, it is possible to fully integrate the OER catalysts with negligible interference on fuel cell performance and a marginal increase in catalyst cost.

  12. PROGRESS IN CATALYST AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR LOW SULFUR AND LOW AROMATICS DIESEL PRODUCTION%低硫低芳烃柴油生产技术开发进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇; 韩崇仁

    2003-01-01

    The article includes three parts: ①The development and performance of FH-DS catalyst for deep and ultra-deep distillate HDS; ②The single stage HDS/HDA hydrotreating process for the production of low sulfur and low aromatics diesels from straight run and coker AGO by using highly active base metal catalyst at moderate pressure; ③A two-stage aromatics saturation system utilizing noble metal catalyst in the second stage developed for production of low sulfur and low aromatics diesel from LCO. FDA catalyst developed by FRIPP has high activity for aromatics saturation together with high tolerance for sulfur and nitrogen in the feed. The process is effective in reducing density and increasing cetane number.

  13. Duplex steam reformer: alternate catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacturing feasibility of a duplex steam reformer tube for potential use in a high temperature gas cooled reactor has been successfully demonstrated. This technique consists of explosively expanding the inner tube into the outer tube. To successfully achieve the desired 0 to 3 mil radial gap between the tubes it is necessary to perform the expansion in two steps with an intermediate anneal. A catalyst design that would have replaced the conventional Raschig rings with a metal supported catalyst has been evaluated and it has been concluded that further development and testing are needed before fabrication of a full scale prototype is warranted. Consequently, the immediate efforts are directed towards reevaluating the incentives for developing a catalyst and the probability of successfully developing a catalyst that could be used for steam reforming

  14. Utilizing inter-organizational relationships for new product development performance: A test of possible mediation effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Thomas Bøtker; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether collaborative experience can act as a mediating variable on the use of inter-organizational relationships on NPD performance. The paper tests two different research questions: 1) Is there a possible mediating effect of experience on the linkage ...

  15. Possible Effects of Electronic Social Media on Gifted and Talented Children's Intelligence and Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Joan

    2016-01-01

    In just a few decades, electronic networks have expanded beyond all expectations. Instant messaging via smart phones and computers of all sorts whizz round the world. Researchers and policy makers are strongly divided in their findings and conclusions as to the effects of possible persuasive changes on the minds and lives of children, particularly…

  16. Development of a PtSn bimetallic catalyst for direct fuel cells using bio-butanol fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Puthiyapura, V.K.; Brett, D. J. L.; Russell, A E; Lin, W.F.; Hardacre, C.

    2015-01-01

    Pt and PtSn catalysts were studied for n-butanol electro-oxidation at various temperatures. PtSn showed a higher activity towards butanol electro-oxidation compared to Pt in acidic media. The onset potential for n-butanol oxidation on PtSn is similar to 520 mV lower than that found on Pt, and significantly lower activation energy was found for PtSn compared with that for Pt.

  17. Development of a PtSn bimetallic catalyst for direct fuel cells using bio-butanol fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthiyapura, V K; Brett, D J L; Russell, A E; Lin, W F; Hardacre, C

    2015-09-01

    Pt and PtSn catalysts were studied for n-butanol electro-oxidation at various temperatures. PtSn showed a higher activity towards butanol electro-oxidation compared to Pt in acidic media. The onset potential for n-butanol oxidation on PtSn is ∼520 mV lower than that found on Pt, and significantly lower activation energy was found for PtSn compared with that for Pt. PMID:26214283

  18. Synthesis of Organic Compounds over Selected Types of Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mohamed Saad Ismail

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an overview for the utilization of different catalytic material in the synthesis of organic compounds for important reactions such as heck reaction, aldol reaction, Diels- Alder and other reactions. Comparisons between multiple catalysts for the same reaction and justifications for developing new catalyzed materials are discussed. The following topics are introduced in this work; (1 solid base catalysts, (2 clay catalysts, (3 palladium catalysts, and (4 catalysts to produce organic compound from CO2. The features of these catalysts a long with the conjugated reactions and their selectivity are explained in details, also, some alternatives for toxic or polluting catalysts used in industry are suggested.

  19. Development of transition metal oxide catalysts for treatment of off-gases released during pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent IX resin wastes arising from nuclear power plants have high radiation level due to fission product 137Cesium and activation product 60Cobalt. The pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis processes have potential to minimize final waste form volumes of these wastes. The major difficulty in deploying these processes for treatment of spent IX resins is release of off-gases containing large quantities of aromatic hydrocarbons, amines, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, carbonyl sulphide etc. As an alternative to high temperature incineration of the pyrolysis off gases, feasibility of using catalytic combustion at moderate temperatures was investigated in the laboratory. Copper chromite, copper oxide-ceric oxide and vanadium pentaoxide catalysts supported on alumina were prepared and tested for oxidation of styrene monomer, toluene, ethyl benzene and trimethyl amine at 22500 hr-1 space velocity and temperature range of 300 to 500 degC. At temperatures over 475 degC, all three catatyst gave oxidation efficiency of over 97% for these compounds over concentration range of few tens of ppm to few thousands ppm. A composite catalyst bed of three catalysts comprising principally of copper chromite is proposed for treatment of IX resin pyrolysis off-gases. (author)

  20. FCC Catalysts to Meet Demand of New Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Daping

    2008-01-01

    The CGP series FCC catalysts for manufacture of clean gasoline and propylene and the catalyst RSC-2006 for processing inferior residuum with high yield of light distillates are novel catalysts jointly developed by Qilu Catalyst Branch Company of SINOPEC Corp. and the Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (RIPP). The results of commercial application of these catalysts have revealed that they can satisfactorily meet the requirements for environmental protection, good economic benefits and capability for processing inferior FCC feed under new circumstances.

  1. Preparative characteristics of hydrophobic polymer catalyst for the tritium removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimum method for the fabrication of hydrophobic catalyst was selected and the apparatuses for the preparation of catalyst support with high yield was developed for the large scale production. Also, we summarized the method of improving the physical property of the catalyst support, the loading characteristics of Pt metal as a catalyst, and the characteristics of the apparatus for the fabrication of the catalysts on a large scale

  2. Developing business advantages from the technological possibilities of enterprise information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luay Anaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are increasingly implementing Enterprise Information Systems (EIS, and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems in particular. Despite the notable studies on the advantages of an EIS, many organizations are not satisfied with the benefits or advantages gained. At the same time, it is assumed that such systems with increasing innovations and technological enhancements would generate abundant business advantages, if organizations exploited these opportunities. The investigation in this work drew on the sociomateriality perspective, using imbrication notion, and focused on a telecomm case study to examine how organizations can exploit the technological possibilities of an EIS to create business benefits. The study findings suggest that business benefits can be achieved when the EIS as a technical system is interwoven with the organizational work in which both dynamically change in practice (not from the technical features of the system, when the system provides interesting and beneficial technological possibilities that attract organizations, and when the firm has the organizational capabilities to translate these possibilities into real business benefits.

  3. A Possible Mechanism for the Suppression of Plasmodium berghei Development in the Mosquito Anopheles gambiae by the Microsporidian Vavraia culicis

    OpenAIRE

    Bargielowski, Irka; Koella, Jacob C

    2009-01-01

    Background Microsporidian parasites of mosquitoes offer a possible way of controlling malaria, as they impede the development of Plasmodium parasites within the mosquito. The mechanism involved in this interference process is unknown. Methodology We evaluated the possibility that larval infection by a microsporidian primes the immune system of adult mosquitoes in a way that enables a more effective anti-Plasmodium response. To do so, we infected 2-day old larvae of the mosquito Anopheles gamb...

  4. On the Role of Glutamate in Presynaptic Development: Possible Contributions of Presynaptic NMDA Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlie N. Fedder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper formation and maturation of synapses during development is a crucial step in building the functional neural circuits that underlie perception and behavior. It is well established that experience modifies circuit development. Therefore, understanding how synapse formation is controlled by synaptic activity is a key question in neuroscience. In this review, we focus on the regulation of excitatory presynaptic terminal development by glutamate, the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. We discuss the evidence that NMDA receptor activation mediates these effects of glutamate and present the hypothesis that local activation of presynaptic NMDA receptors (preNMDARs contributes to glutamate-dependent control of presynaptic development. Abnormal glutamate signaling and aberrant synapse development are both thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability, epilepsy, anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia. Therefore, understanding how glutamate signaling and synapse development are linked is important for understanding the etiology of these diseases.

  5. Liquid Phase Hydrogenation of Benzalacetophenone:Effect of Solvent,Catalyst Support,Catalytic Metal and Reaction Conditions%Liquid Phase Hydrogenation of Benzalacetophenone: Effect of Solvent, Catalyst Support, Catalytic Metal and Reaction Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Achim STOLLE; Christine SCHMOGER; Bernd ONDRUSCHKA; Werner BONRATH; Thomas F. KELLER; Klaus D. JANDT

    2011-01-01

    Innovative catalysts based on a “porous glass” support material were developed and investigated for the reduction of benzalacetophenone.The easy preparation conditions and possibility to use different metals (e.g.Pd,Pt,Rh) for impregnation gave a broad variety of these catalysts.Hydrogenation experiments with these supported catalysts were carried out under different hydrogen pressures and temperatures.Porous glass catalysts with Pd as the active component gave chemoselective hydrogenation of benzalacetophenone,while Pt- and Rh-catalysts tended to further reduce the carbonyl group,especially at elevated hydrogen pressures and temperatures.Kinetic analysis of the reactions revealed these had zero order kinetics,which was independent of the type of porous glass support and solvent used.

  6. Possibilities of the development of the Hungarian power system under the new market circumstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first phase of the privatisation of the Hungarian electric power industry was completed in 1995. This paper describes the current structure and future considerations. The legal structure of the new system is delineated, and possible means of expansion described. Among elements under consideration are: gas turbine peak-load power plant units; combined-cycle cogeneration power plants; combined-cycle condensation units; cogeneration power plants with fluidized bed combustion; nuclear power plants; oil-fired units; hard-coal fired units; lignite fired units; and pumped storage. 1 tab

  7. Possibility of the development of a Serbian protection system against chemical accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan R. Inđić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a draft of a system model for responding in case of chemical accidents in accordance with the current legislation regarding the environment protection, the structure and elements of the existing response system in case of chemical accidents, other works dealing with the issue as well as the prospects planned by those responsible for the environmental protection. The paper discuss the possibilities of different institutions and agencies of the Republic of Serbia to engage in specialized methods of cooperation and protection against chemical hazards in accordance with Article X of the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.

  8. Effects of magnolol on UVB-induced skin cancer development in mice and its possible mechanism of action

    OpenAIRE

    Chilampalli Chandeshwari; Guillermo Ruth; Zhang Xiaoying; Kaushik Radhey S; Young Alan; Zeman David; Hildreth Michael B; Fahmy Hesham; Dwivedi Chandradhar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Magnolol, a plant lignan isolated from the bark and seed cones of Magnolia officinalis, has been shown to have chemopreventive effects on chemically-induced skin cancer development. The objectives of this investigation are to study the anticarcinogenic effects of magnolol on UVB-induced skin tumor development in SKH-1 mice, a model relevant to humans, and determine the possible role of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest involved in the skin tumor development. Methods UVB-indu...

  9. Young Adulthood to Old Age: Looking at Intergenerational Possibilities from a Human Development Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ReVille, Shari

    1989-01-01

    The potential interface between human development theories and intergenerational programing is explored. Erik Erikson's division of adult development into young, middle, and later adulthood, and Butler and Lewis'"characteristics of older people," are considered. Older people can offer help and encouragement to youth while themselves benefiting…

  10. Bridge Building and Other Possible Metaphors for Patching over Discrepancies between Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The next several pages are intended as a "Commentary" on the six target articles bundled together as a Special Issue of the "Journal of Cognition and Development"--literature reviews and research reports all intended to "build bridges" between the study of cognitive development in typical and atypical populations.

  11. NEW NEPHRON DEVELOPMENT IN FISH FROM POLLUTED WATERS: A POSSIBLE BIOMARKER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent evidence has shown that fish have the ability to develop new nephrons following renal injury. This study evaluated the usefulness of quantifying developing nephrons in mature fish as an ecotoxicological assessment tool. Histological sections of kidney were prepared from At...

  12. A New Concept for Advanced Heterogeneous Metal Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Bo-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Oxide-supported metal catalysts, having always nano-sized structures in which the metal catalysts are prepared as highly dispersed nano-crystals (typically 1-20 nm) on support oxide particles that are often one to several orders of magnitude larger than the metal nano-particles, are an important class of heterogeneous metal catalysts that finds many applications in chemical/petrochemical industries, in environmental protection, in chemical sensors and in the manufacture of fine and special chemicals. It is believed that catalysis by supported metals is the oldest application of nanotechnology. The literature has been rich in nano-size effect of metal nanoparticles in the metal/oxide catalysts. However, it is until recently that the development of size-controlled synthesis of oxide nanoparticles has made it possible to study the nano-size effect of oxide-support particles. When the particle sizes of an oxide support are reduced to become comparable to the sizes of the active metal nanoparticles, the oxide could deviate dramatically from its function as a conventional support. Such metal/oxide catalysts consisting of comparably sized metal and oxide nanocrystals are better called metal/oxide nanocomposite catalysts or catalytic nanoarchitectures.In this presentation, several attempts with reducing the particle size of oxide supports (ZrO2, TiO2,MgO, Al2O3) to approach the metal/oxide nanocomposite concept will be discussed to emphasize the importance of the support size effect. Examples will be given on characteristics of nanocomposite Ni/oxide catalysts for the reforming of natural gas with CO2 and/or steam, and on Au/oxide catalysts for CO oxidation and hydrogenation of unsaturated organic compounds. It will be emphasized that systematic investigations into the size effects of both the metal and oxide nanoparticles approaching the metal/oxide nanocomposite concept can lead to advanced heterogeneous metal catalysts.Moreover, intensive practice of the nanocomposite

  13. Development and investigation on new composite and ceramic coatings as possible abradable seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardi, U.; Borgioli, F.; Fossati, A. [Firenze Univ., Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giolli, C.; Scrivani, A.; Rizzi, G. [Turbocoating S.p.A., Rubbiano di Solignano (Italy); Partes, K.; Seefeld, T. [Bremer Inst. fuer Angewandte Strahltechnik (BIAS) GmbH, Bremen (Germany); Sporer, D. [Sulzer Metco (Canada) Inc., Fort Saskatchewan, AB (Canada); Refke, A. [Sulzer Metco AG (Switzerland), Wohlen (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    In order to improve gas turbine performance it is possible to decrease back flow gases in the high temperature combustion region of the turbo machine reducing shroud/rotor gap. Thick and porous TBC systems and composite CoNiCrAlY/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings made by Air Plasma Spray (APS) and composite NiCrAlY/graphite coatings made by Laser Cladding were studied as possible high temperature abradable seal on shroud. Oxidation and thermal fatigue resistance of the coatings were assessed by means of isothermal and cyclic oxidation tests. Tested CoNiCrAlY/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiCrAlY/graphite coatings after 1000 hours at 1100 C do not show noticeable microstructural modification. The oxidation resistance of new composite coatings satisfied Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) specification. Thick and porous TBC systems passed the thermal fatigue test according to the considered OEM procedures. According to the OEM specification for abradable coatings the hardness evaluation suggests that these kinds of coatings must be used with abrasive tipped blades. Thick and porous TBC coating has shown good abradability using tipped blades. (orig.)

  14. Carbon-based catalysts:Opening new scenario to develop next-generation nano-engineered catalytic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudio Ampelli; Siglinda Perathoner; Gabriele Centi

    2014-01-01

    This essay analyses some of the recent development in nanocarbons (carbon materials having a defined and controlled nano-scale dimension and functional properties which strongly depend on their nano-scale features and architecture), with reference to their use as advanced catalytic materials. It is remarked how their features open new possibilities for catalysis and that they represent a new class of catalytic materials. Although carbon is used from long time in catalysis as support and electrocatalytic applications, nanocarbons offer unconventional ways for their utilization and to address some of the new challenges deriving from moving to a more sustainable future. This essay comments how nanocarbons are a key element to develop next-generation catalytic materials, but remarking that this goal requires overcoming some of the actual limits in current research. Some aspects are discussed to give a glimpse on new directions and needs for R&D to progress in this direction.

  15. Ziegler-Natta catalysts for the preparation of polypropylene clay nanocomposites from magnesium ethoxide;Catalisadores Ziegler-Natta para preparacao de nanocompositos de polipropileno/argila partindo-se de etoxido de magnesio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Maria de Fatima V.; Silva, Micheli G. da; Ferreira, Ana Luiza R., E-mail: fmarques@ima.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Profa. Eloisa Mano; Ramis, Luciana B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In the present work, the process for the preparation of Ziegler-Natta catalysts based on MgCl{sub 2}/TiCl{sub 4} was evaluated on the synthesis of isotactic polypropylene. The catalysts were produced by the chemical activation process aiming the morphology control, in order to obtain catalyst particles with spherical form. The synthesis of the catalytic support was accomplished from magnesium ethoxide at different preparation conditions. Commercial clays were also added in the preparation of ZN catalysts, which were employed in propylene polymerization. The purpose was to synthesizing polypropylene nanocomposites by in situ polymerization technique. The results indicated that the developed methods of catalyst preparation were effective, since they have shown high activities and they produced PP with high melting temperatures. It was possible to verify by XRD that the catalytic components were inserted in the clays galleries and the polymers obtained by means of those catalysts are possibly exfoliated nanocomposites. (author)

  16. Administrative circular No. 2 (Rev. 5) – Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 5) entitled "Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 1 September 2011, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: https://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 4) entitled "Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members" of September 2009. Department Head Office

  17. Small and medium-size enterprises in economic development : possiblities for research and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Sidney G.

    1995-01-01

    The World Bank's most important long-term advantage in promoting development, says the author, may lie in opportunities to address related obstacles simultaneously. It could mount concurrent efforts to address the problems of small and medium-size enterprises in a particular sector, region, or economy, for example. It could address the conditions of founding new firms, providing finance or technical assistance, developing mutual support institutions, resolving disputes, and perhaps reducing c...

  18. Analysis of Common Governance Transport System Development Possibilities in the East-west Transport Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazaras Darius

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Equitable access to efficient economic infrastructure and effective public services is essential to achieving the future economic growth. Insufficient transport infrastructure and long border crossing procedures limiting international accessibility for goods and passengers are the biggest present problems in the East-West transport corridor. The joint action plan must highlight the areas and components of the transport system, which are important for the effective interconnectivity of the individual networks, and/or for absorbing the steadily increasing intraregional and transcontinental freight flows. The successful East-West transport corridor activities' governance first of all needs to identify the corridor's administrative structure, non-governmental organizations' (NGO place in the management structure, partnerships between the transport hubs in the EWTC mechanism and the possibility of cooperation between private and public sectors.

  19. Effects of New Fossil Fuel Developments on the Possibilities of Meeting 2C Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meindertsma, W.; Blok, K.

    2012-12-15

    Recent years have seen an increasing activity in developing new fossil fuel production capacity. This includes unconventional fossil fuels, such as tar sands and shale gas, fossil fuels from remote locations, and fossil fuels with a very large increase in production in the near future. In this report, the impact of such developments on our ability to mitigate climate change is investigated. Our inventory shows that the new fossil fuel developments currently underway consist of 29,400 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 260,000 million barrels of oil and 49,600 million tonnes of coal. The development of these new fossil fuels would result in emissions of 300 billion tonnes of CO2 -equivalent (CO2e) from 2012 until 2050. Until 2050, a 'carbon budget' of 1550 billion tonnes CO2e is still available if we want to of keep global warming below 2C with a 50% probability. For a 75% probability to stay below 2C this budget is only 1050 billion tonnes CO2e. So, the new fossil fuel developments identified in this report consume 20-33% of the remaining carbon budget until 2050. In a scenario where the new fossil fuels are developed, we need to embark on a rapid emission reductions pathway at the latest in 2019 in order to meet the 50% probability carbon budget. Avoiding the development of new fossil fuels will give us until 2025 to start further rapid emission reductions. These calculations are based on the assumption that the maximum emission reduction rate is 4% per year and that the maximum change in emission trend is 0.5 percentage point per year. The starting year for rapid emission reductions depends on the choice of these parameters. A sensitivity analysis shows that, in all cases, refraining from new fossil fuel development allows for a delay of 5 to 8 years before we should embark on a rapid emission reduction pathway. The high investments required for developing new fossil fuels lead to a lock in effect; once developed, these fossil fuels need to be

  20. Identification of Catalysts and Materials for a High-Energy Density Biochemical Fuel Cell: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-345

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghirardi, M.; Svedruzic, D.

    2013-07-01

    The proposed research attempted to identify novel biochemical catalysts, catalyst support materials, high-efficiency electron transfer agents between catalyst active sites and electrodes, and solid-phase electrolytes in order to maximize the current density of biochemical fuel cells that utilize various alcohols as substrates.

  1. Possibilities of development photodynamic therapy under high temperature superconductor magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a long extensive research work neutron photon therapy for treatment of acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was developed. High temperature superconductor magnet was developed and fitted in magnetic resonance imaging system to guide the patient. By this neutron-photon therapy AIDS effected cells are identified prominently. Patient is then injected with light sensitive drug molecules, which only AIDS cell retain. Light from photon (laser) then energizes the drug, which passes that energy to oxygen, which then leads a biochemical attack on the AIDS cells. If all goes well, the AIDS affected cells die. 10 refs., 1 fig

  2. Using possibility of QFD method for development of the "ready-to-go" package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Dragoljub Krstic

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although quality function deployment (QFD is the mostly used in the development of new products, the methodology is equally varied and applied as a packaging design/development tool. Due to the fact that the demands of the market, i.e. users are constantly changing, the designers of all products, as well as the designers of packaging for food products, must implement the introduced requirements on the newly design of its products. The goal of this paper was to explain the QFD method with the aim to understand the mode of its operation and implementation, with an explanation of its potential for practical application in the packaging design process, as well as to highlight all the advantages and disadvantages of this method. The goal of the implementation of QFD method during the development of the packaging, as one of the types of products, is to find exactly the features and functions of the customer, i.e. what the user expects from the packaging, i.e. by this method, customer's voice transforms into new products that really meet their needs. It can be concluded that the application of QFD methods can reduce the length of the product development cycle, in this case the packaging, while simultaneously improving the quality and marketing of products in the market.

  3. Possibilities and pitfalls for modern biotechnology in the development of African genetic toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing countries are currently going through a transitional phase facing the new challenges of globalization and its potential negative impact. Research policy should highlight the need to mobilize resources for human resource development, networking, improved research culture, information sharing, and pragmatic use of research findings. Advancement in molecular genetics whether at the educational or research level should greatly progress in developing countries so as to improve diagnosis, treatment, understanding of disease risk factors, and prevention. Currently, there is a growing interest to genetic toxicology research, the use of different biomarkers, and genetic susceptibility testing, which can contribute effectively in risk assessment. Africa has unique environmental exposures and public health circumstances, which make it ideal for environmental mutagenicity and carcinogenicity research. There are exposures to chemical genotoxicants (e.g., automobile exhaust, pesticides, metals, and cytotoxic drugs) and to lifestyle factors (e.g., consumption of tobacco products) that have been linked to the expression of biological effects and to increased risk for cancer. Infections can be associated with cancer development when the environmental factors interact with the infection and lead to the enhancement of the carcinogenic process. The high prevalence of viral pathogens and the improper use of pesticides may endanger biological functions beyond those for which they originally manufactured. Biomarkers are used to detect the effects of pesticides before adverse clinical health occurs. The scientific community plays a crucial role in understanding the environmental causes of human health problems and through its collaboration with communities, industries, and government agencies can help in resolving health problems

  4. An eye for possibilities in the development of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Taking children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) as an example, the article seeks an understanding of children with disabilities that connects neuropsychological theories of neural development with the situated cognition perspective and the child as an active participant in its social practices. The early...

  5. Posibilidades y limites de un fomento cognitivo temprano (Possibilities and Limits of Early Cognitive Development).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalohr, Emil

    This article discusses preschool education and the research conducted in that field on various relevant topics in an effort to establish recommendations and programs. Cognitive development is the main issue and is seen as a product of maturation as well as of a broad base of experience which results from interaction between the mind and the…

  6. Development in ruthenium based catalysts for ammonia synthesis%氨合成钌基催化剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭淑静; 高俊文

    2015-01-01

    近年来,钌基氨合成催化剂因其高活性、高稳定性和反应条件温和成为研究热点。综述国内外氨合成钌基催化剂的研究进展,重点介绍钌基催化剂载体、助剂和前驱体对氨合成反应性能的影响。石墨化程度高、导电性能良好的碳载体或氧化物与碳的复合载体是氨合成反应的良好载体;碱金属和碱土金属类助剂通过改变活性金属表面静电场,起到电子助剂的作用,并且碱土金属对反应的促进作用优于碱金属,稀土金属Sm能够抑制碳载体的甲烷化反应;与RuCl3相比,Ru3( CO)12是氨合成反应的理想前驱体。简介以电子化合物为载体的钌基氨合成体系,负载钌的高比表面积电子化合物C12 A7:e-是强大的电子供体,能够提高氮气在钌上的解离程度,并能可逆地储存氢,有效抑制氢吸附对钌表面的毒害,从而大大提高氨合成反应活性。进一步开发温和条件下非贵金属高效氨合成催化剂将具有重要的理论和现实意义。%Recently,ruthenium based catalysts for ammonia synthesis have been attracting interest increasingly due to their higher activity,higher stability and mild reaction conditions. The advance in development of Ru based catalysts for ammonia synthesis at home and abroad,especially the influence of the catalyst supports,promoters and precursors on the performance of ammonia synthetic catalysts were introduced in this paper. The carbon supports,carbon covered oxide and their complex with high graphitic degree and good electrical conductivity were good choice for ammonia synthesis supports. Alkali metals and alkaline-earth metals were good promoters for ammonia synthesis,and the promoting effects of alkaline-earth metals were better than those of alkali metals. Rear earth metals Sm could inhibit carbon methanation. Compared with RuCl3 ,Ru3( CO )12 was the ideal precursor for ammonia synthesis. A electride C12 A7:e- with

  7. Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 7) - Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 7), entitled "Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members", approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting held on 17 February 2015 is available via the following link: AC No. 2 (Rev.7).   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 6), entitled "Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members" and dated January 2015. The circular was revised in order to implement the amendment to Article R II 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, which introduces the possibility of extending limited-duration (LD) contracts up to a maximum total duration of eight years from the previous duration of five years. The award of indefinite contracts will continue to be subject to the outcome of a competitive process. Department Head Of...

  8. FRIPP加氢裂化催化剂研发新进展%Research Progress in Hydrocracking Catalysts Developed by FRIPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜艳泽; 王凤来; 孙晓艳; 刘昶

    2011-01-01

    To meet the goal of the industrial clean fuels production and products quality upgrading, FRIPP (Fushun research institute of petroleum and petrochemicals, SINOPEC) , actively devoted itself to develop new generation of hydrocracking catalysts. Through the exploitation of new materials and the use of new technologies and methods, FRIPP enhanced the ability to master hydrogenation metal and cognize performance of acidic carrier, then prepared new generation of high performance hydrocracking catalysts with reasonable matching of hydrogenation activity sites and cracking activity sites, such as FC-32,FC-34,FC-46 and FC-50 catalysts.%为满足工业实现清洁生产和产品质量持续升级的要求为目标,FRIPP(中石化抚顺石油化工研究院)积极致力于加氢裂化催化剂的开发,催化剂更新换代速度和技术水平不断提高,针对特定用户,“量体裁衣”地开发加氢裂化催化剂.通过催化新材料开发、新技术和新方法的使用,提高了对加氢金属的掌控能力和对酸性载体性能的认知能力,制备出了加氢活性中心和裂化活性中心匹配更加合理的新一代高性能加氢裂化催化剂FC-32、FC-34、FC-46和FC-50等.

  9. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  10. Current therapies and future possibilities for drug development against liver-stage malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphemot, Rene; Posfai, Dora; Derbyshire, Emily R

    2016-06-01

    Malaria remains a global public health threat, with half of the world's population at risk. Despite numerous efforts in the past decade to develop new antimalarial drugs to surmount increasing resistance to common therapies, challenges remain in the expansion of the current antimalarial arsenal for the elimination of this disease. The requirement of prophylactic and radical cure activities for the next generation of antimalarial drugs demands that new research models be developed to support the investigation of the elusive liver stage of the malaria parasite. In this Review, we revisit current antimalarial therapies and discuss recent advances for in vitro and in vivo malaria research models of the liver stage and their importance in probing parasite biology and the discovery of novel drug candidates. PMID:27249674

  11. Educational management: an exploratory study of management roles and possibilities of management development at college level in AJK, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Saeeda

    1998-01-01

    This study explores college management in the context of a Muslim, post-colonial, LDC (low developing country) situation. The thesis focuses on institutional heads, both male and female, to investigate their roles, practices and the possibilities of management development. It examines the interplay of the discourses of religion, education, management, leadership, and gender, as expressed through the participants’ experiences. Moreover, professional, socio-economic, political, and ideological ...

  12. Is sustainable development of semi-subsistence mixed crop-livestock systems possible?

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, R.O.

    2016-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa countries face the challenge of reducing rural poverty and reversing the declining trends of agricultural productivity and the high levels of soil nutrient depletion.  Despite of numerous efforts and investments, high levels of poverty and resource degradation persist in African agriculture. The Millennium Development Goals Report (MDGR) states that the majority of people living below the poverty line of $1.25 a day belong to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia.&nb...

  13. Catalysts for Dehydrogenation of ammonia boranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinekey, Dennis M.

    2014-12-19

    Several effective homogeneous catalysts for the dehydrogenation of amine boranes have been developed. The best catalyst uses an iridium complex, and is capable of dehydrogenating H3NBH3 (AB) and CH3NH2BH3 (MeAB) at comparable rates. Thermodynamic measurements using this catalyst demonstrate that the dehydrogenation of AB and MeAB is substantially exothermic, which has important implications for regeneration.

  14. Counterfactual Reasoning: Developing a sense of “nearest possible world”

    OpenAIRE

    Rafetseder, Eva; Cristi-Vargas, Renate; Perner, Josef

    2010-01-01

    We investigated at what point in development 3- to 6-year-old children begin to demonstrate counterfactual reasoning by controlling for fortuitously correct answers that result from basic conditional reasoning. Basic conditional reasoning occurs when one applies typical regularities (such as “If it doesn’t rain the street is dry”) to counterfactual questions (such as “If it had not rained, would the street be wet or dry?”) without regard to actual events (for example, if street cleaners had ...

  15. Possible paths towards sustainable tourism development in a high-mountain resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Arcuset

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This text starts from the teachings stemming from an evaluation of the tourist practices in the light of sustainable tourism principles, realized in 2004 within the framework of a national network piloted by the French Agency of Touristic Engineering (today ODIT France, for the ski resort of Valloire, first-generation resort in the Maurienne, which development and modernization in the 2000s kept pace with a vast real estate program. The article investigates the stakes and difficulties of the implementation of sustainable development in Valloire, asks the question of the "cultural revolution" which the actors should achieve to change the model of economic development, and suggest some tracks to reach there. The local approach of "sustainable tourism", indeed, seems for the moment rather to aim - as in many other high mountain ski resorts - towards a more environmental management of the basic urban functions than a real questioning of a tourist model based upon the triptych development of the ski slopes, securizing of the snow resource and touristic real estate programs.Ce texte part des enseignements issus d’une évaluation des pratiques touristiques à l’aune des principes du tourisme durable, réalisée en 2004 dans le cadre d’un réseau national piloté par l’Agence Française d’Ingénierie Touristique (aujourd’hui ODIT France, pour la station de Valloire, station de première génération de Maurienne dont le développement et la modernisation dans les années 2000 sont allés de pair avec un vaste programme immobilier. L’article explore les enjeux et les difficultés de la mise en œuvre du développement durable à Valloire, pose la question de la « révolution culturelle » que les acteurs devraient accomplir pour changer de modèle de développement économique, et suggère quelques pistes pour y parvenir. L’approche locale du « tourisme durable », en effet, semble pour l’heure plutôt tendre – comme dans bien

  16. The possible role of the ubiquitin proteasome system in the development of atherosclerosis in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sasso Ferdinando

    2007-10-01

    -resistance, post-prandial hyperglycemia and chronic hyperglycemia play a role in the atherosclerotic process and may require intervention 67. Moreover, it is important to recognize that these risk factors frequently "cluster" inindividual patients and possibly interact with each other, favouring the atherosclerosis progression toward plaque instability. Thus, a fundamental question is, "which is the common soil hypothesis that may unifying the burden of all these factors on atherosclerosis of diabetic patients? Because evidences suggest that insulin-resistance, diabetes and CHD share in common a deregulation of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS, the major pathway for nonlysosomal intracellular protein degradation in eucaryotic cells 89, in this review ubiquitin-proteasome deregulation is proposed as the common persistent pathogenic factor mediating the initial stage of the atherosclerosis as well as the progression to complicated plaque in diabetic patients.

  17. OLTENIA NORTHERN MEDICAL TOURISM AND DEVELOPMENT IN TERMS OF THE POSSIBILITY OF REGIONAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Enea

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Health tourism in Romania is at the beginning - it exists, develops in some areas, shy, we do not boast of many tourists who come to us for such services, however, the data provided by NATA, now a year or two there were over 60,000 people who came to our country for health tourism. Of course, data are incomplete because not all tourists coming to say. But it seems that 250 million would have entered this area. Potential exists, and curiosity and demand for Romania there. But there is enough interest for the development of such tourism. Medical tourism (also called medical travel, health tourism or global healthcare is a term initially coined by travel agencies and the media to rapidly growing phenomenon of crossing international borders to obtain health care services. The paper tries to highlight the chances for Romania, more specifically, Northern Oltenia become a specific area of medical tourism or medical tourism practiced in other countries, to local patient survival chance.

  18. Congenital scoliosis in monozygotic twins: case report and review of possible factors contributing to its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exact etiology of congenital scoliosis remains unknown as yet. It seems that its development may be influenced by both genetic predisposition and environmental factors, at varying degrees. International bibliography features few cases of monozygotic twins with congenital scoliosis. The aim of this study is to report a case in monozygotic twins and review the literature relating to the description of similar cases as well as the pathophysiological mechanism involved in its development. Methods Clinical examination and simple X-rays revealed scoliosis of differing degrees and types in male monozygotic twins with moderate mental retardation and dyslalia. Results Congenital scoliosis identified in both twins. In the first, this was manifested as left thoracic scoliosis, with Cobb angle of 34 degrees while in the second as left thoracolumbar scoliosis with Cobb angle of 10 degrees. Both were found to suffer from incarcerated hemivertebrae. Conclusion According to both its clinical identification and severity and to its course, not only the genetic but the environmental factors seem to play a leading role in the appearance of the condition.

  19. RECENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROCRACKING CATALYSTS OUTSIDE CHINA%国外加氢裂化催化剂研发新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜艳泽; 关明华; 马艳秋; 于淼

    2012-01-01

    随着环保法规和燃料油排放指标的日趋严格,国外各大炼油公司均加大对加氢裂化技术研发和应用方面的投入,通过新材料和催化剂制备新技术的应用,新一代加氢裂化系列催化剂的性能明显提升.通过改善载体孔结构、表面酸性分布和调整载体与金属之间的作用力,增加易于活化的二类活性中心数目,使得新一代加氢裂化预处理催化剂的加氢脱氮/芳烃加氢饱和活性和稳定性等性能显著提高.依赖于分子筛合成和改性等技术的进步,新一代加氢裂化催化剂不仅活性、选择性和稳定性获得进一步提升,其它方面性能也获得明显提升,如提高操作灵活性、扩大原料油适应性、降低氢耗和提高产品质量等.%With the strengthening of environmental regulations and motor fuel specifications, large refining companies and research institutes outside China pay more attention and provide more fund on the innovation of hydrocracking technology, thus, great progress in catalyst development is achieved. The performances of new series hydrocracking catalysts have been greatly improved since adopting new catalytic materials and preparation technologies. Through modifying the support pore structure and surface acidity distribution, adjusting the interaction between support and metals, incorporating more type II active sites (which is easy to be activated), the HDN/aromatics saturation activities and stability of new hydro-pretreating catalysts improve significantly. In addition, with the progress in technologies of zeolite synthesis and modification, the improved performances of new generation hydrocracking catalysts not only exhibit at the enhancement of activity, selectivity and stability, but also at the others including operation flexibility, feedstock adaptability, less hydrogen consumption and better product quality.

  20. Study on the possibilities of dedicated CAD applications development for the furniture industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Mocian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research for finding the best solutions to design and develop the CAD applications for the furniture industry. The solutions considered exclude the use of complementary software such as AutoCAD, Inventor or SolidWorks, the main target being stand-alone, cheap and easy to use solutions. The paper presents concepts of components typing in the furniture industry and thepossibilities to construct complex combinations of furniture using these typed components. A dedicated application for designing certain types of bookshelves is also presented. The application is stand-alone and it was written in the object oriented programming language VB.NET. The study has been carried out with partners from the furniture industry, whose opinions and views on this matter were of great help.

  1. Rethinking blood components and patients: Patient blood management. Possible ways for development in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folléa, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    As any therapeutic means, blood transfusion requires regular evaluation, particularly for its indications, effectiveness and risks. A better awareness of the risks of blood transfusion, the availability of randomized clinical trials, the evolution of the quality of blood components, and the economic constraints shared by all countries, all have led to rethink both transfusion therapy as a whole and the organization of the transfusion chain from donor to recipient. In this context, patient blood management (PBM) appears as an evidence-based, patient centred, multidisciplinary approach, aiming to optimise the care of patients who might need transfusion and consequently the use of blood products. This paper presents updated scientific bases of PBM and the three pillars founding it. As PBM is developing fast in other European countries, this review proposes ways to explore for its development in France. It finally proposes to integrate PBM in a wider and coordinated approach of the blood supply management, with tools to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the transfusion chain, starting with the needs of the patients and ending with an optimum treatment of the patient, including the appropriate number of blood components of the required quality. A better understanding, implementation and assessment of this coordinated global approach, allowing to adapt donor collections to the patients' needs in compliance with safety requirements for patients and donors, in a coordinated way, will certainly be a major challenge for transfusion medicine in the near future, for the benefit of patients, donors and all other stakeholders involved in the transfusion chain. PMID:27476011

  2. Characterization and Regeneration of Pt-Catalysts Deactivated in Municipal Waste Flue Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Kustov, Arkadii; Due-Hansen, Johannes;

    2006-01-01

    Severe deactivation was observed for industrially aged catalysts used in waste incineration plants and tested in lab-scale. Possible compounds that cause deactivation of these Pt-based CO oxidation catalysts have been studied. Kinetic observations of industrial and model catalysts showed that sil...... the activity of the deactivated catalysts. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. Quantum physics in school. Stock-taking, perspectives, and possibilities of further development by the implementation of a media server

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum physics have in the last years developed to an important theme in physics teaching of the gymnasial upper stage. On the side of physics didactics different concepts were developed in order to overcome the specific difficulties in the teaching of quantum physics. Nevertheless the design of the quantum-physics teaching follows still traditional approaches. This work studies the actual situation of the quantum-physics teaching and the possibilities to offer to the teachers conceptional alternatives for the design of the quantum-physics teaching. Thereby among others was studied how a server for multimedia units must be designed structurally and in its contents in order to contribute in the teaching praxis to a further development of the quantum-physics courses. In the development of the server expert knowledge was included. Starting from the status quo of the quantum-physics teaching, which was analyzed in an inquiry of teachers, by means of a Delphi study possibilities for the improvement of the quality of the quantum-physics teaching by the application of multimedia were determined. To this belongs beside the identification of suited theme fields also the gathering of methodical tips and possible conceptional further developments of the quantum-physics teaching. The results of the study entered directly in the parralely running development of the media server. So the server offers to each medium didactical explanations about learning goals, learning conditions etc. and makes proposals for a possible application scenario of each multimedial unit. Furthermore pupil activating problems are offered, which can be worked out by means of the medium. In these additional offers lies an essential didactical advantage of the server against conventional link list or search engines

  4. On the Late Development and Possible Astronomical Origin of the Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The invention of the gyroscope is usually attributed to the French physicist Jean-Bernard-Leon Foucault in the year 1852. He certainly created the word and also used his gyroscope to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth. However, the gyroscope was actually invented around 1812 by the German scientist Johann Bohnenberger who called his device simply the “machine”. Bohnenberger was a professor of astronomy and mathematics and published a book about astronomy in 1811. Several other scientists, including American physicist Walter R. Johnson (who called his apparatus the “rotascope”), independently invented the gyroscope. Each of these devices employed a central object (sphere or disc) that could spin on a shaft. This object was placed between three independent gimbals, two of which could move freely. Bohnenberger’s “machine” has much the same appearance as an armillary sphere. Those astronomical devices had been produced for at least the preceding three centuries and were widely dispersed and well known throughout Europe. They were used to display the apparent motion of celestial bodies. However, armillary spheres were used only as simulations of celestial appearances, not as actual demonstrations of physical phenomena. It is not known if the inertial properties of armillary spheres (and also of terrestrial and celestial globes) had been studied before about 1800. Nonetheless, as a matter of practice, gimbal systems similar to those found in gyroscopes were used on ships to level oil lamps at least as early as the sixteenth century AD. And the ideas behind armillary spheres date back at least a millennium before that. So why did the invention of the gyroscope in its modern form take such a long time when the individual underlying components had been around and utilized for some two millennia? Perhaps because the understanding of angular momentum, including its conservation, was not developed until the start of the 19th century and also because the

  5. Science Letters:Development of supported boron-doping TiO2 catalysts by chemical vapor deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study, supported nonmetal (boron) doping TiO2 coating photocatalysts were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to enhance the activity under visible light irradiation and avoid the recovering of TiO2. Boron atoms were successfully doped into the lattice of TiO2 through CVD, as evidenced from XPS analysis. B-doped TiO2 coating catalysts showed drastic and strong absorption in the visible light range with a red shift in the band gap transition. This novel B-TiO2 coating photocatalyst showed higher photocatalytic activity in methyl orange degradation under visible light irradiation than that of the pure TiO2 photocatalyst.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS AS A POSSIBLE SOLUTION FOR STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL AND REGIONAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Coman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present era that we are living can be described as the “Information Age” as a semnificative general abordation for Information Society. No matter what area of science and technology we look at, it is more obvious that ever that we are dealing with an ‘information overflow’ without precedent in the history of humanity. Environment Sciences are no exception to this rule and recent advances in this field would have been unthinkable, unmanageable and unattainable without the support offered by modern information technology, in the sense of Environment Information Systems or Environment Informatics. The aim of the present paper is to introduce and to underline the importance of Environment Information Systems, especially in environmental protection, planning, management and, of course, decision making. This work paper is focused on the creation, management, use and role of Environmental Information Systems; at the same time, the paper explores the typology of EISs and examined the common definitions of them in the light of these major issues: the concepts of data, information and knowledge in EISs, the connection between EISs and EI, the problems and obstacles to the development of EISs and finally, the emerging demand for public access via EISs and EI to environmental information and environmental protection, engineering and research in Information Society.

  7. Health, Islam and Alternative Capitalism. Three possible Key Factors in Developing Somaliland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Zizzola

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to investigate the socio, political and economic dynamics that have occurred in Somaliland in the last decades. Even though this country is still unrecognized by the international community, Somaliland’s economy has undertaken an enduring growth, above all in the private entrepreneurial sector. The author argues that religion has had an important role in the Somali cultural and social identification. According to this assumption, the article analyzes the Islamic factor by showing how it has led to the creation of many alternative connections supported by mutual trust and religious solidarity among involved communities. These connections are somehow fulfilling the absence of political legitimacy while progressively substituting conventional routes of intra-national negotiation, like diplomacy. To confirm this tendency, specific arguments are drawn from Somaliland’s health sector. The health care system is considered a preferential index to evaluate the level of national development. Above all, the private non-profit sector gives some evidence of the Somali capacity of running competitive private businesses while multiplying simultaneously their resources and suppliers with a consequent increase in autonomy and efficiency. This successful compromise bears the fruits of Somali engagement and can be identified by their inexhaustible adaptability to adverse conditions and their ability to avoid, not deny, the rational rules imposed by external actors and their ostensible, insurmountable interests.

  8. Sustainable energy development: The present (2011) situation and possible paths to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invited keynote paper is the most recent among similar reviews published by the author, update to year 2011. In a format similar to that in past reviews, recent estimates and forecasts of the conventional fossil fuel resources and their reserve/production ratio, nuclear power, and renewable energy potential, and energy uses are surveyed. A brief discussion of the status, sustainability (economic, environmental and social impact), and prospects of fossil, nuclear and renewable energy use, and of power generation is presented. Beyond the general review, the paper focuses this year on some of the many important areas that deserve more attention: (1) the recently emerging game-changing developments of postponement of “peak oil”, nuclear power future following the disaster in Japan, and effects of the recent global economy downturn of global sustainability, (2) the potential and impacts of electric cars (3) the often neglected energy status and promising potential of Africa. Some ways to resolve the problem of the availability, cost, and sustainability of energy resources alongside the rapidly rising demand are discussed. The author’s view of the promising energy R and D areas, their potential, foreseen improvements and their time scale, and last year’s trends in government funding are presented.

  9. Organic synthesis with olefin metathesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubbs, R.H. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Over the past nine years, early transition metal catalysts for the ring opening metathesis polymerization of cyclic olefins have been developed. These catalysts are simple organometallic complexes containing metal carbon multiple bonds that in most cases polymerize olefins by a living process. These catalysts have been used to prepare a family of near monodispersed and structurally homogeneous polymers. A series of group VII ROMP catalysts that allow a wide range of functionality to be incorporated into the polymer side chains have been prepared. The most important member of this family of complexes are the bisphosphinedihalo-ruthenium carbene complexes. These polymerization catalysts can also be used in the synthesis of fine chemicals by ring closing (RCM) and vinyl coupling reactions. The availability of the group VII catalysts allow metathesis to be carried out on highly functionalized substrates such as polypeptides and in unusual environments such as in aqueous emulsions.

  10. The National Forest Inventory of Serbia: State and possible further directions of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantić Damjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of National Forest Inventories (NFI of many countries, including Serbia was made in the manuscript, in terms of methodology and in terms of the definition of different information collected about forest ecosystems. Further development of the NFI Serbia was also analyzed. It was determined that there are differences in national methodologies, but that they are not substantial and do not constitute an obstacle to the creation of uniform databases of forests at the regional and global levels as a prerequisite for political and professional action aimed at protecting and ensuring sustainability of all forest functions. Contrary to that, differences between national definitions for information that are collected by inventory are numerous, distinct and as such represent a major obstacle to the mentioned aspirations. The solution of the problem is standardization, i.e. in the far more acceptable harmonization process (adaptation NFI, whereby such frameworks of that activity are imposed by the FAO (globally and COST Action E43 (mainly in the European region. NFI Serbia, on the threshold of second realization, is burdened with a numerous institutional, organizational and methodological problems and dilemmas, inherited from the first measurement of Serbian forests. Therefore, an urgent recruitment of relevant experts is necessary to resolve and overcome problems, in order to ensure all the prerequisites for a successful implementation and obtaining reliable data of the second NFI, so that the future NFI can be alleviated of the conditions in which it is currently located. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37008: Održivo gazdovanje ukupnim potencijalima šuma u Republici Srbiji

  11. Deep geothermics in Germany. An energy-economic analysis of the status and possible developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim to supply the energy-intense and highly industrialized economy of the Federal Republic of Germany more climate-friendly and crisis-safely with a larger contribution of homelike energy in the past years by the federal government a manifold of obligatory aims were composed. So for instance the greenhouse-gas emissions of 1990 shall be reduced against 2020 by 40 %. This shall be reached among others by an increased use of the renewable energies. But a transformation of these ambitionized aims seems from the present view only realistic, if in future all in Germany available options for the supply of current and heat from renewable energies are distinctly more intensively used. In front of the background of the geothermic potentials available in Germany the current and heat supply from deep geothermics is a very much promising option. But in 2012 only one facility and in 2013 three facilities have gone to the net. But against this a far-reaching usage of the geothermics in the context of the energy transition and the large heat and current production potentials in Germany is worth to be aspired. In front of the described problematics the aim of this work is to show how the system technics of the facilities for the usage of the deep underground for a current respectively heat production present themselves and how such complete facilities can be evaluated by means of technical, economical, and ecological characteristics. Base on the shown political aim settings it then shall be analyzed, how the calculated characteristics could change in future and whether the deep geothermics can provide an increasing contribution in the energy system of the future. The corresponding potential further developments are thereby analyzed regarding a short-termed (i. e. 2020) and an intermediate-termed (i. e. 2030) time horizon.

  12. In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of catalyst sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeLaRiva, Andrew T.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Challa, Sivakumar R.;

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in the field of electron microscopy, such as aberration correctors, have now been integrated into Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs), making it possible to study the behavior of supported metal catalysts under operating conditions at atomic resolution. Here......, we focus on in situ electron microscopy studies of catalysts that shed light on the mechanistic aspects of catalyst sintering. Catalyst sintering is an important mechanism for activity loss, especially for catalysts that operate at elevated temperatures. Literature from the past decade is reviewed...... along with our recent in situ TEM studies on the sintering of Ni/MgAl2O4 catalysts. These results suggest that the rapid loss of catalyst activity in the earliest stages of catalyst sintering could result from Ostwald ripening rather than through particle migration and coalescence. The smallest...

  13. Interaction between Nafion ionomer and noble metal catalyst for PEMFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    The implement of polymer impregnation in electrode structure (catalyst layer) decreasing the noble metal catalyst loading by a factor of ten , , is one of the essential mile stones in the evolution of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells’ development among the application of catalyst support...... and electrode deposition etc. In fuel cell reactions, both electrons and protons are involved. Impregnation of Nafion ionomer in catalyst layer effectively increases the proton-electron contact, enlarge the reaction zone, extend the reaction from the surface to the entire electrode. Therefore, the entire...... catalyst layer conducts both electrons and protons so that catalyst utilization in the layer is improved dramatically. The catalyst layer will in turn generate and sustain a higher current density. One of the generally adapted methods to impregnate Nafion into the catalyst layer is to mix the catalysts...

  14. [Social psychological determinants of the formation of medical students' professional identity. Possibilities of development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csörsz, Ilona

    2011-03-20

    Systematic observations regarding techniques of medical career-socialization has hardly ever appeared in Hungarian technical literature yet. Focusing on the need for practical medical training the author elaborated a career-socialization program consisting of a three-level, three-branch training technique. This consisted of a Junior Bálint-group, an imaginative visualization technique, and an expressive, drama-pedagogical working method completed with a projective technique. This career-socialization program focuses on the physician's personality, capability-expansion in relationship management, and practicing a set of professional behavior-roles. During the empirical observations connected to the work the author examined medical students' patient-representation, their relation to the patients, and the development of the physician's professional character. Within the frames of this three-level, three-branch training technique program it enables us to observe which training technique is able to reveal all those psychological qualities that can contribute to the conformation of the representations, thus to the process of career-socialization in the most effective way. The content-analyses of the cases of Junior Bálint-groups (n = 60) revealed that the most frequent problems are fear of intimacy, of bodily contact, communication with patients in a chronic or terminal state, and the fear of medical practice. The content-analyses of imaginary patient-images (n = 62) with Rorschach-signs confirmed that the psychological burdens mentioned above are the most serious problems for medical students. The process-, and content-analyses of drama-games, the integrative healing contact training groups (n = 74) showed that group work primarily intensifies the relationship responsiveness, the ability to adopt the other's (the patient's) viewpoints, and enables an involuntary and distressless identification with the patient and the physician, both agents in the healing relationship

  15. Possible ecologically based ways of preserving and developing the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. І. Nikolaichuk

    2016-02-01

    . Structural changes in the economy of the region are expected to strengthen the recreational value of the Ukrainian Carpathians for the public not only in our country but also in Central and Eastern Europe, reducing the technogenic loading. International cooperation of all countries of the Carpathian region is imperative. The development of tourism in the Carpathians is highly promising, but this should be civilized tourism, taking into account the environmental sustainability of the recreational areas and protected areas.

  16. Visible Light Responsive Catalysts Using Quantum Dot-Modified Ti02 for Air and Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Hintze, paul; Clausen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The method of photocatalysis utilizing titanium dioxide, TiO2, as the catalyst has been widely studied for trace contaminant control for both air and water applications because of its low energy consumption and use of a regenerable catalyst. Titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Traditionally, Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in PCO reactors and are a setback for the technology for space application due to the possibility of Hg contamination. The development of a visible light responsive (VLR) TiO2-based catalyst could lead to the use of solar energy in the visible region (approx.45% of the solar spectrum lies in the visible region; > 400 nm) or highly efficient LEDs (with wavelengths > 400 nm) to make PCO approaches more efficient, economical, and safe. Though VLR catalyst development has been an active area of research for the past two decades, there are few commercially available VLR catalysts; those that are available still have poor activity in the visible region compared to that in the UV region. Thus, this study was aimed at the further development of VLR catalysts by a new method - coupling of quantum dots (QD) of a narrow band gap semiconductor (e.g., CdS, CdSe, PbS, ZnSe, etc.) to the TiO2 by two preparation methods: 1) photodeposition and 2) mechanical alloying using a high-speed ball mill. A library of catalysts was developed and screened for gas and aqueous phase applications, using ethanol and 4-chlorophenol as the target contaminants, respectively. Both target compounds are well studied in photocatalytic systems serve as model contaminants for this research. Synthesized catalysts were compared in terms of preparation method, type of quantum dots, and dosage of quantum dots.

  17. [Social psychological determinants of the formation of medical students' professional identity. Possibilities of development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csörsz, Ilona

    2011-03-20

    Systematic observations regarding techniques of medical career-socialization has hardly ever appeared in Hungarian technical literature yet. Focusing on the need for practical medical training the author elaborated a career-socialization program consisting of a three-level, three-branch training technique. This consisted of a Junior Bálint-group, an imaginative visualization technique, and an expressive, drama-pedagogical working method completed with a projective technique. This career-socialization program focuses on the physician's personality, capability-expansion in relationship management, and practicing a set of professional behavior-roles. During the empirical observations connected to the work the author examined medical students' patient-representation, their relation to the patients, and the development of the physician's professional character. Within the frames of this three-level, three-branch training technique program it enables us to observe which training technique is able to reveal all those psychological qualities that can contribute to the conformation of the representations, thus to the process of career-socialization in the most effective way. The content-analyses of the cases of Junior Bálint-groups (n = 60) revealed that the most frequent problems are fear of intimacy, of bodily contact, communication with patients in a chronic or terminal state, and the fear of medical practice. The content-analyses of imaginary patient-images (n = 62) with Rorschach-signs confirmed that the psychological burdens mentioned above are the most serious problems for medical students. The process-, and content-analyses of drama-games, the integrative healing contact training groups (n = 74) showed that group work primarily intensifies the relationship responsiveness, the ability to adopt the other's (the patient's) viewpoints, and enables an involuntary and distressless identification with the patient and the physician, both agents in the healing relationship

  18. Blended Learning Possibilities in Enhancing Education, Training and Development in Developing Countries: A Case Study in Graphic Design Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Hanan Atef; Mervat Medhat

    2015-01-01

    Blended learning is not a new concept; recently, there has been a renewed focus on this learning strategy, both in the education and corporate sectors. Although the definition of blended learning is somewhat inchoate, it is generally described as an environment that includes the use of different modes of teaching and learning. Blended learning holds particular promise for developing countries because it can make availability of resources, regional, and international educational institutions. ...

  19. Foundation Flash Catalyst

    CERN Document Server

    Goralski, Greg

    2010-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to Flash Catalyst for designers with intermediate to advanced skills. It discusses where Catalyst sits within the production process and how it communicates with other programs. It covers all of the features of the Flash Catalyst workspace, teaching you how to create designs from scratch, how to build application designs and add functionality, and how to master the Catalyst/Flex workflow. * Introduces Flash Catalyst * Focuses on production process * Covers the interrelation between Flash Catalyst and Photoshop/Illustrator/Flex/Flash What you'll learn Starting f

  20. Supported Catalysts Useful in Ring-Closing Metathesis, Cross Metathesis, and Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Jakkrit Suriboot; Hassan S. Bazzi; Bergbreiter, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium and molybdenum catalysts are widely used in synthesis of both small molecules and macromolecules. While major developments have led to new increasingly active catalysts that have high functional group compatibility and stereoselectivity, catalyst/product separation, catalyst recycling, and/or catalyst residue/product separation remain an issue in some applications of these catalysts. This review highlights some of the history of efforts to address these problems, first discussing th...

  1. Immobilized Ruthenium Catalyst for Carbon Dioxide Hydrogenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Min YU; Jin Hua FEI; Yi Ping ZHANG; Xiao Ming ZHENG

    2006-01-01

    Three kinds of cross linked polystyrene resin (PS) supported ruthenium complexes were developed as catalysts for the synthesis of formic acid from carbon dioxide hydrogenation. Many factors, such as the functionalized supports, solvents and ligands, could influence their activities and reuse performances greatly. These immobilized catalysts also offer the industrial advantages such as easy separation.

  2. Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Topical report No. 14. Catalyst activity trends in two-stage coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    The Two Stage Coal Liquefaction process became operational at Wilsonville in May 1981, with the inclusion of an H-OIL ebullated-bed catalytic reactor. The two stage process was initially operated in a nonintegrated mode and has recently been reconfigurated to fully integrate the thermal and the catalytic stages. This report focuses on catalyst activity trends observed in both modes of operation. A literature review of relevant catalyst screening studies in bench-scale and PDU units is presented. Existing kinetic and deactivation models were used to analyze process data over an extensive data base. Based on the analysis, three separate, application studies have been conducted. The first study seeks to elucidate the dependence of catalyst deactivation rate on type of coal feedstock used. A second study focuses on the significance of catalyst type and integration mode on SRC hydrotreatment. The third study presents characteristic deactivation trends observed in integrated operation with different first-stage thermal severities. In-depth analytical work was conducted at different research laboratories on aged catalyst samples from Run 242. Model hydrogenation and denitrogenation activity trends are compared with process activity trends and with changes observed in catalyst porosimetric properties. The accumulation of metals and coke deposits with increasing catalyst age, as well as their distribution across a pellet cross-section, are discussed. The effect of catalyst age and reactor temperature on the chemical composition of flashed bottoms product is addressed. Results from regenerating spent catalysts are also presented. 35 references, 31 figures, 18 tables.

  3. Trends and Possible Future Developments in Global Forest-Product Markets—Implications for the Swedish Forest Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnar Jonsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes trends and possible future developments in global wood-product markets and discusses implications for the Swedish forest sector. Four possible futures, or scenarios, are considered, based on qualitative scenario analysis. The scenarios are distinguished principally by divergent futures with respect to two highly influential factors driving change in global wood-product markets, whose future development is unpredictable. These so-called critical uncertainties were found to be degrees to which: (i current patterns of globalization will continue, or be replaced by regionalism, and (ii concern about the environment, particularly climate change, related policy initiatives and customer preferences, will materialize. The overall future of the Swedish solid wood-product industry looks bright, irrespective of which of the four possible futures occurs, provided it accommodates the expected growth in demand for factory-made, energy-efficient construction components. The prospects for the pulp and paper industry in Sweden appear more ambiguous. Globalization is increasingly shifting production and consumption to the Southern hemisphere, adversely affecting employment and forest owners in Sweden. Further, technical progress in information and communication technology (ICT is expected to lead to drastic reductions in demand for newsprint and printing paper. Chemical pulp producers may profit from a growing bio-energy industry, since they could manufacture new, high-value products in integrated bio-refineries. Mechanical pulp producers cannot do this, however, and might suffer from higher prices for raw materials and electricity.

  4. Recent developments in microbial oils production: a possible alternative to vegetable oils for biodiesel without competition with human food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendoline Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Since centuries vegetable oils are consumed as human food but it also finds applications in biodiesel production which is attracting more attention. But due to being in competition with food it could not be sustainable and leads the need to search for alternative. Nowdays microbes-derived oils (single cell oils seem to be alternatives for biodiesel production due to their similar composition to that of vegetable oils. However, the cold flow properties of the biodiesel produced from microbial oils are unacceptable and have to be modified by an efficient transesterification. Glycerol which is by product of transesterification can be valorised into some more useful products so that it can also be utilised along with biodiesel to simplify the downstream processing. The review paper discusses about various potent microorganisms for biodiesel production, enzymes involved in the lipid accumulation, lipid quantification methods, catalysts used in transesterification (including enzymatic catalyst and valorisation of glycerol.

  5. A possible mechanism for the suppression of Plasmodium berghei development in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae by the microsporidian Vavraia culicis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irka Bargielowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microsporidian parasites of mosquitoes offer a possible way of controlling malaria, as they impede the development of Plasmodium parasites within the mosquito. The mechanism involved in this interference process is unknown. METHODOLOGY: We evaluated the possibility that larval infection by a microsporidian primes the immune system of adult mosquitoes in a way that enables a more effective anti-Plasmodium response. To do so, we infected 2-day old larvae of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae with one of 4 isolates of the microsporidian Vavraia culicis and reared one group as an uninfected control. Within each treatment, we fed half the adult females on a mix of P. berghei ookinetes and blood and inoculated the other half with a negatively charged CM-25 Sephadex bead to evaluate the mosquitoes' melanisation response. CONCLUSIONS: The microsporidian-infected mosquitoes were less likely to harbour oocysts (58.5% vs. 81.8%, harboured fewer oocysts (8.9 oocysts vs. 20.7 oocysts if the malaria parasite did develop and melanised the Sephadex bead to a greater degree (73% vs. 35% than the controls. While the isolates differed in the number of oocysts and in the melanisation response, the stimulation of the immune response was not correlated with either measure of malaria development. Nevertheless, the consistent difference between microsporidian-infected and -uninfected mosquitoes--more effective melanisation and less successful infection by malaria--suggests that microsporidians impede the development of malaria by priming the mosquito's immune system.

  6. Copper Replaces Tin: A Copper based Gelling Catalyst for Poly-Urethane from Discarded Motherboard

    OpenAIRE

    Parasar, Bibudha; Jing, Gao Wen; Yuan, Dandan; KUN, Wang; WANG, Peng; Dasgupta, Arijit; Sahasrabudhe, Atharva; Barman, Soumitra; Yuan, Rongxin; Roy, Soumyajit

    2013-01-01

    A discarded motherboard based eco-friendly copper catalyst has been programmed to replace the industrially used tin based catalyst DBTDL. The catalyst has been characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR and TEM. Using the catalyst reaction conditions is optimized and under the optimized condition, both polyurethane and polyurethane foam are prepared, thus proving the generality of the catalyst to be used in industries. A possible mechanism has also been proposed.

  7. Shining X-rays on catalysts at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2009-01-01

    Structure-performance relationships gained by studying catalysts at work are considered the key to further development of catalysts underlined here by a brief overview on our research in this area. The partial oxidation of methane to hydrogen and carbon monoxide over Pt- and Rh-based catalysts an...

  8. Development of catalyst for ethylbenzene dehydrogenation in low water-oil ratio%低水油比乙苯脱氢催化剂的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛国萍; 金朝晖

    2001-01-01

    分析了铁/钾配比、氧化镁、氧化铁、微量元素的氧化物及增强剂等影响乙苯脱氢催化剂性能的因素,并对它们进行了调整,开发出了能适应在低水油比条件下使用的乙苯脱氢355催化剂。工业应用表明,在乙苯加料量为1.1~1.2t/h、温度为598~618℃、液体空速为0.42~0.46h-1、水油比为1.57左右的条件下,乙苯转化率、苯乙烯收率和选择性分别为65.0%,62.5%,96.1%。催化剂还具有强度高、堆密度小、自再生能力强等特点。%The 355 catalyst for ethylbenzene dehydrogenation used in low water-oil ratio was developed by analyzing and adjusting the factors affecting the properties of catalyst, including mass ratio of K/Fe, amount of MgO, precursor property of iron oxide, microcomponents and silicate. The results showed that in the condition of ethylbenzene feed 1.1~ 1.2 t/h, temperature 598~ 618 ℃ ,space velocity 0.42~ 0.46 h- 1,water- oil mass ratio about 1.57,the conversion of ethylbenzene was 65.0% ,yield and selectivity of styrene were 62.5% and 96.1% respectively. The catalyst also had high side pressure, low bulk density and good capacity of self- generation.

  9. Pd Close Coupled Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Hua SHI; Mao Chu GONG; Yao Qiang CHEN

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst comprised novel high surface area alumina support was prepared to control emission of automobiles. The results showed that prepared catalyst could satisfy the requirements of a high performance close coupled catalyst for its good catalytic activity at low temperature and good stability at high temperature.

  10. Nanostructured Basic Catalysts: Opportunities for Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, William C; Huber, George; Auerbach, Scott

    2009-06-30

    This research studied and developed novel basic catalysts for production of renewable chemicals and fuels from biomass. We focused on the development of unique porous structural-base catalysts zeolites. These catalysts were compared to conventional solid base materials for aldol condensation, that were being commercialized for production of fuels from biomass and would be pivotal in future biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Specifically, we had studied the aldolpyrolysis over zeolites and the trans-esterification of vegetable oil with methanol over mixed oxide catalysts. Our research has indicated that the base strength of framework nitrogen in nitrogen substituted zeolites (NH-zeolites) is nearly twice as strong as in standard zeolites. Nitrogen substituted catalysts have been synthesized from several zeolites (including FAU, MFI, BEA, and LTL) using NH3 treatment.

  11. The cluster beam route to model catalysts and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Peter R; Brown, Christopher M; Bishop, Peter T; Yin, Jinlong; Cooke, Kevin; Terry, William D; Liu, Jian; Yin, Feng; Palmer, Richard E

    2016-07-01

    The generation of beams of atomic clusters in the gas phase and their subsequent deposition (in vacuum) onto suitable catalyst supports, possibly after an intermediate mass filtering step, represents a new and attractive approach for the preparation of model catalyst particles. Compared with the colloidal route to the production of pre-formed catalytic nanoparticles, the nanocluster beam approach offers several advantages: the clusters produced in the beam have no ligands, their size can be selected to arbitrarily high precision by the mass filter, and metal particles containing challenging combinations of metals can be readily produced. However, until now the cluster approach has been held back by the extremely low rates of metal particle production, of the order of 1 microgram per hour. This is more than sufficient for surface science studies but several orders of magnitude below what is desirable even for research-level reaction studies under realistic conditions. In this paper we describe solutions to this scaling problem, specifically, the development of two new generations of cluster beam sources, which suggest that cluster beam yields of grams per hour may ultimately be feasible. Moreover, we illustrate the effectiveness of model catalysts prepared by cluster beam deposition onto agitated powders in the selective hydrogenation of 1-pentyne (a gas phase reaction) and 3-hexyn-1-ol (a liquid phase reaction). Our results for elemental Pd and binary PdSn and PdTi cluster catalysts demonstrate favourable combinations of yield and selectivity compared with reference materials synthesised by conventional methods.

  12. The cluster beam route to model catalysts and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Peter R; Brown, Christopher M; Bishop, Peter T; Yin, Jinlong; Cooke, Kevin; Terry, William D; Liu, Jian; Yin, Feng; Palmer, Richard E

    2016-07-01

    The generation of beams of atomic clusters in the gas phase and their subsequent deposition (in vacuum) onto suitable catalyst supports, possibly after an intermediate mass filtering step, represents a new and attractive approach for the preparation of model catalyst particles. Compared with the colloidal route to the production of pre-formed catalytic nanoparticles, the nanocluster beam approach offers several advantages: the clusters produced in the beam have no ligands, their size can be selected to arbitrarily high precision by the mass filter, and metal particles containing challenging combinations of metals can be readily produced. However, until now the cluster approach has been held back by the extremely low rates of metal particle production, of the order of 1 microgram per hour. This is more than sufficient for surface science studies but several orders of magnitude below what is desirable even for research-level reaction studies under realistic conditions. In this paper we describe solutions to this scaling problem, specifically, the development of two new generations of cluster beam sources, which suggest that cluster beam yields of grams per hour may ultimately be feasible. Moreover, we illustrate the effectiveness of model catalysts prepared by cluster beam deposition onto agitated powders in the selective hydrogenation of 1-pentyne (a gas phase reaction) and 3-hexyn-1-ol (a liquid phase reaction). Our results for elemental Pd and binary PdSn and PdTi cluster catalysts demonstrate favourable combinations of yield and selectivity compared with reference materials synthesised by conventional methods. PMID:27152749

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBILITY OF USING HYDROLOGICAL MODELS IN STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Sojka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibility of application of the hydrological model HEC-HMS in the development of a strategic environmental assessment of local spatial development plans on surface water. The practical possibility of using simulation models of catchment response to high intensity precipitation is shown on the example of the Różany Potok watercourse catchment which is subject to rapid urbanization process. The area of Różany Potok catchment is 8.1 km2 and a stream length is 5.57 km. In the years 1992–2012 there was a significant increase in impervious areas in the catchment of about 5.2 to 16%. In addition, new local spatial development plans are prepared within the catchment area. The implementation of their records may contribute to the increase in the proportion of impervious areas to over 20%. The increase in the share of impervious areas in the catchment area and traditional approach of precipitation water management can lead to doubling flood flows and increase the risk of local flooding.

  14. Possible Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Organizing in Greenland is a complex matter. We have been on an arctic odyssey exploring the different aspects of the Greenlandic reality and have created a publication in which a wide range of Greenlandic and international profiles and stakeholders give their opinion and visions for the future...... development in Greenland. By creating a platform for a wide range of ideas about the Possible Greenland to be discussed now and in the future, we give Greenlanders and Greenlandic decision makers access to the greatest amount of possible solutions to the challenges they are facing. We look more closely...... at Greenland's structure, and ask some threshold questions. Which aspects of society are rooted in our human hardware? And, if we had the rare opportunity to build a new nation, what would we choose for ourselves? We hope this will inspire an open, imaginative and thoroughly human discussion about how...

  15. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

  16. Phosphine-Free EWG-Activated Ruthenium Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grela, Karol; Szadkowska, Anna; Michrowska, Anna; Bieniek, Michal; Sashuk, Volodymyr

    Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst has been successfully fine-tuned by us in order to increase its activity and applicability by the introduction of electron-withdrawing groups (EWGs) to diminish donor properties of the oxygen atom. As a result, the stable and easily accessible nitro-substituted Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst has found a number of successful applications in various research and industrial laboratories. Some other EWG-activated Hoveyda-type catalysts are commercially available. The results described herewith demonstrate that the activity of ruthenium (Ru) metathesis catalysts can be enhanced by introduction of EWGs without detriment to catalysts stability. Equally noteworthy is the observation that different Ru catalysts turned out to be optimal for different applications. This shows that no single catalyst outperforms all others in all possible applications.

  17. Based on a new support for synthesis of highly efficient palladium/hydroxyapatite catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a new support, hydroxyapatite (HAP), a facile and low–cost preparation of palladium/hydroxyapatite catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation is introduced in this paper through a solvothermal reaction without additives. HAP was employed as the catalyst support for its hydroxyl–rich surface in order to increase the stability and utilization ratio of catalyst. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X–ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, the as–prepared Pd nanoparticles with face–centered cubic crystal structure were evenly deposited on the surface of HAP. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests demonstrated that the Pd/HAP catalyst possessed a much higher current density (246 mA cm−2) than the Pd/C catalyst (109 mA cm−2) towards ethanol electrooxidation, and better stability as well. In the direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) test, Pd/HAP catalyst gives better performance than that with Pd/C in terms of both open-circuit voltage (OCV) and power density. These results indicate that the HAP is a better support and the catalyst developed in this study may be a better candidate for DEFCs. A possible mechanism consistent with the experimental is also proposed

  18. Development of an eco-protocol for seaweed chlorophylls extraction and possible applications in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeli Minicante, S.; Ambrosi, E.; Back, M.; Barichello, J.; Cattaruzza, E.; Gonella, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Trave, E.

    2016-07-01

    Seaweeds are a reserve of natural dyes (chlorophylls a, b and c), characterized by low cost and easy supply, without potential environmental load in terms of land subtraction, and also complying with the requirements of an efficient waste management policy. In particular, the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida is a species largely present in the Venice Lagoon area, and for it a removal strategy is actually mandatory. In this paper, we set-up an eco-protocol for the best extraction and preparation procedures of the pigment, with the aim of finding an easy and affordable method for chlorophyll c extraction, exploring at the same time the possibility of using these algae within local sustainable management integrated strategies, among which the possible use of chlorophylls as a dye source in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is investigated. Experimental results suggest that the developed protocols are useful to optimize the chlorophyll c extraction, as shown by optical absorption spectroscopy measurements. The DSSCs built with the chlorophyll extracted by the proposed eco-protocol exhibit solar energy conversion efficiencies are similar to those obtained following extraction protocols with larger environmental impacts.

  19. Molybdenum and Tungsten Catalysts for Hydrogenation, Hydrosilylation and Hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of the C=O bond of ketones has a long and successful history in catalysis, but has been almost exclusively been carried out with precious metals such as rhodium or ruthenium. It is now possible to carry out catalytic hydrogenation of ketones using organometallic complexes of inexpensive, abundant metals like molybdenum or tungsten. In most cases, these reactions proceed by an ionic hydrogenation mechanism, in which a metal hydride bond serves as a proton donor and a different metal hydride serves as a hydride donor. Reaction of the metal complex with dihydrogen regenerates the metal hydride bonds and completes the catalytic cycle. This chapter will review the development of this new class of catalyst, and will summarize the activity and lifetimes of molybdenum and tungsten catalysts. This work was supported by the US Department of energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for US Department of Energy.

  20. Hydrocracking of coal using molten salts as catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, S.; Nomura, M.; Sakashita, H.; Nishimura, M.; Miyake, M.

    1981-10-01

    Characteristics of the reactions during coal liquefaction and the hydrocracking of coal and coal-related materials using ZnCl2-transition metal chloride or ZnCl2-alkaline metal chloride are discussed. The studies involve development of a molten salt catalyst for hydrocracking heavy residual oils or coals, including hydrocarbons containing many heteroatoms. It was found that ZnCl2 shows higher activity for hydrocracking of anthracene and phenanthrene, and experiments with Yubari coal using the binary metal catalysts ZnCl2-MoCl5 and ZnCl2-CrCl3 are described. The use of molten salts in the desulphurization of heavy residual oils is also explored, specifically for the hydrocracking of benziophene, and the possibility that a coal-like polymer structure containing an oxygen surplus might depolymerize above ternary melts is suggested.

  1. [Possibilities of surgical treatment of lesions of the organs of the reproductive system and disorders of sexual development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulov, A B; Negmadzhanov, B B; Bogdanova, E A; Iusim, E M; Glybina, T M; Godlevskiĭ, D N; Urinov, M Ia; Matveev, Iu K

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe the data on clinico-laboratory and instrumental examinations and surgical treatment of about 5,000 children with different reproductive organ injuries including complex patterns of abnormal sexual differentiation. The designed diagnostic programs made it possible to distribute patients into groups and according to the disease entities in conformity with the classification suggested. It is emphasized that in the developing science concerned with sex, it is necessary to distinguish an area pertaining to childhood, namely pediatric andrology, and to delineate its subject matter and tasks. Skilled assistance can be rendered by a specialized center. A broad spectrum of improved masculinizing (including the design of an artificial phallus) and feminizing (including the design of an artificial vagina from the rectosigmoid segment of the colon) is provided. The catamnestic data are evaluated.

  2. International labor migration in the social and economic development of Ukraine: trends, negative consequences and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Shymanska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the prerequisites for the development of labor migration in Ukraine. The main trends and negative consequences of international migration for Ukraine, including the growing problem of human trafficking, national aging, loss of fiscal revenues and increased strain on the pension fund have been defined. Statistics on labor migration indicators and the number of Ukrainian victims of trafficking in the world have been analyzed. In the conclusions possible solutions of overcoming social and economic problems associated with external labor migration, have been grounded, including monitoring internal and external migration data on its changes, signing international agreements on migrant workers’ abroad employment and social protection, improving higher education targeting to the needs of national and regional labor markets.

  3. Advances in HDS catalysts design: relation between catalyst structure and feed composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagami, Narinobu

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose a better understanding of ultra deep HDS for diesel, to contribute to the development of advanced catalysts. The characterization of catalyst structure was examined by XRD, TPR, TPS and Raman spectroscopy. The ranking of catalytic activities were tested using vario

  4. Collaboration between primitive cell membranes and soluble catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Adamala, Katarzyna P.; Engelhart, Aaron E.; SZOSTAK, JACK W.

    2016-01-01

    One widely held model of early life suggests primitive cells consisted of simple RNA-based catalysts within lipid compartments. One possible selective advantage conferred by an encapsulated catalyst is stabilization of the compartment, resulting from catalyst-promoted synthesis of key membrane components. Here we show model protocell vesicles containing an encapsulated enzyme that promotes the synthesis of simple fatty acid derivatives become stabilized to Mg2+, which is required for ribozyme...

  5. Mesoporous Molecular Sieves as Supports for Metathesis Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcar, Hynek; Cejka, Jirí

    Mesoporous molecular sieves represent a new family of inorganic oxides with regular nanostructure, large surface areas, large void volumes, and narrow pore size distribution of mesopores. These materials offer new possibilities for designing highly active and selective catalysts for olefin metathesis and metathesis polymerization. Siliceous sieves MCM-41, MCM-48, SBA-15, and organized mesoporous alumina (OMA) were used as supports for preparation of new molybdenum and rhenium oxide catalysts, as well as for heterogenization of well-defined homogeneous catalysts.

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of the PEMFC catalyst layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongxing; CAO Pengzhen; WANG Yuxin

    2007-01-01

    The performance of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is greatly controlled by the structure of the catalyst layer.Low catalyst utilization is still a significant obstacle to the commercialization of the PEMFC.In order to get a fundamental understanding of the electrode structure and to find the limiting factor in the low catalyst utilization,it is necessary to develop the mechanical model on the effect of catalyst layer structure on the catalyst utilization and the performance of the PEMFC.In this work,the structure of the catalyst layer is studied based on the lattice model with the Monte Carlo simulation.The model can predict the effects of some catalyst layer components,such as Pt/C catalyst,electrolyte and gas pores,on the utilization of the catalyst and the cell performance.The simulation result shows that the aggregation of conduction grains can greatly affect the degree of catalyst utilization.The better the dispersion of the conduction grains,the larger the total effective area of the catalyst is.To achieve higher utilization,catalyst layer components must be distributed by means of engineered design,which can prevent aggregation.

  7. Alloy catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...... of the novel catalyst material for synthesising hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water....

  8. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  9. How did it become possible? Supranational Ecumenical developments and changes in Religious Education during the 1960s and 70s’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Doney

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing historiographies of Religious Education (RE are often written from within national boundaries, reflecting the particular relationship between church and state within those bounded spaces; further, they often focus on the question ‘what happened?’. During the 1960s significant developments took place in the supranational discourse of Christian ecumenism, including the expansion of dialogue between Christians and those of other worldviews (both religious and non-religious particularly as a result of the Second Vatican Council (1962-5 and the work of the World Council of Churches (established 1948. These supranational ecumenical discourses transcend national boundaries and thus have potential to influence even the most nationally-orientated educational systems. However, their significance has hitherto been overlooked. Using a method derived from the historical work of Michel Foucault, which focuses on the question ‘how did this become possible?’, this paper demonstrates the extent to which an awareness of supranational ecumenical discourses enriches understandings of the development of World Religions Teaching in Religious Education. The English context is used as an exemplar, through a single case study, and the potential of the approach is discussed in relation to other national contexts.

  10. Exclusive breastfeeding of Swedish children and its possible influence on the development of obesity: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvigsson Jonas F

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are increasing among children all over the world. Socio-economic factors may influence the development of overweight and obesity in childhood, and it has been proposed that breastfeeding may protect against obesity. The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and obesity when potential confounders, such as socioeconomic factors, are considered. Methods The data analyzed was from ABIS (All Babies in Southeast Sweden, a prospective cohort study. All parents with children born between October 1, 1997 and October 1, 1999 in Southeast Sweden (n = 21,700 were asked to participate. Parents were asked to answer periodic questionnaires from the time of the child's birth (n = 16,058 until he/she was five years of age (n = 7,356. Cutoffs for overweight and obesity were defined according to Cole et al, age and gender adjusted. Short-term exclusive breastfeeding was defined as Results At five years of age, 12.9% of the children in the study wereoverweight and 4.3% were obese. At the age of three months, 78.4% of the children were being breastfed exclusively. The median exclusive breastfeeding duration was four months. High maternal BMI > 30 (AOR = 1.07; CI = 1.05–1.09; P Conclusion We cannot exclude the possibility that exclusive breastfeeding influences weight development, but it does not seem to protect against obesity at five years of age.

  11. Status and development tendency of deniration catalyst life management in thermal power plant%火电厂脱硝催化剂寿命管理现状及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞; 刘毅; 廖海燕; 史晓宏

    2015-01-01

    In order to lengthen service life of denitration catalyst in thermal power plant,the use and life management state of deniration catalyst was introduced combining with the whole catalyst use process. The cause of catalyst poisoning was analyzed. In order to maximize catalyst effects,the choose of catalyst should take full account of actual operating parameters which were provided by manufacturer. The ammonia could clog air preheater,so the spraying value of ammonia,operating temperature,soot blower system should be controlled strict-ly. The clogging,poisoning,physical deterioration and sintering were the main reasons of catalyst deactivation. The catalyst efficiency,am-monia escape and SO2/SO3 conversion ratio could be used to check if the catalyst still had activity. There were some useful component in waste catalyst,so the waste catalyst recycling and regeneration technologies development should be strengthened.%为了延长火电厂脱硝催化剂的使用寿命,介绍了脱硝催化剂使用及寿命管理现状,结合催化剂使用全过程论述了投运前、运行中及后续维护过程中催化剂的寿命管理方法,总结了催化剂中毒原因并提出寿命管理建议。催化剂选择设计时应充分考虑催化剂厂家提供的催化剂实际运行参数,最大限度满足催化剂运行工况;催化剂运行、检修、维护过程中,要严格控制喷氨量、运行温度、吹灰系统,避免为了提高脱硝效率而增加氨逃逸,引起空气预热器堵塞等问题。堵塞、中毒、机械磨损、烧结是造成催化剂失活的主要原因,通过检测脱硝催化剂的效率、氨逃逸和SO2/SO3转化率等指标,判断催化剂是否失活,并定期进行催化剂单体的检测和脱硝系统性能测试。最后提出应加强废旧催化剂的回收处理技术,如催化剂的二次再生技术以及从废旧催化剂中提取微量元素、回收有效成分等。

  12. Development of a technique of the rapid analysis for forecasting of possible radionuclides accumulation in the harvest of agricultural crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main ways of pollution of plants by radionuclides is the receipt of radionuclides in plants from ground through root system and direct uptake of radionuclides by underground parts of plants. Therefore receipt of radioisotopes in rhizosphere of plants plays the main role in radionuclides accumulation in the plants. For plants cultivation in conditions of radioactive pollution of region it is necessary to estimate the value of possible radionuclides accumulation in a harvest of plants. Such forecasts are necessary at planning of growing of agricultural crops for the food, forage or technical purposes depending on a degree of their pollution by radionuclides. We investigated correlation between the content of strontium - 90 in plants in early phases of their development (20 days time) and in a harvest of plants at a soil way of radionuclide receipt. Our results of study of dependence of strontium - 90 accumulation in a harvest from its content in 20 days time sprouts show, that with reduction of the content of strontium - 90 in 20 days time sprouts, its quantity in a harvest of agriculture cultures is reduced. The correlation analysis of the received data has confirmed positive connection between accumulation of radionuclide in young and adult plants. So, correlation coefficients for a cotton, wheat and barley are 0,89; 0,91 and 0,91 correspondingly. Thus, the direct connection between the contents of strontium - 90 in plants of young age and its accumulation in a harvest of adult plants is established. It enables to predict pollution of' harvest by strontium - 90 under its contents in young plants. Using the received data, with the help of the least- squares method, we have calculated coefficients of the regression equation of a kind: y = a + bx, Where: y - the predicted contents of radionuclide in the harvest; x - the content of radionuclide in 20 days time sprouts; a, b - the empirical coefficients. Rather good coincidence of theoretical calculations and

  13. Analysis of market possibilities for development of pipe-rolling production on PJSC «Sumy Frunze MNPO»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Illiashenko

    2013-03-01

    mills of cold rolling of pipes. The analysis was made with consecutive specification of market prospects ofPJSC Sumy Frunze MNPO. Methods of SWOT-analysis, PEST-analysis and SNW-analysis were used. Features formation of the innovative strategy development of PJSC are defined as result of the analysis. They will allow to get the balance between external and internal possibilities of development and to increase chances of PJSC to reach the success.The main external (of direct and indirect action and internal risk factors of the innovative project of production and modernization of cold-rolling pipes are revealed. The quantitative assessment of extent of their influence is executed with the method of expert evaluations. It is established that at this combination of factors the enterprise is in zone of the increased risk, generally because owing to adverse influence of external factors.The assessment of financial stability of innovative project showed its absolute stability and absence of investment risk, generally because of alleged financing of the project only at the expense of own means of PJSC.The identified multiple-factor quantitative assessment of risk allowed establishing value termsof possible losses (for separate stages and for innovative project as a whole at worst-case scenarios. Comparison of possible losses (taking into account probability of their emergence with the expected income of the project and PJSC as a whole testifies about the acceptable size of risk (even for the pessimistic type of behavior of the person making the decision at implementation of the innovative project of production and modernization of cold-rolling of pipes.Detailed analysis of innovative development potential of PJSC (including the analysis of its separate components: market, innovative, production and marketing potentials concerning production and modernization of pipe-rolling camps which testifies about high chances of implementation of the considered innovative project is made

  14. Indicators for sustainable development. One of the five key areas to sustainable development where progress is possible with the resources and technologies at our disposal today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is essential to economic and social development and improved quality of life. Much of the world's energy is currently produced and used in ways that may not be sustainable in the long term. In order to assess progress towards a sustainable energy future, energy indicators that can measure and monitor important changes will be needed. The 41 indicators resulting from the IAEA activity in this field are listed in this document, 23 are identified as 'core indicators', meaning that they are either specific to energy or especially important, given the interest in working with the most compact, but still meaningful number of indicators possible

  15. LC-finer catalyst testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D.; Bronfenbrenner, J.C.

    1983-09-01

    The activity and aging rate of modified Shell 324 Ni-Mo-Al catalyst were studied in ICRC's process development unit (PDU) under SRC-I Demonstration Plant hydroprocessing conditions. The studies determined variations in SRC conversion, hydrocarbon gas production, hydrogen consumption, and heteroatom removal at both constant and increasing reaction temperatures. Samples of spent catalyst were analyzed to ascertain the reasons for catalyst deactivation. Finally, the PDU hydroprocessing results were compared with those generated at Lummus and Wilsonville pilot plants. 14 references, 25 figures, 16 tables.

  16. Reaction Chemistry of W-Mn/SiO2 Catalyst for the Oxidative Coupling of Methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuben Li

    2003-01-01

    Reaction chemistry of the OCM reaction on W-Mn/SiO2 catalyst has been reviewed in thisaccount. Initial activity and selectivity, stability in a long-term reaction, reaction at elevated pressures anda modelling test in a stainless-steel fluidized-bed reactor show that W-Mn/SiO2 has promising performancefor the development of an OCM process that directly produces ethylene from natural gas. A study onsurface catalytic reaction kinetics and used catalyst structure characterization revealed a possible reasonwhy C2 and COx selectivity changed during the long-term reaction. Further improvement of the catalystcomposition and preparation method should be a future direction of study on OCM reaction over W-Mn/SiO2 catalyst.

  17. Ceramic catalyst materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sault, A.G.; Gardner, T.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanprasopwattanna, A.; Reardon, J.; Datye, A.K. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) ion-exchange materials show great potential as ceramic catalyst supports due to an inherently high ion-exchange capacity which allows facile loading of catalytically active transition metal ions, and an ability to be cast as thin films on virtually any substrate. By coating titania and HTO materials onto inexpensive, high surface area substrates such as silica and alumina, the economics of using these materials is greatly improved, particularly for the HTO materials, which are substantially more expensive in the bulk form than other oxide supports. In addition, the development of thin film forms of these materials allows the catalytic and mechanical properties of the final catalyst formulation to be separately engineered. In order to fully realize the potential of thin film forms of titania and HTO, improved methods for the deposition and characterization of titania and HTO films on high surface area substrates are being developed. By varying deposition procedures, titania film thickness and substrate coverage can be varied from the submonolayer range to multilayer thicknesses on both silica and alumina. HTO films can also be formed, but the quality and reproducibility of these films is not nearly as good as for pure titania films. The films are characterized using a combination of isopropanol dehydration rate measurements, point of zero charge (PZC) measurements, BET surface area, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and elemental analysis. In order to assess the effects of changes in film morphology on catalytic activity, the films are being loaded with MoO{sub 3} using either incipient wetness impregnation or ion-exchange of heptamolybdate anions followed by calcining. The MoO{sub 3} is then sulfided to form MOS{sub 2}, and tested for catalytic activity using pyrene hydrogenation and dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulfurization, model reactions that simulate reactions occurring during coal liquefaction.

  18. Effects of magnolol on UVB-induced skin cancer development in mice and its possible mechanism of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnolol, a plant lignan isolated from the bark and seed cones of Magnolia officinalis, has been shown to have chemopreventive effects on chemically-induced skin cancer development. The objectives of this investigation are to study the anticarcinogenic effects of magnolol on UVB-induced skin tumor development in SKH-1 mice, a model relevant to humans, and determine the possible role of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest involved in the skin tumor development. UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis model in SKH-1 mice was used for determining the preventive effects of magnolol on skin cancer development. Western blottings and flow cytometric analysis were used to study the effects of magnolol on apoptosis and cell cycle. Magnolol pretreated groups (30, 60 μ g) before UVB treatments (30 mJ/cm2, 5 days/week) resulted in 27-55% reduction in tumor multiplicity as compared to control group in SKH-1 mice. Magnolol pretreatment increased the cleavage of caspase-8 and poly-(-ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), increased the expression of p21, a cell cycle inhibitor, and decreased the expression of proteins involved in the G2/M phase of cell cycle in skin samples from SKH-1 mice. Treatment of A431 cells with magnolol decreased cell viability and cell proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. Magnolol induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in A431 cells at 12 h with a decreased expression of cell cycle proteins such as cyclin B1, cyclin A, CDK4, Cdc2 and simultaneous increase in the expression of Cip/p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Magnolol induced apoptosis in vivo and in vitro with an increased cleavage of caspase-8 and PARP. Phospho-signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Tyr705), B-Raf, p-MEK, and p-AKT were down-regulated, whereas phosphorylation of ERK was induced by magnolol in A431 cells. Magnolol pretreatments prevent UVB-induced skin cancer development by enhancing apoptosis, causing cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, and affecting various signaling

  19. Effects of magnolol on UVB-induced skin cancer development in mice and its possible mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilampalli Chandeshwari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnolol, a plant lignan isolated from the bark and seed cones of Magnolia officinalis, has been shown to have chemopreventive effects on chemically-induced skin cancer development. The objectives of this investigation are to study the anticarcinogenic effects of magnolol on UVB-induced skin tumor development in SKH-1 mice, a model relevant to humans, and determine the possible role of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest involved in the skin tumor development. Methods UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis model in SKH-1 mice was used for determining the preventive effects of magnolol on skin cancer development. Western blottings and flow cytometric analysis were used to study the effects of magnolol on apoptosis and cell cycle. Results Magnolol pretreated groups (30, 60 μ g before UVB treatments (30 mJ/cm2, 5 days/week resulted in 27-55% reduction in tumor multiplicity as compared to control group in SKH-1 mice. Magnolol pretreatment increased the cleavage of caspase-8 and poly-(-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, increased the expression of p21, a cell cycle inhibitor, and decreased the expression of proteins involved in the G2/M phase of cell cycle in skin samples from SKH-1 mice. Treatment of A431 cells with magnolol decreased cell viability and cell proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. Magnolol induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in A431 cells at 12 h with a decreased expression of cell cycle proteins such as cyclin B1, cyclin A, CDK4, Cdc2 and simultaneous increase in the expression of Cip/p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Magnolol induced apoptosis in vivo and in vitro with an increased cleavage of caspase-8 and PARP. Phospho-signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Tyr705, B-Raf, p-MEK, and p-AKT were down-regulated, whereas phosphorylation of ERK was induced by magnolol in A431 cells. Conclusions Magnolol pretreatments prevent UVB-induced skin cancer development by enhancing apoptosis, causing

  20. Privatization and economic liberalization: the role of the entrepreneur as a catalyst for economic development in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibrell, Clay; Danskin Englis, Paula; Kedia, Ben L.; Lakatos, Gergo M.

    2008-01-01

    Many nations with transition economies are attempting to develop their national competitiveness through such processes as privatisation of state owned enterprises (SOEs) and/or the use of economic liberalisation (e.g. lessening of tariffs, industry regulations, etc.) to spur economic growth and deve

  1. Improving Heterogeneous Catalyst Stability for Liquid-phase Biomass Conversion and Reforming

    OpenAIRE

    Héroguel, Florent Emmanuel; Rozmysłowicz, Bartosz; Luterbacher, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a possible renewable alternative to fossil carbon sources. Today, many bio-resources can be converted to direct substitutes or suitable alternatives to fossil-based fuels and chemicals. However, catalyst deactivation under the harsh, often liquid-phase reaction conditions required for biomass treatment is a major obstacle to developing processes that can compete with the petrochemical industry. This review presents recently developed strategies to limit reversible and irreversible ...

  2. Highly Durable Catalysts for Ignition of Advanced Monopropellants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed SBIR Phase I addresses the development of catalysts and technology for the ignition of advanced monopropellants consisting of mixtures of...

  3. Microchannel Reactors for ISRU Applications Using Nanofabricated Catalysts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and USRA propose to develop microchannel reactors for In-Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) using nanofabricated catalysts. The...

  4. Informal Cross-Border Trade Sarawak (Malaysia)-Kalimantan (Indonesia): A Catalyst for Border Community’s Development

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Hair Awang; Junaenah Sulehan; Noor Rahamah Abu Bakar; Mohd Yusof Abdullah; Ong Puay Liu

    2013-01-01

    Cross-border entrepreneurship activity plays an important role in the community economic development programs. The emergence of business groups and trade activities will generate employment, create wealth, contribute to tax revenue and stimulate the construction of infrastructures such as transportation. Indirectly, this will improve the standard of living in the border communities. The cross-border trade activities between Sarawak (Malaysia)-Kalimantan (Indonesia) continued to grow significa...

  5. FF-46加氢裂化预处理催化剂的开发与应用%DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF FF-46 CATALYST FOR HYDROCRACKING FEEDSTOCKS PRETREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨占林; 彭绍忠; 姜虹; 周礼俊

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet the requirement of processing high nitrogen and sulfur feedstocks, a new generation of hydrocracking pretreatment catalyst,FF-46,was developed by Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals. FF-46 catalyst having Mo-Ni active metal components was prepared by complexation technology and the acidity of its support was well adjusted. Lab evaluation results showed that the catalytic activity of FF-46 catalyst was significantly better than those of other catalysts including an industrial reference catalyst. FF-46 catalyst was applied in several hydrocracking units successfully. The industrial application results showed that FF-46 catalyst exhibited high HDN and HDS activities, it can meet the requirement of long-term operation.%为了满足加氢裂化装置加工硫、氮等杂质含量高的原料的需要,中国石化抚顺石油化工研究院采用Mo、Ni为活性金属组分,通过合适的助剂降低载体表面的强酸量,使用络合技术负载活性金属,研制出新一代具有高加氢脱氮活性的加氢裂化预处理催化剂FF-46,并在中国石化镇海炼化分公司等单位的加氢裂化装置上实现工业应用.实验室小型装置评价结果表明,FF-46催化剂的活性明显优于其它技术制备的催化剂,同时也优于工业参比剂;工业应用结果表明,FF-46催化剂的脱硫、脱氮活性高,能够满足装置长周期运转的要求.

  6. The possibility to reconcile the conflict between the preservation of synanthropic vegetation and the development of cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Trzaskowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The impoverishment of synanthropic vegetation has been observed in Polish cities for at least half a century. It relates to both the decrease in the area of its occurrence and reduction in species diversity. This is associated with changes in land development, a faster construction process, and an increasingly smaller area of wasteland as well as with the fact that agricultural land and farm buildings are found in cities less and less frequently. Municipal management has been modernised and rubbish, soil or rubble dumps are encountered less often. Besides, the aesthetics adopted by modern man does not allow for the existence of spontaneous vegetation, since in an ordered world such great freedom and liberty are not accepted. Nevertheless, synanthropic flora is one of elements of greenery co-creating a unique urban ecosystem. It increases species richness, improves the climate, and contributes to a reduction in pollution and noise. The present paper highlights difficulties related to the preservation of this flora in cities, and a concept is presented how to introduce it into urban green spaces. Different forms of green spaces are presented in the case of which it is possible to use synanthropic plants, e.g.: ecological lawns and flower meadows, extensive roof gardens, and ecological parks.

  7. Catalyst for Ammonia Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation, a method for producing a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation and a method for tuning the catalytic activity of a transition metal. By depositing an overlayer of less catalytic active metal onto a more catalytic...

  8. Mechanistic studies aimed at the development of single site metal alkoxide catalysts for the production of polyoxygenates from renewable resources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Malcolm H. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The work proposed herein follows on directly from the existing 3 year grant and the request for funding is for 12 months to allow completion of this work and graduation of current students supported by DOE. The three primary projects are as follows. 1.) A comparative study of the reactivity of LMg(OR) (solvent), where L= a β-diiminate or pyrromethene ligand, in the ring-opening of cyclic esters. 2.) The homopolymerization of expoxides, particularly propylene oxide and styrene oxide, and their copolymerizations with carbon dioxide or organic anhydrides to yield polycarbonates or polyesters, respectively. 3.) The development of well-defined bismuth (III) complexes for ring-opening polymerizations that are tolerant of both air and water. In each of these topics special emphasis is placed on developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of the ring-opening event and how this is modified by the employment of specific metal and ligand combinations. This document also provides a report on findings of the past grant period that are not yet in the public domain/published and shows how the proposed work will bring the original project to conclusion.

  9. Catalyst Deactivation: Control Relevance of Model Assumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Bernt Lie; David M. Himmelblau

    2000-01-01

    Two principles for describing catalyst deactivation are discussed, one based on the deactivation mechanism, the other based on the activity and catalyst age distribution. When the model is based upon activity decay, it is common to use a mean activity developed from the steady-state residence time distribution. We compare control-relevant properties of such an approach with those of a model based upon the deactivation mechanism. Using a continuous stirred tank reactor as an example, we show t...

  10. Idea of environmental catalyst and its application; Kankyo shokubai no hasso to sono riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inumaru, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-20

    The catalyst creating environmental conservation and comfortable environment is generally named an `environmental catalyst (EC).` EC is roughly classified into direct and indirect type ECs. Purification catalysts for automobile exhaust gas, and catalysts for chemical production process are under investigation as direct and indirect type ECs, respectively. The catalyst was found which can remove NOx under the coexistence of oxygen by using hydrocarbon as reductant. In addition, the practical exhaust gas purification catalyst was also developed for lean-burn engines by combining noble metal catalysts with NOx absorbing materials or zeolite superior in reductant adsorbing power. {epsilon}-caprolactam as raw material of nylon 6 is synthesized from cyclohexanoneoxime through Beckmann` rearrangement reaction. Zeolite system solid catalysts using no ammonia are under investigation. An environment-friendly synthesis method using not phosgene but catalyst was proposed for production of dimethyl carbonate. How to utilize catalysts for global material circulation remains unsolved for the future study. 5 refs.

  11. Reduction of telomeric repeats as a possible predictor for development of hepatocellular carcinoma: convenient evaluation by slot-blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isokawa, O; Suda, T; Aoyagi, Y; Kawai, H; Yokota, T; Takahashi, T; Tsukada, K; Shimizu, T; Mori, S; Abe, Y; Suzuki, Y; Nomoto, M; Mita, Y; Yanagi, M; Igarashi, H; Asakura, H

    1999-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mainly arises from the liver with chronic inflammation. Because telomere reduction reflects replicative history in somatic cells, we analyzed the possibility that liver tissues surrounding HCC consist of the cells carrying substantial reduction of telomere. We studied 20 HCC and surrounding noncancerous liver tissues (SL) obtained by surgical resection, and 10 laparoscopically obtained needle biopsy specimens of the liver with chronic inflammation including no overt HCC (CI). Five liver tissues without chronic liver diseases (ND) were also examined. Extracted genomic DNAs were blotted on a nylon membrane, and probed at first with radio-labeled d(TTAGGG)(3) and reprobed with radio-labeled d(CCT)(7). The intensity caused by d(TTAGGG)(3) was divided by that of d(CCT)(7). The ratio was defined as telomeric repeats content (TC). Dilution experiments reproducibly revealed almost the same TC. The reduction rate of telomere length through aging estimated by regression analysis of TC was 0.62% per year. Concomitant analyses of TC and average telomere length revealed that both values were significantly correlated (r =.45; P =.009). To compare TC in the liver with respect to chronic inflammation, the value was divided by TC in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from the same donor. The ratio was defined as relative TC (RTC). There was a statistically significant decrease of RTC in CI compared with that in ND (P =.03). Furthermore, RTC in SL was significantly lower than that in CI (P =.0001). These observations suggest that RTC value in liver tissues may digitally indicate a replicative history of hepatocytes under chronic inflammation, and a risk of HCC development. PMID:10421648

  12. Catalysts, methods of making catalysts, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Renard, Laetitia

    2014-03-06

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for catalysts, methods of making catalysts, methods of using catalysts, and the like. In an embodiment, the method of making the catalysts can be performed in a single step with a metal nanoparticle precursor and a metal oxide precursor, where a separate stabilizing agent is not needed.

  13. Macrokinetics of Ethylene Epoxidation over A-type Silver Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Rujun; Li Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    By taking the surface chemical reactions as the rate-controlling step, a possible reaction mechanism for ethylene epoxidation to synthesize ethylene oxide over the A-type silver catalyst was developed, while it was assumed that the ep-oxidation reaction would take place between ethylene and the un-dissociated adsorbed oxygen O2a on the solo active sites, while the deep oxidation would occur between ethylene and the dissociated adsorbed oxygen Oa on the adjacent multi-active sites. In order to describe the effect of 1,2-C2H4Cl2 (EDC) inhibitor on the ethylene epoxidation process, the reversible reac-tions between EDC and vinyl chloride (VC) on the active sites of silver catalyst was introduced. According to the assumed mechanism, the hyperbolic macro-kinetic model of ethylene epoxidation over the A-type silver catalyst was established, and the macrokinetic experiments were carried out in an internal-recycle gradientless reactor operating at a pressure of 2.1 MPa and a temperature in the range of 217.8—249.0℃, with the gas composition (molar fraction) consisting of 15.82%—34.65%C2H4, 2.55%—7.80%O2, 0.88%—6.15%CO2, 0.15—2.61μmol/mol of 1,2-C2H4Cl2 and 0.14—1.28μmol/mol of C2H3Cl. By means of the Simplex Optimal Method, the parameters of the macrokinetic models were estimated. Statistical test showed that the macrokinetic models developed for the A-type silver catalyst agree well with the experimental results.

  14. Test and survey on a next generation coal liquefying catalyst. Coal molecule scientific test and survey as the base for commercializing the coal liquefying technology; Jisedai sekitan ekika shokubai shiken chosa. Sekitan ekika gijutsu shogyoka kiban to shite no sekitan bunshi kagaku shiken chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The test and survey on a next generation coal liquefying catalyst present a new proposal to raise catalytic activity in coal liquefaction, and perform demonstration experiments in a laboratory scale to search for possibility of developing a new coal liquefying catalyst from various viewpoints. To explain, discussions were given on the catalyst to perform the followings: liquefaction under extremely mild conditions by using ultra strong acids not limited only to metals; ion exchange method and swell carrying method to raise catalyst dispersion very highly, enhance the catalytic activity, and reduce the amount of catalyst to be used; mechanism of producing catalyst activating species to further enhance the activity of iron catalysts; and pursuit of morphological change in the activating species. The coal molecule scientific test and survey as the base for commercializing the coal liquefying technology performed the studies on the following items: pretreatment of coal that can realize reduction of coal liquefaction cost; configuration of the liquefaction reaction, liquefying catalysts, hydrocarbon gas generating mechanism, status of catalysts after liquefaction reaction, and reduction in gas purification cost by using gas separating membranes. Future possibilities were further searched through frank and constructive opinion exchanges among the committee members. (NEDO)

  15. Synthesis and Understanding of Novel Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stair, Peter C. [Northwestern University

    2013-07-09

    The research took advantage of our capabilities to perform in-situ and operando Raman spectroscopy on complex systems along with our developing expertise in the synthesis of uniform, supported metal oxide materials to investigate relationships between the catalytically active oxide composition, atomic structure, and support and the corresponding chemical and catalytic properties. The project was organized into two efforts: 1) Synthesis of novel catalyst materials by atomic layer deposition (ALD). 2) Spectroscopic and chemical investigations of coke formation and catalyst deactivation. ALD synthesis was combined with conventional physical characterization, Raman spectroscopy, and probe molecule chemisorption to study the effect of supported metal oxide composition and atomic structure on acid-base and catalytic properties. Operando Raman spectroscopy studies of olefin polymerization leading to coke formation and catalyst deactivation clarified the mechanism of coke formation by acid catalysts.

  16. Alternative deNOx catalysts and technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes

    in the flue gas when biomass is combusted. By co-firing with large amounts of CO2-neutral straw or wood (tomeet stringent CO2 emission legislation), the lifetime of the traditional SCR catalyst is thus significantly reduced due to the presence of deactivating species originating from the fuel. To develop......The present thesis entitled Alternative deNOx Catalysts and technologies revolves around the topic of removal of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, are unwanted byproducts formed during combustion (e.g. in engines or power plants). If emitted to the atmosphere, they are involved...... a catalyst less susceptible to the poisons present in the flue gas, a number of catalysts have been synthesized and tested in the present work, all based on commercially available supports. A highly acidic support consisting of sulfated zirconia was chosen based on preliminary studies. A number of different...

  17. Persistent Possible Science Selves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Leila A.; Lin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines literature on the development of self-knowledge for possible selves--how an individual thinks about oneself and one's potential future selves (Markus & Nurius, 1986). Future science selves research, a recent offshoot of possible selves theories, centers on the development and loss of future possible scientific selves and…

  18. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  19. Multiphase catalysts for selective reduction of NOx with hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the existing proposed solutions to reduce emission of NOx there is a promising alternative, the so-called (HC-SCR) selective catalytic reduction of NOx using hydrocarbons as reductant. This thesis is part of a worldwide effort devoted to gain knowledge on the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with hydrocarbons with the final goal to contribute to the development of suitable catalysts for the above mentioned process. Chapter 2 describes the details of the experimental set-up and of the analytical methods employed. Among the catalyst for HC-SCR, Co-based catalyst are known to be active and selective, thus, a study on a series of Co-based catalysts, supported on zeolites, was undertaken and the results are presented in Chapter 3. Correlation between catalytic characteristics and kinetic results are employed to understand the working catalyst and this is used as a basis for catalyst optimization. With the intention to prepare a multi-functional catalyst that will preserve the desired characteristics of the individual components, minimizing their negative aspects, catalysts based on Co-Pt, supported on ZSM-5, were investigated. In Chapter 4 the results of this study are discussed. A bimetallic Co-Pt/ZSM-5 catalysts with low Pt contents (0.1 wt %) showed a synergistic effect by combining high stability and activity of Pt catalysts with the high N2 selectivity of Co catalysts. Furthermore, it was found to be sulfur- and water-tolerant. Its positive qualities brought us to study the mechanism that takes place over this catalyst during HC-SCR. The results of an in-situ i.r mechanistic study over this catalyst is reported in Chapter 5. From the results presented in Chapter 5 a mechanism operating over the Co-Pt/ZSM-5 catalyst is proposed. The modification of Co catalyst with Pt improved the catalysts. However, further improvement was found to be hindered by high selectivity to N2O. Since Rh catalysts are generally less selective to N2O, the modification of Co

  20. Development and commercial demonstration of FC-50 hydrocracking catalyst for middle distillates%FC-50中油型加氢裂化催化剂的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓艳; 樊宏飞

    2012-01-01

    为满足市场对清洁燃料油及化工原料需求量不断增长的要求,中国石油化工股份有限公司抚顺石油化工研究院以无定型硅铝为主载体,改性Y型分子筛为主要酸性组分,W-Ni为活性组分,采用浸渍法制备了FC-50中油型加氢裂化催化剂,属多产中间馏分油兼产高质量重石脑油和尾油的催化剂.在试验装置上对该剂与国内同类先进催化剂进行了对比评价,并进行了工业放大.结果表明,FC-50催化剂具有较高的中间馏分油选择性、反应活性以及良好的稳定性,产品质量优良.以伊朗VGO-1为原料,使用FC-50催化剂,在反应温度380℃、空速1.5h-1条件下,单程转化率为65.8%,中间馏分油选择性79.90%.在相同条件下,FC-50与FC-26催化剂相比,反应温度低3℃,中油选择性比FC-26催化剂高近2%.结果表明,FC-50催化剂的反应性能完全达到了实验室定型催化剂的水平.%To meet the increasing market demand for clean fuel and feedstock for chemical production, FRIPP has developed FC-50 hydrocracking catalysts for high middle distillates, which were prepared by impregnation and by using amorphous silica-alumina as the main carrier, a modified Y zeolite as the main acidic components, and W-Ni as hydrogenation component. The comparison evaluation test with a same type domestic advanced catalyst was carried out and commercial scale-up was performed. The evaluation results indicated that the FC-50 catalyst had a higher middle distillate selectivity, good reaction activity, good stability and excellent product quality. When VGO-1 from Iranian crude was used as the feed and FC-50 catalyst as the reaction catalyst, the single-pass conversion was 65. 8% and middle distillate selectivity was 79.90% at operating conditions of 380 ℃ reaction temperature and 1.5 h-1 space velocity. Under the same conditions, as compared with the FC-26 catalyst, the reaction temperature of FC-50 catalyst was 3 ℃ lower and

  1. ALKALI RESISTANT CATALYST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention concerns the selective removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from gasses. In particular, the invention concerns a process, a catalyst and the use of a catalyst for the selective removal of nitrogen oxides in the presence of ammonia from gases containing a significant amount...... of alkali metal and/or alkali-earth compounds which process comprises using a catalyst combined of (i) a formed porous superacidic support, said superacidic support having an Hammett acidity stronger than Ho=-12, and (ii) a metal oxide catalytic component deposited on said superacidic support selected from...

  2. A further step toward H2 in automobile : development of an efficient bi-functional catalyst for single stage water gas shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzam, Khalid Ghazi

    2008-01-01

    The suitability of polymer electrolyte fuel (PEM) cells for stationary and vehicular applications initiated research in all areas of fuel processor (i.e. reformer, water-gas-shift, preferential oxidation of CO (PROX)) catalysts for hydrogen generation. Water gas shift (WGS) reaction is an essential

  3. Ceria-based catalysts for soot oxidation:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爽; 吴晓东; 翁端; 冉锐

    2015-01-01

    Developments in ceria-based soot oxidation catalysts, especially during the last decade, are reviewed. Based on the com-parisons of the activity, durability and cost-efficiency of different soot oxidation catalysts, four kinds of applicable ceria-based cata-lysts have been screened out, which are: (1) CexZr1–xO2 catalyst with high cerium content (x>0.76), (2) rare-earth metals (especially Pr) modified ceria, (3) transition metals (especially Mn and Cu) modified ceria, and (4) Ag/CeO2. Moreover, a general review of recent developments on the morphology-controlled ceria-based catalysts, as well as that on the soot oxidation mechanisms over different ceria-based catalysts, is also presented.

  4. Direct comparison of the performance of a bio-inspired synthetic nickel catalyst and a [NiFe]-hydrogenase, both covalently attached to electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Maciá, Patricia; Dutta, Arnab; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Shaw, Wendy J; Rüdiger, Olaf

    2015-10-12

    The active site of hydrogenases has been a source of inspiration for the development of molecular catalysts. However, direct comparisons between molecular catalysts and enzymes have not been possible because different techniques are used to evaluate both types of catalysts, minimizing our ability to determine how far we have come in mimicking the enzymatic performance. The catalytic properties of the [Ni(P(Cy) 2 N(Gly) 2 )2 ](2+) complex with the [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris immobilized on a functionalized electrode were compared under identical conditions. At pH 7, the enzyme shows higher activity and lower overpotential with better stability, while at low pH, the molecular catalyst outperforms the enzyme in all respects. This is the first direct comparison of enzymes and molecular complexes, enabling a unique understanding of the benefits and detriments of both systems, and advancing our understanding of the utilization of these bio-inspired complexes in fuel cells. PMID:26140506

  5. Design and Synthesis of Ruthenium based Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Singstad, Åsmund

    2010-01-01

    The present Master thesis seeks to develop new unsymmetrical ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts and therein a better understanding of olefin metathesis catalysis with unsymmetrical active complexes. Such catalysts have a potential for chemoselectivity and in best case, stereoselectivity. Two different classes of catalysts, coordinated by a hemilabile amine ligand and by a novel N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand respectively, have been investigated. Two new amine-based olefin metath...

  6. Phosphine-Based Z‑Selective Ruthenium Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Wietse; Koudriavtsev, Vitali; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Törnroos, Karl Wilhelm; Jensen, Vidar Remi

    2016-01-01

    Whereas a number of highly Z-selective ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands have been reported in recent years, Zselectivity has so far been difficult to achieve for phosphinebased catalysts. Guided by predictive density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have developed phosphine-based ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts giving 70−95% of the Zisomer product in homocoupling of terminal alkenes such as allylbenzene, 1...

  7. Solid Catalysts and theirs Application in Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ramli Mat; Rubyatul Adawiyah Samsudin; Mahadhir Mohamed; Anwar Johari

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of oil resources and increasing petroleum price has led to the search for alternative fuel from renewable resources such as biodiesel. Currently biodiesel is produced from vegetable oil using liquid catalysts. Replacement of liquid catalysts with solid catalysts would greatly solve the problems associated with expensive separation methods and corrosion problems, yielding to a cleaner product and greatly decreasing the cost of biodiesel production. In this paper, the development ...

  8. Nanoscale intimacy in bifunctional catalysts for selective conversion of hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Zecevic, Jovana; Vanbutsele, Gina; de Jong, Krijn P.; Martens, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to precisely control nanoscale features is increasingly exploited to develop and improve monofunctional catalysts1–4. Striking effects might also be expected in the case of bifunctional catalysts, which play an important role in hydrocracking of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon sources to provide high-quality diesel fuel5–7. Such bifunctional hydrocracking catalysts contain metal sites and acid sites, and for more than 50 years the so-called ‘intimacy criterion’8 has dictated the ...

  9. Methane dehydroaromatisation and methanol activation over zeolite catalysts: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    J.S.J. Hargreaves

    2016-01-01

    A brief overview of methane dehydroaromatisation over MoO3/H-ZSM-5 derived catalysts, the deposition of carbonaceous residues from methanol over H-mordenite and the role of binders in zeolite catalysed reactions is presented. The selective poisoning of methane cracking catalysts is proposed as a potential strategy for the development of methane dehydroaromatisation catalysts. In the case of methanol conversion over H-mordenite, evidence is presented for the formation of larger alkylated aroma...

  10. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Sopchak, David A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Satcher, Joseph H. (Patterson, CA); Gash, Alex E. (Brentwood, CA)

    2011-11-15

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  11. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Sopchak, David A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Reynolds, John G.; Satcher, Joseph H.; Gash, Alex E.

    2010-06-29

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  12. Epoxidation catalyst and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip

    2010-10-26

    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  13. Exploration of Nanotube Structure Selectivity Using Bimetallic Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferle, Lisa

    2007-10-01

    Achieving selectivity for nanotube chirality is one of the holy grails for single-walled carbon nanotube research. One approach we are following is based on the ability to engineer the size and state of the initiating metal particle to constrain the type of cap formed. The chirality/structure of a nanotube is controlled by carbon cap formation on the metal particle during the nucleation step. It has been proposed that varying the carbon-metal catalyst binding energy could help lead to structure selectivity. One reason theoretically proposed for the favoring of armchair nanotubes, for example, is the proximity of low energy binding locations for two carbon atoms. Thus blocking sites or perturbing the binding energy on adjacent sites could in theory affect the structure of the carbon cap formed in the nucleation step. Our goal is to demonstrate structure selectivity in the growth of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) using a bimetallic catalyst. The catalyst used was a bimetallic CoCr-MCM 41 and the effect of different molecular ratios between the two metals on the SWNT diameter distribution was studied. We have found that by adding Cr to the Co-MCM 41 monometallic catalyst the diameter distribution shifted in a systematic manner correlated to the development of a bimetallic phase as characterized by X-Ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). We have also found that the shift is accompanied by suppression of metallic SWNT, particularly those with diameter over 0.9 nm. We are also currently exploring the possibility of a further narrowing of the distribution by lowering the reaction temperatures.

  14. STUDIES ON HYDROISOMERIZATION CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    C5/C6 alkane hydroisomerization is one of the most economical technologies for octane enhancement and has potential application in China in the next decade. The work about choice of hydroisomerization catalyst systems and scale-up in catalyst preparation was presented. Performance and regeneration behaviors tested in different laboratory reactors and a 1000 t/a pilot plant were discussed, which offers the information for commercial use of this process. Mechanism for coke formation was also proposed.

  15. New Catalysts for ROMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Berke; C. Frech; A. Lhamazares; O. Blacque; H.W. Schmalle; C. Adlhart; P. Chen

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) is based on the olefin metathesis reaction, which requires transition metal catalysts. Mainly molybdenum, tungsten and ruthenium based catalysts have up to now been used. The "in-between" metal rhenium was only rarely applied in olefin metathesis reactions, and not at all in ROMP processes.We have found that cationic phosphine substituted dinitrosyl rhenium complexes[1]1a and 1b effectively catalyze ROMP of norbonene, dicyclopentadiene and of cyclooctene. See Fig. 1.

  16. 乌巢型保护剂的研制及其在加氢裂化装置的应用%DEVELOPMENT OF NEST FORM GUARD CATALYST AND ITS APPLICATION IN HYDROCRACKING UNIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仲义; 彭冲; 姚光纯; 杨久平

    2015-01-01

    针对目前国内炼油企业所加工的原料日益劣质化、重质化的问题,开发了鸟巢型加氢系列保护剂,并成功应用于加氢裂化装置。应用结果表明,对加工杂质含量高的蜡油原料,鸟巢型保护剂具有容垢和拦截杂质能力强的特点,可以实现杂质在保护剂床层上的均匀沉积,达到延长运转周期的目的,可为国内其它同类装置平稳生产提供经验与参考依据。%A series of nest form hydrogenation guard catalysts were developed as the feedstocks be-come worse and heavier in refineries and successfully applied in a commercial hydrocracking unit. The results show that the guard catalysts are characterized by larger capacity for intercepting impurity and depositing scale. The impurities are deposited uniformly in the guard catalyst bed,resulting in extended cycle length.

  17. Possible implication of ground radiation in the development of Khari disease in lactating buffaloes in the far western Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khari disease, a chronic debilitating disease of lactating buffaloes that has been reported since last 2 decades from the far western Nepal is characterized by hoof and skeleton deformities and appearance of chalky powder in the hooves. The word 'Khari' has been coined locally for chalky powder and this disease is prevalent in the stall-fed animals during the winter. Khari affected areas of Darchula and Baitadi Districts were visited by a team of a senior veterinary and radiation experts in coordination with the District Livestock Service Office. Using a portable Dosimeter (RGD 27091), ground radiation dose rates at Khari hit areas were measured. Ground radiations in these two districts were found to be higher (maximum of 15.0 μSv/hr) than other parts of the country (0.3-0.5 μSv/hr). Indoor radiation in the buffalo shed was also found to be higher than outside the shed. This finding may be suggestive of why Khari affected buffalo reportedly showed improvement after allowing her for outdoor grazing rather than keeping indoors, which might be due to lesser amount of radiation in the open grazing environment. More detailed study with respect to Khari disease and its possible linkage with ground radiation is warranted to fully elucidate the implication of radiation in the development of Khari disease in milking buffaloes and in other mammalian species including human. Efforts were made to assess the level of Selenium in the soil, forages and water samples in Khari affected areas besides analyzing its level in sera and chalky powder from the affected animals. Due to lacks of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and good laboratory backups, no consistent level of Selenium could be measured even at a private facility during different time points. Some of the hay samples showing higher levels of selenium at a private laboratory in Kathmandu (test done in July 2007) were ground into powders to get permit from USDA, and were then analyzed at the Veterinary Toxicology

  18. CHARACTERISTICS OF RURAL AREAS IN SLOVENIA: ADVANTAGES, WEAKNESSES AND POSSIBILITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF PRESENT SITUATION FROM VIEWPOINT OF SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Perpar

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article an analysis of the situation in the Slovene Rural Areas are presented. The comparative analysis, based on typology of rural areas in Slovenia made by The Institute of Agricultural Economics on Biotechnical Faculty, shows that the Slovene countryside is not homogeneous. Present situation and the possibilities of development and the attraction of individual rural areas depend on the demographic situation, on the level of economic and social development, on natural conditions etc. Present situation is analysed from the viewpoint of sustainable rural development: advantages, weaknesses and some possibilities for improvement are presented.

  19. Ecotourism development in Romania - a possible contribution to the fulfilment of the real convergence criteria for Euro adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.- N. Candrea

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism is a chance to diversify the Romanian tourism industry while protecting the environment and benefiting local communities. The present paper focuses on ecotourism as a possible contribution the fulfilment of the real convergence criteria for euro adoption in Romania by stimulating the economic growth of rural communities. The main benefits that ecotourism brings to rural communities are highlighted as well as the main initiatives of national organisations aimed at stimulating the local economy in different ecotourism destinations.

  20. Long term time variability of cosmic rays and possible relevance to the development of life on Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Erlykin, A D

    2010-01-01

    An analysis is made of the manner in which the cosmic ray intensity at Earth has varied over its existence and its possible relevance to both the origin and the evolution of life. Much of the analysis relates to the 'high energy' cosmic rays ($E>10^{14}eV;=0.1PeV$) and their variability due to the changing proximity of the solar system to supernova remnants which are generally believed to be responsible for most cosmic rays up to PeV energies. It is pointed out that, on a statistical basis, there will have been considerable variations in the likely 100 My between the Earth's biosphere reaching reasonable stability and the onset of very elementary life. Interestingly, there is the increasingly strong possibility that PeV cosmic rays are responsible for the initiation of terrestrial lightning strokes and the possibility arises of considerable increases in the frequency of lightnings and thereby the formation of some of the complex molecules which are the 'building blocks of life'. Attention is also given to the...

  1. Renewable Feedstocks: The Problem of Catalyst Deactivation and its Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Jean-Paul

    2015-11-01

    Much research has been carried out in the last decade to convert bio-based feedstock into fuels and chemicals. Most of the research focuses on developing active and selective catalysts, with much less attention devoted to their long-term stability. This Review considers the main challenges in long-term catalyst stability, discusses some fundamentals, and presents options for their mitigation. Three main challenges are discussed: catalyst fouling, catalyst poisoning, and catalyst destruction. Fouling is generally related to the deposition of insoluble components present in the feed or formed by degradation of the feed or intermediates. Poisoning is related to the deposition of electropositive contaminants (e.g. alkali and alkaline earth metals) on acid sites or of electronegative contaminants (e.g. N and S) at hydrogenation sites. Catalyst destruction results from the thermodynamic instability of most oxidic supports, solid acids/bases, and hydrogenation functions under hydrothermal conditions. PMID:26457585

  2. Development of robust Co-based catalysts for the selective H{sub 2}-production by ethanol steam-reforming. The Fe-promoter effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Pena O' Shea, Victor A.; Nafria, Raquel; Ramirez de la Piscina, Pilar; Homs, Narcis [Departament de Quimica Inorganica, Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    The effect of iron promoter on cobalt-based catalysts, active in the ethanol steam-reforming, was studied. Fe{sub x}Co{sub 3-x}O{sub 4}(0{<=} x{<=}0.60) oxides prepared by co-precipitation and an Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} prepared by wetness impregnation are analysed. The activation process of the oxides under reaction conditions was studied by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD); the activation depended on the iron content of the oxides. The systems were characterized by means of temperature programmed reduction (TPR), XRD and tested in the ethanol steam-reforming reaction at 623-673 K. An optimal iron loading that gives rise to a high H{sub 2}selectivity and catalyst stability was determined. (author)

  3. Application of Rare Earth Oxides in Diesel Exhaust Purification Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhaoliang; Yu Pengfei; Wang Shilong; Li Chunfeng; Dai Hua

    2004-01-01

    Diesel oxide catalysts and soot combustion catalysts were reported in this paper.The former was manufactured in mass last year, and enhanced performance is under development now.The later is screened out and further research is under way.The best soot combustion catalyst could ignite soot combustion even at 350 ℃, which is within the range of temperatures reached in diesel exhaust, and shows the catalytic combustion velocity nearly one time faster compared with non-catalytic combustion of soot, which is of benefit to rapid regeneration of diesel particulate filter, thus it might be an excellent practicable catalyst.

  4. First Commercial Application of Upflow Residuum Hydrotreating Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Haitao; Sun Zhenguang

    2004-01-01

    This article refers to the first commercial application of upflow residuum hydrotreating serial catalyst, developed by Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals (FRIPP), in the residuum hydrotreating unit at Shengli refinery of Qilu Petrochemical Company. This catalyst features large pore volume and large pore diameter. The production practice for more than one year has revealed that the domestic upflow residuum hydrotreating catalyst has shown good performance and stability over the whole period of operation despite its high activity at the start of run, and has basically reached the level of similar imported catalyst.

  5. Improving Stability of Gasoline by Using Ionic Liquid Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zhirong; Liu Daosheng; Liao Kejian; Jian Heng

    2003-01-01

    The composition, characteristics and preparation of ionic liquids are presented. The factors influencing the stability of gasoline and the significance of improving gasoline stability are discussed. A novel way to improve the stability of gasoline by using ionic liquid catalyst is developed. The contents of olefin, basic nitrogen and sulfur in gasoline are determined and the optimal experimental conditions for improving gasoline stability are established.The ionic liquid catalyst, which is environmentally friendly, can reduce the olefin content in gasoline, and such process is noted for mild reaction conditions, simple operation, short reaction time, easy recycling of the ionic liquid catalyst and ready separation of products and catalyst.

  6. 直接甲烷SOFC阳极催化剂研究进展%Review of anode catalyst development of direct methane SOFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由宏新; 刘瑞瑞; 刘瑞杰; 阿布理提·阿布都拉

    2011-01-01

    For the problem of carbon deposits on the anode of sclid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with methane as the direct fuel. the recent progress of the anode catalyst was summarized, and the properties of the Ni, Ce, Cu-based modified bi-metallic solid solution anode catalyst, perovskite-type oxide anode with MIEC mixture of ionic and electronic conductivty), and other complex oxiade catalyst was reviewed. The prospect of the anode of direct methane SOFC was also put forward.%针对直接甲烷为固体氧化物燃料电池燃料时,阳极催化剂的抗积碳性,总结了近年来阳极催化剂的研究进展,对Ni、Ce、Cu基催化剂改性的双金属固熔体阳极,混合了离子和电子导电的钙钛矿型氧化物阳极以及其它复合氧化物催化剂性能进行评述,分析得出了今后直接甲烷燃料SOFC阳极的发展方向.

  7. New catalysts for exhaust gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, M. [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Major challenge for future catalyst systems was to develop thermally more stable washcoats for close coupled operating conditions and for engines operating under high speed and load conditions. To design these future emission systems extensive research and development was undertaken to develop methods to disperse and stabilize the key catalytic materials for operation at much higher temperatures. Second priority was to design catalysts that are more effective under low temperature exhaust conditions and have improved oxygen storage properties in the washcoats. Incorporating new materials and modified preparation technology a new generation of metallic catalyst formulations emerged, those being trimetallic K6 (Pt:Pd:Rh and bimetallic K7) (Pd+Pd:Rh). The target was to combine the best property of Pt:Rh (good NO{sub x} reduction) with that of the good HC oxidation activity of Pd and to ensure that precious metal/support interactions were positively maintained. Both K6 and K7 concepts contain special catalyst structures with optimized washcoat performance which can be brick converter configuration. Improvement in light-off, thermal stability and transient performance with these new catalyst formulations have clearly been shown in both laboratory and vehicle testing. (author) (20 refs.)

  8. Long Term Time Variability of Cosmic Rays and Possible Relevance to the Development of Life on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlykin, A. D.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2010-07-01

    An analysis is made of the manner in which the cosmic ray intensity at Earth has varied over its existence and its possible relevance to both the origin and the evolution of life. Much of the analysis relates to the `high energy’ cosmic rays ( E > 1014 eV; =0.1 PeV) and their variability due to the changing proximity of the solar system to supernova remnants which are generally believed to be responsible for most cosmic rays up to PeV energies. It is pointed out that, on a statistical basis, there will have been considerable variations in the likely 100 My between the Earth’s biosphere reaching reasonable stability and the onset of very elementary life. Interestingly, there is the increasingly strong possibility that PeV cosmic rays are responsible for the initiation of terrestrial lightning strokes and the possibility arises of considerable increases in the frequency of lightnings and thereby the formation of some of the complex molecules which are the `building blocks of life’. Attention is also given to the well known generation of the oxides of nitrogen by lightning strokes which are poisonous to animal life but helpful to plant growth; here, too, the violent swings of cosmic ray intensities may have had relevance to evolutionary changes. A particular variant of the cosmic ray acceleration model, put forward by us, predicts an increase in lightning rate in the past and this has been sought in Korean historical records. Finally, the time dependence of the overall cosmic ray intensity, which manifests itself mainly at sub-10 GeV energies, has been examined. The relevance of cosmic rays to the `global electrical circuit’ points to the importance of this concept.

  9. A patient with possible TRALI who developed pulmonary hypertensive crisis and acute pulmonary edema during cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Taiki; Nishisako, Ryo; Sato, Hideo

    2012-06-01

    There are very few case reports of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) under close hemodynamic monitoring. We encountered a case of possible TRALI during on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A 66-year-old man who had undergone on-pump CABG was administered fresh frozen plasma (FFP). One hour after FFP transfusion, pulmonary hypertensive crisis and subsequent hypoxic decompensation occurred. A second cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was needed for circulatory and respiratory deterioration. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS), intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP), and nitric oxide therapy were required after the surgery. Despite the severity of the initial state, his recovery was comparatively smooth. ECLS and IABP were removed on postoperative day (POD)1; the patient was extubated and discharged from the ICU on POD7 and POD12, respectively. The diagnosis of TRALI was confirmed by human leukocyte antigen antibody detection in the administered FFP. In addition, lymphocytic immunofluorescence test showed that a cross-match of the plasma from the pooled FFP against the recipient leukocytes was positive. The clinical course of the pulmonary artery hypertension was followed by a decrease in dynamic lung compliance. The mechanism of this phenomenon is unclear. However, it might suggest the possibility of vasoconstriction or obstruction of the peripheral pulmonary artery preceding lung damage, as in the case in animal models reported previously.

  10. Final Report - Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection during Transient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasoski, Radoslav; van der Vliet, Dennis; Cullen, David; Atanasoska, Ljiljana

    2015-01-26

    The objective of this project was to develop catalysts that will enable proton exchange membranes (PEM) fuel cell systems to weather the damaging conditions in the fuel cell at voltages beyond the thermodynamic stability of water during the transient periods of start-up/shut-down and fuel starvation. Such catalysts are required to make it possible for the fuel cell to satisfy the 2015 DOE targets for performance and durability. The project addressed a key issue of importance for successful transition of PEM fuel cell technology from development to pre-commercial phase. This issue is the failure of the catalyst and the other thermodynamically unstable membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components during start-up/shut-down and local fuel starvation at the anode, commonly referred to as transient conditions. During these periods the electrodes can reach potentials higher than the usual 1.23V upper limit during normal operation. The most logical way to minimize the damage from such transient events is to minimize the potential seen by the electrodes. At lower positive potentials, increased stability of the catalysts themselves and reduced degradation of the other MEA components is expected.

  11. FC-40高中油型加氢裂化催化剂的研制及工业应用%Development and Commercial Application of FC-40 Hydrocracking Catalyst With High Middle Distillates Selectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓萍; 杜艳泽; 金晓东

    2013-01-01

      To meet the increasing demand of middle distillates in domestic market, FRIPP has developed a new generation of FC-40 hydrocracking catalyst with high middle distillates selectivity. In FC-40 catalyst, HSSY zeolite modified through composite technology is used as the main cracking component, nanometer amorphous silica-alumina is applied as the auxiliary cracking component, W and Ni are adopted as the hydrogenation active component, and the optimizing manufacturing method is used to realize the matching of cracking active site and hydrogenation active site, all of which has improved the catalytic performances, such as reaction activity, selectivity and quality of products etc. The evaluation test results show that the catalyst FC-40 has higher reaction activity and middle distillates selectivity compared with the reference catalyst, as well as good temperature sensitivity and wide feedstock adaptability. FC-40 catalyst was successfully commercialized in 1.2 Mt/a hydrocracking unit of H refinery in 2008.%  应对国内市场对清洁中间馏分油需求的不断增长,FRIPP 开发了新一代多产优质中间馏分油的FC-40高中油型加氢裂化催化剂。该催化剂采用复合技术改性的HSSY分子筛作为催化剂的主要裂解组分,纳米级无定形硅铝为辅助裂化组分,金属W-Ni组合为加氢活性组分,通过制备方法上的优化,使得酸性裂化组分与金属加氢组分能很好的匹配,提高了催化剂的活性、中油选择性和产品质量。工艺研究结果表明,FC-40加氢裂化催化剂的活性和中间馏分油选择性均优于同类参比催化剂,同时具有很好的温度敏感性和原料油适应性。2008年,FC-40催化剂在H炼厂120万t/a加氢裂化装置上进行了成功的工业应用,取得了良好的应用效果。

  12. Deoxygenation of methanol with carbon monoxide over Fe/ZSM-5 catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahay, A.; Lemay, G.; Adnot, A.; Szoeghy, I.M.; Kaliaguine, S.

    1987-02-01

    Deoxygenation is a process of interest in the upgrading of various feedstocks including liquids derived from biomass. Wood liquefaction techniques, especially by pyrolytic processes, yield highly oxygenated products. Two catalytic routes have been proposed for deoxygenation of pyrolytic oils, namely, hydrotreatment with H/sub 2/ or CO + H/sub 2/ over HDS-type catalysts, and dehydration or decarboxylation over zeolite-type acid catalysts. It is proposed in this work to add to the zeolite catalyst a water-gas shift (WGS) function. Over such a bifunctional catalyst it is proposed to feed an oxygenate compound in a stream of carbon monoxide. In such a process, oxygen will be eliminated as CO/sub 2/ rather than H/sub 2/O, and if the WGS active catalyst possesses some hydrogenation properties under the operating conditions, the molecular hydrogen generated by WGS may be reincorporated into the growing hydrocarbon chains. The zeolite component selected is ZSM-5 due to its shape-selectivity properties for the formation of gasoline-range hydrocarbons and its resistance toward coke building. Iron oxide has been chosen as the second component of this dual function catalyst. Another important aspect of this study is the development of a new method for the deposition of iron on ZSM-5. The authors propose to employ ferrocene, which has smaller dimensions than the pore diameter of ZSM-5. Moreover, this type of compound also offers the possibility of controlling the location of iron on the support. A bulky radical, like the dibenzoyl radical, can be added effectively as a substituent on the cyclopentadienyl rings. The large size of this new complex would prevent the diffusion of the organometallic compound into the pores, and consequently, it would allow fixing the iron on only the external surface of the ZSM-5 grains. 37 references.

  13. Supported organometallic catalysts for hydrogenation and Olefin Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Tobin J.; Ahn, Hongsang

    2001-01-01

    Novel heterogeneous catalysts for the which hydrogenation of olefins and arenes with high conversion rates under ambient conditions and the polymerization of olefins have been developed. The catalysts are synthesized from Ziegler-type precatalysts by supporting them on sulfate-modified zirconia.

  14. Nanoscale intimacy in bifunctional catalysts for selective conversion of hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zecevic, Jovana; Vanbutsele, Gina; de Jong, Krijn P.; Martens, Johan A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control nanoscale features precisely is increasingly being exploited to develop and improve monofunctional catalysts(1-4). Striking effects might also be expected in the case of bifunctional catalysts, which are important in the hydrocracking of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon source

  15. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O' Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  16. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-08-01

    In an effort to develop new disposable catalysts for direct coal liquefaction, several types of clay-supported pyrrhotite catalysts were prepared and tested. These included iron-pillared montmorillonite, mixed iron/alumina-pillared montmorillonite, iron-impregnated montmorillonite, and iron oxometallate-impregnated montmorillonite.

  17. Supported organoiridium catalysts for alkane dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R. Thomas; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Li, Hongbo

    2013-09-03

    Solid supported organoiridium catalysts, a process for preparing such solid supported organoiridium catalysts, and the use of such solid supported organoiridium catalysts in dehydrogenation reactions of alkanes is provided. The catalysts can be easily recovered and recycled.

  18. Deactivation-resistant catalyst for selective catalyst reduction of NOx

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Anker Degn; Castellino, Francesco; Rams, Per Donskov; Pedersen, Jannik Blaabjerg; Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NOx in alkali metal containing flue gas using ammonia as reductant, the catalyst comprising a surface with catalytically active sites, wherein the surface is at least partly coated with a coating comprising at least one metal oxide. In another aspect the present invention relates to the use of said catalyst and to a method of producing said catalyst. In addition, the present invention relates to a method of treat...

  19. Two Catalysts for Selective Oxidation of Contaminant Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Two catalysts for the selective oxidation of trace amounts of contaminant gases in air have been developed for use aboard the International Space Station. These catalysts might also be useful for reducing concentrations of fumes in terrestrial industrial facilities especially facilities that use halocarbons as solvents, refrigerant liquids, and foaming agents, as well as facilities that generate or utilize ammonia. The first catalyst is of the supported-precious-metal type. This catalyst is highly active for the oxidation of halocarbons, hydrocarbons, and oxygenates at low concentrations in air. This catalyst is more active for the oxidation of hydrocarbons and halocarbons than are competing catalysts developed in recent years. This catalyst completely converts these airborne contaminant gases to carbon dioxide, water, and mineral acids that can be easily removed from the air, and does not make any chlorine gas in the process. The catalyst is thermally stable and is not poisoned by chlorine or fluorine atoms produced on its surface during the destruction of a halocarbon. In addition, the catalyst can selectively oxidize ammonia to nitrogen at a temperature between 200 and 260 C, without making nitrogen oxides, which are toxic. The temperature of 260 C is higher than the operational temperature of any other precious-metal catalyst that can selectively oxidize ammonia. The purpose of the platinum in this catalyst is to oxidize hydrocarbons and to ensure that the oxidation of halocarbons goes to completion. However, the platinum exhibits little or no activity for initiating the destruction of halocarbons. Instead, the attack on the halocarbons is initiated by the support. The support also provides a high surface area for exposure of the platinum. Moreover, the support resists deactivation or destruction by halogens released during the destruction of halocarbons. The second catalyst is of the supported- metal-oxide type. This catalyst can selectively oxidize ammonia to

  20. Discovery of Novel NOx Catalysts for CIDI Applications by High-throughput Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blint, Richard J. [General Motors Corporation, Warren, MI (United States)

    2007-12-31

    DOE project DE-PS26-00NT40758 has developed very active, lean exhaust, NOx reduction catalysts that have been tested on the discovery system, laboratory reactors and engine dynamometer systems. The goal of this project is the development of effective, affordable NOx reduction catalysts for lean combustion engines in the US light duty vehicle market which can meet Tier II emission standards with hydrocarbons based reductants for reducing NOx. General Motors (prime contractor) along with subcontractors BASF (Engelhard) (a catalytic converter developer) and ACCELRYS (an informatics supplier) carried out this project which began in August of 2002. BASF (Engelhard) has run over 16,000 tests of 6100 possible catalytic materials on a high throughput discovery system suitable for automotive catalytic materials. Accelrys developed a new database informatics system which allowed material tracking and data mining. A program catalyst was identified and evaluated at all levels of the program. Dynamometer evaluations of the program catalyst both with and without additives show 92% NOx conversions on the HWFET, 76% on the US06, 60% on the cold FTP and 65% on the Set 13 heavy duty test using diesel fuel. Conversions of over 92% on the heavy duty FTP using ethanol as a second fluid reductant have been measured. These can be competitive with both of the alternative lean NOx reduction technologies presently in the market. Conversions of about 80% were measured on the EUDC for lean gasoline applications without using active dosing to adjust the C:N ratio for optimum NOx reduction at all points in the certification cycle. A feasibility analysis has been completed and demonstrates the advantages and disadvantages of the technology using these materials compared with other potential technologies. The teaming agreements among the partners contain no obstacles to commercialization of new technologies to any potential catalyst customers.

  1. Possible Pathways for Increasing Natural Gas Use for Transportation (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigler, B.

    2014-10-01

    A collaborative partnership of DOE National Laboratories is working with DOE to identify critical RD&D needs to significantly increase the speed and breadth of NG uptake into the transportation sector. Drivers for increased utilization of natural gas for transportation are discussed. Key needs in research, development, and deployment are proposed, as well as possible pathways to address those needs. This presentation is intended to serve as a catalyst to solicit input from stakeholders regarding what technical areas they deem the most important.

  2. Influence of trace substances on methanation catalysts used in dynamic biogas upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiaze Augustine; Born, Jens; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Rooney, David

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the possible deactivation effects of biogas trace ammonia concentrations on methanation catalysts. It was found that small amounts of ammonia led to a slight decrease in the catalyst activity. A decrease in the catalyst deactivation by carbon formation was also observed, with ammonia absorbed on the active catalyst sites. This was via a suppression of the carbon formation and deposition on the catalyst, since it requires a higher number of active sites than for the methanation of carbon oxides. From the paper findings, no special pretreatment for ammonia removal from the biogas fed to a methanation process is required. PMID:25316193

  3. Influence of trace substances on methanation catalysts used in dynamic biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Born, Jens;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the possible deactivation effects of biogas trace ammonia concentrations on methanation catalysts. It was found that small amounts of ammonia led to a slight decrease in the catalyst activity. A decrease in the catalyst deactivation by carbon formation was also...... observed, with ammonia absorbed on the active catalyst sites. This was via a suppression of the carbon formation and deposition on the catalyst, since it requires a higher number of active sites than for the methanation of carbon oxides. From the paper findings, no special pretreatment for ammonia removal...... from the biogas fed to a methanation process is required....

  4. A HYDROGEN BONDING ASSISTED CATALYST SCREENED OUT VIA COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY STRATEGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUMancai; OUZhize; 等

    2000-01-01

    Possibilities for enhancement of catalytic reaction rate by combining phase transfer catalysis and hydrogen bonding of the catalyst with the substrate and reagent were studied.A phase transfer catalyst library with sixty polystyrene-supported quaternary ammonium salt catalysts was synthesized.The reduction of acetophenone by NaBH4 was used as the probing reaction to select out the ost active catalyst in the library by using iterative method.which was the gel-type triethanolamine aminsating strongly asic anion exchange resin with the crosslinking degeree of 2% A hydrogen bonding assisted catalytic mechanism was proposed to explain the high catalytic activity of the catalyst.

  5. Host response to Foot- and Mouth Disease infection in cattle; possible implications for the development of “carriers”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten;

    FMD is a viral disease with severe implications for agricultural trade in affected countries. Any cloven hoofed animal species may become infected, and ruminants, especially cattle and buffalo, may develop into “carriers” persistently shedding low amounts of virus for several years after exposure...... to the disease. The FMDV infection is defined as persistent when live virus can be detected for more than 28 days post infection. FMD infection in ruminants involves initial viral replication in pharyngeal epithelia, from where the virus spreads systemically. Characteristic vesicular lesions develop...... of FMDV infection in cattle has been performed. During these experiments, bull calves of 4-5 months of age were infected with FMDV O UKG 34/2001, and disease development was monitored for 32 days. Disease progression was monitored through observation of clinical signs, and analysis of serum...

  6. Thermodynamic Properties of Supported Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorte, Raymond J.

    2014-03-26

    The goals of this work were to develop Coulometric Titration as a method for characterizing the thermodynamic redox properties of oxides and to apply this technique to the characterization of ceria- and vanadia-based catalysts. The redox properties of ceria and vanadia are a major part of what makes these materials catalytically active but their properties are also dependent on their structure and the presence of other oxides. Quantifying these properties through the measurement of oxidation energetics was the goal of this work.

  7. Room for action? How service managers in three Scandinavian cities experience their possibilities to develop their services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Næss Ole

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND - The study is based on the ongoing public debate concerning a limited scope for local service development in alcohol and drug treatment-related services - and that the main cause of local “paralysis” is to be found in health policy micromanagement of these services. It is argued that business management models place too much emphasis on financial control and performance measurement and that this leads to less interest in quality improvement in the provision of services. DESIGN - 23 interviews with service managers in three Nordic urban municipalities, Stavanger, Umeå and Aarhus. RESULTS - The article documents comprehensive local service development, demonstrating that the main conditions for innovation are management commitment and interdisciplinary co-operation in the practice field. CONCLUSIONS - In all three municipalities the services develop in a hybrid innovation model that combines New Public Management-inspired solutions with technical co-operation in horizontal networks. Results show that NPM-inspired solutions to alcohol and drug treatment services do not necessarily hinder the consideration of local professionalism and flexibility in the development.

  8. Hybrid-breeding of medicinally used valerian (Valeriana officinalis L. s.l.. A possible concept developing new varieties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penzkofer, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop and verify a new concept for breeding new hybrid-varieties of valerian without a male sterility system. For this the cross-pollination rate and the performance of inbreeded plants must be determined.

  9. Influence of farm resource endowment on possibilities for sustainable development: a case study for vegetable farms in South Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogliotti, S.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2006-01-01

    In different parts of the world, there is an urgent need for redesigning and innovating farming systems. Such a process may be supported by model-based explorations that enable ex-ante evaluation of a broad range of alternatives. Since a variety of viable patterns of farm development exists related

  10. The importance of clinical mistletoe cancer therapy and korean mistletoe pharmacopuncture preparation development and application possibility for oriental medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-Byung Choi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Mistletoe extracts have been in use for around 85 years, predominantly in the area of cancer therapy. Today mistletoe preparations are among the most prescribed drugs in cancer medicine, thus constituting a standard biological therapy in the area of oncology. The purpose of this study is to analyze the practical implications of mistletoe cancer therapy, their clinical status, their preparation techniques and companies. Contents : Mistletoe therapy for cancer has been developed within the context of anthroposophical medicine. One major effect of mistletoe extract is that it stimulates the immune system and cancer defences. In Germany, a total of eight different mistletoe preparations are available, five developed by Anthroposophic Medicine and three evolved from research in phytotherapy. Therapy always consists of an introductory phase in order to test the patient′s tolerance, find the right dosage and choose the most suitable preparation. This paper covers the background of mistletoe medical plant materials, mistletoe therapy for cancer, the anthroposophical medicine and clinical research, the practical regulation of treatment, preparation of mistletoe drugs. Result & suggestion : Mistletoe extracts are a complementary teratment of cancer, widely used in intergrative cancer care. The study of the integration of korean mistletoe extracts to oriental cancer medicine, its development and feasibility in Korea are urgently needed. The products, substances, compositions of european mistletoe drugs are very similar to those of oriental medicine theory. Applying the mistletoe cancer therapy and its preparation techniques to oriental medicine, the herbal acupuncture preparation should be modernized and korean mistletoe products are to be developed. To this end, government and herbal acupuncture society need to interact each other for the development of oriental mistletoe cancer medicine.

  11. Olefin metathesis catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukes, S.G.; Banks, R.L.

    1986-05-20

    A process is described for preparing a disproportionation catalyst comprising admixing a catalytically effective amount of a calcined and activated catalyst consisting essentially of at least one metal oxide selected from molybdenum oxide and tungsten oxide and a support containing a major proportion of silica or alumina with a promoting amount of a methylating agent selected from the group consisting of dimethyl sulfate, dimethylsulfoxide, trimethyloxonium tetrafluorborate, methyl iodide, and methyl bromide, and subjecting same to inert atmospheric conditions for the methylating agent to promote the activity of the calcined molybdenum and tungsten oxides for the disproportionation of olefins.

  12. Aerogel derived catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J. G., LLNL

    1996-12-11

    Aerogels area class of colloidal materials which have high surface areas and abundant mesoporous structure. SiO{sub 2} aerogels show unique physical, optical and structural properties. When catalytic metals are incorporated in the aerogel framework, the potential exists for new and very effective catalysts for industrial processes. Three applications of these metal-containing SiO{sub 2} aerogels as catalysts are briefly reviewed in this paper--NO{sub x} reduction, volatile organic compound destruction, and partial oxidation of methane.

  13. Dynamics of Catalyst Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Cavalca, Filippo; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    under gas exposure, dynamic phenomena such as sintering and growth can be observed with sub-Ångstrøm resolution. Metal nanoparticles contain the active sites in heterogeneous catalysts, which are important for many industrial applications including the production of clean fuels, chemicals...... and pharmaceuticals, and the cleanup of exhaust from automobiles and stationary power plants. Sintering, or thermal deactivation, is an important mechanism for the loss of catalyst activity. In order to initiate a systematic study of the dynamics and sintering of nanoparticles, various catalytic systems have been...

  14. Towards the Rational Design of Nanoparticle Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Priyabrat

    This research is focused on development of routes towards the rational design of nanoparticle catalysts. Primarily, it is focused on two main projects; (1) the use of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) as greener media for the design of quasi-homogeneous nanoparticle catalysts and (2) the rational design of heterogeneous-supported nanoparticle catalysts from structured nanoparticle precursors. Each project has different studies associated with the main objective of the design of nanoparticle catalysts. In the first project, imidazolium-based ionic liquids have been used for the synthesis of nanoparticle catalysts. In particular, studies on recyclability, reuse, mode-of-stability, and long-term stability of these ionic-liquid supported nanoparticle catalysts have been done; all of which are important factors in determining the overall "greenness" of such synthetic routes. Three papers have been published/submitted for this project. In the first publication, highly stable polymer-stabilized Au, Pd and bimetallic Au-Pd nanoparticle catalysts have been synthesized in imidazolium-based 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF6) ionic liquid (Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 2008, 286, 114). The resulting nanoparticles were found to be effective and selective quasi-homogeneous catalysts towards a wide-range of hydrogenation reactions and the catalyst solution was reused for further catalytic reactions with minimal loss in activity. The synthesis of very pure and clean ILs has allowed a platform to study the effects of impurities in the imidazolium ILs on nanoparticle stability. In a later study, a new mode of stabilization was postulated where the presence of low amounts of 1-methylimidazole has substantial effects on the resulting stability of Au and Pd-Au nanoparticles in these ILs (Chemical Communications, 2009, 812). In further continuation of this study, a comparative study involving four stabilization protocols for nanoparticle

  15. Au@Void@TiO2 yolk-shell nanostructures as catalysts for the promotion of oxidation reactions at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ilkeun; Joo, Ji Bong; Yin, Yadong; Zaera, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    A new gold-titania catalyst has been developed for cryogenic oxidations based on a yolk-shell nanoarchitecture. The synthesis of those structures involves the sequential deposition of a sacrificial silica layer and a titania shell around well-defined gold nanoparticles followed by removal of the silica via NaOH etching. The resulting catalyst contains an amorphous titania shell with sodium titanate and silicon impurities that proved critical for the cryogenic activity; removal of those via HCl treatment kills most of the catalytic conversion. Oxidation of carbon monoxide is possible with this Au@Void@TiO2 catalyst at temperatures as low as 120 K, by a mechanism different than the one operative at room temperature that involves a weakly-adsorbed CO species with a Csbnd O stretching frequency of 2162 cm- 1, possibly at Au-TiO2 interfacial sites.

  16. Pretense and Possibility--A Theoretical Proposal about the Effects of Pretend Play on Development: Comment on Lillard et al. (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Caren M.; Gopnik, Alison

    2013-01-01

    The review by Lillard et al. (2013) highlighted the need for additional research to better clarify the nature of the relationship between pretend play and development. However, the authors did not provide a proposal for how to structure the direction of this future work. Here, we provide a possible framework for generating additional research.…

  17. Host response to Foot- and Mouth Disease infection in cattle; possible implications for the development of “carriers”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a viral disease with severe financial implications for agricultural industries and the trade of animal products in affected countries. Any cloven hoofed animal species may become infected, and ruminants, especially cattle and buffalo, may develop into persistently...... infected “carriers” shedding low amounts of virus for several years after exposure to the disease. FMD in ruminants involves initial viral replication in pharyngeal epithelia, from where the virus spreads systemically. Mortality rates are low in adult animals but the morbidity is very high and the disease...... with FMDV O UKG 34/2001, and disease development was monitored for 35 days. Disease progression was monitored through observation of clinical signs and analysis of serum for the presence of viral genomes as well as FMDV-specific antibodies. Viral shedding was measured through qPCR of mouth swabs...

  18. Sexual Dimorphisms of Adrenal Steroids, Sex Hormones, and Immunological Biomarkers and Possible Risk Factors for Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Masi, Alfonse T.; Rehman, Azeem A; Jorgenson, Laura C.; Smith, Jennifer M; Aldag, Jean C

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity and immunological biomarkers are believed to be interrelated with sex hormones and other neuroendocrine factors. Sexual dimorphism mechanisms may be operating in certain rheumatic and inflammatory diseases which occur more frequently in women than men, as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Less data have been available on altered interrelations of the combined neuroendocrine and immune (NEI) systems as risk factors for development of certain diseases. In this study, serological interr...

  19. Activity and effects in tourist development in EU Possibility experiences for touristic policy in R. of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Temjanovski, Riste; Angelovski, Nikola

    2005-01-01

    Tourism is an activity which affects our society in many different ways and has a profound impact on our social, cultural and economic life. It relates to a wide range of areas, such as employment, regional development, education, environment, men's physical and mental states, new technology, culture etc. Therefore, tourism in EU is activity whish is strongly interacts with other activity such as transport, environment, regional planning, energy, trade and business, information technology etc...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROREFINING CATALYST FOR DISTILLATE FUEL OIL WITH HIGH NITROGEN CONTENT%高氮馏分油加氢精制催化剂的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石芳; 杨建国; 刘红光; 张国辉; 于海斌; 李佳; 赵训志; 张玉婷

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel hydrorefining catalysts of clover shape were prepared by an equivalent volume impregnation method of multi steps, using 7-AI2O3 containing SiO2 and/or TiO2 as composite oxide carrier and W-Mo-Ni as active metal components. The structure of the catalysts was characterized by means of XRF, BET, XRD, NH3-TPD, and their mechanical strength was measured. Evaluation of process conditions are as follows: reaction pressure 8 Mpa, reaction temperature 340 ℃, hydrogen to oil volume ratio of 600 : 1, volume space velocity of 1. 5 h-1 with a hydrogenation unit in 100 mL fixed-bed reactor. The experiment results showed that the catalysts have the excellent catalytic performance of hydrodesulphurization (HDS), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and the olefin hydrogenation (HYD) for the inferior distillate fuel oil with high nitrogen content, with W-Mo-Ni/SiO2-TiO2-A12O3 catalyst 98% HDS, 97% HDN and 98% HYD were achieved.%以含SiO2和/或TiO2的γ-A12O3为复合载体、以W-Mo-Ni为活性金属组分,采用分步等体积浸渍法制备了一系列三叶草形加氢精制催化剂.采用X荧光射线、N2吸附比表面积、X射线衍射、扫描电镜等对催化剂结构进行了表征.在反应压力8.0 MPa、反应温度340℃、氢油体积比600∶1、体积空速1.5h-1条件下,测定了催化剂的机械强度和表面酸性,采用100mL固定床加氢反应装置进行了催化剂性能评价.结果表明,所研制的催化剂对高氮劣质馏分油具有优异的加氢脱硫、脱氮及烯烃饱和性能,其中催化剂W-Mo-Ni/SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3的脱硫率可达到98%,脱氮率可达到97%和烯烃饱和率98%.

  1. CATALYSTS NHI Thermochemical Systems FY 2009 Year-End Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiscal Year 2009 work in the Catalysts project focused on advanced catalysts for the decomposition of sulfuric acid, a reaction common to both the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) cycle and the Hybrid Sulfur cycle. Prior years effort in this project has found that although platinum supported on titanium oxide will be an acceptable catalyst for sulfuric acid decomposition in the integrated laboratory scale (ILS) project, the material has short comings, including significant cost and high deactivation rates due to sintering and platinum evaporation. For pilot and larger scale systems, the catalyst stability needs to be improved significantly. In Fiscal Year 2008 it was found that at atmospheric pressure, deactivation rates of a 1 wt% platinum catalyst could be reduced by 300% by adding either 0.3 wt% iridium (Ir) or 0.3 wt% ruthenium (Ru) to the catalyst. In Fiscal Year 2009, work focused on examining the platinum group metal catalysts activity and stability at elevated pressures. In addition, simple and complex metal oxides are known to catalyze the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. These metal oxides could offer activities comparable to platinum but at significantly reduced cost. Thus a second focus for Fiscal Year 2009 was to explore metal oxide catalysts for the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. In Fiscal Year 2007 several commercial activated carbons had been identified for the HI decomposition reaction; a reaction specific to the S-I cycle. Those materials should be acceptable for the pilot scale project. The activated carbon catalysts have some disadvantages including low activity at the lower range of reactor operating temperature (350 to 400 C) and a propensity to generate carbon monoxide in the presence of water that could contaminate the hydrogen product, but due to limited funding, this area had low priority in Fiscal Year 2009. Fiscal Year 2009 catalyst work included five tasks: development, and testing of stabilized platinum based H2SO4 catalysts

  2. Gas chromatography: Possible application of advanced instrumentation developed for solar system exploration to space station cabin atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) technology was developed for flight experiments in solar system exploration. The GC is a powerful analytical technique with simple devices separating individual components from complex mixtures to make very sensitive quantitative and qualitative measurements. It monitors samples containing mixtures of fixed gases and volatile organic molecules. The GC was used on the Viking mission in support of life detection experiments and on the Pioneer Venus Large Probe to determine the composition of the venusian atmosphere. A flight GC is under development to study the progress and extent of STS astronaut denitrogenation prior to extravehicular activity. Advanced flight GC concepts and systems for future solar system exploration are also studied. Studies include miniature ionization detectors and associated control systems capable of detecting from ppb up to 100% concentration levels. Further miniaturization is investigated using photolithography and controlled chemical etching in silicon wafers. Novel concepts such as ion mobility drift spectroscopy and multiplex gas chromatography are also developed for future flight experiments. These powerful analytical concepts and associated hardware are ideal for the monitoring of cabin atmospheres containing potentially dangerous volatile compounds.

  3. Pathogenetics aspects of relationship mouth infectious diseases with development and progression atherosclerosis and possibility for their integrated prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Avdeeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the modern literature data about impact of various infectious agents on the development and progression of atherosclerotic disease. The data are demonstrated the role of various infectious diseases, including periodontal diseases, in the development of biological degradation and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. The article questions of organization of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease based on the screening assessment by stomatologist the oral sanitary status. Necessary to carry out sanitation of chronic infection foci of the mouth on the basis of existing children’s health centers. The children’s health centers have a set of dental equipment, with which can perform a screening diagnosis of dental caries, periodontal diseases, non-carious lesions, diseases of the mucous membranes, and conduct preventive oral sanitation. The duties of dental hygienists is teaching children of different age groups to the rules of oral care, demonstration of skills, brushing teeth, information about the importance of prevention of dental caries and periodontal disease, as it is not only important for the preservation of the teeth, but also may prevent the development of ardiovasculardisease adulthood.

  4. Mechanisms of oxygen reduction reactions for carbon alloy catalysts via first principles molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon alloy catalysts (CACs) are one of promising candidates for platinum-substitute cathode catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. We have investigated possible mechanisms of oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) for CACs via first-principles-based molecular dynamics simulations. In this contribution, we review possible ORRs at likely catalytic sites of CACs suggested from our simulations. (author)

  5. The possibility of aromorphosis in further development of closed human life support systems using genetically modified organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, Josef

    Creation of closed systems that would be able to support human life outside the biosphere for extended periods of time (CES) was started after humans went into outer space. The last fifty years have seen the construction of experimental variants of the CES in Russia, USA, and Japan. The "MELISSA" project of the European Space Agency is being prepared to be launched. Much success has been achieved in closing material loops in the CES. An obstacle to constructing a fully closed ecosystem is significant imbalance in material exchange between the producing components and the decomposing ones in the CES. The spectrum of metabolites released by humans does not fully correspond to the requirements of the main producer of the CES -plants. However, this imbalance can be corrected by rather simple physicochemical processes that can be used in the CES without unclosing the system. The major disagreement that prevents further improvement of human life support systems (LSS) is that the spectrum of products of photosynthesis in the CES does not correspond to human food requirements qual-itatively, quantitatively, or in terms of diversity. In the normal, physiologically sound, human diet, this discrepancy is resolved by adding animal products. However, there are technical, technological, and hygienic obstacles to including animals in the closed human life support systems, and if higher animals are considered, there are also ethical arguments. If between the photoautotrophic link, plants, and the heterotrophic link, the human, there were one more heterotrophic link, farm animals, the energy requirements of the system would be increased by nearly an order of magnitude, decreasing its efficiency and making it heavier and bulkier. Is there another way to close loops in human life support systems? In biology, such "findings" of evolution, which open up new perspectives and offer ample opportunities for possible adapta-tions, are termed aromorphoses (Schmalhausen, 1948). In further

  6. Possibilities of information infrastructure in evaluation of environmental pollution and water quality by implementing the solutions of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramutė Naujikienė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose – of the article is attached to the examination of information infrastructure for the assessment of water resource planning and water treatment activities, to provide data warehouse (DW analysis measuring environmental and water pollution and indicators for the evaluation based on the requirements of sustainable development.Methodology – the analysis is performed by revealing the factors affecting sustainable development decisions. The insights of scientists are demonstrated by assessing the situation of environmental pollution, the appropriate search parameters, which allow revealing environmental and water contamination by waste water. Secondary data analysis was performed in order to reveal surface water contamination assessment districts in Lithuania and the Baltic Sea region and to summarise the results.It is very important for business activities to implement methods and tools based on a sense of responsibility for environmental pollution through the use of methods for increasing corporate responsibility, supporting measures to promote stimulation resulting in emission reduction, and efficiency of techniques. The paper presents the results of surface water pollution obtained according to the monitoring data and benchmarking analysis in the districts of Lithuania and the Baltic Sea. It can be concluded that the economic factors of enterprise functioning on the occasion of pollution also impacts the pollution of the Baltic Sea.More and more attention in the sustainable development of the implementation process should be given to decreasing population and increasing responsibility of economic operators for measures of environmental management levels: strategic and tactical planning, operational control, evaluation of economic, social and ecological balance. The regulatory importance in determining the impact on the environment should also be kept in mind.The results – were based on the obtained wastewater monitoring and

  7. Sustainable utility of magnetically recyclable nano-catalysts in water: Applications in organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetically recyclable nano-catalysts and their use in aqueous media is a perfect combination for the development of greener sustainable methodologies in organic synthesis. It is well established that magnetically separable nano-catalysts avoid waste of catalysts or reagents and...

  8. Bifunctional catalysts for the direct production of liquid fuels from syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartipi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Design and development of catalyst formulations that maximize the direct production of liquid fuels by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), hydrocarbon cracking, and isomerization into one single catalyst particle (bifunctional FTS catalyst) have been investigated in this thesis. To achieve th

  9. Characterization of deactivated bio-oil hydrotreating catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huamin; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-18

    Deactivation of bio-oil hydrotreating catalysts remains a significant challenge because of the poor quality of pyrolysis bio-oil input for hydrotreating and understanding their deactivation mode is critical to developing improved catalysts and processes. In this research, we developed an understanding of the deactivation of two-step bio-oil hydrotreating catalysts (sulfided Ru/C and sulfided CoMo/C) through detailed characterization of the catalysts using various complimentary analytical techniques. Severe fouling of both catalysts by carbonaceous species was the major form of deactivation, which is consistent with the significant loss of surface area and pore volume of both deactivated catalysts and the significant increase of the bulk density. Further analysis of the carbonaceous species by thermogravimetric analysis and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the carbonaceous species was formed by condensation reaction of active species such as sugars and sugar derivatives (aldehydes and ketones) in bio-oil feedstock during bio-oil hydrotreating under the conditions and catalysts used. Microscopy results did not show metal sintering of the Ru/C catalyst. However, X-ray diffraction indicated a probable transformation of the highly-active CoMoS phase in the sulfided CoMo/C catalyst to Co8S9 and MoS2 phase with low activity. Loss of the active site by transport of inorganic elements from the bio-oil and the reactor construction material onto the catalyst surface also might be a cause of deactivation as indicated by elemental analysis of spent catalysts.

  10. Deactivation-resistant catalyst for selective catalyst reduction of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NOx in alkali metal containing flue gas using ammonia as reductant, the catalyst comprising a surface with catalytically active sites, wherein the surface is at least partly coated with a coating comprising at least...... one metal oxide. In another aspect the present invention relates to the use of said catalyst and to a method of producing said catalyst. In addition, the present invention relates to a method of treating an catalyst for conferring thereon an improved resistance to alkali poisoning....

  11. Research advances in the catalysts for the selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; ZHAO Zhen; XU Chunming

    2005-01-01

    Selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes is one of the most difficult processes in the catalysis researches of low alkanes. The development of selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein) is discussed. The latest progress of the catalysts, including bulk or supported metal oxide catalysts, highly dispersed and isolated active sites catalysts, and the photo-catalytic ethane oxidation catalysts, partial oxidation of ethane in the gas phase, and the proposed reaction pathways from ethane to aldehydes are involved.

  12. Bifunctional catalysts for the direct production of liquid fuels from syngas

    OpenAIRE

    Sartipi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Design and development of catalyst formulations that maximize the direct production of liquid fuels by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), hydrocarbon cracking, and isomerization into one single catalyst particle (bifunctional FTS catalyst) have been investigated in this thesis. To achieve this aim, a second functionality (other than FTS) has to be added to the catalyst formulation to break the limitation of a classical Anderson-Schulz-Flory (ASF) distribution of FTS products. Since up...

  13. CuCo2O4 nanoparticles on nitrogenated graphene as highly efficient oxygen evolution catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikkarolla, Santosh Kumar; Papakonstantinou, Pagona

    2015-05-01

    Highly active, durable and cost-effective electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction play a key role on developing energy-conversion technologies. Here, we report a composite material consisting of CuCo2O4 nanoparticles anchored on nitrogenated reduced graphene oxide (CuCo2O4/NrGO) as a highly efficient oxygen evolution electrocatalyst in both alkaline and neutral solutions for the first time. In 1 M KOH, 0.1 M KOH and 0.1 M PBS, CuCo2O4/NrGO catalyst exhibited a current density of 10 mA cm-2 at a small overpotential of 0.36 V, 0.41 V and 1.15 V respectively, which are better than those of RuO2 and IrO2 catalysts. The CuCo2O4/NrGO exhibited good stability under strong alkaline conditions. The enhanced OER performance of CuCo2O4/NrGO is attributed to the presence of Cu2+ ions at the octahedral sites, reduction in the size of the CuCo2O4 nanoparticles as measured by the TEM, enhancement of electrochemically active surface area (ECSA), and synergetic effect between CuCo2O4 nanoparticles and NrGO sheets. This cost effective and highly efficient catalyst can possibly replace the expensive catalysts such as RuO2 and IrO2.

  14. CO hydrogenation on a nickel catalyst. I. Kinetics and modeling of a low temperature sintering process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnelli, M.; Mirodatos, C. (Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, Villeurbanne (France)); Kolb, M. (Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, Villeurbanne (France) Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon (France))

    1994-07-01

    Sintering of a Ni/SiO[sub 2] catalyst was studied under methanation conditions. The loss of metallic surface, accounting for the catalyst deactivation, was shown to come from the migration of nickel subcarbonyl adspecies formed during the reaction. The catalyst, presenting initially a bimodal Ni particle size distribution, evolved towards a bimodal system consisting of small spherical and large faceted crystals, with a selective development of <111> planes after several hours under reaction conditions. The formation of a nickel carbide monolayer could interfere with the formation of the large particles, possibly by decreasing the concentration of the mobile subcarbonyl adspecies. The best description of the observed sintering process was provided by considering a model with two distinct species, evolving according to the Ostwald-ripening mechanism, and being coupled by mass transport through the mobile nickel subcarbonyl intermediates. Long-term simulations allowed for the prediction of the ultimate state of the catalyst, and solutions aimed at slowing down the loss of nickel surface was proposed. 24 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Studies of Heterogeneous Catalyst Selectivity and Stability for Biorefining Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brandon J.

    The conversion of raw resources into value-added end products has long underlain the importance of catalysts in economic and scientific development. In particular, the development of selective and stable heterogeneous catalysts is a challenge that continues to grow in importance as environmental, sociological, and economic concerns have motivated an interest in sustainability and the use of renewable raw materials. Within this context, biomass has been identified as the only realistic source of renewable carbon for the foreseeable future. The development of processes to utilize biomass feedstocks will require breakthroughs in fundamental understanding and practical solutions to the challenges related to selectivity and stability of the catalysts employed. Selectivity is addressed on multiple fronts. First, the selectivity for C-O bond scission reactions of a bifunctional, bimetallic RhRe/C catalyst is investigated. Using multiple techniques, the origin of Bronsted acidity in the catalyst and the role of pretreatment on the activity, selectivity, and stability are explored. In addition, reaction kinetics experiments and kinetic modeling are utilized to understand the role of chemical functional group (i.e. carboxylic acid versus formate ester) in determining the decarbonylation versus decarboxylation selectivity over a Pd/C catalyst. Finally, kinetic studies over Pd/C and Cu/gamma-Al2O3 were performed so that that may be paired with density functional theory calculations and microkinetic modeling to elucidate the elementary reaction mechanism, identify the active site, and provide a basis for future rational catalyst design. Next, the issue of catalyst stability, important in the high-temperature, liquid-phase conditions of biomass processing, is examined, and a method for stabilizing the base-metal nanoparticles of a Cu/gamma-Al2O 3 catalyst using atomic layer deposition (ALD) is developed. This advancement may facilitate the development of biorefining by enabling

  16. Skills development and structural change: Possibilities for and limitations of redressing structural racial inequalities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groener, Zelda

    2013-12-01

    Improving structural racial equality for historically-disadvantaged Black South Africans, including low-skilled and unemployed adults and youths, is a pertinent challenge for the South African government during the ongoing transition from apartheid capitalism to post-apartheid capitalism. Within the framework of the National Skills Development Strategy (NSDS), the introduction of "learnerships" and "learning programmes", which include structured learning programmes, learnerships, apprenticeships and skills programmes, has had some impact. But emerging theoretical perspectives assert that apartheid structural racial inequalities persist and that structural reform is imperative. Opposing positions translate into two perspectives on social transition: either capitalism can be de-racialised, or capitalism in South Africa should be dismantled in order to de-racialise it. After a review of relevant literature and governmental documents, the author identifies five structural and pedagogical barriers as likely causes for low completion rates of skills development courses and concludes that structural reform needs more favourable political and economic conditions in order to be successful.

  17. Sexual Dimorphisms of Adrenal Steroids, Sex Hormones, and Immunological Biomarkers and Possible Risk Factors for Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonse T. Masi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immunity and immunological biomarkers are believed to be interrelated with sex hormones and other neuroendocrine factors. Sexual dimorphism mechanisms may be operating in certain rheumatic and inflammatory diseases which occur more frequently in women than men, as rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Less data have been available on altered interrelations of the combined neuroendocrine and immune (NEI systems as risk factors for development of certain diseases. In this study, serological interrelations of NEI biomarkers are analyzed before symptomatic onset of RA (pre-RA versus control (CN subjects, stratified by sex. Sexual dimorphism was found in serum levels of acute serum amyloid A (ASAA, soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Rα, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1. Multiple steroidal and hormonal (neuroendocrine factors also showed highly (p<0.001 significant sexual dimorphism in their assayed values, but less for cortisol (p=0.012, and not for 17-hydroxyprogesterone (p=0.176. After stratification by sex and risk of developing RA, differential NEI correlational patterns were observed in the interplay of the NEI systems between the pre-RA and CN groups, which deserve further investigation.

  18. Possibilities for a sustainable development. Muligheter for en baerekraftig utvikling; Analyser paa ''World Model''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerkholt, O.; Johnsen, T.; Thonstad, K.

    1993-01-01

    This report is the final report of a project that the Central Bureau of Statistics of Norway has carried out. The report present analyses of the relations between economic development, energy consumption and emission of pollutants to air in a global perspective. The analyses are based on the ''World Model'', that has been developed at the Institute for Economic Analysis at New York University. The analyses show that it will be very difficult to obtain a global stabilization of the CO[sub 2] emission on the 1990 level. In the reference scenario of the United Nations report ''Our Common Future'', the increase of CO[sub 2] emissions from 1990 to 2020 was 73%. Even in the scenario with the most drastic measures, the emissions in 2020 will be about 43% above the 1990 level, according to the present report. A stabilization of the global emissions at the 1990 level will require strong measures beyond those assumed in the model calculations, or a considerable breakthrough in energy technology. 17 refs., 5 figs., 21 tabs.

  19. Development of Hierarchical Polymer@Pd Nanowire‐Network: Synthesis and Application as Highly Active Recyclable Catalyst and Printable Conductive Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Sajjad Husain

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A facile one‐pot approach for preparing hierarchical nanowire‐networks of hollow polymer@Pd nanospheres is reported. First, polymer@Pd hollow nanospheres were produced through metal‐complexation‐induced phase separation with functionalized graft copolymers and subsequent self‐assembly of PdNPs. The nanospheres hierarchically assembled into the nanowire‐network upon drying. The Pd nanowire‐network served as an active catalyst for Mizoroki–Heck and Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reactions. As low as 500 μmol % Pd was sufficient for quantitative reactions, and the origin of the high activity is ascribed to the highly active sites originating from high‐index facets, kinks, and coalesced structures. The catalyst can be recycled via simple filtration and washing, maintaining its high activity owing to the micrometer‐sized hierarchical structure of the nanomaterial. The polymer@Pd nanosphere also served as a printable conductive ink for a translucent grid pattern with excellent horizontal conductivity (7.5×105 S m−1). PMID:27551657

  20. Generalized joint hypermobility in childhood is a possible risk for the development of joint pain in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohrbeck-Nøhr, Oline; Kristensen, Jens; Boyle, Eleanor;

    2014-01-01

    ) were examined for the exposure, GJH, using the Beighton test at baseline at either 8 or 10 years of age and then re-examined when they reached 14 years of age. The children were categorized into two groups based on their number of positive Beighton tests using different cut points (i.e. GJH4 defined...... as either¿self-reported physical function and objective physical function were also collected.......ResultsChildren with GJH had three times higher risk of developing joint pain in adolescence, although this association did not reach statistical significance (GJH5: 3.00, 95% [0.94-9.60]). At age 14, the adolescents with GJH had significantly lower self-reported physical function (for ADL: GJH4 p¿=¿0.002, GJH5 p¿=¿0...

  1. Age and dynamics of the Namib Sand Sea: A review of chronological evidence and possible landscape development models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, A. E. C.

    2013-06-01

    The Namib Sand Sea constitutes a major physiographic feature of the Namib Desert on the west of Namibia, covering a 50-160 km wide region of the coast between Lüderitz and Walvis Bay. It is widely considered to be one of the oldest desert regions, with a Tertiary-aged fossil desert underlying the modern sand sea. The sand sea has been well studied, benefiting from the presence of the Gobabeb Training and Research Centre during the past 50 years. Whilst much is understood about its sediments and geomorphology, it is only recently that new chronological information, using cosmogenic-nuclide burial dating and optically stimulated luminescence dating have offered new insights, and this calls for an updated review of the age and landscape development of the sand sea. This assessment of the geomorphological and Quaternary dynamics of the region is complemented by developments in the description and analysis of sediment composition. New age control from cosmogenic dating indicates that the sand sea is in excess of a million years old. Initial data from luminescence dating yields depositional ages for dune sediments from three broad areas of the sand sea that include MIS 5, later in the Pleistocene around the Last Glacial Maximum and the Holocene, although it is not expected that these will be the only, or discrete age groupings. Detailed dating and application of ground penetrating radar in the far northern reaches reveals extensive dune migration and deposition during the Holocene. It is important to stress that the upper limit of luminescence dating here is about ˜200 ka (depending on the environmental dose rate of the site) and that migration and reworking of dunes resets the luminescence signal (so what is recorded is(are) the last phase(s) of preserved sediment accumulation). Whilst there are three potential sources of material for the Namib Sand Sea (reworked Tsondab Sandstone (TSS), material from the Great Escarpment derived by rivers and water and wind

  2. Catalysis by nonmetals rules for catalyst selection

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, Oleg V

    1970-01-01

    Catalysis by Non-metals: Rules of Catalyst Selection presents the development of scientific principles for the collection of catalysts. It discusses the investigation of the mechanism of chemosorption and catalysis. It addresses a series of properties of solid with catalytic activity. Some of the topics covered in the book are the properties of a solid and catalytic activity in oxidation-reduction reactions; the difference of electronegativities and the effective charges of atoms; the role of d-electrons in the catalytic properties of a solid; the color of solids; and proton-acid and proton-ba

  3. The possibility of coexistence and co-development in language competition: ecology-society computational model and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jian; Shang, Song-Chao; Wei, Xiao-Dan; Liu, Shuang; Li, Zhi-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Language is characterized by both ecological properties and social properties, and competition is the basic form of language evolution. The rise and decline of one language is a result of competition between languages. Moreover, this rise and decline directly influences the diversity of human culture. Mathematics and computer modeling for language competition has been a popular topic in the fields of linguistics, mathematics, computer science, ecology, and other disciplines. Currently, there are several problems in the research on language competition modeling. First, comprehensive mathematical analysis is absent in most studies of language competition models. Next, most language competition models are based on the assumption that one language in the model is stronger than the other. These studies tend to ignore cases where there is a balance of power in the competition. The competition between two well-matched languages is more practical, because it can facilitate the co-development of two languages. A third issue with current studies is that many studies have an evolution result where the weaker language inevitably goes extinct. From the integrated point of view of ecology and sociology, this paper improves the Lotka-Volterra model and basic reaction-diffusion model to propose an "ecology-society" computational model for describing language competition. Furthermore, a strict and comprehensive mathematical analysis was made for the stability of the equilibria. Two languages in competition may be either well-matched or greatly different in strength, which was reflected in the experimental design. The results revealed that language coexistence, and even co-development, are likely to occur during language competition. PMID:27386304

  4. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) region gene 1 (FRG1) expression and possible function in mouse tooth germ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kana; Wada, Hiroko; Nagata, Kengo; Fujiwara, Hiroaki; Wada, Naohisa; Someya, Hirotaka; Mikami, Yurie; Sakai, Hidetaka; Kiyoshima, Tamotsu

    2016-08-01

    Abnormal expression of Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) region gene 1 (FRG1) is involved in the pathogenesis of FSHD. FRG1 is also important for the normal muscular and vascular development. Our previous study showed that FRG1 is one of the highly expressed genes in the mandible on embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) than on E12.0. In this study, we investigated the temporospatial expression pattern of FRG1 mRNA and protein during the development of the mouse lower first molar, and also evaluated the subcellular localization of the FRG1 protein in mouse dental epithelial (mDE6) cells. The FRG1 expression was identified in the dental epithelial and mesenchymal cells at the initiation and bud stages. It was detected in the inner enamel epithelium at the cap and early bell stages. At the late bell and root formation stages, these signals were detected in ameloblasts and odontoblasts during the formation of enamel and dentin matrices, respectively. The FRG1 protein was localized in the cytoplasm in the mouse tooth germ in vivo, while FRG1 was detected predominantly in the nucleus and faintly in the cytoplasm in mDE6 cells in vitro. In mDE6 cells treated with bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), the protein expression of FRG1 increased in cytoplasm, suggesting that FRG1 may translocate to the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that FRG1 is involved in the morphogenesis of the tooth germ, as well as in the formation of enamel and dentin matrices and that FRG1 may play a role in the odontogenesis in the mouse following BMP4 stimulation. PMID:27234941

  5. The possibility of coexistence and co-development in language competition: ecology-society computational model and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jian; Shang, Song-Chao; Wei, Xiao-Dan; Liu, Shuang; Li, Zhi-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Language is characterized by both ecological properties and social properties, and competition is the basic form of language evolution. The rise and decline of one language is a result of competition between languages. Moreover, this rise and decline directly influences the diversity of human culture. Mathematics and computer modeling for language competition has been a popular topic in the fields of linguistics, mathematics, computer science, ecology, and other disciplines. Currently, there are several problems in the research on language competition modeling. First, comprehensive mathematical analysis is absent in most studies of language competition models. Next, most language competition models are based on the assumption that one language in the model is stronger than the other. These studies tend to ignore cases where there is a balance of power in the competition. The competition between two well-matched languages is more practical, because it can facilitate the co-development of two languages. A third issue with current studies is that many studies have an evolution result where the weaker language inevitably goes extinct. From the integrated point of view of ecology and sociology, this paper improves the Lotka-Volterra model and basic reaction-diffusion model to propose an "ecology-society" computational model for describing language competition. Furthermore, a strict and comprehensive mathematical analysis was made for the stability of the equilibria. Two languages in competition may be either well-matched or greatly different in strength, which was reflected in the experimental design. The results revealed that language coexistence, and even co-development, are likely to occur during language competition.

  6. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  7. Olefin metathesis and catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukes, S. G.; Banks, R. L.

    1985-05-14

    Olefins are converted into other olefins having different numbers of carbon atoms by contact with a catalyst comprising an inorganic refractory oxide support containing at least one of tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide and a promoting amount of at least one methylating agent under conditions suitable for the methylating agent compounds to promote the activity of tungsten and molybdenum oxides for the disproportionation reaction.

  8. Catalysts for Environmental Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, B. L.; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2013-01-01

    The properties of catalysts used in environmental remediation are described here through specific examples in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. In the area of heterogeneous catalysis, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx was used as an example reaction with vanadia and tungsta...

  9. Nanopore and nanoparticle catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Raja, R

    2001-01-01

    The design, atomic characterization, performance, and relevance to clean technology of two distinct categories of new nanocatalysts are described and interpreted. Exceptional molecular selectivity and high activity are exhibited by these catalysts. The first category consists of extended, crystallographically ordered inorganic solids possessing nanopores (apertures, cages, and channels), the diameters of which fall in the range of about 0.4 to about 1.5 nm, and the second of discrete bimetallic nanoparticles of diameter 1 to 2 nm, distributed more or less uniformly along the inner walls of mesoporous (ca. 3 to 10 nm diameter) silica supports. Using the principles and practices of solid-state and organometallic chemistry and advanced physico-chemical techniques for in situ and ex situ characterization, a variety of powerful new catalysts has been evolved. Apart from those that, inter alia, simulate the behavior of enzymes in their specificity, shape selectivity, regio-selectivity, and ability to function under ambient conditions, many of these new nanocatalysts are also viable as agents for effecting commercially significant processes in a clean, benign, solvent-free, single-step fashion. In particular, a bifunctional, molecular sieve nanopore catalyst is described that converts cyclohexanone in air and ammonia to its oxime and caprolactam, and a bimetallic nanoparticle catalyst that selectively converts cyclic polyenes into desirable intermediates. Nanocatalysts in the first category are especially effective in facilitating highly selective oxidations in air, and those in the second are well suited to effecting rapid and selective hydrogenations of a range of organic compounds.

  10. Catalysts for biobased fuels. New catalyst formulations for vehicles fuelled by biobased motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, L.J.; Wahlberg, A.M.; Jaeraas, S.G. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1997-12-01

    The long-term objective for the project is to develop tailor-made exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty vehicles fuelled by biobased motor fuels operating in urban traffic. In this report an experimental study of catalytic oxidation of ethanol in a laboratory flow reactor is presented. The miniature catalyst samples consisted of monolithic cordierite substrates onto which various combinations of washcoat material and active material were applied. Oxides of Cu and Cu-Mn, as well as different combinations of precious metals were evaluated as active material supported on various washcoat materials. The experimental conditions were chosen in order to simulate the exhaust from a diesel engine fuelled by neat ethanol. Catalyst characterization included measurements of BET surface area and pore size distribution as well as temperature programmed reduction (TPR) analysis. When comparing the TPR profiles with the light-off curves from the ethanol oxidation experiments, we have found an indication of a correlation between activity and reducibility of the catalyst. There also seems to be a correlation between TPR profile and pore size distribution for titania-supported catalysts. When combining two precious metals as active material, a positive synergistic effect has been observed. The light-off temperature (T{sub 50}) is considerably lower for some of these combinations than for the corresponding monometallic catalysts. The base metal oxide catalysts tested were more selective for oxidation of ethanol to carbon dioxide and water than the precious metal catalysts. The results also indicate that the oxidation of nitric oxide to the more hazardous nitrogen dioxide can be suppressed by using a suitable combination of active material and washcoat material 45 refs, 97 figs, 4 tabs

  11. Review and prospect for the development of hydrocracking catalysts in China%我国加氢裂化催化剂发展的回顾与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琰

    2001-01-01

    回顾我国20年来加氢裂化工艺及其催化剂的发展,着重介绍了抚顺石油化工研究院开发的催化剂及工业应用状况,并与国外同类催化剂进行了对比。从我国汽油、煤油、柴油和润滑油的现状与需求,探讨了今后加氢裂化催化剂的发展动向。%The development of hydrocracking technologies and catalysts in China for the latest forty years was reviewed, with detailed description of those developed by SINOPEC Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum & Petrochemicals(FRIPP).The trends of the technologies and catalysts of this field in China were forecast based on the requirement on gasoline, kerosene,diesel and lubricating oil.

  12. BIOPROSPECTING AS A POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM FOR COLOMBIA Bioprospección como posible mecanismo de desarrollo para Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZ MARINA MELGAREJO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioprospecting has been on the agenda for discussion by the government, the academic community, businesses and other pertinent actors for many years now; it is an integral topic representing a potential approach to exploit biodiversity to the fullest. This document presents some definitions of what bioprospecting is (some restrictive, others with a broader perspective, depending on different approaches, actors, target markets and countries in the context of a mechanism for development and cooperation concerning the construction of capacities, advantages and disadvantages. It was found that bioprospecting in Colombia has been developing from a broad perspective (systematic study of biological-genetic resources, transformation into a product which has led to strengthening some value chains, small- and/or large-scale marketing and some advances in intellectual property rights and the distribution of benefits in order to provide greater benefits for the nation.La bioprospección ha sido durante varios años tema de discusión por los gobiernos, la comunidad académica, las empresas, y otros actores que se integran en el proceso, como potencial de acercamiento y uso de la diversidad biológica. A través del presente documento se presentan algunas definiciones de lo que es la bioprospección (algunas restrictivas otras de perspectiva amplia, dependientes de diferentes aproximaciones, actores, blanco de mercado, contexto del país, entre otros, la bioprospección como mecanismo de desarrollo y cooperación para la construcción de capacidades, ventajas y desventajas. Se encuentra que en Colombia se ha venido desarrollando bioprospección desde la perspectiva amplia (estudio sistemático del recurso biológico-genético, transformación en un producto lo que ha permitido el fortalecimiento de algunas cadenas de valor, comercialización a pequeña o gran escala y algunos avances en temas de propiedad intelectual y distribución de beneficios lo cual

  13. Industrial catalysts as a source of valuable metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fornalczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Catalyst are used in all sector of the chemical industry: in basic chemistry (synthesis of sulfuric and nitric acid, ammonia, methanol and aromactics; in petrochemistry; in polymerization chemistry; in refining, in reactions of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC, resid fluid cracking catalyst (RFCC, hydrodesulfurization (HDS and hydrotreatment; in auto industry for reduce of pollution, for removal of NO, CO and hydrocarbons in exhaust emissions; in variety of industrial processes. Recovery of metals and precious metals from spent catalysts has been an important topic not only from economic aspect but also for recycling rare natural sources and reducing the catalyst waste to prevent the environmental pollution. Various methods for recovering metals form spent auto catalyst, petroleum reforming and other industrial catalysts are reviewed.Design/methodology/approach: The article presents the methods used in the world for metals recovery from spent industrial catalysts.Findings: To recover precious metals from spent catalysts many hydro- and pyrometallurgical methods are used. But none of these methods is an universal method that can be used to recover all type of spent catalysts. These recovery methods have also some disadvantages: pyrometallurgical methods require special equipment, reaching the desired temperature, and they are not only expensive but also highly energy consuming. The application of hydrometallurgical methods requires to solve the problem of harmful waste solutions generated during the process.Practical implications: The paper presents the possibilities of industrial catalysis as a source of valuable metals.Originality/value: The present work is a review about industrial catalysts as a source of valuable metals.

  14. Soft x-ray tomography for real-time applications: present status at Tore Supra and possible future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is focused on the soft x-ray (SXR) tomography system setup at Tore Supra (DTOMOX) and the recent developments made to automatically get precise information about plasma features from inverted data. The first part describes the main aspects of the tomographic inversion optimization process. Several observations are made using this new tool and a set of shape factors is defined to help characterizing the emissivity field in a real-time perspective. The second part presents a detailed off-line analysis comparing the positions of the magnetic axis obtained from a magnetic equilibrium solver, and the maximum of the reconstructed emissivity field for ohmic and heated pulses. A systematic discrepancy of about 5 cm is found in both cases and it is shown that this discrepancy increases during sawtooth crashes. Finally, evidence of radially localized tungsten accumulation with an in–out asymmetry during a lower hybrid current drive pulse is provided to illustrate the DTOMOX capabilities for a precise observation of local phenomena.

  15. Development of dual cooled annular fuel and its possibility to enhance both economy and safety of light water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Yanghyun; Kim, Keonsik; Park, Jeongyong; Yang, Yongsik; Kim, Hyungkyu; In, Wangkee; Song, Kunwoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Over the past few decades, extensive studies have been performed to improve the reliability and safety of light water reactor (LWR) fuel. In recent years, power updating of about 10% is being achieved by modifying safety analysis methodology and subsequent increase in safety margin. But departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and loss of coolant accident (LOCA) are still two of the most important limiting factors which would restrict power updating more than 10%. Duel cooled annular fuel, cooled in both internal and external cooling channel, has advantages of considerably lower heat flux and lower fuel temperature than conventional solid fuel. While lower heat flus gives higher DNB margin for the same power retie, lower temperature reduces the stored energy of fuel. However, there are many technical issues that should be addressed before any new type of fuel can be considered for application to LWR. This paper describes the key technologies that Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed for dual cooled annular fuel and discusses the feasibility of its application to LWR.

  16. Development of dual cooled annular fuel and its possibility to enhance both economy and safety of light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few decades, extensive studies have been performed to improve the reliability and safety of light water reactor (LWR) fuel. In recent years, power updating of about 10% is being achieved by modifying safety analysis methodology and subsequent increase in safety margin. But departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and loss of coolant accident (LOCA) are still two of the most important limiting factors which would restrict power updating more than 10%. Duel cooled annular fuel, cooled in both internal and external cooling channel, has advantages of considerably lower heat flux and lower fuel temperature than conventional solid fuel. While lower heat flus gives higher DNB margin for the same power retie, lower temperature reduces the stored energy of fuel. However, there are many technical issues that should be addressed before any new type of fuel can be considered for application to LWR. This paper describes the key technologies that Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed for dual cooled annular fuel and discusses the feasibility of its application to LWR

  17. New catalysts for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijanen, A.; Hase, A. [eds.] [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    VTT launched a Research Programme on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms (CREAM) in 1993. The three-year programme (1993-1995) has focused on reaction mechanisms relevant to process industries and aimed at developing novel catalysts and biocatalysts for forest, food, and specialty chemicals industries as well as for energy production. The preliminary results of this programme have already been presented in the first symposium organized in Espoo in September 1994. To conclude the programme the second symposium is organized in Otaniemi, Espoo on January 29 - 30, 1996. Papers by 19 speakers and 17 poster presentations of the 1996 Symposium are included in this book. The Symposium consists of four sessions: Biotechnology for Natural Fibers Processing, New Biocatalysts, Catalysts for Clean Energy, and New Opportunities for Chemical Industry. The CREAM programme has tried to foresee solutions for the problems challenged by the public concern on environmental aspects, especially dealing with industrial processes and novel use of raw materials and energy. The programme has followed the basic routes that can lead to natural and simple solutions to develop processes in the fields of forest, food fine chemicals, and energy industry. This symposium presents the results of the programme to learn and further discuss together with the international experts that have been invited as keynote speakers. (author)

  18. A hydrophobic catalyst for recombining H2/D2 and O2 in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A catalyst is developed for efficient recombination of hydrogen and oxygen in presence of water vapor and without requirement of an external heat source. The catalyst, comprising of finely dispersed platinum on a large area polymeric sheet, is hydrophobic in nature and is therefore resistant to water poisoning. The recombination reaction is exothermic which results in the rise of catalyst temperature and hence in its high and automatically sustained catalytic activity. In order to prevent catalyst overheating, the catalyst sheet is sandwiched between the two perforated metallic plates, which help in maintaining the catalyst panel at an isothermal temperature below its melting point. The performance of this catalyst, evaluated on both bench and pilot plant scale, is found to be long lasting. Due to the flexible nature of this catalyst material, different convenient recombiner designs may be envisaged for use in nuclear reactors, either for reaction of radiolytically generated hydrogen and oxygen or for mitigation of hydrogen under severe accident conditions

  19. Possible contribution of epigenetic changes in the development of schizophrenia-like behavior in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Kornél; Török, Bibiána; Fodor, Anna; Varga, János; Ferenczi, Szilamér; Kovács, Krisztina J; Eszik, Ildikó; Szegedi, Viktor; Zelena, Dóra

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia-like symptoms were detected in vasopressin-deficient (di/di) Brattleboro rats, and it was also suggested that schizophrenia might have an epigenetic component. We aimed to clarify if epigenetic changes contribute to schizophrenia-like behavior of this strain. Behavioral (locomotion by telemetry, cognition by novel object recognition, social recognition and social avoidance test, attention by pre-pulse inhibition) and epigenetic differences were compared between wild type and di/di animals. DNA methyltransferase1 (DNMT1), DNMT3a, as well as COMT, GAD, VGLUT1, 5HT2A, BDNF mRNA levels in prefrontal brain region and hippocampus were studied by qRT-PCR. Histone3 (H3) and H4 acetylation (Ac) were studied by western-blot followed by region specific examination of H3 lysine9 (K9) acetylation by immunohistochemistry. Impaired cognitive, social and attention behavior of di/di rats confirmed schizophrenia-like symptoms in our local colony. The pan-AcH3 immunoreactivity was lower in prefrontal region and elevated in the hippocampus of di/di animals. We found lower immunopositive cell number in the dorsal peduncular prefrontal cortex and the ventral lateral septum and increased AcH3K9 immunoreactivity in CA1 region of di/di animals. There were no major significant alterations in the studied mRNA levels. We confirmed that Brattleboro rat is a good preclinical model of schizophrenia. Its schizophrenia-like behavioral alteration was accompanied by changes in H3 acetylation in the prefrontal region and hippocampus. This may contribute to disturbances of many schizophrenia-related substances leading to development of schizophrenia-like symptoms. Our studies confirmed that not a single gene, rather fine changes in an array of molecules are responsible for the majority of schizophrenia cases. PMID:26704217

  20. Development of a flow cytometric bead immunoassay and its assessment as a possible aid to potency evaluation of enterotoxaemia vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Buys

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia, an economically important disease of sheep, goats and calves, is caused by systemic effects of the epsilon toxin produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens type D. The only practical means of controlling the occurrence of enterotoxaemia is to immunise animals by vaccination. The vaccine is prepared by deriving a toxoid from the bacterial culture filtrate and the potency of the vaccine is tested with the in vivo mouse neutralisation test (MNT. Due to ethical, economic and technical reasons, alternative in vitro assays are needed. In this study an indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA was developed for use in vaccine potency testing and the results were compared with those obtained using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA and the MNT. Sera were collected from guinea pigs immunised with three different production batches of enterotoxaemia vaccine and the levels of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies were determined. Although the intra- and inter-assay variability was satisfactory, epsilon antitoxin levels determined by both the I-ELISA and indirect cytometric bead immunoassay (I-CBA tests were higher than those of the MNT assay. In contrast to the MNT, all of the serum samples were identified as having antitoxin levels above the required minimum (not less than 5 U/mL. These results indicate that the respective in vitro tests in their current formats are not yet suitable alternatives to the in vivo MNT. The growing demand for a more humane, cost-effective and efficient method for testing the potency of enterotoxaemia vaccines, however, provides a strong impetus for further optimisation and standardisation of the I-CBA assay but further analytical research is required.