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Sample records for catalyst development inspired

  1. Bio-inspired Iron Catalysts for Hydrocarbon Oxidations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Que, Jr., Lawrence [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-03-22

    Stereoselective oxidation of C–H and C=C bonds are catalyzed by nonheme iron enzymes. Inspired by these bioinorganic systems, our group has been exploring the use of nonheme iron complexes as catalysts for the oxidation of hydrocarbons using H2O2 as an environmentally friendly and atom-efficient oxidant in order to gain mechanistic insights into these novel transformations. In particular, we have focused on clarifying the nature of the high-valent iron oxidants likely to be involved in these transformations.

  2. Inspiring to inspire: Developing teaching in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Williams

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a three-year staff development initiative within one faculty in a UK university, the authors reflected on inspiring teaching and the role that staff development can play in enhancing individual practice. Teaching is a core component of Higher Education and is complex and multi-faceted both theoretically and in practice. Through individual reflections to a set of pre-determined questions, a group of Higher Education teachers (n = 5 with a responsibility for the development of learning, teaching and assessment, share their thoughts, feelings and beliefs on inspiring teaching. The interpretive analysis of the data shows from a staff perspective that the notion of inspiring teaching has three main components which are all interrelated, those being; the actual teaching and learning experience; the design of the curriculum and the teacher/student relationship. Staff development initiatives were found to help people explore and develop their own teaching philosophy, to develop new practices and to share and learn from others. However, individual’s mindset, beliefs and attitudes were found to be a challenge. Teachers can frame their development around the different aspects of inspiring teaching and with support from senior leadership as well as a positive culture, teaching communities can work together towards inspiring teaching.

  3. Bio-inspired MOF-based Catalysts for Lignin Valorization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie; Ramakrishnan, Parthasarathi; Davis, Ryan Wesley

    2014-09-01

    Lignin is a potentially plentiful source of renewable organics, with ~50Mtons/yr produced by the pulp/paper industry and 200-300 Mtons/yr projected production by a US biofuels industry. This industry must process approximately 1 billion tons of biomass to meet the US Renewable Fuel goals. However, there are currently no efficient processes for converting lignin to value-added chemicals and drop-in fuels. Lignin is therefore an opportunity for production of valuable renewable chemicals, but presents staggering technical and economic challenges due to the quantities of material involved and the strong chemical bonds comprising this polymer. Aggressive chemistries and high temperatures are required to degrade lignin without catalysts. Moreover, chemical non-uniformity among lignins leads to complex product mixtures that tend to repolymerize. Conventional petrochemical approaches (pyrolysis, catalytic cracking, gasification) are energy intensive (400-800 degC), require complicated separations, and remove valuable chemical functionality. Low-temperature (25-200 degC) alternatives are clearly desirable, but enzymes are thermally fragile and incompatible with liquid organic compounds, making them impractical for large-scale biorefining. Alternatively, homogeneous catalysts, such as recently developed vanadium complexes, must be separated from product mixtures, while many heterogenous catalysts involve costly noble metals. The objective of this project is to demonstrate proof of concept that an entirely new class of biomimetic, efficient, and industrially robust synthetic catalysts based on nanoporous Metal- Organic Frameworks (MOFs) can be developed. Although catalytic MOFs are known, catalysis of bond cleavage reactions needed for lignin degradation is completely unexplored. Thus, fundamental research is required that industry and most sponsoring agencies are currently unwilling to undertake. We introduce MOFs infiltrated with titanium and nickel species as catalysts for

  4. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benavides, Pahola T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cronauer, Donald C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of five different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5], Mo/Co/ γ-Al2O3, and Pt/ γ-Al2O3) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module.

  5. Direct comparison of the performance of a bio-inspired synthetic nickel catalyst and a [NiFe]-hydrogenase, both covalently attached to electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Maciá, Patricia; Dutta, Arnab; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Shaw, Wendy J; Rüdiger, Olaf

    2015-10-12

    The active site of hydrogenases has been a source of inspiration for the development of molecular catalysts. However, direct comparisons between molecular catalysts and enzymes have not been possible because different techniques are used to evaluate both types of catalysts, minimizing our ability to determine how far we have come in mimicking the enzymatic performance. The catalytic properties of the [Ni(P(Cy) 2 N(Gly) 2 )2 ](2+) complex with the [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris immobilized on a functionalized electrode were compared under identical conditions. At pH 7, the enzyme shows higher activity and lower overpotential with better stability, while at low pH, the molecular catalyst outperforms the enzyme in all respects. This is the first direct comparison of enzymes and molecular complexes, enabling a unique understanding of the benefits and detriments of both systems, and advancing our understanding of the utilization of these bio-inspired complexes in fuel cells. PMID:26140506

  6. Cobalt-Catalyzed C(sp(2))-H Borylation: Mechanistic Insights Inspire Catalyst Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obligacion, Jennifer V; Semproni, Scott P; Pappas, Iraklis; Chirik, Paul J

    2016-08-24

    A comprehensive study into the mechanism of bis(phosphino)pyridine (PNP) cobalt-catalyzed C-H borylation of 2,6-lutidine using B2Pin2 (Pin = pinacolate) has been conducted. The experimentally observed rate law, deuterium kinetic isotope effects, and identification of the catalyst resting state support turnover limiting C-H activation from a fully characterized cobalt(I) boryl intermediate. Monitoring the catalytic reaction as a function of time revealed that borylation of the 4-position of the pincer in the cobalt catalyst was faster than arene borylation. Cyclic voltammetry established the electron withdrawing influence of 4-BPin, which slows the rate of C-H oxidative addition and hence overall catalytic turnover. This mechanistic insight inspired the next generation of 4-substituted PNP cobalt catalysts with electron donating and sterically blocking methyl and pyrrolidinyl substituents that exhibited increased activity for the C-H borylation of unactivated arenes. The rationally designed catalysts promote effective turnover with stoichiometric quantities of arene substrate and B2Pin2. Kinetic studies on the improved catalyst, 4-(H)2BPin, established a change in turnover limiting step from C-H oxidative addition to C-B reductive elimination. The iridium congener of the optimized cobalt catalyst, 6-(H)2BPin, was prepared and crystallographically characterized and proved inactive for C-H borylation, a result of the high kinetic barrier for reductive elimination from octahedral Ir(III) complexes. PMID:27476954

  7. Development of Biomimetic Squid-Inspired Suckers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinping Hou; Edward Wright; Richard H. C. Bonser; George Jeronimidis

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical properties of squid suckers were studied to provide inspiration for the development of sucker artefacts for a robotic octopus.Mechanical support of the rings found inside squid suckers was studied by bending tests.Tensile tests were carried out to study the maximum possible sucking force produced by squid suckers based on the strength of sucker stalks,normalized by the sucking areas.The squid suckers were also directly tested to obtain sucking forces by a special testing arrangement.Inspired by the squid suckers,three types of sucker artefacts were developed for the arm skin of an octopus inspired robot.The first sucker artefact made of knitted nylon sheet reinforced silicone rubber has the same shape as the squid suckers.Like real squid suckers,this type of artefact also has a stalk that is connected to the arm skin and a ring to give radial support.The second design is a straight cylindrical structure with uniform wall thickness made of silicone rubber.One end of the cylinder is directly connected to the arm skin and the other end is open.The final design of the sucker has a cylindrical base and a concave meniscus top.The meniscus was formed naturally using the surface tension of silicone gel,which leads to a higher level of the liquid around the edge of a container.The wall thickness decreases towards the tip of the sucker opening.Sucking forces of all three types of sucker artefacts were measured.Advantages and disadvantages of each sucker type were discussed.The final design of suckers has been implemented to the arm skin prototypes.

  8. Bio-Inspired Catalyst for CO2 Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovell, Adonis; Warncke, Kurt

    2010-03-01

    A catalytic device for high specificity recognition and light-driven reduction of CO2 to energy rich biofuels is being developed by using the robust TIM barrel fold of the EutB subunit of the enzyme, ethanolamine-ammonia lyase (from Salmonella typhimurium), as a scaffold. The cobalt(I) form of the native cobalamin serves as the catalytic center. Results show that cobalamins bind with optimal micromolar affinity to purified EutB, and undergo reductive activation. Molecular biology techniques have been used to generate histidine-tagged EutB subunit for high throughput mutagenesis studies. Rational active site modifications of EutB have been made to satisfy the criteria of specific CO2 binding, reduction, and proton delivery.

  9. Nature-Inspired Design: Strategies for Sustainable Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    De Pauw, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Product designers can apply different strategies, methods, and tools for sustainable product development. Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) offer designers a distinct class of strategies that use ‘nature’ as a guiding source of knowledge and inspiration for addressing sustainability. Biomimicry and Cradle to Cradle, two Nature-Inspired Design Strategies, have already been implemented in product design practice and in curricula of higher education. But how are these strategies applied, ...

  10. Theoretical Research Program on Bio-inspired Inorganic Hydrogen Generating Catalysts and Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selloni, Annabella; Car, Roberto; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-04-17

    In this project, we have successfully designed and characterized a promising biomimetic catalyst/electrode complex, [FeFe]P/FeS2 for producing hydrogen from water. It is comprised of earth-abundant materials and, with a diffusion-limited rate in acidified water, is efficient as well as oxygen tolerant. The theoretical techniques we have developed and the experience we have gained are broadly applicable for the design and analysis of biomimetic electrochemically active catalysts.

  11. Nature-Inspired Design: Strategies for Sustainable Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Product designers can apply different strategies, methods, and tools for sustainable product development. Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) offer designers a distinct class of strategies that use ‘nature’ as a guiding source of knowledge and inspiration for addressing sustainability. Biomimic

  12. INSPIRE: a proposal for its future development

    OpenAIRE

    Lancaster, John

    2010-01-01

    Inspire is a project that has been established to support “libraries in working together to improve access to information and learning for all”. Participating libraries are committed to supporting learning in its widest sense and together they provide an open route to the information library users are seeking, wherever it may be found. It was instituted in 2004 under the energetic leadership of Mary Heaney (formerly Director of Learning Centres at the University of Wolverhampton and now ...

  13. Proton Management as a Design Principle for Hydrogenase-inspired Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckerman, J.T.; Small, Y.A.; DuBois, D.L.; Fujita, E.

    2011-08-01

    The properties of the hydrogenase-inspired [Ni(PNP){sub 2}]{sup 2+} (PNP = Et{sub 2}PCH{sub 2}NMeCH{sub 2}PEt{sub 2}) catalyst for homogeneous hydrogen oxidation in acetonitrile solution are explored from a theoretical perspective for hydrogen production. The defining characteristic of this catalyst is the presence of pendent bases in the second coordination sphere that function as proton relays between the solution and the metal center. DFT calculations of the possible intermediates along proposed catalytic pathways are carried out and used to construct coupled Pourbaix diagrams of the redox processes and free-energy profiles along the reaction pathways. Analysis of the coupled Pourbaix diagrams reveals insights into the intermediate species and the mechanisms favored at different pH values of the solution. Consideration of the acid-base behavior of the metal hydride and H{sub 2} adduct species imposes additional constraints on the reaction mechanism, which can involve intramolecular as well as intermolecular proton-coupled electron-transfer steps. The efficacy of the catalyst is shown to depend critically on the pK{sub a} values of these potential intermediates, as they control both the species in solution at a given pH and the free-energy profile of reaction pathways. Optimal relationships among these pK{sub a} values can be identified, and it is demonstrated that 'proton management', i.e., the manipulation of these pK{sub a} values (e.g., through choice of metal or substituents on ligands), can serve as a design principle for improved catalytic behavior.

  14. Proton management as a design principle for hydrogenase-inspired catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, Yolanda A.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Fujita, Etsuko; Muckerman, J. T.

    2011-06-01

    The properties of the hydrogenase-inspired [Ni(PNP)2]2+ (PNP ¼ Et2PCH2NMeCH2PEt2) catalyst for homogeneous hydrogen oxidation in acetonitrile solution are explored from a theoretical perspective for hydrogen production. The defining characteristic of this catalyst is the presence of pendent bases in the second coordination sphere that function as proton relays between the solution and the metal center. DFT calculations of the possible intermediates along proposed catalytic pathways are carried out and used to construct coupled Pourbaix diagrams of the redox processes and free-energy profiles along the reaction pathways. Analysis of the coupled Pourbaix diagrams reveals insights into the intermediate species and the mechanisms favored at different pH values of the solution. Consideration of the acid-base behavior of the metal hydride and H2 adduct species imposes additional constraints on the reaction mechanism, which can involve intramolecular as well as intermolecular proton-coupled electron-transfer steps. The efficacy of the catalyst is shown to depend critically on the pKa values of these potential intermediates, as they control both the species in solution at a given pH and the freeenergy profile of reaction pathways. Optimal relationships among these pKa values can be identified, and it is demonstrated that ‘‘proton management’’, i.e., the manipulation of these pKa values (e.g., through choice of metal or substituents on ligands), can serve as a design principle for improved catalytic behavior. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  15. Developing physicians as catalysts for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Aaron E; Frush, Karen; Michener, J Lloyd

    2013-11-01

    Failures in care coordination are a reflection of larger systemic shortcomings in communication and in physician engagement in shared team leadership. Traditional medical care and medical education neither focus on nor inspire responses to the challenges of coordinating care across episodes and sites. The authors suggest that the absence of attention to gaps in the continuum of care has led physicians to attempt to function as the glue that holds the health care system together. Further, medical students and residents have little opportunity to provide feedback on care processes and rarely receive the training and support they need to assess and suggest possible improvements.The authors argue that this absence of opportunity has driven cynicism, apathy, and burnout among physicians. They support a shift in culture and medical education such that students and residents are trained and inspired to act as catalysts who initiate and expedite positive changes. To become catalyst physicians, trainees require tools to partner with patients, staff, and faculty; training in implementing change; and the perception of this work as inherent to the role of the physician.The authors recommend that medical schools consider interprofessional training to be a necessary component of medical education and that future physicians be encouraged to grow in areas outside the "purely clinical" realm. They conclude that both physician catalysts and teamwork are essential for improving care coordination, reducing apathy and burnout, and supporting optimal patient outcomes. PMID:24072124

  16. Direct Comparison of the Performance of a Bio-inspired Synthetic Nickel Catalyst and a [NiFe]-Hydrogenase, Both Covalently Attached to Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Macia, Patricia; Dutta, Arnab; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Shaw, Wendy J.; Rudiger, Olaf

    2015-10-12

    The active site of hydrogenases has been a source of inspiration for the development of molecular catalysts. However, direct comparisons between molecular catalysts and enzymes have not been possible because different techniques are used to evaluate both types of catalysts, minimizing our ability to determine how far we’ve come in mimicking the impressive enzymatic performance. Here we directly compare the catalytic properties of the [Ni(PCy2NGly2)2]2+ complex with the [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Desulfobivrio vulgaris Miyazaki F (DvMF) immobilized to a functionalized electrode under identical conditions. At pH=7, the enzyme has higher performance in both activity and overpotential, and is more stable, while at low pH, the molecular catalyst outperforms the enzyme in all respects. The Ni complex also has increased tolerance to CO. This is the first direct comparison of enzymes and molecular complexes, enabling a unique understanding of the benefits and detriments of both systems, and advancing our understanding of the utilization of these bioinspired complexes in fuel cells. AD and WJS acknowledge the Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the US Department of Energy (US DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the US DOE.

  17. Coaxial electrospinning of WO3 nanotubes functionalized with bio-inspired Pd catalysts and their superior hydrogen sensing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seon-Jin; Chattopadhyay, Saptarshi; Kim, Jae Jin; Kim, Sang-Joon; Tuller, Harry L; Rutledge, Gregory C; Kim, Il-Doo

    2016-04-28

    Macroporous WO3 nanotubes (NTs) functionalized with nanoscale catalysts were fabricated using coaxial electrospinning combined with sacrificial templating and protein-encapsulated catalysts. The macroporous thin-walled nanotubular structures were obtained by introducing colloidal polystyrene (PS) particles to a shell solution of W precursor and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). After coaxial electrospinning with a core liquid of mineral oil and subsequent calcination, open pores with an average diameter of 173 nm were formed on the surface of WO3 NTs due to decomposition of the PS colloids. In addition, catalytic Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using bio-inspired protein cages, i.e., apoferritin, and uniformly dispersed within the shell solution and subsequently on the WO3 NTs. The resulting Pd functionalized macroporous WO3 NTs were demonstrated to be high performance hydrogen (H2) sensors. In particular, Pd-functionalized macroporous WO3 NTs exhibited a very high H2 response (Rair/Rgas) of 17.6 at 500 ppm with a short response time. Furthermore, the NTs were shown to be highly selective for H2 compared to other gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia (NH3), and methane (CH4). The results demonstrate a new synthetic method to prepare highly porous nanotubular structures with well-dispersed nanoscale catalysts, which can provide improved microstructures for chemical sensing. PMID:26691720

  18. Star block-copolymers: Enzyme-inspired catalysts for oxidation of alcohols in water

    KAUST Repository

    Mugemana, Clement

    2014-01-01

    A number of fluorous amphiphilic star block-copolymers containing a tris(benzyltriazolylmethyl)amine motif have been prepared. These polymers assembled into well-defined nanostructures in water, and their mode of assembly could be controlled by changing the composition of the polymer. The polymers were used for enzyme-inspired catalysis of alcohol oxidation. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  19. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  20. Coaxial electrospinning of WO3 nanotubes functionalized with bio-inspired Pd catalysts and their superior hydrogen sensing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seon-Jin; Chattopadhyay, Saptarshi; Kim, Jae Jin; Kim, Sang-Joon; Tuller, Harry L.; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Kim, Il-Doo

    2016-04-01

    Macroporous WO3 nanotubes (NTs) functionalized with nanoscale catalysts were fabricated using coaxial electrospinning combined with sacrificial templating and protein-encapsulated catalysts. The macroporous thin-walled nanotubular structures were obtained by introducing colloidal polystyrene (PS) particles to a shell solution of W precursor and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). After coaxial electrospinning with a core liquid of mineral oil and subsequent calcination, open pores with an average diameter of 173 nm were formed on the surface of WO3 NTs due to decomposition of the PS colloids. In addition, catalytic Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using bio-inspired protein cages, i.e., apoferritin, and uniformly dispersed within the shell solution and subsequently on the WO3 NTs. The resulting Pd functionalized macroporous WO3 NTs were demonstrated to be high performance hydrogen (H2) sensors. In particular, Pd-functionalized macroporous WO3 NTs exhibited a very high H2 response (Rair/Rgas) of 17.6 at 500 ppm with a short response time. Furthermore, the NTs were shown to be highly selective for H2 compared to other gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia (NH3), and methane (CH4). The results demonstrate a new synthetic method to prepare highly porous nanotubular structures with well-dispersed nanoscale catalysts, which can provide improved microstructures for chemical sensing.Macroporous WO3 nanotubes (NTs) functionalized with nanoscale catalysts were fabricated using coaxial electrospinning combined with sacrificial templating and protein-encapsulated catalysts. The macroporous thin-walled nanotubular structures were obtained by introducing colloidal polystyrene (PS) particles to a shell solution of W precursor and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). After coaxial electrospinning with a core liquid of mineral oil and subsequent calcination, open pores with an average diameter of 173 nm were formed on the surface of WO3 NTs due to decomposition of the PS colloids. In addition

  1. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The use of combinatorial methods is proposed to rapidly screen catalyst formulations for the advanced development of aqueous phase oxidation catalysts with greater...

  2. Design of heterogeneous catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anne Mette

    was inspired by a computational screening, suggesting that alloys such as Ni-Fe, Co-Ni, and Co-Fe should show superior activity to the industrially used nickel catalyst. Especially the Ni-Fe system was considered to be interesting, since such alloy catalysts should be both more active and cheaper than...... turned out to work well, and the best catalyst prepared had a C5+ yield almost a factor of two higher than a standard air calcined Co catalyst. In the NH3-SCR reaction it is desirable to develop an active and stable catalyst for NOx removal in automotive applications, since the traditionally used...

  3. Development of a Lobster-Inspired Underwater Microrobot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic underwater microrobots are of great interest for underwater monitoring operations, such as pollution detection and video mapping in restricted underwater environments. Generally speaking, compact structure, multi‐functionality, flexibility and precise positioning are considered incompatible characteristics for underwater microrobots. Nevertheless, we have designed several novel types of bio‐inspired locomotion, using ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC and shape memory alloy (SMA actuators. We reviewed a number of previously developed underwater microrobot prototypes that were constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of these types of biomimetic locomotion. Based on these prototypes, we summarized the implemented techniques and available results for efficient and precise underwater locomotion. In order to combine compact structure, multi‐functionality, flexibility and precise positioning, we constructed a prototype of a new lobster‐like microrobot and carried out a series of experiments to evaluate its walking, rotating, floating and grasping motions. Diving/surfacing experiments were performed by electrolyzing the water around the surfaces of the actuators. Three proximity sensors were installed on the microrobot to detect an object or avoid an obstacle while walking.

  4. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combinatorial methods are proposed to develop advanced Aqueous Oxidation Catalysts (AOCs) with the capability to mineralize organic contaminants present in...

  5. Development of a bio-inspired UAV perching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pu

    Although technologies of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including micro air vehicles (MAVs) have been greatly advanced in the recent years, it is still very difficult for a UAV to perform some very challenging tasks such as perching to any desired spot reliably and agilely like a bird. Unlike the UAVs, the biological control mechanism of birds has been optimized through millions of year evolution and hence, they can perform many extremely maneuverability tasks, such as perching or grasping accurately and robustly. Therefore, we have good reason to learn from the nature in order to significantly improve the capabilities of UAVs. The development of a UAV perching system is becoming feasible, especially after a lot of research contributions in ornithology which involve the analysis of the bird's functionalities. Meanwhile, as technology advances in many engineering fields, such as airframes, propulsion, sensors, batteries, micro-electromechanical-system (MEMS), and UAV technology is also advancing rapidly. All of these research efforts in ornithology and the fast growing development technologies in UAV applications are motivating further interests and development in the area of UAV perching and grasping research. During the last decade, the research contributions about UAV perching and grasping were mainly based on fixed-wing, flapping-wing, and rotorcraft UAVs. However, most of the current researches in UAV systems with perching and grasping capability are focusing on either active (powered) grasping and perching or passive (unpowered) perching. Although birds do have both active and passive perching capabilities depending on their needs, there is no UAV perching system with both capabilities. In this project, we focused on filling this gap. Inspired by the anatomy analysis of bird legs and feet, a novel perching system has been developed to implement the bionics action for both active grasping and passive perching. In addition, for developing a robust and

  6. [NiFe] hydrogenase structural and functional models: new bio-inspired catalysts for hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogenase enzymes reversibly catalyze the oxidation and production of hydrogen in a range close to the thermodynamic potential. The [NiFe] hydrogenase active site contains an iron-cyano-carbonyl moiety linked to a nickel atom which is in an all sulphur environment. Both the active site originality and the potential development of an hydrogen economy make the synthesis of functional and structural models worthy. To take up this challenge, we have synthesised mononuclear ruthenium models and more importantly, nickel-ruthenium complexes, mimicking some structural features of the [NiFe] hydrogenase active site. Ruthenium is indeed isoelectronic to iron and some of its complexes are well-known to bear hydrides. The compounds described in this study have been well characterised and their activity in proton reduction has been successfully tested. Most of them are able to catalyze this reaction though their electrocatalytic potentials remain much more negative compared to which of platinum. The studied parameters point out the importance of the complexes electron richness, especially of the nickel environment. Furthermore, the proton reduction activity is stable for several hours at good rates. The ruthenium environment seems important for this stability. Altogether, these compounds represent the very first catalytically active [NiFe] hydrogenase models. Important additional results of this study are the synergetic behaviour of the two metals in protons reduction and the evidence of a protonation step as the limiting step of the catalytic cycle. We have also shown that a basic site close to ruthenium improves the electrocatalytic potential of the complexes. (author)

  7. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.H.

    1998-07-22

    The goal of the proposed work described in this Final Report was the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The work described here has optimized the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for a low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work has been conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies have been conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors have been studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance has been determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERIOR RESID DEMETALLIZATION CATALYST AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the pore structure of the bimodal catalyst on the residue hydrodemetallization were studied. The simulation of the intra-particle reaction model suggested that an increase in the diffusivity of the macro pore increase the demetallization. The activity tests of several catalyst samples with different pore structure supported the predicted results. The new bimodal dematallization catalyst with high demetallization activity as well as large metal uptake capacity was developed, by improving the pore structure and the hydrogenation activity. The pilot runs demonstrated that the new catalyst possesses longer catalytic life as well as higher demetallization activity in the residue desulfurization process.

  9. Nature-inspired design strategies in sustainable product development: A case study of student projects

    OpenAIRE

    De Pauw, I.C.; Karana, E.; Kandachar, P.V.

    2012-01-01

    In design practice, Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) can be applied when developing sustainable products. However, knowledge on how this actually helps designers is lacking. This study explores the effects of applying Cradle to Cradle and Biomimicry in student projects, as compared to using Ecodesign. The findings indicate that NIDS inspire the students, encourage out-of-the-box thinking, and provide absolute -instead of relative- design principles to guide the concept development. Fu...

  10. Low Cost Autothermal Diesel Reforming Catalyst Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shihadeh, J.; Liu, D.

    2004-01-01

    Catalytic autothermal reforming (ATR) represents an important step of converting fossil fuel to hydrogen rich reformate for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The state-of-the-art reforming catalyst, at present, is a Rh based material which is effective but costly. The objective of our current research is to reduce the catalyst cost by finding an efficient ATR catalyst containing no rhodium. A group of perovskite based catalysts have been synthesized and evaluated under the reforming condition of a diesel surrogate fuel. Hydrogen yield, reforming efficiency, and conversion selectivity to carbon oxides of the catalyst ATR reaction are calculated and compared with the benchmark Rh based material. Several catalyst synthesis improvements were carried out including: 1) selectively doping metals on the A-site and B-site of the perovskite structure, 2) changing the support from perovskite to alumina, 3) altering the method of metal addition, and 4) using transition metals instead of noble metals. It was found that the catalytic activity changed little with modification of the A-site metal, while it displayed considerable dependence on the B-site metal. Perovskite supports performed much better than alumina based supports.

  11. The human hand as an inspiration for robot hand development

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    “The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development” presents an edited collection of authoritative contributions in the area of robot hands. The results described in the volume are expected to lead to more robust, dependable, and inexpensive distributed systems such as those endowed with complex and advanced sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities. The twenty-four chapters discuss the field of robotic grasping and manipulation viewed in light of the human hand’s capabilities and push the state-of-the-art in robot hand design and control. Topics discussed include human hand biomechanics, neural control, sensory feedback and perception, and robotic grasp and manipulation. This book will be useful for researchers from diverse areas such as robotics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and anthropologists.

  12. Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, R.J.; Raje, A.; Keogh, R.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this research project is to develop the technology for the production of physically robust iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that have suitable activity, selectivity and stability to be used in the slurry phase synthesis reactor development. The catalysts that are developed shall be suitable for testing in the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas, to produce either low-or high-alpha product distributions. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the {open_quotes}standard-catalyst{close_quotes} developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst this is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  13. Development of a Novel Catalyst for No Decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ates Akyurtlu; Jale Akyurtlu

    2007-06-22

    Air pollution arising from the emission of nitrogen oxides as a result of combustion taking place in boilers, furnaces and engines, has increasingly been recognized as a problem. New methods to remove NO{sub x} emissions significantly and economically must be developed. The current technology for post-combustion removal of NO is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ammonia or possibly by a hydrocarbon such as methane. The catalytic decomposition of NO to give N{sub 2} will be preferable to the SCR process because it will eliminate the costs and operating problems associated with the use of an external reducing species. The most promising decomposition catalysts are transition metal (especially copper)-exchanged zeolites, perovskites, and noble metals supported on metal oxides such as alumina, silica, and ceria. The main shortcoming of the noble metal reducible oxide (NMRO) catalysts is that they are prone to deactivation by oxygen. It has been reported that catalysts containing tin oxide show oxygen adsorption behavior that may involve hydroxyl groups attached to the tin oxide. This is different than that observed with other noble metal-metal oxide combinations, which have the oxygen adsorbing on the noble metal and subsequently spilling over to the metal oxide. This observation leads one to believe that the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts may have a potential as NO decomposition catalysts in the presence of oxygen. This prediction is also supported by some preliminary data obtained for NO decomposition on a Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalyst in the PI's laboratory. The main objective of the research that is being undertaken is the evaluation of the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts for the decomposition of NO in simulated power plant stack gases with particular attention to the resistance to deactivation by O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and elevated temperatures. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) studies on Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts having

  14. Development of polymer catalyst manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy water is used as moderator and coolant in Pressurized Heavy Water Power Plants. According to the governmental long-term plan for power supply, Korea is scheduled to construct new six pressurized heavy water power plants till the year 2006. Total heavy water demand for these plants would be 3892 Mg during the period 1992-2006. Reformed hydrogen processes are considered best suited to Korea. Hydrophobic catalysts for this process were manufactured and the performance of hydrogen isotope exchance was investigated. The overall mass transfer coefficients varied between 0.004 and 2.295 m3 HD/m3 Bed.sec. and heavy water separation processes using the catalysts were optimized. (Author)

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF PRECIPITATED IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. X. Lang; Dr. S. Chokkaram; Dr. L. Nowicki; G. Wei; Dr. Y. Ding; Dr. B. Reddy; Dr. S. Xiao

    1999-07-22

    Despite the current worldwide oil glut, the US will ultimately require large-scale production of liquid (transportation) fuels from coal. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, with its versatile product slate, may be expected to play a major role in production of transportation fuels via indirect coal liquefaction. Some of the F-T catalysts synthesized and tested at Texas A and M University under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC89868 were more active than any other known catalysts developed for maximizing production of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (waxes). The objectives of the present contract were to demonstrate repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of preparation procedures of two of these catalysts on a laboratory scale. Improvements in the catalyst performance were attempted through the use of: (a) higher reaction pressure and gas space velocity to maximize the reactor productivity; (b) modifications in catalyst preparation steps; and (c) different pretreatment procedures. Repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of catalyst synthesis procedure have been successfully demonstrated in stirred tank slurry reactor tests. Reactor space-time-yield was increased up to 48% by increasing reaction pressure from 1.48 MPa to 2.17 MPa, while maintaining the gas contact time and synthesis gas conversion at a constant value. Use of calcination temperatures above 300 C, additional CaO promoter, and/or potassium silicate as the source of potassium promoter, instead of potassium bicarbonate, did not result in improved catalyst performance. By using different catalyst activation procedures they were able to increase substantially the catalyst activity, while maintaining low methane and gaseous hydrocarbon selectivities. Catalyst productivity in runs SA-0946 and SA-2186 was 0.71 and 0.86 gHC/g-Fe/h, respectively, and this represents 45-75% improvement in productivity relative to that achieved in Rheinpreussen's demonstration

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF PRECIPITATED IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the current worldwide oil glut, the US will ultimately require large-scale production of liquid (transportation) fuels from coal. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, with its versatile product slate, may be expected to play a major role in production of transportation fuels via indirect coal liquefaction. Some of the F-T catalysts synthesized and tested at Texas A and M University under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC89868 were more active than any other known catalysts developed for maximizing production of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (waxes). The objectives of the present contract were to demonstrate repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of preparation procedures of two of these catalysts on a laboratory scale. Improvements in the catalyst performance were attempted through the use of: (a) higher reaction pressure and gas space velocity to maximize the reactor productivity; (b) modifications in catalyst preparation steps; and (c) different pretreatment procedures. Repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of catalyst synthesis procedure have been successfully demonstrated in stirred tank slurry reactor tests. Reactor space-time-yield was increased up to 48% by increasing reaction pressure from 1.48 MPa to 2.17 MPa, while maintaining the gas contact time and synthesis gas conversion at a constant value. Use of calcination temperatures above 300 C, additional CaO promoter, and/or potassium silicate as the source of potassium promoter, instead of potassium bicarbonate, did not result in improved catalyst performance. By using different catalyst activation procedures they were able to increase substantially the catalyst activity, while maintaining low methane and gaseous hydrocarbon selectivities. Catalyst productivity in runs SA-0946 and SA-2186 was 0.71 and 0.86 gHC/g-Fe/h, respectively, and this represents 45-75% improvement in productivity relative to that achieved in Rheinpreussen's demonstration plant

  17. Development of radioactive platinum group metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fission product nuclides generated during the irradiation of reactor fuel include many useful elements, among them platinum group metals such as ruthenium, rhodium and palladium which are of great industrial importance, occur rarely in nature and are highly valuable. In this research, the authors reviewed various PGM recovery methods. Recovery of palladium from seven-component simulated waste solutions was conducted by selective precipitation method. The recovery yield was more than 99.5% and the purity of the product was more than 99%. Wet-proof catalyst was prepared with the recovered palladium. The specific surface area of the catalyst support was more than 400m2/g. The content of palladium impregnated on the support was 1 to 10 wt. %. Hydrogen isotope exchange efficiency of more than 93% to equilibrium with small amount of the catalyst was obtained. It was turned out possible to consider using such palladium or other very low active PGM materials in applications where its activity is unimportant as in nuclear industries. (author). 86 refs., 44 tabs., 88 figs

  18. Development of radioactive platinum group metal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.S.; Kim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.E. [and others

    1999-03-01

    The fission product nuclides generated during the irradiation of reactor fuel include many useful elements, among them platinum group metals such as ruthenium, rhodium and palladium which are of great industrial importance, occur rarely in nature and are highly valuable. In this research, the authors reviewed various PGM recovery methods. Recovery of palladium from seven-component simulated waste solutions was conducted by selective precipitation method. The recovery yield was more than 99.5% and the purity of the product was more than 99%. Wet-proof catalyst was prepared with the recovered palladium. The specific surface area of the catalyst support was more than 400m{sup 2}/g.The content of palladium impregnated on the support was 1 to 10 wt. %. Hydrogen isotope exchange efficiency of more than 93% to equilibrium with small amount of the catalyst was obtained. It was turned out possible to consider using such palladium or other very low active PGM materials in applications where its activity is unimportant as in nuclear industries. (author). 86 refs., 44 tabs., 88 figs.

  19. Surface-inspired molecular vanadium oxide catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of alcohols: evidence for metal cooperation and peroxide intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werncke, C Gunnar; Limberg, Christian; Knispel, Christina; Mebs, Stefan

    2011-10-17

    On the basis that thiacalix[4]arene (H(4)T4A) complex (PPh(4) )(2) [H(2)T4A(VO(2))](2) (Ia) was found to be an adequate functional model for surface species occurring on vanadium oxide based catalysts and itself catalyses the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of alcohols, an analogue containing 2,2'-thiobis(2,4-di-tert-butylphenolate), (S)L(2-), as ligand, namely, (PPh(4))(2)[(S)LVO(2)](2) (II) was investigated in the same context. Despite the apparent similarity of Ia and II, studies on II revealed several novel insights, which are also valuable in connection with surfaces of vanadia catalysts: 1) For Ia and II similar turnover numbers (TONs) were found for the ODH of activated alcohols, which indicates that the additional OH units inherent to Ia do not contribute particularly to the activity of this complex, for instance, through prebinding of the alcohol. 2) On dissolution II enters into an equilibrium with a monomeric form, which is the predominant species in solution; nevertheless, ODH proceeds exclusively at the dimeric form, and this stresses the need for cooperation of two vanadium centres. 3) By omitting O(2) from the system during the oxidation of 9-fluorenol, the reduced form of the catalyst could be isolated and fully characterised (including single-crystal X-ray analysis). The corresponding intermediate had been elusive in case of thiacalixarene system Ia. 4) Reoxidation was found to proceed via a peroxide intermediate that also oxidises one alcohol equivalent. As the peroxide can also perform mono- and dioxygenation of the thioether group in II, after a number of turnovers the active catalyst contains a sulfone group. The reduced form of this ultimate catalyst was also isolated and structurally characterised. Possible implications of 1)-4) for the function of heterogeneous vanadia catalysts are discussed. PMID:21915928

  20. Leadership development as boundary work. Inspired moments and longitudinal efforts

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Leadership development has gained great interest internationally. There are a variety of approaches in leadership development of school leaders. Leadership development ininterprofessional settings is among the trends. This thesis examines how leadership development evolves in an interprofessional team. The interprofessional team was situated ina Norwegian context, and consisted of principals, administrators and researchers. The team was formed to support the principals in three schools in lea...

  1. Autonomic networking-on-chip bio-inspired specification, development, and verification

    CERN Document Server

    Cong-Vinh, Phan

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing mainstream importance and unique advantages of autonomic networking-on-chip (ANoC) technology, Autonomic Networking-On-Chip: Bio-Inspired Specification, Development, and Verification is among the first books to evaluate research results on formalizing this emerging NoC paradigm, which was inspired by the human nervous system. The FIRST Book to Assess Research Results, Opportunities, & Trends in ""BioChipNets"" The third book in the Embedded Multi-Core Systems series from CRC Press, this is an advanced technical guide and reference composed of contributions from prominent re

  2. Development and Commercial Application of DZC Ⅱ-1 Type Catalyst for Hydrogenation of Pyrolysis Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ye; Wang Fucun

    2006-01-01

    Commercial application of the DZC Ⅱ-1 catalyst developed on the basis of the DZ-1 catalyst was introduced. The application tests of the catalyst under overload had proved that this catalyst demon-strated satisfactory adaptability to feedstock after continued operation for 20 months with little changes in the bed pressure drop, the reactor inlet temperature and the bed temperature rise. The DZC Ⅱ-1 catalyst was regarded as the best catalyst for the second-stage hydrogenation of pyrolysis gasoline.

  3. Inspire and develop people, two key competence for safety leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing leadership skills in organizations is key to ensuring the sustainability of excellent results in industries with high standards of safety and reliability element. In order to have a model of development of specific leadership for these organizations, Tecnatom in 2011, we initiated an internal project to find and adapt a competency model to these requirements. (Author)

  4. The Developing Tendency of Ambivalent Words and the Inspiration of it on Lexicography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ambivalent words are a common phenomenon objectively existing in most of the languages in the world. The previous studies mainly focus on the following questions: Do ambivalent words really exist? How many types of ambivalent words are there? What are the forming reasons of ambivalent words? This article aims to analyze the developing tendency of ambivalent words and its inspiration on lexicography.

  5. Nature-inspired design strategies in sustainable product development: A case study of student projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.; Karana, E.; Kandachar, P.V.

    2012-01-01

    In design practice, Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) can be applied when developing sustainable products. However, knowledge on how this actually helps designers is lacking. This study explores the effects of applying Cradle to Cradle and Biomimicry in student projects, as compared to using

  6. Computational exploration of alternative catalysts for olefin purification: cobalt and copper analogues inspired by nickel bis(dithiolene) electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixia; Brothers, Edward N; Hall, Michael B

    2014-09-15

    Olefin purification is an important process in petrochemistry. The behavior of the nickel bis(dithiolene) complex Ni(S2C2(CF3)2)2 (1(_Ni)) as an electrocatalyst for this process was thoroughly explored experimentally and computationally. Here, computational investigations with the ωB97X-D functional were conducted to explore alternative candidates [M(S2C2(CF3)2)2](n) (M = Co with n = 0, -1, -2, -3 and Cu with n = +1, 0, -1, -2) for olefin purification by using ethylene as a model. The reaction mechanism for these alternative catalysts was calculated to determine if any of these alternatives could block the decomposition route that exists for the Ni catalyst, bind ethylene efficiently to form the adducts, and release ethylene upon reduction. Calculations predict that the neutral cobalt complex 1(_Co) binds and releases olefin upon reduction with low activation barriers. Furthermore, 1(_Co), unlike 1(_Ni), catalyzes the desired reaction without the need of the anion as a cocatalyst. The Co atom directly coordinates with ethylene more favorably than Ni, facilitating the indirect pathway that is found to lead to the formation of the desired interligand adduct. The reduction and oxidation processes involved in the reaction are computed to occur under reasonable experiment conditions. Among the copper complexes, the calculations predict that the anionic copper complex 1(_Cu)(-) also may be an alternative catalyst, whose performance is somewhat worse than 1(_Ni). The reaction of 1(_Cu)(-) with ethylene is predicted to be thermodynamically neutral. New catalysts that need no electrochemical regenerations may be possible by designing appropriate dithiolene ligands for 1(_Cu)(-). PMID:25171059

  7. Developments in electrochemistry science inspired by Martin Fleischmann

    CERN Document Server

    Pletcher, Derek; Williams, David

    2014-01-01

    Martin Fleischmann was truly one of the 'fathers' of modern electrochemistry having made major contributions to diverse topics within electrochemical science and technology. These include the theory and practice of voltammetry and in situ spectroscopic techniques, instrumentation, electrochemical phase formation, corrosion, electrochemical engineering, electrosynthesis and cold fusion.  While intended to honour the memory of Martin Fleischmann, Developments in Electrochemistry is neither a biography nor a history of his contributions. Rather, the book is a series of critical reviews of topic

  8. Theory-inspired development of organic electro-optic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real-time, time-dependent density functional theory (RTTDDFT) and pseudo-atomistic Monte Carlo-molecular dynamics (PAMCMD) calculations have been used in a correlated manner to achieve quantitative definition of structure/function relationships necessary for the optimization of electro-optic activity in organic materials. Utilizing theoretical guidance, electro-optic coefficients (at telecommunication wavelengths) have been increased to 500 pm/V while keeping optical loss to less than 2 dB/cm. RTTDDFT affords the advantage of permitting explicit treatment of time-dependent electric fields, both applied fields and internal fields. This modification has permitted the quantitative simulation of the variation of linear and nonlinear optical properties of chromophores and the electro-optic activity of materials with optical frequency and dielectric permittivity. PAMCMD statistical mechanical calculations have proven an effective means of treating the full range of spatially-anisotropic intermolecular electrostatic interactions that play critical roles in defining the degree of noncentrosymmetric order that is achieved by electric field poling of organic electro-optic materials near their glass transition temperatures. New techniques have been developed for the experimental characterization of poling-induced acentric order including a modification of variable angle polarization absorption spectroscopy (VAPAS) permitting a meaningful correlation of theoretical and experimental data related to poling-induced order for a variety of complex organic electro-optic materials.

  9. Inspiring Climate Education Excellence(ICEE): Developing Elearning professional development modules - secondary science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellagher, E.; Buhr, S. M.; Lynds, S. E.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Cires Education Outreach

    2011-12-01

    Inspiring Climate Education Excellence (ICEE) is a NASA-funded project to develop content knowledge and knowledge of effective teaching strategies in climate education among secondary science teachers. ICEE resources are aligned with the Essential Principles of Climate Science. Building upon a needs assessment and face to face workshop, ICEE resources include iTunesU videos, an ICEE 101 resource site with videos and peer-reviewed learning activities, and a moderated online forum. Self-directed modules and an online course are being developed around concepts and topics in which teachers express the most interest and need for instruction. ICEE resources include attention to effective teaching strategies, such as awareness of student misconceptions, strategies for forestalling controversy and advice from master teachers on implementation and curriculum development. The resources are being developed in partnership with GLOBE, and the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) and are informed by the work of the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) project. ICEE will help to meet the professional development needs of teachers, including those participating in the GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign.

  10. Graduate Career Pathways: case studies to inspire undergraduate career development planning

    OpenAIRE

    Conlon, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this poster is to present the mid project update of a University teaching and learning funded research project. Graduate Career Pathways: case studies to inspire undergraduate career development planning The aim of this project is to investigate how graduate role models might be used to facilitate career planning within undergraduate Personal Development Planning (PDP). The Fashion and Textiles Buying Management academic team are aware of significant career progression...

  11. Development of multifunctional materials exhibiting distributed sensing and actuation inspired by fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philen, Michael

    2011-04-01

    This manuscript is an overview of the research that is currently being performed as part of a 2009 NSF Office of Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innnovation (EFRI) grant on BioSensing and BioActuation (BSBA). The objectives of this multi-university collaborative research are to achieve a greater understanding of the hierarchical organization and structure of the sensory, muscular, and control systems of fish, and to develop advanced biologically-inspired material systems having distributed sensing, actuation, and intelligent control. New experimental apparatus have been developed for performing experiments involving live fish and robotic devices, and new bio-inspired haircell sensors and artificial muscles are being developed using carbonaceous nanomaterials, bio-derived molecules, and composite technology. Results demonstrating flow sensing and actuation are presented.

  12. POISON RESISTANT CATALYST DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew W. Wang

    2001-03-29

    The Alternative Fuels Field Test Unit (AFFTU) is a portable laboratory designed specifically to provide on-site evaluation of potential feedstocks for processes that produce alternative fuels from indigenous raw materials such as coal, natural gas or environmentally disadvantaged carbonaceous feedstocks. Since conversion of these raw materials into feed gas streams can produce a variety of bulk gas compositions, which furthermore can contain a myriad of trace components, it is necessary to evaluate each new feedstock on an individual basis. While it is possible to prepare blended gas mixtures to simulate the bulk composition of a known feedstock, it is neither possible nor cost-effective to simulate adequately the variety of trace chemicals present in that feedstock--some of which may not even be detected by routine analysis. Additionally, the transient composition of the gas during upsets or routine process changes may have an impact on the proposed process that is not foreseen in standard design. To address these concerns, the AFFTU was constructed with the following experimental capabilities: (1) A state-of-the-art gas chromatograph system to perform semi-continuous monitoring of both bulk composition and the concentration of key trace poisons down to one part per billion (ppb). (2) A 30-mL reactor system that can accept up to two feed streams from the customer, allowing a true life test with the actual gas projected for use in the proposed facility. (3) A manifold of four adsorbent beds, located upstream of the reactor, which permits the testing of adsorbents for the removal of contaminants from the feed stream. The effectiveness of these adsorbents may be evaluated either by analysis of the gas upstream and downstream of the bed (or at an intermediate point within the bed) or by observing the impact of the presence or absence of that bed on the actual stability of the catalyst activity. To achieve portability, the AFFTU was constructed in a commercial 48-foot

  13. Discovery and Development of Pyridine-bis(imine) and Related Catalysts for Olefin Polymerization and Oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brooke L

    2015-09-15

    For over 40 years following the polyolefin catalyst discoveries of Hogan and Banks (Phillips) and Ziegler (Max Planck Institute), chemists traversed the periodic table searching for new transition metal and lanthanide-based olefin polymerization systems. Remarkably, none of these "hits" employed iron, that is, until three groups independently reported iron catalysts for olefin polymerization in the late 1990's. The history surrounding the discovery of these catalysts was only the beginning of their uniqueness, as the ensuing years have proven these systems remarkable in several regards. Of primary importance are the pyridine-bis(imine) ligands (herein referred to as PDI), which produced iron catalysts that are among the world's most active for ethylene polymerization, demonstrated "staying power" despite over 15 years of ligand improvement efforts, and generated highly active polymerization systems with cobalt, chromium, and vanadium. Although many ligands have been employed in iron-catalyzed polymerization, the PDI family has thus far provided the most information about iron's capabilities and tendencies. For example, iron systems tend to be highly selective for ethylene over higher olefins, making them strong candidates for producing highly crystalline polyethylene, or highly linear α-olefins. Iron PDI polymerizes propylene with 2,1-regiochemistry via a predominantly isotactic, chain end control mechanism. Because the first insertion proceeds via 1,2-regiochemistry, iron (and cobalt) PDI systems can be tailored to make highly linear dimers of α-olefins by "head-to-head" coupling, resulting from a switch in regiochemistry after the first insertion. Finally, PDI ligands, while not being surpassed in activity, have inspired the development of related ligand families and complexes, such as pendant donor diimines (PDD), which are also highly efficient at producing linear α-olefins. This Account will detail a variety of oligomerization and polymerization results

  14. Vocational Education: Catalyst for Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Paul V.; Paul, Krishan K.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews vocational education's role in private-sector retraining programs, reducing unemployment, attracting new industries, and developing human resources. Briefly discusses recent federal initiatives toward economic development and their relationship to vocational education. (LRA)

  15. The Developing Tendency of Ambivalent Words and the Inspiration of it on Lexicography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren; Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ambivalent words are a common phenomenon objectively existing in most of the languages in the world.The previous studies mainly focus on the following questions:Do ambivalent words really exist?How many types of ambivalent words are there?What are the forming reasons of ambivalent words?This article aims to analyze the developing tendency of ambivalent words and its inspiration on lexicography.

  16. EVALUATING THE DEVELOPMENT STEPS BASED ON LIFE-INSPIRED STRATEGIES FOR THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    GREU, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an evaluation of the role of the prominent trends in the information and communications technologies (ICT) with relevant impact in modeling the information society (IS) development towards life-inspired strategies to face the actual challenges of world evolution. Taking into account the evolutions of the IS in the last decades, the complexity of the correlations between the ICT and the IS could be better approached with instruments and models that proved performance in the ...

  17. An Overview of Recent Development in Composite Catalysts from Porous Materials for Various Reactions and Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiku Xie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts are important to the chemical industry and environmental remediation due to their effective conversion of one chemical into another. Among them, composite catalysts have attracted continuous attention during the past decades. Nowadays, composite catalysts are being used more and more to meet the practical catalytic performance requirements in the chemical industry of high activity, high selectivity and good stability. In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on development of composite catalysts, mainly focusing on the composite catalysts obtained from porous materials such as zeolites, mesoporous materials, carbon nanotubes (CNT, etc. Six types of porous composite catalysts are discussed, including amorphous oxide modified zeolite composite catalysts, zeolite composites prepared by co-crystallization or overgrowth, hierarchical porous catalysts, host-guest porous composites, inorganic and organic mesoporous composite catalysts, and polymer/CNT composite catalysts.

  18. Appraisal: the catalyst of personal development

    OpenAIRE

    Conlon, Maurice

    2003-01-01

    Appraisal of NHS consultants has been running for two years, and most general practitioners will have their first appraisal this year. If done properly, the process should enhance personal development and learning, but links with revalidation have led to fears about it being used only for assessment. The challenge is to produce a valued appraisal system that ultimately improves patient care

  19. Catalysts development for Venezuelan oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of technical activities at PDVSA Intevep, Catalysis became a fact. As the technological affiliate of the Venezuelan Oil Industry, its rol in this area has been oriented towards the refining and petrochemical needs of that industry. In doing so, the whole set of activities dealing with basic research, development and consulting has lead to keep in force such a topic along our history. This work describes these activities, the infrastructure which supported it and the most relevant results, both those which have reached commercial level together with those holding that potential through a valid patent. As can be seen, this country relay on a corporation capable of generating catalytic technologies to satisfy its needs, within a wide range of applications. PDVSA Intevep has been exhaustively working with that orientation from the knowledge creation through the technology transfer of our products to the operational units

  20. Development of MIP Technology and Its Proprietary Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Jianhong; Xu Youhao; Xie Chaogang; Long Jun; Jiang Wenbin; Qiu Zhonghong

    2009-01-01

    A novel catalytic cracking process named the MIP process was developed by the Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (RIPP), SINOPEC, to manufacture clean gasoline with lower olefin contents. The MIP pro-cess features a unique riser consisting of two sequential reaction zones with different radii, in which different kinds of chemical reactions are intensified respectively to achieve better product slates and product properties. In order to fully implement the MIP potentials, a proprietary catalyst RMI tailored to the needs of the MIP process was devel-oped by adopting an AIRY zeolite having improved accessibility to active sites, which could result in better heavy oil cracking, coke selectivity and olefin reduction performance compared with the conventional REUSY zeolite. Its commercial application showed that the RMI catalyst could further reduce the olefin content in gasoline and raise the gasoline octane number while increasing the total liquid yield. On the basis of the MIP process, the MIP-CGP process was also developed to significantly reduce the olefin content in FCC naphtha and to enhance the propylene yield simultaneously. As far as the MIP-CGP process itself is concerned, both the MIP-CGP process and the MIP process have the similar reactor configuration but with different reactor size and operating parameters. The proprietary catalyst CGP-1 is also proposed to tailor for the MIP-CGP process. The specific features of the CGP-1 catalyst cover the new matrix, which possesses excellent capability to accommodate coke formation in the first reaction zone; the modified Y zeolite, which exhibits high hydrogen transfer activity in the second reaction zone; and the MFI zeolite, which has good gasoline olefm cracking activity. The commercial test results of MIP-CGP process applied along with the CGP-1 catalyst showed that the olefin content of gasoline was less than 18 v% and the propylene yield was more than 8 m%. Furthermore, as compared with the conventional

  1. Anging Petrochemical Co.Adopts Novel Acrvlonitrile Catalyst Developed by Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The SANC catalyst for synthesis of acrylonitrile developed by the SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute (SPRI) has been successfully applied in the 80 kt/a acrylonitrile unit at the Anqing Petrochemical Company.At present the bulk catalyst used in the acrylonitrile unit at Anqing Petrochemical Company cannot meet the requirements for increasingly elevating operating level.Starting May 2008 the novel SANC catalyst,developed by SPRI and manufactured by the SINOPEC Catalyst Branch Company

  2. Entrepreneurship as a Catalyst for Rural Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Sharif Norhafiza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry is seen as capable of being an agent of change in the landscape of economic, social and environment of a tourist destination. Tourism activity has also generated employment and entrepreneurship opportunities to the local community as well as using available resources as tourist attractions. The tourism sector has the potential to be a catalyst for the development of entrepreneurship and small business performance. Through the development of tourism, the rural community has the opportunity to offer services or sell products to the both local and foreign tourists. To fulfill this purpose, local community participation in entrepreneurship is very important in order to develope the economic potential and to determine the direction of a development in rural areas. In the context of entrepreneurship, local participation is important not only as an entrepreneur and labor in this sector as well as complementary sectors of the others, but they can serve to encourage the involvement of other residents to join together to develop this entrepreneurial. This article aims to discuss the extent of entrepreneurship as a catalyst to the development of tourism in rural areas. Through active participation among community members, rural entrepreneurship will hopefully move towards prosperity and success of rural development.

  3. Writing Inspired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischhauser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Students need inspiration to write. Assigning is not teaching. In order to inspire students to write fiction worth reading, teachers must take them through the process of writing. Physical objects inspire good writing with depth. In this article, the reader will be taken through the process of inspiring young writers through the use of boxes.…

  4. Development of Novel Resid Hydrometallization Catalyst RDM-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Dawei; Niu Chuanfeng; Yang Qinghe; Liu Tao

    2007-01-01

    Based on the reaction mechanism of resid hydrodemetallization,a new catalyst carrier was designed and prepared.As compared with the similar type of catalyst carder,the said new carrier featured a higher pore volume,a larger pore diameter and a weaker surface acidity,which could improve the diffusion performance and stable reaction performance of the catalyst.The active metal components were loaded on the said carrier by a new technique for better metal dispersion,thus the impurity removal rate of the new catalyst,RDM-3,was improved significantly.The commercial test of the RDM-3 catalyst showed that the process of catalyst preparation was stable,the catalyst performance was slightly better than the catalyst prepared in the lab,therefore,the catalyst could be manufactured in commercial scale.

  5. Development of Granular Catalysts and Natural Gas Combustion Technology for Small Gas Turbine Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ismagilov, Z.R.; Kerzhentsev, M.A.; Yashnik, S.A.; Shikina, N.V.; Zagoruiko, A.N.; Parmon, V.N.; Zakharov, V.M.; Braynin, B.I.; Favorski, O.N.

    2010-01-01

    Granular catalysts for natural gas combustion in gas turbine power plants were developed: Pd-Ce-Al2O3 catalyst for initiation of methane combustion at low temperatures and the catalysts based on oxides of Mn, hexaaluminates of Mn and La for high temperature

  6. Development of a Novel Type Catalyst SY-2 for Two-Stage Hydrogenation of Pyrolysis Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Linmei; Zhang Xuejun; Zhang Zhihua; Wang Fucun

    2004-01-01

    By using the group ⅢB or groupⅦB metals and modulating the characteristics of electric charges on carrier surface, improving the catalyst preparation process and techniques for loading the active metal components, a novel type SY-2 catalyst earmarked for two-stage hydrogenation of pyrolysis gasoline has been developed. The catalyst evaluation results have indicated that the novel catalyst is characterized by a better hydrogenation reaction activity to give higher aromatic yield.

  7. New development thoughts on the bio-inspired intelligence based control for unmanned combat aerial vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Bio-inspired intelligence is in the spotlight in the field of international artificial intelligence,and unmanned combat aerial vehicle(UCAV),owing to its potential to perform dangerous,repetitive tasks in remote and hazardous,is very promising for the technological leadership of the nation and essential for improving the security of society.On the basis of introduction of bioinspired intelligence and UCAV,a series of new development thoughts on UCAV control are proposed,including artificial brain based high-level autonomous control for UCAV,swarm intelligence based cooperative control for multiple UCAVs,hy-brid swarm intelligence and Bayesian network based situation assessment under complicated combating environments, bio-inspired hardware based high-level autonomous control for UCAV,and meta-heuristic intelligence based heterogeneous cooperative control for multiple UCAVs and unmanned combat ground vehicles(UCGVs).The exact realization of the proposed new development thoughts can enhance the effectiveness of combat,while provide a series of novel breakthroughs for the intelligence,integration and advancement of future UCAV systems.

  8. Designing Catalysts for Clean Technology, Green Chemistry, and Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurig Thomas, John; Raja, Robert

    2005-08-01

    There is a pressing need for cleaner fuels (free or aromatics and of minimal sulfur content) or ones that convert chemical energy directly to electricity, silently and without production of noxious oxides and particulates; chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical processes that may be conducted in a one-step, solvent-free manner and that use air as the preferred oxidant; and industrial processes that minimize consumption of energy, production of waste, or the use of corrosive, explosive, volatile, and nonbiodegradable materials. All these needs and other desiderata, such as the in situ production and containment of aggressive and hazardous reagents, and the avoidance of use of ecologically harmful elements, may be achieved by designing the appropriate heterogeneous inorganic catalyst, which ideally should be cheap, readily preparable and fully characterizable, preferably under in situ reaction conditions. A range of nanoporous and nanoparticle catalysts that meet most of the stringent demands of sustainable development and responsible (clean) technology is described. Specific examples that are highlighted include the production of adipic acid (precursor of polyamides and urethanes) without the use of concentrated nitric acid nor the production of greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide; the production of caprolactam (precursor of nylon) without the use of oleum and hydroxylamine sulfate; and the terminal oxyfunctionalization of linear alkanes in air. The topic of biocatalysis and sustainable development is also briefly discussed for the epoxidation of terpenes and fatty acid methyl esters; for the generation of polymers, polylactides, and polyesters; and for the production of 1,3-propanediol from corn.

  9. Study and Pilot Scale Development of Catalyst for Ethylebenzene Synthesis Through Transalkylation of Benzene and Polyethylbenzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jin; Zhang Fengmei; Li Minglin; Hao Xiaoming; Shu Xingtian; He Mingyuan

    2002-01-01

    This paper refers to the results of study and development of benzene and polyethylbenzene transalkylation catalyst (type AEB-1) for synthesis of ethylbenzene. The effect of reaction conditions on the reaction performance of the catalyst was investigated in the pressurized microreactor CDS-900. A transalkylation catalyst with high activity, good selectivity and stability was developed following a 2000-hour test on the activity and stability of the catalyst. The preparation of this catalyst was implemented in pilot scale and this catalyst was tested for activity and stability in a 150 t/a pilot unit for production of ethylbenzene. The test results have shown that this transalkylation catalyst has excellent activity, selectivity and stability. The operation of pilot test unit ran smoothly and the process scheme is viable.

  10. Development of a frequency-modulated ultrasonic sensor inspired by bat echolocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepa, Krzysztof; Abaid, Nicole

    2015-03-01

    Bats have evolved to sense using ultrasonic signals with a variety of different frequency signatures which interact with their environment. Among these signals, those with time-varying frequencies may enable the animals to gather more complex information for obstacle avoidance and target tracking. Taking inspiration from this system, we present the development of a sonar sensor capable of generating frequency-modulated ultrasonic signals. The device is based on a miniature mobile computer, with on board data capture and processing capabilities, which is designed for eventual autonomous operation in a robotic swarm. The hardware and software components of the sensor are detailed, as well their integration. Preliminary results for target detection using both frequency-modulated and constant frequency signals are discussed.

  11. Development of New Generation Catalysts for Selective Hydrodesulfurization of FCC Naphtha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Yang; Li Mingfeng; Li Huifeng; Qu Jinhua; Nie Hong; Li Dadong

    2009-01-01

    The influence of active metal components of catalyst, additives and catalyst preparation method on the reactiv-ity of catalyst for selective hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of FCC naphtha was investigated, and the RSDS-21 catalyst with high HDS performance and the RSDS-22 catalyst with high selectivity were developed by RIPP. The composite loading of a new series of catalysts for selective HDS of FCC gasoline has demonstrated excellent desulfurization activity and selectivity and can under conventional hydrotreating conditions manufacture clean gasoline product meeting the national Ⅳ emission standard and the Euro Ⅴ emission standard with less loss in antiknock index. The finalized new series of FCC catalysts upon being adopted for selective HDS of FCC naphtha have good adaptability to different feedstocks along with good stability.

  12. Development of FHDS Type Catalyst for Deep Hydrodesulfurization of Diesel Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Rong; Yao Yunhai; Zhou Yong

    2005-01-01

    The FHDS type catalyst for deep hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of diesel fuel is a highactivity catalyst developed by FRIPP in order to meet the requirements of Chinese refiners for production of low-sulfur clean diesel fuel containing less than 300 ppm of sulfur. The FH-DS type catalyst has excellent HDS and HDN activity thanks to modification of alumina through incorporating additives, optimization of catalyst preparation and optimal combination of active ingredients.Under low pressure the HDS activity of this catalyst is by 50% higher than that of domestic reference catalysts available in the market and is slightly better than that of foreign reference catalyst. When this catalyst is used for manufacture of clean ultra-low sulfur diesel (containing <30 ppm of S), its volumetric relative desulfurization activity is 46% higher than that of foreign reference catalyst, and this catalyst is an excellent catalyst for manufacture of low-sulfur clean diesel fuel derived from imported high-sulfur Kuwaiti and Arabian crude oils.

  13. Bioarchitecture - Inspirations From Nature

    OpenAIRE

    eryıldız, semih halil; MEZINI, Ledita

    2012-01-01

    Engineers, architects, and artists often refer to nature as a basis. Many engineers find their structural inspiration from plant life, in a spider’s web, a piece of coral, a beehive, or in the structural development of animals. Bioarchitecture is a particular moment in which architecture, engineering, and art converge as they are using the same inspirations. By taking a look around, designers can find inspiration everywhere – particularly in nature. Nature provides us with an amaz...

  14. Development of highly active and stable hybrid cathode catalyst for PEMFCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Won Suk

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are attractive power sources of the future for a variety of applications including portable electronics, stationary power, and automobile application. However, sluggish cathode kinetics, high Pt cost, and durability issues inhibit the commercialization of PEMFCs. To overcome these drawbacks, research has been focused on alloying Pt with transition metals since alloy catalysts show significantly improved catalytic properties like high activity, selectivity, and durability. However, Pt-alloy catalysts synthesized using the conventional impregnation method exhibit uneven particle size and poor particle distribution resulting in poor performance and/or durability in PEMFCs. In this dissertation, a novel catalyst synthesis methodology is developed and compared with catalysts prepared using impregnation method and commercial catalysts. Two approaches are investigated for the catalyst development. The catalyst durability was studied under U. S. DRIVE Fuel Cell Tech Team suggested protocols. In the first approach, the carbon composite catalyst (CCC) having active sites for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is employed as a support for the synthesis of Pt/CCC catalyst. The structural and electrochemical properties of Pt/CCC catalyst are investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while RDE and fuel cell testing are carried out to study the electrochemical properties. The synergistic effect of CCC and Pt is confirmed by the observed high activity towards ORR for the Pt/CCC catalyst. The second approach is the synthesis of Co-doped hybrid cathode catalysts (Co-doped Pt/CCC) by diffusing the Co metal present within the CCC support into the Pt nanoparticles during heat-treatment. The optimized Co-doped Pt/CCC catalyst performed better than the commercial catalysts and the catalyst prepared using the impregnation method in PEMFCs and showed high

  15. Development of industrial hydrogenating catalyst on rhenium base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processes for forming rhenium catalysts on carbon carrier and their catalytic properties in nitrobenzene (NB) reduction were studied. Application of an ammonia preparation to the carbon surface produced impregnated carbon saturated at room temperature with a water solution of the ammonia preparation, taken in a volume equal to the volumetric capacity of the carbon. With one impregnation, 2% rhenium was taken up. Catalysts containing more than 5% rhenium were obtained by impregnating the carbon with heating and use of more concentrated solutions. Catalysts made in this way and dried at 1000C had the composition Re2OH/carbon/. The most active catalysts were those reduced at 200-2500C; higher temperatures, up to 300-5000C, decreased the activity. Study of the catalytic properties of the rhenium catalysts in a liquid phase reduction of NB showed that the specific activity of rhenium depends only slightly on the content of the active component in the catalyst and is close to the specific activity of palladium and considerably exceeds that of nickel. Study of the effect of the NB concentration and hydrogen pressure on the activity and stability of the 5% rhenium catalyst indicated that with NB concentrations from 50 to 10% the process takes place at an essentially constant rate; the order of the reaction was close to zero with an apparent activation energy of about 7000 cal/mole. At pressures of 15-200 atm the yield with the 5% catalyst was proportional to the hydrogen pressure. A big advantage of the rhenium catalysts in the reduction of NB is their high selectivity. With a higher activity than palladium and nickel catalysts, 5% rhenium catalyst produces a high operating capacity in a wide range of contact charges, which has considerable significance for industrial use in contact apparatus of the column type. Comparison of the costs of rhenium catalysts and granular carbon carrier with those of nickel, platinum, and palladium showed that 5% rhenium catalyst can compete

  16. Development of an artificial sensor for hydrodynamic detection inspired by a seal's whisker array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, William C; Wakefield, Brendan F; Murphy, Christin T; Casey, Caroline; Shakhsheer, Yousef; Calhoun, Benton H; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Nature has shaped effective biological sensory systems to receive complex stimuli generated by organisms moving through water. Similar abilities have not yet been fully developed in artificial systems for underwater detection and monitoring, but such technology would enable valuable applications for military, commercial, and scientific use. We set out to design a fluid motion sensor array inspired by the searching performance of seals, which use their whiskers to find and follow underwater wakes. This sensor prototype, called the Wake Information Detection and Tracking System (WIDTS), features multiple whisker-like elements that respond to hydrodynamic disturbances encountered while moving through water. To develop and test this system, we trained a captive harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) to wear a blindfold while tracking a remote-controlled, propeller-driven submarine. After mastering the tracking task, the seal learned to carry the WIDTS adjacent to its own vibrissal array during active pursuit of the target. Data from the WIDTS sensors describe changes in the deflection angles of the whisker elements as they pass through the hydrodynamic trail left by the submarine. Video performance data show that these detections coincide temporally with WIDTS-wake intersections. Deployment of the sensors on an actively searching seal allowed for the direct comparison of our instrument to the ability of the biological sensory system in a proof-of-concept demonstration. The creation of the WIDTS provides a foundation for instrument development in the field of biomimetic fluid sensor technology. PMID:27580063

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF ATTRITION RESISTANT IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+H2) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. The use of iron-based catalysts is attractive not only due to their low cost and ready availability, but also due to their high water-gas shift activity which makes it possible to use these catalysts with low H2/CO ratios. However, a serious problem with use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment, makes the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult if not impossible, and results in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. Recently, fundamental understanding of physical attrition is being addressed by incorporating suitable binders into the catalyst recipe. This has resulted in the preparation of a spray dried Fe-based catalyst having aps of 70 mm with high attrition resistance. This Fe-based attrition resistant, active and selective catalyst gave 95% CO conversion through 125 hours of testing in a fixed-bed at 270 C, 1.48 MPa, H2/CO=0.67 and 2.0 NL/g-cat/h with C5+ selectivity of >78% and methane selectivity of <5%. However, further development of the catalyst is needed to address the chemical attrition due to phase changes that any Fe-catalyst goes through potentially causing internal stresses within the particle and resulting in weakening, spalling or cracking. The objective of this research is to develop robust iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that have suitable activity, selectivity and stability to be used in the slurry bubble column reactor. Specifically we aim to develop to: (i) improve the performance and preparation procedure of the high activity, high attrition resistant, high alpha iron-based catalysts

  18. Flytrap-inspired robot using structurally integrated actuation based on bistability and a developable surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Venus flytrap uses bistability, the structural characteristic of its leaf, to actuate the leaf's rapid closing motion for catching its prey. This paper presents a flytrap-inspired robot and novel actuation mechanism that exploits the structural characteristics of this structure and a developable surface. We focus on the concept of exploiting structural characteristics for actuation. Using shape memory alloy (SMA), the robot actuates artificial leaves made from asymmetrically laminated carbon fiber reinforced prepregs. We exploit two distinct structural characteristics of the leaves. First, the bistability acts as an implicit actuator enabling rapid morphing motion. Second, the developable surface has a kinematic constraint that constrains the curvature of the artificial leaf. Due to this constraint, the curved artificial leaf can be unbent by bending the straight edge orthogonal to the curve. The bending propagates from one edge to the entire surface and eventually generates an overall shape change. The curvature change of the artificial leaf is 18 m−1 within 100 ms when closing. Experiments show that these actuation mechanisms facilitate the generation of a rapid and large morphing motion of the flytrap robot by one-way actuation of the SMA actuators at a local position. (paper)

  19. Development of Potent Antiviral Drugs Inspired by Viral Hexameric DNA-Packaging Motors with Revolving Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Fengmei; Zhao, Zhengyi; Chelikani, Venkata; Yoder, Kristine; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Guo, Peixuan

    2016-09-15

    The intracellular parasitic nature of viruses and the emergence of antiviral drug resistance necessitate the development of new potent antiviral drugs. Recently, a method for developing potent inhibitory drugs by targeting biological machines with high stoichiometry and a sequential-action mechanism was described. Inspired by this finding, we reviewed the development of antiviral drugs targeting viral DNA-packaging motors. Inhibiting multisubunit targets with sequential actions resembles breaking one bulb in a series of Christmas lights, which turns off the entire string. Indeed, studies on viral DNA packaging might lead to the development of new antiviral drugs. Recent elucidation of the mechanism of the viral double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)-packaging motor with sequential one-way revolving motion will promote the development of potent antiviral drugs with high specificity and efficiency. Traditionally, biomotors have been classified into two categories: linear and rotation motors. Recently discovered was a third type of biomotor, including the viral DNA-packaging motor, beside the bacterial DNA translocases, that uses a revolving mechanism without rotation. By analogy, rotation resembles the Earth's rotation on its own axis, while revolving resembles the Earth's revolving around the Sun (see animations at http://rnanano.osu.edu/movie.html). Herein, we review the structures of viral dsDNA-packaging motors, the stoichiometries of motor components, and the motion mechanisms of the motors. All viral dsDNA-packaging motors, including those of dsDNA/dsRNA bacteriophages, adenoviruses, poxviruses, herpesviruses, mimiviruses, megaviruses, pandoraviruses, and pithoviruses, contain a high-stoichiometry machine composed of multiple components that work cooperatively and sequentially. Thus, it is an ideal target for potent drug development based on the power function of the stoichiometries of target complexes that work sequentially. PMID:27356896

  20. Development of hydrophobic catalysts for deuterium exchange between hydrogen and water (Preprint No. CI-4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the salient features of catalyst development work carried out in Chemistry Division for isotopic exchange between hydrogen and water. The catalysts with noble metals dispersed over PTFE coated supports (such as activated charcoal, zeolites etc) or over polymer supports (such as polyester, nylon) are prepared. Catalysts with Pt dispersed over PTFE coated charcoal are found to be highly active and resistant to water poisoning. These catalysts maintained their physical form and catalytic property at temperatures upto 200degC and performed better than the catalysts prepared by reported method, viz, supporting Pt on charcoal blended with teflon powder. A laboratory scale plant is set up to evaluate catalyst activity under continuous countercurrent flow of hydrogen and water under experimental conditions of elevated temperatures (∼150degC) and pressures (10 atm). (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  1. Developing a web-based information resource for palliative care: an action-research inspired approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gliddon Terry

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners and community nurses rely on easily accessible, evidence-based online information to guide practice. To date, the methods that underpin the scoping of user-identified online information needs in palliative care have remained under-explored. This paper describes the benefits and challenges of a collaborative approach involving users and experts that informed the first stage of the development of a palliative care website 1. Method The action research-inspired methodology included a panel assessment of an existing palliative care website based in Victoria, Australia; a pre-development survey (n = 197 scoping potential audiences and palliative care information needs; working parties conducting a needs analysis about necessary information content for a redeveloped website targeting health professionals and caregivers/patients; an iterative evaluation process involving users and experts; as well as a final evaluation survey (n = 166. Results Involving users in the identification of content and links for a palliative care website is time-consuming and requires initial resources, strong networking skills and commitment. However, user participation provided crucial information that led to the widened the scope of the website audience and guided the development and testing of the website. The needs analysis underpinning the project suggests that palliative care peak bodies need to address three distinct audiences (clinicians, allied health professionals as well as patients and their caregivers. Conclusion Web developers should pay close attention to the content, language, and accessibility needs of these groups. Given the substantial cost associated with the maintenance of authoritative health information sites, the paper proposes a more collaborative development in which users can be engaged in the definition of content to ensure relevance and responsiveness, and to eliminate unnecessary detail. Access to

  2. Development and Commercial Application of High-Platinum CCR Catalyst with Low Coke Deposition Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Aizeng; Pan Jincheng; Yang Sennian

    2007-01-01

    By means of selecting proper additives and optimizing catalyst composition and preparation procedures,a high-platinum and low coke deposition catalyst PS-Ⅶ for continuous catalytic reforming (CCR)without reducing its specific surface area has been successfully developed.This catalyst PS-Ⅶ was evaluated in a 100-mL pilot test unit.Study results showed that under the same reaction conditions the newly developed catalyst PS-Ⅶ achieved a 26%reduction in coke deposition as compared to the existing high-platinum CCR catalyst.This catalyst upon its first commercial application in a 1.39Mt/a CCR unit had exhibited good anti-attrition performance and good stability in terms of its specific surface area.Compared to the original CCR catalyst this PS-Ⅶ type catalyst could reduce the coke deposition by 27.32%when operating on feedstock with low potential aromatic content,along with apparent increase in C6+liquid yield,hydrogen yield and aromatics yield,which could grapple with the problem associated with the catalyst regeneration constraints after CCR capacity expansion to ensure the longcycle high-load operation of the CCR unit.

  3. Bio-inspired patterned networks (BIPS) for development of wearable/disposable biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLamore, E. S.; Convertino, M.; Hondred, John; Das, Suprem; Claussen, J. C.; Vanegas, D. C.; Gomes, C.

    2016-05-01

    Here we demonstrate a novel approach for fabricating point of care (POC) wearable electrochemical biosensors based on 3D patterning of bionanocomposite networks. To create Bio-Inspired Patterned network (BIPS) electrodes, we first generate fractal network in silico models that optimize transport of network fluxes according to an energy function. Network patterns are then inkjet printed onto flexible substrate using conductive graphene ink. We then deposit fractal nanometal structures onto the graphene to create a 3D nanocomposite network. Finally, we biofunctionalize the surface with biorecognition agents using covalent bonding. In this paper, BIPS are used to develop high efficiency, low cost biosensors for measuring glucose as a proof of concept. Our results on the fundamental performance of BIPS sensors show that the biomimetic nanostructures significantly enhance biosensor sensitivity, accuracy, response time, limit of detection, and hysteresis compared to conventional POC non fractal electrodes (serpentine, interdigitated, and screen printed electrodes). BIPs, in particular Apollonian patterned BIPS, represent a new generation of POC biosensors based on nanoscale and microscale fractal networks that significantly improve electrical connectivity, leading to enhanced sensor performance.

  4. Development of micro-cogeneration system with porous catalyst microcombustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S.; Tanaka, M.; Ieda, N.; Ihara, T.

    2015-10-01

    A self-standing micro-cogeneration system was developed by coupling a microcombustor, thermoelectric (TE) modules, and an air supply device. The microcombustor has a porous monolithic Pt catalyst layer, and a combustion efficiency of 90% was achieved. A microblower is used to supply air to the combustor, and it is driven by electricity from the Bi-Te TE modules through a dc-dc converter. We investigated the optimal point where the output became maximal and the system was self-standing. At the optimal point, the input fuel enthalpy was 13.2 W, and 440 mW of electricity was generated from the TE modules. The microblower consumed 280 mW, and the net generated electricity was 160 mW. Therefore, the final thermal efficiency was 1.21%. The net thermal efficiency of the developed system was the same magnitude as that of TeeDee01 (COX Co. Ltd.), the world’s smallest model plane engine (0.163 cc), even though the magnitude of the output power was less than 1/20 in comparison.

  5. Catalyst Development for Selective Hydrogenation of Functionalized Alkynes and Nitroarenes

    OpenAIRE

    Yarulin, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Catalyst design is of major importance for fine chemicals industry due to complexity of the synthesis and high product quality requirements. Moreover, the catalyst formulation has to comply with the standards of health, safety and environmental regulations. The conventional systems often do not satisfy the latter criteria and, therefore, have to be improved to become both efficient and eco-friendly. The advancing technologies of materials synthesis and characterization all...

  6. Developing predictive insight into changing water systems: use-inspired hydrologic science for the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. E.; Sivapalan, M.; Harman, C. J.; Srinivasan, V.; Hipsey, M. R.; Reed, P.; Montanari, A.; Blöschl, G.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, many different kinds of water resources management issues call for policy- and infrastructure-based responses. Yet responsible decision-making about water resources management raises a fundamental challenge for hydrologists: making predictions about water resources on decadal- to century-long timescales. Obtaining insight into hydrologic futures over 100 yr timescales forces researchers to address internal and exogenous changes in the properties of hydrologic systems. To do this, new hydrologic research must identify, describe and model feedbacks between water and other changing, coupled environmental subsystems. These models must be constrained to yield useful insights, despite the many likely sources of uncertainty in their predictions. Chief among these uncertainties are the impacts of the increasing role of human intervention in the global water cycle - a defining challenge for hydrology in the Anthropocene. Here we present a research agenda that proposes a suite of strategies to address these challenges from the perspectives of hydrologic science research. The research agenda focuses on the development of co-evolutionary hydrologic modeling to explore coupling across systems, and to address the implications of this coupling on the long-time behavior of the coupled systems. Three research directions support the development of these models: hydrologic reconstruction, comparative hydrology and model-data learning. These strategies focus on understanding hydrologic processes and feedbacks over long timescales, across many locations, and through strategic coupling of observational and model data in specific systems. We highlight the value of use-inspired and team-based science that is motivated by real-world hydrologic problems but targets improvements in fundamental understanding to support decision-making and management. Fully realizing the potential of this approach will ultimately require detailed integration of social science and physical science

  7. Muskingum法的发展及启示%Development and inspiration of Muskingum method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮孝芳; 张超

    2014-01-01

    通过划分为经验解释时期、特征河长解释时期和水力学解释时期,论述了Muskingum法从经验性方法上升为具有物理基础方法的发展历程,总结了前人从不同角度揭示Muskingum法参数x和K的物理意义所获得的主要结论,阐述了中国学者提出连续演算Muskingum法的历史背景及其对Muskingum法的重要贡献。 Muskingum法发展中闪烁的科学探索精神和凝练出的科学思维方法对当今之研究仍具有启示作用。%The development of the Muskingum method from an empirical method to a method with physical basis is discussed, and the development process is divided into three periods: the period to investigate the method based on experience, the period based on the characteristic river length theory, and the period based on hydraulics. Main previous conclusions revealing the physical meanings of parameters x and K of the Muskingum method from different aspects are summarized. The historical background of the successive routing technique, which was put forward by Chinese scholars, and its significant contribution to the Muskingum method are discussed. The spirit of scientific inquiry and the scientific thinking method implied in the development of the Muskingum method may inspire researchers nowadays.

  8. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON AND COBALT FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of activation procedure on the phase composition of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts has been studied. Catalyst samples taken during activation and FT synthesis have been characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Formation of iron carbide is necessary for high FT activity. Hydrogen activation of precipitated iron catalysts results in reduction to predominantly metallic iron and Fe(sub 3)O(sub 4). Metallic iron is not stable under FT 3 4 conditions and is rapidly converted to(epsilon)(prime)-Fe(sub 2.2)C. Activation with carbon monoxide or syngas 2.2 with low hydrogen partial pressure reduces catalysts to(chi)-Fe(sub 5)C(sub 2) and a small amount of 5 2 superparamagnetic carbide. Exposure to FT conditions partially oxidizes iron carbide to Fe(sub 3)O(sub 4); however, catalysts promoted with potassium or potassium and copper maintain a constant carbide content and activity after the initial oxidation. An unpromoted iron catalyst which was activated with carbon monoxide to produce 94%(chi)-Fe(sub 5)C(sub 2), deactivated rapidly as the carbide was oxidized to Fe(sub 3)O(sub 4). No difference in activity, stability or deactivation rate was found for(chi)-Fe(sub 5)C(sub 2) and(epsilon)(prime)-Fe(sub 2.2)C

  9. Discovery, Development, and Commercialization of Gold Catalysts for Acetylene Hydrochlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter; Carthey, Nicholas; Hutchings, Graham J

    2015-11-25

    Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is a major chemical intermediate for the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which is the third most important polymer in use today. Hydrochlorination of acetylene is a major route for the production of vinyl chloride, since production of the monomer is based in regions of the world where coal is abundant. Until now, mercuric chloride supported on carbon is used as the catalyst in the commercial process, and this exhibits severe problems associated with catalyst lifetime and mercury loss. It has been known for over 30 years that gold is a superior catalyst, but it is only now that it is being commercialized. In this Perspective we discuss the use and disadvantages of the mercury catalyst and the advent of the gold catalysts for this important reaction. The nature of the active site and the possible reaction mechanism are discussed. Recent advances in the design and preparation of active gold catalysts containing ultralow levels of gold are described. In the final part, a view to the future of this chemistry will be discussed as well as the possible avenues for the commercial potential of gold catalysis. PMID:26529366

  10. Development of Micro Cogeneration System with a Porous Catalyst Microcombustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-standing micro cogeneration system by coupling a microcombustor, thermoelectric modules and an air supply device was developed. The microcombustor has a porous monolithic Pt catalyst layer and the combustion efficiency of 90% was attained. A micro-blower was used to supply air to the combustor, and it was driven by a part of the electricity from the Bi-Te TE modules through a DC-DC converter. We investigated the optimal point where the output became maximal and the system stood by itself. At the optimal point, the input fuel enthalpy was 13.2W and the electricity of 403mW was generated from the TE modules. The micro blower used 280mW and the net electricity was 123mW. Therefore the final thermal efficiency was 0.93%. The efficiency was the same magnitude of the world smallest model plane engine TeeDee01 (COX Co. Ltd.) although the thermal input was less than its 1/20

  11. Developing predictive insight into changing water systems: use-inspired hydrologic science for the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Thompson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, many different kinds of water resources management issues call for policy and infrastructure based responses. Yet responsible decision making about water resources management raises a fundamental challenge for hydrologists: making predictions about water resources on decadal-to-century long timescales. Obtaining insight into hydrologic futures over 100 yr timescales forces researchers to address internal and exogenous changes in the properties of hydrologic systems. To do this, new hydrologic research must identify, describe and model feedbacks between water and other changing, coupled environmental subsystems. These models must be constrained to yield useful insights, despite the many likely sources of uncertainty in their predictions. Chief among these uncertainties are the impacts of the increasing role of human intervention in the global water cycle – a defining challenge for hydrology in the Anthropocene. Here we present a research agenda that proposes a suite of strategies to address these challenges. The research agenda focuses on the development of co-evolutionary hydrologic modeling to explore coupling across systems, and to address the implications of this coupling on the long-time behavior of the coupled systems. Three research directions support the development of these models: hydrologic reconstruction, comparative hydrology and model-data learning. These strategies focus on understanding hydrologic processes and feedbacks over long timescales, across many locations, and through strategic coupling of observational and model data in specific systems. We highlight the value of use-inspired and team-based science that is motivated by real-world hydrologic problems but targets improvements in fundamental understanding to support decision-making and management.

  12. Development of new deactivation method for simulation of fluid catalytic cracking equilibrium catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Chiranjeevi; D T Gokak; V Ravikumar; P S Viswanathan

    2014-03-01

    Selection of a good catalyst is the easiest way to increase profitability of a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit. During operation, these catalysts get deactivated due to operation at high temperatures, steam and deposition of metals on the catalyst. Developing a proper catalyst deactivation method is crucial for optimization of a good catalyst for FCC. Conventional laboratory deactivation procedures include direct metal impregnation method, cyclic deactivation method (CDM) and cyclic propylene steaming (CPS). Direct metal impregnation method gives higher coke and gas yields. CDM and CPS methods implementation is very difficult and time-consuming and there is a deviation in coke and gas yield. New rapid deactivation method has been developed to simulate plant equilibrium catalyst (E-Cat) by modifying metal impregnation, steaming and oxidation/reduction procedures. The E-Cat generated through a new deactivation method was characterized for physico-chemical properties using X ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), and SEM-EDX and activity studies. XRD studies show that metals are dispersed well on catalyst samples. SEMEDX studies reveal that the morphology of simulated E-Cat and plant E-Cat catalyst particles appear to be same. E-Cat obtained by new deactivationmethod gives better coke and gas yields. Two E-Cats were also generated through CDM and direct metal impregnation method for comparing with the one generated through new method. New deactivation method also significantly reduces the evaluation time.

  13. GS Soil - Assessment and strategic development of INSPIRE compliant Geodata-Services for European Soil Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning; Münier, Bernd

    GS Soil aims at establishing a Best Practice Network dealing with a cluster of the data themes listed in the Annexes I to III of the INSPIRE Directive (2007/2/EC) and focused on soil related issues. The establishment of the soil thematic strategy and the new transboundary EU approach for protected...

  14. Accelerating process and catalyst development in reforming reactions with high throughput technologies under industrially relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, S.A.; Bollmann, G.; Froescher, A.; Kaiser, H.; Lange de Oliveira, A.; Roussiere, T.; Wasserschaff, G. [hte Aktiengesellschaft, Heidelberg (Germany); Domke, I. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    The generation of hydrogen via reforming of a variety of carbon containing feed-stocks in the presence of water is up to date one of the most versatile technologies for the production of hydrogen and syngas. Although these reforming technologies are in principle well established, understood and commercialized, there are still a number of technological challenges that are not solved up to a satisfactorily degree and there is a constant demand for appropriate answers to the challenges posed. High throughput experimentation can be a valuable tool in helping accelerate the development of suitable solutions on the catalyst and process development side. In order to be able to generate test data that are close or identical to process relevant conditions, hte has developed a new technology portfolio of test technologies named Stage-IV technology. In contrast to earlier developments which address more small scale testing on the basis of catalyst volumes of 1ml up to 10 ml under isothermal conditions, our new technology portfolio offers the advantage of test volumes at sub-pilot scale also realizing reactor dimensions close to technical applications. This does not only ensure a good mimic of the hydrodynamic conditions of the technical scale, but also allows a fingerprinting of features like temperature gradients in the catalyst bed which play a large role for catalyst performance. Apart from catalyst tests with granulates when screening for optimized catalyst compositions, the units are designed to accommodate tests with shaped catalysts. In order to demonstrate how these technologies can accelerate catalyst and process development we have chosen technically challenging application examples: (I) Pre-reforming and reforming of methane based feeds which accelerate coking and catalyst deactivation. Higher reaction pressures, high CO{sub 2} contents in the feedgas (which occur typically in sources like bio-gas or certain types of natural gas), the presence of higher alkanes

  15. Development of new type passive autocatalytic recombiner. Part 1. Characterization of monolithic catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For hydrogen mitigation, a new type passive autocatalytic recombiner has been developed, as one of safety accident managements at a nuclear power plant. This new recombiner has an automotive monolithic substrate catalyst in order to reduce weight and to improve hydrogen treating capacity, environmental resistance, and product quality. The activation energy has been experimentally estimated at 5.75 kJ/mol with stoichiometric composition gas flow. The fed hydrogen and oxygen to the monolithic catalyst were immediately recombined in both the dry and the humid atmospheres. Moreover, it has been found that gamma-ray irradiation up to 1.0 MGy could promote catalytic activity, because the specific area of the catalyst and the surface area of the precious metals increased. In addition, no significant difference was observed in the compositional distribution in the monolithic catalyst by EPMA. As the result, an automotive monolithic catalyst is applicable to practical installation of PAR into NPPs. (author)

  16. Development of new transition metal oxide catalysts for the destruction of PCDD/Fs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming-Feng; Li, Wen-Wei; Li, Xiao-Dong; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Tong; Yan, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Various transition metal oxide and vanadium-containing multi-metallic oxide catalysts were developed for the destruction of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans). A stable PCDD/Fs generating system was installed to support the catalytic destruction tests in this study. Nano-titania supported vanadium catalyst (VOx/TiO2) showed the highest activity, followed by CeOx, MnOx, WOx and finally MoOx. Multi-metallic oxide catalysts, prepared by doping WOx, MoOx, MnOx and CeOx into VOx/TiO2 catalysts, showed different activities on the decomposition of PCDD/Fs. The highest destruction efficiency of 92.5% was observed from the destruction test over VOxCeOx/TiO2 catalyst. However, the addition of WOx and MoOx even played a negative role in multi-metallic VOx/TiO2 catalysts. Characterizations of transition metal oxides and multi-metallic VOx/TiO2 catalysts were also investigated with XRD and TPR. After the catalysts were used, the conversion from high valent metals to low valence states was observed by XPS. PMID:27186687

  17. Direct hydroxylation of benzene to phenol - aspects of catalysts development and reaction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, A.; Hiemer, U.; Schwieger, W. [Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Chemie 1, Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Reitzmann, A. [Inst. fuer Chemische Verfahrenstechnik (CVT), Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany); Klemm, E. [DEGUSSA AG, Service Unit Process Technology, Hanau-Wolfgang (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    An alternative route for phenol synthesis is the direct hydroxylation of benzene with nitrous oxide over zeolite catalysts of the ZSM5-type. The disadvantage of this pathway to phenol is the fact that a technically suitable catalyst is not yet available. This is due to low yields and fast deactivation behaviour of the presently-used catalysts. From a scientific point of view one has to state that the reaction mechanism of this single-step reaction is still not clear. The catalyst development requires a systematic study with respect to the chemical, structural and/or morphological properties of the catalytic materials that might have an influence on the performance of the catalyst and/or on the reaction itself. The chance to design the catalyst in a desired way is given by the large variety of parameters that can influence the properties of the zeolite during the synthesis itself or during following post-modification processes. Kinetic measurements offer the possibility to identify mechanism of the reaction and therefore allow conclusions for further improvements of the catalyst design and the reaction conditions itself. The combination of results of both research directions should open an opportunity to derive structure-activity relationships to provide a suitable catalyst for an industrial application. In the present paper we will show first results of an attempt following this described way. (orig.)

  18. Development and Commercial Application of RFCC Catalyst for Reducing Sulfur Content in Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Mingde; Zhu Yuxia; Huang Lei; Hou Dianguo

    2007-01-01

    The sulfur-reducing functional component-the Lewis acid-base pair compound-and associated active zeolite component were developed to prepare the RFCC catalyst DOS for reducing sulfur content in gasoline.The results of catalyst evaluation have revealed that the Lewis acid-base pair compound developed hereby could enhance the conversion of macromolecular sulfur compounds by the catalyst to promote the proceeding of desulfurization reactions,and the synergetic action of the selected zeolite and the Lewis acid-base pair compound could definitely reduce the olefins and sulfur contents in gasoline.The heavy oil conversion capability of the catalyst DOS thus developed was higher coupled with an enhanced resistance to heavy metals contamination to reduce the sulfur content in gasoline by over 20%.The commercial application of this catalyst at the SINOPEC Jiujiang Branch Company has revealed that compared to the GRV-C catalyst the oil slurry yield obtained by the catalyst DOS was reduced along with an improved coke selectivity,an increased total liquid yield,and a decreased olefin content in gasoline.The ratio of sulfur in gasoline/sulfur in feed oil could be reduced by 20.3 m%.

  19. INSPIRE - Premission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William W. L.; Mideke, Michael; Pine, William E.; Ericson, James D.

    The Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment (INSPIRE) designed to assist in a Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) project is discussed. INSPIRE is aimed at recording data from a large number of receivers on the ground to determine the exact propagation paths and absorption of radio waves at frequencies between 50 Hz and 7 kHz. It is indicated how to participate in the experiment that will involve high school classes, colleges, and amateur radio operators.

  20. Bio-inspired Design of Electrocatalysts for Oxalate Oxidation: a Combined Experimental and Computational Study of Mn–N–C Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matanovic, Ivana; Babanova, Sofia; Perry, Albert; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen

    2015-05-28

    We report a novel non-platinum group metal (non-PGM) catalyst derived from Mn and amino- antipyrine (MnAAPyr) that shows electrochemical activity towards the oxidation of oxalic acid comparable to Pt with an onset potential for oxalate oxidation measured to be 0.714 * 0.002 V vs. SHE at pH = 4. The material has been synthesized using a templating Sacrificial Support Method with manganese nitrate and 4-aminoantipyrine as precursors. This catalyst is a nano-structured material in which Mn is atomically dispersed on a nitrogendoped graphene matrix. XPS studies reveal high abundance of pyridinic, Mn–Nx, and pyrrolic nitrogen pointing towards the conclusion that pyridinic nitrogen atoms coordinated to manganese constitute the active centers. Thus, the main features of the MnAAPyr catalyst are it exhibits similarity to the active sites of naturally occurring enzymes that are capable of efficient and selective oxidation of oxalic acid. Density functional theory in plane wave formalism with Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof functional was further used to study the stability and activity of different one-metal active centers that could exist in the catalyst. The results show that the stability of the Mn–Nx sites changes in the following order: MnN4 4 MnN3C 4 MnN2C2 4 MnN3. Based on the overpotentials of 0.64 V and 0.71 V vs. SHE, calculated using the free energy diagrams for the oxalate oxidation mechanism, we could conclude that the MnN3C and MnN2C2 sites are most probable Mn–Nx sites responsible for the reported catalytic activity of the new catalyst.

  1. Minimizing Human Intervention in the Development of Basal Ganglia-Inspired Robot Control

    OpenAIRE

    F. Montes-Gonzalez; Prescott, T.J; Negrete-Martinez, J.

    2007-01-01

    A biologically inspired mechanism for robot action selection, based on the vertebrate basal ganglia, has been previously presented (Prescott et al. 2006, Montes Gonzalez et al. 2000). In this model the task confronting the robot is decomposed into distinct behavioural modules that integrate information from multiple sensors and internal state to form ‘salience’ signals. These signals are provided as inputs to a computational model of the basal ganglia whose intrinsic processes cause the selec...

  2. PROGRESS IN CATALYST AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR LOW SULFUR AND LOW AROMATICS DIESEL PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUYong; HANChong-ren

    2003-01-01

    The article includes three parts:①The development and performance of FH-DS catalyst for deep and ultra -deep distillate HDS;②The single stage HDS/HDA hydrotreating process for the production of low sulfur and low aromatics diesels from straight run and coker AGO by using highly active base metal catalyst at moderate pressure;③A two-stage aromatics saturation system utilizing noble metal catalyst in the second stage developed for production of low sulfur and low aromatics diesel from LCO.FDA catalyst developed by FRIPP has high activity for aromatics saturation together with high tolerance for sulfur and nitrogen in the feed.The process is effective in reducing density and increasing cetane number.

  3. ADVANCES ON THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CATALYSTS FOR TOLUENE DISPROPORTIONATION AND C9 AROMATICS TRANSALKYLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qingling; Xie Zaiku

    2001-01-01

    Advances on the development of commercial catalysts using in the processes such as Tatoray(Toluene Disproportionation and C9 Aromatics Transalkylation of UOP Company), MTDP (Toluene Disproportionation Process of Mobil Company), S-TDT (Toluene Disproportionation and C9 Aromatics Transalkylation of SRIPT), Trans-Plus, PX-Plus (Selective Toluene Disproportionation of UOP Company) and MSTDP (Selective Toluene Disproportionation Process on Mobils ZSM-5 catalyst) have been reviewed. The trends on the research of the new catalysts such as ZSM-5,Beta, MCM-22, Omega, SAPO and modified Y for the selective toluene disproportionation process and for the toluene disproportionation and C9 aromatics transalkylation have been described.

  4. Metalloporphyrin catalysts for oxygen reduction developed using computer-aided molecular design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryba, G.N.; Hobbs, J.D.; Shelnutt, J.A. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a new class of metalloporphyrin materials used as catalsyts for use in fuel cell applications. The metalloporphyrins are excellent candidates for use as catalysts at both the anode and cathode. The catalysts reduce oxygen in 1 M potassium hydroxide, as well as in 2 M sulfuric acid. Covalent attachment to carbon supports is being investigated. The computer-aided molecular design is an iterative process, in which experimental results feed back into the design of future catalysts.

  5. Development of heterogeneous catalysts for the conversion of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William R H; Palkovits, Regina

    2012-09-01

    γ-Valerolactone (GVL) has been identified as a potential intermediate for the production of fuels and chemicals based on renewable feedstocks. Numerous heterogeneous catalysts have been used for GVL production, alongside a range of reaction setups. This Minireview seeks to outline the development of heterogeneous catalysts for the targeted conversion of levulinic acid (LA) to GVL. Emphasis has been placed on discussing specific systems, including heterogeneous noble and base metal catalysts, transfer hydrogenation, and application of scCO₂ as reaction medium, with the aim of critically highlighting both the achievements and remaining challenges associated with this field. PMID:22890968

  6. Mussel-inspired Functionalization of Cotton for Nano-catalyst Support and Its Application in a Fixed-bed System with High Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jiangbo Xi; Junwu Xiao; Fei Xiao; Yunxia Jin; Yue Dong; Feng Jing; Shuai Wang

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the composition of adhesive and reductive proteins secreted by marine mussels, polydopamine (PDA) was used to coat cotton microfiber (CMF), and then acted as reducing agent for the growth of Pd nanoparticles on PDA coated CMF (PDA@CMF) composites. The resultant CMF@PDA/Pd composites were then packed in a column for the further use in fixed-bed system. For the catalysis of the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, the flow rate of the 4-aminophenol solution (0.5 mM) was as high as 60 mL/min....

  7. Development of a polymer catalyst for HANARO detritiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of heavy water as a reflector in HANARO results in the continuous exposure of deuterium oxide to neutron flux. Substantial quantities of tritium are generated by neutron activation of deuterium in the reflector. Airborne emissions and staff internal radiation doses could be caused by tritiated heavy water escaping from the system. Ameliorating the leak tightness of the system must be effective in reducing emissions and internal dose but is not a long-term solution. A detritiation facility is thought to be effective in reducing the overall radiological impact. The detritiation process may be consisted of catalytic exchange front-end and cryogenic deuterium distillation section. In this paper, the catalyst manufacturing and its performance evaluation technology is presented. The waterproof polymer catalyst has specific surface area of larger than 400 m2/g. It shows high reaction rate in hydrogen isotope exchange reaction. (author)

  8. Development of a polymer catalyst for HANARO detritiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of heavy water as a reflector in HANARO results in the continuous exposure of deuterium oxide to neutron flux. Substantial quantities of tritium are generated by neutron activation of deuterium in the reflector. Airborne emissions and staff internal radiation doses could be caused by tritiated heavy water escaping from the system. A detritiation facility is thought to be effective in reducing the overall radiological impact. The detritiation process may consist of a catalytic exchange in the front-end and a cryogenic deuterium distillation section. In this paper, the catalyst manufacturing and its performance evaluation technology was presented. The waterproof polymer catalyst has a specific surface area larger than 400m2/g. It showed a high reaction rate in the hydrogen isotope exchange reaction. (author)

  9. Perceptually-Inspired Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human sensory systems allow individuals to see, hear, touch, and interact with the surrounding physical environment. Understanding human perception and its limit enables us to better exploit the psychophysics of human perceptual systems to design more efficient, adaptive algorithms and develop perceptually-inspired computational models. In this talk, I will survey some of recent efforts on perceptually-inspired computing with applications to crowd simulation and multimodal interaction. In par...

  10. Towards sustainable development: catalysts for change in industrial water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, R L

    2001-01-01

    "Business as usual is not an option." Water management practices are changing too slowly and the global "fresh water gap" continues to grow. Actions as must be taken by government and civic leaders. Industry also has a responsibility to act, but its inability to adequately meet the challenge to date points to the need for additional stimuli. The current water crisis can be mitigated by changes in behaviour and perceptions. This presentation will argue that specific catalysts are required to encourage and support a dramatic shift of behaviours and perceptions by industry leaders. The catalysts include: establish clear and objective rules; introduce water pricing; recognize "life cycle" costs; prioritize needs; reward small-scale solutions; nurture innovations; spread global best practices. With the help of the catalysts described herein, industry can take its place as a leader in effective water management in the 21st Century. In partnership with governments, international organizations and civic organizations, industry leaders can help meet the challenge of the water crisis while creating sustainable economic growth. PMID:11379207

  11. Development of Self-Assembled Supramolecular Catalysts and Their Applications to Organic Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiro IKEGAMI

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In modern synthetic organic chemistry, the development of efficient reagent or catalyst recycling systems is regarded as one of the most important topics. We have previously reported a self-assembled process between poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) based polymer ligands and an inorganic species[1]. This process afforded a networked supramolecular complex where the polymers are cross-linked together by the inorganic species. Thus obtained complex was insoluble in water and worked as an efficient triphase catalyst.

  12. Development of new smart materials and spinning systems inspired by natural silks and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    Silks produced by spiders and silkworms are charming natural biological materials with highly optimized hierarchical structures and outstanding physicomechanical properties. The superior performance of silks relies on the integration of a unique protein sequence, a distinctive spinning process, and complex hierarchical structures. Silks have been prepared to form a variety of morphologies and are widely used in diverse applications, for example, in the textile industry, as drug delivery vehicles, and as tissue engineering scaffolds. This review presents an overview of the organization of natural silks, in which chemical and physical functions are optimized, as well as a range of new materials inspired by the desire to mimic natural silk structure and synthesis.

  13. Development of high performance catalyst for off-gas treatment system in BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high performance catalyst for off-gas treatment system in boiling water reactor (BWR) has been developed. The hydrogen concentration in the outlets of off-gas recombiners increased at several BWR plants in Japan. These phenomena were caused by deactivation of catalysts for the recombiners, and we assumed two types of deactivation mechanisms. The first cause was an increase of the amount of boehmite in the catalyst support due to alternation of the manufacturing process. The other cause was catalysts being poisoned by cyclic siloxanes that were introduced from the silicone sealant used in the upstream of the off-gas recombiners. The catalysts were manufactured by Pt adhering on alumina support. The conventional catalyst (CAT-A) used the aqueous solution of the chloroplatinic acid for adhesion of Pt. A dechlorination process by autoclave was applied to prevent the equipment at the downstream of the recombiners from stress corrosion cracking, but this process caused the support material to transform into boehmite. The boehmite-rich catalysts were deactivated more easily by organic silicon than gamma alumina-rich catalysts. Therefore, the CAT-A was replaced at many Japanese BWR plants by the improved catalyst (CAT-B), and their support was transformed into more stable gamma alumina by heating at 500degC. However, the siloxanes keep being detected in the off-gas though the source of siloxane had been removed and there still remain possibilities to deactivate the catalysts. Therefore, we have been developing high performance catalyst (CAT-C) that has higher activity and durability against poisoning. We investigated the properties of CAT-C by performance tests and instrumental analyses. The dependency of thermal output of nuclear reactor, and durability against siloxane poisoning were investigated. We found that CAT-C showed higher performance and better properties than CAT-B did. Moreover, we have been developing a modeling method to evaluate the hydrogen recombination

  14. The Development of Ni/Dolomite Catalyst in Simultaneous Biomass Gasification and Reforming in Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anawat Ketcong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous gasification and steam reforming of the biomass on Ni/dolomite catalyst in fluidized bed reactor were studied in the gaseous production in the one stage reactor. Problem statement: The parameters such as temperature, steam flow rate, biomass feed rate, gas flow rate for fluidization, oxygen flow rate and catalyst types were studied to produce the high gaseous products including tar elimination. Approach: The temperature at 780°C, steam flow rate of 222 mmoL h-1, gas flow rate for fluidization 450 mL min-1 and oxygen input 50 mL min-1 were found to be the suitable conditions. The Ni/Dolomite and the developed Ni/Dolomite were studied about their performance. Results: It was confirmed that Ni/Dolomite and newly developed Ni-WO3/Dolomite show high performance in biomass gasification. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was claimed that Ni/Dolomite catalyst was the effective and give best performance for tar cracking. Newly developed Ni-WO3/Dolomite catalyst was investigated to resist sulfur nd coking. Three types of catalyst were used in the biomass gasification, which are Ni/Dolomite, Ni/Dolomite+Silica binder and Ni-WO3/Dolomite. From the XRD analysis, structures of type 1 (Ni/dolomite and type 2 (Ni/Dolomite+Silica binder were similar which were in CaCO3, MgNiO2, NiO and MgO forms. Type 3 (Ni-WO3/Dolomite was CaWO4, MgNiO2, NiO and MgO forms. When the catalytic gasification was operated, newly Ni- WO3/Dolomite catalyst was the best catalyst for bamboo and palm shell biomasses, which could produce the high carbon monoxide and hydrogen but low methane and carbon dioxide were found. Carbon deposition on catalyst was around 0.37 mg according to the TG analysis.

  15. Synthesis of Gold Catalysts Supported on Mesoporous Silica Materials: Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Belkacemi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica materials (MSM with ordered and controllable porous structure, high surface area, pore volume and thermal stability are very suitable catalyst supports, because they provide high dispersion of metal nanoparticles and facilitate the access of the substrates to the active sites. Since the conventional wet-impregnation and deposition-precipitation methods are not appropriate for the incorporation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs into MSM, considerable efforts have been made to develop suitable methods to synthesize Au/MSM catalysts, because the incorporation of AuNPs into the channel system can prevent their agglomeration and leaching. In this review, we summarize the main methods to synthesize active gold catalysts supported on MSM. Examples and details of the preparative methods, as well as selected applications are provided. We expect this article to be interesting to researchers due to the wide variety of chemical reactions that can be catalyzed by gold supported catalysts.

  16. Use of experimental design in development of a catalyst system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NOx storage and reduction experiments have been performed with stationary operation of a heavy-duty diesel engine rig. An optimization of the NOx reduction performance has been done using experimental design. The adjustable parameters in this study were cycle time, injection time, injection rate and bypass time (period of reduced flow through catalysts). NOx was reduced by 50-60% (3.3-4.1g/kWh) with a fuel penalty below 5%. It was shown that experimental design was efficient for optimizing the NOx reduction and this systematic approach enabled important conclusions to be drawn about the system performance

  17. Development of Advanced ISS-WPA Catalysts for Organic Oxidation at Reduced Pressure/Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Nalette, Tim; Kayatin, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The Water Processor Assembly (WPA) at International Space Station (ISS) processes a waste stream via multi-filtration beds, where inorganic and non-volatile organic contaminants are removed, and a catalytic reactor, where low molecular weight organics not removed by the adsorption process are oxidized at elevated pressure in the presence of oxygen and elevated temperature above the normal water boiling point. Operation at an elevated pressure requires a more complex system design compared to a reactor that could operate at ambient pressure. However, catalysts currently available have insufficient activity to achieve complete oxidation of the organic load at a temperature less than the water boiling point and ambient pressure. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop a more active and efficient catalyst at ambient pressure and a moderate temperature that is less than water boiling temperature. This paper describes our efforts in developing high efficiency water processing catalysts. Different catalyst support structures and coating metals were investigated in subscale reactors and results were compared against the flight WPA catalyst. Detailed improvements achieved on alternate metal catalysts at ambient pressure and 200 F will also be presented in the paper.

  18. Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barger, P.T.; Spehlmann, B.C.; Gajda, G.J.

    1996-10-01

    The initial objective of this program was to develop a catalyst and process for the conversion of synthesis gas to isobutylene via the isosynthesis process. Preliminary work directed at identifying potential catalysts for this reaction did not have promising results. Therefore, the objectives of this program were revised to the development of a catalyst and process for the conversion of synthesis gas to isobutanol. Two approaches have been investigated in this area: the direct conversion of synthesis gas to higher alcohols and indirect conversion via methanol produced using conventional methanol synthesis technology. The isosynthesis reaction for the conversion of synthesis gas to branched hydrocarbons was pioneered by German workers during World War II The primary products of this reaction are either isobutane or isobutylene depending on the catalyst system used. Thoria-based catalysts were found to give the highest yields, but virtually all of the products were alkanes. More recently, there have been several reports of olefin production using ZrO{sub 2}-based. The preliminary work in this program focussed on the evaluation of ZrO{sub 2} and modified ZrO{sub 2} catalysts for the direct conversion of CO/H{sub 2} to isobutylene via the isosynthesis reaction. All of the catalysts and conditions evaluated in this work gave isobutylene yields of less than 4% which is far below that required for an economically viable process. A summary of the key results from this portion of the project is given in Section 3.6. In view of the poor performance of these catalysts and the lack any encouraging results from other research groups working in the isosynthesis area, this approach was abandoned in favor of approaches related to higher alcohols synthesis.

  19. Inspired Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Robert; Spruch, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    It has been nearly 400 years since Harvard College was created, and since then, thousands of colleges and universities have been built across the United States. From the classically inspired lines of Thomas Jefferson's University of Virginia to the Spanish architecture at Stanford University, every campus has its own personality. It's not unusual,…

  20. INSPIRE and MarCO - Technology Development for the First Deep Space CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    INSPIRE (Interplanetary NanoSpacecraft Pathfinder In a Relevant Environment) and MarCO (Mars Cube One) will open the door for tiny spacecraft to explore the solar system. INSPIRE serves as a trailblazer, designed to demonstrate new technology needed for deep space. MarCO will open the door for NanoSpacecraft to serve in support roles for much larger primary missions - in this case, providing a real-time relay of for the InSight project and will likely be the first CubeSats to reach deep space. Together, these four spacecraft (two for each mission) enable fundamental science objectives to be met with tiny vehicles. Originally designed for a March, 2016 launch with the InSight mission to Mars, the MarCO spacecraft are now complete and in storage. When launched with the InSight lander from Vandenberg Air Force Base, the spacecraft will begin a 6.5 month cruise to Mars. Soon after InSight itself separates from the upper stage of the launch vehicle, the two MarCO CubeSats will deploy and independently fly to Mars to support telecommunications relay for InSight's entry, descent, and landing sequence. These spacecraft will have onboard capability for deep space trajectory correction maneuvers; high-speed direct-to-Earth & DSN-compatible communications; an advanced navigation transponder; a large deployable reflect-array high gain antenna; and a robust software suite. This talk will present an overview of the INSPIRE and MarCO projects, including a concept of operations, details of the spacecraft and subsystem design, and lessons learned from integration and test. Finally, the talk will outline how lessons from these spacecraft are already being utilized in the next generation of interplanetary CubeSats, as well as a brief vision of their applicability for solar system exploration. The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  1. Development of Pt/ASDBC catalyst for room temperature recombiner of atmosphere detritiation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined catalytic reactor and water absorber system has been applied in the field of nuclear fusion to control the tritium release into the environment as low as reasonably achievable. Efficient tritium oxidation performance at room temperature has been strongly required taking a severe accident in a facility into consideration. We have developed hydrophobic Pt catalysts applicable for tritium oxidation in the presence of saturated water vapor at room temperature. A new type of hydrophobic catalyst, Pt/ASDBC, has been prepared by dipositting platinum on alkyl-styrene diviyl-benzene copolymer (ASDBC). Tritium oxidation tests of the catalysts using 3 GBq/m3 of tritium were performed in the absence/presence of saturated water vapor at room temperature. The overall reaction rate constant for Pt/ASDBC catalyst in the ambient temperature range was considerably larger than that for the traditionally applied Pt/Al2O3 catalyst. Oxidation reaction on the catalyst surface is the rate-controlling step in the ambient temperature range. The overall reaction rate constant in the ambient temperature range was dependent on the space velocity and hydrogen concentration in carrier. Values of the overall reaction rate constant in the ambient temperature range were correlated to koverall = 1.60 x 105exp(-33.0 (kJ/mol)/Rg/T) (s-1) at the space velocity of 5556 h-1 under the dry condition.

  2. Development of new smart materials and spinning systems inspired by natural silks and their applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eCheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silks produced by spiders and silkworms are charming natural biological materials with highly optimized hierarchical structures and outstanding physicomechanical properties. The superior performance of silks relies on the integration of a unique protein sequence, a distinctive spinning process, and complex hierarchical structures. Silks have been prepared to form a variety of morphologies and are widely used in diverse applications, for example, in the textile industry, as drug delivery vehicles, and as tissue engineering scaffolds. This review presents an overview of the organization of natural silks, in which chemical and physical functions are optimized, as well as a range of new materials inspired by the desire to mimic natural silk structure and synthesis.

  3. Mussel-inspired Functionalization of Cotton for Nano-catalyst Support and Its Application in a Fixed-bed System with High Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jiangbo; Xiao, Junwu; Xiao, Fei; Jin, Yunxia; Dong, Yue; Jing, Feng; Wang, Shuai

    2016-02-01

    Inspired by the composition of adhesive and reductive proteins secreted by marine mussels, polydopamine (PDA) was used to coat cotton microfiber (CMF), and then acted as reducing agent for the growth of Pd nanoparticles on PDA coated CMF (PDA@CMF) composites. The resultant CMF@PDA/Pd composites were then packed in a column for the further use in fixed-bed system. For the catalysis of the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, the flow rate of the 4-aminophenol solution (0.5 mM) was as high as 60 mL/min. The obtained fixed-bed system even exhibited superior performance to conventional batch reaction process because it greatly facilitated the efficiency of the catalytic fibers. Consequently, its turnover frequency (TOF) was up to 1.587 min-1, while the TOF in the conventional batch reaction was 0.643 min-1. The catalytic fibers also showed good recyclability, which can be recycled for nine successive cycles without a loss of activity. Furthermore, the catalytic system based on CMF@PDA/Pd can also be applied for Suzuki coupling reaction with the iodobenzene conversion up to 96.7%. The strategy to prepare CMF@PDA/Pd catalytic fixed bed was simple, economical and scalable, which can also be applied for coating different microfibers and loading other noble metal nanoparticles, was amenable for automated industrial processes.

  4. Quality Service in the International Hotel Sector: A Catalyst for Strategic Human Resource Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gill; Watson, Sandra; Quail, Samantha

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the nature of, and relationship between, a quality service initiative and the concept of strategic human resource development. Hilton International is the case study used for this analysis. The principal finding is that the quality initiative is acting as a catalyst for a strategic approach to human resource development to…

  5. Development of catalyst for diesel engine; Diesel engine yo shokubai no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, H.; Furutani, T.; Nagami, T. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Aono, N.; Goshima, H.; Kasahara, K. [Cataler Industrial Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The new concept catalyst for diesel engine has been developed. When the exhaust temperature is low, SOF and HC are temporarily adsorbed by the adsorbent within the catalyst and are oxidized as the temperature rise. The process of this development have manifested as follows. (1) The coating material is important factor to govern the oxidation activity. (2) SOF is reduced by the coating material in low temperature less than 200degC. (3) The coating material, which has low SO2 adsorbing rate suppress the sulfate formation at high temperature. 2 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Development of coal conversion catalysts. Annual report, January-December 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel family of sulfur-resistant catalysts has been developed that promotes the direct methanation of carbon monoxide and hydrogen to form methane and carbon dioxide. The chemistry of these catalysts is such that steam is not required to either suppress carbon formation or drive the water-gas shift reaction. The durability of these catalysts was demonstrated at high temperatures of up to 1200F and at low hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio as low as 0.1. Processing sequences for the direct methanation of a synthesis gas from a slagging Lurgi gasifier were developed and submitted to CF Braun and Co. for a technical and economic engineering evaluation. These studies showed that the employment of the chemistry can decrease both capital and operating costs for a coal to SNG plant

  7. Strategies for catalyst development: possibilities of the ``rational approach`` illustrated with partial oxidation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W.; Schedel-Niedrig, T.; Schloegl, R. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Oberflaechenphysik

    1998-12-31

    The paper discusses two petrochemical selective oxidation reactions namely the practised formation of styrene (STY) and the desired oxidative functionalisation of propane. The present knowledge about the mode of operation of oxide catalysts is critically considered. The dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene (EB) should be described by an oxidehydration with water acting as oxidant. The potential role of the coke formed during catalytic reaction as co-catalyst will be discussed. Selective oxidation is connected with the participation of lattice oxygen mechanism which transforms unselective gas phase oxygen into selective oxygen. The atomistic description of this process is still quite unclear as well as the electron structural properties of the activated oxygen atom. The Role of solid state acidity as compared to the role of lattice oxygen is much less well investigated modern multiphase-multielement oxide (MMO) catalysts. The rationale is that the significant efforts made to improve current MMO systems by chemical modifications can be very much more fruitful when in a first step the mode of action of a catalyst is clarified on the basis of suitable experiments. Such time-consuming experiments at the beginning of a campaign for catalyst improvement pay back their investment in later stages of the project when strategies of chemical development can be derived on grounds of understanding. (orig.)

  8. Development of Hydrocracking Catalyst to Produce High Quality Clean Middle Distillates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xuejun; Zhang Zhihua

    2004-01-01

    A novel hydrocracking Ni-W binary catalyst was tentatively designed and prepared by means of impregnation on mixed supports of modified Y zeolite and amorphous aluminosilicate. The structure and properties of catalyst were extensively characterized by XRD, NH3-TPD, IR and XRF techniques. The performance of catalyst was evaluated by a 100-ml hydrogenation laboratory test unit with two single-stage fixed-bed reactors connected in series. The characterization results showed that the catalyst has a developed and concentrated mesopores distribution, suitable acid sites and acid strength distribution, and uniform and high dispersion of metal sites. Under a high conversion rate of 73.8% with the >350℃ feedstock, a 98. 1m% of C5+yield and 83.5% of middle distillates selectivity were obtained. The yield of middle distillates boiling between 140℃and 370℃ was 68.70m% and its quality could meet the WWFC category Ⅲ specification. It means that this catalyst could be used to produce more high quality clean middle distillates derived from heavy oil hydrocracking. The potential aromatic content of heavy naphtha from 65℃ to 140℃ was 37.5m%. The BMCI value of >370℃ tail oil was 6.6. The heavy naphtha and tail oil are premium feedstocks for catalytic reforming and steam cracker units.

  9. Development of Ni-Based Catalysts for Steam Reforming of Tar Derived from Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dalin LI; Yoshinao NAKAGAWA; Keiichi TOMISHIGE

    2012-01-01

    Nickel catalysts are effective for the steam reforming of tar derived from biomass pyrolysis,but the improvement is needed in terms of activity,stability,suppression of coke deposition and aggregation,and regeneration.Our recent development of Ni-based catalysts for the steam reforming of tar is reviewed including the modification with CeO2 (or MnO),trace Pt,and MgO.The role of additives such as CeO2,MnO,Pt,and MgO is also discussed.

  10. Request for Information from entities interested in commercializing Laboratory-developed homogeneous catalyst technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intrator, Miranda Huang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-25

    Many industrial catalysts used for homogeneous hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of unsaturated substrates are derived from metal complexes that include (air-sensitive) ligands that are often expensive and difficult to synthesize. In particular, catalysts used for many hydrogenations are based on phosphorus containing ligands (in particular PNP pincer systems). These ligands are often difficult to make, are costly, are constrained to having two carbon atoms in the ligand backbone and are susceptible to oxidation at phosphorus, making their use somewhat complicated. Los Alamos researchers have recently developed a new and novel set of ligands that are based on a NNS (ENENES) skeleton (i.e. no phosphorus donors, just nitrogen and sulfur).

  11. Research and Development of Novel Heavy Oil Catalytic Cracking Catalyst RCC-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiexiao; Zhou Yan; Xu Yun; Tian Huiping

    2014-01-01

    A novel heavy oil catalytic cracking catalyst RCC-1 was developed by using the ultra-stable zeolite, which was hydrothermally treated and modiifed through cleaning its pores to serve as the active component. The chemical composi-tion and physicochemical properties of RCC-1 catalyst were studied by XRF, BET, pore volume analysis, attrition index analysis, and particle size distribution determination methods, and its catalytic cracking performance was also evaluated by a microreactor for light oil cracking and the ACE device. The test results showed that the new type of heavy oil catalytic cracking catalyst RCC-1 had good physicochemical properties and heavy oil cracking ability, strong anti-metallic contami-nation capability, good product distribution, good coke selectivity and gasoline selectivity, and excellent reduction of gaso-line oleifn content characteristics.

  12. Histidine-containing peptide catalysts developed by a facile library screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagawa, Kengo; Sakai, Nobutaka; Kudo, Kazuaki

    2015-02-01

    Although peptide catalysts have a high potential for the use as organocatalysts, the optimization of peptide sequences is laborious and time-consuming. To address this issue, a facile screening method for finding efficient aminocatalysts from a peptide library has been developed. In the screening for the Michael addition of a malonate to an enal, a dye-labeled product is immobilized on resin-bound peptides through reductive amination to visualize active catalysts. This procedure allows for the monitoring of the reactivity of entire peptides without modifying the resin beads beforehand. Peptides containing histidine at an appropriate position were identified by this method. A novel function of the histidyl residue, which enhances the binding of a substrate to the catalyst by capturing an iminium intermediate, was indicated. PMID:25521645

  13. Visible-Light-Responsive Catalyst Development for Volatile Organic Carbon Remediation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Hintze, Paul E.; Coutts, Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysis is a process in which light energy is used to 'activate' oxidation/reduction reactions. Unmodified titanium dioxide (TiO2), a common photocatalyst, requires high-energy UV light for activation due to its large band gap (3.2 eV). Modification of TiO2 can reduce this band gap, leading to visible-light-responsive (VLR) photocatalysts. These catalysts can utilize solar and/or visible wavelength LED lamps as an activation source, replacing mercury-containing UV lamps, to create a "greener," more energy-efficient means for air and water revitalization. Recently, KSC developed several VLR catalysts that, on preliminary evaluation, possessed high catalytic activity within the visible spectrum; these samples out-performed existing commercial VLR catalysts.

  14. Mussel-inspired one-pot synthesis of transition metal and nitrogen co-doped carbon (M/N-C) as efficient oxygen catalysts for Zn-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Chen, Ye; Ge, Xiaoming; Chai, Jianwei; Zhang, Xiao; Hor, T. S. Andy; Du, Guojun; Liu, Zhaolin; Zhang, Hua; Zong, Yun

    2016-02-01

    Transition metal and nitrogen co-doping into carbon is an effective approach to promote the catalytic activities towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and/or oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in the resultant electrocatalysts, M/N-C. The preparation of such catalysts, however, is often complicated and in low yield. Herein we report a robust approach for easy synthesis of M/N-C hybrids in high yield, which includes a mussel-inspired polymerization reaction at room temperature and a subsequent carbonization process. With the introduction of selected transition metal salts into an aqueous solution of dopamine (DA), the obtained mixture self-polymerizes to form metal-containing polydopamine (M-PDA) composites, e.g. Co-PDA, Ni-PDA and Fe-PDA. Upon carbonization at elevated temperatures, these metal-containing composites were converted into M/N-C, i.e. Co-PDA-C, Ni-PDA-C and Fe-PDA-C, respectively, whose morphologies, chemical compositions, and electrochemical performances were fully studied. Enhanced ORR activities were found in all the obtained hybrids, with Co-PDA-C standing out as the most promising catalyst with excellent stability and catalytic activities towards both ORR and OER. This was further proven in Zn-air batteries (ZnABs) in terms of discharge voltage stability and cycling performance. At a discharge-charge current density of 2 mA cm-2 and 1 h per cycle, the Co-PDA-C based ZnABs were able to steadily cycle up to 500 cycles with only a small increase in the discharge-charge voltage gap which notably outperformed Pt/C; at a discharge current density of 5 mA cm-2, the battery continuously discharged for more than 540 h with the discharge voltage above 1 V and a voltage drop rate of merely 0.37 mV h-1. With the simplicity and scalability of the synthetic approach and remarkable battery performances, the Co-PDA-C hybrid catalyst is anticipated to play an important role in practical ZnABs.Transition metal and nitrogen co-doping into carbon is an effective

  15. Simple Algorithms for Distributed Leader Election in Anonymous Synchronous Rings and Complete Networks Inspired by Neural Development in Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Jeavons, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks is a very practical problem in distributed computing. Previous algorithms for this problem are generally designed for a classical message passing model where complex messages are exchanged. However, the need to send and receive complex messages makes such algorithms less practical for some real applications. We present some simple synchronous algorithms for distributed leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks that are inspired by the development of the neural system of the fruit fly. Our leader election algorithms all assume that only one-bit messages are broadcast by nodes in the network and processors are only able to distinguish between silence and the arrival of one or more messages. These restrictions allow implementations to use a simpler message-passing architecture. Even with these harsh restrictions our algorithms are shown to achieve good time and message complexity both analytically and experimentally. PMID:26173905

  16. Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, A.H.

    1993-12-14

    The goal of this project is the development of a commercially viable, cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst for use in a slurry bubble column reactor. Cobalt-based catalysts have long been known as being active for F-T synthesis. They typically possess greater activity than iron-based catalysts, historically the predominant catalyst being used commercially for the conversion of syngas based on coal, but possess two disadvantages that somewhat lessen its value: (1) cobalt tends to make more methane than iron does, and (2) cobalt is less versatile with low H2/CO ratio syngas due to its lack of water-gas shift activity. Therefore, the major objectives of this work are (1) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with low ( < 5 %) methane selectivity, (2) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with water-gas shift activity, and (3) to combine both these improvements into one catalyst. It will be demonstrated that these catalysts have the desired activity, selectivity, and life, and can be made reproducibly. Following this experimental work, a design and a cost estimate will be prepared for a plant to produce sufficient quantities of catalyst for scale-up studies.

  17. Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, A.H.

    1994-05-31

    The goal of this project is the development of a commercially viable, cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst for use in a slurry bubble column reactor. Cobalt-based catalysts have long been known as being active for F-T synthesis. They typically possess greater activity than iron-based catalysts, historically the predominant catalyst being used commercially for the conversion of syngas based on coal, but possess two disadvantages that somewhat lessen its value: (1) cobalt tends to make more methane than iron does, and (2) cobalt is less versatile with low H{sub 2}/CO ratio syngas due to its lack of water-gas shift activity. Therefore, the major objectives of this work are (1) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with low (< 5 %) methane selectivity, (2) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with water-gas shift activity, and (3) to combine both these improvements into one catalyst. It will be demonstrated that these catalysts have the desired activity, selectivity, and life, and can be made reproducibly. Following this experimental work, a design and a cost estimate will be prepared for a plant to produce sufficient quantities of catalyst for scale-up studies.

  18. Development of group IV molecular catalysts for high temperature ethylene-α-olefin copolymerization reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosin, Jerzy; Fontaine, Philip P; Figueroa, Ruth

    2015-07-21

    This Account describes our research related to the development of molecular catalysts for solution phase olefin polymerization. Specifically, a series of constrained geometry and nonmetallocene (imino-amido-type) complexes were developed for high temperature olefin polymerization reactions. We have discovered many highly active catalysts that are capable of operating at temperatures above 120 °C and producing copolymers with a useful range of molecular weights (from medium to ultrahigh depending on precatalyst identity and polymerization conditions) and α-olefin incorporation capability. Constrained geometry catalysts (CGCs) exhibit very high activities and are capable of producing a variety of copolymers including ethylene-propylene and ethylene-1-octene copolymers at high reactor temperatures. Importantly, CGCs have much higher reactivity toward α-olefins than classical Ziegler-Natta catalysts, thus allowing for the production of copolymers with any desired level of comonomer. In search of catalysts with improved performance, we discovered 3-amino-substituted indenyl-based CGCs that exhibit the highest activity and produce copolymers with the highest molecular weight within this family of catalysts. Phenanthrenyl-based CGCs were found to be outstanding catalysts for the effective production of high styrene content ethylene-styrene copolymers under industrially relevant conditions. In contrast to CGC ligands, imino-amido-type ligands are bidentate and monoionic, leading to the use of trialkyl group IV precatalysts. The thermal instability of imino-amido complexes was addressed by the development of imino-enamido and amidoquinoline complexes, which are not only thermally very robust, but also produce copolymers with higher molecular weights, and exhibit improved α-olefin incorporation. Imido-amido and imino-enamido catalysts undergo facile chain transfer reactions with metal alkyls, as evidenced by a sharp decrease in polymer molecular weight when the

  19. Development of Auto Exhaust Catalysts and Associated Application of Rare Earths in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓东; 翁端

    2004-01-01

    There are at least three obvious trends in the developments of automotive market in China: the evolution of emission standards from Euro Ⅱ to Euro Ⅲ, the demand of lean-burn gasoline engine and the time of diesel vehicles. The latest application and advances of exhaust catalysts by Chinese researchers, using some high effcient, economical and durable methods to meet these changes in emission regulations laws and engine technologies, were described. Rare earth oxides, such as lanthana, ceria-based solid solutions and perovskite-type oxides, are widely used as excellent promoters for thermal stability, oxygen storage capacity and oxidation/reduction activity in these catalysts. Four phases in the development of the auto exhaust catalyst industry in China since the mid 1970s were reviewed. It is argued that China will become the center of global auto exhaust catalysts industry in the next decades with its economic, technical and environmental incentives, which greatly depends on the research and development of rare earth.

  20. Hydrocracking for oriented conversion of heavy oils. Recent trends for catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoncini, F.; Bonduelle, A.; Simon, L.J. [IFP Energies nouvelles, Lyon Establishment, Solaize (France). Catalysis and separation Division; Raybaud, P.; Dulot, H. [IFP Energies nouvelles, Lyon Establishment, Solaize (France). Process Desing Modeling Division

    2011-07-01

    As a result of the global economic crisis since the end of 2008, HCK operators have been looking to increase the profitability of the unit by processing heavier feed streams, including sourer VGO. These feeds present the drawbacks of increased H{sub 2} consumption, lower products yields and quality, and reduction in cycle lengths. Along with optimised process parameters, catalysts manufacturers are also investigating novel formulations to deal with challenging feeds. This lecture briefly summarizes the market trends (fuel demand, refinery's product specification) and the driving forces for HCK catalyst development in order to face these new challenges. Finally, this lecture highlights the innovating trends for HCK catalyst's development. Overview of various ideas developed recently in our research laboratory about (i) rational approaches for the atomic scale design of active phases (morphology, preparation, inhibitor effects), (ii) new preparations of transition metal sulphides for maximising the hydrogenating function (precursors, activation,.), (iii) rational approaches of HCK acidic supports for maximizing the selectivity and (iv) better understanding of HCK reactions. These improvements will be discussed in term of improvement of activity and selectivity of HCK catalyst to cope with future market needs. (orig.)

  1. Development and Commercial Application of a Novel Catalyst DVR-1 for Catalytic Cracking of Daqing Vacuum Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yinan; Tian Huiping; Chen Yun; Wang Yamin

    2002-01-01

    A newly developed catalyst type DVR- 1 for catalytic cracking of Daqing vacuum resid was put into use in a commercial VRFCC unit. This catalyst features uniquely active matrix and modified ultrastable zeolite. The commercial application results show that the DVR-1 type catalyst has the advantage of high heavy oil conversion, good metal tolerance and good stability for catalyst regeneration. The FCC tests have shown favorable product distribution, acceptable product quality and enormous economic benefits when processing the feedstock containing 75%-100% Daqing VR.

  2. Development of hydrophobic catalyst for hydrogen isotope exchange between hydrogen gas and liquid water (Preprint No. CI-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exchange of deuterium between hydrogen and water is important for heavy water production. The exchange reaction is too slow and requires a catalyst for any practicability. However usual catalysts lose their catalytic activity in contact with liquid water probably because of water engulfing all the catalytic sites and preventing hydrogen from reaching them. This problem has been overcome by imparting hydrophobicity to these catalysts. A brief account of the development of a hydrophobic catalyst Pt-C-PTFE is given. (author). 16 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  3. Evaluation of different catalysts and development of a new catalyst for the reduction of CO2 to graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschekalinskij, Alexander; Schindler, Matthias; Kretschmer, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    We present an evaluation of different catalysts, methods and parameters for the catalytic reduction of CO2 for 14C-AMS graphite targets for radiocarbon measurement at the Physical Institute of the University Erlangen-Nuremberg in Germany. Currently 10 μm iron powder is used as a catalyst to reduce carbon dioxide to graphite following our standard protocol. An optimal catalyst should provide a short reduction time, no additional fractionation effects, a good reduction yield, lack sintering and should not contain any amounts of both "dead" and "modern" carbon. Seven purchasable catalysts have been evaluated regarding this criteria. Further, the method using zinc and titanium hydride instead of hydrogen gas and the water-trap has been applied to our system and the effect of the water-trap temperature on the reduction time has been tested. A self-made catalyst was produced using aluminum oxide impregnated with iron nitrate. The results of this study indicate three good catalysts and show the success of the applied methods on standard samples like Ox II and Alfa graphite.

  4. Development of wet-proofed catalyst and catalytic exchange process for tritium extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Myung Jae; Son, Soon Hwan; Chung, Yang Gun; Lee, Gab Bock [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    To apply a liquid phase catalytic exchange(LPCE) process for the tritium extraction from tritiated heavy water, the wet proofed catalyst to allow the hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction between liquid water and hydrogen gas was developed. A styrene divinyl benzene copolymer was selected as am effective catalyst support and prepared by suspension copolymerization. After post-treatment, final catalyst supports were dipped in chloroplatinic acid solution. The catalyst support had a good physical properties at a particular preparation condition. The catalytic performance was successfully verified through hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction in the exchange column. A mathematical model for the tritium removal process consisted of LPCE front-ended process and cryogenic distillation process was established using the NTU-HTU method for LPCE column and the FUG method for cryogenic distillation column, respectively. A computer program was developed using the model and then used to investigate optimum design variables which affect the size of columns and tritium inventory (author). 84 refs., 113 figs.

  5. Novel Catalyst Development for Synthetic Endothermic Fuels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Incorporated (PSI) and United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) propose to develop, characterize, and evaluate the performance of innovative...

  6. Development of sustainable Palladium-based catalysts for removal of persistent contaminants from drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Danmeng

    Pd-based catalytic reduction has emerged as an advanced treatment technology for drinking water decontamination, and a suite of persistent contaminants including oxyanions, N-nitrosoamines, and halogenated compounds are amenable to catalytic reduction. The primary goal of this study is to develop novel Pd-based catalysts with enhanced performance (i.e., activity, selectivity, and sustainability) to remove contaminants from drinking water. The effects of water quality (i.e., co-contaminants in water matrix), catalyst support, and catalyst metal were explored, and they provide insights for preparing catalysts with faster kinetics, higher selectivity, and extended lifetime. Azo dyes are wide-spread contaminants, and they are potentially co-exisiting with target contaminants amenable for catalytic removal. The probe azo dye methyl orange (MO) enhanced catalytic reduction kinetics of a suite of oxyanions (i.e., nitrate, nitrite, bromate, chlorate, and perchlorate) and diatrizoate significantly but not N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) with a variety of Pd-based catalysts. Nitrate was selected as a probe contaminant, and several different azo dyes (i.e., (methyl orange, methyl red, fast yellow AB, metanil yellow, acid orange 7, congo red, eriochrome black T, acid red 27, acid yellow 11, and acid yellow 17) were evaluated for their ability to enhance reduction. A hydrogen atom shuttling mechanism was proposed and a kinetic model was proposed based on Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) theory, and they suggest sorbed azo dyes and reduced hydrazo dyes shuttle hydrogen atoms to oxyanions or diatrizoate to enhance their reduction kinetics. Next, vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports were used to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). In order to evaluate the amount of interior versus exterior loading of Pd nanoparticles, a fast and accurate geometric

  7. Molecular descriptor subset selection in theoretical peptide quantitative structure-retention relationship model development using nature-inspired optimization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žuvela, Petar; Liu, J Jay; Macur, Katarzyna; Bączek, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    In this work, performance of five nature-inspired optimization algorithms, genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), artificial bee colony (ABC), firefly algorithm (FA), and flower pollination algorithm (FPA), was compared in molecular descriptor selection for development of quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) models for 83 peptides that originate from eight model proteins. The matrix with 423 descriptors was used as input, and QSRR models based on selected descriptors were built using partial least squares (PLS), whereas root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was used as a fitness function for their selection. Three performance criteria, prediction accuracy, computational cost, and the number of selected descriptors, were used to evaluate the developed QSRR models. The results show that all five variable selection methods outperform interval PLS (iPLS), sparse PLS (sPLS), and the full PLS model, whereas GA is superior because of its lowest computational cost and higher accuracy (RMSEP of 5.534%) with a smaller number of variables (nine descriptors). The GA-QSRR model was validated initially through Y-randomization. In addition, it was successfully validated with an external testing set out of 102 peptides originating from Bacillus subtilis proteomes (RMSEP of 22.030%). Its applicability domain was defined, from which it was evident that the developed GA-QSRR exhibited strong robustness. All the sources of the model's error were identified, thus allowing for further application of the developed methodology in proteomics. PMID:26346190

  8. Development of methane oxidation catalysts for different gas turbine combustor concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Due to continuously stricter regulations regarding emissions from power generation processes, development of existing gas turbine combustors is essential. A promising alternative to conventional flame combustion in gas turbines is catalytic combustion, which can result in ultra low emission levels of NOx, CO and unburned hydrocarbons. The work presented in this thesis concerns the development of methane oxidation catalysts for gas turbine combustors. The application of catalytic combustion to...

  9. Development of catalysts for natural gas-fired gas turbine combustors

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Due to continuously stricter regulations regarding emissions from power generation processes, further development of existing gas turbine combustors is essential. A promising alternative to conventional flame combustion in gas turbines is catalytic combustion, which can result in ultralow emission levels of NOx, CO and unburned hydrocarbons. The work presented in this thesis concerns the development of methane oxidation catalysts for gas turbine combustors. The application of catalytic combus...

  10. Single-Site Palladium(II) Catalyst for Oxidative Heck Reaction: Catalytic Performance and Kinetic Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hui; Li, Mengyang; Zhang, Guanghui; Gallagher, James R.; Huang, Zhiliang; Sun, Yu; Luo, Zhong; Chen, Hongzhong; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Zou, Ruqiang; Lei, Aiwen; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The development of organometallic single-site catalysts (SSCs) has inspired the designs of new heterogeneous catalysts with high efficiency. Nevertheless, the application of SSCs in certain modern organic reactions, such as C-C bond formation reactions, has still been less investigated. In this study, a single-site Pd(II) catalyst was developed, where 2,2'-bipyridine-grafted periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) was employed as the support of a Pd(II) complex. The overall performance of the single-site Pd(II) catalyst in the oxidative Heck reaction was then investigated. The investigation results show that the catalyst displays over 99% selectivity for the product formation with high reaction yield. Kinetic profiles further confirm its high catalytic efficiency, showing that the rate constant is nearly 40 times higher than that for the free Pd(II) salt. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that the catalyst has remarkable lifetime and recyclability.

  11. Development of biogas reforming Ni-La-Al catalysts for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, M.; García, S.; Ferreira-Aparicio, P.; Serrano, L. García; Daza, L.

    In this work, the results obtained for Ni-La-Al catalysts developed in our laboratory for biogas reforming are presented. The catalyst 5% Ni/5% La 2O 3-γ-Al 2O 3 has operated under kinetic control conditions for more than 40 h at 700 °C and feeding CH 4/CO 2 ratio 1/1, similar to the composition presented in biogas streams, being observed a stable behaviour. Reaction parameters studied to evaluate the catalyst activity were H 2/CO and CH 4/CO 2 conversion ratio obtained. On the basis of a CH 4 conversion of 6.5%, CH 4/CO 2 conversion ratio achieved 0.48 and H 2/CO ratio obtained was 0.43. By comparison of experimental results to equilibrium prediction for such conditions, is detectable a lower progress of reverse water gas shift reaction. This fact increases the H 2/CO ratio obtained and therefore the hydrogen production. The higher H 2/CO and a CH 4/CO 2 conversion ratio in comparison to CH 4 one close to equilibrium is due to the carbon deposits gasification which avoids catalyst deactivation. A thermodynamic analysis about the application of dry and combined methane reforming to hydrogen production for fuel cells application is presented. Data obtained by process simulation considering a Peng-Robinson thermodynamic model, allows optimizing process conditions depending on biogas composition.

  12. Development of a wetproofed catalyst recombiner for removal of airborne tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For cleanup of airborne tritium at tritium handling facilities, it is generally agreed that the most reliable method is to convert the tritium in a recombiner into water vapor followed by adsorption of the vapor in a molecular sieve drier. Decontamination factors of 103 to 106 have been reported. Wetproofed catalysts developed at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories have been shown to maintain their activities when exposed to liquid water or air at 100% relative humidity. When a wetproofed catalyst recombiner is used, operation can be carried out at room temperatures thus greatly simplifying the system. Two catalysts, Pt/carbon and Pt/silica, were prepared for this study. The activity of Pt/carbon was measured with hydrogen and found to be comparable to the published results for conventional Pt/alumina catalysts at similar conditions. Experiments were carried out for the following range of operating conditions: flows from 0.3 to 3.0 m/s, pressure from 100 to 500 kPa. Tritium was added to the air stream at 1-5 MBq.m-3 (30-140 μCi.m-3). No significant isotope and/or pressure effects were observed. To date lifetime data of greater than four months have been obtained

  13. Exploring talent development environments –inspirations to medical education at doctoral level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Lund, Ole; Mørcke, Anne Mette

    Psychologist 2002;37(3):165-82. (3) Henriksen K. The Ecology of Talent Development in Sport: A Multiple Case Study of Successful Athletic Talent Development Environments in Scandinavia. Odense: Syddansk Universitet / University of Southern Denmark; 2010. (4) Schein EH. Organizational culture. American...... Psychologist 1990;45(2):109-19....

  14. Design of a Biomimetic Skin for an Octopus-Inspired Robot - Part Ⅱ: Development of the Skin Artefact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinping Hou,; Richard H. C. Bonser; George Jeronimidis

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop skin aetefact for an octopus-inspired robot arm, which is designed to be able to elongate 60% of its original length, silicone rubber and knitted nylon sheet were selected to manufacture an artificial skin, due to their higher elastic strain and high flexibility. Tensile and scissors cutting tests were conducted to characterise the matrix and reinforcing materials and the skin artefact. Material properties of the individual and the composite materials were compared with the measured properties of real octopus skin presented in Part Ⅰ. The Young's modulus of the skin should be below 20 MPa and the elastic strain range should be over 60%. The fracture toughness should be at least 0.9 kJ·m-2. Tubes made of the skin artefact filled with liquid were tested to study volume change under deformation. Finite element analysis model was developed to simulate the material and arm structure under tensile loading. Results show that the skin artefact developed has similar mechanical properties as the real octopus skin and satisfies all the design specifications of the OCTOPUS robot.

  15. Development of Asymmetric Hydrogenation Catalysts via High Throughput Experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.G. de; Lefort, L.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of drugs discovery imposes severe time constraints on the development chemist in charge of implementing the large scale production of a new Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). This results in the use of well-established and robust transformations at the expense of the cost-efficienc

  16. Corporate Universities: A Catalyst for Strategic Human Resource Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Peter; Pyman, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the extent to which the concept of the corporate university is emerging as a simple re-labelling of the functional training area or a key strategic platform in developing organisational competitive advantage. Design/methodology/approach: A case study approach was taken to provide an in-depth…

  17. Refusal as a democratic catalyst for mathematics education development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalene Swanson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about the connections between mathematics and democracy amongst the general populace have not been explicitly well rehearsed. A critical relationship with democracy for mathematics education may involve directing and redirecting its purposes. But, we ask, what if the ‘choice’ to not participate in experiences of mathematics education, or in its (redirection, were itself also a critical relationship with mathematics education? What if this refusal and disobedience to the evocative power of mathematics were a democratic action? We argue that consideration of mathematics education for democracy and development must take seriously specific acts of refusal that directly confront the construction of inequality common in most development contexts. Globalisation and development discourses, via citizenship and nationalism, construct relationships with learners and mathematics education in very specific ways that delimit possibilities for egalitarianism and democratic action. But, might such action not be recognised, not as refusal to participate per se, but as a refusal to participate in mathematics education’s colonising and/or globalising neo-liberal gaze? In arguing for the opening of a position of radical equality, we introduce Jacques Rancière to mathematics education theory, noting that for Rancière emancipation is the intentional disregard for ideological narratives such as the ones produced by mathematics education discourses. Thus, we provoke serious reconsideration of the assumptions behind most school improvement and professional development projects, as well as mathematics education policies and practices framed by globalising development discourses, and in the process we challenge our colleagues to consider ‘refusal’ not as deficit or failure, but as a critical position of radical equality in relation to mathematics education.

  18. Antimalarial Chemotherapy: Natural Product Inspired Development of Preclinical and Clinical Candidates with Diverse Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Álvaro, Elena; Hong, W David; Nixon, Gemma L; O'Neill, Paul M; Calderón, Félix

    2016-06-23

    Natural products have played a pivotal role in malaria chemotherapy progressing from quinine and artemisinin to ozonide-based compounds. Many of these natural products have served as template for the design and development of antimalarial drugs currently in the clinic or in the development phase. In this review, we will detail those privileged scaffolds that have guided medicinal chemistry efforts yielding molecules that have reached the clinic. PMID:26791529

  19. Development of a Bio-Inspired Structural Health Monitoring System Based on Multi-Scale Sample Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tzu-Kang; Liang, Jui-Chang

    2014-01-01

    International audience A bio-inspired structural health monitoring (SHM) system based on multi-scale Sample Entropy (SampEn) is proposed in this paper. Recently, studies on entropy have shown that the healthy state of human can be evaluated by analyzing the measured electrocardiogram. As similar circumstance is also faced in the field of structural health monitoring, where the vibration signal of the structure can be measured by deployed sensors, a multi-disciplinary research is inspired a...

  20. Developing Prospective Teachers' Knowledge to Foster and Inspire Reasoning in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueber, David; Özgün-Koca, S. Asli

    2013-01-01

    Latest standards-based reform documents from mathematics and science education organizations and communities bring forward one important issue--higher-order thinking skills, namely reasoning. In this article, we share our experiences and our approach to developing an integrated course for mathematics and science prospective teachers centered on…

  1. Development of tailored porous microstructures for infiltrated catalyst electrodes by aqueous tape casting methods

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, Mark; Doherty, D.J.; Yue, Xiangling; Irvine, John Thomas Sirr

    2015-01-01

    The authors acknowledge the EPSRC Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Supergen Fuels Cells Challenge Programme project EP/M014304/1 “Tailoring of microstructural evolution in impregnated SOFC electrodes” and the University of St Andrews for funding this work. Recent SOFC research has shown that impregnating fine catalyst structures into porous scaffolds to be an extremely promising route for electrode development. It is clear that in optimising the advantages offered by this technique there will be an...

  2. A Recent Perspective on Discovery and Development of Diverse Therapeutic Agents Inspired from Isatin Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Rajesh A; Karunanidhi, Sivanandhan; Jain, Kavita; Shaikh, Mahamadhanif; Hampannavar, Girish; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar

    2016-01-01

    Isatin as an alkaloidal framework have consistently attracted attention of medicinal chemist towards development of wide range of novel therapeutic agents. This review report has discussed significant isatin lead molecules and their derivatives which have shown promising biological potential in recent times. The substituted isatins showing a potent pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antitubercular, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-histaminic, anti-HIV, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-Parkinson's and antidiabetic have been described in this review. The mechanism of action leading to therapeutic activity of the respective isatin derivation has also been recorded. This review reveals that the systematic and rational modifications on isatin motif exhibited significant bio-activities which can be exploited for the development of potent novel therapeutic agents in the future studies. Hence the quest to investigate more structural alterations on isatin scaffold should be continued. PMID:26369813

  3. Development of a Electrically Inspired Low Emission Microcontroller Based Hybrid Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    M. Habib Ullah; T. S. Gunawan; Sharif M. Raihan; Riza Muhida

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Recently, influx of research afford is being concentrated in automobile engineering to develop low emission hybrid electric vehicle to reduce the greenhouse gases such as hydro-carbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, produces from the vehicle. Approach: Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) powered by electric machines and an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) are a promising mean of reducing emissions and fuel consumption without compromising vehicle functionality and driving pe...

  4. Development of a Electrically Inspired Low Emission Microcontroller Based Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habib Ullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, influx of research afford is being concentrated in automobile engineering to develop low emission hybrid electric vehicle to reduce the greenhouse gases such as hydro-carbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, produces from the vehicle. Approach: Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs powered by electric machines and an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE are a promising mean of reducing emissions and fuel consumption without compromising vehicle functionality and driving performances. Reduction of emission is a significant issue to save the environment from pollution that cause of many diseases in urban areas is almost entirely due to transport using fossil fuel. Although zero emission transport has not been developed and used practically yet. Results: This study introduce a control mechanism for alternative hybrid electric vehicle combination of electric motor and gasoline engine that reduce the use of fossil fuel without compromising the overall car performance. Conclusion: In this study, a microcontroller based control mechanism of HEV is introduced which consists of battery, voltage indicator, DC motor controller and battery charger."

  5. Development and testing of bio-inspired microelectromechanical pressure sensor arrays for increased situational awareness for marine vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lateral line found on most species of fish is a sensory organ without analog in humans. Using sensory feedback from the lateral line, fish are able to track prey, school, avoid obstacles, and detect vortical flow structures. Composed of both a superficial component, and a component contained within canals beneath the fish’s skin, the lateral line acts in a similar fashion to an array of differential pressure sensors. In an effort to enhance the situational and environmental awareness of marine vehicles, lateral-line-inspired pressure sensor arrays were developed to mimic the enhanced sensory capabilities observed in fish. Three flexible and waterproof pressure sensor arrays were fabricated for use as a surface-mounted ‘smart skin’ on marine vehicles. Two of the sensor arrays were based around the use of commercially available piezoresistive sensor dies, with innovative packaging schemes to allow for flexibility and underwater operation. The sensor arrays employed liquid crystal polymer and flexible printed circuit board substrates with metallic circuits and silicone encapsulation. The third sensor array employed a novel nanocomposite material set that allowed for the fabrication of a completely flexible sensor array. All three sensors were surface mounted on the curved hull of an autonomous kayak vehicle, and tested in both pool and reservoir environments. Results demonstrated that all three sensors were operational while deployed on the autonomous vehicle, and provided an accurate means for monitoring the vehicle dynamics. (paper)

  6. Development and testing of bio-inspired microelectromechanical pressure sensor arrays for increased situational awareness for marine vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, J.; Kottapalli, A. G. P.; Woo, M. E.; Asadnia, M.; Miao, J.; Lang, J. H.; Triantafyllou, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The lateral line found on most species of fish is a sensory organ without analog in humans. Using sensory feedback from the lateral line, fish are able to track prey, school, avoid obstacles, and detect vortical flow structures. Composed of both a superficial component, and a component contained within canals beneath the fish’s skin, the lateral line acts in a similar fashion to an array of differential pressure sensors. In an effort to enhance the situational and environmental awareness of marine vehicles, lateral-line-inspired pressure sensor arrays were developed to mimic the enhanced sensory capabilities observed in fish. Three flexible and waterproof pressure sensor arrays were fabricated for use as a surface-mounted ‘smart skin’ on marine vehicles. Two of the sensor arrays were based around the use of commercially available piezoresistive sensor dies, with innovative packaging schemes to allow for flexibility and underwater operation. The sensor arrays employed liquid crystal polymer and flexible printed circuit board substrates with metallic circuits and silicone encapsulation. The third sensor array employed a novel nanocomposite material set that allowed for the fabrication of a completely flexible sensor array. All three sensors were surface mounted on the curved hull of an autonomous kayak vehicle, and tested in both pool and reservoir environments. Results demonstrated that all three sensors were operational while deployed on the autonomous vehicle, and provided an accurate means for monitoring the vehicle dynamics.

  7. Discovery and development of natural product oridonin-inspired anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ye; Ding, Chunyong; Ye, Na; Liu, Zhiqing; Wold, Eric A; Chen, Haiying; Wild, Christopher; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Jia

    2016-10-21

    Natural products have historically been, and continue to be, an invaluable source for the discovery of various therapeutic agents. Oridonin, a natural diterpenoid widely applied in traditional Chinese medicines, exhibits a broad range of biological effects including anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. To further improve its potency, aqueous solubility and bioavailability, the oridonin template serves as an exciting platform for drug discovery to yield better candidates with unique targets and enhanced drug properties. A number of oridonin derivatives (e.g. HAO472) have been designed and synthesized, and have contributed to substantial progress in the identification of new agents and relevant molecular mechanistic studies toward the treatment of human cancers and other diseases. This review summarizes the recent advances in medicinal chemistry on the explorations of novel oridonin analogues as potential anticancer therapeutics, and provides a detailed discussion of future directions for the development and progression of this class of molecules into the clinic. PMID:27344488

  8. Tensegrity and its role in guiding engineering sciences in the development of bio-inspired materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, David M.; Chen, Er-Ping; Klein, Patrick A.

    2004-01-01

    Tensegrity is the word coined by Buckminster Fuller as a contraction of tensional integrity. A tensegrity system is established when a set of discontinuous compressive components interacts with a set of continuous tensile components to define a stable volume in space. Tensegrity structures are mechanically stable not because of the strength of individual members but because of the way the entire structure distributes and balances mechanical loads. Tensile forces naturally transmit themselves over the shortest distance between two points, so the members of a tensegrity system are precisely positioned to best withstand stress. Thus, tensegrity systems offer a maximum amount of strength for a given amount of material. Man-made structures have traditionally been designed to avoid developing large tensile stresses. In contrast, nature always uses a balance of tension and compression. Tensegrity principles apply at essentially every size-scale in the human body. Macroscopically, the bones that constitute our skeleton are pulled up against the force of gravity and stabilized in a vertical form by the pull of tensile muscles, tendons and ligaments. Microscopically, a tensegrity structure has been proposed for the skeleton of cells. This report contains the results of a feasibility study and literature survey to explore the potential of applying tensegrity principles in designing materials with desired functionalities. The goal is to assess if further study of the principles of tensegrity may be exploited as an avenue for producing new materials that have intrinsic capabilities for adapting to changing loads (self-healing), as with the ongoing reconstruction of living bone under loading. This study contains a collection of literature that has been categorized into the areas of structures, mathematics, mechanics, and, biology. The topics addressed in each area are discussed. Ultimately, we conclude that because tensegrity is fundamentally a description of structure, it may

  9. CATALYST ACTIVITY MAINTENANCE FOR THE LIQUID PHASE SYNTHESIS GAS-TO-DIMETHYL ETHER PROCESS PART II: DEVELOPMENT OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE AS THE DEHYDRATION CATALYST FOR THE SINGLE-STEP LIQUID PHASE SYNGAS-TO-DME PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang-Dong Peng

    2002-05-01

    At the heart of the single-step liquid phase syngas-to-DME process (LPDME{trademark}) is a catalyst system that can be active as well as stable. In the Alternative Fuels I program, a dual-catalyst system containing a Cu-based commercial methanol synthesis catalyst (BASF S3-86) and a commercial dehydration material ({gamma}-alumina) was demonstrated. It provided the productivity and selectivity expected from the LPDME process. However, the catalyst system deactivated too rapidly to warrant a viable commercial process [1]. The mechanistic investigation in the early part of the DOE's Alternative Fuels II program revealed that the accelerated catalyst deactivation under LPDME conditions is due to detrimental interaction between the methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst [2,3]. The interaction was attributed to migration of Cu- and/or Zn-containing species from the synthesis catalyst to the dehydration catalyst. Identification of a dehydration catalyst that did not lead to this detrimental interaction while retaining adequate dehydration activity was elusive. Twenty-nine different dehydration materials were tested, but none showed the desired performance [2]. The search came to a turning point when aluminum phosphate was tested. This amorphous material is prepared by precipitating a solution containing Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with NH{sub 4}OH, followed by washing, drying and calcination. The aluminum phosphate catalyst has adequate dehydration activity and good stability. It can co-exist with the Cu-based methanol synthesis catalyst without negatively affecting the latter catalyst's stability. This report documents the details of the development of this catalyst. These include initial leads, efforts in improving activity and stability, investigation and development of the best preparation parameters and procedures, mechanistic understanding and resulting preparation guidelines, and the accomplishments of this work.

  10. The development of a lightweight modular compliant surface bio-inspired robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, David L.; Cranney, John

    2004-09-01

    The DARPA Sponsored Compliant Surface Robotics (CSR) program pursues development of a high mobility, lightweight, modular, morphable robot for military forces in the field and for other industrial uses. The USTLAB effort builds on proof of concept feasibility studies and demonstration of a 4, 6, or 8 wheeled modular vehicle with articulated leg-wheel assemblies. In Phase I, basic open plant stability was proven for climbing over obstacles of ~18 inches high and traversing ~75 degree inclines (up, down, or sideways) in a platform of approximately 15 kilograms. At the completion of Phase II, we have completed mechanical and electronics engineering design and achieved changes which currently enable future work in active articulation, enabling autonomous reconfiguration for a wide variety of terrains, including upside down operations (in case of flip over), and we have reduced platform weight by one third. Currently the vehicle weighs 10 kilograms and will grow marginally as additional actuation, MEMS based organic sensing, payload, and autonomous processing is added. The CSR vehicle"s modular spider-like configuration facilitates adaptation to many uses and compliance over rugged terrain. The developmental process and the vehicle characteristics will be discussed.

  11. Commercial Application of the CTV-IV Type Catalyst for Synthesis of Vinyl Acetate Developed by Shanghai Petrochemical Research Instit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The CTV-IV type catalyst for synthesis of vinyl acetate developed by the SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute (SPRI) has been successfully applied on the #2 vinyl acetate unit at SINOPEC's Shanghai Petrochemical Company.

  12. Data specifications for INSPIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portele, Clemens; Woolf, Andrew; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    In Europe a major recent development has been the entering in force of the INSPIRE Directive in May 2007, establishing an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe to support Community environmental policies, and policies or activities which may have an impact on the environment. INSPIRE is based on the infrastructures for spatial information established and operated by the 27 Member States of the European Union. The Directive addresses 34 spatial data themes needed for environmental applications, with key components specified through technical implementing rules. This makes INSPIRE a unique example of a legislative "regional" approach. One of the requirements of the INSPIRE Directive is to make existing spatial data sets with relevance for one of the spatial data themes available in an interoperable way, i.e. where the spatial data from different sources in Europe can be combined to a coherent result. Since INSPIRE covers a wide range of spatial data themes, the first step has been the development of a modelling framework that provides a common foundation for all themes. This framework is largely based on the ISO 19100 series of standards. The use of common generic spatial modelling concepts across all themes is an important enabler for interoperability. As a second step, data specifications for the first set of themes has been developed based on the modelling framework. The themes include addresses, transport networks, protected sites, hydrography, administrative areas and others. The data specifications were developed by selected experts nominated by stakeholders from all over Europe. For each theme a working group was established in early 2008 working on their specific theme and collaborating with the other working groups on cross-theme issues. After a public review of the draft specifications starting in December 2008, an open testing process and thorough comment resolution process, the draft technical implementing rules for these themes have been

  13. The Development of Musical Skills of Underprivileged Children Over the Course of 1 Year: A Study in the Context of an El Sistema-Inspired Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ilari, Beatriz S.; Keller, Patrick; Damasio, Hanna; Habibi, Assal

    2016-01-01

    Developmental research in music has typically centered on the study of single musical skills (e.g., singing, listening) and has been conducted with middle class children who learn music in schools and conservatories. Information on the musical development of children from different social strata, who are enrolled in community-based music programs, remains elusive. This study examined the development of musical skills in underprivileged children who were attending an El Sistema-inspired progra...

  14. Development of Self-Organized Polymeric Lewis Acid-Catalysts for the Zero-Emission Synthesis of 2-Amino Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Inanaga

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction β-Amino alcohols are versatile synthetic intermediates for a wide range of biologically active natural and unnatural products. They can also serve as good chiral ligands for some asymmetric metal complex catalysts.The nucleophilic ring-opening of epoxides with an amine is one of the most efficient routes to obtain such β-amino alcohols with 1,2-trans stereochemistry. Therefore, various homogeneous catalysts have been developed for this transformation. Meanwhile, the development of efficient heterogeneous catalysts that can be easily prepared, recovered, and reused without losing their activities has currently received much attention from a practical and environmental point of view, and not a few such reusable heterogeneous catalysts (e. g., supported on inorganic materials or insoluble polymers) have been developed[1]. In general, however, they tend to show lower catalytic activities and selectivities compared to the corresponding homogeneous one, and the preparation of them are often tedious.

  15. The Development of Musical Skills of Underprivileged Children Over the Course of 1 Year: A Study in the Context of an El Sistema-Inspired Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz S; Keller, Patrick; Damasio, Hanna; Habibi, Assal

    2016-01-01

    Developmental research in music has typically centered on the study of single musical skills (e.g., singing, listening) and has been conducted with middle class children who learn music in schools and conservatories. Information on the musical development of children from different social strata, who are enrolled in community-based music programs, remains elusive. This study examined the development of musical skills in underprivileged children who were attending an El Sistema-inspired program in Los Angeles. We investigated how children, predominantly of Latino ethnicity, developed musically with respect to the following musical skills - pitch and rhythmic discrimination, pitch matching, singing a song from memory, and rhythmic entrainment - over the course of 1 year. Results suggested that participation in an El Sistema-inspired program affects children's musical development in distinct ways; with pitch perception and production skills developing faster than rhythmic skills. Furthermore, children from the same ethnic and social background, who did not participate in the El Sistema-inspired music program, showed a decline in singing and pitch discrimination skills over the course of 1 year. Taken together, these results are consistent with the idea of musical development as a complex, spiraling and recursive process that is influenced by several factors including type of musical training. Implications for future research are outlined. PMID:26869964

  16. The development of musical skills of underprivileged children over the course of one year: A study in the context of an El Sistema-inspired program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Senoi Ilari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Developmental research in music has typically centered on the study of single musical skills (e.g., singing, listening and has been conducted with middle class children who learn music in schools and conservatories. Information on the musical development of children from different social strata, who are enrolled in community-based music programs remains elusive. This study examined the development of musical skills in underprivileged children who were attending an El Sistema-inspired program in Los Angeles. We investigated how children, predominantly of Latino ethnicity, developed musically with respect to the following musical skills – pitch and rhythmic discrimination, pitch matching, singing a song from memory, and rhythmic entrainment – over the course of one year. Results suggested that participation in an El Sistema-inspired program affects children’s musical development in distinct ways; with pitch perception and production skills developing faster than rhythmic skills. Furthermore, children from the same ethnic and social background, who did not participate in the El Sistema-inspired music program, showed a decline in singing and pitch discrimination skills over the course of one year. Taken together, these results are consistent with the idea of musical development as a complex, spiraling and recursive process that is influenced by several factors including type of musical training. Implications for future research are outlined.

  17. Development of a stable cobalt-ruthenium Fisher-Tropsch catalyst. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

    1995-02-01

    The reverse micelle catalyst preparation method has been used to prepare catalysts on four supports: magnesium oxide, carbon, alumina- titania and steamed Y zeolite. These catalysts were not as active as a reference catalyst prepared during previous contracts to Union Carbide Corp. This catalyst was supported on steamed Y zerolite support and was impregnated by a pore-filling method using a nonaqueous solvent. Additional catalysts were prepared via pore- filling impregnation of steamed Y zeolites. These catalysts had levels of cobalt two to three and a half times as high as the original Union Carbide catalyst. On a catalyst volume basis they were much more active than the previous catalyst; on an atom by atom basis the cobalt was about of the same activity, i.e., the high cobalt catalysts` cobalt atoms were not extensively covered over and deactivated by other cobalt atoms. The new, high activity, Y zerolite catalysts were not as stable as the earlier Union Carbide catalyst. However, stability enhancement of these catalysts should be possible, for instance, through adjustment of the quantity and/or type of trace metals present. A primary objective of this work was determination whether small amounts of ruthenium could enhance the activity of the cobalt F-T catalyst. The reverse micelle catalysts were not activated by ruthenium, indeed scanning transmission electronic microscopy (STEM) analysis provided some evidence that ruthenium was not present in the cobalt crystallites. Ruthenium did not seem to activate the high cobalt Y zeolite catalyst either, but additional experiments with Y zeolite-supported catalysts are required. Should ruthenium prove not to be an effective promoter under the simple catalyst activation procedure used in this work, more complex activation procedures have been reported which are claimed to enhance the cobalt/ruthenium interaction and result in activity promotion by ruthenium.

  18. Perceptually-Inspired Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human sensory systems allow individuals to see, hear, touch, and interact with the surrounding physical environment. Understanding human perception and its limit enables us to better exploit the psychophysics of human perceptual systems to design more efficient, adaptive algorithms and develop perceptually-inspired computational models. In this talk, I will survey some of recent efforts on perceptually-inspired computing with applications to crowd simulation and multimodal interaction. In particular, I will present data-driven personality modeling based on the results of user studies, example-guided physics-based sound synthesis using auditory perception, as well as perceptually-inspired simplification for multimodal interaction. These perceptually guided principles can be used to accelerating multi-modal interaction and visual computing, thereby creating more natural human-computer interaction and providing more immersive experiences. I will also present their use in interactive applications for entertainment, such as video games, computer animation, and shared social experience. I will conclude by discussing possible future research directions.

  19. Biologically inspired intelligent robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2003-07-01

    Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

  20. Catalyst for Gas Phase Hydrogenation of Aldehydes Successfully Developed by Daqing Chemical Research Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A national invention patent has been granted to the method for preparation of the Cu-Zn-Al system catalyst for gas phase hydrogenation of aldehydes developed by the Daqing Chemi-cal Research Center (DCRC) under the PetroChina Petro-chemical Research Institute. This technology is mainly ap-plied to the gas phase process for hydrogenation of butanal/crotonaldehyde to manufacture butanol/octanol and has brought about hundreds of million RMB of economic ben-efits since its application.

  1. Large Scale Manufacture of Catalyst for Making DME Developed by Southwest Chemical Research and Design Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Southwest Chemical Research and Design Institute (SCRDI) after tackling the key technology related with the catalyst for manufacture of DME through gas phase dehydration of methanol has made great breakthroughs in large scale preparation of catalyst for DME production.

  2. Development of a CO2 Tolerant Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst:from Laboratory to Commercial-Scale Demonstration in Alaska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joep J H M Font Freide; Tim D Gamlin; J Richard Hensman; Barry Nay; Christopher Sharp

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the development of BP's Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, used for the conversion of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons. It covers the 18 year period from the early eighties, when laboratory scale preparations and micro-reactors were heavily used, right through to the present day with the commercial scale manufacture and proving of the finished catalyst in BP's new $86 million gas to liquids demonstration facility in Nikiski, Alaska. Extensive performance testing and scale-up experiments have been successfully carried out, all proof that a laboratory preparation can indeed be translated into a commercial manufacturing process. In addition, the resulting catalyst does not only meet the process design targets, but also exhibits enhanced stability and is tolerant to carbon dioxide.Above all, a commercial scale, fixed bed Fischer-Tropsch catalyst is now available and ready for licensing.Manufacturing procedures and quality control have all been successfully detailed and transferred to the commercial manufacturer.

  3. Novel growth method of carbon nanotubes using catalyst-support layer developed by alumina grit blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiromichi; Ishii, Juntaro; Ota, Keishin

    2016-08-01

    We propose an efficient method of growing carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays on a variety of metals, alloys, and carbon materials using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) assisted by a simple surface treatment of the materials. The main feature of this method is the application of grit blasting with fine alumina particles to the development of a catalyst-support layer required for the growth of CNTs on various conductive materials, including ultra-hard metals such as tungsten. Auger electron spectroscopy shows that grit blasting can form a non-continuous layer where alumina nanoparticles are embedded as residues in the blasting media left on the treated surfaces. This work reveals that such a non-continuous alumina layer can behave as the catalyst-support layer, which is generally prepared by sputter or a vacuum evaporation coating process that considerably restricts the practical applications of CNTs. We have attempted to grow CNTs on grit-blasted substrates of eighteen conventionally used conductive materials using CVD together with a floating iron catalyst. The proposed method was successful in growing multi-walled CNT arrays on the grit-blasted surfaces of all the examined materials, demonstrating its versatility. Furthermore, we found that the group IV metal oxide films thermally grown on the as-received substrates can support the catalytic activity of iron nanoparticles in the CVD process just as well as the alumina film developed by grit blasting. Spectral emissivity of the CNT arrays in the visible and infrared wavelength ranges has been determined to assess the applicability of the CNT arrays as a black coating media.

  4. Novel growth method of carbon nanotubes using catalyst-support layer developed by alumina grit blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiromichi; Ishii, Juntaro; Ota, Keishin

    2016-08-19

    We propose an efficient method of growing carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays on a variety of metals, alloys, and carbon materials using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) assisted by a simple surface treatment of the materials. The main feature of this method is the application of grit blasting with fine alumina particles to the development of a catalyst-support layer required for the growth of CNTs on various conductive materials, including ultra-hard metals such as tungsten. Auger electron spectroscopy shows that grit blasting can form a non-continuous layer where alumina nanoparticles are embedded as residues in the blasting media left on the treated surfaces. This work reveals that such a non-continuous alumina layer can behave as the catalyst-support layer, which is generally prepared by sputter or a vacuum evaporation coating process that considerably restricts the practical applications of CNTs. We have attempted to grow CNTs on grit-blasted substrates of eighteen conventionally used conductive materials using CVD together with a floating iron catalyst. The proposed method was successful in growing multi-walled CNT arrays on the grit-blasted surfaces of all the examined materials, demonstrating its versatility. Furthermore, we found that the group IV metal oxide films thermally grown on the as-received substrates can support the catalytic activity of iron nanoparticles in the CVD process just as well as the alumina film developed by grit blasting. Spectral emissivity of the CNT arrays in the visible and infrared wavelength ranges has been determined to assess the applicability of the CNT arrays as a black coating media. PMID:27389659

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A NANO-Ni-La-Fe/Al2O3 CATALYST TO BE USED FOR SYN-GAS PRODUCTION AND TAR REMOVAL AFTER BIOMASS GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfen Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a supported tri-metallic catalyst (nano-Ni-La-Fe/γ-Al2O3 for tar removal in biomass steam gasification, to significantly enhance the quality of the produced gas. For this purpose, the supported tri-metallic catalysts were prepared by a deposition-precipitation (DP method. Different analytical approaches were used to characterize the synthesized catalysts. The results showed that the prepared tri-metallic catalysts had an egg-shell structure with a specific surface area of 214.7 m2/g. The activity of the catalysts for gas production and tar removal in the process of biomass gasification was also investigated using a bench-scale combined fixed bed reactor. The experiments indicated that the tar yield after adding catalyst was reduced significantly and the efficiency of tar removal reached 99% for the biomass steam gasification at 800oC, while the gas yield after adding catalysts increased markedly and less coke was found over the catalyst. Meanwhile, the compositions of gas products before and after adding catalyst in the process also changed significantly; in particular, the content of hydrogen in catalytic steam gasification was improved by over 10 vol%. Therefore, using the prepared tri-metallic catalyst in biomass gasification can significantly improve the quality of the produced gas and efficiently eliminate the tar generation, preventing coke deposition on the catalyst surfaces, thus demonstrating a long lifetime of the catalyst.

  6. Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, Jukka; Iwaszkiewicz, Jan

    2011-12-01

    INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

  7. Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

  8. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication......A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... contributions have been put together. There are a number of ways to continue Chris Freeman's legacy on innovation research. The first is to build in a critical tradition in the economics of innovation research by introducing fearlessly emancipatory epistemology. Second the economic system that dominates social...

  9. Development of vanadium-phosphate catalysts for methanol production by selective oxidation of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, R.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The United States has vast natural gas reserves which could contribute significantly to our energy security if economical technologies for conversion to liquid fuels and chemicals were developed. Many of these reserves are small scale or in remote locations and of little value unless they can be transported to consumers. Transportation is economically performed via pipeline, but this route is usually unavailable in remote locations. Another option is to convert the methane in the gas to liquid hydrocarbons, such as methanol, which can easily and economically be transported by truck. Therefore, the conversion of methane to liquid hydrocarbons has the potential to decrease our dependence upon oil imports by opening new markets for natural gas and increasing its use in the transportation and chemical sectors of the economy. In this project, we are attempting to develop, and explore new catalysts capable of direct oxidation of methane to methanol. The specific objectives of this work are discussed.

  10. Developing a Metadata Infrastructure to facilitate data driven science gateway and to provide Inspire/GEMINI compliance for CLIPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajlovski, Andrej; Plieger, Maarten; Som de Cerff, Wim; Page, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The CLIPC project is developing a portal to provide a single point of access for scientific information on climate change. This is made possible through the Copernicus Earth Observation Programme for Europe, which will deliver a new generation of environmental measurements of climate quality. The data about the physical environment which is used to inform climate change policy and adaptation measures comes from several categories: satellite measurements, terrestrial observing systems, model projections and simulations and from re-analyses (syntheses of all available observations constrained with numerical weather prediction systems). These data categories are managed by different communities: CLIPC will provide a single point of access for the whole range of data. The CLIPC portal will provide a number of indicators showing impacts on specific sectors which have been generated using a range of factors selected through structured expert consultation. It will also, as part of the transformation services, allow users to explore the consequences of using different combinations of driving factors which they consider to be of particular relevance to their work or life. The portal will provide information on the scientific quality and pitfalls of such transformations to prevent misleading usage of the results. The CLIPC project will develop an end to end processing chain (indicator tool kit), from comprehensive information on the climate state through to highly aggregated decision relevant products. Indicators of climate change and climate change impact will be provided, and a tool kit to update and post process the collection of indicators will be integrated into the portal. The CLIPC portal has a distributed architecture, making use of OGC services provided by e.g., climate4impact.eu and CEDA. CLIPC has two themes: 1. Harmonized access to climate datasets derived from models, observations and re-analyses 2. A climate impact tool kit to evaluate, rank and aggregate

  11. Catalyst Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans; Marling, Gitte; Hansen, Peter Mandal

    2014-01-01

    How can architecture promote the enriching experiences of the tolerant, the democratic, and the learning city - a city worth living in, worth supporting and worth investing in? Catalyst Architecture comprises architectural projects, which, by virtue of their location, context and their combination...... of programs, have a role in mediating positive social and/or cultural development. In this sense, we talk about architecture as a catalyst for: sustainable adaptation of the city’s infrastructure appropriate renovation of dilapidated urban districts strengthening of social cohesiveness in the city...

  12. Development of catalysts for chemical reactions driven by concentrated solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this phase of the work is to study commercially available low priced catalysts, for the methanation and reforming processes in the closed-loop solar chemical heat pipe. This report summarized some long term tests of commercially available methanation catalysts and the measurement of their active surface before and after reaction. It was found that the 1%Ru on alumina stars catalysts (prepared by Englehard Company according to our request) is very active and stable at 350-750 C. The catalyst 'A' produced in Russia, is less active, however, did not lose the mechanical strength. The 50% Ni/SiO2 catalyst is active as the 'A' catalyst but loses its activity after treatment at temperature > 600 C, its geometrical size shrinked. (authors). 25 refs., 25 figs., 36 tabs

  13. Development of hydrotalcite-derived Ni catalysts for the dry reforming of methane at high temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Mette, K.

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic dry reforming of methane (DRM) is an attractive technology for industrial production of synthesis gas, an important feedstock for the production of many basic chemicals. The endothermic reaction operates at high temperatures above 640 °C. On nickel based catalysts high syngas yields are obtained. However, catalyst deactivation by coke formation over Ni based catalysts is still challenging. Deeper understanding of the structure-performance-relationships is needed to integrate the DRM...

  14. Combinatorial Development of Water Splitting Catalysts Based on the Oxygen Evolving Complex of Photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodbury, Neal [Arizona State University

    2010-03-31

    The use of methods to create large arrays of potential catalysts for the reaction H2O ½ O2 + 2H+ on the anode of an electrolysis system were investigated. This reaction is half of the overall reaction involved in the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen gas. This method consisted of starting with an array of electrodes and developing patterned electrochemical approaches for creating a different, defined peptide at each position in the array. Methods were also developed for measuring the rate of reaction at each point in the array. In this way, the goal was to create and then tests many thousands of possible catalysts simultaneously. This type of approach should lead to an ability to optimize catalytic activity systematically, by iteratively designing and testing new libraries of catalysts. Optimization is important to decrease energy losses (over-potentials) associated with the water splitting reaction and thus for the generation of hydrogen. Most of the efforts in this grant period were focused on developing the chemistry and analytical methods required to create pattern peptide formation either using a photolithography approach or an electrochemical approach for dictating the positions of peptide bond formation. This involved testing a large number of different reactions and conditions. We have been able to find conditions that have allowed us to pattern peptide bond formation on both glass slides using photolithographic methods and on electrode arrays made by the company Combimatrix. Part of this effort involved generating novel approaches for performing mass spectroscopy directly from the patterned arrays. We have also been able to demonstrate the ability to measure current at each electrode due to electrolysis of water. This was performed with customized instrumentation created in collaboration with Combimatrix. In addition, several different molecular designs for peptides that bound metals (primarily Mn) were developed and synthesized and metal

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

    2003-11-30

    Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. Evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with methane. Since the replacement of ammonia by methane is commercially very attractive, in this project, the effect of promoters on the activity and selectivity of copper oxide/cerium oxide-based catalysts and the reaction mechanism for the SCR with methane was investigated. Unpromoted and promoted catalysts were investigated for their SCR activity with methane in a microreactor setup and also, by the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) technique. The results from the SCR experiments indicated that manganese is a more effective promoter than the other metals (Rh, Li, K, Na, Zn, and Sn) for the supported copper oxide-ceria catalysts under study. The effectiveness of the promoter increased with the increase in Ce/Cu ratio. Among the catalysts tested, the Cu1Ce3 catalyst promoted with 1 weight % Mn was found to be the best catalyst for the SCR of NO with methane. This catalyst was subjected to long-term testing at the facilities of our industrial partner TDA Research. TDA report indicated that the performance of this catalyst did not deteriorate during 100 hours of operation and the activity and selectivity of the catalyst was not affected by the presence of SO{sub 2}. The conversions obtained by TDA were significantly lower than those obtained at Hampton University due to the transport limitations on the reaction rate in the TDA reactor, in which 1/8th inch pellets were used while the Hampton University reactor contained 250-425-{micro}m catalyst particles. The selected catalyst was also tested at the TDA facilities with high-sulfur heavy oil as the reducing agent. Depending on the heavy oil flow rate, up to 100% NO conversions were obtained. The

  16. Enantioselective Decarboxylative Alkylation Reactions: Catalyst Development, Substrate Scope, and Mechanistic Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-11-14

    α-Quaternary ketones are accessed through novel enantioselective alkylations of allyl and propargyl electrophiles by unstabilized prochiral enolate nucleophiles in the presence of palladium complexes with various phosphinooxazoline (PHOX) ligands. Excellent yields and high enantiomeric excesses are obtained from three classes of enolate precursor: enol carbonates, enol silanes, and racemic β-ketoesters. Each of these substrate classes functions with nearly identical efficiency in terms of yield and enantioselectivity. Catalyst discovery and development, the optimization of reaction conditions, the exploration of reaction scope, and applications in target-directed synthesis are reported. Experimental observations suggest that these alkylation reactions occur through an unusual inner-sphere mechanism involving binding of the prochiral enolate nucleophile directly to the palladium center.

  17. Development and Electrochemical Studies of Ruthenium Based Mixed Oxide Catalyst Electrodes for Chlorine Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which allow comparison of the electrochemical performance of RuO2/Ti, Ru0.3Sn0.7O2/Ti and Ru0.3V0.7O2/Ti catalysts prepared on a titanium substrate by thermal decomposition from respective precursors. The highest activity for chlorine evolution is observed on the Ru0.3V0.7O2/Ti electrode, lower on Ru0.3Sn0.7O2/Ti and least on RuO2/Ti. Voltammograms obtained in the polarisable region are used to characterize the different electrodes. Further more an analysis of the catalytic activity and reaction kinetics of the developed electrodes in NaCl are presented.

  18. Evaluation of the Two-Dimensional Performances of Low Activity Planar Catalysts: Development and Validation of a True Scanning Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, M; Nemenyi, A; Dal Santo, V; Psaro, R; Ostinelli, L; Monticelli, D; Dossi, C; Recchia, S

    2016-01-11

    The development of a scanning reactor for planar catalysts is presented here. With respect to other existing models, this reactor is able to scan catalysts even with low turnover frequencies with a minimum sensed circular area of approximately 6 mm in diameter. The downstream gas analysis is performed with a quaprupole mass spectrometer. The apparatus performances are presented for two different reactions: the hydrogenation of butadiene over palladium films and the oxidation of CO over a gold/titania catalyst. With the final setup, true scans in both X and Y directions (or even in a previously defined complex directional pattern) are possible within a scan speed ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 mm/min. Finally, this apparatus aims at becoming a valuable tool for high throughput and combinatorial experimentation to test patterned active surfaces and catalytic libraries. PMID:26616670

  19. Development of mild and efficient method for synthesis of substituted flavones using oxalic acid catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhay S.Zambare; Jaiprakash N.Sangshetti; Nagnnath D.Kokare; Devanand B.Shinde

    2009-01-01

    Oxalic acid has been used as a catalyst for intramolecular cyclisation of 2-hydroxyehalcones to form flavones in good yields.The efficiency of the catalyst was proved with a variety of substrates ranging from electron-deficient to electron-rich aryl aldehydes and 2-hydroxychalcone.

  20. Inspiring Teachers: Perspectives and Practices. Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Pam; Kington, Alison; Lindorff-Vijayendran, Ariel; Ortega, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the notion of "inspiring" teaching. The research was commissioned by CfBT as part of a collaborative professional development initiative involving its schools. It arose from headteachers' suggestions that schools nominate a number of "inspiring" teachers so that their practice could be studied and…

  1. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  2. Retina-inspired Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Doutsi, Effrosyni; Fillatre, Lionel; Antonini, Marc; Gaulmin, Julien

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel filter which is inspired by the human retina. The human retina consists of three different layers: the Outer Plexiform Layer (OPL), the inner plexiform layer and the ganglionic layer. Our inspiration is the linear transform which takes place in the OPL and has been mathematically described by the neuroscientific model “virtual retina”. This model is the cornerstone to derive the non-separable spatiotemporal OPL retina-inspired filter, briefly renamed retina- insp...

  3. Inspiring Teachers: Perspectives and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Pam; Kington, Alison; Lindorff-Vijayendran, Ariel; Ortega, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    This research study investigates the notion of "inspiring" teaching through case studies of a purposive sample of 17 primary and secondary school teachers in England. The research was commissioned by CfBT Education Trust as part of a collaborative professional development initiative involving its schools. It arose from headteachers'…

  4. Development of Highly Effective Nanoparticle Spinel Catalysts for Aerobic Oxidation of Benzylic Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI,Hong-Bing(纪红兵); WANG,Le-Fu(王乐夫)

    2002-01-01

    Spinel catalyst MnFe1.8Cu0.15Ru0.05O4 with particle size of about 42 nm is an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the oxidation of benzylic alcohols. The substitution of Fe for Cu improves its catalytic activity. Based on the characterization of BET, XPS and EXAFS, two factors influencing the structure and texture of the catalyst caused by the substitution of Cu for Fe may be assumed: physical factor responsible for the increasing of surface area; chemical factor responsible for the transformation of Ru-O bonds to Ru = O bonds. β-Elimination is considered to be an important step in the reaction.

  5. Study and development of membrane electrode assemblies for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) with palladium based catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PEMFC systems are capable of generating electricity with high efficiency and low or no emissions, but durability and cost issues prevent its large commercialization. In this work MEA with palladium based catalysts were developed, Pd/C, Pt/C and alloys PdPt/C catalysts with different ratios between metals and carbon were synthesized and characterized. A study of the ratio between catalyst and Nafion Ionomer for formation of high performance triple-phase reaction was carried out, a mathematical model to implement this adjustment to catalysts with different relations between metal and support taking into account the volumetric aspects of the catalyst layer was developed and then a study of the catalyst layer thickness was performed. X-ray diffraction, Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Energy Dispersive, Gas Pycnometry, Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry, Gas adsorption according to the BET and BJH equations, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis techniques were used for characterization and particle size, specific surface areas and lattice parameters determinations were also carried out. All catalysts were used on MEAs preparation and evaluated in 5 cm2 single cell from 25 to 100 °C at 1 atm and the best composition was also evaluated at 3 atm. In the study of metals for reactions, to reduce the platinum applied to the electrodes without performance losses, Pd/C and PdPt/C 1:1 were selected for anodes and cathodes, respectively. The developed MEA structure used 0,25 mgPt.cm-2, showing power densities up to 550 mW.cm-2 and power of 2.2 kWnet per gram of platinum. The estimated costs showed that there was a reduction of up to 64.5 %, compared to the MEA structures previously known. Depending on the temperature and operating pressure, values from US$ 1,475.30 to prepare MEAs for each installed kilowatt were obtained. Taking into account recent studies, it was concluded that the cost of the developed MEA is compatible with PEMFC stationary application. (author)

  6. New catalyst developed at Argonne National Laboratory could help diesels meet NOx deadlines

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "A new catalyst could help auto makers meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's deadline to eliminate 95 percent of nitrogen-oxide from diesel engine exhausts by 2007, while saving energy" (1 page).

  7. Development of a New Heterogeneous Lewis Acid Catalyst for Chemoselective Tetrahydropyranylation of Different Hydroxyl Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kolahdoozan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino functionalized triazine supported on silica-gel was prepared and characterized. This new triazine derivative was applied as a coordinating agent for aluminum chloride. This novel Lewis acid supported on heterogeneous surface was used as an effective catalyst for protection of alcohols and phenols in the presence of 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran. This catalyst can be reused without any significant loss of activity, and it protects alcohols in the presence of phenols.

  8. Driving the Oxygen Evolution Reaction by Nonlinear Cooperativity in Bimetallic Coordination Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Benjamin; Grumelli, Doris; Hötger, Diana; Gutzler, Rico; Kern, Klaus

    2016-03-23

    Developing efficient catalysts for electrolysis, in particular for the oxygen evolution in the anodic half cell reaction, is an important challenge in energy conversion technologies. By taking inspiration from the catalytic properties of single-atom catalysts and metallo-proteins, we exploit the potential of metal-organic networks as electrocatalysts in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). A dramatic enhancement of the catalytic activity toward the production of oxygen by nearly 2 orders of magnitude is demonstrated for novel heterobimetallic organic catalysts compared to metallo-porphyrins. Using a supramolecular approach we deliberately place single iron and cobalt atoms in either of two different coordination environments and observe a highly nonlinear increase in the catalytic activity depending on the coordination spheres of Fe and Co. Catalysis sets in at about 300 mV overpotential with high turnover frequencies that outperform other metal-organic catalysts like the prototypical hangman porphyrins. PMID:26937997

  9. Development of metal catalyst impregnation technology for membrane-based oxygen removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissolved oxygen(DO) is a primary cause of PWSCC and its content in reactor coolant system in NPPs has been strictly controlled by various DO removal methods. There are several removal methods of DO, such as vacuum degasification, thermal deaeration, and reductive removal by oxygen scavengers. Although the operation principles of vacuum degasification and thermal deaeration are simple, these methods require a lot of energy for operation and show lower efficiency. And these methods have a few handicaps such as temperature, pH, toxicity, high cost of installation and so on. For the purpose of developing the best method for DO removal from make-up water storage tank, it is necessary to overcome the disadvantages of hydrazine treatment. From this point of view, membrane-based oxygen removal system (MORS) has many advantages than other methods for example, friendly environmental process, versatility of operation conditions with high temperature and low pressure, small space, low cost, etc. Recently de-gassing membrane is widely used in power plant's feed water system for DO removal. De-gassing membrane has some advantages; it removes other dissolved gases such as CO2, N2, as well as O2, and is more economical than Catalytic resin-based Oxygen Removal System. In this study, to obtain better efficiency of MORS, we modified the polypropylene (PP) hollow fiber membrane by plasma treatment and ion beam irradiation supported platinum(Pt), palladium(Pd) as metal catalyst on the surface of the membrane

  10. Bio-inspired Hierarchical Nanowebs for Green Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung G; Lee, Subeom; Chang, Sung-Jin; Choi, Bong Gill; Seo, Jeongeun; Sangalang, Arvin; Kim, Do Hyun; Park, Tae Jung; Lee, Moon-Keun; Lee, Seok Jae; Lee, Haiwon

    2015-09-01

    Bio-inspired 3D hierarchical nanowebs are fabricated using silicon micropillars, carbon nanotubes (CNT), and manganese oxide. The Si pillars act as artificial branches for growing CNTs and the secondary metal coating strengthens the structures. The simple but effective structure provides both chemical and mechanical stability to be used as a green catalyst for recycling waste polymers into raw materials. PMID:26060049

  11. Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalysis: Ag-Doped TiO2 Catalyst Development and Reactor Design Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hintze, Paul E.; Meier, Anne; Shah, Malay G.; Devor, Robert W.; Surma, Jan M.; Maloney, Phillip R.; Bauer, Brint M.; Mazyck, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the alteration of titanium dioxide to become visible-light-responsive (VLR) has been a major focus in the field of photocatalysis. Currently, bare titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactors to provide adequate levels of ultraviolet light for catalyst activation; these mercury-containing lamps, however, hinder the use of this PCO technology in a spaceflight environment due to concerns over crew Hg exposure. VLR-TiO2 would allow for use of ambient visible solar radiation or highly efficient visible wavelength LEDs, both of which would make PCO approaches more efficient, flexible, economical, and safe. Over the past three years, Kennedy Space Center has developed a VLR Ag-doped TiO2 catalyst with a band gap of 2.72 eV and promising photocatalytic activity. Catalyst immobilization techniques, including incorporation of the catalyst into a sorbent material, were examined. Extensive modeling of a reactor test bed mimicking air duct work with throughput similar to that seen on the International Space Station was completed to determine optimal reactor design. A bench-scale reactor with the novel catalyst and high-efficiency blue LEDs was challenged with several common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in ISS cabin air to evaluate the system's ability to perform high-throughput trace contaminant removal. The ultimate goal for this testing was to determine if the unit would be useful in pre-heat exchanger operations to lessen condensed VOCs in recovered water thus lowering the burden of VOC removal for water purification systems.

  12. Current status, key challenges and its solutions in the design and development of graphene based ORR catalysts for the microbial fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, M V; Gnana Kumar, G

    2016-03-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are considered as the futuristic energy device that generates electricity from the catalytic degradation of biodegradable organic wastes using microbes, which exist in waste water. In MFCs, oxygen serves as a cathodic electron acceptor and oxygen reduction kinetics played a significant role in the determination of overall efficiency. A wide range of strategies have been developed for the preparation and substantial modification of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts to improve the maximum volumetric power density of MFCs, in which the efforts on graphene based ORR catalysts are highly imperative. Although numerous research endeavors have been achieved in relation with the graphene based ORR catalysts applicable for MFCs, still their collective summary has not been developed, which hinders the acquirement of adequate knowledge on tuning the specific properties of said catalysts. The intension of this review is to outline the significant role of ORR catalysts, factors influencing the ORR activity, strategies behind the modifications of ORR catalysts and update the research efforts devoted on graphene based ORR catalysts. This review can be considered as a pertinent guide to understand the design and developmental strategies of competent graphene based ORR catalysts, which are not only applicable for MFCs but also for number of electrochemical applications. PMID:26606182

  13. Development of Ternary and Quaternary Catalysts for the Electrooxidation of Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Artem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work consisted in the preparation of platinum-based catalysts supported on carbon (Vulcan XC-72 and investigation of their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. Catalysts of the C/Pt-Ni-Sn-Me (Me = Ru or Ir type were prepared by the Pechini method at temperature of 350∘C. Four different compositions were homemade: C/Pt60Sn10Ni30, C/Pt60Sn10Ni20Ru10, C/Pt60Sn10Ni10Ru20, and C/Pt60Sn10Ni10Ir20. These catalysts were electrochemically and physically characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV, chronoamperometry (CA in the presence of glycerol 1.0 mol dm-3, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. XRD results showed the main peaks of face-centered cubic Pt. The particle sizes obtained from XRD and HRTEM experiments were close to values ranging from 3 to 8.5 nm. The CV results indicate behavior typical of Pt-based catalysts in acid medium. The CV and CA data reveal that quaternary catalysts present the highest current density for the electrooxidation of glycerol.

  14. Physicists get INSPIREd

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Particle physicists thrive on information. They first create information by performing experiments or elaborating theoretical conjectures and then they share it through publications and various web tools. The INSPIRE service, just released, will bring state of the art information retrieval to the fingertips of researchers.   Keeping track of the information shared within the particle physics community has long been the task of libraries at the larger labs, such as CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, as well as the focus of indispensible services like arXiv and those of the Particle Data Group. In 2007, many providers of information in the field came together for a summit at SLAC to see how physics information resources could be enhanced, and the INSPIRE project emerged from that meeting. The vision behind INSPIRE was built by a survey launched by the four labs to evaluate the real needs of the community. INSPIRE responds to these directives from the community by combining the most successful aspe...

  15. In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jose A; Chupas, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

  16. Development of Heterogeneous Olympic Medal Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts for Environmentally Benign Molecular Transformations Based on the Surface Properties of Hydrotalcite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Jitsukawa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we describe the development by our research group of highly functionalized heterogeneous Olympic medal metal (gold, silver, and copper nanoparticle catalysts using hydrotalcite as a support, aimed towards Green and Sustainable Chemistry. Olympic medal metal nanoparticles can cooperate with the basic sites on the hydrotalcite surface, providing unique and high performance catalysis in environmentally-benign organic transformations such as aerobic oxidation of alcohols, lactonization of diols and selective deoxygenation of epoxides and nitro aromatic compounds.

  17. Development of niobium-promoted cobalt catalysts on carbon nanotubes for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sardar Ali; Noor Asmawati Mohd Zabidi; Duvvuri Subbarao

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt-based catalysts were prepared by a wet impregnation method on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) support and promoted with niobium.Samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption,TEM,XRD,TPR,TPO and H2-TPD.Addition of niobium increased the dispersion of cobalt but decreased the catalysts reducibility.Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor at 543 K,1 atm and H2/CO =2 for 5 h.Addition of niobium enhanced the C5+ hydrocarbons selectivity by 39% and reduced methane selectivity by 59%.These effects were more pronounced for 0.04%Nb/Co/CNTs catalyst,compared with those observed for other niobium compositions.

  18. Development of Highly Effective Nanoparticle Spinel Catalysts for Aerobic Oxidation of Benzylic Alcoho1s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪红兵; 王乐夫

    2002-01-01

    Spinel catalyst MnFe1.8Cu0.15Ru0.05O4 with partcle size of about 42nm is an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the oxidation of benzylic alcobols.The substitution of Fe for Cu improves its catalytic activity.Based on the characterization of BET,XPS and EXAFS,two factors influencing the structure and texture of the catalyst cauesd by the substitution of Cu for Fe may be assumed:physical factor responsible for the increasing of surface area;chemical factor responsible for the transformation of Ru-O bonds to Ru=O boods.β-Elimination is considered to be an important step in the reaction.

  19. Microflyers: inspiration from nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Jayant

    2013-04-01

    Over the past decade, there has been considerable interest in miniaturizing aircraft to create a class of extremely small, robotic vehicles with a gross mass on the order of tens of grams and a dimension on the order of tens of centimeters. These are collectively refered to as micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) or microflyers. Because the size of microflyers is on the same order as that of small birds and large insects, engineers are turning to nature for inspiration. Bioinspired concepts make use of structural or aerodynamic mechanisms that are observed in insects and birds, such as elastic energy storage and unsteady aerodynamics. Biomimetic concepts attempt to replicate the form and function of natural flyers, such as flapping-wing propulsion and external appearance. This paper reviews recent developments in the area of man-made microflyers. The design space for microflyers will be described, along with fundamental physical limits to miniaturization. Key aerodynamic phenomena at the scale of microflyers will be highlighted. Because the focus is on bioinspiration and biomimetics, scaled-down versions of conventional aircraft, such as fixed wing micro air vehicles and microhelicopters will not be addressed. A few representative bioinspired and biomimetic microflyer concepts developed by researchers will be described in detail. Finally, some of the sensing mechanisms used by natural flyers that are being implemented in man-made microflyers will be discussed.

  20. Natural product inspired diversity oriented synthesis of tetrahydroquinoline scaffolds as antitubercular agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Srivastava, Suman; Gupta, Garima; Chaturvedi, Vinita; Sinha, Sudhir; Srivastava, R

    2011-01-10

    An efficient natural product inspired diversity oriented syn thesis of tetrahydroquinoline analogues has been developed using the natural carbohydrate derived solid acid catalyst via multicomponent aza-Diels-Alder reaction of imine (generated in situ from aromatic amine and aldehyde) with dienophile in acetonitrile in a diastereoselective manner. The use of water as solvent reverses the diastereoselectivity toward the cis isomer. Interestingly, tricyclic pyrano/furano benzopyran with cis diastereoselectivity is obtained when salicylaldehyde is used as an alternative of aromatic aldehyde under the same condition. These synthesized quinolines and benzopyrans analogues have been evaluated for their Antitubercular activity against M. tuberculosis H₃₇Ra, and M. tuberculosis H₃₇Rv, and some of the analogues shows better activity profile than their natural product analogues. The protocol is not only mild, efficient, ecofriendly, but also involves reusable and biodegradable catalyst and provides route for both the diastereoisomer. PMID:21247127

  1. Product Protection, the Key to Developing High Performance Methane Selective Oxidation Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlquist, Mårten; Nielsen, Robert J.; Periana, Roy A.; Goddard, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Selective, direct conversion of methane to methanol might seem an impossible task since the C−H bond energy of methane is 105 kcal mol^(−1) compared to the C−H bond energy for methanol of 94. We show here that the Catalytica catalyst is successful because the methanol is protected as methyl bisulfate, which is substantially less reactive than methanol toward the catalyst. This analysis suggests a limiting performance for systems that operate by this type of protection that is well above the C...

  2. Bio-inspired computation in telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She; Ting, TO

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired computation, especially those based on swarm intelligence, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications reviews the latest developments in bio-inspired computation from both theory and application as they relate to telecommunications and image processing, providing a complete resource that analyzes and discusses the latest and future trends in research directions. Written by recognized experts, this is a must-have guide for researchers, telecommunication engineers, computer scientists and PhD students.

  3. Enhancement of Treatment Efficiency of Recalcitrant Wastewater Containing Textile Dyes Using a Newly Developed Iron Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 Heterogeneous Catalyst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Ahmad

    Full Text Available Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead to the formation of high volumes of sludge and secondary pollutants. To overcome these problems, an alternate option is the usage of heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed to provide an alternative solution for homogeneous Fenton oxidation. Iron Zeolite Socony Mobile-5 (Fe-ZSM-5 was synthesized using a new two-step process. Next, the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and tested against a model wastewater containing the azo dye Acid Blue 113. Results showed that the loading of iron particles reduced the surface area of the catalyst from 293.59 to 243.93 m2/g; meanwhile, the average particle size of the loaded material was 12.29 nm. Furthermore, efficiency of the developed catalyst was evaluated by performing heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Taguchi method was coupled with principal component analysis in order to assess and optimize mineralization efficiency. Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions, over 99.7% degradation and 77% mineralization was obtained, with a 90% reduction in the consumption of the developed catalyst. Furthermore, the developed catalyst was stable and reusable, with less than 2% leaching observed under optimized conditions. Thus, the present study proved that newly developed catalyst has enhanced the oxidation process and reduced the chemicals consumption.

  4. Development of Nitric Oxide Oxidation Catalysts for the Fast SCR Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Crocker

    2005-09-30

    This study was undertaken in order to assess the potential for oxidizing NO to NO{sub 2} in flue gas environments, with the aim of promoting the so-called fast SCR reaction. In principle this can result in improved SCR kinetics and reduced SCR catalyst volumes. Prior to commencing experimental work, a literature study was undertaken to identify candidate catalysts for screening. Selection criteria comprised (1) proven (or likely) activity for NO oxidation, (2) low activity for SO2 oxidation (where data were available), and (3) inexpensive component materials. Catalysts identified included supported base metal oxides, supported and unsupported mixed metal oxides, and metal ion exchanged ZSM-5 (Fe, Co, Cu). For comparison purposes, several low loaded Pt catalysts (0.5 wt% Pt) were also included in the study. Screening experiments were conducted using a synthetic feed gas representative of flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers: [NO] = 250 ppm, [SO{sub 2}] = 0 or 2800 ppm, [H{sub 2}O] = 7%, [CO{sub 2}] = 12%, [O{sub 2}] = 3.5%, balance = N{sub 2}; T = 275-375 C. Studies conducted in the absence of SO{sub 2} revealed a number of supported and unsupported metal oxides to be extremely active for NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}. These included known catalysts (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, FeMnO{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}), as well as a new one identified in this work, CrFeO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}. However, in the presence of SO{sub 2}, all the catalysts tested were found to be severely deactivated with respect to NO oxidation. Of these, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, Pt/ZSM-5 and Pt/CeO{sub 2} showed the highest activity for NO oxidation in the presence of SO{sub 2} (based on peak NO conversions to NO{sub 2}), although in no cases did the NO conversion exceed 7%. Reactor studies indicate there are two components to SO{sub 2}-induced deactivation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, corresponding to an irreversible deactivation due to sulfation of the surface of the Co{sub 3

  5. Development of catalyst for decomposition of sulfuric acid: the energy intensive step in sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle for hydrogen generation using nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the in-house catalyst development work undertaken at Chemistry Division on sulfuric acid decomposition reaction, the most endothermic step of Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) thermochemical cycle being pursued in the DAE for large scale hydrogen generation using the proposed Compact High Temperature Reactor (CHTR). Various catalyst systems like iron oxide, substituted iron oxide and ferrites were evaluated in the temperature range of 600-825 ℃ employing indigenously developed glass setups. Owing to higher activity, iron oxide based catalysts were investigated in detail for their possible deployment in an integrated glass setup of S-I process at Chemical Technology Division. Comparative studies on iron oxide based catalysts (Fe2O3 and Fe1.8Cr0.2O3) with a commercial Pt catalyst (Pt/Al2O3) have demonstrated that both Cr substituted and un-substituted iron oxides are active for catalytic decomposition of sulfuric acid and are comparable to Pt/Al2O3 at temperatures above 750 ℃ and may therefore be a good substitute for the noble metal catalyst. The study has also established the poison resistant behavior of Fe1.8Cr0.2O3 catalyst in presence of I/I2 impurities which are likely to be present in the sulfuric acid phase produced in the Bunsen section of S-I process. (author)

  6. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)-(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized.

  7. INSPIRE from the JRC Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Cetl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises some recent developments in INSPIRE implementation from the JRC (Joint Research Centre point of view. The INSPIRE process started around 11 years ago and today, clear results and benefits can be seen. Spatial data are more accessible and shared more frequently between countries and at the European level. In addition to this, efficient, unified coordination and collaboration between different stakeholders and participants has been achieved, which is another great success. The JRC, as a scientific think-tank of the European Commission, has played a very important role in this process from the very beginning. This role is in line with its mission, which is to provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of European Union (EU policies. The JRC acts as the overall technical coordinator of INSPIRE, but it also carries out the activities necessary to support the coherent implementation of INSPIRE, by helping member states in the implementation process. Experiences drawn from collaboration and negotiation in each country and at the European level will be of great importance in the revision of the INSPIRE Directive, which is envisaged for 2014. Keywords: spatial data infrastructure (SDI; INSPIRE; development; Joint Research Centre (JRC

  8. Development of the advanced nuclear materials -A study on the polymer catalyst process technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Il Hyun; Jung, Heung Suk; Lee, Han Soo; An, Doh Heui; Kang, Heui Suk; Baek, Seung Woo; Lee, Sung Hoh; Sung, Kee Woong; Kim, Kwang Lak; Kim, Jong Hoh; Koo, Je Hyoo; Park, Tae Keun; Kim, Sang Hwan; Yoo, Ryong; Song, Myung Jae; Son, Soon Hwan; Choi, Jung Kil; Lee, Jae Choon; Jung, Moon Kyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Heavy water is used as moderator and coolant in pressurized heavy water power plants. According to the governmental long-term plan for power supply, Korea is scheduled to construct new four pressurized heavy water power plants till the year 2006. Total heavy water make-up for these plants would be 22 Mg/a from the year 2006. Reformed hydrogen processes is considered best suited to Korea. Hydrophobic catalysts for this process were manufactured and the performance of hydrogen isotope exchange was investigated. The overall mass transfer coefficients varied between 0.004 and 2.295 m3 HD/m3 Bed.sec. and heavy water separation processes using the catalysts were optimized. 66 figs, 62 tabs, 19 refs. (Author).

  9. Development of the advanced nuclear materials -A study on the polymer catalyst process technology-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy water is used as moderator and coolant in pressurized heavy water power plants. According to the governmental long-term plan for power supply, Korea is scheduled to construct new four pressurized heavy water power plants till the year 2006. Total heavy water make-up for these plants would be 22 Mg/a from the year 2006. Reformed hydrogen processes is considered best suited to Korea. Hydrophobic catalysts for this process were manufactured and the performance of hydrogen isotope exchange was investigated. The overall mass transfer coefficients varied between 0.004 and 2.295 m3 HD/m3 Bed.sec. and heavy water separation processes using the catalysts were optimized. 66 figs, 62 tabs, 19 refs. (Author)

  10. Green catalysis by nanoparticulate catalysts developed for flow processing? Case study of glucose hydrogenation

    OpenAIRE

    Gericke, Dörthe; Ott, Denise; Matveeva, Valentina G.; Sulman, Esther; Aho, Atte; Murzin, Dmitry Yu.; Roggan, Stefan; Danilova, Lyudmila; Hessel, Volker; Löb, Patrick; Kralisch, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysis, flow chemistry, continuous processing, green solvents, catalyst immobilization and recycling are some of the most relevant, emerging key technologies to achieve green synthesis. However, a quantification of potential effects on a case to case level is required to provide a profound answer, whether they can lead to a superior process compared to the industrial standard. To do so, holistic environmental assessment approaches are very useful tools providing insights and ...

  11. Bio-inspired vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  12. Bio-inspired vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  13. Japan aging industry's development and inspiration%日本老龄产业的发展与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曼

    2012-01-01

    日本在发挥政策主导地位作用的基础上,引进市场机制,让各方市场主体都参与到其中来,从而提高了老年人生活质量,且老龄产业和其带动的产业链形成了良性循环。"十二五"期间,我国老年人口将呈现老龄化、高龄化、空巢化加速发展的特征,但目前我国老龄产业却面临产品结构单一、总量偏小、功能泛化、效率低下的困境。因此,我国应借鉴老龄产业已实现良性发展的日本的发展经验。%Based on the dominance of the policy,Japan introduces market mechanism,so that all market parties are involved in it.Through these measures,the quality of the aged's life has enhanced,and aging industry and correlative industrial chain has formed a virtuous circle.During"Twelfth Five-Year"period,China's elderly population will show the characteristics of aging,advanced age tendency,empty nest accelerated development,but China's aging industry is facing plight of single product structure,small quantity,and low efficiency.Therefore,China should learn from Japan's development experience,which aging industry has been achieved healthy development.

  14. #IWD2016 Academic Inspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    2016-01-01

    What academics or books have inspired you in your writing and research, or helped to make sense of the world around you? In this feature essay, Ninna Meier returns to her experience of reading Hannah Arendt as she sought to understand work and how it relates to value production in capitalist...

  15. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  16. Structure–function relationship of the foam-like pomelo peel (Citrus maxima)—an inspiration for the development of biomimetic damping materials with high energy dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical properties of artificial foams are mainly determined by the choice of bulk materials and relative density. In natural foams, in contrast, variation to optimize properties is achieved by structural optimization rather than by conscious substitution of bulk materials. Pomelos (Citrus maxima) have a thick foam-like peel which is capable of dissipating considerable amounts of kinetic energy and thus this fruit represents an ideal role model for the development of biomimetic impact damping structures. This paper focuses on the analysis of the biomechanics of the pomelo peel and on its structure–function relationship. It deals with the determination of the onset strain of densification of this foam-like tissue and on how this property is influenced by the arrangement of vascular bundles. It was found here that the vascular bundles branch in a very regular manner—every 16.5% of the radial peel thickness—and that the surrounding peel tissue (pericarp) attains its exceptional thickness mainly by the expansion of existing interconnected cells causing an increasing volume of the intercellular space, rather than by cell division. These findings lead to the discussion of the pomelo peel as an inspiration for fibre-reinforced cast metallic foams with the capacity for excellent energy dissipation. (paper)

  17. Development of a novel optimization tool for electron linacs inspired by artificial intelligence techniques in video games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, E., E-mail: evelyne.meier@synchrotron.org.a [School of Physics, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia) and Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Rd, Clayton VIC 3168 (Australia) and FERMI-Elettra, Sincrotrone Trieste, S.S. 14 km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Biedron, S.G., E-mail: biedron@anl.go [Department of Defense Project Office, Argonne National Laboratory, IL 60439 (United States); FERMI-Elettra, Sincrotrone Trieste, S.S. 14 km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); LeBlanc, G., E-mail: greg.leblanc@synchrotron.org.a [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Rd, Clayton VIC 3168 (Australia); Morgan, M.J., E-mail: Michael.J.Morgan@monash.ed [School of Physics, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2011-03-11

    This paper reports the results of an advanced algorithm for the optimization of electron beam parameters in Free Electron Laser (FEL) Linacs. In the novel approach presented in this paper, the system uses state of the art developments in video games to mimic an operator's decisions to perform an optimization task when no prior knowledge, other than constraints on the actuators is available. The system was tested for the simultaneous optimization of the energy spread and the transmission of the Australian Synchrotron Linac. The proposed system successfully increased the transmission of the machine from 90% to 97% and decreased the energy spread of the beam from 1.04% to 0.91%. Results of a control experiment performed at the new FERMI-Elettra FEL is also reported, suggesting the adaptability of the scheme for beam-based control.

  18. Development of a novel optimization tool for electron linacs inspired by artificial intelligence techniques in video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, E.; Biedron, S. G.; LeBlanc, G.; Morgan, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    This paper reports the results of an advanced algorithm for the optimization of electron beam parameters in Free Electron Laser (FEL) Linacs. In the novel approach presented in this paper, the system uses state of the art developments in video games to mimic an operator's decisions to perform an optimization task when no prior knowledge, other than constraints on the actuators is available. The system was tested for the simultaneous optimization of the energy spread and the transmission of the Australian Synchrotron Linac. The proposed system successfully increased the transmission of the machine from 90% to 97% and decreased the energy spread of the beam from 1.04% to 0.91%. Results of a control experiment performed at the new FERMI@Elettra FEL is also reported, suggesting the adaptability of the scheme for beam-based control.

  19. Development of a novel optimization tool for electron linacs inspired by artificial intelligence techniques in video games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results of an advanced algorithm for the optimization of electron beam parameters in Free Electron Laser (FEL) Linacs. In the novel approach presented in this paper, the system uses state of the art developments in video games to mimic an operator's decisions to perform an optimization task when no prior knowledge, other than constraints on the actuators is available. The system was tested for the simultaneous optimization of the energy spread and the transmission of the Australian Synchrotron Linac. The proposed system successfully increased the transmission of the machine from 90% to 97% and decreased the energy spread of the beam from 1.04% to 0.91%. Results of a control experiment performed at the new FERMI-Elettra FEL is also reported, suggesting the adaptability of the scheme for beam-based control.

  20. Heterogeneous hydrogenation catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main types of heterogeneous catalysts used for hydrogenation, the methods for their preparation, and the structure and chemistry of their surfaces are considered, as well as the catalytic activity and the mechanism of action in the hydrogenation of unsaturated and aromatic compounds, of CO, and of carbonyl compounds and in the hydrorefining of fuels. Chief attention is paid to supported Ni catalysts, to the methods for their preparation and physicochemical studies, and to the development of novel catalytic systems through modification. A novel type of catalyst for hydrogenation, viz. metal carbides, is described. Some aspects of the mechanochemical treatment of hydrogenation catalysts, including in situ methods, are discussed. Sulfide catalysts for hydrotreating are also discussed in detail. The bibliography includes 340 references.

  1. Development of an Innovative XRD-DRIFTS Prototype Allowing Operando Characterizations during Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt-Based Catalysts under Representative Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalbert Julien

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An original system combining both X-Ray Diffraction and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy was developed with the aim to characterize Fischer-Tropsch catalysts in relevant reaction conditions. The catalytic properties of a model PtCo/silica catalyst tested with this prototype have shown to be in the same range of those obtained in similar conditions with classical fixed-bed reactors. No bulk cobalt oxidation nor sintering were observed on operando XRD patterns. The formation of linear carbonyls and adsorbed hydrocarbons species at the surface of the catalyst was observed on operando DRIFT spectra. The surface of the catalyst was also suspected to be covered with carbon species inducing unfavorable changes in selectivity.

  2. Biotemplating of Luffa cylindrica sponges to self-supporting hierarchical zeolite macrostructures for bio-inspired structured catalytic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomorphic self-supporting MFI-type zeolite frameworks with hierarchical porosity and complex architecture were prepared using a 2-step (in-situ seeding and secondary crystal growth) hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of a biological template (Luffa sponge), employed as a macroscale sacrificial structure builder. The bio-inspired zeolitic replica inherited the complex spongy morphology and the intricate open-porous architecture of the biotemplate. Moreover, it exhibited reasonable mechanical stability in order to study the applicability of the biomorphic catalyst in a technical catalytic process. A bio-inspired catalytic reactor utilising the self-supporting ZSM-5 scaffold in monolithic configuration was developed in order to test the catalytic performance of the material

  3. Biotemplating of Luffa cylindrica sponges to self-supporting hierarchical zeolite macrostructures for bio-inspired structured catalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampieri, Alessandro [Institute of Chemical Reaction Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Mabande, Godwin T.P. [Institute of Chemical Reaction Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Selvam, Thangaraj [Institute of Chemical Reaction Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Schwieger, Wilhelm [Institute of Chemical Reaction Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)]. E-mail: Wilhelm.Schwieger@rzmail.uni-erlangen.de; Rudolph, Alexander [Institute of Chemical Reaction Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Hermann, Ralph [Institute of Chemical Reaction Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Sieber, Heino [Department of Materials Science III, Glass and Ceramics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Martenstr. 5, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Greil, Peter [Department of Materials Science III, Glass and Ceramics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Martenstr. 5, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    Biomorphic self-supporting MFI-type zeolite frameworks with hierarchical porosity and complex architecture were prepared using a 2-step (in-situ seeding and secondary crystal growth) hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of a biological template (Luffa sponge), employed as a macroscale sacrificial structure builder. The bio-inspired zeolitic replica inherited the complex spongy morphology and the intricate open-porous architecture of the biotemplate. Moreover, it exhibited reasonable mechanical stability in order to study the applicability of the biomorphic catalyst in a technical catalytic process. A bio-inspired catalytic reactor utilising the self-supporting ZSM-5 scaffold in monolithic configuration was developed in order to test the catalytic performance of the material.

  4. Catalyst development and systems analysis of methanol partial oxidation for the fuel processor - fuel cell integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newson, E.; Mizsey, P.; Hottinger, P.; Truong, T.B.; Roth, F. von; Schucan, Th.H. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Methanol partial oxidation (pox) to produce hydrogen for mobile fuel cell applications has proved initially more successful than hydrocarbon pox. Recent results of catalyst screening and kinetic studies with methanol show that hydrogen production rates have reached 7000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for the dry pox route and 12,000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for wet pox. These rates are equivalent to 21 and 35 kW{sub th}/(litre reactor volume) respectively. The reaction engineering problems remain to be solved for dry pox due to the significant exotherm of the reaction (hot spots of 100-200{sup o}C), but wet pox is essentially isothermal in operation. Analyses of the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell systems show that two routes are available to satisfy the sensitivity of the fuel cell catalysts to carbon monoxide, i.e. a preferential oxidation reactor or a membrane separator. Targets for individual system components are evaluated for the base and best case systems for both routes to reach the combined 40% efficiency required for the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell system. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  5. Development of Light Cycle Oil (LCO) Hydrocracking Technology over a Commercial W-Ni Based Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Chong; Yang Xuejing; Fang Xiangchen; Huang Xinlu; Cheng Zhenmin; Zeng Ronghui; Guo Rong

    2015-01-01

    Because of its high density and low cetane number, the light cycle oil (LCO) containing heavy aromatics (60%—80%) can hardly be transformed through the conventional hydro-upgrading technology. In this report, a novel LCO hydrocracking technology (FD2G) was proposed for the utilization of LCO to manufacture high value-added products. Through the ingenious combination of hydroprocessing catalyst and the hydrocracking process, the high octane gasoline and the ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) blendstocks were produced simultaneously. The inlfuence of catalyst type, reaction temperature, pressure, respectively, on the research octane number (RON) of produced gasoline was studied in a ifxed bed hydrogenation reactor. It indicated that high reaction temperature and medium pressurewould favor the production of high-octane gasoline through the conversion of bi-aromatic and tri-aromatic hydrocarbons. The typical results of FD2G tech-nology on commercial units showed that it could produce clean diesel with a sulfur content of less than 10 μg/g and clean gasoline with a research octane number (RON) of up to 92. It would be contributed to the achievement of the maximum proift of a reifnery, the FD2G technology could provide a higher economic efifciency than the other diesel quality upgrading technology under the current gasoline and diesel price system.

  6. Development of a reaction cell for in-situ/operando studies of surface of a catalyst under a reaction condition and during catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luan; Tao, Franklin Feng

    2016-06-01

    Tracking surface chemistry of a catalyst during catalysis is significant for fundamental understanding of catalytic performance of the catalyst since it allows for establishing an intrinsic correlation between surface chemistry of a catalyst at its working status and its corresponding catalytic performance. Ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used for in-situ studies of surfaces of different materials or devices in a gas. To simulate the gaseous environment of a catalyst in a fixed-bed a flowing gaseous environment of reactants around the catalyst is necessary. Here, we report the development of a new flowing reaction cell for simulating in-situ study of a catalyst surface under a reaction condition in gas of one reactant or during catalysis in a mixture of reactants of a catalytic reaction. The homemade reaction cell is installed in a high vacuum (HV) or ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment of a chamber. The flowing gas in the reaction cell is separated from the HV or UHV environment through well sealings at three interfaces between the reaction cell and X-ray window, sample door and aperture of front cone of an energy analyzer. Catalyst in the cell is heated through infrared laser beam introduced through a fiber optics interfaced with the reaction cell through a homemade feedthrough. The highly localized heating on the sample holder and Au-passivated internal surface of the reaction cell effectively minimizes any unwanted reactions potentially catalyzed by the reaction cell. The incorporated laser heating allows a fast heating and a high thermal stability of the sample at a high temperature. With this cell, a catalyst at 800 °C in a flowing gas can be tracked readily. PMID:27370473

  7. Development of a reaction cell for in-situ/operando studies of surface of a catalyst under a reaction condition and during catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luan; Tao, Franklin Feng

    2016-06-01

    Tracking surface chemistry of a catalyst during catalysis is significant for fundamental understanding of catalytic performance of the catalyst since it allows for establishing an intrinsic correlation between surface chemistry of a catalyst at its working status and its corresponding catalytic performance. Ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used for in-situ studies of surfaces of different materials or devices in a gas. To simulate the gaseous environment of a catalyst in a fixed-bed a flowing gaseous environment of reactants around the catalyst is necessary. Here, we report the development of a new flowing reaction cell for simulating in-situ study of a catalyst surface under a reaction condition in gas of one reactant or during catalysis in a mixture of reactants of a catalytic reaction. The homemade reaction cell is installed in a high vacuum (HV) or ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment of a chamber. The flowing gas in the reaction cell is separated from the HV or UHV environment through well sealings at three interfaces between the reaction cell and X-ray window, sample door and aperture of front cone of an energy analyzer. Catalyst in the cell is heated through infrared laser beam introduced through a fiber optics interfaced with the reaction cell through a homemade feedthrough. The highly localized heating on the sample holder and Au-passivated internal surface of the reaction cell effectively minimizes any unwanted reactions potentially catalyzed by the reaction cell. The incorporated laser heating allows a fast heating and a high thermal stability of the sample at a high temperature. With this cell, a catalyst at 800 °C in a flowing gas can be tracked readily.

  8. Homogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, John C; Freixa, Zoraida; van Leeuwen, Piet W N M

    2011-01-01

    This first book to illuminate this important aspect of chemical synthesis improves the lifetime of catalysts, thus reducing material and saving energy, costs and waste.The international panel of expert authors describes the studies that have been conducted concerning the way homogeneous catalysts decompose, and the differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. The result is a ready reference for organic, catalytic, polymer and complex chemists, as well as those working in industry and with/on organometallics.

  9. Inspiral into Gargantua

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Samuel E; Warburton, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We model the inspiral of a compact object into a more massive black hole rotating very near the theoretical maximum. We find that once the body enters the near-horizon regime the gravitational radiation is characterized by a constant frequency, equal to (twice) the horizon frequency, with an exponentially damped profile. This contrasts with the usual "chirping" behavior and, if detected, would constitute a "smoking gun" for a near-extremal black hole in nature.

  10. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold, Michael; Crocker, Mark; Balakotaiah, Vemuri; Luss, Dan; Choi, Jae-Soon; Dearth, Mark; McCabe, Bob; Theis, Joe

    2013-09-30

    hydrocarbon component of diesel exhaust. First-principle models of the LNT and SCR converters, which utilized the mechanistic-based kinetics and realistic treatments of the flow and transport processes, in combination with bench-scale reactor experiments helped to identify the best designs for combining the NSR and SCR catalysts over a range of operating conditions encountered in practice. This included catalysts having multiple zones and layers and additives with the focus on determining the minimal precious metal component needed to meet emission abatement targets over a wide range of operating conditions. The findings from this study provide diesel vehicle and catalyst companies valuable information to develop more cost effective diesel emissions catalysts which helps to expand the use of more fuel efficient diesel power. The fundamental modeling and experimental tools and findings from this project can be applied to catalyst technologies used in the energy and chemical industries. Finally, the project also led to training of several doctoral students who were placed in research jobs in industry and academia.

  11. Quantum-Inspired Maximizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).

  12. Inspiring a generation

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The motto of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games is ‘Inspire a generation’ so it was particularly pleasing to see science, the LHC and Higgs bosons featuring so strongly in the opening ceremony of the Paralympics last week.   It’s a sign of just how far our field has come that such a high-profile event featured particle physics so strongly, and we can certainly add our support to that motto. If the legacy of London 2012 is a generation inspired by science as well as sport, then the games will have more than fulfilled their mission. Particle physics has truly inspiring stories to tell, going well beyond Higgs and the LHC, and the entire community has played its part in bringing the excitement of frontier research in particle physics to a wide audience. Nevertheless, we cannot rest on our laurels: maintaining the kind of enthusiasm for science we witnessed at the Paralympic opening ceremony will require constant vigilance, and creative thinking about ways to rea...

  13. Inspiration of Embroidery to the Development of Clothing Brands%刺绣对服装品牌发展的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛蓓

    2014-01-01

    中国刺绣工艺丰富多彩,各具特色。然而,在商品市场国际化中,中国刺绣品牌的影响力较弱,并且刺绣与服饰名牌合作的案例并不多。借鉴纪梵希(Givenchy)、香奈尔(Chanel)、JAYAHR等知名品牌将刺绣应用到服装的案例,望对中国刺绣企业和服装企业有所启发,从而推动中国服装品牌向中高端品牌发展,也使传统刺绣艺术得到很好传承,并在现代生活中发扬光大。%Chinese embroideries are rich and colorful with distinguished local characteristics. However, on the global commodity market, Chinese embroidery products have weak influence and the case of embroidery producer cooperating with famous clothing brands are quite few. The paper tries to give some inspirations to Chinese embroidery producers and clothing enterprises by analyzing the cases of world-famous brands such as Givenchy, Chanel and JAYAHR in using embroidery in their clothing design, so as to promote Chinese clothing brands to develop towards medium-and high-end market and make traditional embroidery art better inherited and further spread and flourished in modern life.

  14. Development and Industrial Application of Hydrocracking Pretreatment Catalyst of FRIPP%FRIPP加氢裂化预处理催化剂的开发及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨占林; 姜虹; 唐兆吉; 温德荣; 彭绍忠; 王继锋

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocracking pretreatment catalyst research progres s and industrial application situation of Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals(FRIPP)are introduced in this article. The early development of the catalyst is mainly by adjusiting nature of the carrier to improve the performance of the catalyst, the recent development of FF-46 and FF-56 catalyst, further optimizes mode of the active sites and the carrier, signifi cantly enhancing the performance of the catalyst, the bulk catalyst is developed by the new concept, it includes a higher volume of activity, reducing the cost of product quality upgrade of refinery. Different types of hydrocracking pretreatment catalyst from FRIPP had reached cumulait ve producit on of more than 10 thousand tons by March 2015.%重点介绍了抚顺石油化工研究院(FRIPP)在加氢裂化预处理催化剂方面的研究进展及工业应用情况.早期开发的催化剂主要通过调节载体的性质来改善催化剂的性能,而近期开发的FF-46和FF-56催化剂,进一步优化了活性位及载体的作用方式,催化剂性能得到大幅度提升,基于新理念开发的体相法催化剂,具有更高的体积活性,降低炼厂产品质量升级的成本.截至2015年3月, FRIPP不同牌号的加氢预处理催化剂已累计生产万余吨,总体上达到了世界先进水平.

  15. A nickel iron diselenide-derived efficient oxygen-evolution catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Song, Fang; Hu, Xile

    2016-01-01

    Efficient oxygen-evolution reaction catalysts are required for the cost-effective generation of solar fuels. Metal selenides have been reported as promising oxygen-evolution catalysts; however, their active forms are yet to be elucidated. Here we show that a representative selenide catalyst, nickel selenide, is entirely converted into nickel hydroxide under oxygen-evolution conditions. This result indicates that metal selenides are unstable during oxygen evolution, and the in situ generated metal oxides are responsible for their activity. This knowledge inspired us to synthesize nanostructured nickel iron diselenide, a hitherto unknown metal selenide, and to use it as a templating precursor to a highly active nickel iron oxide catalyst. This selenide-derived oxide catalyses oxygen evolution with an overpotential of only 195 mV for 10 mA cm−2. Our work underscores the importance of identifying the active species of oxygen-evolution catalysts, and demonstrates how such knowledge can be applied to develop better catalysts. PMID:27503136

  16. Development and pre-clinical evaluation of a real time monitoring and feedback system for deep inspiration breath hold for stereotactic body radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Background. Respiration can cause tumour movements in the thoracic region up to 3 cm. Currently, there are several approaches under development and/or evaluation to minimize the internal margin which is generally applied to account for motion effects. One approach is the deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) technique to immobilize the target and to deliver a beam during breath hold. Such an approach has the additional advantage of an increased lung volume with decreased lung density. However, the application of respiration-controlled delivery in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) still remains a challenge and the treatment for the optimal therapeutic benefit (TCP/NTCP) is still under evaluation. technique Material and methods The BrainLAB ExacTrac system was used to monitor deep inspiration for patients immobilized in a stereotactic bodyframe. As in the standard procedure for patient positioning using ExacTrac, several markers are placed on the patient's skin, preferably close to the target position and on the sternum. During training sessions the dominant direction of marker movement was determined. Using an in-house developed interface, online information about respiration movements of the thorax (determined form ExacTrac marker) was displayed. Additionally, a patient feedback system was developed to visualize the respiration cycle to the patient and thus to utilize his/her ability for cooperation. The feedback system was tested with 35 patients undergoing SBRT. In a multislice CT study, the underlying hypothesis that targets can be immobilized with high accuracy with a DIBH maneuver and that ExacTrac marker can be used as surrogate was verified for 16 patients. The DIBH reproducibility and stability were determined from multislice CT studies with multiple (4-5) DIBH maneuvers and from various training sessions with patients. In a subsequent treatment planning study, 13 patients with lung lesion undergoing SBRT treatment underwent additional multi

  17. Development of Non-Platinum Catalysts for Intermediate Temperature Water Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich; Petrushina, Irina Michailovna; Bjerrum, Niels J.

    2014-01-01

    Water electrolysis is recognized as an efficient energy storage (in the form of hydrogen) supplement in renewable energy production. However, industrial alkaline water electrolyzers are rather ineffective and space requiring for a commercial use in connection with energy storage. The most effective...... the best compromise in metal-hydrogen bond strength1,2. Due to economic reasons there is a huge interest in replacing Pt by cheaper alternatives and much effort have been made in finding novel catalysts for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER)3,4. Many anhydrous proton conductors have been investigated...... it is important to simulate conditions of those presented in the assembled operational electrolyzer. In this work a molten KH2PO4 will be used as an electrolyte while screening performance of various transition metals and their carbides at higher temperature (Figure 1). In this work will be shown...

  18. Towards Ecology-Inspired Software Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Baudry, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems are complex and dynamic systems. Over billions of years, they have developed advanced capabilities to provide stable functions, despite changes in their environment. In this paper, we argue that the laws of organization and development of ecosystems provide a solid and rich source of inspiration to lay the foundations for novel software construction paradigms that provide stability as much as openness.

  19. Analytical development of a binuclear oxo-manganese complex bio-inspired on oxidase enzyme for doping control analysis of acetazolamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machini, Wesley B S; Teixeira, Marcos F S

    2016-05-15

    A bio-inspired electrochemical sensor using a binuclear oxo-manganese complex was evaluated and applied in the detection of a substance associated with doping in sports: acetazolamide (ACTZ). Investigation was made of the influence of different experimental variables on the electrocatalytic oxidation of ACTZ by the bio-inspired sensor, such as pH and interfering species. The bio-inspired sensor showed the best response in the range from 5.00×10(-9) to 7.00×10(-8)molL(-1) ACTZ, with a linear range from 5.00×10(-9) to 2.50×10(-8)molL(-1) and a detection limit of 4.76×10(-9)molL(-1). The sensor exhibited characteristics similar to the Michaelis-Menten model of an enzymatic electrode, due to the use of a multinucleated complex of manganese with μ-oxo units, which was able to mimic the properties of enzymes with manganese as a cofactor in their composition, such as Mn-containing oxidase. The determination of ACTZ with the bio-inspired sensor was evaluated using three different synthetic biological fluids (plasma, saliva, and urine), demonstrating its viability for use with real samples. The analysis of ACTZ in real urine samples using the bio-inspired sensor, simulating the method adopted by the World Anti-Doping Agency, which revealed viable, suggesting a new and promising platform to be used in these analysis. PMID:26745790

  20. 全球绿色低碳发展与中国发展方式转型%Global Green Low Carbon Development and Its Inspiration to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭近新

    2012-01-01

    Since industrial revolution, mankind has gone from classic low carbon economy fanning towords fossil high carbon energy based high carbon economy and the traditional industrialization. High carbon economy and the traditional industrialization promotes the material civilization, political civilization and spiritual civilization construction. But on the ecological civilization causes pollution of the environment, ecological degradation and climate warming. America and the former Soviet Union built the first human scale hydropower station and its first nuclear power station, open the development and utilization of low carbon energy off. In dealing with climate change and energy challenges, Britain and Japan were made to create a low carbon economy and construction low carbon social planning, The United Nations Environment Programmer put forward the construction of green city and go to a low carbon economy theme action. Many countries have gone green low carbon development, which provides important inspiration to China take a new road to industrialization and implement green low carbon development.%文章论述了近代产业革命推动人类从经典低碳经济农牧业生产,走上以化石高碳能源为基础的高碳经济和传统工业化道路,高碳经济和传统工业化道路促进了人类社会物质文明、政治文明和精神文明建设,但造成了环境污染、生态退化和气候变暖生态文明三项负效应;文章阐述了美国和前苏联建成人类第一座规模化水电站和第一座原子能电站开辟低碳能源的历史贡献,以及英国创建低碳经济、日本建设低碳社会和联合国环境署实施绿色低碳发展主题行动对全球绿色低碳发展的深刻影响,归纳了全球绿色低碳发展的基本趋势和特征,最后论述了全球绿色低碳发展对中国发展方式转型的重要启示.

  1. Bimetallic Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinfelt, John H.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical reaction rates can be controlled by varying composition of miniscule clusters of metal atoms. These bimetallic catalysts have had major impact on petroleum refining, where work has involved heterogeneous catalysis (reacting molecules in a phase separate from catalyst.) Experimentation involving hydrocarbon reactions, catalytic…

  2. Highly eccentric inspirals into a black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Osburn, Thomas; Evans, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    We model the inspiral of a compact stellar-mass object into a massive non-rotating black hole including all dissipative and conservative first-order-in-the-mass-ratio effects on the orbital motion. The techniques we develop allow inspirals with initial eccentricities as high as $e\\sim0.8$ and initial separations as large as $\\sim 100M$ to be evolved through many thousands of orbits up to the onset of the plunge into the black hole. The inspiral is computed using an osculating elements scheme driven by a hybridized self-force model, which combines Lorenz-gauge self-force results with highly accurate flux data from a Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli code. The high accuracy of our hybrid self-force model allows the orbital phase of the inspirals to be tracked to within $\\sim0.1$ radians or better. The difference between self-force models and inspirals computed in the radiative approximation is quantified.

  3. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model that modula......In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model...

  4. Biologically inspired technologies in NASA's morphing project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Cox, David E.; Lazos, Barry S.; Waszak, Martin R.; Raney, David L.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Pao, S. Paul

    2003-07-01

    For centuries, biology has provided fertile ground for hypothesis, discovery, and inspiration. Time-tested methods used in nature are being used as a basis for several research studies conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center as a part of Morphing Project, which develops and assesses breakthrough vehicle technologies. These studies range from low drag airfoil design guided by marine and avian morphologies to soaring techniques inspired by birds and the study of small flexible wing vehicles. Biology often suggests unconventional yet effective approaches such as non-planar wings, dynamic soaring, exploiting aeroelastic effects, collaborative control, flapping, and fibrous active materials. These approaches and other novel technologies for future flight vehicles are being studied in NASA's Morphing Project. This paper will discuss recent findings in the aeronautics-based, biologically-inspired research in the project.

  5. Nature-inspired computation in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This timely review book summarizes the state-of-the-art developments in nature-inspired optimization algorithms and their applications in engineering. Algorithms and topics include the overview and history of nature-inspired algorithms, discrete firefly algorithm, discrete cuckoo search, plant propagation algorithm, parameter-free bat algorithm, gravitational search, biogeography-based algorithm, differential evolution, particle swarm optimization and others. Applications include vehicle routing, swarming robots, discrete and combinatorial optimization, clustering of wireless sensor networks, cell formation, economic load dispatch, metamodeling, surrogated-assisted cooperative co-evolution, data fitting and reverse engineering as well as other case studies in engineering. This book will be an ideal reference for researchers, lecturers, graduates and engineers who are interested in nature-inspired computation, artificial intelligence and computational intelligence. It can also serve as a reference for relevant...

  6. Vetoes for inspiral triggers in LIGO data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Nelson [Physics and Astronomy, Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States); Shawhan, Peter [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gonzalez, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2004-10-21

    Presented is a summary of studies by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration's Inspiral Analysis Group on the development of possible vetoes to be used in the evaluation of data from the first two LIGO science data runs. Numerous environmental monitor signals and interferometer control channels have been analysed in order to characterize the interferometers' performance. The results of studies on selected data segments are provided in this paper. The vetoes used in the compact binary inspiral analyses of LIGO's S1 and S2 science data runs are presented and discussed.

  7. Poly(neutral red) as a NAD{sup +} reduction catalyst and a NADH oxidation catalyst: Towards the development of a rechargeable biobattery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arechederra, Marguerite N.; Addo, Paul K. [Department of Chemistry, Saint Louis University, 3501 Laclede Ave., St. Louis, MO 63103 (United States); Minteer, Shelley D., E-mail: minteers@slu.ed [Department of Chemistry, Saint Louis University, 3501 Laclede Ave., St. Louis, MO 63103 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have established that poly(neutral red), PNR, functions as an electrocatalyst for the reduction and oxidation of NAD{sup +}/NADH in a rechargeable biobattery environment. The reversibility of this catalyst was possible only with the addition of Zn{sup 2+} for complexation to the redox polymer. The zinc ion complexation with the polymer facilitates electron and proton transfer to/from the substrate and the NAD{sup +}/NADH coenzyme without forming covalent bonds between the nicotinamide and the substrate surface. This research presents use of this reversible catalyst in a rechargeable biobattery. The rechargeable battery includes a Prussian blue cathode and a bioanode including NAD{sup +}-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase and zinc complexed PNR. This bioanode was coupled to the cathode with Nafion 212 acting as the ion exchange membrane separator between the two compartments. The biobattery has an open circuit potential of 0.545({+-}0.009) V when first assembled and 0.053({+-}0.005) V when fully discharged. However, when fully charged, the biobattery has an open circuit potential of 1.263({+-}0.051) V, a maximum power density of 16.3({+-}4.03) {mu}W cm{sup -3} and a maximum current density of 221({+-}13.2) {mu}A cm{sup -3}. The efficiency and stability of the biobattery were studied by cycling continuously at a discharging rate of 1 C and the results obtained showed reasonable stability over 50 cycles.

  8. When science inspires art

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    On Tuesday 18 January 2011, artist Pipilotti Rist came to CERN to find out how science could provide her with a source of inspiration for her art and perhaps to get ideas for future work. Pipilotti, who is an eclectic artist always on the lookout for an original source of inspiration, is almost as passionate about physics as she is about art.   Ever Is Over All, 1997, audio video installation by Pipilotti Rist.  View of the installation at the National Museum for Foreign Art, Sofia, Bulgaria. © Pipilotti Rist. Courtesy the artist and Hauser & Wirth. Photo by Angel Tzvetanov. Swiss video-maker Pipilotti Rist (her real name is Elisabeth Charlotte Rist), who is well-known in the international art world for her highly colourful videos and creations, visited CERN for the first time on Tuesday 18 January 2011.  Her visit represented a trip down memory lane, since she originally studied physics before becoming interested in pursuing a career as an artist and going on to de...

  9. Base-Catalyzed Depolymerization of Lignin with Heterogeneous Catalysts: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-513

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-04

    We will synthesize and screen solid catalysts for the depolymerization of lignin to monomeric and oligomeric oxygenated species, which could be fractionated and integrated into refinery intermediate streams for selective upgrading, or catalytically upgraded to fuels and chemicals. This work will primarily focus on the synthesis and application of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for depolymerization of lignin model compounds and softwood lignin. LDHs have been shown in our group to offer good supports and catalysts to promote base-catalyzed depolymerization of lignin model compounds and in preliminary experiments for the depolymerization of lignin from an Organosolv process. We will also include additional catalyst supports such as silica, alumina, and carbon as identified in ongoing and past efforts at NREL. This work will consist of two tasks. Overall, this work will be synergistic with ongoing efforts at NREL, funded by the DOE Biomass Program, on the development of catalysts for lignin depolymerization in the context of biochemical and thermochemical conversion of corn stover and other biomass feedstocks to advanced fuels and chemicals.

  10. Development of palladium-carbene catalysts for telomerization and dimerization of 1,3-dienes: from basic research to industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Nicolas D; Routaboul, Lucie; Grotevendt, Anne; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The following account summarises recent developments in the area of palladium-catalysed telomerisation and dimerisation reactions of 1,3-dienes. The most active types of catalyst, palladium-carbene complexes, were tested in pilot plant and proved to be industrially viable. PMID:18680130

  11. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping; Smith, R. Davis

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  12. High-Throughput Screening as a Supplemental Tool for the Development of Advanced Emission Control Catalysts: Methodological Approaches and Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Sundermann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-throughput (HT screening platform developed at hte with the application focus on automotive catalysis is described. hte HT units are configured for performing steady-state testing, as well as dynamic tests with fast feed switches, such as lean/rich excursions for the evaluation of NOx storage capacity and efficiency of lean NOx traps (LNT, ammonia storage capacity for selective catalytic reduction (SCR, evaluation of oxygen storage capacity (OSC, as well as lambda sweep tests for screening of three-way catalysts (TWC. Even though catalysts are screened on a rather small scale (~100 mg powder, experience showed that dosing rather complex gas mixtures in concentrations close to that found in real exhaust for the given application is mandatory to generate relevant data. The objective of this work is to give additional insight into HT technology. In the industrial research laboratory, HT screening has matured to become a reliable approach for rapid screening of both reaction parameter spaces, as well as material properties relevant for exhaust gas catalyst development. Due to the speed of optimized screening involving 48 parallel reactors, automated handling of primary data is an imported requirement. Software for data reduction, like estimation of light-off temperature, needs to be robust and handle results for diverse sample libraries in an unattended fashion. In combination with the statistical design of experiment and multivariate data analysis, HT testing has become a valuable enhancement to automotive catalyst development.

  13. Catalytic applications of bio-inspired nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacardo, Dennis Kien Balaong

    The biomimetic synthesis of Pd nanoparticles was presented using the Pd4 peptide, TSNAVHPTLRHL, isolated from combinatorial phage display library. Using this approach, nearly monodisperse and spherical Pd nanoparticles were generated with an average diameter of 1.9 +/- 0.4 nm. The peptide-based nanocatalyst were employed in the Stille coupling reaction under energy-efficient and environmentally friendly reaction conditions of aqueous solvent, room temperature and very low catalyst loading. To this end, the Pd nanocatalyst generated high turnover frequency (TOF) value and quantitative yields using ≥ 0.005 mol% Pd as well as catalytic activities with different aryl halides containing electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups. The Pd4-capped Pd nanoparticles followed the atom-leaching mechanism and were found to be selective with respect to substrate identity. On the other hand, the naturally-occurring R5 peptide (SSKKSGSYSGSKGSKRRIL) was employed in the synthesis of biotemplated Pd nanomaterials which showed morphological changes as a function of Pd:peptide ratio. TOF analysis for hydrogenation of olefinic alcohols showed similar catalytic activity regardless of nanomorphology. Determination of catalytic properties of these bio-inspired nanomaterials are important as they serve as model system for alternative green catalyst with applications in industrially important transformations.

  14. A Bio-Inspired Catalyst for CO2 Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovell, Adonis; Warncke, Kurt

    2009-11-01

    Efficient storage of solar energy is critical for the next generation of solar energy conversion systems. Herein is described a catalytic module, using the robust TIM barrel fold of the EutB subunit of ethanolamine-ammonia lyase (EAL), for high specificity recognition and light-driven reduction of CO2 to energy rich biofuels. EAL catalyzes the deamination of ethanolamine via a free radical mechanism, by using an adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) cofactor. Our aim is to use the reducing power of the cobalt(I) form of the cofactor to drive the reduction of CO2. Molecular biology techniques have been used to generate histidine-tagged EutB subunits of EAL for high throughput protein purification. The binding of cobalamins to EutB was probed by using tryptophan fluorescence quenching. The Hill constant (KH) and coefficient (nH) for AdoCbl-EutB binding were determined as 33 μM and 1.3, respectively. The results show that cob(III)alamin binds to isolated EutB, and suggest that Co(II) and Co(I) states will also bind. Rational active site modifications of EutB will be made to facilitate specific CO2-Co(I) binding and to introduce a proton delivery network. The results will give insight into the challenging task of rational enzyme design.

  15. [NiFe] hydrogenase structural and functional models: new bio-inspired catalysts for hydrogen evolution; Modeles structuraux et fonctionnels du site actif des hydrogenases [NiFe]: de nouveaux catalyseurs bio-inspires pour la production d'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudart, Y

    2006-09-15

    Hydrogenase enzymes reversibly catalyze the oxidation and production of hydrogen in a range close to the thermodynamic potential. The [NiFe] hydrogenase active site contains an iron-cyano-carbonyl moiety linked to a nickel atom which is in an all sulphur environment. Both the active site originality and the potential development of an hydrogen economy make the synthesis of functional and structural models worthy. To take up this challenge, we have synthesised mononuclear ruthenium models and more importantly, nickel-ruthenium complexes, mimicking some structural features of the [NiFe] hydrogenase active site. Ruthenium is indeed isoelectronic to iron and some of its complexes are well-known to bear hydrides. The compounds described in this study have been well characterised and their activity in proton reduction has been successfully tested. Most of them are able to catalyze this reaction though their electrocatalytic potentials remain much more negative compared to which of platinum. The studied parameters point out the importance of the complexes electron richness, especially of the nickel environment. Furthermore, the proton reduction activity is stable for several hours at good rates. The ruthenium environment seems important for this stability. Altogether, these compounds represent the very first catalytically active [NiFe] hydrogenase models. Important additional results of this study are the synergetic behaviour of the two metals in protons reduction and the evidence of a protonation step as the limiting step of the catalytic cycle. We have also shown that a basic site close to ruthenium improves the electrocatalytic potential of the complexes. (author)

  16. Development of Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst for reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaji, Abolfazl Gharibi; Shariati, Ahmad; Ostadi, Mohammad

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, Mo/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared using impregnation method. Then it was promoted with Ni ions to produce Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst. The structures of the catalysts were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), CO chemisorption, temperature programmed reduction of hydrogen (H2-TPR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. Catalytic performances of the two catalysts were investigated in a fixed-bed reactor for RWGS reaction. The results indicated that addition of nickel promoter to Mo/Al2O3 catalyst enhances its activity. It is reasonable for the electron deficient state of the Ni species and existence of NiMoO4 phase to possess high activity in RWGS reaction. Stability test of Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst was carried out in a fixed bed reactor and a high CO2 conversion for 60 h time on stream was demonstrated. This study introduces a new catalyst, Ni-Mo/Al2O3, with high activity and stability for RWGS reaction. PMID:25924339

  17. Development of a New Kinetic Model for Methanol to Propylene Process on Mn/H-ZSM-5 Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi, N.; Niaei, A.; Nabavi, S. R.; Farzi, A.; Navaei Shirazi, M.

    2014-01-01

    The activity of the H-ZSM-5 was modified by the addition of Ca, Mn, Cr, Fe, Ni, Ag, Ce and P. The highest selectivity of propylene was obtained over the Mn/H-ZSM-5 catalyst. The Mn modified catalyst was selected as the optimal catalyst and the kinetic study was carried out on it. All of the experiments were carried out in an isothermal fixed bed and plug flow reactor with the mixture of methanol and water. The temperature range was 400–550 °C and the weight hourly space velocities (WHSV) of m...

  18. Development of a ruthenium/phosphite catalyst system for domino hydroformylation-reduction of olefins with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Wu, Lipeng; Fleischer, Ivana; Selent, Detlef; Franke, Robert; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    An efficient domino ruthenium-catalyzed reverse water-gas-shift (RWGS)-hydroformylation-reduction reaction of olefins to alcohols is reported. Key to success is the use of specific bulky phosphite ligands and triruthenium dodecacarbonyl as the catalyst. Compared to the known ruthenium/chloride system, the new catalyst allows for a more efficient hydrohydroxymethylation of terminal and internal olefins with carbon dioxide at lower temperature. Unwanted hydrogenation of the substrate is prevented. Preliminary mechanism investigations uncovered the homogeneous nature of the active catalyst and the influence of the ligand and additive in individual steps of the reaction sequence. PMID:24811949

  19. Final Report: Cathode Catalysis in Hydrogen/Oxygen Fuel Cells: New Catalysts, Mechanism, and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gewirth, Andrew A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Kenis, Paul J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Nuzzo, Ralph G. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Rauchfuss, Thomas B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-01-18

    In this research, we prosecuted a comprehensive plan of research directed at developing new catalysts and new understandings relevant to the operation of low temperature hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. The focal point of this work was one centered on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR), the electrochemical process that most fundamentally limits the technological utility of these environmentally benign energy conversion devices. Over the period of grant support, we developed new ORR catalysts, based on Cu dimers and multimers. In this area, we developed substantial new insight into design rules required to establish better ORR materials, inspired by the three-Cu active site in laccase which has the highest ORR onset potential of any material known. We also developed new methods of characterization for the ORR on conventional (metal-based) catalysts. Finally, we developed a new platform to study the rate of proton transfer relevant to proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions, of which the ORR is an exemplar. Other aspects of work involved theory and prototype catalyst testing.

  20. Development of catalysts for the mitigation of hydrogen in water cooled nuclear power reactors. Part 2. Poisoning characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report on the influence of various contaminants on the catalytic behavior of platinum- and palladium-coated stainless steel gauze strips for the H2+O2 reaction. While water or steam cause a temporary catalyst deactivation, gases such as carbon dioxide and methane have practically no effect. Carbon monoxide exposure and oil vapor deposition lead to considerable catalytic deactivation beyond a minimum tolerance limit. Carbon monoxide has more a pronounced effect on palladium-based catalysts, while oil vapor deposition effects platinum-supported catalysts more. In the cases of samples covered with carbon monoxide or with oil vapor, flushing in air regenerates the catalyst to its original activity. (orig.)

  1. Recent Development in Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Catalysts and Their Practical Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; Seger, Brian; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2015-01-01

    conditions offering nearly platinum like catalytic performance. The developments have been particularly fast in the last 5 years, and the present Perspective highlights key developments and discusses them, along with hydrogen evolution in general, in the context of the global energy problem....

  2. Magnetic and dendritic catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Deraedt, Christophe; Ruiz, Jaime; Astruc, Didier

    2015-07-21

    The recovery and reuse of catalysts is a major challenge in the development of sustainable chemical processes. Two methods at the frontier between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis have recently emerged for addressing this problem: loading the catalyst onto a dendrimer or onto a magnetic nanoparticle. In this Account, we describe representative examples of these two methods, primarily from our research group, and compare them. We then describe new chemistry that combines the benefits of these two methods of catalysis. Classic dendritic catalysis has involved either attaching the catalyst covalently at the branch termini or within the dendrimer core. We have used chelating pyridyltriazole ligands to insolubilize catalysts at the termini of dendrimers, providing an efficient, recyclable heterogeneous catalysts. With the addition of dendritic unimolecular micelles olefin metathesis reactions catalyzed by commercial Grubbs-type ruthenium-benzylidene complexes in water required unusually low amounts of catalyst. When such dendritic micelles include intradendritic ligands, both the micellar effect and ligand acceleration promote faster catalysis in water. With these types of catalysts, we could carry out azide alkyne cycloaddition ("click") chemistry with only ppm amounts of CuSO4·5H2O and sodium ascorbate under ambient conditions. Alternatively we can attach catalysts to the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), essentially magnetite (Fe3O4) or maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), offering the opportunity to recover the catalysts using magnets. Taking advantage of the merits of both of these strategies, we and others have developed a new generation of recyclable catalysts: dendritic magnetically recoverable catalysts. In particular, some of our catalysts with a γ-Fe2O3@SiO2 core and 1,2,3-triazole tethers and loaded with Pd nanoparticles generate strong positive dendritic effects with respect to ligand loading, catalyst loading, catalytic activity and

  3. Development of one pot three component synthesis of 1,4-substituted, 1,2,3-triazoles, employing green catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. N arasimha Murthy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of 1,4-substituted-1H-1,2,3-triazoles was achieved employing D-glucosamine as a green ligand with CuI as catalyst. An advantage, of high water solubility, of the ligand facilitates easy catalyst removal. All the products were formed in good yields and were characterized by advanced spectral data.

  4. 歌德学院文化活动开展模式对孔子学院发展的启示%The Inspiration of Cultural Activity Implementation in Goethe-Institut to the Development of Confucius Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李白琨

    2015-01-01

    Through researching the successful practice of cultural spread in Goethe-Institut, an internationally renowned cultural spread institute, this paper summarizes its experience, aiming to provide inspirations for the development of Confucius Institute.%本文通过对世界著名文化传播机构歌德学院文化传播成功实践的研究,总结其经验,为孔子学院的发展提供借鉴思路。

  5. Follow the Yellow Brick Road: Websites as Catalysts for National Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Broome

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Small-island developing states (SIDS enhance their competitiveness by advertising development initiatives that promote and encourage direct foreign inward investment opportunities in major markets. Failure to make use of information communication technologies (ICTs can undermine national development initiatives with transformative potential. Based on this logic, some Caribbean governments have followed international best practices of businesses and have moved towards the creation of websites and the establishment of portals or gateway sites on the World Wide Web to announce their presence.  One of the practical implications of such initiatives is based on the assumption that once websites are built, persons will come. Although for many, the development of a website appears to be an innocuous endeavour this mistaken perception in most cases has led to several sites being designed and commissioned as technical projects mostly employing techno-centric approaches. These policies often ignore the accompanying important socio-technical institutional considerations, such as the importance of timely and accurate information to potential business clients or prospective developers, language capabilities, and a range of standards, guidelines, rules and legislative changes. The central thesis of this conceptual paper is that if member states of the region properly conceptualise and design websites and portals they can be used to achieve strategic national and international development objectives of egovernance in its broadest meaning. The arguments are intended to stimulate thought among policy makers and the private sector alike in the Caribbean with a view to bringing about change that will promote sustainable development.

  6. Inspired by CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Art students inspired by CERN will be returning to show their work 9 to 16 October in Building 500, outside the Auditorium. Seventeen art students from around Europe visited CERN last January for a week of introductions to particle physics and astrophysics, and discussions with CERN scientists about their projects. A CERN scientist "adopted"each artist so they could ask questions during and after the visit. Now the seeds planted during their visit have come to fruition in a show using many media and exploring varied concepts, such as how people experience the online world, the sheer scale of CERN's equipment, and the abstractness of the entities scientists are looking for. "The work is so varied, people are going to love some pieces and detest others," says Andrew Charalambous, the project coordinator from University College London who is also curating the exhibition. "It's contemporary modern art, and that's sometimes difficult to take in." For more information on this thought-provoking show, see: htt...

  7. Holography Inspired Stringy Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenschein, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Holography inspired stringy hadrons (HISH) is a set of models that describe hadrons: mesons, baryons and glueballs as strings in at four dimensional space time. The models are based on a \\map" from stringy hadrons of holographic confining backgrounds. In this note we review the "derivation" of the models. We start with a brief reminder of the passage from the AdS5xS5 string theory to certain flavored confining holographic models. We then describe the string configurations in holographic backgrounds that correspond to a Wilson line,a meson,a baryon and a glueball. The key ingredients of the four dimensional picture of hadrons are the \\string endpoint mass" and the "baryonic string vertex". We determine the classical trajectories of the HISH. We review the current understanding of the quantization of the hadronic strings. We end with a summary of the comparison of the outcome of the HISH models with the PDG data about mesons and baryons. We extract the values of the tension, masses and intercepts from best ?ts,...

  8. Inspiration, anyone? (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available I have to admit that writing an editorial for this issue was a struggle. Trying to sit down and write when the sun was shining outside and most of my colleagues were on vacation was, to say the least, difficult. Add to that research projects and conferences…let’s just say that I found myself less than inspired. A pitiful plea for ideas to a colleague resulted in the reintroduction to a few recent evidence based papers and resources which inspired further searching and reading. Though I generally find myself surrounded (more like buried in research papers and EBLIP literature, somehow I had missed the great strides that have been made of late in the world of evidence based library and information practice. I realize now that I am inspired by the researchers, authors and innovators who are putting EBLIP on the proverbial map. My biggest beef with library literature in general has been the plethora of articles highlighting what we should be doing. Take a close look at the evidence based practitioners in the information professions: these are some of the people who are actively practicing what has been preached for the past few years. Take, for example, the about‐to‐be released Libraries using Evidence Toolkit by Northern Sydney Central Coast Health and The University of Newcastle, Australia (see their announcement in this issue. An impressive advisory group is responsible for maintaining the currency and relevancy of the site as well as promoting the site and acting as a steering committee for related projects. This group is certainly doing more than “talking the talk”: they took their experience at the 3rd International Evidence Based Librarianship Conference and did something with the information they obtained by implementing solutions that worked in their environment. The result? The creation of a collection of tools for all of us to use. This toolkit is just what EBLIP needs: a portal to resources aimed at supporting the information

  9. A Two-Component Alkyne Metathesis Catalyst System with an Improved Substrate Scope and Functional Group Tolerance: Development and Applications to Natural Product Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubach, Sebastian; Gebauer, Konrad; Ungeheuer, Felix; Hoffmeister, Laura; Ilg, Marina K; Wirtz, Conny; Fürstner, Alois

    2016-06-13

    Although molybdenum alkylidyne complexes such as 1 endowed with triarylsilanolate ligands are excellent catalysts for alkyne metathesis, they can encounter limitations when (multiple) protic sites are present in a given substrate and/or when forcing conditions are necessary. In such cases, a catalyst formed in situ upon mixing of the trisamidomolybenum alkylidyne complex 3 and the readily available trisilanol derivatives 8 or 11 shows significantly better performance. This two-component system worked well for a series of model compounds comprising primary, secondary or phenolic -OH groups, as well as for a set of challenging (bis)propargylic substrates. Its remarkable efficiency is also evident from applications to the total syntheses of manshurolide, a highly strained sesquiterpene lactone with kinase inhibitory activity, and the structurally demanding immunosuppressive cyclodiyne ivorenolide A; in either case, the standard catalyst 1 largely failed to effect the critical macrocyclization, whereas the two-component system was fully operative. A study directed toward the quinolizidine alkaloid lythrancepine I features yet another instructive example, in that a triyne substrate was metathesized with the help of 3/11 such that two of the triple bonds participated in ring closure, while the third one passed uncompromised. As a spin-off of this project, a much improved ruthenium catalyst for the redox isomerization of propargyl alcohols to the corresponding enones was developed. PMID:27203803

  10. Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene. Quarterly report number 19, October 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spehlmann, B.C.

    1996-07-01

    The goals of this project are to develop a catalyst and process for the conversion of syngas to isobutanol. After identification and optimization of key catalyst and process characteristics, the commercial potential of the process is to be evaluated by an economic analysis. From independent process variable studies to investigate the conversion of a methanol/ethanol feed to isobutanol, the best performance to date has been achieved with the 2% Pt on Zn/Mn/Zr oxide catalyst. Using Hyprotech Hysim v2.5 process simulation software, and considering both gas and liquid recycle loops in the process flow diagram, the overall carbon conversion is 98% with 22% selectivity to isobutanol. The expected production of isobutanol is 92 MT/day from 500 MT/day of methanol and 172 MT/day of ethanol feed. An additional 13 MT/day of isobutryaldehyde intermediate is recovered in the liquid product and vent streams. Because of the low selectivity (22%) of the methanol conversion catalyst to isobutanol, the process is uneconomical, even if the isobutanol is valued as a solvent ($903/MT) and not as isobutylene for MTBE production ($352/MT).

  11. Prospects of Waterway Development as a Catalyst to Improve Regional and Community Socio-Economy Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman M. Yassin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Malaysia has achieved a number of successes in its transportation development. The success of Kuala Lumpur International Airport and Northern and Southern Highway project for examples have given the community lot of benefits in term of social and economic development, but what if an inland waterway system can be developed in Malaysia especially along Pahang River and Muar River. Can this proposed waterway bring significant impact to local people in term of their social and economic development? This has become the main objective of this study which is to investigate whether the future Pahang Muar Waterway could have significant socio-economy impact on the local community or not. Approach: This is a qualitative study. Observations, structured and unstructured in-depth interview and literature analysis were used to gain the data needed the research team has traversed along the way (University Putra Malaysia to Muar to Bahau and ended in Pekan these two rivers flow. For the in-depth interviews, a total of seventeen informants among the public and government officers were selected. Data from the in depth interviews was transcribed verbatim and subsequently analyzed by identifying similarities and consistent themes. A constant comparative method was employed in order to uncover patterns in the data. The data in this study is presented descriptively. Results: From the observation, interviews and literature analysis done, it can be concluded that the Pahang Muar Waterways is believed to develop economic activities, recreational activities, tourism industry, enhance the socio-economy life of local community and provide sustainable mobility. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results gained, it can be concluded that majority of the community interviewed believed that Pahang Muar waterways offer a vast opportunity for social and economic development for the local community. It can be noted that specific planning on constructing the

  12. Development of a biologically inspired multi-modal wing model for aerial-aquatic robotic vehicles through empirical and numerical modelling of the common guillemot, Uria aalge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The common guillemot, Uria aalge, a member of the auk family of seabirds exhibits locomotive capabilities in both aerial and aquatic substrates. Simplistic forms of this ability have yet to be achieved by robotic vehicle designs and offer significant potential as inspiration for future concept designs. In this investigation, we initially investigate the power requirements of the guillemot associated with different modes of locomotion, empirically determining the saving associated with the retraction of the wing during aquatic operations. A numerical model of a morphing wing is then created to allow power requirements to be determined for different wing orientations, taking into account the complex kinematic and inertial dynamics associated with the motion. Validation of the numerical model is achieved by comparisons with the actual behaviour of the guillemot, which is done by considering specific mission tasks, where by the optimal solutions are found utilizing an evolutionary algorithm, which are found to be in close agreement with the biological case.

  13. Development of structural characterisation tools for catalysts; Developpement d'outils de caracterisation structurale de catalyseurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, J.

    1999-10-01

    Because of the diversity of their compositions and structures, and the treatments needed to render them active, heterogeneous catalysts present a major challenge in structural characterisation. Electron microscopy provides textural and structural information at the scale of the individual particle. We have been able to analyse epitaxial relationships between nanometer size particles and their support and to determine which crystal faces are most exposed. Chemical analysis can be carried out on individual particles in a bimetallic catalyst. Limitations of this technique are shown for characterisation of catalysts at the atomic scale or in reactive conditions. Here, global analysis methods based on X-ray absorption and diffraction provide more information. W-ray absorption fine structure analysis has been applied to sub-nanometer size particles in platinum based catalysts to explore interactions between the metal and reactive gases such as hydrocarbons and H{sub 2}S. Differences observed between mono-metallic and bimetallic solids lead to structural models to explain differences in catalyst reactivity. X-ray diffraction, combined with electron microscopy, shows the presence of different forms of extra-framework aluminium is steamed zeolites. Quantification of some these forms has been possible and a study of their reactivity towards different de-aluminating agents has been achieved. Work in progress shows the advantages of a combination of X-ray diffraction and absorption to study decomposition of hydrotalcites to form mixed oxides as well as possibilities in infra-red spectroscopy of adsorbed CO to determine surface sites in Fischer Tropsch catalysts. Use of in-situ analysis cells enables a detailed description of catalyst structure in reactive atmospheres and opens the possibility of correlating structure with catalytic activity. (author)

  14. Sixtieth Anniversary of Ziegler-Natta Catalysts and Stereospecific Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janović Z.

    2015-07-01

    , a new family of transition metal complexes known as metallocene catalysts were discovered, based on biscyclopentadienyl and transition metal as Zr, Hf and Ti and appropriate cocatalysts. There major advantage is solubility, high catalytic activity, and the easy tailoring of the polymer microstructure. In 1986, the first synthesis of syndiotactic polystyrene was performed using monocyclopentadienyl/titanium chloride catalyst. The development of catalysts based on diimine complexes of nickel and palladium, and of phenoxy-imino complexes of zirconium and nickel, resulted in polyolefins of different structure and morphology, and many new copolymers of ethylene particularly with polar monomers, producing a variety of new functional polymers, reactive oligomers, and block copolymers. The described discoveries of organometallic catalysts and their applications are one of the most valid models and sources of inspiration for the progress in chemistry and chemical engineering.

  15. Civil society: the catalyst for ensuring health in the age of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia; Buse, Kent; Gordon, Case

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Development Goal Three is rightly ambitious, but achieving it will require doing global health differently. Among other things, progressive civil society organisations will need to be recognised and supported as vital partners in achieving the necessary transformations. We argue, using illustrative examples, that a robust civil society can fulfill eight essential global health functions. These include producing compelling moral arguments for action, building coalitions beyond the health sector, introducing novel policy alternatives, enhancing the legitimacy of global health initiatives and institutions, strengthening systems for health, enhancing accountability systems, mitigating the commercial determinants of health and ensuring rights-based approaches. Given that civil society activism has catalyzed tremendous progress in global health, there is a need to invest in and support it as a global public good to ensure that the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development can be realised. PMID:27424031

  16. Investigations into surface-confined covalent organic frameworks : towards developing novel enantioselective heterogeneous catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, John

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing necessity for the pharmaceutical industry to develop enantiomerically pure drugs. Up till now, production of enantiomerically pure molecules has been provided by harvesting them from plants or utilising homogeneous catalysis and biocatalysis. None of these methods are efficient means of production, and attention is now being directed towards heterogeneous enantioselective catalysis as the preferred technique. This is on account of the high product yield a...

  17. Civil society: the catalyst for ensuring health in the age of sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Julia; Buse, Kent; Gordon, Case

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Development Goal Three is rightly ambitious, but achieving it will require doing global health differently. Among other things, progressive civil society organisations will need to be recognised and supported as vital partners in achieving the necessary transformations. We argue, using illustrative examples, that a robust civil society can fulfill eight essential global health functions. These include producing compelling moral arguments for action, building coalitions beyond the ...

  18. Nature-inspired optimization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2014-01-01

    Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms provides a systematic introduction to all major nature-inspired algorithms for optimization. The book's unified approach, balancing algorithm introduction, theoretical background and practical implementation, complements extensive literature with well-chosen case studies to illustrate how these algorithms work. Topics include particle swarm optimization, ant and bee algorithms, simulated annealing, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, bat algorithm, flower algorithm, harmony search, algorithm analysis, constraint handling, hybrid methods, parameter tuning

  19. Biologically inspired water purification through selective transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biologically inspired systems based on cellular mechanics demonstrate the ability to selectively transport ions across a bilayer membrane. These systems may be observed in nature in plant roots, which remove select nutrients from the surrounding soil against significant concentration gradients. Using biomimetic principles in the design of tailored active materials allows for the development of selective membranes for capturing and filtering targeted ions. Combining this biomimetic transport system with a method for reclaiming the captured ions will allow for increased removal potential. To illustrate this concept, a device for removing nutrients from waterways to aid in reducing eutrophication is outlined and discussed. Presented is a feasibility study of various cellular configurations designed for this purpose, focusing on maximizing nutrient uptake. The results enable a better understanding of the benefits and obstacles when developing these cellularly inspired systems. (paper)

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-TASK CATALYSTS FOR REMOVAL OF NOx AND TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS DURING COAL COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotis G. Smirniotis; Robert G. Jenkins

    2002-02-04

    The work performed during this project focused on the identification of materials capable of providing high activity and selectivity for the selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia. The material surface characteristics were correlated with the catalytic behavior of our catalysts to increase our understanding and to help improve the DeNO{sub x} efficiency. The catalysts employed in this study include mixed oxide composite powders (TiO{sub 2}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2}, and TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) loaded with varying amounts of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, along with 5 different commercial sources of TiO{sub 2}. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was added to the commercial sources of TiO{sub 2} to achieve monolayer coverage. Since the valence state of vanadium in the precursor solution during the impregnation step significantly impacted catalytic performance, catalysts were synthesized from both V{sup +4} and V{sup +5} solutions explain this phenomenon. Specifically, the synthesis of catalysts from V{sup 5+} precursor solutions yields lower-performance catalysts compared to the case of V{sup 4+} under identical conditions. Aging the vanadium precursor solution, which is associated with the reduction of V{sup 5+} to V{sup 4+} (VO{sub 2}{sup +} {yields} VO{sup 2+}), prior to impregnation results in catalysts with excellent catalytic behavior under identical activation and operating conditions. This work also added vanadia to TiO{sub 2}-based supports with low crystallinity. These supports, which have traditionally performed poorly, are now able to function as effective SCR catalysts. Increasing the acidity of the support by incorporating oxides such as WO{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} significantly improves the SCR activity and nitrogen selectivity. It was also found that the supports should be synthesized with the simultaneous precipitation of the corresponding precursors. The mixed oxide catalysts possess

  1. Modern trends in the development of surface science as applied to catalysis. The elucidation of the structure-activity relationships in heterogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fundamental approach to the development of heterogeneous catalysts consisting of the study of the structure-activity relationships using surface science methods and techniques is proposed. According to this approach, a study should start with an investigation into well-ordered single crystals under ultrahigh vacuum conditions and then move along the way of both increasing the gas phase pressure (to address the 'pressure gap' problem) and complicating the samples under study from single crystals to supported clusters (to address the 'material gap' problem). The case studies cited in the review prove the efficacy of the proposed approach to investigations into the reactivity of active component particles for the subsequent molecular design of catalysts with improved performance (activity, selectivity and stability) and demonstrate that it conforms with the modern trends in the development of surface science as applied to heterogeneous catalysis.

  2. Tight bifunctional hierarchical catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højholt, Karen T; Vennestrøm, Peter N R; Tiruvalam, Ramchandra; Beato, Pablo

    2011-12-28

    A new concept to prepare tight bifunctional catalysts has been developed, by anchoring CoMo(6) clusters on hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolites for simultaneous use in HDS and hydrocracking catalysis. The prepared material displays a significant improved activity in HDS catalysis compared to the impregnated counterpart. PMID:22048337

  3. New ruthenium catalysts for asymmetric hydrogenation

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Valenzuela, Maria Belen

    2007-01-01

    A review on catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation of C=O double bonds is presented in the first chapter. Noyori’s pioneering research on ruthenium complexes containing both phosphine and diamine ligands using [i superscript]PrOH and [t superscript]BuOK is described, this system gave impressive highly chemeo-selectivity for C=O bonds and extremely high enantioselectivity for a range of acetophenone derivatives. Numerous groups have been inspired by Noyori’s catalyst of the ty...

  4. Ant- and Ant-Colony-Inspired ALife Visual Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Gary; Machado, Penousal

    2015-01-01

    Ant- and ant-colony-inspired ALife art is characterized by the artistic exploration of the emerging collective behavior of computational agents, developed using ants as a metaphor. We present a chronology that documents the emergence and history of such visual art, contextualize ant- and ant-colony-inspired art within generative art practices, and consider how it relates to other ALife art. We survey many of the algorithms that artists have used in this genre, address some of their aims, and explore the relationships between ant- and ant-colony-inspired art and research on ant and ant colony behavior. PMID:26280070

  5. Understanding fly-ear inspired directional microphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Xuming; Yu, Miao

    2009-03-01

    In this article, the equivalent two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) model for the hypersensitive ear of fly Ormia ocharacea is revisited. It is found that in addition to the mechanical coupling between the ears, the key to the remarkable directional hearing ability of the fly is the proper contributions of the rocking mode and bending mode of the ear structure. This can serve as the basis for the development of fly-ear inspired directional microphones. New insights are also provided to establish the connection between the mechanics of the fly ear and the prior biological experiments, which reveals that the fly ear is a nature-designed optimal structure that might have evolved to best perform its localization task at 5 kHz. Based on this understanding, a new design of the fly-ear inspired directional microphone is presented and a corresponding normalized continuum mechanics model is derived. Parametric studies are carried out to study the influence of the identified non-dimensional parameters on the microphone performance. Directional microphones are developed to verify the understanding and concept. This study provides a theoretical guidance to develop miniature bio-inspired directional microphones, and can impact many fronts that require miniature directional microphones.

  6. 儒家音乐思想中的教化功能及对当代音乐的启示%The Confucius Influence upon Chinese Traditional Music and Its Inspiration toward the Development of Modern Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周娴

    2012-01-01

    在儒家思想影响下,主流音乐一直发挥着政治教化功能,这种音乐教化功能强调了音乐对个人道德修养和促进社会和谐发展的积极作用,对当代音乐创作有一定的参考价值和启示作用。%Under the influence of Confucianism, music had long been developed as a tool of educative management, so it was a constrained process. Yet, this process of development stresses the contribution of art toward moral cultivation and harmonious development of the society, which provides much inspiration for modem music.

  7. 普洛斯模式对发展黑龙江省物流地产的启示%Inspiration of ProLogis Mode on the Development of Logistics Real Estate in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许红

    2013-01-01

    物流地产是随着物流行业的快速发展而产生的,本文通过普洛斯物流地产经营模式的研究,结合黑龙江省“十二五”国民经济和社会发展规划,提出了发展黑龙江省的物流地产的启示.%The logistics real estate is raised with the rapid development of the logistics industry.Through the study on the ProLogis logistics real estate business model,this article,combined with "Twelve-Five" national economic and social development plan of Heilongjiang province,proposes the inspiration on developing logistics real estate in Heilongjiang province.

  8. The scientific study of inspiration in the creative process: Challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C. Oleynick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration is a motivational state that compels individuals to bring ideas into fruition. Creators have long argued that inspiration is important to the creative process, but until recently, scientists have not investigated this claim. In this article, we review challenges to the study of creative inspiration, as well as solutions to these challenges afforded by theoretical and empirical work on inspiration over the past decade. First, we discuss the problem of definitional ambiguity, which has been addressed through an integrative process of construct conceptualization. Second, we discuss the challenge of how to operationalize inspiration. This challenge has been overcome by the development and validation of the Inspiration Scale, which may be used to assess trait or state inspiration. Third, we address ambiguity regarding how inspiration differs from related concepts (creativity, insight, positive affect by discussing discriminant validity. Next, we discuss the preconception that inspiration is less important than perspiration (effort, and we review empirical evidence that inspiration and effort both play important—but different—roles in the creative process. Finally, with many challenges overcome, we argue that the foundation is now set for a new generation of research focused on neural underpinnings. We discuss potential challenges to and opportunities for the neuroscientific study of inspiration. A better understanding of the biological basis of inspiration will illuminate the process through which creative ideas fire the soul, such that individuals are compelled to transform ideas into products and solutions that may benefit society.

  9. The scientific study of inspiration in the creative process: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleynick, Victoria C.; Thrash, Todd M.; LeFew, Michael C.; Moldovan, Emil G.; Kieffaber, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Inspiration is a motivational state that compels individuals to bring ideas into fruition. Creators have long argued that inspiration is important to the creative process, but until recently, scientists have not investigated this claim. In this article, we review challenges to the study of creative inspiration, as well as solutions to these challenges afforded by theoretical and empirical work on inspiration over the past decade. First, we discuss the problem of definitional ambiguity, which has been addressed through an integrative process of construct conceptualization. Second, we discuss the challenge of how to operationalize inspiration. This challenge has been overcome by the development and validation of the Inspiration Scale (IS), which may be used to assess trait or state inspiration. Third, we address ambiguity regarding how inspiration differs from related concepts (creativity, insight, positive affect) by discussing discriminant validity. Next, we discuss the preconception that inspiration is less important than “perspiration” (effort), and we review empirical evidence that inspiration and effort both play important—but different—roles in the creative process. Finally, with many challenges overcome, we argue that the foundation is now set for a new generation of research focused on neural underpinnings. We discuss potential challenges to and opportunities for the neuroscientific study of inspiration. A better understanding of the biological basis of inspiration will illuminate the process through which creative ideas “fire the soul,” such that individuals are compelled to transform ideas into products and solutions that may benefit society. PMID:25009483

  10. INSPIRE: A new scientific information system for HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project - a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will introduce the 'Web 2.0' paradigm of user-enriched content in the domain of sciences, with community-based approaches to scientific publishing. INSPIRE represents a natural evolution of scholarly communication built on successful community-based information systems, and it provides a vision for information management in other fields of science. Inspired by the needs of HEP, we hope that the INSPIRE project will be inspiring for other communities.

  11. Concepts and Development of Bio-Inspired Distributed Embedded Wired/Wireless Sensor Array Architectures for Acoustic Wave Sensing in Integrated Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Anindya; Prosser, William H.; Kirikera, Goutham; Schulz, Mark J.; Hughes, Derke J.; Orisamolu, Wally

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling of acoustic emissions in plate structures and their sensing by embedded or surface bonded piezoelectric sensor arrays. Three different modeling efforts for acoustic emission (AE) wave generation and propagation are discussed briefly along with their advantages and disadvantages. Continuous sensors placed at right angles on a plate are being discussed as a new approach to measure and locate the source of acoustic waves. Evolutionary novel signal processing algorithms and bio-inspired distributed sensor array systems are used on large structures and integrated aerospace vehicles for AE source localization and preliminary results are presented. These systems allow for a great reduction in the amount of data that needs to be processed and also reduce the chances of false alarms from ambient noises. It is envisioned that these biomimetic sensor arrays and signal processing techniques will be useful for both wireless and wired sensor arrays for real time health monitoring of large integrated aerospace vehicles and earth fixed civil structures. The sensor array architectures can also be used with other types of sensors and for other applications.

  12. Development and characterisation of novel heterogeneous palm oil mill boiler ash-based catalysts for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wilson Wei Sheng; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin

    2012-12-01

    Novel heterogeneous catalysts from calcium oxide (CaO)/calcined calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) loaded onto different palm oil mill boiler ashes were synthesised and used in the transesterification of crude palm oil (CPO) with methanol to yield biodiesel. Catalyst preparation parameters including the type of ash support, the weight percentage of CaO and calcined CaCO(3) loadings, as well as the calcination temperature of CaCO(3) were optimised. The catalyst prepared by loading of 15 wt% calcined CaCO(3) at a fixed temperature of 800°C on fly ash exhibited a maximum oil conversion of 94.48%. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the CaCO(3) was transformed into CaO at 770°C and interacted well with the ash support, whereas rich CaO, Al(2)O(3) and SiO(2) were identified in the composition using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The fine morphology size (<5 μm) and high surface area (1.719 m(2)/g) of the fly ash-based catalyst rendered it the highest catalytic activity. PMID:23026328

  13. PROGRESS IN CATALYST AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR LOW SULFUR AND LOW AROMATICS DIESEL PRODUCTION%低硫低芳烃柴油生产技术开发进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇; 韩崇仁

    2003-01-01

    The article includes three parts: ①The development and performance of FH-DS catalyst for deep and ultra-deep distillate HDS; ②The single stage HDS/HDA hydrotreating process for the production of low sulfur and low aromatics diesels from straight run and coker AGO by using highly active base metal catalyst at moderate pressure; ③A two-stage aromatics saturation system utilizing noble metal catalyst in the second stage developed for production of low sulfur and low aromatics diesel from LCO. FDA catalyst developed by FRIPP has high activity for aromatics saturation together with high tolerance for sulfur and nitrogen in the feed. The process is effective in reducing density and increasing cetane number.

  14. Coupling Noble Metals and Carbon Supports in the Development of Combustion Catalysts for the Abatement of BTX Compounds in Air Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Morales-Torres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs is one of the most important techniques to remove these pollutants from the air stream, but it should be carried out at the lowest possible temperature, saving energy and avoiding the simultaneous formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx. Under these experimental conditions, the chemisorption of water generated from VOCs combustion may inhibit hydrophilic catalysts. Nowadays, a wide variety of carbon materials is available to be used in catalysis. The behavior of these hydrophobic materials in the development of highly active and selective combustion catalysts is analyzed in this manuscript. The support characteristics (porosity, hydrophobicity, structure, surface chemistry, etc. and the active phase nature (noble metals: Pt, Pd and dispersion were analyzed by several techniques and the results correlated with the dual adsorptive and/or catalytic performance of the corresponding catalysts. The coupling of highly active phases and carbon materials (activated carbons, honeycomb coated monoliths, carbon aerogels, etc. with tuneable physicochemical properties leads to the complete abatement of benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX from dilute air streams, being selectively oxidized to CO2 at low temperatures.

  15. Duplex steam reformer: alternate catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacturing feasibility of a duplex steam reformer tube for potential use in a high temperature gas cooled reactor has been successfully demonstrated. This technique consists of explosively expanding the inner tube into the outer tube. To successfully achieve the desired 0 to 3 mil radial gap between the tubes it is necessary to perform the expansion in two steps with an intermediate anneal. A catalyst design that would have replaced the conventional Raschig rings with a metal supported catalyst has been evaluated and it has been concluded that further development and testing are needed before fabrication of a full scale prototype is warranted. Consequently, the immediate efforts are directed towards reevaluating the incentives for developing a catalyst and the probability of successfully developing a catalyst that could be used for steam reforming

  16. Inspiration fra NY-times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye

    2015-01-01

    NY-times har en ugentlig klumme med gode råd. For nogle uger siden var ugens inspiration henvendt til lærere/undervisere og drejede sig om, hvordan man skaber taletid til alle uden at have favoritter og overse de mere stille elever.......NY-times har en ugentlig klumme med gode råd. For nogle uger siden var ugens inspiration henvendt til lærere/undervisere og drejede sig om, hvordan man skaber taletid til alle uden at have favoritter og overse de mere stille elever....

  17. Nursing Ways to Inspire Hope

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s thesis was to search for nursing ways to inspire hope in acute care patients. There was an abundance of general material found on the theme of hope, but research articles specifically on hope inspiration and hope maintenance in acute care were limited, especially from the nursing point of view. This theme of hope is in itself a fluctuating value throughout one’s lifespan, and so it has been difficult to measure. And lastly, finding evidence based research result...

  18. Biological Inspiration in Human Centred Robotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Huo-sheng; LIU Jin-dong; Calderon Carlos A

    2004-01-01

    Human centred robotics (HCR) concerns with the development of various kinds of intelligent systems and robots that will be used in environments coexisting with humans. These systems and robots will be interactive and useful assistants/companions for people in different ages, situations, activities and environments in order to improve the quality of life. This paper presents the autors' current research work toward the development of advanced theory and technologies for HCR applications, based on inspiration from biological systems. More specifically, both bio-mimetic system modelling and robot learning by imitation are discussed respectively, and some preliminary results are demonstrated.

  19. Synthesis of Organic Compounds over Selected Types of Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mohamed Saad Ismail

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an overview for the utilization of different catalytic material in the synthesis of organic compounds for important reactions such as heck reaction, aldol reaction, Diels- Alder and other reactions. Comparisons between multiple catalysts for the same reaction and justifications for developing new catalyzed materials are discussed. The following topics are introduced in this work; (1 solid base catalysts, (2 clay catalysts, (3 palladium catalysts, and (4 catalysts to produce organic compound from CO2. The features of these catalysts a long with the conjugated reactions and their selectivity are explained in details, also, some alternatives for toxic or polluting catalysts used in industry are suggested.

  20. Development of a PtSn bimetallic catalyst for direct fuel cells using bio-butanol fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Puthiyapura, V.K.; Brett, D. J. L.; Russell, A E; Lin, W.F.; Hardacre, C.

    2015-01-01

    Pt and PtSn catalysts were studied for n-butanol electro-oxidation at various temperatures. PtSn showed a higher activity towards butanol electro-oxidation compared to Pt in acidic media. The onset potential for n-butanol oxidation on PtSn is similar to 520 mV lower than that found on Pt, and significantly lower activation energy was found for PtSn compared with that for Pt.

  1. Development of a PtSn bimetallic catalyst for direct fuel cells using bio-butanol fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthiyapura, V K; Brett, D J L; Russell, A E; Lin, W F; Hardacre, C

    2015-09-01

    Pt and PtSn catalysts were studied for n-butanol electro-oxidation at various temperatures. PtSn showed a higher activity towards butanol electro-oxidation compared to Pt in acidic media. The onset potential for n-butanol oxidation on PtSn is ∼520 mV lower than that found on Pt, and significantly lower activation energy was found for PtSn compared with that for Pt. PMID:26214283

  2. FCC Catalysts to Meet Demand of New Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Daping

    2008-01-01

    The CGP series FCC catalysts for manufacture of clean gasoline and propylene and the catalyst RSC-2006 for processing inferior residuum with high yield of light distillates are novel catalysts jointly developed by Qilu Catalyst Branch Company of SINOPEC Corp. and the Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (RIPP). The results of commercial application of these catalysts have revealed that they can satisfactorily meet the requirements for environmental protection, good economic benefits and capability for processing inferior FCC feed under new circumstances.

  3. Synthesis of Organic Compounds over Selected Types of Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Mohamed Saad Ismail

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an overview for the utilization of different catalytic material in the synthesis of organic compounds for important reactions such as heck reaction, aldol reaction, Diels- Alder and other reactions. Comparisons between multiple catalysts for the same reaction and justifications for developing new catalyzed materials are discussed. The following topics are introduced in this work; (1) solid base catalysts, (2) clay catalysts, (3) palladium catalysts, and (4) catalysts to pr...

  4. Preparative characteristics of hydrophobic polymer catalyst for the tritium removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimum method for the fabrication of hydrophobic catalyst was selected and the apparatuses for the preparation of catalyst support with high yield was developed for the large scale production. Also, we summarized the method of improving the physical property of the catalyst support, the loading characteristics of Pt metal as a catalyst, and the characteristics of the apparatus for the fabrication of the catalysts on a large scale

  5. Development of transition metal oxide catalysts for treatment of off-gases released during pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent IX resin wastes arising from nuclear power plants have high radiation level due to fission product 137Cesium and activation product 60Cobalt. The pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis processes have potential to minimize final waste form volumes of these wastes. The major difficulty in deploying these processes for treatment of spent IX resins is release of off-gases containing large quantities of aromatic hydrocarbons, amines, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, carbonyl sulphide etc. As an alternative to high temperature incineration of the pyrolysis off gases, feasibility of using catalytic combustion at moderate temperatures was investigated in the laboratory. Copper chromite, copper oxide-ceric oxide and vanadium pentaoxide catalysts supported on alumina were prepared and tested for oxidation of styrene monomer, toluene, ethyl benzene and trimethyl amine at 22500 hr-1 space velocity and temperature range of 300 to 500 degC. At temperatures over 475 degC, all three catatyst gave oxidation efficiency of over 97% for these compounds over concentration range of few tens of ppm to few thousands ppm. A composite catalyst bed of three catalysts comprising principally of copper chromite is proposed for treatment of IX resin pyrolysis off-gases. (author)

  6. Inspiration: One Percent and Rising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Donovan R.

    2009-01-01

    Inventor Thomas Edison once famously declared, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." If that's the case, then the students the author witnessed at the International Student Media Festival (ISMF) last November in Orlando, Florida, are geniuses and more. The students in the ISMF pre-conference workshop had much to…

  7. A Tony Thomas-Inspired Guide to INSPIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

  8. A Tony Thomas-Inspired Guide to INSPIRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, Heath B.; /Fermilab

    2010-04-01

    The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

  9. Evaporation-induced transition from Nepenthes pitcher-inspired slippery surfaces to lotus leaf-inspired superoleophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junping; Wu, Lei; Li, Bucheng; Li, Lingxiao; Seeger, Stefan; Wang, Aiqin

    2014-12-01

    The newly developed Nepenthes pitcher (NP)-inspired slippery surfaces, formed by immobilizing fluoroliquids on lotus leaf (LL)-inspired superoleophobic surfaces, are of great general interest, whereas there are many interesting phenomena and fundamental scientific issues remaining to be unveiled. Here we present our findings of the effects of evaporation of the fluoroliquid, an inevitable process in most cases, -induced transition from NP-inspired to LL-inspired surfaces on the wettability, transparency, and self-cleaning property of the surfaces. The transition is controlled by regulating the evaporation temperature of the model fluoroliquid, Krytox100. The evaporation of Krytox100 has great a influence on the wettability, transparency, and self-cleaning property. An intermediate "sticky" state is observed in the transition process. We believe that our findings in the transition process are helpful in understanding the similarities and differences between the NP-inspired and LL-inspired surfaces and in designing new bioinspired antiwetting surfaces and exploring their potential applications. PMID:25378097

  10. Preparation of biodiesel from soybean oil by using heterogeneous catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniz Ferdous, M. Rakib Uddin, Maksudur R. Khan, M. A. Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The predicted shortage of fossil fuels and related environmental concerns has recently attracted significant attention to search alternative fuel. Biodiesel is one of the alternatives to fossil fuel. Now-a-days, most biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of oils using methanol and a homogeneous base catalyst. The use of homogeneous catalysts is normally limited to batch mode processing followed by a catalyst separation step. The immiscible glycerol phase, which accumulates during the course of the reaction, solubilizes the homogeneous base catalyst and therefore, withdraws from the reaction medium. Moreover, other difficulties of using homogeneous base catalysts relate to their sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA and water and resulting saponification phenomenon. High energy consumption and costly separation of the catalyst from the reaction mixture have inspired the use of heterogeneous catalyst. The use of heterogeneous catalysts does not lead to the formation of soaps through neutralization of FFA and saponification of oil. In the present paper, biodiesel was prepared from crude (soybean oil by transesterification reaction using heterogeneous base catalyst name calcium oxide (CaO. Various reaction parameters were optimized and the biodiesel properties were evaluated.

  11. Preparation of biodiesel from soybean oil by using heterogeneous catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdous, Kaniz; Rakib Uddin, M.; Islam, M.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science, Shah Jalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); Khan, Maksudur R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science, Shah Jalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2013-07-01

    The predicted shortage of fossil fuels and related environmental concerns has recently attracted significant attention to search alternative fuel. Biodiesel is one of the alternatives to fossil fuel. Now-a-days, most biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of oils using methanol and a homogeneous base catalyst. The use of homogeneous catalysts is normally limited to batch mode processing followed by a catalyst separation step. The immiscible glycerol phase, which accumulates during the course of the reaction, solubilizes the homogeneous base catalyst and therefore, withdraws from the reaction medium. Moreover, other difficulties of using homogeneous base catalysts relate to their sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA) and water and resulting saponification phenomenon. High energy consumption and costly separation of the catalyst from the reaction mixture have inspired the use of heterogeneous catalyst. The use of heterogeneous catalysts does not lead to the formation of soaps through neutralization of FFA and saponification of oil. In the present paper, biodiesel was prepared from crude (soybean) oil by transesterification reaction using heterogeneous base catalyst name calcium oxide (CaO). Various reaction parameters were optimized and the biodiesel properties were evaluated.

  12. Nature Inspired Surface Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubner, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Materials Scientists more and more are looking to nature for clues on how to create highly functional surface coatings with exceptional properties. The fog harvesting capabilities of the Namib Desert beetle, the beautiful iridescent colors of the hummingbird, and the super water repellant abilities of the Lotus leaf are but a few examples of the amazing properties developed over many years in the natural world. Nature also makes extensive use of the pH-dependent behavior of weak functional groups such as carboxylic acid and amine functional groups. This presentation will explore synthetic mimics to the nano- and microstructures responsible for these fascinating properties. For example, we have demonstrated a pH-induced porosity transition that can be used to create porous films with pore sizes that are tunable from the nanometer scale to the multiple micron scale. The pores of these films, either nano- or micropores, can be reversibly opened and closed by changes in solution pH. The ability to engineer pH-gated porosity transitions in heterostructured thin films has led to the demonstration of broadband anti-reflection coatings that mimic the anti-reflection properties of the moth eye and pH-tunable Bragg reflectors with a structure and function similar to that found in hummingbird wings and the Longhorn beetle. In addition, the highly textured honeycomb-like surfaces created by the formation of micron-scale pores are ideally suited for the creation of superhydrophobic surfaces that mimic the behavior of the self-cleaning lotus leaf. The development of synthetic "backbacks" on immune system cells that may one day ferry drugs to disease sites will also be discussed.

  13. Identification of Catalysts and Materials for a High-Energy Density Biochemical Fuel Cell: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-345

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghirardi, M.; Svedruzic, D.

    2013-07-01

    The proposed research attempted to identify novel biochemical catalysts, catalyst support materials, high-efficiency electron transfer agents between catalyst active sites and electrodes, and solid-phase electrolytes in order to maximize the current density of biochemical fuel cells that utilize various alcohols as substrates.

  14. Decrypting $SO(10)$-inspired leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bari, Pasquale; Fiorentin, Michele Re

    2014-01-01

    Encouraged by the recent results from neutrino oscillation experiments, we perform an analytical study of $SO(10)$-inspired models and leptogenesis with hierarchical right-handed (RH) neutrino spectrum. Under the approximation of negligible misalignment between the neutrino Yukawa basis and the charged lepton basis, we find an analytical expression for the final asymmetry directly in terms of the low energy neutrino parameters that fully reproduces previous numerical results. This expression also shows that is possible to identify an effective leptogenesis phase for these models. When we also impose the wash-out of a large pre-existing asymmetry $N^{\\rm p,i}_{B-L}$, the strong thermal (ST) condition, we derive analytically all those constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters that characterise the {\\rm ST}-$SO(10)$-inspired leptogenesis solution, confirming previous numerical results. In particular we show why, though neutrino masses have to be necessarily normally ordered, the solution implies an analy...

  15. Jellyfish inspired underwater unmanned vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Alex; Bresser, Scott; Chung, Sanghun; Tadesse, Yonas; Priya, Shashank

    2009-03-01

    An unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) was designed inspired by the form and functionality of a Jellyfish. These natural organisms were chosen as bio-inspiration for a multitude of reasons including: efficiency of locomotion, lack of natural predators, proper form and shape to incorporate payload, and varying range of sizes. The structure consists of a hub body surrounded by bell segments and microcontroller based drive system. The locomotion of UUV was achieved by shape memory alloy "Biometal Fiber" actuation which possesses large strain and blocking force with adequate response time. The main criterion in design of UUV was the use of low-profile shape memory alloy actuators which act as artificial muscles. In this manuscript, we discuss the design of two Jellyfish prototypes and present experimental results illustrating the performance and power consumption.

  16. Development in ruthenium based catalysts for ammonia synthesis%氨合成钌基催化剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭淑静; 高俊文

    2015-01-01

    近年来,钌基氨合成催化剂因其高活性、高稳定性和反应条件温和成为研究热点。综述国内外氨合成钌基催化剂的研究进展,重点介绍钌基催化剂载体、助剂和前驱体对氨合成反应性能的影响。石墨化程度高、导电性能良好的碳载体或氧化物与碳的复合载体是氨合成反应的良好载体;碱金属和碱土金属类助剂通过改变活性金属表面静电场,起到电子助剂的作用,并且碱土金属对反应的促进作用优于碱金属,稀土金属Sm能够抑制碳载体的甲烷化反应;与RuCl3相比,Ru3( CO)12是氨合成反应的理想前驱体。简介以电子化合物为载体的钌基氨合成体系,负载钌的高比表面积电子化合物C12 A7:e-是强大的电子供体,能够提高氮气在钌上的解离程度,并能可逆地储存氢,有效抑制氢吸附对钌表面的毒害,从而大大提高氨合成反应活性。进一步开发温和条件下非贵金属高效氨合成催化剂将具有重要的理论和现实意义。%Recently,ruthenium based catalysts for ammonia synthesis have been attracting interest increasingly due to their higher activity,higher stability and mild reaction conditions. The advance in development of Ru based catalysts for ammonia synthesis at home and abroad,especially the influence of the catalyst supports,promoters and precursors on the performance of ammonia synthetic catalysts were introduced in this paper. The carbon supports,carbon covered oxide and their complex with high graphitic degree and good electrical conductivity were good choice for ammonia synthesis supports. Alkali metals and alkaline-earth metals were good promoters for ammonia synthesis,and the promoting effects of alkaline-earth metals were better than those of alkali metals. Rear earth metals Sm could inhibit carbon methanation. Compared with RuCl3 ,Ru3( CO )12 was the ideal precursor for ammonia synthesis. A electride C12 A7:e- with

  17. Social insects inspire human design

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, C. Tate; Clark, Rebecca M.; Moore, Dani; Overson, Rick P.; Penick, Clint A.; Smith, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    The international conference ‘Social Biomimicry: Insect Societies and Human Design’, hosted by Arizona State University, USA, 18–20 February 2010, explored how the collective behaviour and nest architecture of social insects can inspire innovative and effective solutions to human design challenges. It brought together biologists, designers, engineers, computer scientists, architects and businesspeople, with the dual aims of enriching biology and advancing biomimetic design.

  18. Biologically-inspired machine vision

    OpenAIRE

    Tsitiridis, A

    2013-01-01

    This thesis summarises research on the improved design, integration and expansion of past cortex-like computer vision models, following biologically-inspired methodologies. By adopting early theories and algorithms as a building block, particular interest has been shown for algorithmic parameterisation, feature extraction, invariance properties and classification. Overall, the major original contributions of this thesis have been: 1. The incorporation of a salient feature-based method for sem...

  19. 马克思人的全面发展理论对高校思政工作的启发%The Inspiration from Marx's Comprehensive Development Theory in College Ideological and Political Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳碧红

    2011-01-01

    人的全面发展离不开教育,高校辅导员队伍在培养青年学生全面发展的过程中起着关键的作用。马克思人的全面发展学说是马克思主义教育思想的重要组成部分,是思想政治教育的理论基础,对高校辅导员如何更好地做好思想政治教育工作有着深刻的启示和指导作用。%Comprehensive development of people can not go without education.In colleges,counselors as an indispensable team carry out ideological and political education play a key role in the training process of young people's round development.The Comprehensive Development Theory of Marx is an important part in Marxist educational theory,as well as the theoretical basis of ideological and political education.It has a profound inspiration and guidance on how to do a better job of ideological and political education for college counselors.

  20. FRIPP加氢裂化催化剂研发新进展%Research Progress in Hydrocracking Catalysts Developed by FRIPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜艳泽; 王凤来; 孙晓艳; 刘昶

    2011-01-01

    To meet the goal of the industrial clean fuels production and products quality upgrading, FRIPP (Fushun research institute of petroleum and petrochemicals, SINOPEC) , actively devoted itself to develop new generation of hydrocracking catalysts. Through the exploitation of new materials and the use of new technologies and methods, FRIPP enhanced the ability to master hydrogenation metal and cognize performance of acidic carrier, then prepared new generation of high performance hydrocracking catalysts with reasonable matching of hydrogenation activity sites and cracking activity sites, such as FC-32,FC-34,FC-46 and FC-50 catalysts.%为满足工业实现清洁生产和产品质量持续升级的要求为目标,FRIPP(中石化抚顺石油化工研究院)积极致力于加氢裂化催化剂的开发,催化剂更新换代速度和技术水平不断提高,针对特定用户,“量体裁衣”地开发加氢裂化催化剂.通过催化新材料开发、新技术和新方法的使用,提高了对加氢金属的掌控能力和对酸性载体性能的认知能力,制备出了加氢活性中心和裂化活性中心匹配更加合理的新一代高性能加氢裂化催化剂FC-32、FC-34、FC-46和FC-50等.

  1. Catalysts for Dehydrogenation of ammonia boranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinekey, Dennis M.

    2014-12-19

    Several effective homogeneous catalysts for the dehydrogenation of amine boranes have been developed. The best catalyst uses an iridium complex, and is capable of dehydrogenating H3NBH3 (AB) and CH3NH2BH3 (MeAB) at comparable rates. Thermodynamic measurements using this catalyst demonstrate that the dehydrogenation of AB and MeAB is substantially exothermic, which has important implications for regeneration.

  2. RECENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROCRACKING CATALYSTS OUTSIDE CHINA%国外加氢裂化催化剂研发新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜艳泽; 关明华; 马艳秋; 于淼

    2012-01-01

    随着环保法规和燃料油排放指标的日趋严格,国外各大炼油公司均加大对加氢裂化技术研发和应用方面的投入,通过新材料和催化剂制备新技术的应用,新一代加氢裂化系列催化剂的性能明显提升.通过改善载体孔结构、表面酸性分布和调整载体与金属之间的作用力,增加易于活化的二类活性中心数目,使得新一代加氢裂化预处理催化剂的加氢脱氮/芳烃加氢饱和活性和稳定性等性能显著提高.依赖于分子筛合成和改性等技术的进步,新一代加氢裂化催化剂不仅活性、选择性和稳定性获得进一步提升,其它方面性能也获得明显提升,如提高操作灵活性、扩大原料油适应性、降低氢耗和提高产品质量等.%With the strengthening of environmental regulations and motor fuel specifications, large refining companies and research institutes outside China pay more attention and provide more fund on the innovation of hydrocracking technology, thus, great progress in catalyst development is achieved. The performances of new series hydrocracking catalysts have been greatly improved since adopting new catalytic materials and preparation technologies. Through modifying the support pore structure and surface acidity distribution, adjusting the interaction between support and metals, incorporating more type II active sites (which is easy to be activated), the HDN/aromatics saturation activities and stability of new hydro-pretreating catalysts improve significantly. In addition, with the progress in technologies of zeolite synthesis and modification, the improved performances of new generation hydrocracking catalysts not only exhibit at the enhancement of activity, selectivity and stability, but also at the others including operation flexibility, feedstock adaptability, less hydrogen consumption and better product quality.

  3. Biomimetic multifunctional surfaces inspired from animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Mu, Zhengzhi; Yin, Wei; Li, Wen; Niu, Shichao; Zhang, Junqiu; Ren, Luquan

    2016-08-01

    Over millions of years, animals have evolved to a higher intelligent level for their environment. A large number of diverse surface structures on their bodies have been formed to adapt to the extremely harsh environment. Just like the structural diversity existed in plants, the same also applies true in animals. Firstly, this article provides an overview and discussion of the most common functional surface structures inspired from animals, such as drag reduction, noise reduction, anti-adhesion, anti-wear, anti-erosion, anti-fog, water capture, and optical surfaces. Then, some typical characteristics of morphologies, structures, and materials of the animal multifunctional surfaces were discussed. The adaptation of these surfaces to environmental conditions was also analyzed. It mainly focuses on the relationship between their surface functions and their surface structural characteristics. Afterwards, the multifunctional mechanisms or principles of these surfaces were discussed. Models of these structures were provided for the development of structure materials and machinery surfaces. At last, fabrication techniques and existing or potential technical applications inspired from biomimetic multifunctional surfaces in animals were also discussed. The application prospects of the biomimetic functional surfaces are very broad, such as civil field of self-cleaning textile fabrics and non-stick pots, ocean field of oil-water separation, sports field of swimming suits, space development field of lens arrays. PMID:27085632

  4. Inspiring Jewish Connections: Outreach to Parents with Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertlieb, Donald; Rosen, Mark I.

    2008-01-01

    Jewish agencies and organizations in communities across the country have developed a variety of innovative programs for parents with young children. Programs combine Jewish themes with content about parenting and child development, both to provide information and support and to inspire families to become more involved with Jewish religion and…

  5. Study on the Inspiration of Reality Show on Developing Sports Teaching Games%真人秀节目对体育教学游戏开发启示研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志杰

    2016-01-01

    Using methods of literature and video analysis,the paper studies the inspiration of sports elements expression characteristics in reality show on developing P.E.teaching games.The study shows that the developing of P.E.teaching games should be conducted on the premise of respecting the spirit of physical education and should carry out scientific,interest -oriented and effective adjustment on teaching skills to stimulate students’ interest and enhance their study quality.%运用文献法及录像分析法,从研究真人秀节目中体育元素表达特点入手,从而引发对体育教学游戏开发的启示。研究认为:体育教学游戏开发中应该在尊重体育精神的前提下对需要教学技能进行科学化、兴趣化、有效性调整,从而激发学生兴趣、提高学习质量。

  6. Taking Inspiration from Reggio Emilia: An Analysis of a Professional Development Workshop on Fostering Authentic Art in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mages, Wendy K.

    2016-01-01

    This article documents the implementation of a professional development workshop on the Reggio Emilia approach in early childhood art education. It describes how early childhood educators participated in a collaborative collage experience and how a similar art activity can be engaging for young children. It also highlights philosophies,…

  7. Developing Teachers' Capacities to Create Caring Relationships with Students: A Case Study of a Gandhi-Inspired Private School in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Victoria S.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that many factors may impede teachers' ability to develop caring relationships with students such as the school environment (Schaps, 2009), lack of cultural understanding (Thompson, 1998), the teacher's beliefs and attitudes about care (Goldstein, 2002), and personal experience of being cared for (Noddings, 1984). Yet,…

  8. Optimization of catalyst system reaps economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champlin Refining and Chemicals Inc. is learning to optimize its catalyst systems for hydrotreating Venezuelan gas oils through a program of research, pilot plant testing, and commercial unit operation. The economic results of this project have been evaluated, and the benefits are most evident in improvements in product yields and qualities. The project has involved six commercial test runs, to date (Runs 10-15), with a seventh run planned. A summary of the different types of catalyst systems used in the test runs, and the catalyst philosophy that developed is given. Runs 10 and 11 used standard CoMo and NiMo catalysts for heavy gas oils hydrotreating. These catalysts had small pore sizes and suffered high deactivation rates because of metals contamination. When it was discovered that metals contamination was a problem, catalyst options were reviewed

  9. Science Letters:Development of supported boron-doping TiO2 catalysts by chemical vapor deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study, supported nonmetal (boron) doping TiO2 coating photocatalysts were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to enhance the activity under visible light irradiation and avoid the recovering of TiO2. Boron atoms were successfully doped into the lattice of TiO2 through CVD, as evidenced from XPS analysis. B-doped TiO2 coating catalysts showed drastic and strong absorption in the visible light range with a red shift in the band gap transition. This novel B-TiO2 coating photocatalyst showed higher photocatalytic activity in methyl orange degradation under visible light irradiation than that of the pure TiO2 photocatalyst.

  10. Development of acidity on sol-gel prepared TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvino, J.J.; Cauqui, M.A.; Gatica, J.M.; Perez, J.A.; Rodriguez-Izquierdo, J.M. [Univ. de Cadiz, Puerto Real (Spain)

    1994-12-31

    Three different TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} gels (Xerogel, Carbogel and Aerogel) are more active acid catalysts than other reference samples used here. As deduced from FTIR, XRD and XANES studies, the structural properties of these gels are quite different to each other, thus revealing the strong influence of the drying treatment. It is found that the degree of Si-O-Ti linking and the surface acidity follows the same trend (X > C > A). The authors conclude that supercritical drying at 600 K and 190 bars can induce Ti leaching followed by redeposition in the narrower pores of the gel. These effects modify both the textural and surface chemical properties of the resulting material.

  11. Advances in the catalysts development in base of mixed oxides for control reactions of N2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalytic supports Al2O3, La2O3 and Al2O3-La2O3 were prepared by the precipitation and coprecipitation techniques. The catalytic supports Al2O3, La2O3 and Al2O3-La2O3 were characterized by several techniques for to determine texture (BET), crystallinity (XRD), chemical composition (SEM), FTIR and it was evaluated their total acidity by the reaction with 2-propanol. It was continued with the cobalt addition by Impregnation and coprecipitation and it was evaluated its catalytic activity in the N2O decomposition reaction. Also it was realized the N2O reduction with Co using these catalysts. (Author)

  12. Development of International Rehabilitation Medicine and Inspiration%浅谈国际康复医学发展及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何红晨; 徐月萌; 熊恩富; 何成奇

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation medicine also known as Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R), is a branch of medicine that aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities. After nearly a century of development, rehabilitation medicine has reached a considerable level in developed countries. All rehabilitation programs are carried out in multidisciplinary rehabilitation teams including medical specialists for physical and rehabilitation medicine, as well as physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech, to improve the patients’ quality of life.%康复医学也被称为物理医学与康复(Physical medicine and rehabilitation,PM&R),是医学的一个分支,旨在提高和恢复患者的功能、能力和生活质量。经过近百年的发展,国际康复医学在发达国家已经达到相当发达的程度,其发展趋势就是通过合理地整合医学、治疗学、生物学、工程学、社会学等的理论和方法,为患者提供更加全面人性化的服务,提高患者的生活质量。

  13. Foundation Flash Catalyst

    CERN Document Server

    Goralski, Greg

    2010-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to Flash Catalyst for designers with intermediate to advanced skills. It discusses where Catalyst sits within the production process and how it communicates with other programs. It covers all of the features of the Flash Catalyst workspace, teaching you how to create designs from scratch, how to build application designs and add functionality, and how to master the Catalyst/Flex workflow. * Introduces Flash Catalyst * Focuses on production process * Covers the interrelation between Flash Catalyst and Photoshop/Illustrator/Flex/Flash What you'll learn Starting f

  14. Towards Ecology Inspired Software Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Baudry, Benoit; Monperrus, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Les écosystèmes sont des systèmes complexes et dynamiques. Au cours de l'évolution, ils ont développé des capacités avancées pour fournir des fonctions stables, et ce malgré des changements constants dans l'environnement. Dans ce papier, nous discutons l'hypothèse que les lois dirigeant l'organisation et le développement des écosystèmes sont une source d'inspiration riche pour l'architecture et la construction des logiciels.

  15. A survey of snake-inspired robot designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, James K; Spranklin, Brent W; Gupta, Satyandra K [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)], E-mail: skgupta@umd.edu

    2009-06-01

    Body undulation used by snakes and the physical architecture of a snake body may offer significant benefits over typical legged or wheeled locomotion designs in certain types of scenarios. A large number of research groups have developed snake-inspired robots to exploit these benefits. The purpose of this review is to report different types of snake-inspired robot designs and categorize them based on their main characteristics. For each category, we discuss their relative advantages and disadvantages. This review will assist in familiarizing a newcomer to the field with the existing designs and their distinguishing features. We hope that by studying existing robots, future designers will be able to create new designs by adopting features from successful robots. The review also summarizes the design challenges associated with the further advancement of the field and deploying snake-inspired robots in practice. (topical review)

  16. Supported Catalysts Useful in Ring-Closing Metathesis, Cross Metathesis, and Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Jakkrit Suriboot; Hassan S. Bazzi; Bergbreiter, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium and molybdenum catalysts are widely used in synthesis of both small molecules and macromolecules. While major developments have led to new increasingly active catalysts that have high functional group compatibility and stereoselectivity, catalyst/product separation, catalyst recycling, and/or catalyst residue/product separation remain an issue in some applications of these catalysts. This review highlights some of the history of efforts to address these problems, first discussing th...

  17. A nanoscale bio-inspired light-harvesting system developed from self-assembled alkyl-functionalized metallochlorin nano-aggregates

    KAUST Repository

    Ocakoǧlu, Kasim

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembled supramolecular organization of nano-structured biomimetic light-harvesting modules inside solid-state nano-templates can be exploited to develop excellent light-harvesting materials for artificial photosynthetic devices. We present here a hybrid light-harvesting system mimicking the chlorosomal structures of the natural photosynthetic system using synthetic zinc chlorin units (ZnChl-C6, ZnChl-C12 and ZnChl-C 18) that are self-aggregated inside the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nano-channel membranes. AAO nano-templates were modified with a TiO2 matrix and functionalized with long hydrophobic chains to facilitate the formation of supramolecular Zn-chlorin aggregates. The transparent Zn-chlorin nano-aggregates inside the alkyl-TiO2 modified AAO nano-channels have a diameter of ∼120 nm in a 60 μm length channel. UV-Vis studies and fluorescence emission spectra further confirm the formation of the supramolecular ZnChl aggregates from monomer molecules inside the alkyl-functionalized nano-channels. Our results prove that the novel and unique method can be used to produce efficient and stable light-harvesting assemblies for effective solar energy capture through transparent and stable nano-channel ceramic materials modified with bio-mimetic molecular self-assembled nano-aggregates. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  18. Developing a Biologically-Inspired Molecular Solar Energy Conversion Device: Reaction of Solution and Protein-Bound Cobalamins with Carbon Dioxide and Halo-Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Wesley D.; Ennist, Nathan M.; Warncke, Kurt

    2009-11-01

    Our aim is to design and construct protein-based artificial photosynthetic systems that reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) and toxic halo-organic compounds within the robust and adaptable (βα)8 TIM-barrel protein structure. The EutB subunit of the adenosylcobalamin-dependent enzyme, ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EAL), from Salmonella typhimurium, was selected as the protein template. The Co^I forms of the native cobalamin (Cbl) cofactor and a derivative, cobinamide (Cbi), possess relatively low redox potentials that are commensurate with reduction of CO2 and halo-organic compounds. Titanium^III citrate and pulsed laser-excited 5'-deazariboflavin (5'-DRF) were used to reduce Cbl or Cbi. UV/visible absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the reaction kinetics of reduced Cbl and Cbi with CO2 and halo-organics, and 13C-NMR was used for product analysis. The results provide fundamental information for development of an organocobalt-based protein-catalytic device for stable fuels generation and toxic chemical remediation.

  19. Immobilized Ruthenium Catalyst for Carbon Dioxide Hydrogenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Min YU; Jin Hua FEI; Yi Ping ZHANG; Xiao Ming ZHENG

    2006-01-01

    Three kinds of cross linked polystyrene resin (PS) supported ruthenium complexes were developed as catalysts for the synthesis of formic acid from carbon dioxide hydrogenation. Many factors, such as the functionalized supports, solvents and ligands, could influence their activities and reuse performances greatly. These immobilized catalysts also offer the industrial advantages such as easy separation.

  20. Bio-inspired networks for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Huang, Yuanlin; Li, Ruopeng; Peng, Qiang; Luo, Junyi; Pei, Ke; Herczynski, Andrzej; Kempa, Krzysztof; Ren, Zhifeng; Gao, Jinwei

    2014-11-01

    Modern optoelectronics needs development of new materials characterized not only by high optical transparency and electrical conductivity, but also by mechanical strength, and flexibility. Recent advances employ grids of metallic micro- and nanowires, but the overall performance of the resulting material composites remains unsatisfactory. In this work, we propose a new strategy: application of natural scaffoldings perfected by evolution. In this context, we study two bio-inspired networks for two specific optoelectronic applications. The first network, intended for solar cells, light sources and similar devices, has a quasi-fractal structure and is derived directly from a chemically extracted leaf venation system. The second network is intended for touch screens and flexible displays, and is obtained by metalizing a spider’s silk web. We demonstrate that each of these networks attain an exceptional optoelectonic and mechanical performance for its intended purpose, providing a promising direction in the development of more efficient optoelectronic devices.

  1. Development of automated analytical methodology for rare earth elements determination in aluminium based catalysts; Desenvolvimento de metodologia analitica automatizada para determinacao dos elementos terras raras em catalisadores a base de aluminio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lucinda Fernandes da; Carvalho, Marcelo S. de [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: lucinda@ien.gov.br; Santelli, Ricardo E. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Geoquimica]. E-mail: santelli@geoq.uff.br

    2005-07-01

    The use of aluminium based catalyst and doped with rare earth elements has raised an increasing market in last decades. Analytical control in these catalyst development and manufacturing process, most time is carried out by analytical techniques like plasma (ICP) or X-ray fluorescence (FRX) raising high costs. Flow injection analysis (FIA), associated to solid phase separation/pre-concentration technique, employed in this paper, is characterized by providing an increase in analytical, sensitivity and selectivity for metal determination in several matrices. This paper suggests an automated analytical methodology for rare earth elements determination with spectrophotometric detection using arsenaze III. It was assessed a separation system of interference from matrix (Al) on line, using an analytical column filled with cationic resin for interference separation from matrix (Al), and a reaction reel where Pr-AzIII complexes were produced. The developed methodology was applied in synthetic samples and aluminium based catalysts (zeolites). (author)

  2. Manufacture of Catalyst Systems for Ammonia Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAKH S.V.; SAVENKOV D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Platinum catalyst gauzes have been in use since the moment of development of the process of catalyst oxidation of ammonia for production of nitric acid or hydrocyanic acid.Catalyst gauzes are usually made of platinum or its alloys with rhodium and palladium.These precious metals have remarkable properties that make them ideal catalysts for acceleration of the ammonia/oxygen reaction.In 2008,OJSC "SIC ‘Supermetal’" and Umicore AG&Co.KG launched a production line for Pt-alloy-based catalyst systems to be used for ammonia oxidation in the production of weak nitric acid.Catalyst systems consist of a pack of catalyst gauzes and a pack of catchment gauzes,which are made using flat-bed knitting machines and wire-cloth looms.Today,up-to-date catalyst systems MKSpreciseTM are being manufactured,the basic advantages of which are an individual structure of gauzes and composition of the material,which allows to define precisely the position of each gauze in the catalyst pack,a high activity of the catalyst pack,direct catching of platinum and rhodium in the catalyst system,and a reasonable combination of single- and multilayer types of gauzes.This makes it possible to vary the configuration of the catalyst and select an optimum composition of the system to ensure the maximum efficiency of the ammonia oxidation process.We also produce the catchment systems that allow to find the best decision from the economic point view for each individual case.

  3. Role of Inspiration in Creating Textile Design

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhtawer Sabir Malik; Naheed Azhar

    2015-01-01

    In design-making process, Source of inspiration has a vital role, both in defining the characteristics of a new design and in informing the creation of a distinct design. This study was based on the idea to promote creative and original textile designs by using a source of inspiration. The purpose of the study was to create some original and innovative designs for textiles by using natural paintings of William Morris as an inspiration and incorporating modern elements in the desig...

  4. Bio-Inspired Optimization of Sustainable Energy Systems: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Jun Zheng; Sheng-Yong Chen; Yao Lin; Wan-Liang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable energy development always involves complex optimization problems of design, planning, and control, which are often computationally difficult for conventional optimization methods. Fortunately, the continuous advances in artificial intelligence have resulted in an increasing number of heuristic optimization methods for effectively handling those complicated problems. Particularly, algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and/or collective behav...

  5. In the Zone: Vygotskian-Inspired Pedagogy for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Cosette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Lev Vygotsky's (1978) Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) provides inspiration for a teaching approach for sustainability in a social science discipline, where students often lack or have widely varied levels of foundational understanding. This qualitative case study describes intellectual processes and aspects of the educational…

  6. Guard Cell and Tropomyosin Inspired Chemical Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn K.S. Nagel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensors are an integral part of many engineered products and systems. Biological inspiration has the potential to improve current sensor designs as well as inspire innovative ones. This paper presents the design of an innovative, biologically-inspired chemical sensor that performs “up-front” processing through mechanical means. Inspiration from the physiology (function of the guard cell coupled with the morphology (form and physiology of tropomyosin resulted in two concept variants for the chemical sensor. Applications of the sensor design include environmental monitoring of harmful gases, and a non-invasive approach to detect illnesses including diabetes, liver disease, and cancer on the breath.

  7. Pd Close Coupled Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Hua SHI; Mao Chu GONG; Yao Qiang CHEN

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst comprised novel high surface area alumina support was prepared to control emission of automobiles. The results showed that prepared catalyst could satisfy the requirements of a high performance close coupled catalyst for its good catalytic activity at low temperature and good stability at high temperature.

  8. INSPIRE: Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, K. A.; Garcia, L. N.; Webb, P. A.; Green, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The INSPIRE Project is a non-profit scientific and educational corporation whose objective is to bring the excitement of observing very low frequency (VLF) natural radio waves to high school students. Underlying this objective is the conviction that science and technology are the underpinnings of our modern society, and that only with an understanding of these disciplines can people make correct decisions in their lives. Since 1989, the INSPIRE Project has provided specially designed radio receiver kits to over 2,500 students and other groups to make observations of signals in the VLF frequency range. These kits provide an innovative and unique opportunity for students to actively gather data that can be used in a basic research project. Natural VLF emissions that can be studied with the INSPIRE receiver kits include sferics, tweeks, whistlers, and chorus, which originate from phenomena such as lightning. These emissions can either come from the local atmospheric environment within a few tens of kilometers of the receiver or from outer space thousands of kilometers from the Earth. VLF emissions are at such low frequencies that they can be received, amplified and turned into sound that we can hear, with each emission producing in a distinctive sound. In 2006 INSPIRE was re-branded and its mission has expanded to developing new partnerships with multiple science projects. Links to magnetospheric physics, astronomy, and meteorology are being identified. This presentation will introduce the INSPIRE project, display the INSPIRE receiver kits, show examples of the types of VLF emissions that can be collected and provide information on scholarship programs being offered.

  9. Nanostructured Basic Catalysts: Opportunities for Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, William C; Huber, George; Auerbach, Scott

    2009-06-30

    This research studied and developed novel basic catalysts for production of renewable chemicals and fuels from biomass. We focused on the development of unique porous structural-base catalysts zeolites. These catalysts were compared to conventional solid base materials for aldol condensation, that were being commercialized for production of fuels from biomass and would be pivotal in future biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Specifically, we had studied the aldolpyrolysis over zeolites and the trans-esterification of vegetable oil with methanol over mixed oxide catalysts. Our research has indicated that the base strength of framework nitrogen in nitrogen substituted zeolites (NH-zeolites) is nearly twice as strong as in standard zeolites. Nitrogen substituted catalysts have been synthesized from several zeolites (including FAU, MFI, BEA, and LTL) using NH3 treatment.

  10. Development of catalyst for ethylbenzene dehydrogenation in low water-oil ratio%低水油比乙苯脱氢催化剂的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛国萍; 金朝晖

    2001-01-01

    分析了铁/钾配比、氧化镁、氧化铁、微量元素的氧化物及增强剂等影响乙苯脱氢催化剂性能的因素,并对它们进行了调整,开发出了能适应在低水油比条件下使用的乙苯脱氢355催化剂。工业应用表明,在乙苯加料量为1.1~1.2t/h、温度为598~618℃、液体空速为0.42~0.46h-1、水油比为1.57左右的条件下,乙苯转化率、苯乙烯收率和选择性分别为65.0%,62.5%,96.1%。催化剂还具有强度高、堆密度小、自再生能力强等特点。%The 355 catalyst for ethylbenzene dehydrogenation used in low water-oil ratio was developed by analyzing and adjusting the factors affecting the properties of catalyst, including mass ratio of K/Fe, amount of MgO, precursor property of iron oxide, microcomponents and silicate. The results showed that in the condition of ethylbenzene feed 1.1~ 1.2 t/h, temperature 598~ 618 ℃ ,space velocity 0.42~ 0.46 h- 1,water- oil mass ratio about 1.57,the conversion of ethylbenzene was 65.0% ,yield and selectivity of styrene were 62.5% and 96.1% respectively. The catalyst also had high side pressure, low bulk density and good capacity of self- generation.

  11. Advances in HDS catalysts design: relation between catalyst structure and feed composition

    OpenAIRE

    Kagami, Narinobu

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose a better understanding of ultra deep HDS for diesel, to contribute to the development of advanced catalysts. The characterization of catalyst structure was examined by XRD, TPR, TPS and Raman spectroscopy. The ranking of catalytic activities were tested using various model compounds, such as thiophenes and dibenzothiophenes. The catalyst with higher stacking type active phase has weaker interaction with the support and can maintain high metal dispersion at h...

  12. Blood Clotting Inspired Polymer Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Charles Edward

    The blood clotting process is one of the human body's masterpieces in targeted molecular manipulation, as it requires the activation of the clotting cascade at a specific place and a specific time. Recent research in the biological sciences have discovered that one of the protein molecules involved in the initial stages of the clotting response, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), exhibits counterintuitive and technologically useful properties that are driven in part by the physical environment in the bloodstream at the site of a wound. In this thesis, we take inspiration from initial observations of the vWF in experiments, and aim to describe the behaviors observed in this process within the context of polymer physics. By understanding these physical principles, we hope to harness nature's ability to both direct molecules in both spatial and conformational coordinates. This thesis is presented in three complementary sections. After an initial introduction describing the systems of interest, we first describe the behavior of collapsed Lennard-Jones polymers in the presence of an infinite medium. It has been shown that simple bead-spring homopolymer models describe vWF quite well in vitro. We build upon this previous work to first describe the behavior of a collapsed homopolymer in an elongational fluid flow. Through a nucleation-protrusion mechanism, scaling relationships can be developed to provide a clear picture of a first-order globule-stretch transition and its ramifications in dilute-solution rheology. The implications of this behavior and its relation to the current literature provides qualitative explanations for the physiological process of vasoconstriction. In an effort to generalize these observations, we present an entire theory on the behavior of polymer globules under influence of any local fluid flow. Finally, we investigate the internal dynamics of these globules by probing their pulling response in an analogous fashion to force spectroscopy. We elucidate

  13. Hamiltonian Hydrodynamics and Irrotational Binary Inspiral

    CERN Document Server

    Markakis, Charalampos M

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational waves from neutron-star and black-hole binaries carry valuable information on their physical properties and probe physics inaccessible to the laboratory. Although development of black-hole gravitational-wave templates in the past decade has been revolutionary, the corresponding work for double neutron-star systems has lagged. Neutron stars can be well-modelled as simple barotropic fluids during the part of binary inspiral most relevant to gravitational wave astronomy, but the crucial geometric and mathematical consequences of this simplification have remained computationally unexploited. In particular, Carter and Lichnerowicz have described barotropic fluid motion via classical variational principles as conformally geodesic. Moreover, Kelvin's circulation theorem implies that initially irrotational flows remain irrotational. Applied to numerical relativity, these concepts lead to novel Hamiltonian or Hamilton-Jacobi schemes for evolving relativistic fluid flows. Hamiltonian methods can conserve ...

  14. Photocatalytic hydrogen production on SOLECTRO {sup registered} titanium dioxide layers. Development and characterization of an efficient catalyst; Photokatalytische Wasserstoffgewinnung an SOLECTRO {sup registered} -Titandioxidschichten. Entwicklung und Charakterisierung eines geeigneten Katalysators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saborowski, Sarah

    2010-03-03

    A catalyst for photocatalytic hydrogen production from methanol and water was developed on the basis of SOLECTRO {sup registered} titanium dioxide layers. A test facility was constructed in which several modified catalysts could be tested for this reaction. Detailed characterization of the electronic and optical characteristics of these catalysts made it possible to gain deeper insight into the processes involved in the reaction. (orig.) [German] Auf Basis der SOLECTRO {sup registered} -TiO{sub 2} -Schichten wurde ein Katalysator fuer die photokatalytische Wasserstoffdarstellung aus Methanol und Wasser entwickelt. Der Aufbau einer geeigneten Versuchsanlage ermoeglichte es, verschieden modifizierte Katalysatoren fuer diese Reaktion zu testen. Durch die ausfuehrliche Charakterisierung insbesondere der elektronischen und optischen Eigenschaften dieser Katalysatoren konnten vertiefende Erkenntnisse zu den waehrend der Reaktion ablaufenden Prozessen gewonnen werden. (orig.)

  15. Knowledge-based development of a nitrate-free synthesis route for Cu/ZnO methanol synthesis catalysts via formate precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Behrens, M; Kißner, S.; F. Girgsdies; Kasatkin, I.; Hermerschmidt, F.; Mette, K.; Ruland, H.; Muhler, M.; Schlögl, R.

    2011-01-01

    High-performance Cu/ZnO/(Al2O3) methanol synthesis catalysts are conventionally prepared by co-precipitation from nitrate solutions and subsequent thermal treatment. A new synthesis route is presented, which is based on similar preparation steps and leads to active catalysts, but avoids nitrate contaminated waste water.

  16. [Nikola Tesla: flashes of inspiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo-Galende, Albero; Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro

    2013-01-16

    Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions. PMID:23307357

  17. Collide@CERN: sharing inspiration

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Late last year, Julius von Bismarck was appointed to be CERN's first "artist in residence" after winning the Collide@CERN Digital Arts award. He’ll be spending two months at CERN starting this March but, to get a flavour of what’s in store, he visited the Organization last week for a crash course in its inspiring activities.   Julius von Bismarck, taking a closer look... When we arrive to interview German artist Julius von Bismarck, he’s being given a presentation about antiprotons’ ability to kill cancer cells. The whiteboard in the room contains graphs and equations that might easily send a non-scientist running, yet as Julius puts it, “if I weren’t interested, I’d be asleep”. Given his numerous questions, he must have been fascinated. “This ‘introduction’ week has been exhilarating,” says Julius. “I’ve been able to interact ...

  18. Event Rates for Binary Inspiral

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogera, V

    2001-01-01

    Double compact objects (neutron stars and black holes) found in binaries with small orbital separations are known to spiral in and are expected to coalesce eventually because of the emission of gravitational waves. Such inspiral and merger events are thought to be primary sources for ground based gravitational-wave interferometric detectors (such as LIGO). Here, we present a brief review of estimates of coalescence rates and we examine the origin and relative importance of uncertainties associated with the rate estimates. For the case of double neutron star systems, we compare the most recent rate estimates to upper limits derived in a number of different ways. We also discuss the implications of the formation of close binaries with two non-recycled pulsars.

  19. Process development for the separation and recovery of Mo and Co from chloride leach liquors of petroleum refining catalyst by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Separation of Mo and Co from HCl solution was investigated by solvent extraction. ► The solution was synthetic leaching solution of spent HDS catalysts. ► Extraction with TOPO led to complete separation of Mo. ► Alamine 308 can separate Co from the Mo free raffinate. ► Recovery percentage of both metals was higher than 99%. - Abstract: The separation and recovery of Mo and Co from the synthetic chloride leach liquors of petroleum refining catalyst has been investigated by employing TOPO and Alamine 308 as extractants. The synthetic leach liquor contained Mo 394 mg/L, Al 1782 mg/L, Co 119 mg/L in 3 M HCl. The separation of Mo from Co and Al was achieved with 0.05 M TOPO in Escaid 110 and complete stripping of Mo was attained with combination of 0.1 M NH4OH and 0.05 M (NH4)2CO3. After separation of molybdenum, cobalt can be selectively extracted by Alamine 308 from Mo free raffinate after adjusting the concentration of chloride ion to 5 M by adding AlCl3. The back-extraction of cobalt was obtained easily from loaded Alamine 308 with acidified water (pH = 1.0). McCabe–Thiele diagrams were constructed from the extraction and stripping experiments of each element (Mo and Co). From the batch simulation of the counter-current extraction and stripping experiments, it was confirmed that Mo and Co recovery of 99.4% and 99.1% respectively was obtained from the synthetic leach liquor of the chloride solutions. Finally a hydrometallurgical process flow sheet was developed.

  20. Decrypting SO(10-inspired leptogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Di Bari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Encouraged by the recent results from neutrino oscillation experiments, we perform an analytical study of SO(10-inspired models and leptogenesis with hierarchical right-handed (RH neutrino spectrum. Under the approximation of negligible misalignment between the neutrino Yukawa basis and the charged lepton basis, we find an analytical expression for the final asymmetry directly in terms of the low energy neutrino parameters that fully reproduces previous numerical results. This expression also shows that it is possible to identify an effective leptogenesis phase for these models. When we also impose the wash-out of a large pre-existing asymmetry NB−Lp,i, the strong thermal (ST condition, we derive analytically all those constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters that characterise the ST-SO(10-inspired leptogenesis solution, confirming previous numerical results. In particular we show why, though neutrino masses have to be necessarily normally ordered, the solution implies an analytical lower bound on the effective neutrino-less double beta decay neutrino mass, mee≳8 meV, for NB−Lp,i=10−3, testable with next generation experiments. This, in combination with an upper bound on the atmospheric mixing angle, necessarily in the first octant, forces the lightest neutrino mass within a narrow range m1≃(10–30 meV (corresponding to ∑imi≃(75–125 meV. We also show why the solution could correctly predict a non-vanishing reactor neutrino mixing angle and requires the Dirac phase to be in the fourth quadrant, implying sin⁡δ (and JCP negative as hinted by current global analyses. Many of the analytical results presented (expressions for the orthogonal matrix, RH neutrino mixing matrix, masses and phases can have applications beyond leptogenesis.

  1. Latent catalyst; Senzaisei shokubai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Epoxy resin, an important function material to support such main industries as electric and electronic devices, automobiles, civil engineering, and building construction, is demanded of development of single liquid type resin having excellent quick hardening performance and storage stability. This requirement comes from environmental problems with an intention of saving energies and reducing resin wastes. The Company, using freely its independent phase separation technology that controls molecular structure of catalysts, developed a latent catalyst having excellent storage stability and high-temperature quick hardening performance. Its major features may be summarized as follows: (1) excellent storage stability at room temperature keeping the product stable for 2.5 months or longer (2 days in conventional products); (2) quick hardening performance hardening the resin in seven seconds at 150 degrees C (equivalent to conventional products); and (3) excellent insulation performance of hardened resin at 140 degrees C of 7 times 10 {sup 13} (ohm) (center dot) cm (2 times 10 {sup 12} (ohm) (center dot) cm in conventional products) (translated by NEDO)

  2. 英国药学教育制度对我国药学教育发展的启示%Inspiration of UK Pharmacy Education System on the Development of Pharmacy Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯荣楷; 孟丽荣; 张晓岚; 张栩恩; 徐嘉豪; 杨嘉淇; 罗嘉琳; 王志敏; 黄倩华; 雷慧

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inspiration of the UK pharmacy education system on the development of pharmacy education in China. METHODS: The successes and deficiencies of UK pharmacy education system were reviewed and discussed to provide recommendations for the future of pharmacy education in China. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: Schools of pharmacy in the UK mainly provide the Master of Pharmacy course approved by the General Pharmaceutical Council, which ensures all pharmacy courses implement the national indicative pharmacy syllabus, mainly using clinical simulation teaching method and objective structured clinical examination. These effectively standardize the high quality pharmacy education to improve the quality of course and student's abilities within the UK. These systems can have positive impact on the Chinese pharmacy education and have high implementation possibility in China.%目的:探讨英国药学教育制度对我国药学教育发展的启示.方法:分析英国药学教育制度的成功之处及其缺点,提出对我国药学教育未来发展的建议.结果与结论:英国药学教育以培训药学硕士为主,其教学内容需遵从英国药物政务局的全国统一指示性药学教学大纲,教学及考试方式以案例教学法和临床能力测验为主,有效地规范了全国的药学教育,使课程的质量和学生能力达到较高水平.这些制度对我国药学教育有正面的参考价值,也有实施的可能性.

  3. Fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors for gunshot localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijun; Currano, Luke; Gee, Danny; Yang, Benjamin; Yu, Miao

    2009-05-01

    The supersensitive ears of the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea have inspired researchers to develop bio-inspired directional microphone for sound localization. Although the fly ear is optimized for localizing the narrow-band calling song of crickets at 5 kHz, experiments and simulation have shown that it can amplify directional cues for a wide frequency range. In this article, a theoretical investigation is presented to study the use of fly-ear inspired directional microphones for gunshot localization. Using an equivalent 2-DOF model of the fly ear, the time responses of the fly ear structure to a typical shock wave are obtained and the associated time delay is estimated by using cross-correlation. Both near-field and far-field scenarios are considered. The simulation shows that the fly ear can greatly amplify the time delay by ~20 times, which indicates that with an interaural distance of only 1.2 mm the fly ear is able to generate a time delay comparable to that obtained by a conventional microphone pair with a separation as large as 24 mm. Since the parameters of the fly ear structure can also be tuned for muzzle blast and other impulse stimulus, fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors offers great potential for developing portable gunshot localization systems.

  4. New Inspirations in Nature: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Maganlal Sureja

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, the studies on algorithms inspired by nature have shown that these methods can be efficiently used to eliminate most of the difficulties of classical methods. Nature inspired algorithms are widely used to solve optimization problems with complex nature. Various research works are carried out and algorithms are presented based on that during last few decades. Recently, some new algorithms inspired from nature are proposed to further improve the solutions obtained by the algorithms presented before. In this paper, a survey of five recently introduced Nature inspired algorithms is carried out. They include Firefly algorithm (FA, Cuckoo Search (CS, and Bat Inspired Algorithm (BA. Each of these algorithms are introduced and applied on various numerical optimization functions by various authors. We have tried to review and study the papers published by the authors and present a conclusion of this survey based on the results obtained.

  5. The Manipulation of Hydrophobicity in Catalyst Design for Applications of Aerobic Alcohols Oxidation and Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Batian

    2016-05-17

    Hydrophobicity is the generalized characteristic of non-polar substances that brings about their exclusion from aqueous phases. This property, entropic in its nature, drives key self-assembly and phase separation processes in water. Protein folding, the formation of DNA double helix, the existence of lipid bilayers and the wetting properties of leaf surfaces are all due to hydrophobic interactions. Inspired by Nature, we aimed to use hydrophobicity for creating novel and improved catalytic systems. (I) A number of fluorous amphiphilic star block-copolymers containing a tris(benzyltriazolylmethyl)amine motif have been prepared. These polymers assembled into well-defined nanostructures in water, and their mode of assembly could be controlled by changing the composition of the polymer. The polymers were used for enzyme-inspired catalysis of alcohol oxidation. (II) An enzyme-inspired catalytic system based on a rationally designed multifunctional surfactant was developed. The resulting micelles feature metal-binding sites and stable free radical moieties as well as fluorous pockets that attract and preconcentrate molecular oxygen. In the presence of copper ions, the micelles effect chemoselective aerobic alcohol oxidation under ambient conditions in water, a transformation that is challenging to achieve nonenzymatically. (III) Development of a facile means of photo/electrocatalytic water splitting is one of the main barriers to establishing of a solar hydrogen economy. Of the two half-reactions involved in splitting water into O2 and H2, water oxidation presents the most challenge due to its mechanistic complexity. A practical water oxidation catalyst must be highly active, yet inexpensive and indefinitely stable under harsh oxidative conditions. Here, I shall describe the synthesis of a library of molecular water oxidation catalysts based on the Co complex of tris(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)amine, (BimH)3. A wide range of catalysts differing in their electronic properties

  6. From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2010-10-01

    The conference 'From DNA-Inspired Physics to Physics-Inspired Biology' (1-5 June 2009, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy) that myself and two former presidents of the American Biophysical Society—Wilma Olson (Rutgers University) and Adrian Parsegian (NIH), with the support of an ICTP team (Ralf Gebauer (Local Organizer) and Doreen Sauleek (Conference Secretary)), have organized was intended to establish stronger links between the biology and physics communities on the DNA front. The relationships between them were never easy. In 1997, Adrian published a paper in Physics Today ('Harness the Hubris') summarizing his thoughts about the main obstacles for a successful collaboration. The bottom line of that article was that physicists must seriously learn biology before exploring it and even having an interpreter, a friend or co-worker, who will be cooperating with you and translating the problems of biology into a physical language, may not be enough. He started his story with a joke about a physicist asking a biologist: 'I want to study the brain. Tell me something about it!' Biologist: 'First, the brain consists of two parts, and..' Physicist: 'Stop. You have told me too much.' Adrian listed a few direct avenues where physicists' contributions may be particularly welcome. This gentle and elegantly written paper caused, however, a stormy reaction from Bob Austin (Princeton), published together with Adrian's notes, accusing Adrian of forbidding physicists to attack big questions in biology straightaway. Twelve years have passed and many new developments have taken place in the biologist-physicist interaction. This was something I addressed in my opening conference speech, with my position lying somewhere inbetween Parsegian's and Austin's, which is briefly outlined here. I will first recall certain precepts or 'dogmas' that fly in the air like Valkyries, poisoning those relationships. Since the early seventies when I was a first year Ph

  7. Bio-inspired nano tools for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suradip; Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Fawcett, James W; Bora, Utpal

    2016-07-01

    Research and treatment in the nervous system is challenged by many physiological barriers posing a major hurdle for neurologists. The CNS is protected by a formidable blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits surgical, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. The hostile environment created by reactive astrocytes in the CNS along with the limited regeneration capacity of the PNS makes functional recovery after tissue damage difficult and inefficient. Nanomaterials have the unique ability to interface with neural tissue in the nano-scale and are capable of influencing the function of a single neuron. The ability of nanoparticles to transcend the BBB through surface modifications has been exploited in various neuro-imaging techniques and for targeted drug delivery. The tunable topography of nanofibers provides accurate spatio-temporal guidance to regenerating axons. This review is an attempt to comprehend the progress in understanding the obstacles posed by the complex physiology of the nervous system and the innovations in design and fabrication of advanced nanomaterials drawing inspiration from natural phenomenon. We also discuss the development of nanomaterials for use in Neuro-diagnostics, Neuro-therapy and the fabrication of advanced nano-devices for use in opto-electronic and ultrasensitive electrophysiological applications. The energy efficient and parallel computing ability of the human brain has inspired the design of advanced nanotechnology based computational systems. However, extensive use of nanomaterials in neuroscience also raises serious toxicity issues as well as ethical concerns regarding nano implants in the brain. In conclusion we summarize these challenges and provide an insight into the huge potential of nanotechnology platforms in neuroscience. PMID:27107796

  8. Bio-inspired routes for synthesizing efficient nanoscale platinum electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jennifer N. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Wang, Joseph [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to use fundamental advances in bionanotechnology to design powerful platinum nanocrystal electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. The new economically-viable, environmentally-friendly, bottom-up biochemical synthetic strategy will produce platinum nanocrystals with tailored size, shape and crystal orientation, hence leading to a maximum electrochemical reactivity. There are five specific aims to the proposed bio-inspired strategy for synthesizing efficient electrocatalytic platinum nanocrystals: (1) isolate peptides that both selectively bind particular crystal faces of platinum and promote the nucleation and growth of particular nanocrystal morphologies, (2) pattern nanoscale 2-dimensional arrays of platinum nucleating peptides from DNA scaffolds, (3) investigate the combined use of substrate patterned peptides and soluble peptides on nanocrystal morphology and growth (4) synthesize platinum crystals on planar and large-area carbon electrode supports, and (5) perform detailed characterization of the electrocatalytic behavior as a function of catalyst size, shape and morphology. Project Description and Impact: This bio-inspired collaborative research effort will address key challenges in designing powerful electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications by employing nucleic acid scaffolds in combination with peptides to perform specific, environmentally-friendly, simultaneous bottom-up biochemical synthesis and patterned assembly of highly uniform and efficient platinum nanocrystal catalysts. Bulk synthesis of nanoparticles usually produces a range of sizes, accessible catalytic sites, crystal morphologies, and orientations, all of which lead to inconsistent catalytic activities. In contrast, biological systems routinely demonstrate exquisite control over inorganic syntheses at neutral pH and ambient temperature and pressures. Because the orientation and arrangement of the templating biomolecules can be precisely

  9. Fish-inspired robots: design, sensing, actuation, and autonomy--a review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Aditi; Thakur, Atul

    2016-06-01

    Underwater robot designs inspired by the behavior, physiology, and anatomy of fishes can provide enhanced maneuverability, stealth, and energy efficiency. Over the last two decades, robotics researchers have developed and reported a large variety of fish-inspired robot designs. The purpose of this review is to report different types of fish-inspired robot designs based upon their intended locomotion patterns. We present a detailed comparison of various design features like sensing, actuation, autonomy, waterproofing, and morphological structure of fish-inspired robots reported in the past decade. We believe that by studying the existing robots, future designers will be able to create new designs by adopting features from the successful robots. The review also summarizes the open research issues that need to be taken up for the further advancement of the field and also for the deployment of fish-inspired robots in practice. PMID:27073001

  10. Photochemical Hydrogen Generation Initiated by Oxidative Quenching of the Excited Ru(bpy)3 (2+) * by a Bio-Inspired [2Fe2S] Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yong; Wei, Peicheng; Zhou, Li

    2016-07-18

    A diiron dithiolate complex 1 containing 1,8-naphthalic anhydride bridge was prepared, which possessed the lowest reduction potential for the synthetic diiron complexes modeled on the active site of [FeFe] hydrogenase reported so far. For the first time, oxidative quenching of the excited Ru(bpy)3 (2+) * through electron transfer to a bio-inspired [2Fe2S] complex was corroborated. Hydrogen evolution, driven by visible light, was successfully observed for a three-component system, consisting of Ru(bpy)3 (2+) , complex 1, and EDTA as electron donor in aqueous/organic media. These results provide a basis and also opportunity to develop a photo water splitting system employing Fe-based catalysts without sacrificial electron donors. PMID:26879325

  11. Bio-inspired nanomaterials and their applications as antimicrobial agents

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Sachin Zinjarde

    2012-01-01

    In the recent decades, the interdisciplinary field of nanotechnology has expanded extensively. A variety of nanoparticles (NPs) have been used for a number of specialized applications. In this era facing a major problem of microorganisms developing antibiotic resistance, NPs are a lucrative option. Most physical and chemical processes of NP synthesis are associated with drawbacks and bio-inspired NPs have now become popular. This review summarizes the recent developments on the biosynthesis, ...

  12. Biologically inspired robots as artificial inspectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2002-06-01

    Imagine an inspector conducting an NDE on an aircraft where you notice something is different about him - he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your first reaction would probably be to say 'it's unbelievable but he looks real' just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. This science fiction scenario could become a reality at the trend in the development of biologically inspired technologies, and terms like artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. For many years, the trend has been to automate processes in order to increase the efficiency of performing redundant tasks where various systems have been developed to deal with specific production line requirements. Realizing that some parts are too complex or delicate to handle in small quantities with a simple automatic system, robotic mechanisms were developed. Aircraft inspection has benefitted from this evolving technology where manipulators and crawlers are developed for rapid and reliable inspection. Advancement in robotics towards making them autonomous and possibly look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures that are beyond the capability of today's technology with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of these robots may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Making such robots is becoming increasingly feasible and in this paper the state of the art will be reviewed.

  13. Nature Inspired Hay Fever Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei P.Sommer; Dan Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The survival oriented adaptation of evolved biosystems to variations in their environment is a selective optimization process. Recognizing the optimised end product and its functionality is the classical arena of bionic engineering. In a primordial world, however, the molecular organization and functions of prebiotic systems were solely defined by formative processes in their physical and chemical environment, for instance, the interplay between interracial water layers on surfaces and solar light. The formative potential of the interplay between light (laser light) and interfacial water layers on surfaces was recently exploited in the formation of supercubane carbon nanocrystals. In evolved biosystems the formative potential of interracial water layers can still be activated by light. Here we report a case of hay fever, which was successfully treated in the course of a facial reju-venation program starting in November 2007. Targeting primarily interfacial water layers on elastin fibres in the wrinkled areas, we presumably also activated mast cells in the nasal mucosa, reported to progressively decrease in the nasal mucosa of the rabbit, when frequently irradiated. Hay fever is induced by the release of mediators, especially histamine, a process associated with the degranulation of mast cells. Decrease in mast cells numbers implies a decrease in the release of histamine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the treatment of hay fever with visible light. This approach was inspired by bionic thinking, and could help ameliorating the condition of millions of people suffering from hay fever world wide.

  14. Inspired at a book fair

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    During the Frankfurt book fair last October, the CERN stand drew quite the crowd. Director-General Rolf Heuer was there to promote CERN’s mission and the "LHC: the Large Hadron Collider" book. He met a lot of visitors and for one of them there was also a nice follow-up…   Marcus and his father visiting the LINAC facility. Fifteen year-old Marcus lives in Lauterecken near Frankfurt. The popular book fair last autumn was for him a nice opportunity to get in touch with the CERN environment. Inspired by the stand and what the CERN people were describing, he started to ask more and more questions… So many, that Rolf Heuer decided to invite him to come to CERN and find out some of the answers for himself. A few weeks later, while recovering from an exciting visit to the ATLAS underground cavern and other CERN installations with a cup of tea in Restaurant 1, Marcus shared his enthusiasm about the Organization: “When I was younger, my moth...

  15. Fracture Mechanics: Inspirations from Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Taylor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Nature there are many examples of materials performing structural functions. Nature requires materials which are stiff and strong to provide support against various forces, including self-weight, the dynamic forces involved in movement, and external loads such as wind or the actions of a predator. These materials and structures have evolved over millions of years; the science of Biomimetics seeks to understand Nature and, as a result, to find inspiration for the creation of better engineering solutions. There has been relatively little fundamental research work in this area from a fracture mechanics point of view. Natural materials are quite brittle and, as a result, they have evolved several interesting strategies for preventing failure by crack propagation. Fatigue is also a major problem for many animals and plants. In this paper, several examples will be given of recent work in the Bioengineering Research Centre at Trinity College Dublin, investigating fracture and fatigue in such diverse materials as bamboo, the legs and wings of insects, and living cells.

  16. Issues in Applying Bio-Inspiration, Cognitive Critical Mass and Developmental-Inspired Principles to Advanced Intelligent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Cross, Gary; Samsonovich, Alexei V.

    This Chapter summarizes ideas presented at the special PerMIS 2008 session on Biological Inspiration for Intelligent Systems. Bio-inspired principles of development and evolution are a special part of the bio-models and principles that can be used to improve intelligent systems and related artifacts. Such principles are not always explicit. They represent an alternative to incremental engineering expansion using new technology to replicate human intelligent capabilities. They are more evident in efforts to replicate and produce a “critical mass” of higher cognitive functions of the human mind or their emergence through cognitive developmental robotics (DR) and self-regulated learning (SRL). DR approaches takes inspiration from natural processes, so that intelligently engineered systems may create solutions to problems in ways similar to what we hypothesize is occurring with biologics in their natural environment. This Chapter discusses how an SRL-based approach to bootstrap a “critical mass” can be assessed by a set of cognitive tests. It also uses a three-level bio-inspired framework to illustrate methodological issues in DR research. The approach stresses the importance of using bio-realistic developmental principles to guide and constrain research. Of particular importance is keeping models and implementation separate to avoid the possible of falling into a Ptolemaic paradigm that may lead to endless tweaking of models. Several of Lungarella's design principles [36] for developmental robotics are discussed as constraints on intelligence as it emerges from an ecologically balanced, three-way interaction between an agents' control systems, physical embodiment, and the external environment. The direction proposed herein is to explore such principles to avoid slavish following of superficial bio-inspiration. Rather we should proceed with a mature and informed developmental approach using developmental principles based on our incremental understanding of how

  17. Design strategies for the molecular level synthesis of supported catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Staci L; Marks, Tobin J; Stair, Peter C

    2012-02-21

    Supported catalysts, metal or oxide catalytic centers constructed on an underlying solid phase, are making an increasingly important contribution to heterogeneous catalysis. For example, in industry, supported catalysts are employed in selective oxidation, selective reduction, and polymerization reactions. Supported structures increase the thermal stability, dispersion, and surface area of the catalyst relative to the neat catalytic material. However, structural and mechanistic characterization of these catalysts presents a formidable challenge because traditional preparations typically afford complex mixtures of structures whose individual components cannot be isolated. As a result, the characterization of supported catalysts requires a combination of advanced spectroscopies for their characterization, unlike homogeneous catalysts, which have relatively uniform structures and can often be characterized using standard methods. Moreover, these advanced spectroscopic techniques only provide ensemble averages and therefore do not isolate the catalytic function of individual components within the mixture. New synthetic approaches are required to more controllably tailor supported catalyst structures. In this Account, we review advances in supported catalyst synthesis and characterization developed in our laboratories at Northwestern University. We first present an overview of traditional synthetic methods with a focus on supported vanadium oxide catalysts. We next describe approaches for the design and synthesis of supported polymerization and hydrogenation catalysts, using anchoring techniques which provide molecular catalyst structures with exceptional activity and high percentages of catalytically significant sites. We then highlight similar approaches for preparing supported metal oxide catalysts using atomic layer deposition and organometallic grafting. Throughout this Account, we describe the use of incisive spectroscopic techniques, including high

  18. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  19. Bio-Inspired Autonomous Communications Systems with Anomaly Detection Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate BioComm, a bio-inspired autonomous communications system (ACS) aimed at dynamically reconfiguring and redeploying autonomous...

  20. Status and development tendency of deniration catalyst life management in thermal power plant%火电厂脱硝催化剂寿命管理现状及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞; 刘毅; 廖海燕; 史晓宏

    2015-01-01

    In order to lengthen service life of denitration catalyst in thermal power plant,the use and life management state of deniration catalyst was introduced combining with the whole catalyst use process. The cause of catalyst poisoning was analyzed. In order to maximize catalyst effects,the choose of catalyst should take full account of actual operating parameters which were provided by manufacturer. The ammonia could clog air preheater,so the spraying value of ammonia,operating temperature,soot blower system should be controlled strict-ly. The clogging,poisoning,physical deterioration and sintering were the main reasons of catalyst deactivation. The catalyst efficiency,am-monia escape and SO2/SO3 conversion ratio could be used to check if the catalyst still had activity. There were some useful component in waste catalyst,so the waste catalyst recycling and regeneration technologies development should be strengthened.%为了延长火电厂脱硝催化剂的使用寿命,介绍了脱硝催化剂使用及寿命管理现状,结合催化剂使用全过程论述了投运前、运行中及后续维护过程中催化剂的寿命管理方法,总结了催化剂中毒原因并提出寿命管理建议。催化剂选择设计时应充分考虑催化剂厂家提供的催化剂实际运行参数,最大限度满足催化剂运行工况;催化剂运行、检修、维护过程中,要严格控制喷氨量、运行温度、吹灰系统,避免为了提高脱硝效率而增加氨逃逸,引起空气预热器堵塞等问题。堵塞、中毒、机械磨损、烧结是造成催化剂失活的主要原因,通过检测脱硝催化剂的效率、氨逃逸和SO2/SO3转化率等指标,判断催化剂是否失活,并定期进行催化剂单体的检测和脱硝系统性能测试。最后提出应加强废旧催化剂的回收处理技术,如催化剂的二次再生技术以及从废旧催化剂中提取微量元素、回收有效成分等。

  1. Engaging Students through Astronomically Inspired Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a lesson outline in which astronomically inspired musical compositions are used to teach astronomical concepts via an introductory activity, close listening, and critical/creative reflection.

  2. Role of Inspiration in Creating Textile Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtawer Sabir Malik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In design-making process, Source of inspiration has a vital role, both in defining the characteristics of a new design and in informing the creation of a distinct design. This study was based on the idea to promote creative and original textile designs by using a source of inspiration. The purpose of the study was to create some original and innovative designs for textiles by using natural paintings of William Morris as an inspiration and incorporating modern elements in the design. Several designs were made and three were selected that were innovative and suitable for textile designing. This study marks the significance of a source of inspiration in textile designing.

  3. Nature-inspired computing for control systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The book presents recent advances in nature-inspired computing, giving a special emphasis to control systems applications. It reviews different techniques used for simulating physical, chemical, biological or social phenomena at the purpose of designing robust, predictive and adaptive control strategies. The book is a collection of several contributions, covering either more general approaches in control systems, or methodologies for control tuning and adaptive controllers, as well as exciting applications of nature-inspired techniques in robotics. On one side, the book is expected to motivate readers with a background in conventional control systems to try out these powerful techniques inspired by nature. On the other side, the book provides advanced readers with a deeper understanding of the field and a broad spectrum of different methods and techniques. All in all, the book is an outstanding, practice-oriented reference guide to nature-inspired computing addressing graduate students, researchers and practi...

  4. Process development for the separation and recovery of Mo and Co from chloride leach liquors of petroleum refining catalyst by solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Raju; Sohn, Seong Ho; Lee, Man Seung

    2012-04-30

    The separation and recovery of Mo and Co from the synthetic chloride leach liquors of petroleum refining catalyst has been investigated by employing TOPO and Alamine 308 as extractants. The synthetic leach liquor contained Mo 394 mg/L, Al 1782 mg/L, Co 119 mg/L in 3 M HCl. The separation of Mo from Co and Al was achieved with 0.05 M TOPO in Escaid 110 and complete stripping of Mo was attained with combination of 0.1M NH(4)OH and 0.05 M (NH(4))(2)CO(3). After separation of molybdenum, cobalt can be selectively extracted by Alamine 308 from Mo free raffinate after adjusting the concentration of chloride ion to 5 M by adding AlCl(3). The back-extraction of cobalt was obtained easily from loaded Alamine 308 with acidified water (pH=1.0). McCabe-Thiele diagrams were constructed from the extraction and stripping experiments of each element (Mo and Co). From the batch simulation of the counter-current extraction and stripping experiments, it was confirmed that Mo and Co recovery of 99.4% and 99.1% respectively was obtained from the synthetic leach liquor of the chloride solutions. Finally a hydrometallurgical process flow sheet was developed. PMID:22336581

  5. Ceramic catalyst materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sault, A.G.; Gardner, T.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanprasopwattanna, A.; Reardon, J.; Datye, A.K. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) ion-exchange materials show great potential as ceramic catalyst supports due to an inherently high ion-exchange capacity which allows facile loading of catalytically active transition metal ions, and an ability to be cast as thin films on virtually any substrate. By coating titania and HTO materials onto inexpensive, high surface area substrates such as silica and alumina, the economics of using these materials is greatly improved, particularly for the HTO materials, which are substantially more expensive in the bulk form than other oxide supports. In addition, the development of thin film forms of these materials allows the catalytic and mechanical properties of the final catalyst formulation to be separately engineered. In order to fully realize the potential of thin film forms of titania and HTO, improved methods for the deposition and characterization of titania and HTO films on high surface area substrates are being developed. By varying deposition procedures, titania film thickness and substrate coverage can be varied from the submonolayer range to multilayer thicknesses on both silica and alumina. HTO films can also be formed, but the quality and reproducibility of these films is not nearly as good as for pure titania films. The films are characterized using a combination of isopropanol dehydration rate measurements, point of zero charge (PZC) measurements, BET surface area, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and elemental analysis. In order to assess the effects of changes in film morphology on catalytic activity, the films are being loaded with MoO{sub 3} using either incipient wetness impregnation or ion-exchange of heptamolybdate anions followed by calcining. The MoO{sub 3} is then sulfided to form MOS{sub 2}, and tested for catalytic activity using pyrene hydrogenation and dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulfurization, model reactions that simulate reactions occurring during coal liquefaction.

  6. Informal Cross-Border Trade Sarawak (Malaysia-Kalimantan (Indonesia: A Catalyst for Border Community’s Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Hair Awang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border entrepreneurship activity plays an important role in the community economic development programs. The emergence of business groups and trade activities will generate employment, create wealth, contribute to tax revenue and stimulate the construction of infrastructures such as transportation. Indirectly, this will improve the standard of living in the border communities. The cross-border trade activities between Sarawak (Malaysia-Kalimantan (Indonesia continued to grow significantly. Although there is no formal cross-border route and Checkpoint of Immigration and Quarantine (CIQ exists, Serikin as a small border town has developed as a Weekend Market focuses on informal trade. Indonesian traders and Malaysian consumers gathered on weekends to carry out transactions and this triggers local development. This article discusses the cross-border informal trade activities by focusing on the business participation factors and reasons for location selection, especially among Indonesian traders and spillover effects on the local communities.

  7. A bio-inspired test system for bionic above-knee prosthetic knees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dai-Hua; Xu, Lei; Fu, Qiang; Yuan, Gang

    2013-04-01

    Recently, prosthetic knees in the developing stage are usually tested by installing them on amputees' stumps directly or on above-knee prostheses (AKPs) test platforms. Although amputees can fully provide the actual motion state of the thigh, immature prosthetic knees may hurt amputees. For AKPs test platforms, it just can partly simulate the actual motion state of the thigh with limitation of the motion curve of the thigh, the merits or demerits of newly developed bionic above-knee prosthetic knees cannot be accessed thoroughly. Aiming at the defects of two testing methods, this paper presents a bio-inspired AKPs test system for bionic above-knee prosthetic knees. The proposed bio-inspired AKPs test system is composed of a AKPs test platform, a control system, and a bio-inspired system. The AKPs test platform generates the motion of the thigh simulation mechanism (TSM) via two screw pairs with servo motors. The bio-inspired system includes the tester and the bio-inspired sensor wore by the tester. The control system, which is inspired by the bio-inspired system, generates the control command signal to move the TSM of the AKPs test platform. The bio-inspired AKPs test system is developed and experimentally tested with a commercially available prosthetic knee. The research results show that the bio-inspired AKPs test system can not only ensure the safety of the testers, but also track all kinds of the actual motion state of the thigh of the testers in real time.

  8. Voros product and noncommutative inspired black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan

    2013-01-01

    We emphasize the importance of the Voros product in defining noncommutative inspired black holes. The computation of entropy for both the noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black holes show that the area law holds upto order $\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{\\theta}}e^{-M^2/\\theta}$. The leading correction to the entropy (computed in the tunneling formalism) is shown to be logarithmic. The Komar energy $E$ for these black holes is then obtained and a deviation from the standard id...

  9. Old Ohrid features - inspiration for contemporary exterior

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The old architecture of Ohrid from the 18th century, is a strong inspiration that is associated with the location of the city (The Macedonian Pearl), and it is an artistic influence of architects, artists, esthetes in Macedonia and beyond. The coastal area of Lake Ohrid is the perfect place for arranging the cafe patio, which will be also a sample of past and a contemporary reflection of the present. The Inspiration of the folklore is incorporated in contemporary and appropriate materials to ...

  10. Inspirational Catalogue of Master Thesis Proposals 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project.......This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project....

  11. Voice Coil Controlled Inspiration and Expiration Valves

    OpenAIRE

    Bergqvist, Per; Kemmler, Linus

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis was performed at Maquet Critical Care located in Solna, Stockholm. Maquet Critical Care is a market leader in high performance medical ventilators. A ventilator is a medical device that helps patients to breathe. Two of the most vital components of a ventilator are the valves that are closest to the patient. These are the inspiration valve and the expiration valve. The main purpose with this thesis is to get, theoretical as well as practical insights into the inspiration an...

  12. Bio-Inspired Optimization of Sustainable Energy Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development always involves complex optimization problems of design, planning, and control, which are often computationally difficult for conventional optimization methods. Fortunately, the continuous advances in artificial intelligence have resulted in an increasing number of heuristic optimization methods for effectively handling those complicated problems. Particularly, algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and/or collective behavior of social colonies have shown a promising performance and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. In this paper we summarize the recent advances in bio-inspired optimization methods, including artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, and their hybridizations, which are applied to the field of sustainable energy development. Literature reviewed in this paper shows the current state of the art and discusses the potential future research trends.

  13. Bio-inspired polarized skylight navigation: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Wan, Yongqin; Li, Lijing

    2015-12-01

    The idea of using skylight polarization in navigation is learned from animals such as desert ants and honeybees. Various research groups have been working on the development of novel navigation systems inspired by polarized skylight. The research of background in polarized skylight navigation is introduced, and basic principle of the insects navigation is expatiated. Then, the research progress status at home and abroad in skylight polarization pattern, three bio-inspired polarized skylight navigation sensors and polarized skylight navigation are reviewed. Finally, the research focuses in the field of polarized skylight navigation are analyzed. At the same time, the trend of development and prospect in the future are predicted. It is believed that the review is helpful to people understand polarized skylight navigation and polarized skylight navigation sensors.

  14. Microchannel Reactors for ISRU Applications Using Nanofabricated Catalysts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and USRA propose to develop microchannel reactors for In-Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) using nanofabricated catalysts. The...

  15. Highly Durable Catalysts for Ignition of Advanced Monopropellants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed SBIR Phase I addresses the development of catalysts and technology for the ignition of advanced monopropellants consisting of mixtures of...

  16. Privatization and economic liberalization: the role of the entrepreneur as a catalyst for economic development in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibrell, Clay; Danskin Englis, Paula; Kedia, Ben L.; Lakatos, Gergo M.

    2008-01-01

    Many nations with transition economies are attempting to develop their national competitiveness through such processes as privatisation of state owned enterprises (SOEs) and/or the use of economic liberalisation (e.g. lessening of tariffs, industry regulations, etc.) to spur economic growth and deve

  17. Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakoor, Sanita

    2003-01-01

    The multidisciplinary concept of "bioinspired engineering of exploration systems" (BEES) is described, which is a guiding principle of the continuing effort to develop biomorphic explorers as reported in a number of articles in the past issues of NASA Tech Briefs. The intent of BEES is to distill from the principles found in successful nature-tested mechanisms of specific crucial functions that are hard to accomplish by conventional methods but that are accomplished rather deftly in nature by biological organisms. The intent is not just to mimic operational mechanisms found in a specific biological organism but to imbibe the salient principles from a variety of diverse bio-organisms for the desired crucial function. Thereby, we can build explorer systems that have specific capabilities endowed beyond nature, as they will possess a combination of the best nature-tested mechanisms for that particular function. The approach consists of selecting a crucial function, for example, flight or some selected aspects of flight, and develop an explorer that combines the principles of those specific attributes as seen in diverse flying species into one artificial entity. This will allow going beyond biology and achieving unprecedented capability and adaptability needed in encountering and exploring what is as yet unknown. A classification of biomorphic flyers into two main classes of surface and aerial explorers is illustrated in the figure, with examples of a variety of biological organisms that provide the inspiration in each respective subclass. Such biomorphic explorers may possess varied mobility modes: surface-roving, burrowing, hopping, hovering, or flying, to accomplish surface, subsurface, and aerial exploration. Preprogrammed for a specific function, they could serve as one-way communicating beacons, spread over the exploration site, autonomously looking for/at the targets of interest. In a hierarchical organization, these biomorphic explorers would report to the next

  18. Biologically-Inspired Water Propulsion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej Sioma

    2013-01-01

    Most propulsion systems of vehicles travelling in the aquatic environment are equipped with propellers.Observations of nature,however,show that the absolute majority of organisms travel through water using wave motion,paddling or using water jet power.Inspired by these observations of nature,an innovative propulsion system working in aquatic environment was developed.This paper presents the design of the water propulsion system.Particular attention was paid to the use of paddling techniques and water jet power.A group of organisms that use those mechanisms to travel through water was selected and analysed.The results of research were used in the design of a propulsion system modelled simultaneously on two methods of movement in the aquatic environment.A method for modelling a propulsion system using a combination of the two solutions and the result were described.A conceptual design and a prototype constructed based on the solution were presented.With respect to the solution developed,studies and analyses of selected parameters of the prototype were described.

  19. Adaptive Fuzzy-Lyapunov Controller Using Biologically Inspired Swarm Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Carrasco Elizalde; Peter Goldsmith

    2008-01-01

    The collective behaviour of swarms produces smarter actions than those achieved by a single individual. Colonies of ants, flocks of birds and fish schools are examples of swarms interacting with their environment to achieve a common goal. This cooperative biological intelligence is the inspiration for an adaptive fuzzy controller developed in this paper. Swarm intelligence is used to adjust the parameters of the membership functions used in the adaptive fuzzy controller. The rules of the cont...

  20. Carbon-based catalysts:Opening new scenario to develop next-generation nano-engineered catalytic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudio Ampelli; Siglinda Perathoner; Gabriele Centi

    2014-01-01

    This essay analyses some of the recent development in nanocarbons (carbon materials having a defined and controlled nano-scale dimension and functional properties which strongly depend on their nano-scale features and architecture), with reference to their use as advanced catalytic materials. It is remarked how their features open new possibilities for catalysis and that they represent a new class of catalytic materials. Although carbon is used from long time in catalysis as support and electrocatalytic applications, nanocarbons offer unconventional ways for their utilization and to address some of the new challenges deriving from moving to a more sustainable future. This essay comments how nanocarbons are a key element to develop next-generation catalytic materials, but remarking that this goal requires overcoming some of the actual limits in current research. Some aspects are discussed to give a glimpse on new directions and needs for R&D to progress in this direction.

  1. Informal Cross-Border Trade Sarawak (Malaysia)-Kalimantan (Indonesia): A Catalyst for Border Community’s Development

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Hair Awang; Junaenah Sulehan; Noor Rahamah Abu Bakar; Mohd Yusof Abdullah; Ong Puay Liu

    2013-01-01

    Cross-border entrepreneurship activity plays an important role in the community economic development programs. The emergence of business groups and trade activities will generate employment, create wealth, contribute to tax revenue and stimulate the construction of infrastructures such as transportation. Indirectly, this will improve the standard of living in the border communities. The cross-border trade activities between Sarawak (Malaysia)-Kalimantan (Indonesia) continued to grow significa...

  2. FF-46加氢裂化预处理催化剂的开发与应用%DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF FF-46 CATALYST FOR HYDROCRACKING FEEDSTOCKS PRETREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨占林; 彭绍忠; 姜虹; 周礼俊

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet the requirement of processing high nitrogen and sulfur feedstocks, a new generation of hydrocracking pretreatment catalyst,FF-46,was developed by Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals. FF-46 catalyst having Mo-Ni active metal components was prepared by complexation technology and the acidity of its support was well adjusted. Lab evaluation results showed that the catalytic activity of FF-46 catalyst was significantly better than those of other catalysts including an industrial reference catalyst. FF-46 catalyst was applied in several hydrocracking units successfully. The industrial application results showed that FF-46 catalyst exhibited high HDN and HDS activities, it can meet the requirement of long-term operation.%为了满足加氢裂化装置加工硫、氮等杂质含量高的原料的需要,中国石化抚顺石油化工研究院采用Mo、Ni为活性金属组分,通过合适的助剂降低载体表面的强酸量,使用络合技术负载活性金属,研制出新一代具有高加氢脱氮活性的加氢裂化预处理催化剂FF-46,并在中国石化镇海炼化分公司等单位的加氢裂化装置上实现工业应用.实验室小型装置评价结果表明,FF-46催化剂的活性明显优于其它技术制备的催化剂,同时也优于工业参比剂;工业应用结果表明,FF-46催化剂的脱硫、脱氮活性高,能够满足装置长周期运转的要求.

  3. Catalyst for Ammonia Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation, a method for producing a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation and a method for tuning the catalytic activity of a transition metal. By depositing an overlayer of less catalytic active metal onto a more catalytic...

  4. Alloy catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...

  5. Hydroliquefaction of coal with supported catalysts: 1980 status review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polinski, Leon M.; Stiegel, Gary J.; Tischer, Richard E.

    1981-06-01

    The objectives of the program have been to determine catalyst deactivation kinetic models and catalyst deactivation modes for supported Co-Mo and Ni-Mo catalysts used primarily in coal liquefaction via the H-COAL process. Emphasis has been on developing methods to increase catalyst usage by determining how to decrease catalyst replacement rates in the process and how to decrease catalyst poisoning. An important conclusion reached via model analysis and verified by experiment is that larger diameter (1/16 in.) catalysts resist poisoning deactivation much more than smaller (1/32 in.) catalysts over extended periods (60 to 110 hours) of time. If this trend can be verified, it gives a powerful tool for reducing catalyst replacement rate in the H-COAL ebullated bed system by factors of 2 or more. A second conclusion is that poisoning of catalysts occurs by several possible mechanisms or modes. Indirect or direct evidence of all these modes can be presented, though the relative importance of each mechanism has not been established. The modes include (a) poisoning by coking - with gradual increase in C/H ratio (more refractory coke) with time, (b) poisoning by metallization (selective/non-selective adsorption of inorganics such as Ti and Fe on the catalyst), (c) sintering - increase in larger pores/decrease in surface area, and (d) parallel poisoning by irreversible nitrogen compound adsorption.

  6. Catalyst Deactivation: Control Relevance of Model Assumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Bernt Lie; David M. Himmelblau

    2000-01-01

    Two principles for describing catalyst deactivation are discussed, one based on the deactivation mechanism, the other based on the activity and catalyst age distribution. When the model is based upon activity decay, it is common to use a mean activity developed from the steady-state residence time distribution. We compare control-relevant properties of such an approach with those of a model based upon the deactivation mechanism. Using a continuous stirred tank reactor as an example, we show t...

  7. Mechanistic studies aimed at the development of single site metal alkoxide catalysts for the production of polyoxygenates from renewable resources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Malcolm H.

    2015-12-15

    The work proposed herein follows on directly from the existing 3 year grant and the request for funding is for 12 months to allow completion of this work and graduation of current students supported by DOE. The three primary projects are as follows. 1.) A comparative study of the reactivity of LMg(OR) (solvent), where L= a β-diiminate or pyrromethene ligand, in the ring-opening of cyclic esters. 2.) The homopolymerization of expoxides, particularly propylene oxide and styrene oxide, and their copolymerizations with carbon dioxide or organic anhydrides to yield polycarbonates or polyesters, respectively. 3.) The development of well-defined bismuth (III) complexes for ring-opening polymerizations that are tolerant of both air and water. In each of these topics special emphasis is placed on developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of the ring-opening event and how this is modified by the employment of specific metal and ligand combinations. This document also provides a report on findings of the past grant period that are not yet in the public domain/published and shows how the proposed work will bring the original project to conclusion.

  8. Lunabotics Mining Competition: Inspiration Through Accomplishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Lunabotics Mining Competition is designed to promote the development of interest in space activities and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields. The competition uses excavation, a necessary first step towards extracting resources from the regolith and building bases on the moon. The unique physical properties of lunar regolith and the reduced 1/6th gravity, vacuum environment make excavation a difficult technical challenge. Advances in lunar regolith mining have the potential to significantly contribute to our nation's space vision and NASA space exploration operations. The competition is conducted annually by NASA at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. The teams that can use telerobotic or autonomous operation to excavate a lunar regolith geotechnical simulant, herein after referred to as Black Point-1 (or BP-1) and score the most points (calculated as an average of two separate 10-minute timed competition attempts) will eam points towards the Joe Kosmo Award for Excellence and the scores will reflect ranking in the on-site mining category of the competition. The minimum excavation requirement is 10.0 kg during each competition attempt and the robotic excavator, referred to as the "Lunabot", must meet all specifications. This paper will review the achievements of the Lunabotics Mining Competition in 2010 and 2011, and present the new rules for 2012. By providing a framework for robotic design and fabrication, which culminates in a live competition event, university students have been able to produce sophisticated lunabots which are tele-operated. Multi-disciplinary teams are encouraged and the extreme sense of accomplishment provides a unique source of inspiration to the participating students, which has been shown to translate into increased interest in STEM careers. Our industrial sponsors (Caterpillar, Newmont Mining, Harris, Honeybee Robotics) have all stated that there is a strong need for skills in the workforce related

  9. A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Mukul

    2013-01-01

    Biological systems are a source of inspiration in the development of small autonomous sensor nodes. The two major types of optical vision systems found in nature are the single aperture human eye and the compound eye of insects. The latter are among the most compact and smallest vision sensors. The eye is a compound of individual lenses with their own photoreceptor arrays.  The visual system of insects allows them to fly with a limited intelligence and brain processing power. A CMOS image sensor replicating the perception of vision in insects is discussed and designed in this book for industrial (machine vision) and medical applications. The CMOS metal layer is used to create an embedded micro-polarizer able to sense polarization information. This polarization information is shown to be useful in applications like real time material classification and autonomous agent navigation. Further the sensor is equipped with in pixel analog and digital memories which allow variation of the dynamic range and in-pixel b...

  10. Development of Al2O3 carrier-Ru composite catalyst for hydrogen generation from alkaline NaBH4 hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recyclable and reusable Ru/Al2O3 catalyst is prepared for hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis process of alkaline sodium borohydride (NaBH4) solution. The hydrogen generation rate by the hydrolysis and methanolysis of alkaline NaBH4 was explored as a function of NaOH concentration. Meantime, the byproducts derived from the spent alkaline NaBH4 solution were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electro microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS) and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). The effect of NaOH concentration on the hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of NaBH4 significantly depends on the type of catalysts. With increasing NaOH concentration, the hydrogen generation rates decrease when using ruthenium (Ru) composite as a catalyst. The hydrogen generation rate of the methanolysis of NaBH4 is significantly inhibited in the presence of NaOH as compared with the hydrolysis of NaBH4. The durability test of the Ru/Al2O3 catalyst shows that the hydrogen generation rate decreases with recycling and reuse. The XRD and NMR analysis results show that the borate hydrate (NaBO2 H2O) was derived from the hydrolysis of 20 wt% and 30 wt% NaBH4. -- Highlights: ► A recyclable Ru/Al2O3 catalyst was synthesized for hydrogen generation. ► Ru/Al2O3 significantly promotes the hydrogen generation rate from alkaline NaBH4 solution. ► The prepared Ru/Al2O3 catalyst can easily collect from the spent alkaline NaBH4 solution.

  11. Catalysts, methods of making catalysts, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Renard, Laetitia

    2014-03-06

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for catalysts, methods of making catalysts, methods of using catalysts, and the like. In an embodiment, the method of making the catalysts can be performed in a single step with a metal nanoparticle precursor and a metal oxide precursor, where a separate stabilizing agent is not needed.

  12. Bio-inspired nanomaterials and their applications as antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Sachin Zinjarde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the interdisciplinary field of nanotechnology has expanded extensively. A variety of nanoparticles (NPs have been used for a number of specialized applications. In this era facing a major problem of microorganisms developing antibiotic resistance, NPs are a lucrative option. Most physical and chemical processes of NP synthesis are associated with drawbacks and bio-inspired NPs have now become popular. This review summarizes the recent developments on the biosynthesis, characterization, and applications of NPs with particular reference to their use as antimicrobial agents. Reviewed here is the synthesis of gold and silver NPs (AgNPs by a variety of biological forms and biomolecules as well as their effectiveness toward different fungal and bacterial pathogens. The use of gold NPs (bio-inspired by plants, fungi, and bacteria and AgNPs, synthesized by carbohydrates (of plant, animal, and microbial origin, plant parts (bark, callus, leaves, peels, and tubers, fungi, and bacteria have been highlighted. In addition, the use of zinc oxide NPs (although not bio-inspired as novel antimicrobial agents have also been discussed.

  13. Bio-inspired cofacial Fe porphyrin dimers for efficient electrocatalytic CO2 to CO conversion: Overpotential tuning by substituents at the porphyrin rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Zaki N.; Mohamed, Eman A.; Naruta, Yoshinori

    2016-04-01

    Efficient reduction of CO2 into useful carbon resources particularly CO is an essential reaction for developing alternate sources of fuels and for reducing the greenhouse effect of CO2. The binuclear Ni, Fe‑containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODHs) efficiently catalyzes the reduction of CO2 to CO. The location of Ni and Fe at proper positions allows their cooperation for CO2 to CO conversion through a push‑pull mechanism. Bio‑inspired from CODHs, we used several cofacial porphyrin dimers with different substituents as suitable ligands for holding two Fe ions with suitable Fe‑Fe separation distance to efficiently and selectively promote CO2 to CO conversion with high turnover frequencies, TOFs. The substituents on the porphyrin rings greatly affect the catalysis process. By introducing electron-withdrawing/-donating groups, e.g. electron-withdrawing perfluorophenyl, at all meso positions of the porphyrin rings, the catalysis overpotential, η was minimized by ≈0.3 V compared to that obtained by introducing electron-donating mesityl groups. The Fe porphyrin dimers among reported catalysts are the most efficient ones for CO2 to CO conversion. Control experiments indicate that the high performance of the current CO2 to CO conversion catalysts is due to the presence of binuclear Fe centers at suitable Fe‑Fe separation distance.

  14. Bio-inspired cofacial Fe porphyrin dimers for efficient electrocatalytic CO2 to CO conversion: Overpotential tuning by substituents at the porphyrin rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Zaki N; Mohamed, Eman A; Naruta, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Efficient reduction of CO2 into useful carbon resources particularly CO is an essential reaction for developing alternate sources of fuels and for reducing the greenhouse effect of CO2. The binuclear Ni, Fe-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODHs) efficiently catalyzes the reduction of CO2 to CO. The location of Ni and Fe at proper positions allows their cooperation for CO2 to CO conversion through a push-pull mechanism. Bio-inspired from CODHs, we used several cofacial porphyrin dimers with different substituents as suitable ligands for holding two Fe ions with suitable Fe-Fe separation distance to efficiently and selectively promote CO2 to CO conversion with high turnover frequencies, TOFs. The substituents on the porphyrin rings greatly affect the catalysis process. By introducing electron-withdrawing/-donating groups, e.g. electron-withdrawing perfluorophenyl, at all meso positions of the porphyrin rings, the catalysis overpotential, η was minimized by ≈0.3 V compared to that obtained by introducing electron-donating mesityl groups. The Fe porphyrin dimers among reported catalysts are the most efficient ones for CO2 to CO conversion. Control experiments indicate that the high performance of the current CO2 to CO conversion catalysts is due to the presence of binuclear Fe centers at suitable Fe-Fe separation distance. PMID:27087483

  15. Highly efficient bioinspired molecular Ru water oxidation catalysts with negatively charged backbone ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lele; Wang, Lei; Li, Fusheng; Li, Fei; Sun, Licheng

    2015-07-21

    The oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of the natural photosynthesis system II (PSII) oxidizes water to produce oxygen and reducing equivalents (protons and electrons). The oxygen released from PSII provides the oxygen source of our atmosphere; the reducing equivalents are used to reduce carbon dioxide to organic products, which support almost all organisms on the Earth planet. The first photosynthetic organisms able to split water were proposed to be cyanobacteria-like ones appearing ca. 2.5 billion years ago. Since then, nature has chosen a sustainable way by using solar energy to develop itself. Inspired by nature, human beings started to mimic the functions of the natural photosynthesis system and proposed the concept of artificial photosynthesis (AP) with the view to creating energy-sustainable societies and reducing the impact on the Earth environments. Water oxidation is a highly energy demanding reaction and essential to produce reducing equivalents for fuel production, and thereby effective water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) are required to catalyze water oxidation and reduce the energy loss. X-ray crystallographic studies on PSII have revealed that the OEC consists of a Mn4CaO5 cluster surrounded by oxygen rich ligands, such as oxyl, oxo, and carboxylate ligands. These negatively charged, oxygen rich ligands strongly stabilize the high valent states of the Mn cluster and play vital roles in effective water oxidation catalysis with low overpotential. This Account describes our endeavors to design effective Ru WOCs with low overpotential, large turnover number, and high turnover frequency by introducing negatively charged ligands, such as carboxylate. Negatively charged ligands stabilized the high valent states of Ru catalysts, as evidenced by the low oxidation potentials. Meanwhile, the oxygen production rates of our Ru catalysts were improved dramatically as well. Thanks to the strong electron donation ability of carboxylate containing ligands, a seven

  16. Development of new heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition of methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide applying high throughput methods; Entwicklung neuer heterogener Katalysatoren zur Spaltung von Methanol in Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid mittels Hochdurchsatz-Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Torsten

    2008-07-11

    The topic of this thesis has been the development of new heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition of methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. As an important constraint here, the content of noble metals of the catalysts should be as low as possible. High-throughput-methods were applied in some of the syntheses and experiments to accelerate the development, as, for example, the use of liquid based sol-gel syntheses and the examination of catalyst libraries by spatial resolution gas chromatography. This screening technique allowed to test up to 207 different substances during one single experiment. Then, different combinatorial strategies were applied. First, these methods led to a highly active and stable catalyst in the ternary system of Cu-Ni-Zn, which showed high conversion and selectivity comparable to an industrial reference catalyst. Its activity during an 18 hour long term run was constant in contrast to the reference. Second, an additional approach starting from a broader variety of elements led to a Ce- Ru- and to a Cr-Ru-catalyst. Both of them were highly active in short term experiments, but lost their outstanding performances during long term runs. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit befasste sich mit der Entwicklung neuer heterogener Katalysatoren fuer die Spaltung von Methanol zu Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid, die einen moeglichst geringen Gehalt an Edelmetallen aufweisen sollten. Um diesen Prozess zu beschleunigen, wurden in einem Teil der Synthesen und Experimente Hochdurchsatzmethoden verwendet. Neben der Roboter gestuetzten Sol-Gel-Synthese umfasste dies die Untersuchung von Katalysatorbibliotheken mittels ortsaufgeloester Gaschromatographie, die es ermoeglichte, in einem Experiment bis zu 207 verschiedene Substanzen auf ihre katalytische Aktivitaet zu testen. Unter Anwendung verschiedener kombinatorischer Strategien wurde zunaechst ein sehr aktiver und stabiler Katalysator im ternaeren Cu-Ni-Zn-System entdeckt. Neben Umsaetzen und

  17. Combinatorial synthesis and screening of fuel cell catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Shrisudersan

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are compact power sources that can operate with high efficiencies and low emission of environmentally harmful gases. One of the major barriers impeding the development of PEMFCs as a competitive energy source is the inability of existing anode catalysts to oxidize fuels other than hydrogen at sufficient levels due to catalyst deactivation by carbon monoxide (CO) and other partial oxidation products. The focus of this research is the development and application of combinatorial strategies to construct and interrogate electrooxidation (anode) catalysts pertaining to PEMFCs to discover catalysts with enhanced performance in catalyst deactivating environments. A novel method (known as the "gel-transfer" method) for synthesizing catalyst composition gradient libraries for combinatorial catalyst discovery was developed. This method involved transferring a spatial concentration gradient of precursor metal salts created within a polymer gel on to a solid conducting substrate by electrochemical reduction. Chemically sensitive surface-imaging techniques, namely, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and optical screening with a pH-dependent fluorescence probe were used to characterize the combinatorial catalyst samples. The utility of SECM as a screening tool to measure the activity of multicomponent catalyst libraries towards fuel cell electrooxidation reactions was established with simple catalyst libraries including a platinum coverage gradient and platinum-ruthenium and platinum-ruthenium-molybdenum arrays. A platinum-ruthenium surface composition gradient was constructed through the gel-transfer method and its reactivity towards hydrogen oxidation in the presence of a catalyst poison (CO) was mapped using the SECM. Ruthenium composition between 20 and 30% exhibited superior performance than the rest of the binary. The gel-transfer method was extended to construct a ternary platinum-ruthenium-rhodium catalyst library

  18. Synthesis and Understanding of Novel Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stair, Peter C. [Northwestern University

    2013-07-09

    The research took advantage of our capabilities to perform in-situ and operando Raman spectroscopy on complex systems along with our developing expertise in the synthesis of uniform, supported metal oxide materials to investigate relationships between the catalytically active oxide composition, atomic structure, and support and the corresponding chemical and catalytic properties. The project was organized into two efforts: 1) Synthesis of novel catalyst materials by atomic layer deposition (ALD). 2) Spectroscopic and chemical investigations of coke formation and catalyst deactivation. ALD synthesis was combined with conventional physical characterization, Raman spectroscopy, and probe molecule chemisorption to study the effect of supported metal oxide composition and atomic structure on acid-base and catalytic properties. Operando Raman spectroscopy studies of olefin polymerization leading to coke formation and catalyst deactivation clarified the mechanism of coke formation by acid catalysts.

  19. Bio-Inspired Computer Vision: Towards a Synergistic Approach of Artificial and Biological Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Medathati, N. V. Kartheek; Neumann, Heiko; Masson, Guillaume,; Kornprobst, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    International audience Studies in biological vision have always been a great source of inspiration for design of computer vision algorithms. In the past, several successful methods were designed with varying degrees of correspondence with biological vision studies, ranging from purely functional inspiration to methods that utilise models that were primarily developed for explaining biological observations. Even though it seems well recognised that computational models of biological vision ...

  20. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  1. eDNA: A Bio-Inspired Reconfigurable Hardware Cell Architecture Supporting Self-organisation and Self-healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Michael Reibel; Madsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of a biological inspired reconfigurable hardware cell architecture which supports self-organisation and self-healing. Two fundamental processes in biology, namely fertilization-to-birth and cell self-healing have inspired the development of this cell architecture. ...

  2. Multiphase catalysts for selective reduction of NOx with hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the existing proposed solutions to reduce emission of NOx there is a promising alternative, the so-called (HC-SCR) selective catalytic reduction of NOx using hydrocarbons as reductant. This thesis is part of a worldwide effort devoted to gain knowledge on the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with hydrocarbons with the final goal to contribute to the development of suitable catalysts for the above mentioned process. Chapter 2 describes the details of the experimental set-up and of the analytical methods employed. Among the catalyst for HC-SCR, Co-based catalyst are known to be active and selective, thus, a study on a series of Co-based catalysts, supported on zeolites, was undertaken and the results are presented in Chapter 3. Correlation between catalytic characteristics and kinetic results are employed to understand the working catalyst and this is used as a basis for catalyst optimization. With the intention to prepare a multi-functional catalyst that will preserve the desired characteristics of the individual components, minimizing their negative aspects, catalysts based on Co-Pt, supported on ZSM-5, were investigated. In Chapter 4 the results of this study are discussed. A bimetallic Co-Pt/ZSM-5 catalysts with low Pt contents (0.1 wt %) showed a synergistic effect by combining high stability and activity of Pt catalysts with the high N2 selectivity of Co catalysts. Furthermore, it was found to be sulfur- and water-tolerant. Its positive qualities brought us to study the mechanism that takes place over this catalyst during HC-SCR. The results of an in-situ i.r mechanistic study over this catalyst is reported in Chapter 5. From the results presented in Chapter 5 a mechanism operating over the Co-Pt/ZSM-5 catalyst is proposed. The modification of Co catalyst with Pt improved the catalysts. However, further improvement was found to be hindered by high selectivity to N2O. Since Rh catalysts are generally less selective to N2O, the modification of Co

  3. Study of spent hydrorefining catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminonickelmolybdenum catalysts for diesel fuel hydrorefining have been studied by DTA, XSPS, and diffuse reflection spectroscopy. Chemical and phase states of molybdenum compounds in samples of fresh catalyst, regenerated one after one year operation, and clogged with coke catalyst after five year operation, are determined. Chemical reactions and crystal-phase transformations of the molybdenum compounds during catalyst deactivation and regeneration are discussed

  4. Development and commercial demonstration of FC-50 hydrocracking catalyst for middle distillates%FC-50中油型加氢裂化催化剂的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓艳; 樊宏飞

    2012-01-01

    为满足市场对清洁燃料油及化工原料需求量不断增长的要求,中国石油化工股份有限公司抚顺石油化工研究院以无定型硅铝为主载体,改性Y型分子筛为主要酸性组分,W-Ni为活性组分,采用浸渍法制备了FC-50中油型加氢裂化催化剂,属多产中间馏分油兼产高质量重石脑油和尾油的催化剂.在试验装置上对该剂与国内同类先进催化剂进行了对比评价,并进行了工业放大.结果表明,FC-50催化剂具有较高的中间馏分油选择性、反应活性以及良好的稳定性,产品质量优良.以伊朗VGO-1为原料,使用FC-50催化剂,在反应温度380℃、空速1.5h-1条件下,单程转化率为65.8%,中间馏分油选择性79.90%.在相同条件下,FC-50与FC-26催化剂相比,反应温度低3℃,中油选择性比FC-26催化剂高近2%.结果表明,FC-50催化剂的反应性能完全达到了实验室定型催化剂的水平.%To meet the increasing market demand for clean fuel and feedstock for chemical production, FRIPP has developed FC-50 hydrocracking catalysts for high middle distillates, which were prepared by impregnation and by using amorphous silica-alumina as the main carrier, a modified Y zeolite as the main acidic components, and W-Ni as hydrogenation component. The comparison evaluation test with a same type domestic advanced catalyst was carried out and commercial scale-up was performed. The evaluation results indicated that the FC-50 catalyst had a higher middle distillate selectivity, good reaction activity, good stability and excellent product quality. When VGO-1 from Iranian crude was used as the feed and FC-50 catalyst as the reaction catalyst, the single-pass conversion was 65. 8% and middle distillate selectivity was 79.90% at operating conditions of 380 ℃ reaction temperature and 1.5 h-1 space velocity. Under the same conditions, as compared with the FC-26 catalyst, the reaction temperature of FC-50 catalyst was 3 ℃ lower and

  5. Biologically Inspired Micro-Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, David L.; Waszak, Martin R.

    2003-01-01

    Natural fliers demonstrate a diverse array of flight capabilities, many of which are poorly understood. NASA has established a research project to explore and exploit flight technologies inspired by biological systems. One part of this project focuses on dynamic modeling and control of micro aerial vehicles that incorporate flexible wing structures inspired by natural fliers such as insects, hummingbirds and bats. With a vast number of potential civil and military applications, micro aerial vehicles represent an emerging sector of the aerospace market. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts for biologically inspired micro aerial vehicles are being explored. Research activities focusing on a flexible fixed- wing micro aerial vehicle design and a flapping-based micro aerial vehicle concept are presented.

  6. INSPIRE: a new scientific information system for HEP

    CERN Multimedia

    Ivanov, R

    2009-01-01

    The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project – a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate present acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full-text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will ...

  7. 4th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krömer, Pavel; Snášel, Václav

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains accepted papers presented at IBICA2013, the 4th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications. The aim of IBICA 2013 was to provide a platform for world research leaders and practitioners, to discuss the full spectrum of current theoretical developments, emerging technologies, and innovative applications of Bio-inspired Computing. Bio-inspired Computing is currently one of the most exciting research areas, and it is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The main driving force of the conference is to further explore the intriguing potential of Bio-inspired Computing. IBICA 2013 was held in Ostrava, Czech Republic and hosted by the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava.

  8. Holarchical Systems and Emotional Holons : Biologically-Inspired System Designs for Control of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Pisanich, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The BEES (Bio-inspired Engineering for Exploration Systems) for Mars project at NASA Ames Research Center has the goal of developing bio-inspired flight control strategies to enable aerial explorers for Mars scientific investigations. This paper presents a summary of our ongoing research into biologically inspired system designs for control of unmanned autonomous aerial vehicle communities for Mars exploration. First, we present cooperative design considerations for robotic explorers based on the holarchical nature of biological systems and communities. Second, an outline of an architecture for cognitive decision making and control of individual robotic explorers is presented, modeled after the emotional nervous system of cognitive biological systems. Keywords: Holarchy, Biologically Inspired, Emotional UAV Flight Control

  9. Superior Exploration-Exploitation Balance with Quantum-Inspired Hadamard Walks

    CERN Document Server

    Koppaka, Sisir

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the analogies employed in the development of quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithms by proposing quantum-inspired Hadamard walks, called QHW. A novel quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm, called HQEA, for solving combinatorial optimization problems, is also proposed. The novelty of HQEA lies in it's incorporation of QHW Remote Search and QHW Local Search - the quantum equivalents of classical mutation and local search, that this paper defines. The intuitive reasoning behind this approach, and the exploration-exploitation balance thus occurring is explained. From the results of the experiments carried out on the 0,1-knapsack problem, HQEA performs significantly better than a conventional genetic algorithm, CGA, and two quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithms - QEA and NQEA, in terms of convergence speed and accuracy.

  10. Fifth International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Snášel, Václav

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains accepted papers presented at IBICA2014, the 5th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications. The aim of IBICA 2014 was to provide a platform for world research leaders and practitioners, to discuss the full spectrum of current theoretical developments, emerging technologies, and innovative applications of Bio-inspired Computing. Bio-inspired Computing remains to be one of the most exciting research areas, and it is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The main driving force of the conference was to further explore the intriguing potential of Bio-inspired Computing. IBICA 2014 was held in Ostrava, Czech Republic and hosted by the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava.

  11. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Sopchak, David A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Satcher, Joseph H. (Patterson, CA); Gash, Alex E. (Brentwood, CA)

    2011-11-15

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  12. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Sopchak, David A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Reynolds, John G.; Satcher, Joseph H.; Gash, Alex E.

    2010-06-29

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  13. Design and Synthesis of Ruthenium based Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Singstad, Åsmund

    2010-01-01

    The present Master thesis seeks to develop new unsymmetrical ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts and therein a better understanding of olefin metathesis catalysis with unsymmetrical active complexes. Such catalysts have a potential for chemoselectivity and in best case, stereoselectivity. Two different classes of catalysts, coordinated by a hemilabile amine ligand and by a novel N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand respectively, have been investigated. Two new amine-based olefin metath...

  14. Phosphine-Based Z‑Selective Ruthenium Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Wietse; Koudriavtsev, Vitali; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Törnroos, Karl Wilhelm; Jensen, Vidar Remi

    2016-01-01

    Whereas a number of highly Z-selective ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands have been reported in recent years, Zselectivity has so far been difficult to achieve for phosphinebased catalysts. Guided by predictive density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have developed phosphine-based ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts giving 70−95% of the Zisomer product in homocoupling of terminal alkenes such as allylbenzene, 1...

  15. Solid Catalysts and theirs Application in Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ramli Mat; Rubyatul Adawiyah Samsudin; Mahadhir Mohamed; Anwar Johari

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of oil resources and increasing petroleum price has led to the search for alternative fuel from renewable resources such as biodiesel. Currently biodiesel is produced from vegetable oil using liquid catalysts. Replacement of liquid catalysts with solid catalysts would greatly solve the problems associated with expensive separation methods and corrosion problems, yielding to a cleaner product and greatly decreasing the cost of biodiesel production. In this paper, the development ...

  16. Methane dehydroaromatisation and methanol activation over zeolite catalysts: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    J.S.J. Hargreaves

    2016-01-01

    A brief overview of methane dehydroaromatisation over MoO3/H-ZSM-5 derived catalysts, the deposition of carbonaceous residues from methanol over H-mordenite and the role of binders in zeolite catalysed reactions is presented. The selective poisoning of methane cracking catalysts is proposed as a potential strategy for the development of methane dehydroaromatisation catalysts. In the case of methanol conversion over H-mordenite, evidence is presented for the formation of larger alkylated aroma...

  17. Nanoscale intimacy in bifunctional catalysts for selective conversion of hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Zecevic, Jovana; Vanbutsele, Gina; de Jong, Krijn P.; Martens, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to precisely control nanoscale features is increasingly exploited to develop and improve monofunctional catalysts1–4. Striking effects might also be expected in the case of bifunctional catalysts, which play an important role in hydrocracking of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon sources to provide high-quality diesel fuel5–7. Such bifunctional hydrocracking catalysts contain metal sites and acid sites, and for more than 50 years the so-called ‘intimacy criterion’8 has dictated the ...

  18. Quantum-inspired resonance for associative memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new kind of dynamics for simulations based upon quantum-classical hybrid is discussed. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen potentials. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such an optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired information processing. In this paper, the retrieval of stored items from an exponentially large unsorted database is performed by quantum-inspired resonance using polynomial resources due to quantum-like superposition effect.

  19. Biologically inspired self-organizing networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoki WAKAMIYA; Kenji LEIBNITZ; Masayuki MURATA

    2009-01-01

    Information networks are becoming more and more complex to accommodate a continuously increasing amount of traffic and networked devices, as well as having to cope with a growing diversity of operating environments and applications. Therefore, it is foreseeable that future information networks will frequently face unexpected problems, some of which could lead to the complete collapse of a network. To tackle this problem, recent attempts have been made to design novel network architectures which achieve a high level of scalability, adaptability, and robustness by taking inspiration from self-organizing biological systems. The objective of this paper is to discuss biologically inspired networking technologies.

  20. Mesoporous molecular sieve catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Karen Thrane

    the micropores. Furthermore, preliminary work was done using mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolites as support material for anchoring molecular CoMo6 species for the application as potential bi-functional catalyst in simultaneous hydrodesulfurisation (HDS) and hydrocracking. HDS activity tests revealed that the...... of different catalytic applications. Primarily the zeolites were modified regarding the porosity and the introduction of metals to the framework. The obtained materials were used as solid acid catalysts, as an inert matrix for stabilising metal nanoparticles and as an anchoring material for molecular...... only be used as solid acid catalysts but can also be used as a size-selective matrix. It was shown that it is possible to encapsulate 1-2 nm sized gold nanoparticles by silicalite-1 or ZSM-5 zeolite crystals thereby forming a sintering-stable and substrate size-selective oxidation catalyst. After...

  1. Epoxidation catalyst and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip

    2010-10-26

    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  2. Heterogeneous chromium catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heterogeneous chromium catalyst system for the polymerisation of ethylene and/or alpha olefins prepared by the steps of: (a) providing a silica-containing support, (b) treating the silica-containing support with a chromium compound to form a chromium-based silica-containing support, (c) activating the chromium-based silica-containing support, (d) chemically reducing the activated chromium-based silica-containing support to produce a precursor catalyst, (e) r...

  3. Aftermarket catalyst durability evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruetsch, R.I.; Cheng, J.P.; Hellman, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    Suppliers have introduced replacement aftermarket catalytic converters which are characterized by design differences from the original equipment converters in the direction of lower costs. The objective of the work reported here was to test a group of nine aftermarket catalysts from three manufacturers for 25,000 miles. Mileage was accumulated on three routes in Maryland and West Virginia characterized by varying degrees of tire wear. All catalysts were dynamometer tested on the same vehicle at the same laboratory.

  4. Synchrotron radiation studies of supported metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic clusters supported on refractory oxides have been used extensively for several decades in the production of chemicals and petroleum derived transportation fuels. Catalysts containing more than one metal component are of particular interest since the addition of a second metal provides a method of controlling the selectivity of the catalyst. That is, the second metal can alter the rates of competing reactions in a complex reaction sequence and thus alter the final product distribution of the reaction. In this work the reactions of cyclohexane in hydrogen over silica supported ruthenium and osmium catalysts were studied. Bimetallic catalysts represent an important class of materials that are of interest both scientifically and technologically. Despite the importance and long-standing use of supported metal catalysts, detailed information on the structure of the metal clusters has been difficult to obtain. The development of x-ray absorption spectroscopy with the increasing availability of synchrotron radiation, however, has provided a powerful and versatile tool for studying the structure of these complex systems. Using the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) technique, it is possible to obtain information on the local atomic structure of supported monometallic catalytic metals and their interaction with the support. In the discussion that follows the authors will focus on results that have been obtained on the structure of supported bimetallic cluster catalysts

  5. 发达国家碳捕集、利用与封存技术及其启示%Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage Technology Development in Developed Countries and Inspirations to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲平; 彭斯震; 张九天; 贾莉

    2012-01-01

    碳捕集、利用与封存( CCUS)被认为是进行温室气体深度减排最重要的技术路径之一.文章总结了当前欧美等发达国家CCUS技术发展特点,包括加强国家层面技术政策的指导和宏观协调;加大政府投入以引导私有投资开展全流程CCUS项目示范:建立跨行业、跨领域的CCUS合作平台,加速技术成果的转化和知识、经验的共事;重视法律法规、管理制度和规范、技术标准、公众接受度等技术应用“软环境”的建设等.通过对比中国CCUS技术发展现状,指出我国存在的主要不足,并提出应加强国家层面的技术政策指导和宏观协调,推动建设行业间技术合作平台,适时启动全流程示范项目计划,重视技术应用软环境建设和加强国际台作等有针对性的政策建议.%Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technology has been expected to realize the near zero emission of fossil fuel use. The paper summarizes the characteristics of CCUS technology development in advanced developed countries, including strengthening overall coordination and policy guidance at national level, leveraging private finance on integrated large scale CCUS demonstration by investing government fund, establishing cross-sector platform, expediting technical cooperation and knowledge sharing, establishing soft environment of technological application on legal and regulatory framework, administrative structure, technical standards, etc.. The paper identifies the main shortcomings of CCUS in China and puts forward some suggestions; to develop national policy to guide and coordinate the development of CCUS technology; to promote inter-sector cooperation on CCUS technology R&D by establishing cross-sector cooperation platform; to develop full-chain large scale demonstration; to underscore the importance of research on non-technical issues and lastly to strengthen international technical cooperation and knowledge sharing.

  6. 乌巢型保护剂的研制及其在加氢裂化装置的应用%DEVELOPMENT OF NEST FORM GUARD CATALYST AND ITS APPLICATION IN HYDROCRACKING UNIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仲义; 彭冲; 姚光纯; 杨久平

    2015-01-01

    针对目前国内炼油企业所加工的原料日益劣质化、重质化的问题,开发了鸟巢型加氢系列保护剂,并成功应用于加氢裂化装置。应用结果表明,对加工杂质含量高的蜡油原料,鸟巢型保护剂具有容垢和拦截杂质能力强的特点,可以实现杂质在保护剂床层上的均匀沉积,达到延长运转周期的目的,可为国内其它同类装置平稳生产提供经验与参考依据。%A series of nest form hydrogenation guard catalysts were developed as the feedstocks be-come worse and heavier in refineries and successfully applied in a commercial hydrocracking unit. The results show that the guard catalysts are characterized by larger capacity for intercepting impurity and depositing scale. The impurities are deposited uniformly in the guard catalyst bed,resulting in extended cycle length.

  7. Optimization of fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies for transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon cathode catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna K. Dombrovskis; Cathrin Prestel; Anders E. C. Palmqvist

    2014-01-01

    Transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon (TM-OMC) materials were recently shown to be efficient polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts. The structure and properties of these catalysts are largely different from conventional catalyst materials, thus rendering membrane electrode assembly (MEA) preparation parameters developed for conventional catalysts not useful for applications of TM-OMC catalysts. This necessitates development of a methodology to incorporate...

  8. INSPIRE-HEP Ergys Dona Summer Student Report 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Dona, Ergys

    2015-01-01

    INSPIRE-HEP consists of millions of bibliographic records, while new records are continuously being submitted all the time. For indexing and organising reasons, it is very important that these records contain correct and accurate metadata. The maintenance of such a large number of records is error prone, time consuming and generally difficult if performed manually. This document describes the work carried out while developing parts of the Invenio-Checker module, a piece of software that tries to automate the tasks mentioned above, as well as the abilities obtained during the development.

  9. Optimization of fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies for transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon cathode catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna K. Dombrovskis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon (TM-OMC materials were recently shown to be efficient polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC catalysts. The structure and properties of these catalysts are largely different from conventional catalyst materials, thus rendering membrane electrode assembly (MEA preparation parameters developed for conventional catalysts not useful for applications of TM-OMC catalysts. This necessitates development of a methodology to incorporate TM-OMC catalysts in the MEA. Here, an efficient method for MEA preparation using TM-OMC catalyst materials for PEMFC is developed including effects of catalyst/ionomer loading and catalyst/ionomer-mixing and application procedures. An optimized protocol for MEA preparation using TM-OMC catalysts is described.

  10. Optimization of fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies for transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon cathode catalysts a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrovskis, Johanna K.; Prestel, Cathrin; Palmqvist, Anders E. C.

    2014-12-01

    Transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon (TM-OMC) materials were recently shown to be efficient polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts. The structure and properties of these catalysts are largely different from conventional catalyst materials, thus rendering membrane electrode assembly (MEA) preparation parameters developed for conventional catalysts not useful for applications of TM-OMC catalysts. This necessitates development of a methodology to incorporate TM-OMC catalysts in the MEA. Here, an efficient method for MEA preparation using TM-OMC catalyst materials for PEMFC is developed including effects of catalyst/ionomer loading and catalyst/ionomer-mixing and application procedures. An optimized protocol for MEA preparation using TM-OMC catalysts is described.

  11. Renewable Feedstocks: The Problem of Catalyst Deactivation and its Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Jean-Paul

    2015-11-01

    Much research has been carried out in the last decade to convert bio-based feedstock into fuels and chemicals. Most of the research focuses on developing active and selective catalysts, with much less attention devoted to their long-term stability. This Review considers the main challenges in long-term catalyst stability, discusses some fundamentals, and presents options for their mitigation. Three main challenges are discussed: catalyst fouling, catalyst poisoning, and catalyst destruction. Fouling is generally related to the deposition of insoluble components present in the feed or formed by degradation of the feed or intermediates. Poisoning is related to the deposition of electropositive contaminants (e.g. alkali and alkaline earth metals) on acid sites or of electronegative contaminants (e.g. N and S) at hydrogenation sites. Catalyst destruction results from the thermodynamic instability of most oxidic supports, solid acids/bases, and hydrogenation functions under hydrothermal conditions. PMID:26457585

  12. The innovation catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roger L

    2011-06-01

    A few years ago the software development company Intuit realized that it needed a new approach to galvanizing customers. The company's Net Promoter Score was faltering, and customer recommendations of new products were especially disappointing. Intuit decided to hold a two-day, off-site meeting for the company's top 300 managers with a focus on the role of design in innovation. One of the days was dedicated to a program called Design for Delight. The centerpiece of the day was a PowerPoint presentation by Intuit founder Scott Cook, who realized midway through that he was no Steve Jobs: The managers listened dutifully, but there was little energy in the room. By contrast, a subsequent exercise in which the participants worked through a design challenge by creating prototypes, getting feedback, iterating, and refining, had them mesmerized. The eventual result was the creation of a team of nine design-thinking coaches--"innovation catalysts"--from across Intuit who were made available to help any work group create prototypes, run experiments, and learn from customers. The process includes a "painstorm" (to determine the customer's greatest pain point), a "soljam" (to generate and then winnow possible solutions), and a "code-jam" (to write code "good enough" to take to customers within two weeks). Design for Delight has enabled employees throughout Intuit to move from satisfying customers to delighting them. PMID:21714388

  13. SUPPORTING SME'S THROUGH ISLAMIC FINANCE INSPIRED OPERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Bradut-Vasile BOLOS; Hesham MAGD

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to model a moudaraba inspired financing system for SME support, especially for start-ups, using public funding as high-risk investments instead of grants. The model obtained suggests such an approach may prove to be more efficient, but further research is required.

  14. Noncommutative geometry inspired dirty black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolini, Piero; Spallucci, Euro

    2009-01-01

    We provide a new exact solution of the Einstein equations which generalizes the noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild metric, we previously obtained. We consider here more general relations between the energy density and the radial pressure and find new a geometry describing a regular ``dirty black hole''. We discuss strong and weak energy condition violations and various aspects of the regular dirty black hole thermodynamics.

  15. Nature inspired algorithms and artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Valentina Onet; Ecaterina Vladu

    2008-01-01

    Artificial intelligence has been very muchinterested in studying the characteristics ofintelligent agent, mainly planning, learning,reasoning (making decisions) and perception.Biological processes and methods have beeninfluencing science from many decades. Naturalsystems have many properties that inspiredapplications - self-organisation, simplicity of basicelements, dynamics, flexibility. This paper is a surveyof nature inspired algorithms, like Particle SwarmOptimization (PSO), Ant Colony Op...

  16. Bio-Inspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Self-cleaning surfaces have drawn a lot of interest for both fundamental research and practical applications. This review focuses on the recent progress in mechanism, preparation, and application of self-cleaning surfaces. To date, self-cleaning has been demonstrated by the following four conceptual approaches: (a) TiO2-based superhydrophilic self-cleaning, (b) lotus effect self-cleaning (superhydrophobicity with a small sliding angle), (c) gecko setae-inspired self-cleaning, and (d) underwater organisms-inspired antifouling self-cleaning. Although a number of self-cleaning products have been commercialized, the remaining challenges and future outlook of self-cleaning surfaces are also briefly addressed. Through evolution, nature, which has long been a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers, has arrived at what is optimal. We hope this review will stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration among material science, chemistry, biology, physics, nanoscience, engineering, etc., which is essential for the rational design and reproducible construction of bio-inspired multifunctional self-cleaning surfaces in practical applications.

  17. Inspirational catalogue of Master Thesis proposals 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project. If you have an idea for a project which is...

  18. Water Treatment Technologies Inspire Healthy Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mike Johnson, a former technician at Johnson Space Center, drew on his expertise as a wastewater engineer to create a line of kombucha-based probiotic drinks. Unpeeled Inc., based in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, employs 12 people and has sold more than 6 million units of its NASA-inspired beverage.

  19. Inspired by Athletes, Myths, and Poets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Tales of love and hate, of athleticism, heroism, devotion to gods and goddesses that influenced myth and culture are a way of sharing ancient Greece's rich history. In this article, the author describes how her students created their own Greek-inspired clay vessels as artifacts of their study. (Contains 6 online resources.)

  20. Pop Art--Inspired Self-Portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Donna J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art lesson that was inspired by Andy Warhol's mass-produced portraits. Warhol began his career as a graphic artist and illustrator. His artwork was a response to the redundancy of the advertising images put in front of the American public. Celebrities and famous people in magazines and newspapers were seen…

  1. Shining X-rays on catalysts at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2009-01-01

    the total combustion of hydrocarbons demonstrate the importance of structural identification of catalysts in its working state and the measurement of the catalytic performance at the same time. Moreover, proper cell design is a key both here and in liquid phase reactions including preparation or high......Structure-performance relationships gained by studying catalysts at work are considered the key to further development of catalysts underlined here by a brief overview on our research in this area. The partial oxidation of methane to hydrogen and carbon monoxide over Pt- and Rh-based catalysts and...

  2. Application of Rare Earth Oxides in Diesel Exhaust Purification Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhaoliang; Yu Pengfei; Wang Shilong; Li Chunfeng; Dai Hua

    2004-01-01

    Diesel oxide catalysts and soot combustion catalysts were reported in this paper.The former was manufactured in mass last year, and enhanced performance is under development now.The later is screened out and further research is under way.The best soot combustion catalyst could ignite soot combustion even at 350 ℃, which is within the range of temperatures reached in diesel exhaust, and shows the catalytic combustion velocity nearly one time faster compared with non-catalytic combustion of soot, which is of benefit to rapid regeneration of diesel particulate filter, thus it might be an excellent practicable catalyst.

  3. Improving Stability of Gasoline by Using Ionic Liquid Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zhirong; Liu Daosheng; Liao Kejian; Jian Heng

    2003-01-01

    The composition, characteristics and preparation of ionic liquids are presented. The factors influencing the stability of gasoline and the significance of improving gasoline stability are discussed. A novel way to improve the stability of gasoline by using ionic liquid catalyst is developed. The contents of olefin, basic nitrogen and sulfur in gasoline are determined and the optimal experimental conditions for improving gasoline stability are established.The ionic liquid catalyst, which is environmentally friendly, can reduce the olefin content in gasoline, and such process is noted for mild reaction conditions, simple operation, short reaction time, easy recycling of the ionic liquid catalyst and ready separation of products and catalyst.

  4. Development of robust Co-based catalysts for the selective H{sub 2}-production by ethanol steam-reforming. The Fe-promoter effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Pena O' Shea, Victor A.; Nafria, Raquel; Ramirez de la Piscina, Pilar; Homs, Narcis [Departament de Quimica Inorganica, Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    The effect of iron promoter on cobalt-based catalysts, active in the ethanol steam-reforming, was studied. Fe{sub x}Co{sub 3-x}O{sub 4}(0{<=} x{<=}0.60) oxides prepared by co-precipitation and an Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} prepared by wetness impregnation are analysed. The activation process of the oxides under reaction conditions was studied by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD); the activation depended on the iron content of the oxides. The systems were characterized by means of temperature programmed reduction (TPR), XRD and tested in the ethanol steam-reforming reaction at 623-673 K. An optimal iron loading that gives rise to a high H{sub 2}selectivity and catalyst stability was determined. (author)

  5. Skin-inspired electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Chortos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic devices that mimic the properties of skin have potential important applications in advanced robotics, prosthetics, and health monitoring technologies. Methods for measuring tactile and temperature signals have progressed rapidly due to innovations in materials and processing methods. Imparting skin-like stretchability to electronic devices can be accomplished by patterning traditional electronic materials or developing new materials that are intrinsically stretchable. The incorporation of sensing methods with transistors facilitates large-area sensor arrays. While sensor arrays have surpassed the properties of human skin in terms of sensitivity, time response, and device density, many opportunities remain for future development.

  6. Coupling Noble Metals and Carbon Supports in the Development of Combustion Catalysts for the Abatement of BTX Compounds in Air Streams

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Morales-Torres; Francisco Carrasco-Marín; Agustín F. Pérez-Cadenas; Francisco José Maldonado-Hódar

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one of the most important techniques to remove these pollutants from the air stream, but it should be carried out at the lowest possible temperature, saving energy and avoiding the simultaneous formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Under these experimental conditions, the chemisorption of water generated from VOCs combustion may inhibit hydrophilic catalysts. Nowadays, a wide variety of carbon materials is available to be used in ...

  7. New catalysts for exhaust gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, M. [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Major challenge for future catalyst systems was to develop thermally more stable washcoats for close coupled operating conditions and for engines operating under high speed and load conditions. To design these future emission systems extensive research and development was undertaken to develop methods to disperse and stabilize the key catalytic materials for operation at much higher temperatures. Second priority was to design catalysts that are more effective under low temperature exhaust conditions and have improved oxygen storage properties in the washcoats. Incorporating new materials and modified preparation technology a new generation of metallic catalyst formulations emerged, those being trimetallic K6 (Pt:Pd:Rh and bimetallic K7) (Pd+Pd:Rh). The target was to combine the best property of Pt:Rh (good NO{sub x} reduction) with that of the good HC oxidation activity of Pd and to ensure that precious metal/support interactions were positively maintained. Both K6 and K7 concepts contain special catalyst structures with optimized washcoat performance which can be brick converter configuration. Improvement in light-off, thermal stability and transient performance with these new catalyst formulations have clearly been shown in both laboratory and vehicle testing. (author) (20 refs.)

  8. Development of SO3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production by IS process. Basic of SiC plate-type SO3 decomposer and catalyst test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermo-chemical Iodine-Sulfur (IS) process has a potential to produce large amount of hydrogen without carbon dioxide emission using thermal energy of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Sulfur-trioxide (SO3) decomposer is one of the key components of the IS process, in which SO3 gas is catalytically decomposed into oxygen (O2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) under high temperature condition up to 850degC using the sensible heat of helium gas. The decomposer is exposed to the severe corrosive condition, where SiC ceramics shows good corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult to manufacture large-size SiC ceramics structure required in the commercial plant. We have proposed a new concept of the decomposer, which featured a plate-type heat exchanger made of SiC ceramics. The concept ensures the scale-up by connecting the heat exchanger units in series. To examine the fabricability of the proposed concept, a mock-up model was test-fabricated. Through the test-fabrication, issues on the fabricability of large-sized heat-exchanger-type SO3 decomposer using SiC ceramics were clarified. Also, preliminary catalyst tests were carried out to clarify catalyst bed specification of the SO3 decomposer. This report describes the proposed structure, results of thermal-hydraulic and mechanical strength analysis, the mock-up model test-fabrication, and the catalyst tests. (author)

  9. Development of the catalyst and process for production of [alpha]-olefines and its industrialization. [alpha]-orefin seizo shokubai oyobi purosesu no kaihatsu to kogyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, T. (Idemitsu Petrochemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    Developmental process is introduced of the catalyst and process (Idemitu process) for production of [alpha]-olefines with a wide range of carbon-number distribution from ethylene. In search for catalysts that have high catalytic activity and bring high product-purity, it was found that a catalyst system of ZnCl4-ethylaluminum sesqui-chloride-triethylaluminum, to which organic ligands were added, could clear the goal. In construction of the process, in order to prevent purity-down due to the insertion reaction in post-treatment processes (reaction-depressurizing-deactivation) and to prevent deposition of fibrous polyethylene that causes blockade in valves and pumps, the following conditions were imposed that the time spent for depressurizing to deactivation could be shortened and the whole process should be kept over the depositing temperature of polyethylene. Further, in order to reduce chlorine compounds to be formed in deactivation, aqueous ammonia was chosen for deactivation, resulting in suppressing the chlorine content in products below 1 ppm. Now, the process is running at a production amount of 50,000 t/yr without any trouble. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Using the INSPIRAL program to search for gravitational waves from low-mass binary inspiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The INSPIRAL program is the LIGO Scientific Collaboration's computational engine for the search for gravitational waves from binary neutron stars and sub-solar mass black holes. We describe how this program, which makes use of the FINDCHIRP algorithm, is integrated into a sophisticated data analysis pipeline that was used in the search for low-mass binary inspirals in data taken during the second LIGO science run

  11. Engineering and enterprise inspiring innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ailin

    2016-01-01

    This book presents contributions from researchers, practitioners and professional institutions that published papers in the Proceedings of the Educating Enterprising Engineers and Scientists conference, held in London, UK on 17th June 2015. The topics considered range from educating engineers to giving a business edge and embedding entrepreneurship to achieve integrated education and curriculum innovation.   Making an important contribution to the development and delivery of engineering education now and further into the future, this collection of papers shares knowledge and good practice in key ways to educate enterprising engineers and scientists looking to address complex global issues such as health & well-being, water, energy and food. Seeking ways to redefine and embrace sustainable development, this work puts forward the case for innovative science and engineering education to meet the demand for talent and leadership.

  12. Accessing meteorological data in INSPIRE

    OpenAIRE

    Nachappa, Thimmiah Gudiyangada

    2009-01-01

    In the information age, information is of vital importance to the economic and social development of a country. Meteorological data, is multidimensional, continually evolving, highly spatial and highly temporal in nature. It is of great importance to a wide range of stakeholders including national agencies, private weather services, defense, transportation, aviation, national infrastructures, financial institutions and the general public. Members of the WMO (World Meteorologica...

  13. FC-40高中油型加氢裂化催化剂的研制及工业应用%Development and Commercial Application of FC-40 Hydrocracking Catalyst With High Middle Distillates Selectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓萍; 杜艳泽; 金晓东

    2013-01-01

      To meet the increasing demand of middle distillates in domestic market, FRIPP has developed a new generation of FC-40 hydrocracking catalyst with high middle distillates selectivity. In FC-40 catalyst, HSSY zeolite modified through composite technology is used as the main cracking component, nanometer amorphous silica-alumina is applied as the auxiliary cracking component, W and Ni are adopted as the hydrogenation active component, and the optimizing manufacturing method is used to realize the matching of cracking active site and hydrogenation active site, all of which has improved the catalytic performances, such as reaction activity, selectivity and quality of products etc. The evaluation test results show that the catalyst FC-40 has higher reaction activity and middle distillates selectivity compared with the reference catalyst, as well as good temperature sensitivity and wide feedstock adaptability. FC-40 catalyst was successfully commercialized in 1.2 Mt/a hydrocracking unit of H refinery in 2008.%  应对国内市场对清洁中间馏分油需求的不断增长,FRIPP 开发了新一代多产优质中间馏分油的FC-40高中油型加氢裂化催化剂。该催化剂采用复合技术改性的HSSY分子筛作为催化剂的主要裂解组分,纳米级无定形硅铝为辅助裂化组分,金属W-Ni组合为加氢活性组分,通过制备方法上的优化,使得酸性裂化组分与金属加氢组分能很好的匹配,提高了催化剂的活性、中油选择性和产品质量。工艺研究结果表明,FC-40加氢裂化催化剂的活性和中间馏分油选择性均优于同类参比催化剂,同时具有很好的温度敏感性和原料油适应性。2008年,FC-40催化剂在H炼厂120万t/a加氢裂化装置上进行了成功的工业应用,取得了良好的应用效果。

  14. Catalyst component interactions in nickel/alumina catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiš Erne E.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of nickel loading (5; 10; 20 wt% Ni, temperature of heat treatment (400; 700; 1100°C and way of catalyst preparation on the catalyst component interactions (CCI in the impregnated, mechanical powder mixed and co-precipitated catalyst was investigated. For sample characterization, low temperature nitrogen adsorption (LTNA and X-ray diffraction (XRD were applied. Significant differences were revealed, concerning CCI in dependence of nickel loading, temperature of heat treatment and way of catalyst preparation. The obtained results show that the support metal oxide interactions (SMI in impregnated and co-precipitated catalysts are more intensive than in the mechanical powder mixed catalyst. The degree and intensity of CCI is expressed by the ratio of real and theoretical surface area of the catalyst. This ratio can be used for a quantitative estimation of CCI and it is generally applicable to all types of heterogeneous catalysts.

  15. Deactivation-resistant catalyst for selective catalyst reduction of NOx

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Anker Degn; Castellino, Francesco; Rams, Per Donskov; Pedersen, Jannik Blaabjerg; Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NOx in alkali metal containing flue gas using ammonia as reductant, the catalyst comprising a surface with catalytically active sites, wherein the surface is at least partly coated with a coating comprising at least one metal oxide. In another aspect the present invention relates to the use of said catalyst and to a method of producing said catalyst. In addition, the present invention relates to a method of treat...

  16. Supported organoiridium catalysts for alkane dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R. Thomas; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Li, Hongbo

    2013-09-03

    Solid supported organoiridium catalysts, a process for preparing such solid supported organoiridium catalysts, and the use of such solid supported organoiridium catalysts in dehydrogenation reactions of alkanes is provided. The catalysts can be easily recovered and recycled.

  17. Supported organometallic catalysts for hydrogenation and Olefin Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Tobin J.; Ahn, Hongsang

    2001-01-01

    Novel heterogeneous catalysts for the which hydrogenation of olefins and arenes with high conversion rates under ambient conditions and the polymerization of olefins have been developed. The catalysts are synthesized from Ziegler-type precatalysts by supporting them on sulfate-modified zirconia.

  18. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O' Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  19. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-08-01

    In an effort to develop new disposable catalysts for direct coal liquefaction, several types of clay-supported pyrrhotite catalysts were prepared and tested. These included iron-pillared montmorillonite, mixed iron/alumina-pillared montmorillonite, iron-impregnated montmorillonite, and iron oxometallate-impregnated montmorillonite.

  20. Nanoscale intimacy in bifunctional catalysts for selective conversion of hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zecevic, Jovana; Vanbutsele, Gina; de Jong, Krijn P.; Martens, Johan A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control nanoscale features precisely is increasingly being exploited to develop and improve monofunctional catalysts(1-4). Striking effects might also be expected in the case of bifunctional catalysts, which are important in the hydrocracking of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon source