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Sample records for catalyst development inspired

  1. Design and Stereoselective Preparation of a New Class of Chiral Olefin Metathesis Catalysts and Application to Enantioselective Synthesis of Quebrachamine: Catalyst Development Inspired by Natural Product Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattely, Elizabeth S.; Meek, Simon J.; Malcolmson, Steven J.; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2010-01-01

    A total synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloid quebrachamine in racemic form is first described. A key catalytic ring-closing metathesis of an achiral triene is used to establish the all-carbon quaternary stereogenic center and the tetracyclic structure of the natural product; the catalytic transformation proceeds with reasonable efficiency through the use of existing achiral Ru or Mo catalysts. Ru- or Mo-based chiral olefin metathesis catalysts have proven to be inefficient and entirely nonselective in cases where the desired product is observed. In the present study, the synthesis route thus serves as a platform for the discovery of new olefin metathesis catalysts that allow for efficient completion of an enantioselective synthesis of quebrachamine. Accordingly, on the basis of mechanistic principles, stereogenic-at-Mo complexes bearing only monodentate ligands have been designed. The new catalysts provide significantly higher levels of activity than observed with the previously reported Ru- or Mo-based complexes. Enantiomerically enriched chiral alkylidenes are generated through diastereoselective reactions involving achiral Mo-based bispyrrolides and enantiomerically pure silyl-protected binaphthols. Such chiral catalysts initiate the key enantioselective ring-closing metathesis step in the total synthesis of quebrachamine efficiently (1 mol % loading, 22 °C, 1 h, >98% conversion, 84% yield) and with high selectivity (98:2 er, 96% ee). PMID:19113867

  2. Bio-inspired Iron Catalysts for Hydrocarbon Oxidations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Que, Jr., Lawrence [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-03-22

    Stereoselective oxidation of C–H and C=C bonds are catalyzed by nonheme iron enzymes. Inspired by these bioinorganic systems, our group has been exploring the use of nonheme iron complexes as catalysts for the oxidation of hydrocarbons using H2O2 as an environmentally friendly and atom-efficient oxidant in order to gain mechanistic insights into these novel transformations. In particular, we have focused on clarifying the nature of the high-valent iron oxidants likely to be involved in these transformations.

  3. Bio-inspired MOF-based Catalysts for Lignin Valorization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie; Ramakrishnan, Parthasarathi; Davis, Ryan Wesley

    2014-09-01

    Lignin is a potentially plentiful source of renewable organics, with %7E50Mtons/yr produced by the pulp/paper industry and 200-300 Mtons/yr projected production by a US biofuels industry. This industry must process approximately 1 billion tons of biomass to meet the US Renewable Fuel goals. However, there are currently no efficient processes for converting lignin to value-added chemicals and drop-in fuels. Lignin is therefore an opportunity for production of valuable renewable chemicals, but presents staggering technical and economic challenges due to the quantities of material involved and the strong chemical bonds comprising this polymer. Aggressive chemistries and high temperatures are required to degrade lignin without catalysts. Moreover, chemical non-uniformity among lignins leads to complex product mixtures that tend to repolymerize. Conventional petrochemical approaches (pyrolysis, catalytic cracking, gasification) are energy intensive (400-800 degC), require complicated separations, and remove valuable chemical functionality. Low-temperature (25-200 degC) alternatives are clearly desirable, but enzymes are thermally fragile and incompatible with liquid organic compounds, making them impractical for large-scale biorefining. Alternatively, homogeneous catalysts, such as recently developed vanadium complexes, must be separated from product mixtures, while many heterogenous catalysts involve costly noble metals. The objective of this project is to demonstrate proof of concept that an entirely new class of biomimetic, efficient, and industrially robust synthetic catalysts based on nanoporous Metal- Organic Frameworks (MOFs) can be developed. Although catalytic MOFs are known, catalysis of bond cleavage reactions needed for lignin degradation is completely unexplored. Thus, fundamental research is required that industry and most sponsoring agencies are currently unwilling to undertake. We introduce MOFs infiltrated with titanium and nickel species as catalysts

  4. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benavides, Pahola T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cronauer, Donald C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of five different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5], Mo/Co/ γ-Al2O3, and Pt/ γ-Al2O3) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module.

  5. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Cronauer, Donald C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    Catalysts are critical inputs for many pathways that convert biomass into biofuels. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the production of catalysts and chemical inputs influence the life-cycle energy consumption, and GHG emissions of biofuels and need to be considered in biofuel life-cycle analysis (LCA). In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of three different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5]) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module. They were selected because they are consumed in existing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) analyses of biofuel processes. For example, a thermochemical ethanol production pathway (indirect gasification and mixed alcohol synthesis) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses olivine, DEPG, and tar reforming and alcohol synthesis catalysts (Dutta et al., 2011). ZSM-5 can be used in biofuel production pathways such as catalytic upgrading of sugars into hydrocarbons (Biddy and Jones, 2013). Other uses for these compounds and catalysts are certainly possible. In this report, we document the data sources and methodology we used to develop material and energy flows for the catalysts and compounds in the GREET catalyst module. In Section 2 we focus on compounds used in the model Dutta et al. (2011) developed. In Section 3, we report material and energy flows associated with ZSM-5 production. Finally, in Section 4, we report results.

  6. Development of Biomimetic Squid-Inspired Suckers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinping Hou; Edward Wright; Richard H. C. Bonser; George Jeronimidis

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical properties of squid suckers were studied to provide inspiration for the development of sucker artefacts for a robotic octopus.Mechanical support of the rings found inside squid suckers was studied by bending tests.Tensile tests were carried out to study the maximum possible sucking force produced by squid suckers based on the strength of sucker stalks,normalized by the sucking areas.The squid suckers were also directly tested to obtain sucking forces by a special testing arrangement.Inspired by the squid suckers,three types of sucker artefacts were developed for the arm skin of an octopus inspired robot.The first sucker artefact made of knitted nylon sheet reinforced silicone rubber has the same shape as the squid suckers.Like real squid suckers,this type of artefact also has a stalk that is connected to the arm skin and a ring to give radial support.The second design is a straight cylindrical structure with uniform wall thickness made of silicone rubber.One end of the cylinder is directly connected to the arm skin and the other end is open.The final design of the sucker has a cylindrical base and a concave meniscus top.The meniscus was formed naturally using the surface tension of silicone gel,which leads to a higher level of the liquid around the edge of a container.The wall thickness decreases towards the tip of the sucker opening.Sucking forces of all three types of sucker artefacts were measured.Advantages and disadvantages of each sucker type were discussed.The final design of suckers has been implemented to the arm skin prototypes.

  7. Theoretical Research Program on Bio-inspired Inorganic Hydrogen Generating Catalysts and Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selloni, Annabella; Car, Roberto; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-04-17

    In this project, we have successfully designed and characterized a promising biomimetic catalyst/electrode complex, [FeFe]P/FeS2 for producing hydrogen from water. It is comprised of earth-abundant materials and, with a diffusion-limited rate in acidified water, is efficient as well as oxygen tolerant. The theoretical techniques we have developed and the experience we have gained are broadly applicable for the design and analysis of biomimetic electrochemically active catalysts.

  8. Bio-Inspired Molecular Catalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation and Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Ming-Hsun; Chen, Shentan; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dupuis, Michel; Bullock, R. Morris; Raugei, Simone

    2013-06-03

    Recent advances in Ni-based bio-inspired catalysts obtained in the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, demonstrated the possibility of cleaving H2 or generating H2 heterolytically with turnover frequencies comparable or superior to those of hydrogenase enzymes. In these catalysts the transformation between H2 and protons proceeds via an interplay between proton, hydride and electron transfer steps and involves the interaction of a dihydrogen molecule with both a Ni(II) center and with pendant amine bases incorporated in a six-membered ring, which act as proton relays. These catalytic platforms are well designed in that when protons are correctly positioned (endo) toward the Raugei-ACS-Books.docxPrinted 12/18/12 2 metal center, catalysis proceeds at very high rates. We will show that the proton removal (for H2 oxidation) and proton delivery (for H2 production) are often the rate determining steps. Furthermore, the presence of multiple protonation sites gives rise to reaction intermediates with protons not correctly positioned (exo relative to the metal center). These isomers are easily accessible kinetically and are detrimental to catalysis because of the slow isomerization processes necessary to convert them to the catalytically competent endo isomers. In this chapter we will review the major findings of our computational investigation on the role of proton relays for H2 chemistry and provide guidelines for the design of new catalysts. This research was carried out in the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Battelle. Computational resources were provided at W. R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL), a Raugei-Bio-Inspired Molecular-Catalysts-for-Hydrogen- Oxidation

  9. Nature-Inspired Design: Strategies for Sustainable Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Product designers can apply different strategies, methods, and tools for sustainable product development. Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) offer designers a distinct class of strategies that use ‘nature’ as a guiding source of knowledge and inspiration for addressing sustainability. Biomimic

  10. NEW REFORMING CATALYST DEVELOPED BY RIPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PUZhong-ying

    2003-01-01

    To meet the demands for high-octane gasoline and aromatics,catalytic reforming process has been advancing quickly in China.The reforming catalysts developed by RIPP have been used in more than 80% capacity of domestic CCR and SR units.This paper introduces the properties of PSVI CCR catalyst developed by RIPP in recent years and also the result from commercial units.The PS-VI catalyst has high activity and good selectivity,under the same reaction conditions,the carbon on catalyst was lowered by 26% in mass as compared with that of the reference catalyst.Among the SR reforming catalysts,the new type of PRT series catalysts have excellent performance at low reaction pressure compared with the ref.Cat A.The aromatics and reformate mass yields of PRT catalyst were 2%-3% and 3%,respectively ,higher than those of Cat A,and the run length was 30%-40% longer as well,which exhibits good prospect of application.

  11. Direct Comparison of the Performance of a Bio-inspired Synthetic Nickel Catalyst and a [NiFe]-Hydrogenase, Both Covalently Attached to Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Macia, Patricia; Dutta, Arnab; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Shaw, Wendy J.; Rudiger, Olaf

    2015-10-12

    The active site of hydrogenases has been a source of inspiration for the development of molecular catalysts. However, direct comparisons between molecular catalysts and enzymes have not been possible because different techniques are used to evaluate both types of catalysts, minimizing our ability to determine how far we’ve come in mimicking the impressive enzymatic performance. Here we directly compare the catalytic properties of the [Ni(PCy2NGly2)2]2+ complex with the [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Desulfobivrio vulgaris Miyazaki F (DvMF) immobilized to a functionalized electrode under identical conditions. At pH=7, the enzyme has higher performance in both activity and overpotential, and is more stable, while at low pH, the molecular catalyst outperforms the enzyme in all respects. The Ni complex also has increased tolerance to CO. This is the first direct comparison of enzymes and molecular complexes, enabling a unique understanding of the benefits and detriments of both systems, and advancing our understanding of the utilization of these bioinspired complexes in fuel cells. AD and WJS acknowledge the Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the US Department of Energy (US DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the US DOE.

  12. Atlas of INSPIRE: Evaluating SDI Development through an Inventory of INSPIRE Experiences of European National Mapping Agencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, W.T.; Crompvoets, J.; Stoter, J.; VandenBerghe, I.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes how practice of INSPIRE implementation are affecting Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) development. It contains the results of a EuroSDR (European Spatial Data Research) project ‘Atlas of INSPIRE implementation methods’. Aim of the project was to make an inventory of experiences

  13. Biologically inspired highly durable iron phthalocyanine catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenmu; Yu, Aiping; Higgins, Drew C; Llanos, Bernard G; Chen, Zhongwei

    2010-12-08

    In the present work, we have designed and synthesized a new highly durable iron phtalocyanine based nonprecious oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst (Fe-SPc) for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The Fe-SPc, with a novel structure inspired by that of naturally occurring oxygen activation catalysts, is prepared by a nonpyrolyzing method, allowing adequate control of the atomic structure and surface properties of the material. Significantly improved ORR stability of the Fe-SPc is observed compared with the commercial Fe-Pc catalysts. The Fe-SPc has similar activity to that of the commercial Fe-Pc initially, while the Fe-SPc displays 4.6 times higher current density than that of the commercial Fe-Pc after 10 sweep potential cycles, and a current density that is 7.4 times higher after 100 cycles. This has been attributed to the incorporation of electron-donating functional groups, along with a high degree of steric hindrance maintaining active site isolation. Nonprecious Fe-SPc is promising as a potential alternative ORR electrocatalyst for PEMFCs.

  14. Development and Commercial Application of Third Generation Resid Hydrotreating Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Dawei; Yang Qinghe; Dai Lishun; Zhao Xinqiang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the mechanism of resid hydrotreating reaction by coordinating the catalyst activity and stability, the diffusion mechanism and catalyst reactivity, the cost and catalyst performance, and the production and application re-quirements, the third-generation series catalysts for residue hydrotreating have been developed by Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, SINOPEC. The new series RHT catalysts possess higher activity for HDS, HDM and HDCCR per-formance as well as longer run length. The commercial results for application of these catalysts have demonstrated that the new catalyst system performs better than the reference ones.

  15. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  16. Star block-copolymers: Enzyme-inspired catalysts for oxidation of alcohols in water

    KAUST Repository

    Mugemana, Clement

    2014-01-01

    A number of fluorous amphiphilic star block-copolymers containing a tris(benzyltriazolylmethyl)amine motif have been prepared. These polymers assembled into well-defined nanostructures in water, and their mode of assembly could be controlled by changing the composition of the polymer. The polymers were used for enzyme-inspired catalysis of alcohol oxidation. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  17. Bio-inspired computational design of iron catalysts for the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinzheng

    2015-08-25

    Inspired by the active site structure of monoiron hydrogenase, a series of iron complexes are built using experimentally ready-made acylmethylpyridinol and aliphatic PNP pincer ligands. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the newly designed iron complexes are very promising to catalyze the formation of formic acid from H2 and CO2.

  18. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The use of combinatorial methods is proposed to rapidly screen catalyst formulations for the advanced development of aqueous phase oxidation catalysts with greater...

  19. Carbon-Nanotube-Supported Bio-Inspired Nickel Catalyst and Its Integration in Hybrid Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentil, Solène [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France; Laboratoire de Chimie et Biologie des Métaux, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS UMR5249, CEA, 38000 Grenoble France; Lalaoui, Noémie [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France; Dutta, Arnab [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99532 USA; Current address: Chemistry Department, IIT Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382355 India; Nedellec, Yannig [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France; Cosnier, Serge [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France; Shaw, Wendy J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99532 USA; Artero, Vincent [Laboratoire de Chimie et Biologie des Métaux, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS UMR5249, CEA, 38000 Grenoble France; Le Goff, Alan [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France

    2017-01-12

    A biomimetic nickel bis-diphosphine complex incorporating the amino-acid arginine in the outer coordination sphere, was immobilized on modified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) through electrostatic interactions. The sur-face-confined catalyst is characterized by a reversible 2-electron/2-proton redox process at potentials close to the equibrium potential of the H+/H2 couple. Consequently, the functionalized redox nanomaterial exhibits reversible electrocatalytic activity for the H2/2H+ interconversion over a broad range of pH. This system exhibits catalytic bias, analogous to hydrogenases, resulting in high turnover frequencies at low overpotentials for electrocatalytic H2 oxida-tion between pH 0 and 7. This allowed integrating such bio-inspired nanomaterial together with a multicopper oxi-dase at the cathode side in a hybrid bioinspired/enzymatic hydrogen fuel cell. This device delivers ~2 mW cm–2 with an open-circuit voltage of 1.0 V at room temperature and pH 5, which sets a new efficiency record for a bio-related hydrogen fuel cell with base metal catalysts.

  20. Coaxial electrospinning of WO3 nanotubes functionalized with bio-inspired Pd catalysts and their superior hydrogen sensing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seon-Jin; Chattopadhyay, Saptarshi; Kim, Jae Jin; Kim, Sang-Joon; Tuller, Harry L.; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Kim, Il-Doo

    2016-04-01

    Macroporous WO3 nanotubes (NTs) functionalized with nanoscale catalysts were fabricated using coaxial electrospinning combined with sacrificial templating and protein-encapsulated catalysts. The macroporous thin-walled nanotubular structures were obtained by introducing colloidal polystyrene (PS) particles to a shell solution of W precursor and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). After coaxial electrospinning with a core liquid of mineral oil and subsequent calcination, open pores with an average diameter of 173 nm were formed on the surface of WO3 NTs due to decomposition of the PS colloids. In addition, catalytic Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using bio-inspired protein cages, i.e., apoferritin, and uniformly dispersed within the shell solution and subsequently on the WO3 NTs. The resulting Pd functionalized macroporous WO3 NTs were demonstrated to be high performance hydrogen (H2) sensors. In particular, Pd-functionalized macroporous WO3 NTs exhibited a very high H2 response (Rair/Rgas) of 17.6 at 500 ppm with a short response time. Furthermore, the NTs were shown to be highly selective for H2 compared to other gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia (NH3), and methane (CH4). The results demonstrate a new synthetic method to prepare highly porous nanotubular structures with well-dispersed nanoscale catalysts, which can provide improved microstructures for chemical sensing.Macroporous WO3 nanotubes (NTs) functionalized with nanoscale catalysts were fabricated using coaxial electrospinning combined with sacrificial templating and protein-encapsulated catalysts. The macroporous thin-walled nanotubular structures were obtained by introducing colloidal polystyrene (PS) particles to a shell solution of W precursor and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). After coaxial electrospinning with a core liquid of mineral oil and subsequent calcination, open pores with an average diameter of 173 nm were formed on the surface of WO3 NTs due to decomposition of the PS colloids. In addition

  1. Development and Application of CDOS Series Catalysts for Bottoms Cracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Mingjin; Xu Mingde; Zhu Yuxia

    2013-01-01

    Development of CDOS catalyst for bottoms cracking is based on DOSY zeolite, which is characterized by high metal tolerance. The results of DOSY tests have shown that the catalyst has better activity retention at high metal content in the feed. The performance of catalyst tested in the bench scale was superior over that of the reference catalyst. The results of catalyst application have shown that the CDOS series catalysts have better bottoms cracking activity, high metal tolerance, excellent dry gas selectivity, and enhanced liquid yield.

  2. Bio-inspired co-catalysts bonded to a silicon photocathode for solar hydrogen evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Yidong; Abrams, Billie; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard;

    2011-01-01

    part of the spectrum is utilized for hydrogen evolution while the blue part is reserved for the more difficult oxygen evolution. The samples have been illuminated with a simulated red part of the solar spectrum i.e. long wavelength (" > 620 nm) part of simulated AM 1.5G radiation. The current densities...... deposited on various supports. It will be demonstrated how this overpotential can be eliminated by depositing the same type of hydrogen evolution catalyst on p-type Si which can harvest the red part of the solar spectrum. Such a system could constitute the cathode part of a tandem dream device where the red...... at the reversible potential match the requirement of a photoelectrochemical hydrogen production system with a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency in excess of 10%. The experimental observations are supported by DFT calculations of the Mo3S4 cluster adsorbed on the hydrogen-terminated silicon surface providing insights...

  3. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combinatorial methods are proposed to develop advanced Aqueous Oxidation Catalysts (AOCs) with the capability to mineralize organic contaminants present in effluents...

  4. Development and testing of INSPIRE themes Addresses (AD and Administrative Units (AU managed by COSMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Med

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Main content of this article is to describe implementing INSPIRE themes Addresses and Administrative Units in Czech Republic. Themes were implemented by Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre. Implementation contains developing GML files with data and designing its structure, developing and testing of INSPIRE services and preparing metadata for data and services. Besides harmonised INSPIRE themes COSMC manages also non-harmonised themes Cadastral map (KM and Units eXtended (UX.

  5. Development of high performance vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this study was to develop high performance catalysts for the synthesis of vinyl acetate monomer (VAM). By systematic variation of different preparation parameters a multitude of shell catalysts consisting of PdAu nanoparticles supported on a bentonite carrier was explored. In order to investigate the influence of these alterations on catalytic performance, a catalyst classification was accomplished in a high-throughput Temkin test unit by comparison with a highly efficient commer...

  6. Development of a Lobster-Inspired Underwater Microrobot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic underwater microrobots are of great interest for underwater monitoring operations, such as pollution detection and video mapping in restricted underwater environments. Generally speaking, compact structure, multi‐functionality, flexibility and precise positioning are considered incompatible characteristics for underwater microrobots. Nevertheless, we have designed several novel types of bio‐inspired locomotion, using ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC and shape memory alloy (SMA actuators. We reviewed a number of previously developed underwater microrobot prototypes that were constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of these types of biomimetic locomotion. Based on these prototypes, we summarized the implemented techniques and available results for efficient and precise underwater locomotion. In order to combine compact structure, multi‐functionality, flexibility and precise positioning, we constructed a prototype of a new lobster‐like microrobot and carried out a series of experiments to evaluate its walking, rotating, floating and grasping motions. Diving/surfacing experiments were performed by electrolyzing the water around the surfaces of the actuators. Three proximity sensors were installed on the microrobot to detect an object or avoid an obstacle while walking.

  7. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.H.

    1998-07-22

    The goal of the proposed work described in this Final Report was the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The work described here has optimized the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for a low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work has been conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies have been conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors have been studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance has been determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  8. Developments of Catalysts for Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaoru; Takeishi

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Dimethyl ether (DME) is expected as a clean fuel of the 21st century.I have developed new catalysts for hydrogen production by steam reforming of DME.Cu-Zn/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method produce large quantities of H2 and CO2 by DME steam reforming under lower reaction temperature[1].However,the sol-gel catalysts will be more expensive than general catalysts prepared by impregnation methods and coprecipitation methods,because the precursor,alkoxides are very expensive.For pract...

  9. Development of a bio-inspired UAV perching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pu

    Although technologies of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including micro air vehicles (MAVs) have been greatly advanced in the recent years, it is still very difficult for a UAV to perform some very challenging tasks such as perching to any desired spot reliably and agilely like a bird. Unlike the UAVs, the biological control mechanism of birds has been optimized through millions of year evolution and hence, they can perform many extremely maneuverability tasks, such as perching or grasping accurately and robustly. Therefore, we have good reason to learn from the nature in order to significantly improve the capabilities of UAVs. The development of a UAV perching system is becoming feasible, especially after a lot of research contributions in ornithology which involve the analysis of the bird's functionalities. Meanwhile, as technology advances in many engineering fields, such as airframes, propulsion, sensors, batteries, micro-electromechanical-system (MEMS), and UAV technology is also advancing rapidly. All of these research efforts in ornithology and the fast growing development technologies in UAV applications are motivating further interests and development in the area of UAV perching and grasping research. During the last decade, the research contributions about UAV perching and grasping were mainly based on fixed-wing, flapping-wing, and rotorcraft UAVs. However, most of the current researches in UAV systems with perching and grasping capability are focusing on either active (powered) grasping and perching or passive (unpowered) perching. Although birds do have both active and passive perching capabilities depending on their needs, there is no UAV perching system with both capabilities. In this project, we focused on filling this gap. Inspired by the anatomy analysis of bird legs and feet, a novel perching system has been developed to implement the bionics action for both active grasping and passive perching. In addition, for developing a robust and

  10. Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, R.J.; Raje, A.; Keogh, R.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this research project is to develop the technology for the production of physically robust iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that have suitable activity, selectivity and stability to be used in the slurry phase synthesis reactor development. The catalysts that are developed shall be suitable for testing in the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas, to produce either low-or high-alpha product distributions. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the {open_quotes}standard-catalyst{close_quotes} developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst this is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  11. Recent developments on ultrasound assisted catalyst-free organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Bubun

    2017-03-01

    Mother Nature needs to be protected from ever increasing chemical pollutions associated with synthetic organic processes. The fundamental challenge for today's methodologists is to make their protocols more environmentally benign and sustainable by avoiding the extensive use of hazardous reagents and solvents, harsh reaction conditions, and toxic metal catalysts. However, the people of the twenty-first century are well aware about the side effects of those hazardous substances used and generated by the chemical processes. As a result, the last decade has seen a tremendous outburst in modifying chemical processes to make them 'sustainable' for the betterment of our environment. Catalysts play a crucial role in organic synthesis and thus they find huge applications and uses. Scientists' continuously trying to modify the catalysts to reduce their toxicity level, but the most benign way is to design an organic reaction without catalyst(s), if possible. It is worthy to mention that the involvement of ultrasound in organic synthesis is sometimes fulfilling this goal. In many occasions the applications of ultrasound can avoid the use of catalysts in organic reactions. Such beneficial features as a whole have motivated the organic chemists to apply ultrasonic irradiation in more heights and as a results, in recent past, there were immense applications of ultrasound in organic reactions for the synthesis of diverse organic scaffolds under catalyst-free condition. The present review summarizes the latest developments on ultrasound assisted catalyst-free organic synthesis reported so far.

  12. Pyranone natural products as inspirations for catalytic reaction discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Benjamin R; Scheidt, Karl A

    2015-04-21

    Natural products continue to provide a wealth of opportunities in the areas of chemical and therapeutic development. These structures are effective measuring sticks for the current state of chemical synthesis as a field and constantly inspire new approaches and strategies. Tetrahydropryans and tetrahydropyran-4-ones are found in numerous bioactive marine natural products and medicinal compounds. Our interest in exploring the therapeutic potential of natural products containing these motifs provided the impetus to explore new methods to access highly functionalized, chiral pyran molecules in the most direct and rapid fashion possible. This goal led to exploration and development of a Lewis acid-mediated Prins reaction between a chiral β-hydroxy-dioxinone and aldehyde to produce a pyran-dioxinone fused product that can be processed in a single pot operation to the desired tetrahydropyran-4-ones in excellent yield and stereoselectivity. Although the Prins reaction is a commonly employed approach toward pyrans, this method uniquely provides a 3-carboxy-trisubstituted pyran and utilizes dioxinones in a manner that was underexplored at the time. The 3-carboxy substituent served as a key synthetic handhold when this method was applied to the synthesis of highly functionalized pyrans within the macrocyclic natural products neopeltolide, okilactiomycin, and exiguolide. When employed in challenging macrocyclizations, this tetrahydropyranone forming reaction proved highly stereoselective and robust. Another major thrust in our lab has been the synthesis of benzopyranone natural products, specifically flavonoids, because this broad and diverse family of compounds possesses an equally broad range of biological and medicinal applications. With the goal of developing a broad platform toward the synthesis of enantioenriched flavonoid analogs and natural products, a biomimetic, asymmetric catalytic approach toward the synthesis of 2-aryl benzopyranones was developed. A

  13. Training mechanical engineering students to utilize biological inspiration during product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Hugh A; Gershon, Alan L; Golden, Ira; Gupta, Satyandra K; Gyger, Lawrence S; Magrab, Edward B; Spranklin, Brent W

    2007-12-01

    The use of bio-inspiration for the development of new products and devices requires new educational tools for students consisting of appropriate design and manufacturing technologies, as well as curriculum. At the University of Maryland, new educational tools have been developed that introduce bio-inspired product realization to undergraduate mechanical engineering students. These tools include the development of a bio-inspired design repository, a concurrent fabrication and assembly manufacturing technology, a series of undergraduate curriculum modules and a new senior elective in the bio-inspired robotics area. This paper first presents an overview of the two new design and manufacturing technologies that enable students to realize bio-inspired products, and describes how these technologies are integrated into the undergraduate educational experience. Then, the undergraduate curriculum modules are presented, which provide students with the fundamental design and manufacturing principles needed to support bio-inspired product and device development. Finally, an elective bio-inspired robotics project course is present, which provides undergraduates with the opportunity to demonstrate the application of the knowledge acquired through the curriculum modules in their senior year using the new design and manufacturing technologies.

  14. Development of radioactive platinum group metal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.S.; Kim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.E. [and others

    1999-03-01

    The fission product nuclides generated during the irradiation of reactor fuel include many useful elements, among them platinum group metals such as ruthenium, rhodium and palladium which are of great industrial importance, occur rarely in nature and are highly valuable. In this research, the authors reviewed various PGM recovery methods. Recovery of palladium from seven-component simulated waste solutions was conducted by selective precipitation method. The recovery yield was more than 99.5% and the purity of the product was more than 99%. Wet-proof catalyst was prepared with the recovered palladium. The specific surface area of the catalyst support was more than 400m{sup 2}/g.The content of palladium impregnated on the support was 1 to 10 wt. %. Hydrogen isotope exchange efficiency of more than 93% to equilibrium with small amount of the catalyst was obtained. It was turned out possible to consider using such palladium or other very low active PGM materials in applications where its activity is unimportant as in nuclear industries. (author). 86 refs., 44 tabs., 88 figs.

  15. The human hand as an inspiration for robot hand development

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    “The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development” presents an edited collection of authoritative contributions in the area of robot hands. The results described in the volume are expected to lead to more robust, dependable, and inexpensive distributed systems such as those endowed with complex and advanced sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities. The twenty-four chapters discuss the field of robotic grasping and manipulation viewed in light of the human hand’s capabilities and push the state-of-the-art in robot hand design and control. Topics discussed include human hand biomechanics, neural control, sensory feedback and perception, and robotic grasp and manipulation. This book will be useful for researchers from diverse areas such as robotics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and anthropologists.

  16. Development and Commercial Application of DZC Ⅱ-1 Type Catalyst for Hydrogenation of Pyrolysis Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ye; Wang Fucun

    2006-01-01

    Commercial application of the DZC Ⅱ-1 catalyst developed on the basis of the DZ-1 catalyst was introduced. The application tests of the catalyst under overload had proved that this catalyst demon-strated satisfactory adaptability to feedstock after continued operation for 20 months with little changes in the bed pressure drop, the reactor inlet temperature and the bed temperature rise. The DZC Ⅱ-1 catalyst was regarded as the best catalyst for the second-stage hydrogenation of pyrolysis gasoline.

  17. POISON RESISTANT CATALYST DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew W. Wang

    2001-03-29

    The Alternative Fuels Field Test Unit (AFFTU) is a portable laboratory designed specifically to provide on-site evaluation of potential feedstocks for processes that produce alternative fuels from indigenous raw materials such as coal, natural gas or environmentally disadvantaged carbonaceous feedstocks. Since conversion of these raw materials into feed gas streams can produce a variety of bulk gas compositions, which furthermore can contain a myriad of trace components, it is necessary to evaluate each new feedstock on an individual basis. While it is possible to prepare blended gas mixtures to simulate the bulk composition of a known feedstock, it is neither possible nor cost-effective to simulate adequately the variety of trace chemicals present in that feedstock--some of which may not even be detected by routine analysis. Additionally, the transient composition of the gas during upsets or routine process changes may have an impact on the proposed process that is not foreseen in standard design. To address these concerns, the AFFTU was constructed with the following experimental capabilities: (1) A state-of-the-art gas chromatograph system to perform semi-continuous monitoring of both bulk composition and the concentration of key trace poisons down to one part per billion (ppb). (2) A 30-mL reactor system that can accept up to two feed streams from the customer, allowing a true life test with the actual gas projected for use in the proposed facility. (3) A manifold of four adsorbent beds, located upstream of the reactor, which permits the testing of adsorbents for the removal of contaminants from the feed stream. The effectiveness of these adsorbents may be evaluated either by analysis of the gas upstream and downstream of the bed (or at an intermediate point within the bed) or by observing the impact of the presence or absence of that bed on the actual stability of the catalyst activity. To achieve portability, the AFFTU was constructed in a commercial 48-foot

  18. Autonomic networking-on-chip bio-inspired specification, development, and verification

    CERN Document Server

    Cong-Vinh, Phan

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing mainstream importance and unique advantages of autonomic networking-on-chip (ANoC) technology, Autonomic Networking-On-Chip: Bio-Inspired Specification, Development, and Verification is among the first books to evaluate research results on formalizing this emerging NoC paradigm, which was inspired by the human nervous system. The FIRST Book to Assess Research Results, Opportunities, & Trends in ""BioChipNets"" The third book in the Embedded Multi-Core Systems series from CRC Press, this is an advanced technical guide and reference composed of contributions from prominent re

  19. The Developing Tendency of Ambivalent Words and the Inspiration of it on Lexicography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ambivalent words are a common phenomenon objectively existing in most of the languages in the world. The previous studies mainly focus on the following questions: Do ambivalent words really exist? How many types of ambivalent words are there? What are the forming reasons of ambivalent words? This article aims to analyze the developing tendency of ambivalent words and its inspiration on lexicography.

  20. Nature-inspired design strategies in sustainable product development: A case study of student projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.; Karana, E.; Kandachar, P.V.

    2012-01-01

    In design practice, Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) can be applied when developing sustainable products. However, knowledge on how this actually helps designers is lacking. This study explores the effects of applying Cradle to Cradle and Biomimicry in student projects, as compared to using

  1. FY 1997 report on the development of excellent catalysts for creation of new industries. New frontier catalyst 21; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (shinsangyo sosei no tame no excellence catalyst no kaihatsu). New frontier catalyst 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Survey was made for establishment of an effective fast search technique of practical catalysts. Catalyst technology is an important basic technology for industrial fields such as energy and environment fields. In many cases, catalysts have been developed by trial and error consuming a long time and huge research cost. Study was made on efficient analysis and measurement techniques, and systematic production technique of advanced catalysts based on these techniques. This survey was effective in finding a guidance for improving catalysts used in the previous processes, and facilitating searches for fields previously slow in development of catalysts. Advanced catalysts possible to actively selectively produce target products under high pressure/temperature conditions are much in demand. Recently in-situ analysis technology for observing molecules and material surfaces under ultrahigh-pressure/temperature conditions has been studied. Observational study was made on catalytic behavior under catalytic reaction condition using partial oxidation, selective hydrogenation and isomerization as model reactions. 111 refs., 103 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. An Overview of Recent Development in Composite Catalysts from Porous Materials for Various Reactions and Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiku Xie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts are important to the chemical industry and environmental remediation due to their effective conversion of one chemical into another. Among them, composite catalysts have attracted continuous attention during the past decades. Nowadays, composite catalysts are being used more and more to meet the practical catalytic performance requirements in the chemical industry of high activity, high selectivity and good stability. In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on development of composite catalysts, mainly focusing on the composite catalysts obtained from porous materials such as zeolites, mesoporous materials, carbon nanotubes (CNT, etc. Six types of porous composite catalysts are discussed, including amorphous oxide modified zeolite composite catalysts, zeolite composites prepared by co-crystallization or overgrowth, hierarchical porous catalysts, host-guest porous composites, inorganic and organic mesoporous composite catalysts, and polymer/CNT composite catalysts.

  3. Development of industrial catalysts for sustainable chlorine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Cecilia; Amrute, Amol P; Moser, Maximilian; Schmidt, Timm; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The heterogeneously catalyzed gas-phase oxidation of HCl to Cl(2) offers an energy-efficient and eco- friendly route to recover chlorine from HCl-containing byproduct streams in the chemical industry. This process has attracted renewed interest in the last decade due to an increased chlorine demand and the growing excess of byproduct HCl from chlorination processes. Since its introduction (by Deacon in 1868) and till recent times, the industrialization of this reaction has been hindered by the lack of sufficiently active and durable materials. Recently, RuO(2)-based catalysts with outstanding activity and stability have been designed and they are being implemented for large-scale Cl(2) recycling. Herein, we review the main limiting features of traditional Cu-based catalysts and survey the key steps in the development of the new generation of industrial RuO(2)-based materials. As the expansion of this technology would benefit from cheaper, but comparably robust, alternatives to RuO(2)-based catalysts, a nov el CeO(2)-based catalyst which offers promising perspectives for application in this field has been introduced.

  4. ECONOMIC FREEDOM – A CATALYST FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalia Iuliana KICSI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Liberal doctrine, in its various attempts to find legitimacy, has exerted a real influence on the ”architecture” of the world economy. Liberal rhetoric, validated by historical reality, has shown that liberalism, through its virtues, design a proper environment for both individuals and nations development. In this equation of development the catalytic role of economic freedom and free trade was a theme of reflections during the evolution of many nations, but emphasis on the quantitative dimensions was obvious. In the last decades, attention has been focused on the quality of development too, understanding that the wealth of a nation is reflected not only in the improvement of macroeconomic indicators, but in the better quality of individuals’ life.

  5. Developments in electrochemistry science inspired by Martin Fleischmann

    CERN Document Server

    Pletcher, Derek; Williams, David

    2014-01-01

    Martin Fleischmann was truly one of the 'fathers' of modern electrochemistry having made major contributions to diverse topics within electrochemical science and technology. These include the theory and practice of voltammetry and in situ spectroscopic techniques, instrumentation, electrochemical phase formation, corrosion, electrochemical engineering, electrosynthesis and cold fusion.  While intended to honour the memory of Martin Fleischmann, Developments in Electrochemistry is neither a biography nor a history of his contributions. Rather, the book is a series of critical reviews of topic

  6. Development-inspired reprogramming of the mammalian central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amamoto, Ryoji; Arlotta, Paola

    2014-01-31

    In 2012, John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka shared the Nobel Prize for the demonstration that the identity of differentiated cells is not irreversibly determined but can be changed back to a pluripotent state under appropriate instructive signals. The principle that differentiated cells can revert to an embryonic state and even be converted directly from one cell type into another not only turns fundamental principles of development on their heads but also has profound implications for regenerative medicine. Replacement of diseased tissue with newly reprogrammed cells and modeling of human disease are concrete opportunities. Here, we focus on the central nervous system to consider whether and how reprogramming of cell identity may affect regeneration and modeling of a system historically considered immutable and hardwired.

  7. Inspiring Climate Education Excellence(ICEE): Developing Elearning professional development modules - secondary science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellagher, E.; Buhr, S. M.; Lynds, S. E.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Cires Education Outreach

    2011-12-01

    Inspiring Climate Education Excellence (ICEE) is a NASA-funded project to develop content knowledge and knowledge of effective teaching strategies in climate education among secondary science teachers. ICEE resources are aligned with the Essential Principles of Climate Science. Building upon a needs assessment and face to face workshop, ICEE resources include iTunesU videos, an ICEE 101 resource site with videos and peer-reviewed learning activities, and a moderated online forum. Self-directed modules and an online course are being developed around concepts and topics in which teachers express the most interest and need for instruction. ICEE resources include attention to effective teaching strategies, such as awareness of student misconceptions, strategies for forestalling controversy and advice from master teachers on implementation and curriculum development. The resources are being developed in partnership with GLOBE, and the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) and are informed by the work of the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) project. ICEE will help to meet the professional development needs of teachers, including those participating in the GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign.

  8. Development of a Catalyst/Sorbent for Methane Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.H. Shans; T.D. Wheelock; Justinus Satrio; Karl Albrecht; Tanya Harris Janine Keeley; Ben Silva; Aaron Shell; Molly Lohry; Zachary Beversdorf

    2008-12-31

    This project led to the further development of a combined catalyst and sorbent for improving the process technology required for converting CH{sub 4} and/or CO into H{sub 2} while simultaneously separating the CO{sub 2} byproduct all in a single step. The new material is in the form of core-in-shell pellets such that each pellet consists of a CaO core surrounded by an alumina-based shell capable of supporting a Ni catalyst. The Ni is capable of catalyzing the reactions of steam with CH{sub 4} or CO to produce H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, whereas the CaO is capable of absorbing the CO{sub 2} as it is produced. The absorption of CO{sub 2} eliminates the reaction inhibiting effects of CO{sub 2} and provides a means for recovering the CO{sub 2} in a useful form. The present work showed that the lifecycle performance of the sorbent can be improved either by incorporating a specific amount of MgO in the material or by calcining CaO derived from limestone at 1100 C for an extended period. It also showed how to prepare a strong shell material with a large surface area required for supporting an active Ni catalyst. The method combines graded particles of {alpha}-alumina with noncrystalline alumina having a large specific surface area together with a strength promoting additive followed by controlled calcination. Two different additives produced good results: 3 {micro}m limestone and lanthanum nitrate which were converted to their respective oxides upon calcination. The oxides partially reacted with the alumina to form aluminates which probably accounted for the strength enhancing properties of the additives. The use of lanthanum made it possible to calcine the shell material at a lower temperature, which was less detrimental to the surface area, but still capable of producing a strong shell. Core-in-shell pellets made with the improved shell materials and impregnated with a Ni catalyst were used for steam reforming CH{sub 4} at different temperatures and pressures. Under all

  9. Book Titled Autonomic Networking-on-Chip: Bio-Inspired Specification, Development, and Verification: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Cong Vinh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing mainstream importance and unique advantages of autonomic networking-onchip (ANoC technology, Autonomic Networking-On-Chip: Bio-Inspired Specification, Development, and Verification is among the first books to evaluate research results on formalizing this emerging NoC paradigm, which was inspired by the human nervous system. The third book in the Embedded Multi-Core Systems series from CRC Press, this is an advanced technical guide and reference composed of contributions from prominent researchers in industry and academia around the world. A response to the critical need for a global information exchange and dialogue, it is written for engineers, scientists, practitioners, and other researchers who have a basic understanding of NoC and are now ready to learn how to specify, develop, and verify ANoC using rigorous approaches.

  10. The Developing Tendency of Ambivalent Words and the Inspiration of it on Lexicography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren; Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ambivalent words are a common phenomenon objectively existing in most of the languages in the world.The previous studies mainly focus on the following questions:Do ambivalent words really exist?How many types of ambivalent words are there?What are the forming reasons of ambivalent words?This article aims to analyze the developing tendency of ambivalent words and its inspiration on lexicography.

  11. RIPP开发的催化重整技术%NEW REFORMING CATALYST DEVELOPED BY RIPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    濮仲英

    2003-01-01

    To meet the demands for high-octane gasoline and aromatics, catalytic reforming process has been advancing quickly in China. The reforming catalysts developed by RIPP have been used in more than 80% capacity of domestic CCR and SR units. This paper introduces the properties of PS-VI CCR catalyst developed by RIPP in recent years and also the result from commercial units. The PS-VI catalyst has high activity and good selectivity, under the same reaction conditions, the carbon on catalyst was lowered by 26% in mass as compared with that of the reference catalyst. Among the SR reforming catalysts, the new type of PRT series catalysts have excellent performance at low reaction pressure compared with the ref. Cat A. The aromatics and reformate mass yields of PRT catalyst were 2%~3% and 3%, respectively, higher than those of Cat A, and the run length was 30%~40% longer as well, which exhibits good prospect of application.

  12. Development of Novel Resid Hydrometallization Catalyst RDM-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Dawei; Niu Chuanfeng; Yang Qinghe; Liu Tao

    2007-01-01

    Based on the reaction mechanism of resid hydrodemetallization,a new catalyst carrier was designed and prepared.As compared with the similar type of catalyst carder,the said new carrier featured a higher pore volume,a larger pore diameter and a weaker surface acidity,which could improve the diffusion performance and stable reaction performance of the catalyst.The active metal components were loaded on the said carrier by a new technique for better metal dispersion,thus the impurity removal rate of the new catalyst,RDM-3,was improved significantly.The commercial test of the RDM-3 catalyst showed that the process of catalyst preparation was stable,the catalyst performance was slightly better than the catalyst prepared in the lab,therefore,the catalyst could be manufactured in commercial scale.

  13. Development of a Novel Type Catalyst SY-2 for Two-Stage Hydrogenation of Pyrolysis Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Linmei; Zhang Xuejun; Zhang Zhihua; Wang Fucun

    2004-01-01

    By using the group ⅢB or groupⅦB metals and modulating the characteristics of electric charges on carrier surface, improving the catalyst preparation process and techniques for loading the active metal components, a novel type SY-2 catalyst earmarked for two-stage hydrogenation of pyrolysis gasoline has been developed. The catalyst evaluation results have indicated that the novel catalyst is characterized by a better hydrogenation reaction activity to give higher aromatic yield.

  14. Removal of silver nanoparticles by mussel-inspired Fe3O4@ polydopamine core-shell microspheres and its use as efficient catalyst for methylene blue reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Maoling; Li, Yinying; Yue, Rui; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Yuming

    2017-02-01

    The removal of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from water is highly needed because of their increasing use and potential risk to the environment due to their toxic effects. Catalysis over AgNPs has received significant attention because of their highly catalytic performance. However, their use in practical applications is limited due to high cost and limited resources. Here, we present for the first time that the mussel-inspired Fe3O4@polydopamine (Fe3O4@PDA) nanocomposite can be used for efficient removal and recovery of AgNPs. Adsorption of AgNPs over Fe3O4@PDA was confirmed by TEM, FT-IR, XRD, TGA and magnetic property. The adsorption efficiency of AgNPs by Fe3O4@PDA was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, ionic strength and concentration of AgNPs. The kinetic data were well fitted to a pseudo-second order kinetic model. The isotherm data were well described by Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 169.5 mg/g, which was higher than those by other adsorbents. Notably, the obtained AgNPs-Fe3O4@PDA exhibited highly catalytic activity for methylene blue reduction by NaBH4 with a rate constant of 1.44 × 10‑3/s, which was much higher than those by other AgNPs catalysts. The AgNPs-Fe3O4@PDA promised good recyclability for at least 8 cycles and acid resistant with good stability.

  15. Removal of silver nanoparticles by mussel-inspired Fe3O4@ polydopamine core-shell microspheres and its use as efficient catalyst for methylene blue reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Maoling; Li, Yinying; Yue, Rui; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    The removal of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from water is highly needed because of their increasing use and potential risk to the environment due to their toxic effects. Catalysis over AgNPs has received significant attention because of their highly catalytic performance. However, their use in practical applications is limited due to high cost and limited resources. Here, we present for the first time that the mussel-inspired Fe3O4@polydopamine (Fe3O4@PDA) nanocomposite can be used for efficient removal and recovery of AgNPs. Adsorption of AgNPs over Fe3O4@PDA was confirmed by TEM, FT-IR, XRD, TGA and magnetic property. The adsorption efficiency of AgNPs by Fe3O4@PDA was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, ionic strength and concentration of AgNPs. The kinetic data were well fitted to a pseudo-second order kinetic model. The isotherm data were well described by Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 169.5 mg/g, which was higher than those by other adsorbents. Notably, the obtained AgNPs-Fe3O4@PDA exhibited highly catalytic activity for methylene blue reduction by NaBH4 with a rate constant of 1.44 × 10−3/s, which was much higher than those by other AgNPs catalysts. The AgNPs-Fe3O4@PDA promised good recyclability for at least 8 cycles and acid resistant with good stability. PMID:28202922

  16. Designing Catalysts for Clean Technology, Green Chemistry, and Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurig Thomas, John; Raja, Robert

    2005-08-01

    There is a pressing need for cleaner fuels (free or aromatics and of minimal sulfur content) or ones that convert chemical energy directly to electricity, silently and without production of noxious oxides and particulates; chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical processes that may be conducted in a one-step, solvent-free manner and that use air as the preferred oxidant; and industrial processes that minimize consumption of energy, production of waste, or the use of corrosive, explosive, volatile, and nonbiodegradable materials. All these needs and other desiderata, such as the in situ production and containment of aggressive and hazardous reagents, and the avoidance of use of ecologically harmful elements, may be achieved by designing the appropriate heterogeneous inorganic catalyst, which ideally should be cheap, readily preparable and fully characterizable, preferably under in situ reaction conditions. A range of nanoporous and nanoparticle catalysts that meet most of the stringent demands of sustainable development and responsible (clean) technology is described. Specific examples that are highlighted include the production of adipic acid (precursor of polyamides and urethanes) without the use of concentrated nitric acid nor the production of greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide; the production of caprolactam (precursor of nylon) without the use of oleum and hydroxylamine sulfate; and the terminal oxyfunctionalization of linear alkanes in air. The topic of biocatalysis and sustainable development is also briefly discussed for the epoxidation of terpenes and fatty acid methyl esters; for the generation of polymers, polylactides, and polyesters; and for the production of 1,3-propanediol from corn.

  17. Study and Pilot Scale Development of Catalyst for Ethylebenzene Synthesis Through Transalkylation of Benzene and Polyethylbenzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jin; Zhang Fengmei; Li Minglin; Hao Xiaoming; Shu Xingtian; He Mingyuan

    2002-01-01

    This paper refers to the results of study and development of benzene and polyethylbenzene transalkylation catalyst (type AEB-1) for synthesis of ethylbenzene. The effect of reaction conditions on the reaction performance of the catalyst was investigated in the pressurized microreactor CDS-900. A transalkylation catalyst with high activity, good selectivity and stability was developed following a 2000-hour test on the activity and stability of the catalyst. The preparation of this catalyst was implemented in pilot scale and this catalyst was tested for activity and stability in a 150 t/a pilot unit for production of ethylbenzene. The test results have shown that this transalkylation catalyst has excellent activity, selectivity and stability. The operation of pilot test unit ran smoothly and the process scheme is viable.

  18. Development and Validation of a New Multidimensional Measure of Inspiration: Associations with Risk for Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals at risk for, and diagnosed with, bipolar disorder (BD) appear to have heightened levels of creativity. Although inspiration is creativity, the ways in which individuals appraise and respond emotionally to inspiration in BD remain unexplored. Method The present study reports on a new measure of inspiration (External and Internal Sources of Inspiration Scale - EISI). The reliability and validity of EISI were explored along with associations between EISI and BD risk. Resul...

  19. Development of Lifting and Propulsion Mechanism for Biped Robot Inspired by Basilisk Lizards

    OpenAIRE

    Mingzhou Luo; Xianming Wei; Kai Cao; Tao Mei; Linsen Xu

    2013-01-01

    The lifting and propulsion mechanism of a novel biped robot inspired by the basilisk lizard’s water-walking function has been developed. The movement trajectories of the Watt-I planar linkage are brought out by combining the movement equations of the four-bar mechanism and the coordinate transformation equations, which are used to simulate the foot trajectories of the basilisk lizard, and the lifting and propulsion mechanism of the biped robot walking on water is carried out. The links’ param...

  20. Development of New Generation Catalysts for Selective Hydrodesulfurization of FCC Naphtha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Yang; Li Mingfeng; Li Huifeng; Qu Jinhua; Nie Hong; Li Dadong

    2009-01-01

    The influence of active metal components of catalyst, additives and catalyst preparation method on the reactiv-ity of catalyst for selective hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of FCC naphtha was investigated, and the RSDS-21 catalyst with high HDS performance and the RSDS-22 catalyst with high selectivity were developed by RIPP. The composite loading of a new series of catalysts for selective HDS of FCC gasoline has demonstrated excellent desulfurization activity and selectivity and can under conventional hydrotreating conditions manufacture clean gasoline product meeting the national Ⅳ emission standard and the Euro Ⅴ emission standard with less loss in antiknock index. The finalized new series of FCC catalysts upon being adopted for selective HDS of FCC naphtha have good adaptability to different feedstocks along with good stability.

  1. Development of FHDS Type Catalyst for Deep Hydrodesulfurization of Diesel Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Rong; Yao Yunhai; Zhou Yong

    2005-01-01

    The FHDS type catalyst for deep hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of diesel fuel is a highactivity catalyst developed by FRIPP in order to meet the requirements of Chinese refiners for production of low-sulfur clean diesel fuel containing less than 300 ppm of sulfur. The FH-DS type catalyst has excellent HDS and HDN activity thanks to modification of alumina through incorporating additives, optimization of catalyst preparation and optimal combination of active ingredients.Under low pressure the HDS activity of this catalyst is by 50% higher than that of domestic reference catalysts available in the market and is slightly better than that of foreign reference catalyst. When this catalyst is used for manufacture of clean ultra-low sulfur diesel (containing <30 ppm of S), its volumetric relative desulfurization activity is 46% higher than that of foreign reference catalyst, and this catalyst is an excellent catalyst for manufacture of low-sulfur clean diesel fuel derived from imported high-sulfur Kuwaiti and Arabian crude oils.

  2. New development thoughts on the bio-inspired intelligence based control for unmanned combat aerial vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Bio-inspired intelligence is in the spotlight in the field of international artificial intelligence,and unmanned combat aerial vehicle(UCAV),owing to its potential to perform dangerous,repetitive tasks in remote and hazardous,is very promising for the technological leadership of the nation and essential for improving the security of society.On the basis of introduction of bioinspired intelligence and UCAV,a series of new development thoughts on UCAV control are proposed,including artificial brain based high-level autonomous control for UCAV,swarm intelligence based cooperative control for multiple UCAVs,hy-brid swarm intelligence and Bayesian network based situation assessment under complicated combating environments, bio-inspired hardware based high-level autonomous control for UCAV,and meta-heuristic intelligence based heterogeneous cooperative control for multiple UCAVs and unmanned combat ground vehicles(UCGVs).The exact realization of the proposed new development thoughts can enhance the effectiveness of combat,while provide a series of novel breakthroughs for the intelligence,integration and advancement of future UCAV systems.

  3. Writing Inspired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischhauser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Students need inspiration to write. Assigning is not teaching. In order to inspire students to write fiction worth reading, teachers must take them through the process of writing. Physical objects inspire good writing with depth. In this article, the reader will be taken through the process of inspiring young writers through the use of boxes.…

  4. CATALYST TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FROM MACRO-,MICRO- DOWN TO NANO-SCALE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Liu

    2005-01-01

    Catalyst and catalytic process technology has been an ever-growing field that involves chemical engineering, chemistry, and material science. A number of excellent review articles and books have been published on the subject. In this work, the author reviews the evolution and development of catalyst products with multi-scale methodology.The catalyst technologies are classified into three levels, macro-scale (reactor size), mini- and micro-scale (catalyst unit),and nano-scale (catalyst intrinsic structures). Innovation at different scales requires different sets of expertise, method,and knowledge. Specific examples of significant impact to practical application are used to illustrate technology development at each scale. The multi-scale analysis enables clear delineation of technology components and their relationship for a catalyst product and catalytic process. Manipulation of catalyst structures at nano-scale to increase intrinsic activity and/or selectivity is considered of large potential for future catalyst product development. Recent research results on Cu-CeO2 and Au-CeO2 composite catalysts for air pollution control and hydrogen production are used to show how novel catalytic properties can be discovered by unique combination of different but common materials at the nano-scale.

  5. Development and validation of a new multidimensional measure of inspiration: associations with risk for bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Jones

    Full Text Available Individuals at risk for, and diagnosed with, bipolar disorder (BD appear to have heightened levels of creativity. Although inspiration is creativity, the ways in which individuals appraise and respond emotionally to inspiration in BD remain unexplored.The present study reports on a new measure of inspiration (External and Internal Sources of Inspiration Scale--EISI. The reliability and validity of EISI were explored along with associations between EISI and BD risk.Among a cross-national student sample (N = 708 5 inspiration factors were derived from EISI (self, other, achievement, prosocial and external inspiration. Reliability, concurrent validity and convergent/divergent validity were good. Total EISI and all subscales were associated with increased positive rumination, and total EISI and the achievement EISI subscale were associated with impulsivity. Total EISI, self and prosocial EISI subscales were independently associated with BD risk and current mania symptoms.This new measure of inspiration is multidimensional, reliable and valid. Findings suggest that self and prosocial focused inspiration are particularly associated with risk for BD after controlling for current manic symptoms. Future studies in clinical populations may illuminate the relationships between inspiration and creativity in BD.

  6. Development of Lifting and Propulsion Mechanism for Biped Robot Inspired by Basilisk Lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsen Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lifting and propulsion mechanism of a novel biped robot inspired by the basilisk lizard's water-walking function has been developed. The movement trajectories of the Watt-I planar linkage are brought out by combining the movement equations of the four-bar mechanism and the coordinate transformation equations, which are used to simulate the foot trajectories of the basilisk lizard, and the lifting and propulsion mechanism of the biped robot walking on water is carried out. The links' parameters are optimized by taking the trajectories overlap ratio as the objective function. The prototype of the biped robot walking on water is manufactured by the results of the kinematic analysis on the robot. And the lifting and propulsion force curve on the robot from water is measured. The experiment results show that the lifting and propulsion system can satisfy the function requirement of the biped robot walking on water.

  7. Development of a frequency-modulated ultrasonic sensor inspired by bat echolocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepa, Krzysztof; Abaid, Nicole

    2015-03-01

    Bats have evolved to sense using ultrasonic signals with a variety of different frequency signatures which interact with their environment. Among these signals, those with time-varying frequencies may enable the animals to gather more complex information for obstacle avoidance and target tracking. Taking inspiration from this system, we present the development of a sonar sensor capable of generating frequency-modulated ultrasonic signals. The device is based on a miniature mobile computer, with on board data capture and processing capabilities, which is designed for eventual autonomous operation in a robotic swarm. The hardware and software components of the sensor are detailed, as well their integration. Preliminary results for target detection using both frequency-modulated and constant frequency signals are discussed.

  8. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON AND COBALT FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtron H. Davis

    1999-04-30

    The impact of activation procedure on the phase composition of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts has been studied. Catalyst samples taken during activation and FT synthesis have been characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Formation of iron carbide is necessary for high FT activity. Hydrogen activation of precipitated iron catalysts results in reduction to predominantly metallic iron and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Metallic iron is not stable under FT 3 4 conditions and is rapidly converted to {epsilon}{prime}-Fe{sub 2.2}C. Activation with carbon monoxide or syngas 2.2 with low hydrogen partial pressure reduces catalysts to {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and a small amount of 5 2 superparamagnetic carbide. Exposure to FT conditions partially oxidizes iron carbide to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}; however, catalysts promoted with potassium or potassium and copper maintain a constant carbide content and activity after the initial oxidation. An unpromoted iron catalyst which was activated with carbon monoxide to produce 94% {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2}, deactivated rapidly as the carbide was oxidized to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. No difference in activity, stability or deactivation rate was found for {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and {epsilon}{prime}-Fe{sub 2.2}C.

  9. Development of novel catalysts for the photocatalytic hydrogen formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilz, Thomas David

    2011-11-16

    For future conversion of sunlight into chemical energy, intramolecular systems for artifical photosynthesis were developed in several stages. This comprised the fabrication of novel ligands and the resulting charge transfer chromophores (Ru(bpy)3-type) and/or catalytically active complexes (Pt, Pd). These were combined into heteronuclear diades consisting of covalently bonded functional subunits. In particular, the chromophores and catalysis centers were bridged so that their individual properties were retained while their individual functions were combined into a supramolecular photocatalyst. This makes it possible to reduce protons to hydrogen on these catalysts when exposed to light. As bridging units, oligodentate ligands were produced and used that can coordinate the active metal centers via bipyridines and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC). A number of such heterobimetal complexes, their initial compounds and appropriate reference compounds were produced, characterized, and compared. Apart from structural, photophysical and electrochemical analyses, also successful catalysis experiment were carried out with the manufactured photocatalysts for light-induced hydrogen production from water. Further representative control experiments and dynamic light scattering analyses were carried out in order to gain deeper understanding of the processes going on during catalysis. By comparing the properties of the fabricated catalysts with selected reference compounds, information was obtained on the structure-property relationships of the systems. (orig.) [German] Fuer die zukuenftige Umwandlung von Sonnenlicht in chemische Energie wurden schrittweise intramolekular arbeitende Systeme fuer eine artifizielle Photosynthese aufgebaut. Dabei wurde eine Anzahl von neuen Liganden und den resultierenden Charge-Transfer-Chromophoren (Ru(bpy)3-artig) bzw. katalyseaktiven Komplexen (Pt, Pd) hergestellt. Diese wurden zu heteronuklearen Diaden zusammengefuegt, welche aus kovalent

  10. Development of Non-Noble Metal Ni-Based Catalysts for Dehydrogenation of Methylcyclohexane

    KAUST Repository

    Al-ShaikhAli, Anaam H.

    2016-11-30

    Liquid organic chemical hydride is a promising candidate for hydrogen storage and transport. Methylcyclohexane (MCH) to toluene (TOL) cycle has been considered as one of the feasible hydrogen carrier systems, but selective dehydrogenation of MCH to TOL has only been achieved using the noble Pt-based catalysts. The aim of this study is to develop non-noble, cost-effective metal catalysts that can show excellent catalytic performance, mainly maintaining high TOL selectivity achievable by Pt based catalysts. Mono-metallic Ni based catalyst is a well-known dehydrogenation catalyst, but the major drawback with Ni is its hydrogenolysis activity to cleave C-C bonds, which leads to inferior selectivity towards dehydrogenation of MCH to TOL. This study elucidate addition of the second metal to Ni based catalyst to improve the TOL selectivity. Herein, ubiquitous bi-metallic nanoparticles catalysts were investigated including (Ni–M, M: Ag, Zn, Sn or In) based catalysts. Among the catalysts investigated, the high TOL selectivity (> 99%) at low conversions was achieved effectively using the supported NiZn catalyst under flow of excess H2. In this work, a combined study of experimental and computational approaches was conducted to determine the main role of Zn over Ni based catalyst in promoting the TOL selectivity. A kinetic study using mono- and bimetallic Ni based catalysts was conducted to elucidate reaction mechanism and site requirement for MCH dehydrogenation reaction. The impact of different reaction conditions (feed compositions, temperature, space velocity and stability) and catalyst properties were evaluated. This study elucidates a distinctive mechanism of MCH dehydrogenation to TOL reaction over the Ni-based catalysts. Distinctive from Pt catalyst, a nearly positive half order with respect to H2 pressure was obtained for mono- and bi-metallic Ni based catalysts. This kinetic data was consistent with rate determining step as (somewhat paradoxically) hydrogenation

  11. Inspired Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Carol Frederick

    2011-01-01

    In terms of teacher quality, Steele believes the best teachers have reached a stage she terms inspired, and that teachers move progressively through the stages of unaware, aware, and capable until the most reflective teachers finally reach the inspired level. Inspired teachers have a wide repertoire of teaching and class management techniques and…

  12. Development of new deactivation method for simulation of fluid catalytic cracking equilibrium catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Chiranjeevi; D T Gokak; V Ravikumar; P S Viswanathan

    2014-03-01

    Selection of a good catalyst is the easiest way to increase profitability of a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit. During operation, these catalysts get deactivated due to operation at high temperatures, steam and deposition of metals on the catalyst. Developing a proper catalyst deactivation method is crucial for optimization of a good catalyst for FCC. Conventional laboratory deactivation procedures include direct metal impregnation method, cyclic deactivation method (CDM) and cyclic propylene steaming (CPS). Direct metal impregnation method gives higher coke and gas yields. CDM and CPS methods implementation is very difficult and time-consuming and there is a deviation in coke and gas yield. New rapid deactivation method has been developed to simulate plant equilibrium catalyst (E-Cat) by modifying metal impregnation, steaming and oxidation/reduction procedures. The E-Cat generated through a new deactivation method was characterized for physico-chemical properties using X ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), and SEM-EDX and activity studies. XRD studies show that metals are dispersed well on catalyst samples. SEMEDX studies reveal that the morphology of simulated E-Cat and plant E-Cat catalyst particles appear to be same. E-Cat obtained by new deactivationmethod gives better coke and gas yields. Two E-Cats were also generated through CDM and direct metal impregnation method for comparing with the one generated through new method. New deactivation method also significantly reduces the evaluation time.

  13. Development of heterogeneous base catalysts for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Ayato; Matsubara, Koh; Honda, Katsuhisa

    2008-06-01

    Investigations were conducted on heterogeneous base catalysts for the transesterification of oil aimed at effective production of biodiesel. Thirteen different kinds of metal oxides containing calcium, barium, magnesium, or lanthanum were prepared as catalysts. Their catalytic activities were tested for transesterification at 60 degrees C with a 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil and a reaction time of 10h. The calcium-containing catalysts - CaTiO3, CaMnO3, Ca2Fe2O5, CaZrO3, and CaO-CeO2 - showed high activities and approximately 90% yields of methyl ester. Furthermore, catalytic durability tests were performed by repeating the transesterification reaction several times with the calcium-containing catalysts recovered from the previous reaction mixture. It was found that CaZrO3 and CaO-CeO2 show high durability and have the potential to be used in biodiesel production processes as heterogeneous base catalysts.

  14. The development of precipitated iron catalysts with improved stability; Final report, September 1987--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrevaya, H.

    1993-12-27

    Precipitated iron catalysts are expected to be used in next generation slurry reactors for large-scale production of transportation fuels from synthesis gas. These reactors are expected to operate at higher temperatures and lower H{sub 2}:CO ratios relative to the Sasol Arge reactor (Table 1A). The feasibility of using iron catalysts has been demonstrated under relatively mild Arge-type conditions but not under more severe slurry conditions. Possibly, an improvement in catalytic stability will be needed to make iron catalysts suitable for slurry operation. This program was aimed at identifying the chemical principles governing the deactivation of precipitated iron catalysts during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and use of these chemical principles in the design of more stable catalysts. A new precipitated Fe catalyst was developed in this program for slurry reactor operation. The new Fe catalyst is predicted to perform slightly below the performance targets for slurry bubble column operation. Stability targets appear to be achievable. This catalyst did not noticeably deactivate during 1,740 hours on-stream. Compared to the selectivity target, an excess of 2% C{sub 1} + C{sub 2} was formed at 265{degrees}C. Based on the initial catalyst inventory in the autoclave, the catalyst seems to be short of the activity target by a factor of 1.8 at 265{degrees}C and 1.3 at 275{degrees}C. However, actual specific activities are likely to be closer to target because of catalyst inventory loss across the filter during the run and because catalytic activities were underestimated at low conversions.

  15. Scientist-teacher interactions: Catalysts for developing transformational classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Robbie Von

    Professional development leading to standards-based teaching practices in U.S. schools is a remarkably subtle and lengthy process. Research indicates that there are many effective tools for teaching through inquiry available to teachers (Lawson, Abraham, & Renner, 1989), but also that teachers continue to present traditional positivistic views of science (Hashweh, 1985; Maor & Taylor, 1995; Zucker, Young, & Luczak, 1996) and appear to view constructivism as a "method" of teaching rather than a way of thinking about learning (Tobin, Tippins, & Gallard, 1984). Teachers are expected to create enriched environments where students can develop the thinking skills of scientists (Roth & Roychoudhury, 1993) but the majority of teachers have never experienced such environments; the involvement of scientists in science education is encouraged by the NRC, AAAS, and NSTA. Teachers and students are expected to act as coresearchers, where negotiation, debate, consensus, and reflection are key. It is believed that scientist and teachers interacting as co-researchers could assist teachers in developing attitudes of freedom in exploration: the essence of science and a mindset that constructivism is a referent, or tool for critical reflection (Tobin, Tippins & Gallard, 1994). This study seeks to identify aspects of scientist-teacher interactions in the field that could serve as catalysts for developing transformational classrooms. Multiple data sources were collected for this study: audiotapes and transcripts of laboratory interactions and informal interviews, written narratives from applications and funding documents, field notes, and personal communications. Data were simultaneously collected, analyzed and coded as a perpetual review of the literature was conducted as in the grounded theory methodology defined by Glaser (1967) and later by Strauss & Corbin (1990). Findings indicate all four teachers valued field experiences in personal ways, developed new understandings of

  16. Accelerating process and catalyst development in reforming reactions with high throughput technologies under industrially relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, S.A.; Bollmann, G.; Froescher, A.; Kaiser, H.; Lange de Oliveira, A.; Roussiere, T.; Wasserschaff, G. [hte Aktiengesellschaft, Heidelberg (Germany); Domke, I. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    The generation of hydrogen via reforming of a variety of carbon containing feed-stocks in the presence of water is up to date one of the most versatile technologies for the production of hydrogen and syngas. Although these reforming technologies are in principle well established, understood and commercialized, there are still a number of technological challenges that are not solved up to a satisfactorily degree and there is a constant demand for appropriate answers to the challenges posed. High throughput experimentation can be a valuable tool in helping accelerate the development of suitable solutions on the catalyst and process development side. In order to be able to generate test data that are close or identical to process relevant conditions, hte has developed a new technology portfolio of test technologies named Stage-IV technology. In contrast to earlier developments which address more small scale testing on the basis of catalyst volumes of 1ml up to 10 ml under isothermal conditions, our new technology portfolio offers the advantage of test volumes at sub-pilot scale also realizing reactor dimensions close to technical applications. This does not only ensure a good mimic of the hydrodynamic conditions of the technical scale, but also allows a fingerprinting of features like temperature gradients in the catalyst bed which play a large role for catalyst performance. Apart from catalyst tests with granulates when screening for optimized catalyst compositions, the units are designed to accommodate tests with shaped catalysts. In order to demonstrate how these technologies can accelerate catalyst and process development we have chosen technically challenging application examples: (I) Pre-reforming and reforming of methane based feeds which accelerate coking and catalyst deactivation. Higher reaction pressures, high CO{sub 2} contents in the feedgas (which occur typically in sources like bio-gas or certain types of natural gas), the presence of higher alkanes

  17. Realizing an Optimization Approach Inspired from Piaget’s Theory on Cognitive Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utku Kose

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to introduce an artificial intelligence based optimization approach, which is inspired from Piaget’s theory on cognitive development. The approach has been designed according to essential processes that an individual may experience while learning something new or improving his / her knowledge. These processes are associated with the Piaget’s ideas on an individual’s cognitive development. The approach expressed in this paper is a simple algorithm employing swarm intelligence oriented tasks in order to overcome single-objective optimization problems. For evaluating effectiveness of this early version of the algorithm, test operations have been done via some benchmark functions. The obtained results show that the approach / algorithm can be an alternative to the literature in terms of single-objective optimization.The authors have suggested the name: Cognitive Development Optimization Algorithm (CoDOA for the related intelligent optimization approach.

  18. Bio-inspired catechol chemistry: a new way to develop a re-moldable and injectable coacervate hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yeon Jeong; Cho, Il Hwan; Lee, Haeshin; Park, Ki-Jung; Lee, Hyukjin; Park, Sung Young

    2012-12-18

    A new way is demonstrated to develop a bio-inspired coacervate hydrogel by following catechol chemistry showing injectable and re-moldable physical properties. The formed coacervate shows potential long-term stability under water. Depending on pH, formation of the coacervate has been verified which is confirmed by XPS and zeta potential measurements.

  19. Inspiration vs. perspiration in economic development of the Former Soviet Union and China (ca. 1920–2010)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, B.; Foldvari, P.; Didenko, D.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we discuss the role of both perspiration factors (physical and human capital) and inspiration factors (Total Factor Productivity) in the economic development of the Former Soviet Union area (FSU) and China, ca. 1920–2010. Using a newly created dataset, we find that during the Socialist central

  20. Development of catalysts and ligands for enantioselective gold catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Ming; Lackner, Aaron D; Toste, F Dean

    2014-03-18

    During the past decade, the use of Au(I) complexes for the catalytic activation of C-C π-bonds has been investigated intensely. Over this time period, the development of homogeneous gold catalysis has been extraordinarily rapid and has yielded a host of mild and selective methods for the formation of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. The facile formation of new bonds facilitated by gold naturally led to efforts toward rendering these transformations enantioselective. In this Account, we survey the development of catalysts and ligands for enantioselective gold catalysis by our research group as well as related work by others. We also discuss some of our strategies to address the challenges of enantioselective gold(I) catalysis. Early on, our work with enantioselective gold-catalyzed transformations focused on bis(phosphinegold) complexes derived from axially chiral scaffolds. Although these complexes were highly successful in some reactions like cyclopropanation, the careful choice of the weakly coordinating ligand (or counterion) was necessary to obtain high levels of enantioselectivity for the case of allene hydroamination. These counterion effects led us to use the anion itself as a source of chirality, which was successful in the case of allene hydroalkoxylation. In general, these tactics enhance the steric influence around the reactive gold center beyond the two-coordinate ligand environment. The use of binuclear complexes allowed us to use the second gold center and its associated ligand (or counterion) to exert a further steric influence. In a similar vein, we employed a chiral anion (in place of or in addition to a chiral ligand) to move the chiral information closer to the reactive center. In order to expand the scope of reactions amenable to enantioselective gold catalysis to cycloadditions and other carbocyclization processes, we also developed a new class of mononuclear phosphite and phosphoramidite ligands to supplement the previously widely

  1. Water–gas shift catalyst development for energy efficient applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakeem, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The water–gas shift (WGS) is a reversible, moderately exothermic reaction (1) and is used for the production of hydrogen from CO rich gas streams (synthesis gas). CO + H2O ⇆ CO2 + H2 ΔH°= –41 kJ mol−1 (1) This research has focused on the catalyst

  2. Development and Commercial Application of RFCC Catalyst for Reducing Sulfur Content in Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Mingde; Zhu Yuxia; Huang Lei; Hou Dianguo

    2007-01-01

    The sulfur-reducing functional component-the Lewis acid-base pair compound-and associated active zeolite component were developed to prepare the RFCC catalyst DOS for reducing sulfur content in gasoline.The results of catalyst evaluation have revealed that the Lewis acid-base pair compound developed hereby could enhance the conversion of macromolecular sulfur compounds by the catalyst to promote the proceeding of desulfurization reactions,and the synergetic action of the selected zeolite and the Lewis acid-base pair compound could definitely reduce the olefins and sulfur contents in gasoline.The heavy oil conversion capability of the catalyst DOS thus developed was higher coupled with an enhanced resistance to heavy metals contamination to reduce the sulfur content in gasoline by over 20%.The commercial application of this catalyst at the SINOPEC Jiujiang Branch Company has revealed that compared to the GRV-C catalyst the oil slurry yield obtained by the catalyst DOS was reduced along with an improved coke selectivity,an increased total liquid yield,and a decreased olefin content in gasoline.The ratio of sulfur in gasoline/sulfur in feed oil could be reduced by 20.3 m%.

  3. Developing a web-based information resource for palliative care: an action-research inspired approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gliddon Terry

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners and community nurses rely on easily accessible, evidence-based online information to guide practice. To date, the methods that underpin the scoping of user-identified online information needs in palliative care have remained under-explored. This paper describes the benefits and challenges of a collaborative approach involving users and experts that informed the first stage of the development of a palliative care website 1. Method The action research-inspired methodology included a panel assessment of an existing palliative care website based in Victoria, Australia; a pre-development survey (n = 197 scoping potential audiences and palliative care information needs; working parties conducting a needs analysis about necessary information content for a redeveloped website targeting health professionals and caregivers/patients; an iterative evaluation process involving users and experts; as well as a final evaluation survey (n = 166. Results Involving users in the identification of content and links for a palliative care website is time-consuming and requires initial resources, strong networking skills and commitment. However, user participation provided crucial information that led to the widened the scope of the website audience and guided the development and testing of the website. The needs analysis underpinning the project suggests that palliative care peak bodies need to address three distinct audiences (clinicians, allied health professionals as well as patients and their caregivers. Conclusion Web developers should pay close attention to the content, language, and accessibility needs of these groups. Given the substantial cost associated with the maintenance of authoritative health information sites, the paper proposes a more collaborative development in which users can be engaged in the definition of content to ensure relevance and responsiveness, and to eliminate unnecessary detail. Access to

  4. Bio-inspired patterned networks (BIPS) for development of wearable/disposable biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLamore, E. S.; Convertino, M.; Hondred, John; Das, Suprem; Claussen, J. C.; Vanegas, D. C.; Gomes, C.

    2016-05-01

    Here we demonstrate a novel approach for fabricating point of care (POC) wearable electrochemical biosensors based on 3D patterning of bionanocomposite networks. To create Bio-Inspired Patterned network (BIPS) electrodes, we first generate fractal network in silico models that optimize transport of network fluxes according to an energy function. Network patterns are then inkjet printed onto flexible substrate using conductive graphene ink. We then deposit fractal nanometal structures onto the graphene to create a 3D nanocomposite network. Finally, we biofunctionalize the surface with biorecognition agents using covalent bonding. In this paper, BIPS are used to develop high efficiency, low cost biosensors for measuring glucose as a proof of concept. Our results on the fundamental performance of BIPS sensors show that the biomimetic nanostructures significantly enhance biosensor sensitivity, accuracy, response time, limit of detection, and hysteresis compared to conventional POC non fractal electrodes (serpentine, interdigitated, and screen printed electrodes). BIPs, in particular Apollonian patterned BIPS, represent a new generation of POC biosensors based on nanoscale and microscale fractal networks that significantly improve electrical connectivity, leading to enhanced sensor performance.

  5. PROGRESS IN CATALYST AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR LOW SULFUR AND LOW AROMATICS DIESEL PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUYong; HANChong-ren

    2003-01-01

    The article includes three parts:①The development and performance of FH-DS catalyst for deep and ultra -deep distillate HDS;②The single stage HDS/HDA hydrotreating process for the production of low sulfur and low aromatics diesels from straight run and coker AGO by using highly active base metal catalyst at moderate pressure;③A two-stage aromatics saturation system utilizing noble metal catalyst in the second stage developed for production of low sulfur and low aromatics diesel from LCO.FDA catalyst developed by FRIPP has high activity for aromatics saturation together with high tolerance for sulfur and nitrogen in the feed.The process is effective in reducing density and increasing cetane number.

  6. Metalloporphyrin catalysts for oxygen reduction developed using computer-aided molecular design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryba, G.N.; Hobbs, J.D.; Shelnutt, J.A. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a new class of metalloporphyrin materials used as catalsyts for use in fuel cell applications. The metalloporphyrins are excellent candidates for use as catalysts at both the anode and cathode. The catalysts reduce oxygen in 1 M potassium hydroxide, as well as in 2 M sulfuric acid. Covalent attachment to carbon supports is being investigated. The computer-aided molecular design is an iterative process, in which experimental results feed back into the design of future catalysts.

  7. ADVANCES ON THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CATALYSTS FOR TOLUENE DISPROPORTIONATION AND C9 AROMATICS TRANSALKYLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qingling; Xie Zaiku

    2001-01-01

    Advances on the development of commercial catalysts using in the processes such as Tatoray(Toluene Disproportionation and C9 Aromatics Transalkylation of UOP Company), MTDP (Toluene Disproportionation Process of Mobil Company), S-TDT (Toluene Disproportionation and C9 Aromatics Transalkylation of SRIPT), Trans-Plus, PX-Plus (Selective Toluene Disproportionation of UOP Company) and MSTDP (Selective Toluene Disproportionation Process on Mobils ZSM-5 catalyst) have been reviewed. The trends on the research of the new catalysts such as ZSM-5,Beta, MCM-22, Omega, SAPO and modified Y for the selective toluene disproportionation process and for the toluene disproportionation and C9 aromatics transalkylation have been described.

  8. Developing predictive insight into changing water systems: use-inspired hydrologic science for the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. E.; Sivapalan, M.; Harman, C. J.; Srinivasan, V.; Hipsey, M. R.; Reed, P.; Montanari, A.; Blöschl, G.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, many different kinds of water resources management issues call for policy- and infrastructure-based responses. Yet responsible decision-making about water resources management raises a fundamental challenge for hydrologists: making predictions about water resources on decadal- to century-long timescales. Obtaining insight into hydrologic futures over 100 yr timescales forces researchers to address internal and exogenous changes in the properties of hydrologic systems. To do this, new hydrologic research must identify, describe and model feedbacks between water and other changing, coupled environmental subsystems. These models must be constrained to yield useful insights, despite the many likely sources of uncertainty in their predictions. Chief among these uncertainties are the impacts of the increasing role of human intervention in the global water cycle - a defining challenge for hydrology in the Anthropocene. Here we present a research agenda that proposes a suite of strategies to address these challenges from the perspectives of hydrologic science research. The research agenda focuses on the development of co-evolutionary hydrologic modeling to explore coupling across systems, and to address the implications of this coupling on the long-time behavior of the coupled systems. Three research directions support the development of these models: hydrologic reconstruction, comparative hydrology and model-data learning. These strategies focus on understanding hydrologic processes and feedbacks over long timescales, across many locations, and through strategic coupling of observational and model data in specific systems. We highlight the value of use-inspired and team-based science that is motivated by real-world hydrologic problems but targets improvements in fundamental understanding to support decision-making and management. Fully realizing the potential of this approach will ultimately require detailed integration of social science and physical science

  9. Development and reactivity tests of Ce-Zr-based Claus catalysts for coal gas cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No-Kuk Park; Dong Cheul Han; Gi Bo Han; Si Ok Ryu; Tae Jin Lee; Ki Jun Yoon [Yeungnam University, Gyeongbuk (Republic of Korea). National Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2007-09-15

    Claus reaction (2H{sub 2}S + SO{sub 2} {leftrightarrow} 3/nS{sub n} + 2H{sub 2}O) was used to clean the gasified coal gas and the reactivity of several metal oxide-based catalysts on Claus reaction was investigated at various operating conditions. In order to convert H{sub 2}S contained in the gasified coal gas to elemental sulfur during Claus reaction, the catalysts having the high activity under the highly reducing condition with the moisture should be developed. CeO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and Ce{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}O{sub 2} catalysts were prepared for Claus reaction and their reactivity changes due to the existence of the reducing gases and H{sub 2}O in the fuel gas was investigated in this study. The Ce-based catalysts shows that their activity was deteriorated by the reduction of the catalyst due to the reducing gases at higher than 220{sup o}C. Meanwhile, the effect of the reducing gases on the catalytic activity was not considerable at low temperature. The activities of all three catalysts were degraded on the condition that the moisture existed in the test gas. Specifically, the Ce-based catalysts were remarkably deactivated by their sulfation. The Ce-Zr-based catalyst had a high catalytic activity when the reducing gases and the moisture co-existed in the simulated fuel gas. The deactivation of the Ce-Zr-based catalyst was not observed in this study. The lattice oxygen of the Ce-based catalyst was used for the oxidation of H{sub 2}S and the lattice oxygen vacancy on the catalyst was contributed to the reduction of SO{sub 2}. ZrO{sub 2} added to the Ce-Zr-based catalyst improved the redox properties of the catalyst in Claus reaction by increasing the mobility of the lattice oxygen of CeO{sub 2}. 21 refs., 14 figs.

  10. Development of MCM-41 based catalysts for the photo-Fenton's degradation of dye pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Leung Yuk Frank

    The continuous advancement in most industries has resulted in serious water pollution problems. The industrial effluents contain a variety of highly toxic organics such as dye pollutants. Numerous processes have been demonstrated for treating such pollutants. Among them, photo-Fenton's reaction is effective for organic mineralization by hydroxyl radicals generated from the Fenton's reagents (Fe2+ and H2O2). However, there is a drawback in that it requires a separation system to recover the homogeneous ferrous ion in the treated wastewater. In this research, new heterogeneous Fenton's catalysts are developed to solve such a problem and to achieve an efficient mineralization of dye pollutants. Two methods for catalyst preparation, including sol-gel hydrothermal (SG) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques, were studied in this work. For SG-prepared catalysts, the iron element was successfully doped into the MCM-41 structure. These catalysts demonstrated a good catalytic efficiency but leaching of metal ions from the developed catalyst was found. In the MOCVD technique, a rotated tubular reactor system was developed to synthesize Fe/MCM-41 catalyst with uniform metal dispersion. It was found that using oxygen as a carrier gas during metal deposition was able to increase the stability of the deposited metal. In degradation of a model dye pollutant, Orange II, a total of 85% TOC mineralization was achieved at pH 3. A disadvantage of using Fe/MCM-41 was the reduced efficiency at higher pH. Cu/MCM-41 was thus developed and showed better catalytic activities than Fe/MCM-41 at neutral pH. Having the specific catalytic properties of Fe/MCM-41 and Cu/MCM-41, bimetallic (Fe+Cu) catalysts supported on MCM-41 were developed which show better activities in the Orange II mineralization than those monometallic (Fe or Cu) catalysts. The preparation conditions of the catalysts were experimentally optimized. The effects of catalyst dosage, metal loading

  11. Developing predictive insight into changing water systems: use-inspired hydrologic science for the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Thompson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, many different kinds of water resources management issues call for policy and infrastructure based responses. Yet responsible decision making about water resources management raises a fundamental challenge for hydrologists: making predictions about water resources on decadal-to-century long timescales. Obtaining insight into hydrologic futures over 100 yr timescales forces researchers to address internal and exogenous changes in the properties of hydrologic systems. To do this, new hydrologic research must identify, describe and model feedbacks between water and other changing, coupled environmental subsystems. These models must be constrained to yield useful insights, despite the many likely sources of uncertainty in their predictions. Chief among these uncertainties are the impacts of the increasing role of human intervention in the global water cycle – a defining challenge for hydrology in the Anthropocene. Here we present a research agenda that proposes a suite of strategies to address these challenges. The research agenda focuses on the development of co-evolutionary hydrologic modeling to explore coupling across systems, and to address the implications of this coupling on the long-time behavior of the coupled systems. Three research directions support the development of these models: hydrologic reconstruction, comparative hydrology and model-data learning. These strategies focus on understanding hydrologic processes and feedbacks over long timescales, across many locations, and through strategic coupling of observational and model data in specific systems. We highlight the value of use-inspired and team-based science that is motivated by real-world hydrologic problems but targets improvements in fundamental understanding to support decision-making and management.

  12. Development of Self-Assembled Supramolecular Catalysts and Their Applications to Organic Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiro IKEGAMI

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In modern synthetic organic chemistry, the development of efficient reagent or catalyst recycling systems is regarded as one of the most important topics. We have previously reported a self-assembled process between poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) based polymer ligands and an inorganic species[1]. This process afforded a networked supramolecular complex where the polymers are cross-linked together by the inorganic species. Thus obtained complex was insoluble in water and worked as an efficient triphase catalyst.

  13. Development of Coke-tolerant Transition Metal Catalysts for Dry Reforming of Methane

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Sabban, Bedour E.

    2016-11-07

    Dry reforming of methane (DRM) is an attractive and promising process for the conversion of methane and carbon dioxide which are the most abundant carbon sources into valuable syngas. The produced syngas, which is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, can be used as intermediates in the manufacture of numerous chemicals. To achieve high conversion, DRM reaction is operated at high temperatures (700-900 °C) that can cause major drawbacks of catalyst deactivation by carbon deposition, metal sintering or metal oxidation. Therefore, the primary goal is to develop a metal based catalyst for DRM that can completely suppress carbon formation by designing the catalyst composition. The strategy of this work was to synthesize Ni-based catalysts all of which prepared by homogeneous deposition precipitation method (HDP) to produce nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. In addition, control the reactivity of the metal by finely tuning the bimetallic composition and the reaction conditions in terms of reaction temperature and pressure. The highly endothermic dry reforming of methane proceeds via CH4 decomposition to leave surface carbon species, followed by removal of C with CO2-derived species to give CO. Tuning the reactivity of the active metal towards these reactions during DRM allows in principle the catalyst surface to remain active and clean without carbon deposition for a long-term. The initial attempt was to improve the resistance of Ni catalyst towards carbon deposition, therefore, a series of 5 wt.% bimetallic Ni9Pt1 were supported on various metal oxides (Al2O3, CeO2, and ZrO2). The addition of small amount of noble metal improved the stability of the catalyst compared to their monometallic Ni and Pt catalysts, but still high amount of carbon (> 0.1 wt.%) was formed after 24 h of the reaction. The obtained results showed that the catalytic performance, particle size and amount of deposited carbon depends on the nature of support. Among the tested

  14. Recent development of supported monometallic gold as heterogeneous catalyst for selective liquid phase hydrogenation reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thushara Kandaramath Hari; Zahira Yaakob

    2015-01-01

    The great potential of gold catalysts for chemical conversions in both industrial and environmental concerns has attracted increasing interest in many fields of research. Gold nanoparticles supported by metal oxides with high surface area have been recognized as highly efficient and effective green heterogeneous catalyst even at room temperature under normal reaction conditions, in gas and liquid phase reactions. In the present review, we dis-cuss the recent development of heterogeneous, supported monometal ic gold catalysts for organic transforma-tions emphasizing mainly liquid phase hydrogenation reactions. Discussions on the catalytic synthesis procedures and the promoting effect of other noble metals are omitted since they are already worked out. Appli-cations of heterogeneous, supported monometal ic catalysts for chemoselective hydrogenations in liquid phase are studied including potential articles during the period 2000–2013.

  15. Recent developments in bio-inspired sensors fabricated by additive manufacturing technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijs J.M.; Sanders, Remco G.P.

    2017-01-01

    In our work on micro-fabricated hair-sensors, inspired by the flow-sensitive sensors found on crickets, we have made great progress. Initially delivering mediocre performance compared to their natural counter parts they have evolved into capable sensors with thresholds roughly a factor of 30 larger

  16. Development of Advanced ISS-WPA Catalysts for Organic Oxidation at Reduced Pressure/Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Nalette, Tim; Kayatin, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The Water Processor Assembly (WPA) at International Space Station (ISS) processes a waste stream via multi-filtration beds, where inorganic and non-volatile organic contaminants are removed, and a catalytic reactor, where low molecular weight organics not removed by the adsorption process are oxidized at elevated pressure in the presence of oxygen and elevated temperature above the normal water boiling point. Operation at an elevated pressure requires a more complex system design compared to a reactor that could operate at ambient pressure. However, catalysts currently available have insufficient activity to achieve complete oxidation of the organic load at a temperature less than the water boiling point and ambient pressure. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop a more active and efficient catalyst at ambient pressure and a moderate temperature that is less than water boiling temperature. This paper describes our efforts in developing high efficiency water processing catalysts. Different catalyst support structures and coating metals were investigated in subscale reactors and results were compared against the flight WPA catalyst. Detailed improvements achieved on alternate metal catalysts at ambient pressure and 200 F will also be presented in the paper.

  17. Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barger, P.T.; Spehlmann, B.C.; Gajda, G.J.

    1996-10-01

    The initial objective of this program was to develop a catalyst and process for the conversion of synthesis gas to isobutylene via the isosynthesis process. Preliminary work directed at identifying potential catalysts for this reaction did not have promising results. Therefore, the objectives of this program were revised to the development of a catalyst and process for the conversion of synthesis gas to isobutanol. Two approaches have been investigated in this area: the direct conversion of synthesis gas to higher alcohols and indirect conversion via methanol produced using conventional methanol synthesis technology. The isosynthesis reaction for the conversion of synthesis gas to branched hydrocarbons was pioneered by German workers during World War II The primary products of this reaction are either isobutane or isobutylene depending on the catalyst system used. Thoria-based catalysts were found to give the highest yields, but virtually all of the products were alkanes. More recently, there have been several reports of olefin production using ZrO{sub 2}-based. The preliminary work in this program focussed on the evaluation of ZrO{sub 2} and modified ZrO{sub 2} catalysts for the direct conversion of CO/H{sub 2} to isobutylene via the isosynthesis reaction. All of the catalysts and conditions evaluated in this work gave isobutylene yields of less than 4% which is far below that required for an economically viable process. A summary of the key results from this portion of the project is given in Section 3.6. In view of the poor performance of these catalysts and the lack any encouraging results from other research groups working in the isosynthesis area, this approach was abandoned in favor of approaches related to higher alcohols synthesis.

  18. Development of a supported tri-metallic catalyst and evaluation of the catalytic activity in biomass steam gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfen; Xiao, Bo; Yan, Rong; Xu, Xiaorong

    2009-11-01

    A supported tri-metallic catalyst (nano-Ni-La-Fe/gamma-Al(2)O(3)) was developed for tar reduction and enhanced hydrogen production in biomass steam gasification, with focuses on preventing coke deposition and sintering effects to lengthen the lifetime of developed catalysts. The catalyst was prepared by deposition-precipitation method and characterized by various analytical approaches. Following that, the activity of catalysts in biomass steam gasification was investigated in a bench-scale combined fixed bed reactor. With presence of the catalyst, the content of hydrogen in gas products was increased to over 10 vol.%, the tar removal efficiency reached 99% at 1073 K, and more importantly the coke deposition on the catalyst surfaces and sintering effects were avoided, leading to a long lifetime of catalysts.

  19. Quality Service in the International Hotel Sector: A Catalyst for Strategic Human Resource Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gill; Watson, Sandra; Quail, Samantha

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the nature of, and relationship between, a quality service initiative and the concept of strategic human resource development. Hilton International is the case study used for this analysis. The principal finding is that the quality initiative is acting as a catalyst for a strategic approach to human resource development to…

  20. (Invited) Towards the Development of Active, Stable and Abundant Catalysts for Oxygen Evolution in Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Paoli, Elisa Antares; Frydendal, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    . Should this activity be stabilised for instance, by utilising a more stable oxide such as TiOx or IrOx,(6, 7) PEM electrolysis could indeed be scalable to the TW level. Alternatively, the precious metal catalysts could be eliminated altogether and replaced by abundant, active and stable catalysts......Ox does indeed engender MnOx with modest stability. Further development of this strategy opens up the possibility of developing active, stable and abundant non-precious metal oxides for oxygen evolution in acid. References 1. M. K. Debe, S. M. Hendricks, G. D. Vernstrom, M. Meyers, M. Brostrom, M...

  1. Development of catalyst for diesel engine; Diesel engine yo shokubai no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, H.; Furutani, T.; Nagami, T. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Aono, N.; Goshima, H.; Kasahara, K. [Cataler Industrial Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The new concept catalyst for diesel engine has been developed. When the exhaust temperature is low, SOF and HC are temporarily adsorbed by the adsorbent within the catalyst and are oxidized as the temperature rise. The process of this development have manifested as follows. (1) The coating material is important factor to govern the oxidation activity. (2) SOF is reduced by the coating material in low temperature less than 200degC. (3) The coating material, which has low SO2 adsorbing rate suppress the sulfate formation at high temperature. 2 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. A bioinspired iron catalyst for nitrate and perchlorate reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Courtney L; Park, Yun Ji; Matson, Ellen M; Gordon, Zachary; Fout, Alison R

    2016-11-11

    Nitrate and perchlorate have considerable use in technology, synthetic materials, and agriculture; as a result, they have become pervasive water pollutants. Industrial strategies to chemically reduce these oxyanions often require the use of harsh conditions, but microorganisms can efficiently reduce them enzymatically. We developed an iron catalyst inspired by the active sites of nitrate reductase and (per)chlorate reductase enzymes. The catalyst features a secondary coordination sphere that aids in oxyanion deoxygenation. Upon reduction of the oxyanions, an iron(III)-oxo is formed, which in the presence of protons and electrons regenerates the catalyst and releases water.

  3. Development of Ultra-Low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalysts for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, Branko N. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Weidner, John [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2016-01-07

    The goal of this project is to synthesize a low cost PEM fuel cell cathode catalyst and support with optimized average mass activity, stability of mass activity, initial high current density performance under H2/air (power density), and catalyst and support stability able to meet 2017 DOE targets for electrocatalysts for transportation applications. Pt*/ACCS-2 catalyst was synthesized according to a novel methodology developed at USC through: (i) surface modification, (ii) metal catalyzed pyrolysis and (iii) chemical leaching to remove excess meal used to dope the support. Pt* stands for suppressed platinum catalyst synthesized with Co doped platinum. The procedure results in increasing carbon graphitization, inclusion of cobalt in the bulk and formation of non-metallic active sites on the carbon surface. Catalytic activity of the support shows an onset potential of 0.86 V for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with well-defined kinetic and mass transfer regions and 2.5% H2O2 production. Pt*/ACCS-2 catalyst durability under 0.6-1.0 V potential cycling and support stability under 1.0-1.5 V potential cycling was evaluated. The results indicated excellent catalyst and support performance under simulated start-up/shut down operating conditions (1.0 – 1.5 V, 5000 cycles) which satisfy DOE 2017 catalyst and support durability and activity. The 30% Pt*/ACCS-2 catalyst showed high initial mass activity of 0.34 A/mgPGM at 0.9 ViR-free and loss of mass activity of 45% after 30,000 cycles (0.6-1.0 V). The catalyst performance under H2-air fuel cell operating conditions showed only 24 mV (iR-free) loss at 0.8 A/cm2 with an ECSA loss of 42% after 30,000 cycles (0.6-1.0 V). The support stability under 1.0-1.5 V potential cycling showed mass activity loss of 50% and potential loss of 8 mV (iR-free) at 1.5 A/cm2. The ECSA loss was 22% after 5,000 cycles. Furthermore, the Pt*/ACCS-2 catalyst showed an

  4. Development of new smart materials and spinning systems inspired by natural silks and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    Silks produced by spiders and silkworms are charming natural biological materials with highly optimized hierarchical structures and outstanding physicomechanical properties. The superior performance of silks relies on the integration of a unique protein sequence, a distinctive spinning process, and complex hierarchical structures. Silks have been prepared to form a variety of morphologies and are widely used in diverse applications, for example, in the textile industry, as drug delivery vehicles, and as tissue engineering scaffolds. This review presents an overview of the organization of natural silks, in which chemical and physical functions are optimized, as well as a range of new materials inspired by the desire to mimic natural silk structure and synthesis.

  5. Strategies for catalyst development: possibilities of the ``rational approach`` illustrated with partial oxidation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W.; Schedel-Niedrig, T.; Schloegl, R. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Oberflaechenphysik

    1998-12-31

    The paper discusses two petrochemical selective oxidation reactions namely the practised formation of styrene (STY) and the desired oxidative functionalisation of propane. The present knowledge about the mode of operation of oxide catalysts is critically considered. The dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene (EB) should be described by an oxidehydration with water acting as oxidant. The potential role of the coke formed during catalytic reaction as co-catalyst will be discussed. Selective oxidation is connected with the participation of lattice oxygen mechanism which transforms unselective gas phase oxygen into selective oxygen. The atomistic description of this process is still quite unclear as well as the electron structural properties of the activated oxygen atom. The Role of solid state acidity as compared to the role of lattice oxygen is much less well investigated modern multiphase-multielement oxide (MMO) catalysts. The rationale is that the significant efforts made to improve current MMO systems by chemical modifications can be very much more fruitful when in a first step the mode of action of a catalyst is clarified on the basis of suitable experiments. Such time-consuming experiments at the beginning of a campaign for catalyst improvement pay back their investment in later stages of the project when strategies of chemical development can be derived on grounds of understanding. (orig.)

  6. Development of Hydrocracking Catalyst to Produce High Quality Clean Middle Distillates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xuejun; Zhang Zhihua

    2004-01-01

    A novel hydrocracking Ni-W binary catalyst was tentatively designed and prepared by means of impregnation on mixed supports of modified Y zeolite and amorphous aluminosilicate. The structure and properties of catalyst were extensively characterized by XRD, NH3-TPD, IR and XRF techniques. The performance of catalyst was evaluated by a 100-ml hydrogenation laboratory test unit with two single-stage fixed-bed reactors connected in series. The characterization results showed that the catalyst has a developed and concentrated mesopores distribution, suitable acid sites and acid strength distribution, and uniform and high dispersion of metal sites. Under a high conversion rate of 73.8% with the >350℃ feedstock, a 98. 1m% of C5+yield and 83.5% of middle distillates selectivity were obtained. The yield of middle distillates boiling between 140℃and 370℃ was 68.70m% and its quality could meet the WWFC category Ⅲ specification. It means that this catalyst could be used to produce more high quality clean middle distillates derived from heavy oil hydrocracking. The potential aromatic content of heavy naphtha from 65℃ to 140℃ was 37.5m%. The BMCI value of >370℃ tail oil was 6.6. The heavy naphtha and tail oil are premium feedstocks for catalytic reforming and steam cracker units.

  7. Recent Development of Catalysts for Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds in Flue Gas by Combustion: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tomatis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from anthropogenic sources pose direct and indirect hazards to both atmospheric environment and human health due to their contribution to the formation of photochemical smog and potential toxicity including carcinogenicity. Therefore, to abate VOCs emission, the catalytic oxidation process has been extensively studied in laboratories and widely applied in various industries. This report is mainly focused on the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX with additional discussion about chlorinated VOCs. This review covers the recent developments in catalytic combustion of VOCs over noble metal catalysts, nonnoble metal catalysts, perovskite catalysts, spinel catalysts, and dual functional adsorbent-catalysts. In addition, the effects of supports, coke formation, and water effects have also been discussed. To develop efficient and cost-effective catalysts for VOCs removal, further research in catalytic oxidation might need to be carried out to strengthen the understanding of catalytic mechanisms involved.

  8. Recent Developments in Doping and Structural Modification of Ceria-Based Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Changgen; Fan Guodong

    2005-01-01

    Recent development in the modification of ceria-based catalysts for exhaust gas treatment was reviewed with the dependence of redox properties on structural characters of materials. The doping of ceria with different cations such as rare earth or transition metal oxides results in improvement of structural stability, catalytic function and resistance to sintering at high temperatures. Aging and reduction treatment at high temperatures promote ceria reduction and is beneficial for oxygen storage capacity of the three-way catalysts. Chemical filing technique is very effective in modifying the redox property in the low temperature regions.

  9. Request for Information from entities interested in commercializing Laboratory-developed homogeneous catalyst technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intrator, Miranda Huang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-25

    Many industrial catalysts used for homogeneous hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of unsaturated substrates are derived from metal complexes that include (air-sensitive) ligands that are often expensive and difficult to synthesize. In particular, catalysts used for many hydrogenations are based on phosphorus containing ligands (in particular PNP pincer systems). These ligands are often difficult to make, are costly, are constrained to having two carbon atoms in the ligand backbone and are susceptible to oxidation at phosphorus, making their use somewhat complicated. Los Alamos researchers have recently developed a new and novel set of ligands that are based on a NNS (ENENES) skeleton (i.e. no phosphorus donors, just nitrogen and sulfur).

  10. Development of Ni-Based Catalysts for Steam Reforming of Tar Derived from Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dalin LI; Yoshinao NAKAGAWA; Keiichi TOMISHIGE

    2012-01-01

    Nickel catalysts are effective for the steam reforming of tar derived from biomass pyrolysis,but the improvement is needed in terms of activity,stability,suppression of coke deposition and aggregation,and regeneration.Our recent development of Ni-based catalysts for the steam reforming of tar is reviewed including the modification with CeO2 (or MnO),trace Pt,and MgO.The role of additives such as CeO2,MnO,Pt,and MgO is also discussed.

  11. Histidine-containing peptide catalysts developed by a facile library screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagawa, Kengo; Sakai, Nobutaka; Kudo, Kazuaki

    2015-02-02

    Although peptide catalysts have a high potential for the use as organocatalysts, the optimization of peptide sequences is laborious and time-consuming. To address this issue, a facile screening method for finding efficient aminocatalysts from a peptide library has been developed. In the screening for the Michael addition of a malonate to an enal, a dye-labeled product is immobilized on resin-bound peptides through reductive amination to visualize active catalysts. This procedure allows for the monitoring of the reactivity of entire peptides without modifying the resin beads beforehand. Peptides containing histidine at an appropriate position were identified by this method. A novel function of the histidyl residue, which enhances the binding of a substrate to the catalyst by capturing an iminium intermediate, was indicated.

  12. Development and Commercial Application of Ultra-Low Pressure Naphtha Reforming Technology with Continuous Catalyst Regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Aizeng; Xu Youchun; Yang Dong; Zhang Xinkuan; Wang Jieguang

    2013-01-01

    The development history and major technological innovations of the ultra-low pressure naphtha reforming tech-nology with continuous catalyst regeneration in China were introduced. This technology had been adopted by the 1.0 Mt/a CCR unit at the Guangzhou Company. The appropriate catalyst was selected to meet the demand of the unit capacity, the feedstock, and the product slate. The design parameters, including the reaction pressure, the octane number of C5+ liquid product, the reaction temperature, the space velocity, the hydrogen/oil molar ratio, and the catalyst circulating rate, were chosen based on the study of process conditions and parameters. The commercial test results showed that the research oc-tane number of C5+ product reached 104 when the capacity of the CCR unit was 100% and 115% of the design value. The other technical targets attained or exceeded the expected value.

  13. Visible-Light-Responsive Catalyst Development for Volatile Organic Carbon Remediation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Hintze, Paul E.; Coutts, Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysis is a process in which light energy is used to 'activate' oxidation/reduction reactions. Unmodified titanium dioxide (TiO2), a common photocatalyst, requires high-energy UV light for activation due to its large band gap (3.2 eV). Modification of TiO2 can reduce this band gap, leading to visible-light-responsive (VLR) photocatalysts. These catalysts can utilize solar and/or visible wavelength LED lamps as an activation source, replacing mercury-containing UV lamps, to create a "greener," more energy-efficient means for air and water revitalization. Recently, KSC developed several VLR catalysts that, on preliminary evaluation, possessed high catalytic activity within the visible spectrum; these samples out-performed existing commercial VLR catalysts.

  14. Development and screening of selective catalysts for the synthesis of clean liquid fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, J.J.F.; Xiaoding, Xu; Drecken, von der C.-B.; Höhlein, B.; Mausbeck, D.; Ross, J.R.H.; Slaa, J.; Hoffmann, U.; Kunz, U.; Stölting, H.

    1994-01-01

    This article is a compilation of the research carried out under EEC contract EN3V-0400-D at the Institut für Energieverfahrenstechnik in Jülich and at the Faculty of Chemical Technology and Materials Science, Delft, concerning the development and screening of copper/cobalt-based catalysts for the sy

  15. Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, A.H.

    1994-05-31

    The goal of this project is the development of a commercially viable, cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst for use in a slurry bubble column reactor. Cobalt-based catalysts have long been known as being active for F-T synthesis. They typically possess greater activity than iron-based catalysts, historically the predominant catalyst being used commercially for the conversion of syngas based on coal, but possess two disadvantages that somewhat lessen its value: (1) cobalt tends to make more methane than iron does, and (2) cobalt is less versatile with low H{sub 2}/CO ratio syngas due to its lack of water-gas shift activity. Therefore, the major objectives of this work are (1) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with low (< 5 %) methane selectivity, (2) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with water-gas shift activity, and (3) to combine both these improvements into one catalyst. It will be demonstrated that these catalysts have the desired activity, selectivity, and life, and can be made reproducibly. Following this experimental work, a design and a cost estimate will be prepared for a plant to produce sufficient quantities of catalyst for scale-up studies.

  16. INSPIRE and MarCO - Technology Development for the First Deep Space CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    INSPIRE (Interplanetary NanoSpacecraft Pathfinder In a Relevant Environment) and MarCO (Mars Cube One) will open the door for tiny spacecraft to explore the solar system. INSPIRE serves as a trailblazer, designed to demonstrate new technology needed for deep space. MarCO will open the door for NanoSpacecraft to serve in support roles for much larger primary missions - in this case, providing a real-time relay of for the InSight project and will likely be the first CubeSats to reach deep space. Together, these four spacecraft (two for each mission) enable fundamental science objectives to be met with tiny vehicles. Originally designed for a March, 2016 launch with the InSight mission to Mars, the MarCO spacecraft are now complete and in storage. When launched with the InSight lander from Vandenberg Air Force Base, the spacecraft will begin a 6.5 month cruise to Mars. Soon after InSight itself separates from the upper stage of the launch vehicle, the two MarCO CubeSats will deploy and independently fly to Mars to support telecommunications relay for InSight's entry, descent, and landing sequence. These spacecraft will have onboard capability for deep space trajectory correction maneuvers; high-speed direct-to-Earth & DSN-compatible communications; an advanced navigation transponder; a large deployable reflect-array high gain antenna; and a robust software suite. This talk will present an overview of the INSPIRE and MarCO projects, including a concept of operations, details of the spacecraft and subsystem design, and lessons learned from integration and test. Finally, the talk will outline how lessons from these spacecraft are already being utilized in the next generation of interplanetary CubeSats, as well as a brief vision of their applicability for solar system exploration. The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  17. Development of Auto Exhaust Catalysts and Associated Application of Rare Earths in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓东; 翁端

    2004-01-01

    There are at least three obvious trends in the developments of automotive market in China: the evolution of emission standards from Euro Ⅱ to Euro Ⅲ, the demand of lean-burn gasoline engine and the time of diesel vehicles. The latest application and advances of exhaust catalysts by Chinese researchers, using some high effcient, economical and durable methods to meet these changes in emission regulations laws and engine technologies, were described. Rare earth oxides, such as lanthana, ceria-based solid solutions and perovskite-type oxides, are widely used as excellent promoters for thermal stability, oxygen storage capacity and oxidation/reduction activity in these catalysts. Four phases in the development of the auto exhaust catalyst industry in China since the mid 1970s were reviewed. It is argued that China will become the center of global auto exhaust catalysts industry in the next decades with its economic, technical and environmental incentives, which greatly depends on the research and development of rare earth.

  18. Hydrocracking for oriented conversion of heavy oils. Recent trends for catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoncini, F.; Bonduelle, A.; Simon, L.J. [IFP Energies nouvelles, Lyon Establishment, Solaize (France). Catalysis and separation Division; Raybaud, P.; Dulot, H. [IFP Energies nouvelles, Lyon Establishment, Solaize (France). Process Desing Modeling Division

    2011-07-01

    As a result of the global economic crisis since the end of 2008, HCK operators have been looking to increase the profitability of the unit by processing heavier feed streams, including sourer VGO. These feeds present the drawbacks of increased H{sub 2} consumption, lower products yields and quality, and reduction in cycle lengths. Along with optimised process parameters, catalysts manufacturers are also investigating novel formulations to deal with challenging feeds. This lecture briefly summarizes the market trends (fuel demand, refinery's product specification) and the driving forces for HCK catalyst development in order to face these new challenges. Finally, this lecture highlights the innovating trends for HCK catalyst's development. Overview of various ideas developed recently in our research laboratory about (i) rational approaches for the atomic scale design of active phases (morphology, preparation, inhibitor effects), (ii) new preparations of transition metal sulphides for maximising the hydrogenating function (precursors, activation,.), (iii) rational approaches of HCK acidic supports for maximizing the selectivity and (iv) better understanding of HCK reactions. These improvements will be discussed in term of improvement of activity and selectivity of HCK catalyst to cope with future market needs. (orig.)

  19. Development of new smart materials and spinning systems inspired by natural silks and their applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eCheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silks produced by spiders and silkworms are charming natural biological materials with highly optimized hierarchical structures and outstanding physicomechanical properties. The superior performance of silks relies on the integration of a unique protein sequence, a distinctive spinning process, and complex hierarchical structures. Silks have been prepared to form a variety of morphologies and are widely used in diverse applications, for example, in the textile industry, as drug delivery vehicles, and as tissue engineering scaffolds. This review presents an overview of the organization of natural silks, in which chemical and physical functions are optimized, as well as a range of new materials inspired by the desire to mimic natural silk structure and synthesis.

  20. Recent Developments in the Application of Biologically Inspired Computation to Chemical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, S.; Gutierrez-Gálvez, A.

    2009-05-01

    Biological olfaction outperforms chemical instrumentation in specificity, response time, detection limit, coding capacity, time stability, robustness, size, power consumption, and portability. This biological function provides outstanding performance due, to a large extent, to the unique architecture of the olfactory pathway, which combines a high degree of redundancy, an efficient combinatorial coding along with unmatched chemical information processing mechanisms. The last decade has witnessed important advances in the understanding of the computational primitives underlying the functioning of the olfactory system. In this work, the state of the art concerning biologically inspired computation for chemical sensing will be reviewed. Instead of reviewing the whole body of computational neuroscience of olfaction, we restrict this review to the application of models to the processing of real chemical sensor data.

  1. Evaluation of different catalysts and development of a new catalyst for the reduction of CO2 to graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschekalinskij, Alexander; Schindler, Matthias; Kretschmer, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    We present an evaluation of different catalysts, methods and parameters for the catalytic reduction of CO2 for 14C-AMS graphite targets for radiocarbon measurement at the Physical Institute of the University Erlangen-Nuremberg in Germany. Currently 10 μm iron powder is used as a catalyst to reduce carbon dioxide to graphite following our standard protocol. An optimal catalyst should provide a short reduction time, no additional fractionation effects, a good reduction yield, lack sintering and should not contain any amounts of both "dead" and "modern" carbon. Seven purchasable catalysts have been evaluated regarding this criteria. Further, the method using zinc and titanium hydride instead of hydrogen gas and the water-trap has been applied to our system and the effect of the water-trap temperature on the reduction time has been tested. A self-made catalyst was produced using aluminum oxide impregnated with iron nitrate. The results of this study indicate three good catalysts and show the success of the applied methods on standard samples like Ox II and Alfa graphite.

  2. Development of wet-proofed catalyst and catalytic exchange process for tritium extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Myung Jae; Son, Soon Hwan; Chung, Yang Gun; Lee, Gab Bock [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    To apply a liquid phase catalytic exchange(LPCE) process for the tritium extraction from tritiated heavy water, the wet proofed catalyst to allow the hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction between liquid water and hydrogen gas was developed. A styrene divinyl benzene copolymer was selected as am effective catalyst support and prepared by suspension copolymerization. After post-treatment, final catalyst supports were dipped in chloroplatinic acid solution. The catalyst support had a good physical properties at a particular preparation condition. The catalytic performance was successfully verified through hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction in the exchange column. A mathematical model for the tritium removal process consisted of LPCE front-ended process and cryogenic distillation process was established using the NTU-HTU method for LPCE column and the FUG method for cryogenic distillation column, respectively. A computer program was developed using the model and then used to investigate optimum design variables which affect the size of columns and tritium inventory (author). 84 refs., 113 figs.

  3. Development of improved iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Final technical report: Project 6464

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukur, D.B.; Ledakowicz, S.; Koranne, M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [and others

    1994-02-28

    Despite the current worldwide oil glut, the United States will ultimately require large-scale production of liquid (transportation) fuels from coal. Slurry phase Fischer Tropsch (FT) technology, with its versatile product slate, may be expected to play a major role in production of transportation fuels via indirect coal liquefaction. Texas A&M University (TAMU) with sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, Center for Energy and Mineral Resources at TAMU, Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., has been working on development of improved iron FT catalysts and characterization of hydrodynamic parameters in two- and three-phase bubble columns with FT derived waxes. Our previous studies have provided an improved understanding of the role of promoters (Cu and K), binders (silica) and pretreatment procedures on catalyst activity, selectivity and longevity (deactivation). The objective of the present contract was to develop improved catalysts with enhanced slurry phase activity and higher selectivity to liquid fuels and wax. This was accomplished through systematic studies of the effects of pretreatment procedures and variations in catalyst composition (promoters and binders). The major accomplishments and results in each of these two main areas of research are summarized here.

  4. Novel Catalyst Development for Synthetic Endothermic Fuels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Incorporated (PSI) and United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) propose to develop, characterize, and evaluate the performance of innovative...

  5. Development of sustainable Palladium-based catalysts for removal of persistent contaminants from drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Danmeng

    Pd-based catalytic reduction has emerged as an advanced treatment technology for drinking water decontamination, and a suite of persistent contaminants including oxyanions, N-nitrosoamines, and halogenated compounds are amenable to catalytic reduction. The primary goal of this study is to develop novel Pd-based catalysts with enhanced performance (i.e., activity, selectivity, and sustainability) to remove contaminants from drinking water. The effects of water quality (i.e., co-contaminants in water matrix), catalyst support, and catalyst metal were explored, and they provide insights for preparing catalysts with faster kinetics, higher selectivity, and extended lifetime. Azo dyes are wide-spread contaminants, and they are potentially co-exisiting with target contaminants amenable for catalytic removal. The probe azo dye methyl orange (MO) enhanced catalytic reduction kinetics of a suite of oxyanions (i.e., nitrate, nitrite, bromate, chlorate, and perchlorate) and diatrizoate significantly but not N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) with a variety of Pd-based catalysts. Nitrate was selected as a probe contaminant, and several different azo dyes (i.e., (methyl orange, methyl red, fast yellow AB, metanil yellow, acid orange 7, congo red, eriochrome black T, acid red 27, acid yellow 11, and acid yellow 17) were evaluated for their ability to enhance reduction. A hydrogen atom shuttling mechanism was proposed and a kinetic model was proposed based on Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) theory, and they suggest sorbed azo dyes and reduced hydrazo dyes shuttle hydrogen atoms to oxyanions or diatrizoate to enhance their reduction kinetics. Next, vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports were used to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). In order to evaluate the amount of interior versus exterior loading of Pd nanoparticles, a fast and accurate geometric

  6. Development of biogas reforming Ni-La-Al catalysts for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, M.; García, S.; Ferreira-Aparicio, P.; Serrano, L. García; Daza, L.

    In this work, the results obtained for Ni-La-Al catalysts developed in our laboratory for biogas reforming are presented. The catalyst 5% Ni/5% La 2O 3-γ-Al 2O 3 has operated under kinetic control conditions for more than 40 h at 700 °C and feeding CH 4/CO 2 ratio 1/1, similar to the composition presented in biogas streams, being observed a stable behaviour. Reaction parameters studied to evaluate the catalyst activity were H 2/CO and CH 4/CO 2 conversion ratio obtained. On the basis of a CH 4 conversion of 6.5%, CH 4/CO 2 conversion ratio achieved 0.48 and H 2/CO ratio obtained was 0.43. By comparison of experimental results to equilibrium prediction for such conditions, is detectable a lower progress of reverse water gas shift reaction. This fact increases the H 2/CO ratio obtained and therefore the hydrogen production. The higher H 2/CO and a CH 4/CO 2 conversion ratio in comparison to CH 4 one close to equilibrium is due to the carbon deposits gasification which avoids catalyst deactivation. A thermodynamic analysis about the application of dry and combined methane reforming to hydrogen production for fuel cells application is presented. Data obtained by process simulation considering a Peng-Robinson thermodynamic model, allows optimizing process conditions depending on biogas composition.

  7. Single-Site Palladium(II) Catalyst for Oxidative Heck Reaction: Catalytic Performance and Kinetic Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hui; Li, Mengyang; Zhang, Guanghui; Gallagher, James R.; Huang, Zhiliang; Sun, Yu; Luo, Zhong; Chen, Hongzhong; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Zou, Ruqiang; Lei, Aiwen; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The development of organometallic single-site catalysts (SSCs) has inspired the designs of new heterogeneous catalysts with high efficiency. Nevertheless, the application of SSCs in certain modern organic reactions, such as C-C bond formation reactions, has still been less investigated. In this study, a single-site Pd(II) catalyst was developed, where 2,2'-bipyridine-grafted periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) was employed as the support of a Pd(II) complex. The overall performance of the single-site Pd(II) catalyst in the oxidative Heck reaction was then investigated. The investigation results show that the catalyst displays over 99% selectivity for the product formation with high reaction yield. Kinetic profiles further confirm its high catalytic efficiency, showing that the rate constant is nearly 40 times higher than that for the free Pd(II) salt. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that the catalyst has remarkable lifetime and recyclability.

  8. Development of Asymmetric Hydrogenation Catalysts via High Throughput Experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.G. de; Lefort, L.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of drugs discovery imposes severe time constraints on the development chemist in charge of implementing the large scale production of a new Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). This results in the use of well-established and robust transformations at the expense of the cost-efficienc

  9. Recent advances in the development of alkyne metathesis catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Tamm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of well-defined molybdenum and tungsten alkylidyne complexes that are able to catalyze alkyne metathesis reactions efficiently has been significantly expanded in recent years.The latest developments in this field featuring highly active imidazolin-2-iminato- and silanolate–alkylidyne complexes are outlined in this review.

  10. Protein structure similarity clustering (PSSC) and natural product structure as inspiration sources for drug development and chemical genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Frank J; Koch, Marcus A; Waldmann, Herbert

    2005-06-01

    Finding small molecules that modulate protein function is of primary importance in drug development and in the emerging field of chemical genomics. To facilitate the identification of such molecules, we developed a novel strategy making use of structural conservatism found in protein domain architecture and natural product inspired compound library design. Domains and proteins identified as being structurally similar in their ligand-sensing cores are grouped in a protein structure similarity cluster (PSSC). Natural products can be considered as evolutionary pre-validated ligands for multiple proteins and therefore natural products that are known to interact with one of the PSSC member proteins are selected as guiding structures for compound library synthesis. Application of this novel strategy for compound library design provided enhanced hit rates in small compound libraries for structurally similar proteins.

  11. Refusal as a democratic catalyst for mathematics education development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalene Swanson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about the connections between mathematics and democracy amongst the general populace have not been explicitly well rehearsed. A critical relationship with democracy for mathematics education may involve directing and redirecting its purposes. But, we ask, what if the ‘choice’ to not participate in experiences of mathematics education, or in its (redirection, were itself also a critical relationship with mathematics education? What if this refusal and disobedience to the evocative power of mathematics were a democratic action? We argue that consideration of mathematics education for democracy and development must take seriously specific acts of refusal that directly confront the construction of inequality common in most development contexts. Globalisation and development discourses, via citizenship and nationalism, construct relationships with learners and mathematics education in very specific ways that delimit possibilities for egalitarianism and democratic action. But, might such action not be recognised, not as refusal to participate per se, but as a refusal to participate in mathematics education’s colonising and/or globalising neo-liberal gaze? In arguing for the opening of a position of radical equality, we introduce Jacques Rancière to mathematics education theory, noting that for Rancière emancipation is the intentional disregard for ideological narratives such as the ones produced by mathematics education discourses. Thus, we provoke serious reconsideration of the assumptions behind most school improvement and professional development projects, as well as mathematics education policies and practices framed by globalising development discourses, and in the process we challenge our colleagues to consider ‘refusal’ not as deficit or failure, but as a critical position of radical equality in relation to mathematics education.

  12. Foreign Direct Investment as a Catalyst for Industrial Development

    OpenAIRE

    Markusen, James R.; Venables, Anthony J

    1997-01-01

    How does an FDI project affect local firms in the same industry? Competition in the" product and factor markets tends to reduce profits of local firms, but linkage effects to supplier" industries may reduce input costs and raise profits. This paper develops an analytical framework" to assess these effects. Circumstances in which FDI is complementary to local industry are" established, and it is shown how FDI may lead to the establishment of local industrial sectors. " These sectors may grow t...

  13. Development and Application of a Reductive Titanium Dioxide Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Matthew Lee

    2015-01-01

    A large population in the United States relies on groundwater as the drinking water source. One typical pollutant of groundwater is nitrate (NO3-). Individuals that have consumed water with high levels of nitrate are at the risk of methemoglobonemia. Due to the prevalence of nitrate contamination in groundwater, various methods have been developed to remove nitrate. These methods include ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological denitrification. Photocatalysts have been used for wate...

  14. Simple Algorithms for Distributed Leader Election in Anonymous Synchronous Rings and Complete Networks Inspired by Neural Development in Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Jeavons, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks is a very practical problem in distributed computing. Previous algorithms for this problem are generally designed for a classical message passing model where complex messages are exchanged. However, the need to send and receive complex messages makes such algorithms less practical for some real applications. We present some simple synchronous algorithms for distributed leader election in anonymous rings and complete networks that are inspired by the development of the neural system of the fruit fly. Our leader election algorithms all assume that only one-bit messages are broadcast by nodes in the network and processors are only able to distinguish between silence and the arrival of one or more messages. These restrictions allow implementations to use a simpler message-passing architecture. Even with these harsh restrictions our algorithms are shown to achieve good time and message complexity both analytically and experimentally.

  15. Developing Enzyme and Biomimetic Catalysts for Upgrading Heavy Crudes via Biological Hydrogenation and Hydrodesulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borole, A P

    2006-08-22

    The recovery and conversion of heavy oils is limited due to the high viscosity of these crudes and their high heteroatom content. Conventional technology relies on thermochemical hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization to address these problems and is energy intensive due to the high operating temperature and pressure. This project was initiated to explore biological catalysts for adding hydrogen to the heavy oil molecules. Biological enzymes are efficient at hydrogen splitting at very mild conditions such as room temperature and pressure, however, they are very specific in terms of the substrates they hydrogenate. The goal of the project was to investigate how the specificity of these enzymes can be altered to develop catalysts for oil upgrading. Three approaches were used. First was to perform chemical modification of the enzyme surface to improve binding of other non-natural substrates. Second approach was to expose the deeply buried catalytic active site of the enzyme by removal of protein scaffolding to enable better interaction with other substrates. The third approach was based on molecular biology to develop genetically engineered systems for enabling targeted structural changes in the enzyme. The first approach was found to be limited in success due to the non-specificity of the chemical modification and inability to target the region near the active site or the site of substrate binding. The second approach produced a smaller catalyst capable of catalyzing hydrogen splitting, however, further experimentation is needed to address reproducibility and stability issues. The third approach which targeted cloning of hydrogenase in alternate hosts demonstrated progress, although further work is necessary to complete the cloning process. The complex nature of the hydrogenase enzyme structure-function relationship and role of various ligands in the protein require significant more research to better understand the enzyme and to enable success in strategies in

  16. Inspirational Journey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Artists from across Europe and Asia ventured into the remote Chinese countryside to seek inspiration from the Miao Ethnic group "I’ve never been to Asia before and everything is strange and wonderful:supermarkets and shopping mails,even the air- port seemed exotic!"wrote Ula Sickle,a choreographer from Poland on her blog under the name"chopstick diaries."Ula was one of the 18 foreign and domestic artists participating in a cultural exchange project called the Pointe to Point: Asia-Europe Dance Forum.It aims to empower aspiring young artists from Asia and Europe to reflect upon their views of

  17. CATALYST ACTIVITY MAINTENANCE FOR THE LIQUID PHASE SYNTHESIS GAS-TO-DIMETHYL ETHER PROCESS PART II: DEVELOPMENT OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE AS THE DEHYDRATION CATALYST FOR THE SINGLE-STEP LIQUID PHASE SYNGAS-TO-DME PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang-Dong Peng

    2002-05-01

    At the heart of the single-step liquid phase syngas-to-DME process (LPDME{trademark}) is a catalyst system that can be active as well as stable. In the Alternative Fuels I program, a dual-catalyst system containing a Cu-based commercial methanol synthesis catalyst (BASF S3-86) and a commercial dehydration material ({gamma}-alumina) was demonstrated. It provided the productivity and selectivity expected from the LPDME process. However, the catalyst system deactivated too rapidly to warrant a viable commercial process [1]. The mechanistic investigation in the early part of the DOE's Alternative Fuels II program revealed that the accelerated catalyst deactivation under LPDME conditions is due to detrimental interaction between the methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst [2,3]. The interaction was attributed to migration of Cu- and/or Zn-containing species from the synthesis catalyst to the dehydration catalyst. Identification of a dehydration catalyst that did not lead to this detrimental interaction while retaining adequate dehydration activity was elusive. Twenty-nine different dehydration materials were tested, but none showed the desired performance [2]. The search came to a turning point when aluminum phosphate was tested. This amorphous material is prepared by precipitating a solution containing Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with NH{sub 4}OH, followed by washing, drying and calcination. The aluminum phosphate catalyst has adequate dehydration activity and good stability. It can co-exist with the Cu-based methanol synthesis catalyst without negatively affecting the latter catalyst's stability. This report documents the details of the development of this catalyst. These include initial leads, efforts in improving activity and stability, investigation and development of the best preparation parameters and procedures, mechanistic understanding and resulting preparation guidelines, and the accomplishments of this work.

  18. A nickel iron diselenide-derived efficient oxygen-evolution catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Song, Fang; Hu, Xile

    2016-08-01

    Efficient oxygen-evolution reaction catalysts are required for the cost-effective generation of solar fuels. Metal selenides have been reported as promising oxygen-evolution catalysts; however, their active forms are yet to be elucidated. Here we show that a representative selenide catalyst, nickel selenide, is entirely converted into nickel hydroxide under oxygen-evolution conditions. This result indicates that metal selenides are unstable during oxygen evolution, and the in situ generated metal oxides are responsible for their activity. This knowledge inspired us to synthesize nanostructured nickel iron diselenide, a hitherto unknown metal selenide, and to use it as a templating precursor to a highly active nickel iron oxide catalyst. This selenide-derived oxide catalyses oxygen evolution with an overpotential of only 195 mV for 10 mA cm-2. Our work underscores the importance of identifying the active species of oxygen-evolution catalysts, and demonstrates how such knowledge can be applied to develop better catalysts.

  19. Development of Non-Platinum Catalysts for Intermediate Temperature Water Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich; Petrushina, Irina Michailovna; Bjerrum, Niels J.

    2014-01-01

    the best compromise in metal-hydrogen bond strength1,2. Due to economic reasons there is a huge interest in replacing Pt by cheaper alternatives and much effort have been made in finding novel catalysts for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER)3,4. Many anhydrous proton conductors have been investigated...... are at the stage of commercial development. However, there is a great challenge for their widespread commercialization: high cost and low abundance of the electrocatalytic materials (Pt, IrO2) and use of Ti or other expensive construction materials. On the cathode side, the most active catalyst is Pt exhibiting...... it is important to simulate conditions of those presented in the assembled operational electrolyzer. In this work a molten KH2PO4 will be used as an electrolyte while screening performance of various transition metals and their carbides at higher temperature (Figure 1). In this work will be shown that coatings...

  20. A membraneless alkaline direct liquid fuel cell (DLFC) platform developed with a catalyst-selective strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingwen; Pascual, Emilio J.; Wauson, Joshua C.; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2016-11-01

    With a logical management of the catalyst selectivity, we present a scalable, membraneless alkaline direct liquid fuel cell (DLFC) platform. The uniqueness of this innovation is that the inexpensive (non-platinum) cathode catalysts, based on strongly coupled transition-metal-oxide nanocrystals and nano-structured carbon materials (e. g., NiCo2O4 nano-particles on a nitrogen-doped graphene and MnNiCoO4 nano-particles on a nitrogen-doped multi-wall carbon nanotube), exhibit high activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) but without activity for the anode fuel oxidation reaction (FOR). Therefore, operation of the DLFCs allows the anode fuel to freely enter the cathode. This strategy avoids the reliance on expensive or difficult-to-develop cation- or anion-exchange membranes and circumvents the scalability concerns of the conventional membraneless DLFCs that are operated under a laminar-flow principle. With proper catalyst selectivity, a variety of organic liquids can be used as anode fuels. The high power density delivered by the membraneless DLFCs with inexpensive components and safe fuels can enable the development of not only small-scale portable power sources but also large-scale energy generation systems for transportation and stationary storage.

  1. Commercial Application of the CTV-IV Type Catalyst for Synthesis of Vinyl Acetate Developed by Shanghai Petrochemical Research Instit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The CTV-IV type catalyst for synthesis of vinyl acetate developed by the SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute (SPRI) has been successfully applied on the #2 vinyl acetate unit at SINOPEC's Shanghai Petrochemical Company.

  2. Enhanced development of a catalyst chamber for the decomposition of up to 1.0 kg/s hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božić, Ognjan; Porrmann, Dennis; Lancelle, Daniel; May, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    A new innovative hybrid rocket engine concept is developed within the AHRES program of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). This rocket engine based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) with metallic additives as solid fuel and high test peroxide (HTP) as liquid oxidizer. Instead of a conventional ignition system, a catalyst chamber with a silver mesh catalyst is designed to decompose the HTP. The newly modified catalyst chamber is able to decompose up to 1.0 kg/s of 87.5 wt% HTP. Used as a monopropellant thruster, this equals an average thrust of 1600 N. The catalyst chamber is designed using the self-developed software tool SHAKIRA. The applied kinetic law, which determines catalytic decomposition of HTP within the catalyst chamber, is given and commented. Several calculations are carried out to determine the appropriate geometry for complete decomposition with a minimum of catalyst material. A number of tests under steady state conditions are carried out, using 87.5 wt% HTP with different flow rates and a constant amount of catalyst material. To verify the decomposition, the temperature is measured and compared with the theoretical prediction. The experimental results show good agreement with the results generated by the design tool. The developed catalyst chamber provides a simple, reliable ignition system for hybrid rocket propulsion systems based on hydrogen peroxide as oxidizer. This system is capable for multiple reignition. The developed hardware and software can be used to design full scale monopropellant thrusters based on HTP and catalyst chambers for hybrid rocket engines.

  3. Development of Self-Organized Polymeric Lewis Acid-Catalysts for the Zero-Emission Synthesis of 2-Amino Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Inanaga

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction β-Amino alcohols are versatile synthetic intermediates for a wide range of biologically active natural and unnatural products. They can also serve as good chiral ligands for some asymmetric metal complex catalysts.The nucleophilic ring-opening of epoxides with an amine is one of the most efficient routes to obtain such β-amino alcohols with 1,2-trans stereochemistry. Therefore, various homogeneous catalysts have been developed for this transformation. Meanwhile, the development of efficient heterogeneous catalysts that can be easily prepared, recovered, and reused without losing their activities has currently received much attention from a practical and environmental point of view, and not a few such reusable heterogeneous catalysts (e. g., supported on inorganic materials or insoluble polymers) have been developed[1]. In general, however, they tend to show lower catalytic activities and selectivities compared to the corresponding homogeneous one, and the preparation of them are often tedious.

  4. Development of biogas reforming Ni-La-Al catalysts for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, M.; Garcia, S.; Ferreira-Aparicio, P.; Serrano, L. Garcia; Daza, L. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/ Marie Curie 2, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-06-10

    In this work, the results obtained for Ni-La-Al catalysts developed in our laboratory for biogas reforming are presented. The catalyst 5% Ni/5% La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has operated under kinetic control conditions for more than 40 h at 700 C and feeding CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratio 1/1, similar to the composition presented in biogas streams, being observed a stable behaviour. Reaction parameters studied to evaluate the catalyst activity were H{sub 2}/CO and CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} conversion ratio obtained. On the basis of a CH{sub 4} conversion of 6.5%, CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} conversion ratio achieved 0.48 and H{sub 2}/CO ratio obtained was 0.43. By comparison of experimental results to equilibrium prediction for such conditions, is detectable a lower progress of reverse water gas shift reaction. This fact increases the H{sub 2}/CO ratio obtained and therefore the hydrogen production. The higher H{sub 2}/CO and a CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} conversion ratio in comparison to CH{sub 4} one close to equilibrium is due to the carbon deposits gasification which avoids catalyst deactivation. A thermodynamic analysis about the application of dry and combined methane reforming to hydrogen production for fuel cells application is presented. Data obtained by process simulation considering a Peng-Robinson thermodynamic model, allows optimizing process conditions depending on biogas composition. (author)

  5. Design of a Biomimetic Skin for an Octopus-Inspired Robot - Part Ⅱ: Development of the Skin Artefact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinping Hou,; Richard H. C. Bonser; George Jeronimidis

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop skin aetefact for an octopus-inspired robot arm, which is designed to be able to elongate 60% of its original length, silicone rubber and knitted nylon sheet were selected to manufacture an artificial skin, due to their higher elastic strain and high flexibility. Tensile and scissors cutting tests were conducted to characterise the matrix and reinforcing materials and the skin artefact. Material properties of the individual and the composite materials were compared with the measured properties of real octopus skin presented in Part Ⅰ. The Young's modulus of the skin should be below 20 MPa and the elastic strain range should be over 60%. The fracture toughness should be at least 0.9 kJ·m-2. Tubes made of the skin artefact filled with liquid were tested to study volume change under deformation. Finite element analysis model was developed to simulate the material and arm structure under tensile loading. Results show that the skin artefact developed has similar mechanical properties as the real octopus skin and satisfies all the design specifications of the OCTOPUS robot.

  6. Institutional entrepreneurship in sustainable urban development: Dutch successes as inspiration for transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woolthuis, R.K.; Hooimeijer, F.; Bossink, B.; Mulder, G.; Brouwer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban development is a wicked problem. On the basis of three case studies, we conclude that institutional entrepreneurs play an important role in sustainable urban development. The question we address is how institutional entrepreneurs do this. We theorize and find six tactics that entre

  7. Recent Technological Developments in Cobalt Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junling Zhang; Jiangang Chen; Yongwang Li; Yuhan Sun

    2002-01-01

    Co-based catalysts are often utilized due to their high Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) activity,C+5 hydrocarbon selectivity, low water-gas shift reaction (WGS) activity and relatively low cost. Selective control of C5+ hydrocarbons and the catalyst longevity are critical in the design of cobalt catalysts.Thus, various methods to improve the performance of Co catalysts have been suggested. The progress in cobalt catalysts reviewed in the last few decades, mainly involved the support, promoter, preparation and deactivation of Co-based catalysts.

  8. Exploring talent development environments –inspirations to medical education at doctoral level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Lund, Ole; Mørcke, Anne Mette

    of a successful talent development environment in Danish doctoral education. Talent development is an extensive and well-established research field. So far, research within this field has mainly focused on sport and other artistic professions and to a minor degree on academic performance. In addition, the focus...... and sport), we presume that they are comparable because they may share some characteristics of successful talent development environments. Methods: Based on an ecological approach to talent development environments (3) we carried out a pilot case study including field work (10 days of observation...... share a number of common features: an elitist spirit as a way of ascribing meaning to principal activities, a working milieu characterized by continual high-performance achievements, training groups with supportive relationships, and a strong and coherent organization culture. Discussion and Conclusion...

  9. A Summary of Recent Developments on Metamaterial-based and Metamaterial-inspired Efficient Electrically Small Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erentok, Aycan; Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes our recent research efforts to realize efficient electrically small antenna (EESA) systems based on ideal analytical and numerical metamaterial-based antenna systems, and physically realized metamaterial-inspired antenna designs. Our theoretical and numerical studies...

  10. Development in a biologically inspired spinal neural network for movement control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijst, JJ; Vos, JE; Bullock, D

    1998-01-01

    In two phases, we develop increasingly complex neural network models of spinal circuitry that self-organizes into networks with opponent channels for the control of an antagonistic muscle pair. The self-organization is enabled by a Hebbian learning rule operating during spontaneous activity present

  11. Clarifying the Ethical Tendency in Education for Sustainable Development Practice: A Wittgenstein-Inspired Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Johan; Ostman, Leif

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the debate about the moral and ethical aspects of education for sustainable development by suggesting a clarification of ethics and morals through an investigation of how these aspects appear in educational practice. The ambition is both to point to the normative dangers of education for sustainable development…

  12. Creative reflections on Enhancing Practice 16: new explorations, insights and inspirations for practice developers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Baldie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It began two years ago, then Arriving in Edinburgh the enthusiasm abounds. The first day arrives – oozing anticipation. Great to gather old friends, new friends; Clans and clever creativity, having fun Energy in the room, creating, innovating, Creative ways transforming minds, creating impact. The International Practice Development Collaborative (IPDC is loose network of practice developers, academics and researchers who are committed to working together to develop healthcare practice. The IPDC believes that the aim of practice development is to work with people to develop person-centred cultures that are dignified, compassionate and safer for all. One of its four pillars of work is a biennial Enhancing Practice conference. Moving round the world, the IPDC members take it in turns to host the conference; in early September 2016 it was the turn of Queen Margaret University (QMU in Edinburgh. This article has been created collaboratively by a number of the people who attended this three-day conference. The IPDJ team invited participants to offer ‘the line of a poem’ that captured or reflected their experience and/or learning. These were then collected and shared, and together we created a series of poems and a collection of haiku (a three-line Japanese poem with 17 syllables, 5-7-5. Other participants have subsequently offered reflections, which we would also like to share with you here. We offer this article to you, as a celebration of our time together; our learning, connections and creating, in the hope that there might be some learning in here for you and that you may consider joining us at our next conference in Basel, Switzerland in 2018.

  13. Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Final report, September 1, 1990--January 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

    1994-05-06

    Previous work on isosynthesis (conversion of synthesis gas to isobutane and isobutylene) was performed at very low conversions or extreme process conditions. The objectives of this research were (1) determine the optimum process conditions for isosynthesis; (2) determine the optimum catalyst preparation method and catalyst composition/properties for isosynthesis; (3) determine the kinetics for the best catalyst; (4) develop reactor models for trickle bed, slurry, and fixed bed reactors; and (5) simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for isosynthesis. More improvement in catalyst activity and selectivity is needed before isosynthesis can become a commercially feasible (stand-alone) process. Catalysts prepared by the precipitation method show the most promise for future development as compared with those prepared hydrothermally, by calcining zirconyl nitrate, or by a modified sol-gel method. For current catalysts the high temperatures (>673 K) required for activity also cause the production of methane (because of thermodynamics). A catalyst with higher activity at lower temperatures would magnify the unique selectivity of zirconia for isobutylene. Perhaps with a more active catalyst and acidification, oxygenate production could be limited at lower temperatures. Pressures above 50 atm cause an undesirable shift in product distribution toward heavier hydrocarbons. A model was developed that can predict carbon monoxide conversion an product distribution. The rate equation for carbon monoxide conversion contains only a rate constant and an adsorption equilibrium constant. The product distribution was predicted using a simple ratio of the rate of CO conversion. This report is divided into Introduction, Experimental, and Results and Discussion sections.

  14. Large Scale Manufacture of Catalyst for Making DME Developed by Southwest Chemical Research and Design Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Southwest Chemical Research and Design Institute (SCRDI) after tackling the key technology related with the catalyst for manufacture of DME through gas phase dehydration of methanol has made great breakthroughs in large scale preparation of catalyst for DME production.

  15. METAPHORS INSPIRED FROM NATURE USED FOR SELF-EXPLORATION AND PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Răban-Motounu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some of the ways natural elements may be used to explore the inner psychological dynamics for psychotherapeutic and prevention purposes. They all rely on projection, a defense mechanism, which is thus transformed into a valuable tool for the discovery of personal resources. A qualitative design with metaphor analysis was conducted. Three personal development or psychotherapeutic exploratory techniques integrated into a process of four steps supporting personal transformation have been used: one creative meditation, one dynamic gestalt technique, and the genogram with the support of natural elements. The analysis comprises material from the cultural background regarding the symbolism of the chosen elements from the universal and Romanian point of view and, in the results section, the psychological content elicited by the exercises, and the personal development effects. The results confirm the value of the natural elements in accessing both past experiences which have been labeled as negative at the time, and psychological resources undiscovered yet.

  16. Development of a CO2 Tolerant Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst:from Laboratory to Commercial-Scale Demonstration in Alaska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joep J H M Font Freide; Tim D Gamlin; J Richard Hensman; Barry Nay; Christopher Sharp

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the development of BP's Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, used for the conversion of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons. It covers the 18 year period from the early eighties, when laboratory scale preparations and micro-reactors were heavily used, right through to the present day with the commercial scale manufacture and proving of the finished catalyst in BP's new $86 million gas to liquids demonstration facility in Nikiski, Alaska. Extensive performance testing and scale-up experiments have been successfully carried out, all proof that a laboratory preparation can indeed be translated into a commercial manufacturing process. In addition, the resulting catalyst does not only meet the process design targets, but also exhibits enhanced stability and is tolerant to carbon dioxide.Above all, a commercial scale, fixed bed Fischer-Tropsch catalyst is now available and ready for licensing.Manufacturing procedures and quality control have all been successfully detailed and transferred to the commercial manufacturer.

  17. Novel growth method of carbon nanotubes using catalyst-support layer developed by alumina grit blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiromichi; Ishii, Juntaro; Ota, Keishin

    2016-08-19

    We propose an efficient method of growing carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays on a variety of metals, alloys, and carbon materials using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) assisted by a simple surface treatment of the materials. The main feature of this method is the application of grit blasting with fine alumina particles to the development of a catalyst-support layer required for the growth of CNTs on various conductive materials, including ultra-hard metals such as tungsten. Auger electron spectroscopy shows that grit blasting can form a non-continuous layer where alumina nanoparticles are embedded as residues in the blasting media left on the treated surfaces. This work reveals that such a non-continuous alumina layer can behave as the catalyst-support layer, which is generally prepared by sputter or a vacuum evaporation coating process that considerably restricts the practical applications of CNTs. We have attempted to grow CNTs on grit-blasted substrates of eighteen conventionally used conductive materials using CVD together with a floating iron catalyst. The proposed method was successful in growing multi-walled CNT arrays on the grit-blasted surfaces of all the examined materials, demonstrating its versatility. Furthermore, we found that the group IV metal oxide films thermally grown on the as-received substrates can support the catalytic activity of iron nanoparticles in the CVD process just as well as the alumina film developed by grit blasting. Spectral emissivity of the CNT arrays in the visible and infrared wavelength ranges has been determined to assess the applicability of the CNT arrays as a black coating media.

  18. Novel growth method of carbon nanotubes using catalyst-support layer developed by alumina grit blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiromichi; Ishii, Juntaro; Ota, Keishin

    2016-08-01

    We propose an efficient method of growing carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays on a variety of metals, alloys, and carbon materials using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) assisted by a simple surface treatment of the materials. The main feature of this method is the application of grit blasting with fine alumina particles to the development of a catalyst-support layer required for the growth of CNTs on various conductive materials, including ultra-hard metals such as tungsten. Auger electron spectroscopy shows that grit blasting can form a non-continuous layer where alumina nanoparticles are embedded as residues in the blasting media left on the treated surfaces. This work reveals that such a non-continuous alumina layer can behave as the catalyst-support layer, which is generally prepared by sputter or a vacuum evaporation coating process that considerably restricts the practical applications of CNTs. We have attempted to grow CNTs on grit-blasted substrates of eighteen conventionally used conductive materials using CVD together with a floating iron catalyst. The proposed method was successful in growing multi-walled CNT arrays on the grit-blasted surfaces of all the examined materials, demonstrating its versatility. Furthermore, we found that the group IV metal oxide films thermally grown on the as-received substrates can support the catalytic activity of iron nanoparticles in the CVD process just as well as the alumina film developed by grit blasting. Spectral emissivity of the CNT arrays in the visible and infrared wavelength ranges has been determined to assess the applicability of the CNT arrays as a black coating media.

  19. New challenges and inspired answers for anticancer drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsugi, Teruhiro

    2013-10-01

    Many pharmaceutical companies worldwide specialize in oncology drug development and marketing. Among them, we have continued to take up the challenge of understanding the metabolism of pyrimidines as essential components of deoxyribonucleic acid for many years, and have provided unique products such as UFT(®) and TS-1 for cancer patients. Using our cumulative experience and knowledge, we are currently developing novel agents such as TAS-114, a dual inhibitor of deoxyuridine triphosphatase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, and TAS-102, a unique pyrimidine derivative inducing deoxyribonucleic acid dysfunction in cancer cells. Regarding molecular-targeted drugs, we have made huge efforts to establish ideal drug discovery platforms for the last several years. For kinase inhibitors, we established three core platforms such as a kinase-directed chemical library, a kinase assay panel and a target selection informatics system. The core platforms were further combined with peripheral technologies to measure essential parameters such as physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicities. Unique drug candidates have been identified at an early stage by assessing all important parameters. Several promising programs are proceeding simultaneously in the clinical or preclinical development stage such as TAS-115, a dual inhibitor of c-Met and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, TAS-2104, a selective Aurora A inhibitor, TAS-117, an allosteric Akt inhibitor, TAS-2985, an irreversible fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor and TAS-2913, a T790M mutant selective epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor. Other than kinase inhibitors, another drug discovery engine was established based on the fragment-based drug discovery technology. TAS-116, a new class of Hsp-90α/β inhibitor, is one of the products. Taiho's final goal is to provide innovative anticancer drugs together with companion diagnostics that are truly beneficial for patients.

  20. Jasada bhasma, a Zinc-Based Ayurvedic Preparation: Contemporary Evidence of Antidiabetic Activity Inspires Development of a Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinku D. Umrani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of metals in human physiology are well established. It is also known that many metals are required in trace amounts for normal metabolism and their deficiency leads to diseases. In Ayurveda, metal-based preparations, that is, bhasmas, are indicated for the treatment of several diseases. Standard textbooks of Ayurveda recommend Jasada bhasma (zinc based bhasma as the treatment of choice for diabetes. Modern medicine also recognizes the important role of zinc in glucose homeostasis. Yet, studies that validate the use of Jasada bhasma are few and uncomprehensive. There is an imminent need for a systematic study on physicochemical characterization, pharmacological efficacy, and toxicity assessment of several bhasma preparations to generate scientific evidence of their utility and safety. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that bhasmas comprise submicronic particles or nanoparticles. Thus a bhasma-inspired new drug discovery approach could emerge in which several metal based nanomedicines could be developed. This would help in utilizing the age old, time-tested wisdom of Ayurveda in modern medicine. One such study on antidiabetic activity of Jasada bhasma and the corresponding new drug, namely, zinc oxide nanoparticles, is briefly discussed, as an example.

  1. Development of a Electrically Inspired Low Emission Microcontroller Based Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habib Ullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, influx of research afford is being concentrated in automobile engineering to develop low emission hybrid electric vehicle to reduce the greenhouse gases such as hydro-carbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, produces from the vehicle. Approach: Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs powered by electric machines and an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE are a promising mean of reducing emissions and fuel consumption without compromising vehicle functionality and driving performances. Reduction of emission is a significant issue to save the environment from pollution that cause of many diseases in urban areas is almost entirely due to transport using fossil fuel. Although zero emission transport has not been developed and used practically yet. Results: This study introduce a control mechanism for alternative hybrid electric vehicle combination of electric motor and gasoline engine that reduce the use of fossil fuel without compromising the overall car performance. Conclusion: In this study, a microcontroller based control mechanism of HEV is introduced which consists of battery, voltage indicator, DC motor controller and battery charger."

  2. Discovery and development of natural product oridonin-inspired anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ye; Ding, Chunyong; Ye, Na; Liu, Zhiqing; Wold, Eric A; Chen, Haiying; Wild, Christopher; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Jia

    2016-10-21

    Natural products have historically been, and continue to be, an invaluable source for the discovery of various therapeutic agents. Oridonin, a natural diterpenoid widely applied in traditional Chinese medicines, exhibits a broad range of biological effects including anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. To further improve its potency, aqueous solubility and bioavailability, the oridonin template serves as an exciting platform for drug discovery to yield better candidates with unique targets and enhanced drug properties. A number of oridonin derivatives (e.g. HAO472) have been designed and synthesized, and have contributed to substantial progress in the identification of new agents and relevant molecular mechanistic studies toward the treatment of human cancers and other diseases. This review summarizes the recent advances in medicinal chemistry on the explorations of novel oridonin analogues as potential anticancer therapeutics, and provides a detailed discussion of future directions for the development and progression of this class of molecules into the clinic.

  3. Tensegrity and its role in guiding engineering sciences in the development of bio-inspired materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, David M.; Chen, Er-Ping; Klein, Patrick A.

    2004-01-01

    Tensegrity is the word coined by Buckminster Fuller as a contraction of tensional integrity. A tensegrity system is established when a set of discontinuous compressive components interacts with a set of continuous tensile components to define a stable volume in space. Tensegrity structures are mechanically stable not because of the strength of individual members but because of the way the entire structure distributes and balances mechanical loads. Tensile forces naturally transmit themselves over the shortest distance between two points, so the members of a tensegrity system are precisely positioned to best withstand stress. Thus, tensegrity systems offer a maximum amount of strength for a given amount of material. Man-made structures have traditionally been designed to avoid developing large tensile stresses. In contrast, nature always uses a balance of tension and compression. Tensegrity principles apply at essentially every size-scale in the human body. Macroscopically, the bones that constitute our skeleton are pulled up against the force of gravity and stabilized in a vertical form by the pull of tensile muscles, tendons and ligaments. Microscopically, a tensegrity structure has been proposed for the skeleton of cells. This report contains the results of a feasibility study and literature survey to explore the potential of applying tensegrity principles in designing materials with desired functionalities. The goal is to assess if further study of the principles of tensegrity may be exploited as an avenue for producing new materials that have intrinsic capabilities for adapting to changing loads (self-healing), as with the ongoing reconstruction of living bone under loading. This study contains a collection of literature that has been categorized into the areas of structures, mathematics, mechanics, and, biology. The topics addressed in each area are discussed. Ultimately, we conclude that because tensegrity is fundamentally a description of structure, it may

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A NANO-Ni-La-Fe/Al2O3 CATALYST TO BE USED FOR SYN-GAS PRODUCTION AND TAR REMOVAL AFTER BIOMASS GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfen Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a supported tri-metallic catalyst (nano-Ni-La-Fe/γ-Al2O3 for tar removal in biomass steam gasification, to significantly enhance the quality of the produced gas. For this purpose, the supported tri-metallic catalysts were prepared by a deposition-precipitation (DP method. Different analytical approaches were used to characterize the synthesized catalysts. The results showed that the prepared tri-metallic catalysts had an egg-shell structure with a specific surface area of 214.7 m2/g. The activity of the catalysts for gas production and tar removal in the process of biomass gasification was also investigated using a bench-scale combined fixed bed reactor. The experiments indicated that the tar yield after adding catalyst was reduced significantly and the efficiency of tar removal reached 99% for the biomass steam gasification at 800oC, while the gas yield after adding catalysts increased markedly and less coke was found over the catalyst. Meanwhile, the compositions of gas products before and after adding catalyst in the process also changed significantly; in particular, the content of hydrogen in catalytic steam gasification was improved by over 10 vol%. Therefore, using the prepared tri-metallic catalyst in biomass gasification can significantly improve the quality of the produced gas and efficiently eliminate the tar generation, preventing coke deposition on the catalyst surfaces, thus demonstrating a long lifetime of the catalyst.

  5. The Development of Musical Skills of Underprivileged Children Over the Course of 1 Year: A Study in the Context of an El Sistema-Inspired Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz S; Keller, Patrick; Damasio, Hanna; Habibi, Assal

    2016-01-01

    Developmental research in music has typically centered on the study of single musical skills (e.g., singing, listening) and has been conducted with middle class children who learn music in schools and conservatories. Information on the musical development of children from different social strata, who are enrolled in community-based music programs, remains elusive. This study examined the development of musical skills in underprivileged children who were attending an El Sistema-inspired program in Los Angeles. We investigated how children, predominantly of Latino ethnicity, developed musically with respect to the following musical skills - pitch and rhythmic discrimination, pitch matching, singing a song from memory, and rhythmic entrainment - over the course of 1 year. Results suggested that participation in an El Sistema-inspired program affects children's musical development in distinct ways; with pitch perception and production skills developing faster than rhythmic skills. Furthermore, children from the same ethnic and social background, who did not participate in the El Sistema-inspired music program, showed a decline in singing and pitch discrimination skills over the course of 1 year. Taken together, these results are consistent with the idea of musical development as a complex, spiraling and recursive process that is influenced by several factors including type of musical training. Implications for future research are outlined.

  6. The development of musical skills of underprivileged children over the course of one year: A study in the context of an El Sistema-inspired program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Senoi Ilari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Developmental research in music has typically centered on the study of single musical skills (e.g., singing, listening and has been conducted with middle class children who learn music in schools and conservatories. Information on the musical development of children from different social strata, who are enrolled in community-based music programs remains elusive. This study examined the development of musical skills in underprivileged children who were attending an El Sistema-inspired program in Los Angeles. We investigated how children, predominantly of Latino ethnicity, developed musically with respect to the following musical skills – pitch and rhythmic discrimination, pitch matching, singing a song from memory, and rhythmic entrainment – over the course of one year. Results suggested that participation in an El Sistema-inspired program affects children’s musical development in distinct ways; with pitch perception and production skills developing faster than rhythmic skills. Furthermore, children from the same ethnic and social background, who did not participate in the El Sistema-inspired music program, showed a decline in singing and pitch discrimination skills over the course of one year. Taken together, these results are consistent with the idea of musical development as a complex, spiraling and recursive process that is influenced by several factors including type of musical training. Implications for future research are outlined.

  7. Mechanism-guided development of VO(salen)X complexes as catalysts for the asymmetric synthesis of cyanohydrin trimethylsilyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokon, Yuri N; Clegg, William; Harrington, Ross W; Maleev, Victor I; North, Michael; Pujol, Marta Omedes; Usanov, Dmitry L; Young, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Catalyze this! Detailed study of the mechanism of asymmetric cyanohydrin synthesis catalyzed by VO(salen)X complexes (see figure) led to the development of VO(salen)NCS, as the most active vanadium-based catalyst yet developed for this reaction.The mechanism by which oxovanadium(V)(salen) complexes(1) VO(salen)X catalyze the asymmetric addition of trimethylsilyl cyanide to benzaldehyde has been studied. The reaction kinetics indicated that the structure of the counterion (X) had a significant influence on the rate, but not on the enantioselectivity of the reaction. The less coordinating the counterion, the lower the catalytic activity; a trend that was confirmed by a Hammett analysis. Variable temperature kinetics allowed the enthalpies and entropies of activation to be determined for some catalysts, and showed that, for others, the overall reaction order changes from second order to zero order as the temperature is reduced. The order with respect to the catalyst was determined for nine of the VO(salen)X complexes and showed that the less active catalysts were active predominantly as mononuclear species whilst the more active catalysts were active predominantly as dinuclear species. Mass spectrometry confirmed the formation of dinuclear species in situ from all of the VO(salen)X complexes and indicated that the dinuclear complexes contained one vanadium(V) and one vanadium(IV) ion. The latter conclusion was supported by cyclic voltammetry of the complexes, by fluorescence measurements and by the fact that catalyst deactivation occurs when reactions are carried out under an inert atmosphere. Based on this evidence, it has been deduced that the catalysis involves two catalytic cycles: one for catalysis by mononuclear VO(salen)X species and the other for catalysis by dinuclear species. The catalytic cycle involving dinuclear species involves activation of both the cyanide and aldehyde, whereas the catalytic cycle involving mononuclear species activates only the

  8. Development of vanadium-phosphate catalysts for methanol production by selective oxidation of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, R.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The United States has vast natural gas reserves which could contribute significantly to our energy security if economical technologies for conversion to liquid fuels and chemicals were developed. Many of these reserves are small scale or in remote locations and of little value unless they can be transported to consumers. Transportation is economically performed via pipeline, but this route is usually unavailable in remote locations. Another option is to convert the methane in the gas to liquid hydrocarbons, such as methanol, which can easily and economically be transported by truck. Therefore, the conversion of methane to liquid hydrocarbons has the potential to decrease our dependence upon oil imports by opening new markets for natural gas and increasing its use in the transportation and chemical sectors of the economy. In this project, we are attempting to develop, and explore new catalysts capable of direct oxidation of methane to methanol. The specific objectives of this work are discussed.

  9. 法国当代园林的特点与启示%Development Characteristics of Contemporary Urban Greening in France and Their Inspirations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚中华; 徐冬云; 周媛; 陈法志; 徐洪亮

    2011-01-01

    文章简要介绍法国当代城市园林的发展历史及特点,并在此基础上总结其对中国城市园林景观发展的启示。%This paper briefly introduced the general situation and development characteristics of urban greening in France,and then discussed their inspirations on Chinas urban greening and landscaping.

  10. Modern multiphase catalysis: new developments in the separation of homogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Mark J

    2010-01-14

    Homogeneous catalysts are powerful tools for the synthesis of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals and materials, however their exploitation on an industrial scale is often held back due to the challenges of separating and recycling the catalyst. This perspective focuses on approaches to multiphase catalysis that have emerged in the last decade, highlighting methods that can address the separation issues and in some cases result in superior catalyst performance and environmental benefits.

  11. Perceptually-Inspired Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human sensory systems allow individuals to see, hear, touch, and interact with the surrounding physical environment. Understanding human perception and its limit enables us to better exploit the psychophysics of human perceptual systems to design more efficient, adaptive algorithms and develop perceptually-inspired computational models. In this talk, I will survey some of recent efforts on perceptually-inspired computing with applications to crowd simulation and multimodal interaction. In particular, I will present data-driven personality modeling based on the results of user studies, example-guided physics-based sound synthesis using auditory perception, as well as perceptually-inspired simplification for multimodal interaction. These perceptually guided principles can be used to accelerating multi-modal interaction and visual computing, thereby creating more natural human-computer interaction and providing more immersive experiences. I will also present their use in interactive applications for entertainment, such as video games, computer animation, and shared social experience. I will conclude by discussing possible future research directions.

  12. Combinatorial Development of Water Splitting Catalysts Based on the Oxygen Evolving Complex of Photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodbury, Neal [Arizona State University

    2010-03-31

    The use of methods to create large arrays of potential catalysts for the reaction H2O ½ O2 + 2H+ on the anode of an electrolysis system were investigated. This reaction is half of the overall reaction involved in the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen gas. This method consisted of starting with an array of electrodes and developing patterned electrochemical approaches for creating a different, defined peptide at each position in the array. Methods were also developed for measuring the rate of reaction at each point in the array. In this way, the goal was to create and then tests many thousands of possible catalysts simultaneously. This type of approach should lead to an ability to optimize catalytic activity systematically, by iteratively designing and testing new libraries of catalysts. Optimization is important to decrease energy losses (over-potentials) associated with the water splitting reaction and thus for the generation of hydrogen. Most of the efforts in this grant period were focused on developing the chemistry and analytical methods required to create pattern peptide formation either using a photolithography approach or an electrochemical approach for dictating the positions of peptide bond formation. This involved testing a large number of different reactions and conditions. We have been able to find conditions that have allowed us to pattern peptide bond formation on both glass slides using photolithographic methods and on electrode arrays made by the company Combimatrix. Part of this effort involved generating novel approaches for performing mass spectroscopy directly from the patterned arrays. We have also been able to demonstrate the ability to measure current at each electrode due to electrolysis of water. This was performed with customized instrumentation created in collaboration with Combimatrix. In addition, several different molecular designs for peptides that bound metals (primarily Mn) were developed and synthesized and metal

  13. Enantioselective Decarboxylative Alkylation Reactions: Catalyst Development, Substrate Scope, and Mechanistic Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-11-14

    α-Quaternary ketones are accessed through novel enantioselective alkylations of allyl and propargyl electrophiles by unstabilized prochiral enolate nucleophiles in the presence of palladium complexes with various phosphinooxazoline (PHOX) ligands. Excellent yields and high enantiomeric excesses are obtained from three classes of enolate precursor: enol carbonates, enol silanes, and racemic β-ketoesters. Each of these substrate classes functions with nearly identical efficiency in terms of yield and enantioselectivity. Catalyst discovery and development, the optimization of reaction conditions, the exploration of reaction scope, and applications in target-directed synthesis are reported. Experimental observations suggest that these alkylation reactions occur through an unusual inner-sphere mechanism involving binding of the prochiral enolate nucleophile directly to the palladium center.

  14. Development and Electrochemical Studies of Ruthenium Based Mixed Oxide Catalyst Electrodes for Chlorine Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which allow comparison of the electrochemical performance of RuO2/Ti, Ru0.3Sn0.7O2/Ti and Ru0.3V0.7O2/Ti catalysts prepared on a titanium substrate by thermal decomposition from respective precursors. The highest activity for chlorine evolution is observed on the Ru0.3V0.7O2/Ti electrode, lower on Ru0.3Sn0.7O2/Ti and least on RuO2/Ti. Voltammograms obtained in the polarisable region are used to characterize the different electrodes. Further more an analysis of the catalytic activity and reaction kinetics of the developed electrodes in NaCl are presented.

  15. Development of molecular and solid catalysts for the direct low-temperature oxidation of methane to methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovits, Regina; von Malotki, Christian; Baumgarten, Martin; Müllen, Klaus; Baltes, Christian; Antonietti, Markus; Kuhn, Pierre; Weber, Jens; Thomas, Arne; Schüth, Ferdi

    2010-02-22

    The direct low-temperature oxidation of methane to methanol is demonstrated on a highly active homogeneous molecular catalyst system and on heterogeneous molecular catalysts based on polymeric materials possessing ligand motifs within the material structure. The N-(2-methylpropyl)-4,5-diazacarbazolyl-dichloro-platinum(II) complex reaches significantly higher activity compared to the well-known Periana system and allows first conclusions on electronic and structural requirements for high catalytic activity in this reaction. Interestingly, comparable activities could be achieved utilizing a platinum modified poly(benzimidazole) material, which demonstrates for the first time a solid catalyst with superior activity compared to the Periana system. Although the material shows platinum leaching, improved activity and altered electronic properties, compared to the conventional Periana system, support the proposed conclusions on structure-activity relationships. In comparison, platinum modified triazine-based catalysts show lower catalytic activity, but rather stable platinum coordination even after several catalytic cycles. Based on these systems, further development of improved solid catalysts for the direct low-temperature oxidation of methane to methanol is feasible.

  16. Oxidation catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  17. Design strategies for development of SCR catalyst: improvement of alkali poisoning resistance and novel regeneration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yue; Li, Junhua; Shi, Wenbo; Xu, Jiayu; Hao, Jiming

    2012-11-20

    Based on the ideas of the additives modification and regeneration method update, two different strategies were designed to deal with the traditional SCR catalyst poisoned by alkali metals. First, ceria doping on the V(2)O(5)-WO(3)/TiO(2) catalyst could promote the SCR performance even reducing the V loading, which resulted in the enhancement of the catalyst's alkali poisoning resistance. Then, a novel method, electrophoresis treatment, was employed to regenerate the alkali poisoned V(2)O(5)-WO(3)/TiO(2) catalyst. This novel technique could dramatically enhance the SCR activities of the alkali poisoned catalysts by removing approximately 95% K or Na ions from the catalyst and showed less hazardous to the environment. Finally, the deactivation mechanisms by the alkali metals were extensively studied by employing both the experimental and DFT theoretical approaches. Alkali atom mainly influences the active site V species rather than W oxides. The decrease of catalyst surface acidity might directly reduce the catalytic activity, while the reducibility of catalysts could be another important factor.

  18. Development of a Practical Hydrogen Storage System Based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers and a Homogeneous Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Craig [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States); Brayton, Daniel [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States); Jorgensen, Scott W. [General Motors, LLC, Warren, MI (United States). Research and Development Center. Chemical and Material Systems Lab.; Hou, Peter [General Motors, LLC, Warren, MI (United States). Research and Development Center. Chemical and Material Systems Lab.

    2017-03-24

    The objectives of this project were: 1) optimize a hydrogen storage media based on LOC/homogeneous pincer catalyst (carried out at Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC) and 2) develop space, mass and energy efficient tank and reactor system to house and release hydrogen from the media (carried out at General Motor Research Center).

  19. Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, Jukka; Iwaszkiewicz, Jan

    2011-12-01

    INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

  20. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  1. Development of Highly Effective Nanoparticle Spinel Catalysts for Aerobic Oxidation of Benzylic Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI,Hong-Bing(纪红兵); WANG,Le-Fu(王乐夫)

    2002-01-01

    Spinel catalyst MnFe1.8Cu0.15Ru0.05O4 with particle size of about 42 nm is an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the oxidation of benzylic alcohols. The substitution of Fe for Cu improves its catalytic activity. Based on the characterization of BET, XPS and EXAFS, two factors influencing the structure and texture of the catalyst caused by the substitution of Cu for Fe may be assumed: physical factor responsible for the increasing of surface area; chemical factor responsible for the transformation of Ru-O bonds to Ru = O bonds. β-Elimination is considered to be an important step in the reaction.

  2. Developing a Metadata Infrastructure to facilitate data driven science gateway and to provide Inspire/GEMINI compliance for CLIPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajlovski, Andrej; Plieger, Maarten; Som de Cerff, Wim; Page, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The CLIPC project is developing a portal to provide a single point of access for scientific information on climate change. This is made possible through the Copernicus Earth Observation Programme for Europe, which will deliver a new generation of environmental measurements of climate quality. The data about the physical environment which is used to inform climate change policy and adaptation measures comes from several categories: satellite measurements, terrestrial observing systems, model projections and simulations and from re-analyses (syntheses of all available observations constrained with numerical weather prediction systems). These data categories are managed by different communities: CLIPC will provide a single point of access for the whole range of data. The CLIPC portal will provide a number of indicators showing impacts on specific sectors which have been generated using a range of factors selected through structured expert consultation. It will also, as part of the transformation services, allow users to explore the consequences of using different combinations of driving factors which they consider to be of particular relevance to their work or life. The portal will provide information on the scientific quality and pitfalls of such transformations to prevent misleading usage of the results. The CLIPC project will develop an end to end processing chain (indicator tool kit), from comprehensive information on the climate state through to highly aggregated decision relevant products. Indicators of climate change and climate change impact will be provided, and a tool kit to update and post process the collection of indicators will be integrated into the portal. The CLIPC portal has a distributed architecture, making use of OGC services provided by e.g., climate4impact.eu and CEDA. CLIPC has two themes: 1. Harmonized access to climate datasets derived from models, observations and re-analyses 2. A climate impact tool kit to evaluate, rank and aggregate

  3. New catalyst developed at Argonne National Laboratory could help diesels meet NOx deadlines

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    "A new catalyst could help auto makers meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's deadline to eliminate 95 percent of nitrogen-oxide from diesel engine exhausts by 2007, while saving energy" (1 page).

  4. ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF COPPER RECYCLING OF DEAD COPPER-CONTAINING CATALYSTS

    OpenAIRE

    O. S. Komarov; I. V. Provorova; V. I. Volosatikov; D. O. Komarov; N. I. Urbanovich

    2009-01-01

    The technology of processing of copper-bearing dead catalysts, which includes leaching and deposition of copper by means of electrolysis and also their application in composition of the mixture for alloy doping is offered.

  5. ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF COPPER RECYCLING OF DEAD COPPER-CONTAINING CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of processing of copper-bearing dead catalysts, which includes leaching and deposition of copper by means of electrolysis and also their application in composition of the mixture for alloy doping is offered.

  6. Brief Communication: CATALYST - a multi-regional stakeholder Think Tank for fostering capacity development in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Hare, M.P.; Bers, van C.; Keur, van der P.

    2014-01-01

    This brief communication presents the work and objectives of the CATALYST project on "Capacity Development for Hazard Risk Reduction and Adaptation" funded by the European Commission (October 2011–September 2013). CATALYST set up a multi-regional think tank covering four regions (Central America and

  7. Development of biomimetic catalytic oxidation methods and non-salt methods using transition metal-based acid and base ambiphilic catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murahashi, Shun-Ichi

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the development of ruthenium and flavin catalysts for environmentally benign oxidation reactions based on mimicking the functions of cytochrome P-450 and flavoenzymes, and low valent transition-metal catalysts that replace conventional acids and bases. Several new concepts and new types of catalytic reactions based on these concepts are described. (Communicated by Ryoji Noyori, M.J.A.).

  8. Development of vanadium-phosphate catalysts for methanol production by selective oxidation of methane. Quarterly technical progress report 10, July 1, 1995--September 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, R.L.

    1995-12-07

    This document is the tenth quarterly technical progress report under Contract No. DE-AC22-92PC92110 {open_quotes}Development of Vanadium-Phosphate Catalysts for Methanol Production by Selective Oxidation of Methane{close_quotes}. Activities focused on testing of additional modified and promoted catalysts and characterization of these materials. Attempts at improving the sensitivity of our GC based analytical systems were also made with some success. Methanol oxidation studies were initiated. These results are reported. Specific accomplishments include: (1) Methane oxidation testing of a suite of catalysts promoted with most of the first row transition metals was completed. Several of these materials produced low, difficult to quantify yields of formaldehyde. (2) Characterization of these materials by XRD and FTIR was performed with the goal of correlating activity and selectivity with catalyst properties. (3) We began to characterize catalysts prepared via modified synthesis methods designed to enhance acidity using TGA measurements of acetonitrile chemisorption and methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether as a test reaction. (4) A catalyst prepared in the presence of naphthalene methanol as a structural disrupter was tested for activity in methane oxidation. It was found that this material produced low yields of formaldehyde which were difficult to quantify. (5) Preparation of catalysts with no Bronsted acid sites. This was accomplished by replacement of exchangeable protons with potassium, and (6) Methanol oxidation studies were initiated to provide an indication of catalyst activity for decomposition of this desired product and as a method of characterizing the catalyst surface.

  9. Performance Comparison of Two Newly Developed Bimetallic (X-Mo/Al2O3, X=Fe or Co) Catalysts for Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl Gharibi Kharaji; Ahmad Shariati

    2016-01-01

    The performance of the two newly developed bimetallic catalysts based on the precursor, Mo/Al2O3, was com-pared for reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. The structures of the precursor and the catalysts were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spec-trometry (ICP-AES), CO chemisorption, temperature programmed reduction of hydrogen (H2-TPR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The activity of Fe-Mo and Co-Mo catalysts was compared in a ifxed bed reactor at different temperatures. It is shown that the Co-Mo catalyst has higher CO2 conversion at all temperature level. The time-on-stream (TOS) analysis of the activity of catalysts for the RWGS reaction was carried out over a continuous period of 60 h for both catalysts. The Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst exhibits good stability within a period of 60 h, however, the Co-Mo/Al2O3 is gradually deactivated after 50 h of reaction time. Existence of Fe2(MoO4)3 phase in Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst makes this catalyst more stable for RWGS reaction.

  10. 生物启发计算研究现状与发展趋势%Research Status and Development Trends of the Bio-inspired Computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱云龙; 申海; 陈瀚宁; 吕赐兴; 张丁一

    2016-01-01

    Bio-inspired computation aims to study the biology function,characteristic and mechanism of the various levels of nature,from biological individual,population,colony until ecosystem,and set up a relevant model and computing method,so as to serve the scientific research and engineering application of human society.It is not only the inheritance and development of artificial intelligence,but also from a new point to understand and grasp the intelligent intrinsic.First,we introduce the bio-inspired computation theoretical origin,invol-ving the biological evolutionism theory,the symbiosis evolution theory and the complex adaptive system theo-ry.Then,we review algorithm research progress and discuss about application research progress from three aspects including optimal plan,optimal analysis and optimal control.Based on comprehensive analysis and summarize existing bio-inspired optimization algorithms,a bio-inspired computation unified framework model is proposed.Finally,a few future directions and research challenges are presented,such as parallel bio-in-spired computation,bio-inspired computation with reasoning and knowledge,bio-inspired dynamics computa-tion,bio-inspired computation based on quorum sensing,artificial brain,evolutionary hardware,big data, swarm robot,virtual biological,cloud computing,etc.%生物启发计算的宗旨是研究自然界生物个体、群体、群落乃至生态系统不同层面的功能、特点和作用机制,建立相应的模型与计算方法,从而服务于人类社会的科学研究与工程应用。它既是人工智能的继承与发展,同时也是从新的角度理解和把握智能本质的方法。本文阐述了生物启发计算所涉及的生物进化论、共生进化论和复杂适应系统的理论起源。在对生物启发计算进行分析、归纳和总结的基础上,介绍了现有生物启发计算算法研究成果,并从最优设计、最优分析和最优控制3个方面对生物启发计算的

  11. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xincai

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  12. Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalysis: Ag-Doped TiO2 Catalyst Development and Reactor Design Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hintze, Paul E.; Meier, Anne; Shah, Malay G.; Devor, Robert W.; Surma, Jan M.; Maloney, Phillip R.; Bauer, Brint M.; Mazyck, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the alteration of titanium dioxide to become visible-light-responsive (VLR) has been a major focus in the field of photocatalysis. Currently, bare titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactors to provide adequate levels of ultraviolet light for catalyst activation; these mercury-containing lamps, however, hinder the use of this PCO technology in a spaceflight environment due to concerns over crew Hg exposure. VLR-TiO2 would allow for use of ambient visible solar radiation or highly efficient visible wavelength LEDs, both of which would make PCO approaches more efficient, flexible, economical, and safe. Over the past three years, Kennedy Space Center has developed a VLR Ag-doped TiO2 catalyst with a band gap of 2.72 eV and promising photocatalytic activity. Catalyst immobilization techniques, including incorporation of the catalyst into a sorbent material, were examined. Extensive modeling of a reactor test bed mimicking air duct work with throughput similar to that seen on the International Space Station was completed to determine optimal reactor design. A bench-scale reactor with the novel catalyst and high-efficiency blue LEDs was challenged with several common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in ISS cabin air to evaluate the system's ability to perform high-throughput trace contaminant removal. The ultimate goal for this testing was to determine if the unit would be useful in pre-heat exchanger operations to lessen condensed VOCs in recovered water thus lowering the burden of VOC removal for water purification systems.

  13. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  14. Development of Ternary and Quaternary Catalysts for the Electrooxidation of Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Artem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work consisted in the preparation of platinum-based catalysts supported on carbon (Vulcan XC-72 and investigation of their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. Catalysts of the C/Pt-Ni-Sn-Me (Me = Ru or Ir type were prepared by the Pechini method at temperature of 350∘C. Four different compositions were homemade: C/Pt60Sn10Ni30, C/Pt60Sn10Ni20Ru10, C/Pt60Sn10Ni10Ru20, and C/Pt60Sn10Ni10Ir20. These catalysts were electrochemically and physically characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV, chronoamperometry (CA in the presence of glycerol 1.0 mol dm-3, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. XRD results showed the main peaks of face-centered cubic Pt. The particle sizes obtained from XRD and HRTEM experiments were close to values ranging from 3 to 8.5 nm. The CV results indicate behavior typical of Pt-based catalysts in acid medium. The CV and CA data reveal that quaternary catalysts present the highest current density for the electrooxidation of glycerol.

  15. Development of Ternary and Quaternary Catalysts for the Electrooxidation of Glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artem, L. M.; Santos, D. M.; De Andrade, A. R.; Kokoh, K. B.; Ribeiro, J.

    2012-01-01

    This work consisted in the preparation of platinum-based catalysts supported on carbon (Vulcan XC-72) and investigation of their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. Catalysts of the C/Pt-Ni-Sn-Me (Me = Ru or Ir) type were prepared by the Pechini method at temperature of 350°C. Four different compositions were homemade: C/Pt60Sn10Ni30, C/Pt60Sn10Ni20Ru10, C/Pt60Sn10Ni10Ru20, and C/Pt60Sn10Ni10Ir20. These catalysts were electrochemically and physically characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) in the presence of glycerol 1.0 mol dm−3, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD results showed the main peaks of face-centered cubic Pt. The particle sizes obtained from XRD and HRTEM experiments were close to values ranging from 3 to 8.5 nm. The CV results indicate behavior typical of Pt-based catalysts in acid medium. The CV and CA data reveal that quaternary catalysts present the highest current density for the electrooxidation of glycerol. PMID:22623905

  16. Development and integration of a LabVIEW-based modular architecture for automated execution of electrochemical catalyst testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalov, Angel A; Katsounaros, Ioannis; Meier, Josef C; Klemm, Sebastian O; Mayrhofer, Karl J J

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes a system for performing electrochemical catalyst testing where all hardware components are controlled simultaneously using a single LabVIEW-based software application. The software that we developed can be operated in both manual mode for exploratory investigations and automatic mode for routine measurements, by using predefined execution procedures. The latter enables the execution of high-throughput or combinatorial investigations, which decrease substantially the time and cost for catalyst testing. The software was constructed using a modular architecture which simplifies the modification or extension of the system, depending on future needs. The system was tested by performing stability tests of commercial fuel cell electrocatalysts, and the advantages of the developed system are discussed.

  17. In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jose A; Chupas, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

  18. Development of heterogeneous olympic medal metal nanoparticle catalysts for environmentally benign molecular transformations based on the surface properties of hydrotalcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Kiyotomi; Mitsudome, Takato; Mizugaki, Tomoo; Jitsukawa, Koichiro

    2010-12-08

    In this review, we describe the development by our research group of highly functionalized heterogeneous Olympic medal metal (gold, silver, and copper) nanoparticle catalysts using hydrotalcite as a support, aimed towards Green and Sustainable Chemistry. Olympic medal metal nanoparticles can cooperate with the basic sites on the hydrotalcite surface, providing unique and high performance catalysis in environmentally-benign organic transformations such as aerobic oxidation of alcohols, lactonization of diols and selective deoxygenation of epoxides and nitro aromatic compounds.

  19. Development of Heterogeneous Olympic Medal Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts for Environmentally Benign Molecular Transformations Based on the Surface Properties of Hydrotalcite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Jitsukawa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we describe the development by our research group of highly functionalized heterogeneous Olympic medal metal (gold, silver, and copper nanoparticle catalysts using hydrotalcite as a support, aimed towards Green and Sustainable Chemistry. Olympic medal metal nanoparticles can cooperate with the basic sites on the hydrotalcite surface, providing unique and high performance catalysis in environmentally-benign organic transformations such as aerobic oxidation of alcohols, lactonization of diols and selective deoxygenation of epoxides and nitro aromatic compounds.

  20. Development of Heterogeneous Olympic Medal Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts for Environmentally Benign Molecular Transformations Based on the Surface Properties of Hydrotalcite

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we describe the development by our research group of highly functionalized heterogeneous Olympic medal metal (gold, silver, and copper) nanoparticle catalysts using hydrotalcite as a support, aimed towards Green and Sustainable Chemistry. Olympic medal metal nanoparticles can cooperate with the basic sites on the hydrotalcite surface, providing unique and high performance catalysis in environmentally-benign organic transformations such as aerobic oxidation of alcohols, lactoni...

  1. Development of niobium-promoted cobalt catalysts on carbon nanotubes for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sardar Ali; Noor Asmawati Mohd Zabidi; Duvvuri Subbarao

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt-based catalysts were prepared by a wet impregnation method on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) support and promoted with niobium.Samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption,TEM,XRD,TPR,TPO and H2-TPD.Addition of niobium increased the dispersion of cobalt but decreased the catalysts reducibility.Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor at 543 K,1 atm and H2/CO =2 for 5 h.Addition of niobium enhanced the C5+ hydrocarbons selectivity by 39% and reduced methane selectivity by 59%.These effects were more pronounced for 0.04%Nb/Co/CNTs catalyst,compared with those observed for other niobium compositions.

  2. Catalyst Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans; Marling, Gitte; Hansen, Peter Mandal

    2014-01-01

    of programs, have a role in mediating positive social and/or cultural development. In this sense, we talk about architecture as a catalyst for: sustainable adaptation of the city’s infrastructure appropriate renovation of dilapidated urban districts strengthening of social cohesiveness in the city development...... meaningful for everyone. The exhibited works are designed by SANAA, Diller Scofidio + Renfro, James Corner Field Operation, JBMC Arquitetura e Urbanismo, Atelier Bow-Wow, Ateliers Jean Nouvel, COBE, Transform, BIG, Topotek1, Superflex, and by visual artist Jane Maria Petersen....

  3. Development of advanced zeolite catalysts for the vapor phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lian-Xin; Iwaki, Yoshihide; Koyama, Katsuyuki; Tatsumi, Takashi

    1997-11-01

    The vapor phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to ɛ-caprolactam catalyzed by various zeolites was studied. The catalytic performance was greatly affected by both the zeolite structure and diluent solvent. When 1-hexanol was used in place of benzene, the catalytic performance of all catalysts except silicalite-1 was greatly improved. In particular, the selectivity and stability of H-LTL and H-OFF-ERI zeolites remarkably increased; both catalysts exhibited ca. 100% oxime conversion and ɛ-caprolactam selectivity of >95% for 6 h.

  4. Development of a New Combinatorial Approach to Multifunctional Catalysts: Metal Silsesquioxanes as Precursors to Microporous Metallosilicates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAXIM, Nicolae

    2001-01-01

    Microporous, silica-supported netal oxides with a very narrow pore size distribution around 0.6 nm diameter, typicalsurface areas ranging from 350 to 700 m2/g, and loadings of well-dispersed metal oxide (up to w=10% of metal) result from thecontrolled calcination of silsesquioxane metal complexes. A versatile new methodology is envisioned that, in a combinatorial fashion, enables catalyst preparation with control over metal content and dispersity, together with adjustable Lewis and Bronsted acidity, In addition, the method is suitable for the preparation of bi-andmultifunctional catalysts containing different metals.

  5. Learning from nature: Nature-inspired algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albeanu, Grigore; Madsen, Henrik; Popentiu-Vladicescu, Florin

    2016-01-01

    During last decade, the nature has inspired researchers to develop new algorithms. The largest collection of nature-inspired algorithms is biology-inspired: swarm intelligence (particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization, cuckoo search, bees' algorithm, bat algorithm, firefly algorithm etc...... on collective social behaviour of organisms, researchers have developed optimization strategies taking into account not only the individuals, but also groups and environment. However, learning from nature, new classes of approaches can be identified, tested and compared against already available algorithms....... This work reviews the most effective nature-inspired algorithms and describes learning strategies based on nature oriented thinking. Examples and the benefits obtained from applying nature-inspired strategies in test generation, learners group optimization, and artificial immune systems for learning...

  6. Geophysics in INSPIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sőrés, László

    2013-04-01

    INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface

  7. Biologically Inspired Purification and Dispersion of SWCNTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S.; Nikolaev, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    A biologically inspired method has been developed for (1) separating single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) from other materials (principally, amorphous carbon and metal catalysts) in raw production batches and (2) dispersing the SWCNTs as individual particles (in contradistinction to ropes and bundles) in suspension, as required for a number of applications. Prior methods of purification and dispersal of SWCNTs involve, variously, harsh physical processes (e.g., sonication) or harsh chemical processes (e.g., acid reflux). These processes do not completely remove the undesired materials and do not disperse bundles and ropes into individual suspended SWCNTs. Moreover, these processes cut long SWCNTs into shorter pieces, yielding typical nanotube lengths between 150 and 250 nm. In contrast, the present method does not involve harsh physical or chemical processes. The method involves the use of biologically derived dispersal agents (BDDAs) in an aqueous solution that is mechanically homogenized (but not sonicated) and centrifuged. The dense solid material remaining after centrifugation is resuspended by vortexing in distilled water, yielding an aqueous suspension of individual, separated SWCNTs having lengths from about 10 to about 15 microns.

  8. Enhancement of Treatment Efficiency of Recalcitrant Wastewater Containing Textile Dyes Using a Newly Developed Iron Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 Heterogeneous Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead to the formation of high volumes of sludge and secondary pollutants. To overcome these problems, an alternate option is the usage of heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed to provide an alternative solution for homogeneous Fenton oxidation. Iron Zeolite Socony Mobile-5 (Fe-ZSM-5) was synthesized using a new two-step process. Next, the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and tested against a model wastewater containing the azo dye Acid Blue 113. Results showed that the loading of iron particles reduced the surface area of the catalyst from 293.59 to 243.93 m2/g; meanwhile, the average particle size of the loaded material was 12.29 nm. Furthermore, efficiency of the developed catalyst was evaluated by performing heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Taguchi method was coupled with principal component analysis in order to assess and optimize mineralization efficiency. Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions, over 99.7% degradation and 77% mineralization was obtained, with a 90% reduction in the consumption of the developed catalyst. Furthermore, the developed catalyst was stable and reusable, with less than 2% leaching observed under optimized conditions. Thus, the present study proved that newly developed catalyst has enhanced the oxidation process and reduced the chemicals consumption.

  9. Development of vanidum-phosphate catalysts for methanol production by selective oxidation of methane. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, R.L.; Alptekin, G.O.

    1996-06-01

    Activities this past quarter, focused on acquisition of kinetic data for oxidation of formaldehyde and methanol on these catalysts. In the next quarter these results will be used to propose a simple reaction network and kinetic model. To date we have completed Task 1: Laboratory Setup and Task 2: Process Variable Study. Activities in the current quarter focused on finalizing these tasks and on Task 3: Promoters and Supports, this task is approximately 50% completed. Task 4: Advanced Catalysts is to be initiated in the next quarter. Specific accomplishments this quarter include: finalizing and calibrating a new reaction product analytical system with markedly improved precision and accuracy relative to older. approaches; development of procedures for accurately feeding formaldehyde to the reactor; examination of formaldehyde and methanol oxidation kinetics over vanadyl pyrophosphate at a range of temperatures; and preliminary studies of methane oxidation over a silica support.

  10. Theory-assisted development of a robust and Z-selective olefin metathesis catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, Giovanni; Koudriavtsev, Vitali; Törnroos, Karl W; Jensen, Vidar R

    2014-08-01

    DFT calculations have predicted a new, highly Z-selective ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalyst that is considerably more robust than the recently reported (SIMes)(Cl)(RS)RuCH(o-OiPrC6H4) (3a, SIMes = 1,3-dimesityl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene, R = 2,4,6-triphenylbenzene) [J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 3331]. Replacing the chloride of 3a by an isocyanate ligand to give 5a was predicted to increase the stability of the complex considerably, at the same time moderately improving the Z-selectivity. Compound 5a is easily prepared in a two-step synthesis starting from the Hoveyda-Grubbs second-generation catalyst 3. In agreement with the calculations, the isocyanate-substituted 5a appears to be somewhat more Z-selective than the chloride analogue 3a. More importantly, 5a can be used in air, with unpurified and non-degassed substrates and solvents, and in the presence of acids. These are traits that are unprecedented among highly Z-selective olefin metathesis catalysts and also very promising with respect to applications of the new catalyst.

  11. Development of chiral metal amides as highly reactive catalysts for asymmetric [3 + 2] cycloadditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Yoshimoto, Susumu; Dutton, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Summary Highly efficient catalytic asymmetric [3 + 2] cycloadditions using a chiral copper amide are reported. Compared with the chiral CuOTf/Et3N system, the CuHMDS system showed higher reactivity, and the desired reactions proceeded in high yields and high selectivities with catalyst loadings as low as 0.01 mol %. PMID:27559396

  12. Kinetics and mechanism of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural oxidation and their implications for catalyst development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, S.E.; Benavidez, A.; Gosselink, R.W.; Bitter, J.H.; Jong, de K.P.; Datye, A.K.; Davis, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction mechanism of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) oxidation in neutral aqueous solution with O2 to 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxylic acid (HFCA) and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) was evaluated over a 3 wt% Pt/activated carbon catalyst in a semibatch reactor and confirmed that the mechanism

  13. Development of Nitric Oxide Oxidation Catalysts for the Fast SCR Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Crocker

    2005-09-30

    This study was undertaken in order to assess the potential for oxidizing NO to NO{sub 2} in flue gas environments, with the aim of promoting the so-called fast SCR reaction. In principle this can result in improved SCR kinetics and reduced SCR catalyst volumes. Prior to commencing experimental work, a literature study was undertaken to identify candidate catalysts for screening. Selection criteria comprised (1) proven (or likely) activity for NO oxidation, (2) low activity for SO2 oxidation (where data were available), and (3) inexpensive component materials. Catalysts identified included supported base metal oxides, supported and unsupported mixed metal oxides, and metal ion exchanged ZSM-5 (Fe, Co, Cu). For comparison purposes, several low loaded Pt catalysts (0.5 wt% Pt) were also included in the study. Screening experiments were conducted using a synthetic feed gas representative of flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers: [NO] = 250 ppm, [SO{sub 2}] = 0 or 2800 ppm, [H{sub 2}O] = 7%, [CO{sub 2}] = 12%, [O{sub 2}] = 3.5%, balance = N{sub 2}; T = 275-375 C. Studies conducted in the absence of SO{sub 2} revealed a number of supported and unsupported metal oxides to be extremely active for NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}. These included known catalysts (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, FeMnO{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}), as well as a new one identified in this work, CrFeO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}. However, in the presence of SO{sub 2}, all the catalysts tested were found to be severely deactivated with respect to NO oxidation. Of these, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, Pt/ZSM-5 and Pt/CeO{sub 2} showed the highest activity for NO oxidation in the presence of SO{sub 2} (based on peak NO conversions to NO{sub 2}), although in no cases did the NO conversion exceed 7%. Reactor studies indicate there are two components to SO{sub 2}-induced deactivation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, corresponding to an irreversible deactivation due to sulfation of the surface of the Co{sub 3

  14. [Inspirations from natural products based drug research and development for Chinese medicine research--analysis of natural products recoded in TTD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Ping; Lu, Jin-Jian; Guo, Jia-Jie; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Xu, Wen-Shan; Ding, Qian; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-11-01

    Natural product is an important source of new drug research and development (R&D). Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) innovation is the key step for its modernization and internationalization. However, due to the complexity of TCM, there are many difficulties and confusions in this process. Target-based drug discovery is the mainstream model and method of R&D. TTD, short for therapeutic target database, is developed by National University of Singapore. Besides a large amount of information on drug targets, the database also contains considerable information related to natural products. This paper briefly introduces the TTD, analyzes the natural products derived drugs/compounds recorded in TTD, which we think might provide some inspiration for the innovation of TCM.

  15. Clay Bells: Edo Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The ceremonial copper and iron bells at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art were the author's inspiration for an interdisciplinary unit with a focus on the contributions various cultures make toward the richness of a community. The author of this article describes an Edo bell-inspired ceramic project incorporating slab-building…

  16. Highly eccentric inspirals into a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, Thomas; Warburton, Niels; Evans, Charles R.

    2016-03-01

    We model the inspiral of a compact stellar-mass object into a massive nonrotating black hole including all dissipative and conservative first-order-in-the-mass-ratio effects on the orbital motion. The techniques we develop allow inspirals with initial eccentricities as high as e ˜0.8 and initial separations as large as p ˜50 to be evolved through many thousands of orbits up to the onset of the plunge into the black hole. The inspiral is computed using an osculating elements scheme driven by a hybridized self-force model, which combines Lorenz-gauge self-force results with highly accurate flux data from a Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli code. The high accuracy of our hybrid self-force model allows the orbital phase of the inspirals to be tracked to within ˜0.1 radians or better. The difference between self-force models and inspirals computed in the radiative approximation is quantified.

  17. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)–(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized. PMID:27877800

  18. Development of the advanced nuclear materials -A study on the polymer catalyst process technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Il Hyun; Jung, Heung Suk; Lee, Han Soo; An, Doh Heui; Kang, Heui Suk; Baek, Seung Woo; Lee, Sung Hoh; Sung, Kee Woong; Kim, Kwang Lak; Kim, Jong Hoh; Koo, Je Hyoo; Park, Tae Keun; Kim, Sang Hwan; Yoo, Ryong; Song, Myung Jae; Son, Soon Hwan; Choi, Jung Kil; Lee, Jae Choon; Jung, Moon Kyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Heavy water is used as moderator and coolant in pressurized heavy water power plants. According to the governmental long-term plan for power supply, Korea is scheduled to construct new four pressurized heavy water power plants till the year 2006. Total heavy water make-up for these plants would be 22 Mg/a from the year 2006. Reformed hydrogen processes is considered best suited to Korea. Hydrophobic catalysts for this process were manufactured and the performance of hydrogen isotope exchange was investigated. The overall mass transfer coefficients varied between 0.004 and 2.295 m3 HD/m3 Bed.sec. and heavy water separation processes using the catalysts were optimized. 66 figs, 62 tabs, 19 refs. (Author).

  19. Development of a tailor-made bis(oxazolidine)pyridine-metal catalyst for the [3+2] cycloaddition of azomethine imines with propiolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takayoshi; Ogino, Yuta; Sato, Toru

    2013-09-14

    A series of bis(oxazolidine)pyridine ligands (the PyBodines) were newly designed and synthesized for the development of a highly efficient, tailor-made catalyst for the [3+2] cycloaddition of azomethine imines with propiolates. The PyBodine(l-Ala)-Cu(OAc)2 catalyst was selected on the basis of solid-phase catalysis/CD-HTS and exhibited high efficiency, producing the (R)-adducts with excellent enantioselectivity.

  20. La notion de development de communautes responsables comme source d'inspiration pour la recherche en education relative en environnement (The Idea of Responsible Community Development as a Source of Inspiration for Research in Education Relative to the Environment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Omer; Pruneau, Diane; Boubacar, Djibo

    1999-01-01

    Explores how experiments in both community development and in community economic development that are based on cooperative education provide fertile ground for research in environmental education. (Author/CCM)

  1. Physicists get INSPIREd

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Particle physicists thrive on information. They first create information by performing experiments or elaborating theoretical conjectures and then they share it through publications and various web tools. The INSPIRE service, just released, will bring state of the art information retrieval to the fingertips of researchers.   Keeping track of the information shared within the particle physics community has long been the task of libraries at the larger labs, such as CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, as well as the focus of indispensible services like arXiv and those of the Particle Data Group. In 2007, many providers of information in the field came together for a summit at SLAC to see how physics information resources could be enhanced, and the INSPIRE project emerged from that meeting. The vision behind INSPIRE was built by a survey launched by the four labs to evaluate the real needs of the community. INSPIRE responds to these directives from the community by combining the most successful aspe...

  2. Bio-inspired computation in telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She; Ting, TO

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired computation, especially those based on swarm intelligence, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications reviews the latest developments in bio-inspired computation from both theory and application as they relate to telecommunications and image processing, providing a complete resource that analyzes and discusses the latest and future trends in research directions. Written by recognized experts, this is a must-have guide for researchers, telecommunication engineers, computer scientists and PhD students.

  3. Development of an Innovative XRD-DRIFTS Prototype Allowing Operando Characterizations during Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt-Based Catalysts under Representative Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalbert Julien

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An original system combining both X-Ray Diffraction and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy was developed with the aim to characterize Fischer-Tropsch catalysts in relevant reaction conditions. The catalytic properties of a model PtCo/silica catalyst tested with this prototype have shown to be in the same range of those obtained in similar conditions with classical fixed-bed reactors. No bulk cobalt oxidation nor sintering were observed on operando XRD patterns. The formation of linear carbonyls and adsorbed hydrocarbons species at the surface of the catalyst was observed on operando DRIFT spectra. The surface of the catalyst was also suspected to be covered with carbon species inducing unfavorable changes in selectivity.

  4. Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Final report, September 1, 1990--January 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.; Philip, C.V.; Erkey, C.; Feng, Z.; Postula, W.S.; Wang, J.

    1995-03-01

    This project was initiated because the supply of isobutylene had been identified as a limitation on the production of methyl-t-butyl ether, a gasoline additive. Prior research on isobutylene synthesis had been at low conversion (less than 5%) or extremely high pressures (greater than 300 bars). The purpose of this research was to optimize the synthesis of a zirconia based catalyst, determine process conditions for producing isobutylene at pressures less than 100 bars, develop kinetic and reactor models, and simulate the performance of fixed bed, trickle bed and slurry flow reactors. A catalyst, reactor models and optimum operating conditions have been developed for producing isobutylene from coal derived synthesis gas. The operating conditions are much less severe than the reaction conditions developed by the Germans during and prior to WWII. The low conversion, i.e. CO conversion less than 15%, have been perceived to be undesirable for a commercial process. However, the exothermic nature of the reaction and the ability to remove heat from the reactor could limit the extent of conversion for a fixed bed reactor. Long residence times for trickle or slurry (bubble column) reactors could result in high CO conversion at the expense of reduced selectivities to iso C{sub 4} compounds. Economic studies based on a preliminary design, and a specific location will be required to determine the commercial feasibility of the process.

  5. Catalyst development and systems analysis of methanol partial oxidation for the fuel processor - fuel cell integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newson, E.; Mizsey, P.; Hottinger, P.; Truong, T.B.; Roth, F. von; Schucan, Th.H. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Methanol partial oxidation (pox) to produce hydrogen for mobile fuel cell applications has proved initially more successful than hydrocarbon pox. Recent results of catalyst screening and kinetic studies with methanol show that hydrogen production rates have reached 7000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for the dry pox route and 12,000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for wet pox. These rates are equivalent to 21 and 35 kW{sub th}/(litre reactor volume) respectively. The reaction engineering problems remain to be solved for dry pox due to the significant exotherm of the reaction (hot spots of 100-200{sup o}C), but wet pox is essentially isothermal in operation. Analyses of the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell systems show that two routes are available to satisfy the sensitivity of the fuel cell catalysts to carbon monoxide, i.e. a preferential oxidation reactor or a membrane separator. Targets for individual system components are evaluated for the base and best case systems for both routes to reach the combined 40% efficiency required for the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell system. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  6. Developing an approach for first-principles catalyst design: application to carbon-capture catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Heather J; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Lightstone, Felice C

    2014-02-01

    An approach to catalyst design is presented in which local potential energy surface models are first built to elucidate design principles and then used to identify larger scaffold motifs that match the target geometries. Carbon sequestration via hydration is used as the model reaction, and three- and four-coordinate sp(2) or sp(3) nitrogen-ligand motifs are considered for Zn(II) metals. The comparison of binding, activation and product release energies over a large range of interaction distances and angles suggests that four-coordinate short Zn(II)-Nsp(3) bond distances favor a rapid turnover for CO2 hydration. This design strategy is then confirmed by computationally characterizing the reactivity of a known mimic over a range of metal-nitrogen bond lengths. A search of existing catalysts in a chemical database reveals structures that match the target geometry from model calculations, and subsequent calculations have identified these structures as potentially effective for CO2 hydration and sequestration.

  7. Development of Light Cycle Oil (LCO) Hydrocracking Technology over a Commercial W-Ni Based Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Chong; Yang Xuejing; Fang Xiangchen; Huang Xinlu; Cheng Zhenmin; Zeng Ronghui; Guo Rong

    2015-01-01

    Because of its high density and low cetane number, the light cycle oil (LCO) containing heavy aromatics (60%—80%) can hardly be transformed through the conventional hydro-upgrading technology. In this report, a novel LCO hydrocracking technology (FD2G) was proposed for the utilization of LCO to manufacture high value-added products. Through the ingenious combination of hydroprocessing catalyst and the hydrocracking process, the high octane gasoline and the ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) blendstocks were produced simultaneously. The inlfuence of catalyst type, reaction temperature, pressure, respectively, on the research octane number (RON) of produced gasoline was studied in a ifxed bed hydrogenation reactor. It indicated that high reaction temperature and medium pressurewould favor the production of high-octane gasoline through the conversion of bi-aromatic and tri-aromatic hydrocarbons. The typical results of FD2G tech-nology on commercial units showed that it could produce clean diesel with a sulfur content of less than 10 μg/g and clean gasoline with a research octane number (RON) of up to 92. It would be contributed to the achievement of the maximum proift of a reifnery, the FD2G technology could provide a higher economic efifciency than the other diesel quality upgrading technology under the current gasoline and diesel price system.

  8. Homogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, John C; Freixa, Zoraida; van Leeuwen, Piet W N M

    2011-01-01

    This first book to illuminate this important aspect of chemical synthesis improves the lifetime of catalysts, thus reducing material and saving energy, costs and waste.The international panel of expert authors describes the studies that have been conducted concerning the way homogeneous catalysts decompose, and the differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. The result is a ready reference for organic, catalytic, polymer and complex chemists, as well as those working in industry and with/on organometallics.

  9. [Medicine inspired by poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, H

    2000-05-13

    Since his arrival in Egypt in 1994 the author joined a number of archaeological expeditions as a surveyor and part-time physician. During this latter activity he came into contact with the beliefs and practices of the local workmen and those of the Ababda Bedouin in particular. Living a harsh life in the southern part of the Egyptian Eastern Desert, their medicine seems to be inspired by poverty. Widely used for all internal disorders are 'kaya bil-naar': oval scars made with red-hot metal instruments. Another, less common, form of scarification is 'mi'ah-hed'asher', three parallel lines carved deeply into the cheek of the patient. 'Muhawy' is the bite of a snake into the earlobe of the patient, to prevent snake-bites. Another prophylactic is the 'higab', a small leather pouch containing a magical object or text. Therapies for less serious disorders include the use of herbs, spices and foodstuffs, often prepared in special ways. Externally, car fuel and axle grease are widely used. With the development of the Red Sea coast for tourism, the life of the Ababda Bedouin will change fundamentally. The above practices are likely to be replaced by Western medicine, probably a change for the better for these people.

  10. Protein structure similarity clustering (PSSC) and natural product structure as inspiration sources for drug development and chemical genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Frank J; Koch, Marcus A; Waldmann, Herbert; Dekker, Frans

    2005-01-01

    Finding small molecules that modulate protein function is of primary importance in drug development and in the emerging field of chemical genomics. To facilitate the identification of such molecules, we developed a novel strategy making use of structural conservatism found in protein domain architec

  11. Development of a reaction cell for in-situ/operando studies of surface of a catalyst under a reaction condition and during catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luan; Tao, Franklin Feng

    2016-06-01

    Tracking surface chemistry of a catalyst during catalysis is significant for fundamental understanding of catalytic performance of the catalyst since it allows for establishing an intrinsic correlation between surface chemistry of a catalyst at its working status and its corresponding catalytic performance. Ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used for in-situ studies of surfaces of different materials or devices in a gas. To simulate the gaseous environment of a catalyst in a fixed-bed a flowing gaseous environment of reactants around the catalyst is necessary. Here, we report the development of a new flowing reaction cell for simulating in-situ study of a catalyst surface under a reaction condition in gas of one reactant or during catalysis in a mixture of reactants of a catalytic reaction. The homemade reaction cell is installed in a high vacuum (HV) or ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment of a chamber. The flowing gas in the reaction cell is separated from the HV or UHV environment through well sealings at three interfaces between the reaction cell and X-ray window, sample door and aperture of front cone of an energy analyzer. Catalyst in the cell is heated through infrared laser beam introduced through a fiber optics interfaced with the reaction cell through a homemade feedthrough. The highly localized heating on the sample holder and Au-passivated internal surface of the reaction cell effectively minimizes any unwanted reactions potentially catalyzed by the reaction cell. The incorporated laser heating allows a fast heating and a high thermal stability of the sample at a high temperature. With this cell, a catalyst at 800 °C in a flowing gas can be tracked readily.

  12. Development of Ni-Based Catalysts Derived from Hydrotalcite-Like Compounds Precursors for Synthesis Gas Production via Methane or Ethanol Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As a favorably clean fuel, syngas (synthesis gas production has been the focus of concern in past decades. Substantial literatures reported the syngas production by various catalytic reforming reactions particularly in methane or ethanol reforming. Among the developed catalysts in these reforming processes, Ni-based catalysts from hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTLcs precursors have drawn considerable attention for their preferable structural traits. This review covers the recent literature reporting syngas production with Ni-based catalysts from HTLc precursors via methane or ethanol reforming. The discussion was initiated with catalyst preparation (including conventional and novel means, followed by subsequent thermal treatment processes, then composition design and the addition of promoters in these catalysts. As Ni-based catalysts have thermodynamic potential to deactivate because of carbon deposition or metal sintering, measures for dealing with these problems were finally summarized. To obtain optimal catalytic performances and resultantly better syngas production, based on analyzing the achievements of the references, some perspectives were finally proposed.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW TYPE ALUMINIUM OXIDE MATRIX CATALYST FOR PREPARATION OF SULFUR%新型氧化铝基制硫催化剂的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商剑峰; 刘爱华; 罗保军; 刘剑利

    2012-01-01

    The paper described the development, characterization and activity valuation of LS -02 new type aluminium oxide matrix catalyst for preparation of sulfur. The LS -02 catalyst was prepared by rotation shaping process and aluminium oxide as main raw material. Compared with LS -300 catalyst, the LS -02 catalyst possessed higher specific surface area, larger pore volume, more reasonable distribution of pore size and higher Claus and hydrolyzation reactivity. Comprehensive properties of the LS -02 catalyst reached foreign similar catalyst.%介绍了LS-02新型氧化铝制硫催化剂的研制、表征及活性评价。该催化剂以氧化铝为主要原料,采用转动成型工艺制备。该催化剂较LS-300催化剂具有更高的比表面积、更大的孔体积、更合理的孔分布及更高的克劳斯活性和水解活性,综合性能达到国外同类催化剂水平。

  14. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold, Michael; Crocker, Mark; Balakotaiah, Vemuri; Luss, Dan; Choi, Jae-Soon; Dearth, Mark; McCabe, Bob; Theis, Joe

    2013-09-30

    hydrocarbon component of diesel exhaust. First-principle models of the LNT and SCR converters, which utilized the mechanistic-based kinetics and realistic treatments of the flow and transport processes, in combination with bench-scale reactor experiments helped to identify the best designs for combining the NSR and SCR catalysts over a range of operating conditions encountered in practice. This included catalysts having multiple zones and layers and additives with the focus on determining the minimal precious metal component needed to meet emission abatement targets over a wide range of operating conditions. The findings from this study provide diesel vehicle and catalyst companies valuable information to develop more cost effective diesel emissions catalysts which helps to expand the use of more fuel efficient diesel power. The fundamental modeling and experimental tools and findings from this project can be applied to catalyst technologies used in the energy and chemical industries. Finally, the project also led to training of several doctoral students who were placed in research jobs in industry and academia.

  15. INSPIRE from the JRC Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Cetl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises some recent developments in INSPIRE implementation from the JRC (Joint Research Centre point of view. The INSPIRE process started around 11 years ago and today, clear results and benefits can be seen. Spatial data are more accessible and shared more frequently between countries and at the European level. In addition to this, efficient, unified coordination and collaboration between different stakeholders and participants has been achieved, which is another great success. The JRC, as a scientific think-tank of the European Commission, has played a very important role in this process from the very beginning. This role is in line with its mission, which is to provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of European Union (EU policies. The JRC acts as the overall technical coordinator of INSPIRE, but it also carries out the activities necessary to support the coherent implementation of INSPIRE, by helping member states in the implementation process. Experiences drawn from collaboration and negotiation in each country and at the European level will be of great importance in the revision of the INSPIRE Directive, which is envisaged for 2014. Keywords: spatial data infrastructure (SDI; INSPIRE; development; Joint Research Centre (JRC

  16. Brief Communication: CATALYST - a multi-regional stakeholder think tank for fostering capacity development in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, M. P.; van Bers, C.; van der Keur, P.; Henriksen, H. J.; Luther, J.; Kuhlicke, C.; Jaspers, F.; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.; Mysiak, J.; Calliari, E.; Warner, K.; Daniel, H.; Coppola, J.; McGrath, P. F.

    2014-08-01

    This brief communication presents the work and objectives of the CATALYST project on "Capacity Development for Hazard Risk Reduction and Adaptation" funded by the European Commission (October 2011-September 2013). CATALYST set up a multi-regional think tank covering four regions (Central America and the Caribbean, East and West Africa, the European Mediterranean, and South and Southeast Asia), intending to strengthen capacity development for stakeholders involved in disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation, in the context of natural hazards. This communication concludes with a selection of recommendations for capacity development in DRR and climate change adaptation from the perspective of governance issues.

  17. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

    2014-07-01

    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  18. Development of a Method for the Preparation of Ruthenium Indenylidene-Ether Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Leonel R.; Tolentino, Daniel R.; Gallon, Benjamin J.; Schrodi, Yann

    2012-01-01

    The reactions between several derivatives of 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-yn-1-ol and different ruthenium starting materials [i.e., RuCl2(PPh3)3 and RuCl2(pcymene)(L), where L is tricyclohexylphosphine di-t-butylmethylphosphine, dicyclohexylphenylphosphine, triisobutylphosphine, triisopropylphosphine, or tri-npropylphosphine] are described. Several of these reactions allow for the easy, in-situ and atom-economic preparation of olefin metathesis catalysts. Organic precursor 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol led to the formation of active ruthenium indenylidene-ether complexes, while 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-yn-1-ol and 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-methyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol did not. It was also found that a bulky and strong σ-donor phosphine ligand was required to impart good catalytic activity to the new ruthenium complexes. PMID:22580400

  19. INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

  20. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongkanand, Anusorn [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Reduction of costly Pt usage in proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes is one of the major challenges towards development and commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. Although few have met the initial-kinetic activity requirements in a realistic fuel cell device, no catalyst material has ever met the demanding fuel cell durability targets set by DOE. In this project, a team of 4 universities and 2 companies came together to investigate a concept that appeared promising in preliminary non-fuel cell tests then to further develop the catalyst to a mature level ready for vehicle implementation. The team consists of academia with technical leadership in their respective areas, a catalyst supplier, and a fuel cell system integrator.The tightly collaborative project enabled development of a highly active and durable catalyst with performance that significantly exceeds that of previous catalysts and meets the DOE targets for the first time (Figure 1A). The catalyst was then further evaluated in full-active-area stack in a realistic vehicle operating condition (Figure 1B). This is the first public demonstration that one can realize the performance benefit and Pt cost reduction over a conventional pure Pt catalyst in a long-term realistic PEMFC system. Furthermore, systematic analyses of a range of catalysts with different performance after fuel cell testing allowed for correlation between catalyst microstructure and its electrocatalytic activity and durability. This will in turn aid future catalyst development.

  1. Biomimetic bio-inspired biomorph sustainable? An attempt to classify and clarify biology-derived technical developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Olga; Speck, David; Horn, Rafael; Gantner, Johannes; Sedlbauer, Klaus Peter

    2017-01-24

    Over the last few decades, the systematic approach of knowledge transfer from biological concept generators to technical applications has received increasing attention, particularly because marketable bio-derived developments are often described as sustainable. The objective of this paper is to rationalize and refine the discussion about bio-derived developments also with respect to sustainability by taking descriptive, normative and emotional aspects into consideration. In the framework of supervised learning, a dataset of 70 biology-derived and technology-derived developments characterised by 9 different attributes together with their respective values and assigned to one of 17 classes was created. On the basis of the dataset a decision tree was generated which can be used as a straightforward classification tool to identify biology-derived and technology-derived developments. The validation of the applied learning procedure achieved an average accuracy of 90.0%. Additional extraordinary qualities of technical applications are generally discussed by means of selected biology-derived and technology-derived examples with reference to normative (contribution to sustainability) and emotional aspects (aesthetics and symbolic character). In the context of a case study from the building sector, all aspects are critically discussed.

  2. More than a Read-Aloud: Preparing and Inspiring Early Childhood Teachers to Develop Our Future Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiles, Julia T.; Jones, Jennifer L.; Anderson, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of professional development on teachers' knowledge of teaching science and sense of efficacy regarding the teaching of science. In addition, the study explores the association between knowledge of teaching science and efficacy regarding the teaching of science. Participants included 28 early…

  3. Towards Development of Innovative Bio-Inspired Materials by Analyzing the Hydrodynamic Properties of Polyondon Spathula (Paddlefish) Rostrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    that goes into developing specialized code and also the amount of labor needed to maintain such specialized code . The partitioned approach treats...the advantage of using the existing legacy codes , keeping up with the interface boundary which changes in time is a challenge. Partitioned approach... SPH ) Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, and  (CFD/FSI) Coupling between fluid and structure model. FSI methods have been used for coupled

  4. Bio-inspired multinuclear copper complexes covalently immobilized on reduced graphene oxide as efficient electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yue-Ting; Wei, Ping-Jie; Wang, Ru-Chun; Liu, Jin-Gang

    2015-05-01

    Inspired by the multicopper active site of laccase, which efficiently catalyzes the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), herein we report a novel bio-inspired ORR catalyst composed of a multinuclear copper complex that was immobilized on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via the covalently grafted triazole-dipyridine (TADPy) dinucleating ligand. This rGO-TADPyCu catalyst exhibited high ORR activity and superior long-term stability compared to Pt/C in alkaline media.

  5. Features and Inspiration of Teachers Professional Development in Singapore%新加坡教师专业发展的特点及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' training in Singapore is rich in courses, and its training service is considerate, and teachers evaluation system is scientific and accurate. The inspiration for us is that we need build up pluralistic course system to promote teachers professional development, and we should enhance service consciousness to improve competitiveness, and we should regulate evaluation indexes and perfect assessment system.%新加坡教师培训课程内容丰富,培训服务全面细致,教师评价体系科学精准。这启发我们,在教师教育方面,一要打造多元化培训课程体系,助推教师专业发展;二要增强服务意识,提高培训竞争力;三要规范考核指标,完善教师评价体系。

  6. 新加坡的发展对我国的借鉴与启示%Reference and Inspiration of Singapore's Development to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑艳; 吴婷

    2012-01-01

    Economy of Singapore is increasing, which has entered the ranks of the modern country after 40 years of development, and its social construction of spiritual civilization is remarkable. Ideological and political education in Singapore has clear training objectives, rich contents and distinctive features of the times. Study of ideological and political education in Singapore is of great reference and inspiration to cany out ideological and political education.%新加坡经过了40多年的发展,经济上增长迅速已进入现代化国家的行列,社会的精神文明建设上也有显著成效.新加坡思想政治教育具有明确的培养目标.丰富的内容和鲜明的时代特点.研究新加坡思想政治教育对我国开展思想政治教育具有重大的借鉴和启示.

  7. Development of a novel optimization tool for electron linacs inspired by artificial intelligence techniques in video games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, E., E-mail: evelyne.meier@synchrotron.org.a [School of Physics, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia) and Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Rd, Clayton VIC 3168 (Australia) and FERMI-Elettra, Sincrotrone Trieste, S.S. 14 km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Biedron, S.G., E-mail: biedron@anl.go [Department of Defense Project Office, Argonne National Laboratory, IL 60439 (United States); FERMI-Elettra, Sincrotrone Trieste, S.S. 14 km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); LeBlanc, G., E-mail: greg.leblanc@synchrotron.org.a [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Rd, Clayton VIC 3168 (Australia); Morgan, M.J., E-mail: Michael.J.Morgan@monash.ed [School of Physics, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2011-03-11

    This paper reports the results of an advanced algorithm for the optimization of electron beam parameters in Free Electron Laser (FEL) Linacs. In the novel approach presented in this paper, the system uses state of the art developments in video games to mimic an operator's decisions to perform an optimization task when no prior knowledge, other than constraints on the actuators is available. The system was tested for the simultaneous optimization of the energy spread and the transmission of the Australian Synchrotron Linac. The proposed system successfully increased the transmission of the machine from 90% to 97% and decreased the energy spread of the beam from 1.04% to 0.91%. Results of a control experiment performed at the new FERMI-Elettra FEL is also reported, suggesting the adaptability of the scheme for beam-based control.

  8. Network theory inspired analysis of time-resolved expression data reveals key players guiding P. patens stem cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Bao, Jie; Hanke, Sebastian T; Hiss, Manuel; Tiko, Theodhor; Rensing, Stefan A

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) often trigger developmental decisions, yet, their transcripts are often only moderately regulated and thus not easily detected by conventional statistics on expression data. Here we present a method that allows to determine such genes based on trajectory analysis of time-resolved transcriptome data. As a proof of principle, we have analysed apical stem cells of filamentous moss (P. patens) protonemata that develop from leaflets upon their detachment from the plant. By our novel correlation analysis of the post detachment transcriptome kinetics we predict five out of 1,058 TFs to be involved in the signaling leading to the establishment of pluripotency. Among the predicted regulators is the basic helix loop helix TF PpRSL1, which we show to be involved in the establishment of apical stem cells in P. patens. Our methodology is expected to aid analysis of key players of developmental decisions in complex plant and animal systems.

  9. Development of a novel optimization tool for electron linacs inspired by artificial intelligence techniques in video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, E.; Biedron, S. G.; LeBlanc, G.; Morgan, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    This paper reports the results of an advanced algorithm for the optimization of electron beam parameters in Free Electron Laser (FEL) Linacs. In the novel approach presented in this paper, the system uses state of the art developments in video games to mimic an operator's decisions to perform an optimization task when no prior knowledge, other than constraints on the actuators is available. The system was tested for the simultaneous optimization of the energy spread and the transmission of the Australian Synchrotron Linac. The proposed system successfully increased the transmission of the machine from 90% to 97% and decreased the energy spread of the beam from 1.04% to 0.91%. Results of a control experiment performed at the new FERMI@Elettra FEL is also reported, suggesting the adaptability of the scheme for beam-based control.

  10. Bio-inspired vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  11. Development of a Method for the Preparation of Ruthenium Indenylidene-Ether Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Schrodi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The reactions between several derivatives of 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol and different ruthenium starting materials [i.e., RuCl2(PPh33 and RuCl2(p-cymene(L, where L is tricyclohexylphosphine di-t-butylmethylphosphine, dicyclohexylphenylphosphine, triisobutylphosphine, triisopropylphosphine, or tri-n-propylphosphine] are described. Several of these reactions allow for the easy, in-situ and atom-economic preparation of olefin metathesis catalysts. Organic precursor 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-1-phenyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol led to the formation of active ruthenium indenylidene-ether complexes, while 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol and 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-1-methyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol did not. It was also found that a bulky and strong σ-donor phosphine ligand was required to impart good catalytic activity to the new ruthenium complexes.

  12. Nature as Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Kristina; Moore, Tamara; Strnat, Meg

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the final lesson within a seven-day STEM and literacy unit that is part of the Picture STEM curriculum (pictureSTEM. org) and uses engineering to integrate science and mathematics learning in a meaningful way (Tank and Moore 2013). For this engineering challenge, students used nature as a source of inspiration for designs to…

  13. An Ark of Inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project suitable for middle and high school students in which they either combine identifiable parts from different animals to create one creature or take one animal and creatively distort it. Explains that this lesson enables students to be satisfied with their animal-inspired artwork. (CMK)

  14. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  15. Inspire & innovate : Endbericht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, T.; Lugtenaar, M.; Balendonck, J.; Ruckelshausen, A.; Wit, de R.

    2008-01-01

    Met het project Inspire & Innovate helpt de EU Nederlandse en Duitse bedrijven in met name de sectoren Food en Life Sciences op weg. Het project is bedoeld voor MKB-bedrijven in de Euregio Rijn-Waal en de EUREGIO die inhoudelijke en financiële ondersteuning zoeken om hun innovatieplannen door te

  16. Analytical development of a binuclear oxo-manganese complex bio-inspired on oxidase enzyme for doping control analysis of acetazolamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machini, Wesley B S; Teixeira, Marcos F S

    2016-05-15

    A bio-inspired electrochemical sensor using a binuclear oxo-manganese complex was evaluated and applied in the detection of a substance associated with doping in sports: acetazolamide (ACTZ). Investigation was made of the influence of different experimental variables on the electrocatalytic oxidation of ACTZ by the bio-inspired sensor, such as pH and interfering species. The bio-inspired sensor showed the best response in the range from 5.00×10(-9) to 7.00×10(-8) mol L(-1) ACTZ, with a linear range from 5.00×10(-9) to 2.50×10(-8) mol L(-1) and a detection limit of 4.76×10(-9) mol L(-1). The sensor exhibited characteristics similar to the Michaelis-Menten model of an enzymatic electrode, due to the use of a multinucleated complex of manganese with μ-oxo units, which was able to mimic the properties of enzymes with manganese as a cofactor in their composition, such as Mn-containing oxidase. The determination of ACTZ with the bio-inspired sensor was evaluated using three different synthetic biological fluids (plasma, saliva, and urine), demonstrating its viability for use with real samples. The analysis of ACTZ in real urine samples using the bio-inspired sensor, simulating the method adopted by the World Anti-Doping Agency, which revealed viable, suggesting a new and promising platform to be used in these analysis.

  17. Pursuing DNA catalysts for protein modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Scott K

    2015-05-19

    Catalysis is a fundamental chemical concept, and many kinds of catalysts have considerable practical value. Developing entirely new catalysts is an exciting challenge. Rational design and screening have provided many new small-molecule catalysts, and directed evolution has been used to optimize or redefine the function of many protein enzymes. However, these approaches have inherent limitations that prompt the pursuit of different kinds of catalysts using other experimental methods. Nature evolved RNA enzymes, or ribozymes, for key catalytic roles that in modern biology are limited to phosphodiester cleavage/ligation and amide bond formation. Artificial DNA enzymes, or deoxyribozymes, have great promise for a broad range of catalytic activities. They can be identified from unbiased (random) sequence populations as long as the appropriate in vitro selection strategies can be implemented for their identification. Notably, in vitro selection is different in key conceptual and practical ways from rational design, screening, and directed evolution. This Account describes the development by in vitro selection of DNA catalysts for many different kinds of covalent modification reactions of peptide and protein substrates, inspired in part by our earlier work with DNA-catalyzed RNA ligation reactions. In one set of studies, we have sought DNA-catalyzed peptide backbone cleavage, with the long-term goal of artificial DNA-based proteases. We originally anticipated that amide hydrolysis should be readily achieved, but in vitro selection instead surprisingly led to deoxyribozymes for DNA phosphodiester hydrolysis; this was unexpected because uncatalyzed amide bond hydrolysis is 10(5)-fold faster. After developing a suitable selection approach that actively avoids DNA hydrolysis, we were able to identify deoxyribozymes for hydrolysis of esters and aromatic amides (anilides). Aliphatic amide cleavage remains an ongoing focus, including via inclusion of chemically modified DNA

  18. Investigation of titanium nitride as catalyst support material and development of durable electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasarala, Bharat K.

    The impending energy and climatic crisis makes it imperative for human society to seek non-fossil based alternative sources for our energy needs. Although many alternative energy technologies are currently being developed, fuel cell technology provides energy solutions, which satisfy a wide range of applications. But the current fuel cell technology is far from its target of large scale commercialization mainly because of its high cost and poor durability. Considerable work has been done in reducing the cost but its durability still needs significant improvement. Of the various materials in a PEM fuel cell, the degradation of electrocatalyst affects its durability the most, leading to performance loss. Carbon black (C) support corrosion plays a significant role in the electrocatalyst degradation and its severe affects due to potential cycling has been identified through my research. Through my resaerch, I introduce titanium nitride nanoparticles (TiN NP) as alternative catalyst supports replacing carbon black. TiN NP has higher electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance compared to that of C. The physical and electrochemical properties of TiN NP were studied and the Pt/TiN electrocatalyst was synthesized using polyol process. Upon optimizing using DOE, for desired catalyst particle size and activity, Pt/TiN is shown to have higher catalytic performance than conventional Pt/C. TiN NP are significantly influenced by the electrochemical conditions and show 'active' or 'passive' nature depending on the temperature and acidic concentration; and a temperature dependence model is proposed to understand the active/passive nature of TiN NP. A one-to-one comparison between TiN NP and C electrodes under similar electrochemical conditions show a superior performance of TiN NP as a catalyst support. The durability of the Pt/TiN electrocatalyst is also tested and it agrees well with the proposed model of active/passive nature of the TiN NP. Through theoretical calculation

  19. Base-Catalyzed Depolymerization of Lignin with Heterogeneous Catalysts: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-513

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-04

    We will synthesize and screen solid catalysts for the depolymerization of lignin to monomeric and oligomeric oxygenated species, which could be fractionated and integrated into refinery intermediate streams for selective upgrading, or catalytically upgraded to fuels and chemicals. This work will primarily focus on the synthesis and application of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for depolymerization of lignin model compounds and softwood lignin. LDHs have been shown in our group to offer good supports and catalysts to promote base-catalyzed depolymerization of lignin model compounds and in preliminary experiments for the depolymerization of lignin from an Organosolv process. We will also include additional catalyst supports such as silica, alumina, and carbon as identified in ongoing and past efforts at NREL. This work will consist of two tasks. Overall, this work will be synergistic with ongoing efforts at NREL, funded by the DOE Biomass Program, on the development of catalysts for lignin depolymerization in the context of biochemical and thermochemical conversion of corn stover and other biomass feedstocks to advanced fuels and chemicals.

  20. Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene. Quarterly report, 1 January 1995--31 March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barger, P.T.; Kurek, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    The goals of this project are to develop a catalyst and process for the conversion of syngas to isobutanol. The research will identify and optimize key catalyst characteristics. In addition, the commercial potential of the new process will be evaluated by an economic analysis. Previous work identified Pt or Pd on Zn/Mn/Zr co-precipitated metal oxides as promising catalysts for the conversion of a 10/1 methanol/ethanol blend to higher oxygenates. Supports with high Zn (>45%) and low Zr (< 33%) have afforded the best selectivities for the desired branched C{sub 4} products in the standard pilot plant test after impregnation with 2% Pt. In this report the analytical characterization of this series of materials is summarized. A large scale preparation of Zn/Mn/Zr oxide support has been completed for use in future process variable studies.

  1. Catalyst mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard I.; Rosen, Brian A.

    2017-02-14

    Catalysts that include at least one catalytically active element and one helper catalyst can be used to increase the rate or lower the overpotential of chemical reactions. The helper catalyst can simultaneously act as a director molecule, suppressing undesired reactions and thus increasing selectivity toward the desired reaction. These catalysts can be useful for a variety of chemical reactions including, in particular, the electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2 or formic acid. The catalysts can also suppress H.sub.2 evolution, permitting electrochemical cell operation at potentials below RHE. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts are also disclosed, including processes to produce CO, OH.sup.-, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, O.sub.2, H.sub.2, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  2. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping; Smith, R. Davis

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  3. Inspiration of Embroidery to the Development of Clothing Brands%刺绣对服装品牌发展的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛蓓

    2014-01-01

    中国刺绣工艺丰富多彩,各具特色。然而,在商品市场国际化中,中国刺绣品牌的影响力较弱,并且刺绣与服饰名牌合作的案例并不多。借鉴纪梵希(Givenchy)、香奈尔(Chanel)、JAYAHR等知名品牌将刺绣应用到服装的案例,望对中国刺绣企业和服装企业有所启发,从而推动中国服装品牌向中高端品牌发展,也使传统刺绣艺术得到很好传承,并在现代生活中发扬光大。%Chinese embroideries are rich and colorful with distinguished local characteristics. However, on the global commodity market, Chinese embroidery products have weak influence and the case of embroidery producer cooperating with famous clothing brands are quite few. The paper tries to give some inspirations to Chinese embroidery producers and clothing enterprises by analyzing the cases of world-famous brands such as Givenchy, Chanel and JAYAHR in using embroidery in their clothing design, so as to promote Chinese clothing brands to develop towards medium-and high-end market and make traditional embroidery art better inherited and further spread and flourished in modern life.

  4. Inspiral into Gargantua

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Samuel E; Warburton, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We model the inspiral of a compact object into a more massive black hole rotating very near the theoretical maximum. We find that once the body enters the near-horizon regime the gravitational radiation is characterized by a constant frequency, equal to (twice) the horizon frequency, with an exponentially damped profile. This contrasts with the usual "chirping" behavior and, if detected, would constitute a "smoking gun" for a near-extremal black hole in nature.

  5. High-Throughput Screening as a Supplemental Tool for the Development of Advanced Emission Control Catalysts: Methodological Approaches and Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Sundermann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-throughput (HT screening platform developed at hte with the application focus on automotive catalysis is described. hte HT units are configured for performing steady-state testing, as well as dynamic tests with fast feed switches, such as lean/rich excursions for the evaluation of NOx storage capacity and efficiency of lean NOx traps (LNT, ammonia storage capacity for selective catalytic reduction (SCR, evaluation of oxygen storage capacity (OSC, as well as lambda sweep tests for screening of three-way catalysts (TWC. Even though catalysts are screened on a rather small scale (~100 mg powder, experience showed that dosing rather complex gas mixtures in concentrations close to that found in real exhaust for the given application is mandatory to generate relevant data. The objective of this work is to give additional insight into HT technology. In the industrial research laboratory, HT screening has matured to become a reliable approach for rapid screening of both reaction parameter spaces, as well as material properties relevant for exhaust gas catalyst development. Due to the speed of optimized screening involving 48 parallel reactors, automated handling of primary data is an imported requirement. Software for data reduction, like estimation of light-off temperature, needs to be robust and handle results for diverse sample libraries in an unattended fashion. In combination with the statistical design of experiment and multivariate data analysis, HT testing has become a valuable enhancement to automotive catalyst development.

  6. Quantum-Inspired Maximizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).

  7. Inspiring a generation

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The motto of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games is ‘Inspire a generation’ so it was particularly pleasing to see science, the LHC and Higgs bosons featuring so strongly in the opening ceremony of the Paralympics last week.   It’s a sign of just how far our field has come that such a high-profile event featured particle physics so strongly, and we can certainly add our support to that motto. If the legacy of London 2012 is a generation inspired by science as well as sport, then the games will have more than fulfilled their mission. Particle physics has truly inspiring stories to tell, going well beyond Higgs and the LHC, and the entire community has played its part in bringing the excitement of frontier research in particle physics to a wide audience. Nevertheless, we cannot rest on our laurels: maintaining the kind of enthusiasm for science we witnessed at the Paralympic opening ceremony will require constant vigilance, and creative thinking about ways to rea...

  8. Bio-inspired variable structural color materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanjin; Xie, Zhuoying; Gu, Hongcheng; Zhu, Cun; Gu, Zhongze

    2012-04-21

    Natural structural color materials, especially those that can undergo reversible changes, are attracting increasing interest in a wide variety of research fields. Inspired by the natural creatures, many elaborately nanostructured photonic materials with variable structural colors were developed. These materials have found important applications in switches, display devices, sensors, and so on. In this critical review, we will provide up-to-date research concerning the natural and bio-inspired photonic materials with variable structural colors. After introducing the variable structural colors in natural creatures, we will focus on the studies of artificial variable structural color photonic materials, including their bio-inspired designs, fabrications and applications. The prospects for the future development of these fantastic variable structural color materials will also be presented. We believe this review will promote the communications among biology, bionics, chemistry, optical physics, and material science (196 references).

  9. 全球绿色低碳发展与中国发展方式转型%Global Green Low Carbon Development and Its Inspiration to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭近新

    2012-01-01

    Since industrial revolution, mankind has gone from classic low carbon economy fanning towords fossil high carbon energy based high carbon economy and the traditional industrialization. High carbon economy and the traditional industrialization promotes the material civilization, political civilization and spiritual civilization construction. But on the ecological civilization causes pollution of the environment, ecological degradation and climate warming. America and the former Soviet Union built the first human scale hydropower station and its first nuclear power station, open the development and utilization of low carbon energy off. In dealing with climate change and energy challenges, Britain and Japan were made to create a low carbon economy and construction low carbon social planning, The United Nations Environment Programmer put forward the construction of green city and go to a low carbon economy theme action. Many countries have gone green low carbon development, which provides important inspiration to China take a new road to industrialization and implement green low carbon development.%文章论述了近代产业革命推动人类从经典低碳经济农牧业生产,走上以化石高碳能源为基础的高碳经济和传统工业化道路,高碳经济和传统工业化道路促进了人类社会物质文明、政治文明和精神文明建设,但造成了环境污染、生态退化和气候变暖生态文明三项负效应;文章阐述了美国和前苏联建成人类第一座规模化水电站和第一座原子能电站开辟低碳能源的历史贡献,以及英国创建低碳经济、日本建设低碳社会和联合国环境署实施绿色低碳发展主题行动对全球绿色低碳发展的深刻影响,归纳了全球绿色低碳发展的基本趋势和特征,最后论述了全球绿色低碳发展对中国发展方式转型的重要启示.

  10. Development of Integrated TiO2 on Carburized Si Nanowires as a Catalyst/Support Structure for Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Adam J.

    Due to a combination of environmental and economic motivations, there is a strong impetus to transition away from fossil fuels towards renewable sources of energy. Critical to achieving this goal will be technologies that allow for the storage and transmission of energy derived from renewable sources. Hydrogen fuel cells may play a significant role in making this a reality, allowing for the use of hydrogen as a non-carbon based fuel, in particular for vehicle applications. Hydrogen fuel cells directly convert chemical energy into electrical energy, with only water vapor and heat as waste products. There are challenges facing fuel cell technology that inhibit its wider implementation. One of the most significant of these is the cost of the platinum that is typically used in fuel cells to catalyze the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), which is the bottleneck reaction in hydrogen fuel cells. The rarity and expense of platinum significantly add to the cost of fuel cells, thus reducing their economic viability. Therefore there is much interest in developing catalysts from alternative materials with a lower cost. A second, and related issue facing fuel cells is the degradation over time of the support structure that puts the catalyst into electrical connection with the external load. The carbon structure that currently serves as the standard catalyst support degrades over time under the harsh operating conditions of the cell, leading to catalyst agglomeration and reducing the lifetime of the cell. It is therefore desirable to develop support structures that will be more stable, while still providing electrical conductivity. The following presents original research pertaining to the development of catalyst/support materials making use of non-noble metal oxides synthesized by means of wet chemical methods. Metal oxides such as manganese oxide and titanium oxide are capable of serving as support materials and (in the case of alkaline fuel cells) even as catalysts. Wet

  11. RS-1100柴油加氢脱硫催化剂的研制%THE DEVELOPMENT OF RS-1100 DIESEL HYDRODESULFURIZATION CATALYST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锦业; 丁石; 李会峰; 王哲

    2012-01-01

    采用合适的拟薄水铝石制备氧化铝载体,并以浸渍法制备NiMo/Al2O3催化剂,找到催化剂中适宜的Ni/(Ni+ Mo)原子比,在浸渍液中引入适量的助剂和有机络合剂可以提高NiMo/Al2O3催化剂的活性.采用拉曼光谱和紫外-可见光谱仪对浸渍液进行表征,结果表明:浸渍液中存在杂多酸阴离子[P2 Mo5 O23]6-;络合剂与Ni离子也存在相互作用.通过制备条件优化,研制出高活性加氢脱硫催化剂RS-1100.中型装置评价结果表明,RS-1100催化剂的柴油超深度加氢脱硫活性比工业参比剂RS-1000更高,采用RS-1100催化剂在合适的加氢反应条件下可以生产满足欧Ⅴ排放标准的柴油.%NiMo/A1-2O3 catalyst was prepared by impregnation method using alumina support from appropriate pseudo-boehmite. The effect of Ni/(Ni + Mo) atomic ratio on the activity of NiMo/A1-2O3catalyst was investigated and optimized ratio was acquired. The activity of NiMo/A1-2O3 catalyst could be further improved by adding optimum amount of phosphorus promoter and chelating agent into the impregnation solution. The characterization of said impregnation solution by Raman spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectrophotometer showed that phosphorus-molybdenum heteropolyanions of [P2MO5O23]6- existed in the solution, besides, some interactions between chelating agent and Ni2+cations also happened. By optimizing preparation conditions, RS-1100 hydrodesulfurization catalyst with high activity was developed. The pilot-plant test results show that the activity of RS-1100 catalyst is higher than that of commercial RS-1000 catalyst at ultra-deep hydrodesulfurization stage, whereas, the bulk density of RS-1100 catalyst is lower. Diesel oil meeting European emission standard V can be produced by RS-1100 catalyst under suitable hydrogenation reaction conditions.

  12. Photocatalytic H{sub 2} production with CdS-based catalysts from a sulphide/sulphite substrate: an effort to develop MgO-supported catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrahmanyam, M.; Supriya, V.T.; Reddy, P.R. [Indian Inst. of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad (India). Catalysis Section

    1996-02-01

    CdS-based photocatalysts supported on MgO and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been prepared, characterized and tested for dihydrogen evolution from a sulphide/sulphite substrate using a halogen lamp source. The effect of precursor salt for CdS preparation, the optimum loading of CdS on the support and the concentration of the catalyst in 50 ml of solution have been investigated. The effect of adding to CdS a semiconductor ZnS-Ag{sub 2}S and catalytic materials like Pt and RuO{sub 2} have also been studied. The results obtained from the basic nature of MgO support are compared with the acidic nature of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support. The importance of the acid-base properties of the support is substantiated by modifying the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support with base materials like CaO/BaO. Thus, the effect of the acid-base properties of the supports is highlighted. (author)

  13. OPEN FLEXIBLE LIFELONG LEARNING AS A CATALYST FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    OLAKULEHIN, Felix Kayode

    2010-01-01

    Educational provision in developing sub-Saharan Africa states has been severely hindered by the hydra-headed problems of access, cost and quality. Amidst these challenges is the pledge of regional and national education policymakers and development planners to ensure that there is maximum access equitable and qualitative education for all (EFA) in Africa. There is also a burning need for improved literacy levels and functional education, in order to overcome the development deficits that are ...

  14. Prospects of Waterway Development as a Catalyst to Improve Regional and Community Socio-Economy Level

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman M. Yassin; Hayrol A.M. Shaffril; Md. S. Hassan; Mohd S. Othman; Asnarulkhadi A. Samah; Bahaman A. Samah

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Malaysia has achieved a number of successes in its transportation development. The success of Kuala Lumpur International Airport and Northern and Southern Highway project for examples have given the community lot of benefits in term of social and economic development, but what if an inland waterway system can be developed in Malaysia especially along Pahang River and Muar River. Can this proposed waterway bring significant impact to local people in term of their social and ...

  15. Highly dispersed metal catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xin; West, William L.; Rhodes, William D.

    2016-11-08

    A supported catalyst having an atomic level single atom structure is provided such that substantially all the catalyst is available for catalytic function. A process of forming a single atom catalyst unto a porous catalyst support is also provided.

  16. 我国速度滑冰项目发展之路与启示%Development and Inspiration of Chinese Speed Skating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阿强; 左斌; 刘宏辉

    2015-01-01

    探索我国速度滑冰短距离项目冬奥会金牌突破背后的实质,为实现速度滑冰项目的全面崛起提供科学依据与参考.速度滑冰项目的冬奥会之路表明,坚持正确的既定战略目标持续不懈的努力与选择新的突破方向的有机结合;科研与训练相结合范围的拓展与对项目特征的再认识;后备梯队建设与优秀运动员培养管理的协调发展;"走出去"与"引进来"保障措施开阔了教练员执教的思路,激发了自身的创新意识与创新能力;运动员心智成熟度的提高等是速度滑冰短距离项目实现金牌零的突破的宝贵经验.%To explore the essence of making a breakthrough at gold medals in short track speed skating of China, provides scientific basis and reference for the great development of short track speed skating. The way to speed skating events of Winter Olympic Games shows that the organic combination of staying on the right existing strategic target with unremitting efforts and choosing a new breakthrough direction;Expansion of combining the scientific research and training, and recognition of the characteristics; The coordinated development of constructing reserve echelon formation and training excellent athletes; The security measures, "going out" and "bringing in" to open up the ideas of coaches, and to inspire their own innovative consciousness and innovation ability; The improvement of athletes' mental maturity and so on are the valuable experience of realizing to break gold medal's duck of short track speed skating.

  17. Final Report: Cathode Catalysis in Hydrogen/Oxygen Fuel Cells: New Catalysts, Mechanism, and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gewirth, Andrew A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Kenis, Paul J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Nuzzo, Ralph G. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Rauchfuss, Thomas B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-01-18

    In this research, we prosecuted a comprehensive plan of research directed at developing new catalysts and new understandings relevant to the operation of low temperature hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. The focal point of this work was one centered on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR), the electrochemical process that most fundamentally limits the technological utility of these environmentally benign energy conversion devices. Over the period of grant support, we developed new ORR catalysts, based on Cu dimers and multimers. In this area, we developed substantial new insight into design rules required to establish better ORR materials, inspired by the three-Cu active site in laccase which has the highest ORR onset potential of any material known. We also developed new methods of characterization for the ORR on conventional (metal-based) catalysts. Finally, we developed a new platform to study the rate of proton transfer relevant to proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions, of which the ORR is an exemplar. Other aspects of work involved theory and prototype catalyst testing.

  18. Open Flexible Lifelong Learning as a Catalyst for Sustainable Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakulehin, Felix Kayode

    2010-01-01

    Educational provision in developing sub-Saharan Africa states has been severely hindered by the hydra-headed problems of access, cost and quality. Amidst these challenges is the pledge of regional and national education policymakers and development planners to ensure that there is maximum access equitable and qualitative education for all (EFA) in…

  19. Development of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 July 1995--30 September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukur, D.B.

    1995-12-20

    The following accomplishments were made on task 4. Reproducibility of Catalyst Preparation: (1) Five slurry reactor tests were completed. Three tests were conducted using catalyst C (100 Fe/3 Cu/4 K/16 SiO{sub 2}) from three different batches (runs SB-2695, SB-2145 and SA-2715), and two tests were conducted with catalyst B (100 Fe/5 Cu/6 K/24 SiO{sub 2}) from two different preparation batches (runs SA-2615 and SB-2585). Performance of catalysts from different batches (activity, selectivity and deactivation rates) was similar to that of catalysts from the original batch (synthesized during DOE Contract DE- AC22-89PC89868). Thus, another major objective of the present contract, demonstration of reproducibility of catalyst preparation procedure and performance, has been accomplished. With these tests the work on Task 4 has been successfully completed. Two fixed bed reactor tests of catalysts B and C synthesized using potassium silicate solution as the source of potassium promoter were completed during this period (Task 5. The Effect of Source of Potassium and Basic Oxide Promoter). Activity of catalysts prepared using potassium silicate as the source of potassium promotion was somewhat higher, and their methane selectivities were higher than those of the corresponding catalysts prepared by incipient wetness impregnation using KHCO{sub 3} as the source of potassium promoter. However, these differences were not large, and may have been caused by experimental artifacts (e.g. existence of local hot spots in a reactor). A slurry reactor test (SA-2405) of catalyst with nominal composition 100 Fe/5 Cu/2 Ca/24 SiO{sub 2} was completed (Task 5). In general, the catalyst activity, space-time-yield, and hydrocarbon selectivities in this run during testing at:260{degrees}C, 2.17 MPa (300 psig), 2-2.6 Nl/g-cat/h and H{sub 2}CO=0.67 were quite good, and comparable to the best results obtained in our Laboratory.

  20. Follow the Yellow Brick Road: Websites as Catalysts for National Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Broome

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Small-island developing states (SIDS enhance their competitiveness by advertising development initiatives that promote and encourage direct foreign inward investment opportunities in major markets. Failure to make use of information communication technologies (ICTs can undermine national development initiatives with transformative potential. Based on this logic, some Caribbean governments have followed international best practices of businesses and have moved towards the creation of websites and the establishment of portals or gateway sites on the World Wide Web to announce their presence.  One of the practical implications of such initiatives is based on the assumption that once websites are built, persons will come. Although for many, the development of a website appears to be an innocuous endeavour this mistaken perception in most cases has led to several sites being designed and commissioned as technical projects mostly employing techno-centric approaches. These policies often ignore the accompanying important socio-technical institutional considerations, such as the importance of timely and accurate information to potential business clients or prospective developers, language capabilities, and a range of standards, guidelines, rules and legislative changes. The central thesis of this conceptual paper is that if member states of the region properly conceptualise and design websites and portals they can be used to achieve strategic national and international development objectives of egovernance in its broadest meaning. The arguments are intended to stimulate thought among policy makers and the private sector alike in the Caribbean with a view to bringing about change that will promote sustainable development.

  1. Biologically inspired technologies in NASA's morphing project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Cox, David E.; Lazos, Barry S.; Waszak, Martin R.; Raney, David L.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Pao, S. Paul

    2003-07-01

    For centuries, biology has provided fertile ground for hypothesis, discovery, and inspiration. Time-tested methods used in nature are being used as a basis for several research studies conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center as a part of Morphing Project, which develops and assesses breakthrough vehicle technologies. These studies range from low drag airfoil design guided by marine and avian morphologies to soaring techniques inspired by birds and the study of small flexible wing vehicles. Biology often suggests unconventional yet effective approaches such as non-planar wings, dynamic soaring, exploiting aeroelastic effects, collaborative control, flapping, and fibrous active materials. These approaches and other novel technologies for future flight vehicles are being studied in NASA's Morphing Project. This paper will discuss recent findings in the aeronautics-based, biologically-inspired research in the project.

  2. String and string-inspired phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    López, J L

    1994-01-01

    In these lectures I review the progress made over the last few years in the subject of string and string-inspired phenomenology. I take a practical approach, thereby concentrating more on explicit examples rather than on formal developments. Topics covered include: introduction to string theory the free-fermionic formulation and its general features, generic conformal field theory properties, SU(5)\\times U(1) GUT and string model-building, supersymmetry breaking, the bottom-up approach to string-inspired models, radiative electroweak symmetry breaking, the determination of the allowed parameter space of supergravity models and the experimental constraints on this class of models, and prospects for direct and indirect tests of string-inspired models. (Lectures delivered at the XXII ITEP International Winter School of Physics, Moscow, Russia, February 22 -- March 2, 1994)

  3. Nature-inspired computation in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This timely review book summarizes the state-of-the-art developments in nature-inspired optimization algorithms and their applications in engineering. Algorithms and topics include the overview and history of nature-inspired algorithms, discrete firefly algorithm, discrete cuckoo search, plant propagation algorithm, parameter-free bat algorithm, gravitational search, biogeography-based algorithm, differential evolution, particle swarm optimization and others. Applications include vehicle routing, swarming robots, discrete and combinatorial optimization, clustering of wireless sensor networks, cell formation, economic load dispatch, metamodeling, surrogated-assisted cooperative co-evolution, data fitting and reverse engineering as well as other case studies in engineering. This book will be an ideal reference for researchers, lecturers, graduates and engineers who are interested in nature-inspired computation, artificial intelligence and computational intelligence. It can also serve as a reference for relevant...

  4. RSC-2006催化剂的研发及工业应用%The Development and Industrial Application of RSC-2006 Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉坡

    2016-01-01

    RSC-2006 catalyst,which is developed by SINOPEC Research Institute of Petroleum Processing and produced by SINOPEC Catalyst Co.,Ltd.Qilu Division,has been successfully applied in the HOFCC unit of SINOPEC Jingmen Petrochemical. RSC-2006 catalyst shows excellent heavy oil converting ability and coke selectivity.The industrial application of RSC-2006 catalyst has brought considerable economic benefits to SINOPEC Jingmen Petrochemical.%由中国石油化工股份有限公司石油化工科学研究院研制、齐鲁催化剂分公司生产的RSC-2006催化剂在荆门重油催化裂化装置上进行了成功的工业应用。RSC-2006催化剂具有优异的重油转化能力和焦炭选择性,RSC-2006催化剂的工业应用为荆门分公司带来了可观的经济效益。

  5. Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene. Quarterly report number 19, October 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spehlmann, B.C.

    1996-07-01

    The goals of this project are to develop a catalyst and process for the conversion of syngas to isobutanol. After identification and optimization of key catalyst and process characteristics, the commercial potential of the process is to be evaluated by an economic analysis. From independent process variable studies to investigate the conversion of a methanol/ethanol feed to isobutanol, the best performance to date has been achieved with the 2% Pt on Zn/Mn/Zr oxide catalyst. Using Hyprotech Hysim v2.5 process simulation software, and considering both gas and liquid recycle loops in the process flow diagram, the overall carbon conversion is 98% with 22% selectivity to isobutanol. The expected production of isobutanol is 92 MT/day from 500 MT/day of methanol and 172 MT/day of ethanol feed. An additional 13 MT/day of isobutryaldehyde intermediate is recovered in the liquid product and vent streams. Because of the low selectivity (22%) of the methanol conversion catalyst to isobutanol, the process is uneconomical, even if the isobutanol is valued as a solvent ($903/MT) and not as isobutylene for MTBE production ($352/MT).

  6. #IWD2016 Academic Inspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    2016-01-01

    What academics or books have inspired you in your writing and research, or helped to make sense of the world around you? In this feature essay, Ninna Meier returns to her experience of reading Hannah Arendt as she sought to understand work and how it relates to value production in capitalist...... economies. Meier recounts how Arendt’s book On Revolution (1963) forged connective threads between the ‘smallest parts’ and the ‘largest wholes’ and showed how academic work is never fully relegated to the past, but can return in new iterations across time....

  7. OPEN FLEXIBLE LIFELONG LEARNING AS A CATALYST FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kayode OLAKULEHIN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Educational provision in developing sub-Saharan Africa states has been severely hindered by the hydra-headed problems of access, cost and quality. Amidst these challenges is the pledge of regional and national education policymakers and development planners to ensure that there is maximum access equitable and qualitative education for all (EFA in Africa. There is also a burning need for improved literacy levels and functional education, in order to overcome the development deficits that are currently facing the region. The pledge of education for all resonates the agreement which representatives of several nations of the world signed at the Jomtien summit on Education for All and the subsequent evaluation meetings. Following this pledge, several developing, sub-Sahara African nations have evolved initiatives for instituting sustainable Open Flexible Learning (ODL systems in order to meet up with the seemingly intractable EFA objectives. This paper examined the potential impact of these OFL initiatives on the achievement of the EFA objectives which is seen as the basis of development planning, administration and implementation in Africa. It identified the various challenges confronting effective implementation of ODL on the continent, amidst the need to expand access to educational opportunities. An attempt was made to situate the OFL system at the centre of the strategies for achieving these EFA objectives in the region and finally, a proposal for sustainable policy initiatives for implementing OFL systems for the attainment of education for all in Africa is made.

  8. Innovative Didactics in an International Internship - inspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lembcke, Steen; Skibsted, Else Bengaard; Mølgaard, Niels

    An inspiration handbook for the international team from the teacher education programme in VIA. Aimed to assist internship supervisors and students during international internships in regards to innovation, social entrepreneurship and development of the international teacher. Introduces why and how...... to work with innovation and entrepreneurship....

  9. A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Biological systems are a source of inspiration in the development of small autonomous sensor nodes. The two major types of optical vision systems found in nature are the single aperture human eye and the compound eye of insects. The latter are among the most compact and smallest vision sensors. The

  10. Heterogeneous Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dakka, J.; Sheldon, R.A.; Sanderson, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of GB 2309655 (A) Heterogeneous catalysts comprising one or more metal compounds selected from the group consisting of tin, molybdenum, tungsten, zirconium and selenium compounds deposited on the surface of a silicalite are provided. Preferably Sn(IV) and/or Mo(VI) are employed. The cat

  11. Academic Programmes in Universities in East Africa: A Catalyst to Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Florah Katanu

    2015-01-01

    The types of academic programmes offered by universities, both public and private, are considered to be critical to the realization of development agendas. This study was descriptive in nature and sought to establish whether universities in the East African region were offering academic programmes that were relevant to the realization of the…

  12. An allosteric photoredox catalyst inspired by photosynthetic machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, Alejo M; Young, Ryan M; Mendez-Arroyo, Jose; Stern, Charlotte L; McGuirk, C Michael; Wasielewski, Michael R; Mirkin, Chad A

    2015-03-30

    Biological photosynthetic machinery allosterically regulate light harvesting via conformational and electronic changes at the antenna protein complexes as a response to specific chemical inputs. Fundamental limitations in current approaches to regulating inorganic light-harvesting mimics prevent their use in catalysis. Here we show that a light-harvesting antenna/reaction centre mimic can be regulated by utilizing a coordination framework incorporating antenna hemilabile ligands and assembled via a high-yielding, modular approach. As in nature, allosteric regulation is afforded by coupling the conformational changes to the disruptions in the electrochemical landscape of the framework upon recognition of specific coordinating analytes. The hemilabile ligands enable switching using remarkably mild and redox-inactive inputs, allowing one to regulate the photoredox catalytic activity of the photosynthetic mimic reversibly and in situ. Thus, we demonstrate that bioinspired regulatory mechanisms can be applied to inorganic light-harvesting arrays displaying switchable catalytic properties and with potential uses in solar energy conversion and photonic devices.

  13. Development of structural characterisation tools for catalysts; Developpement d'outils de caracterisation structurale de catalyseurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, J.

    1999-10-01

    Because of the diversity of their compositions and structures, and the treatments needed to render them active, heterogeneous catalysts present a major challenge in structural characterisation. Electron microscopy provides textural and structural information at the scale of the individual particle. We have been able to analyse epitaxial relationships between nanometer size particles and their support and to determine which crystal faces are most exposed. Chemical analysis can be carried out on individual particles in a bimetallic catalyst. Limitations of this technique are shown for characterisation of catalysts at the atomic scale or in reactive conditions. Here, global analysis methods based on X-ray absorption and diffraction provide more information. W-ray absorption fine structure analysis has been applied to sub-nanometer size particles in platinum based catalysts to explore interactions between the metal and reactive gases such as hydrocarbons and H{sub 2}S. Differences observed between mono-metallic and bimetallic solids lead to structural models to explain differences in catalyst reactivity. X-ray diffraction, combined with electron microscopy, shows the presence of different forms of extra-framework aluminium is steamed zeolites. Quantification of some these forms has been possible and a study of their reactivity towards different de-aluminating agents has been achieved. Work in progress shows the advantages of a combination of X-ray diffraction and absorption to study decomposition of hydrotalcites to form mixed oxides as well as possibilities in infra-red spectroscopy of adsorbed CO to determine surface sites in Fischer Tropsch catalysts. Use of in-situ analysis cells enables a detailed description of catalyst structure in reactive atmospheres and opens the possibility of correlating structure with catalytic activity. (author)

  14. When science inspires art

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    On Tuesday 18 January 2011, artist Pipilotti Rist came to CERN to find out how science could provide her with a source of inspiration for her art and perhaps to get ideas for future work. Pipilotti, who is an eclectic artist always on the lookout for an original source of inspiration, is almost as passionate about physics as she is about art.   Ever Is Over All, 1997, audio video installation by Pipilotti Rist.  View of the installation at the National Museum for Foreign Art, Sofia, Bulgaria. © Pipilotti Rist. Courtesy the artist and Hauser & Wirth. Photo by Angel Tzvetanov. Swiss video-maker Pipilotti Rist (her real name is Elisabeth Charlotte Rist), who is well-known in the international art world for her highly colourful videos and creations, visited CERN for the first time on Tuesday 18 January 2011.  Her visit represented a trip down memory lane, since she originally studied physics before becoming interested in pursuing a career as an artist and going on to de...

  15. Civil society: the catalyst for ensuring health in the age of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia; Buse, Kent; Gordon, Case

    2016-07-16

    Sustainable Development Goal Three is rightly ambitious, but achieving it will require doing global health differently. Among other things, progressive civil society organisations will need to be recognised and supported as vital partners in achieving the necessary transformations. We argue, using illustrative examples, that a robust civil society can fulfill eight essential global health functions. These include producing compelling moral arguments for action, building coalitions beyond the health sector, introducing novel policy alternatives, enhancing the legitimacy of global health initiatives and institutions, strengthening systems for health, enhancing accountability systems, mitigating the commercial determinants of health and ensuring rights-based approaches. Given that civil society activism has catalyzed tremendous progress in global health, there is a need to invest in and support it as a global public good to ensure that the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development can be realised.

  16. [NiFe] hydrogenase structural and functional models: new bio-inspired catalysts for hydrogen evolution; Modeles structuraux et fonctionnels du site actif des hydrogenases [NiFe]: de nouveaux catalyseurs bio-inspires pour la production d'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudart, Y

    2006-09-15

    Hydrogenase enzymes reversibly catalyze the oxidation and production of hydrogen in a range close to the thermodynamic potential. The [NiFe] hydrogenase active site contains an iron-cyano-carbonyl moiety linked to a nickel atom which is in an all sulphur environment. Both the active site originality and the potential development of an hydrogen economy make the synthesis of functional and structural models worthy. To take up this challenge, we have synthesised mononuclear ruthenium models and more importantly, nickel-ruthenium complexes, mimicking some structural features of the [NiFe] hydrogenase active site. Ruthenium is indeed isoelectronic to iron and some of its complexes are well-known to bear hydrides. The compounds described in this study have been well characterised and their activity in proton reduction has been successfully tested. Most of them are able to catalyze this reaction though their electrocatalytic potentials remain much more negative compared to which of platinum. The studied parameters point out the importance of the complexes electron richness, especially of the nickel environment. Furthermore, the proton reduction activity is stable for several hours at good rates. The ruthenium environment seems important for this stability. Altogether, these compounds represent the very first catalytically active [NiFe] hydrogenase models. Important additional results of this study are the synergetic behaviour of the two metals in protons reduction and the evidence of a protonation step as the limiting step of the catalytic cycle. We have also shown that a basic site close to ruthenium improves the electrocatalytic potential of the complexes. (author)

  17. Sixtieth Anniversary of Ziegler-Natta Catalysts and Stereospecific Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janović Z.

    2015-07-01

    , a new family of transition metal complexes known as metallocene catalysts were discovered, based on biscyclopentadienyl and transition metal as Zr, Hf and Ti and appropriate cocatalysts. There major advantage is solubility, high catalytic activity, and the easy tailoring of the polymer microstructure. In 1986, the first synthesis of syndiotactic polystyrene was performed using monocyclopentadienyl/titanium chloride catalyst. The development of catalysts based on diimine complexes of nickel and palladium, and of phenoxy-imino complexes of zirconium and nickel, resulted in polyolefins of different structure and morphology, and many new copolymers of ethylene particularly with polar monomers, producing a variety of new functional polymers, reactive oligomers, and block copolymers. The described discoveries of organometallic catalysts and their applications are one of the most valid models and sources of inspiration for the progress in chemistry and chemical engineering.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-TASK CATALYSTS FOR REMOVAL OF NOx AND TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS DURING COAL COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotis G. Smirniotis; Robert G. Jenkins

    2002-02-04

    The work performed during this project focused on the identification of materials capable of providing high activity and selectivity for the selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia. The material surface characteristics were correlated with the catalytic behavior of our catalysts to increase our understanding and to help improve the DeNO{sub x} efficiency. The catalysts employed in this study include mixed oxide composite powders (TiO{sub 2}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2}, and TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) loaded with varying amounts of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, along with 5 different commercial sources of TiO{sub 2}. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was added to the commercial sources of TiO{sub 2} to achieve monolayer coverage. Since the valence state of vanadium in the precursor solution during the impregnation step significantly impacted catalytic performance, catalysts were synthesized from both V{sup +4} and V{sup +5} solutions explain this phenomenon. Specifically, the synthesis of catalysts from V{sup 5+} precursor solutions yields lower-performance catalysts compared to the case of V{sup 4+} under identical conditions. Aging the vanadium precursor solution, which is associated with the reduction of V{sup 5+} to V{sup 4+} (VO{sub 2}{sup +} {yields} VO{sup 2+}), prior to impregnation results in catalysts with excellent catalytic behavior under identical activation and operating conditions. This work also added vanadia to TiO{sub 2}-based supports with low crystallinity. These supports, which have traditionally performed poorly, are now able to function as effective SCR catalysts. Increasing the acidity of the support by incorporating oxides such as WO{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} significantly improves the SCR activity and nitrogen selectivity. It was also found that the supports should be synthesized with the simultaneous precipitation of the corresponding precursors. The mixed oxide catalysts possess

  19. Development of Pd and Pd-Co catalysts supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for formic acid oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Acosta, D.; Godinez, Luis A.; Rodriguez, H.G.; Arriaga, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, C.P. 76703 Queretaro (Mexico); Ledesma-Garcia, J. [Division de Investigacion y Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Cerro de las Campanas S/N, C.P. 76010, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Alvarez-Contreras, L. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S. C., Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    Pd-Co and Pd catalysts were prepared by the impregnation synthesis method at low temperature on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The nanotubes were synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique. Both catalysts were obtained with high homogeneous distribution and particle size around 4 nm. The morphology, composition and electrocatalytic properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical measurements, respectively. The electrocatalytic activity of Pd and PdCo/MWCNTs catalysts was investigated in terms of formic acid electrooxidation at low concentration in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution. The results obtained from voltamperometric studies showed that the current density achieved with the PdCo/MWCNTs catalyst is 3 times higher than that reached with the Pd/MWCNTs catalyst. The onset potential for formic acid electrooxidation on PdCo/MWCNTs electrocatalyst showed a negative shift ca. 50 mV compared with Pd/MWCNTs. (author)

  20. Development of a complete kinetic model for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visconti, C.G.; Tronconi, E.; Lietti, L.; Forzatti, P. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' ' G.Natta' ' ; Zennaro, R. [EniTecnologie, San Donato Milanese (Italy). Catalysis and Process Technology Research Centre

    2006-07-01

    A global kinetic model of the FTS over a Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} state-of-the-art catalyst is developed in a fixed bed micro-reactor under conditions relevant to industrial operation (temperature, 210- 235 C; pressure, 8-25 bar; H{sub 2}/CO feed molar ratio, 1.8-2.7; gas hourly space velocity, 2000- 7000 cm{sup 3}(STP)/h/g{sub catalyst}). On the basis of proposed reaction mechanisms, developed according to the carbide theory and the alkyl mechanism, the kinetic expressions for n-paraffins and {alpha}-olefins formation are derived. Both the calculated CO conversion and the hydrocarbons distribution (up to N=49) in FTS reaction are satisfactorily predicted. (orig.)

  1. A Biologically Inspired Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for measuring the distance among records based on the correlations of data stored in the corresponding database entries. The original method (F. Bagnoli, A. Berrones and F. Franci. Physica A 332 (2004) 509-518) was formulated in the context of opinion formation. The opinions expressed over a set of topic originate a ``knowledge network'' among individuals, where two individuals are nearer the more similar their expressed opinions are. Assuming that individuals' opinions are stored in a database, the authors show that it is possible to anticipate an opinion using the correlations in the database. This corresponds to approximating the overlap between the tastes of two individuals with the correlations of their expressed opinions. In this paper we extend this model to nonlinear matching functions, inspired by biological problems such as microarray (probe-sample pairing). We investigate numerically the error between the correlation and the overlap matrix for eight sequences of reference with r...

  2. 世纪初至今的越南发展道路及对发展中国家的启示%Inspiration of Developing Path in Economic and Society of Vietnam for Developing Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯野

    2013-01-01

      20世纪以来越南的发展道路极其曲折,饱受殖民主义及新殖民主义的蹂躏。越南通过一系列不懈的斗争,最终取得了国家的独立。之后在国家发展的道路上虽然历经磨难面临过诸多问题,但是其建立的独具特色的发展模式缓解甚至解决了一些困境,这些都能够给予其他发展中国家以启示。%The development of Vietnam is of extremely tortuous since the 20th century .The country had suffered from co-lonialism and neo-colonialism .Through the unremitting struggle, Vietnam has achieved the independence and to become a republic country .Although there are some problems concerning the choice of developing path in Vietnam , the way adopted by Vietnam to build a modern country is successful in solving issues happened in the course of modernization , which can provide some inspiration for those of developing countries in their economic and social changes.

  3. Theosophically Inspired Movements in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdal, René

    2016-01-01

    The theosophical movement has had a significant influence on the esoteric milieu in Denmark during the 20th Century. In this paper the inspiration on other Groups in Denmark is explored.......The theosophical movement has had a significant influence on the esoteric milieu in Denmark during the 20th Century. In this paper the inspiration on other Groups in Denmark is explored....

  4. Efficient Nd Promoted Rh Catalysts for Vapor Phase Methanol Carbonylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Feng ZHANG; Qing Li QIAN; Ping Lai PAN; Yi CHEN; Guo Qing YUAN

    2005-01-01

    A Nd promoted-Rh catalysts supported on polymer-derived carbon beads for vapor-phase methanol carbonylation was developed. Rh-Nd bimetallic catalysts obviously have higher activity than that of supported Rh catalyst under similar reaction condition. The difference between the activity of above two catalyst systems is clearly caused by the intrinsic properties generated by the introduction of Nd.

  5. 歌德学院文化活动开展模式对孔子学院发展的启示%The Inspiration of Cultural Activity Implementation in Goethe-Institut to the Development of Confucius Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李白琨

    2015-01-01

    Through researching the successful practice of cultural spread in Goethe-Institut, an internationally renowned cultural spread institute, this paper summarizes its experience, aiming to provide inspirations for the development of Confucius Institute.%本文通过对世界著名文化传播机构歌德学院文化传播成功实践的研究,总结其经验,为孔子学院的发展提供借鉴思路。

  6. Development and Long-Term Stability of a Novel Microbial Fuel Cell BOD Sensor with MnO2 Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkwal, Shailesh; Tan, Yi Chao; Lu, Min; Ng, How Yong

    2017-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensor was designed for continuous monitoring of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in real wastewater. To lower the material cost, manganese dioxide (MnO2) was tested as an innovative cathode catalyst for oxygen reduction in a single chamber air-cathode MFC, and two different crystalline structures obtained during synthesis of MnO2 (namely β- and γ-MnO2) were compared. The BOD sensor was studied in a comprehensive way, using both sodium acetate solution and real domestic wastewater (DWW). The optimal performance of the sensor was obtained with a β-MnO2 catalyst, with R2 values of 0.99 and 0.98 using sodium acetate solution and DWW, respectively. The BOD values predicted by the β-MnO2 biosensor for DWW were in agreement with the BOD5 values, determined according to standard methods, with slight variations in the range from 3% to 12%. Finally, the long-term stability of the BOD biosensor was evaluated over 1.5 years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an MFC BOD sensor using an MnO2 catalyst at the cathode; the feasibility of using a low-cost catalyst in an MFC for online measurement of BOD in real wastewater broadens the scope of applications for such devices. PMID:28134838

  7. Development and Long-Term Stability of a Novel Microbial Fuel Cell BOD Sensor with MnO₂ Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkwal, Shailesh; Tan, Yi Chao; Lu, Min; Ng, How Yong

    2017-01-28

    A novel microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensor was designed for continuous monitoring of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in real wastewater. To lower the material cost, manganese dioxide (MnO₂) was tested as an innovative cathode catalyst for oxygen reduction in a single chamber air-cathode MFC, and two different crystalline structures obtained during synthesis of MnO₂ (namely β- and γ-MnO₂) were compared. The BOD sensor was studied in a comprehensive way, using both sodium acetate solution and real domestic wastewater (DWW). The optimal performance of the sensor was obtained with a β-MnO₂ catalyst, with R² values of 0.99 and 0.98 using sodium acetate solution and DWW, respectively. The BOD values predicted by the β-MnO₂ biosensor for DWW were in agreement with the BOD₅ values, determined according to standard methods, with slight variations in the range from 3% to 12%. Finally, the long-term stability of the BOD biosensor was evaluated over 1.5 years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an MFC BOD sensor using an MnO₂ catalyst at the cathode; the feasibility of using a low-cost catalyst in an MFC for online measurement of BOD in real wastewater broadens the scope of applications for such devices.

  8. Nano-magnetite (Fe3O4) as a support for recyclable catalysts in the development of sustainable methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawande, Manoj B; Branco, Paula S; Varma, Rajender S

    2013-04-21

    Surface functionalization of nano-magnetic nanoparticles is a well-designed way to bridge the gap between heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis. The introduction of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in a variety of solid matrices allows the combination of well-known procedures for catalyst heterogenization with techniques for magnetic separation. Magnetite is a well-known material, also known as ferrite (Fe3O4), and can be used as a versatile support for functionalization of metals, organocatalysts, N-heterocyclic carbenes, and chiral catalysts. It is used as a support for important homogeneous catalytically active metals such as Pd, Pt, Cu, Ni, Co, Ir, etc. to obtain stable and magnetically recyclable heterogeneous catalysts. Homogeneous organocatalysts can be successfully decorated with linkers/ligands on the surface of magnetite or alternatively the organocatalysts can be directly immobilized on the surface of magnetite. The functionalized magnetically retrievable catalysts or nanocatalysts that are increasingly being used in catalysis, green chemistry and pharmaceutically significant reactions are summarized in this review.

  9. Development of a general non-noble metal catalyst for the benign amination of alcohols with amines and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xinjiang; Dai, Xingchao; Deng, Youquan; Shi, Feng

    2013-03-11

    The N-alkylation of amines or ammonia with alcohols is a valuable route for the synthesis of N-alkyl amines. However, as a potentially clean and economic choice for N-alkyl amine synthesis, non-noble metal catalysts with high activity and good selectivity are rarely reported. Normally, they are severely limited due to low activity and poor generality. Herein, a simple NiCuFeOx catalyst was designed and prepared for the N-alkylation of ammonia or amines with alcohol or primary amines. N-alkyl amines with various structures were successfully synthesized in moderate to excellent yields in the absence of organic ligands and bases. Typically, primary amines could be efficiently transformed into secondary amines and N-heterocyclic compounds, and secondary amines could be N-alkylated to synthesize tertiary amines. Note that primary and secondary amines could be produced through a one-pot reaction of ammonia and alcohols. In addition to excellent catalytic performance, the catalyst itself possesses outstanding superiority, that is, it is air and moisture stable. Moreover, the magnetic property of this catalyst makes it easily separable from the reaction mixture and it could be recovered and reused for several runs without obvious deactivation.

  10. Development and characterisation of novel heterogeneous palm oil mill boiler ash-based catalysts for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wilson Wei Sheng; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin

    2012-12-01

    Novel heterogeneous catalysts from calcium oxide (CaO)/calcined calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) loaded onto different palm oil mill boiler ashes were synthesised and used in the transesterification of crude palm oil (CPO) with methanol to yield biodiesel. Catalyst preparation parameters including the type of ash support, the weight percentage of CaO and calcined CaCO(3) loadings, as well as the calcination temperature of CaCO(3) were optimised. The catalyst prepared by loading of 15 wt% calcined CaCO(3) at a fixed temperature of 800°C on fly ash exhibited a maximum oil conversion of 94.48%. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the CaCO(3) was transformed into CaO at 770°C and interacted well with the ash support, whereas rich CaO, Al(2)O(3) and SiO(2) were identified in the composition using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The fine morphology size (<5 μm) and high surface area (1.719 m(2)/g) of the fly ash-based catalyst rendered it the highest catalytic activity.

  11. Challenges for new electro catalysts development for the ORR in acid medium for PEM fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratory of New Materials for Electrochemistry and Energy

    2010-07-01

    The low kinetic rate at the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) of platinum (Pt) electrocatalysts in acid mediums is one of the most limiting factors for the industrial mass production of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). New electrocatalyst materials are currently being investigated by researchers as a replacement for Pt include lignited ruthenium-based chalcogenides; pyrolized iron (Fe) porphyrins; metal carbides; and molybdenum (Mo), iridium (Ir) and cobalt (Co) based catalysts. Co-polypyrrole is also being considered as a non-noble catalyst. This presentation discussed the main parameters that limit the ORR of non-noble catalysts in PEMFC applications. Palladium (Pa) based bi-metallic alloys were investigated. The study showed that Pd-alloy catalysts exhibit excellent activity for the ORR in acidic media. The highest electrocatalytic activity was demonstrated in an alloy composition of 60 per cent Pd. The cost of Pd was compared to the cost of Pt. The intrinsic metal surface properties of Pd-alloys were also discussed, and the onset potential of the ORR was compared for various alloys. 31 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Inspiration and the Texts of the Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Buchner

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to explore what the inspired text of the Old Testament was as it existed for the New Testament authors, particularly for the author of the book of Hebrews. A quick look at the facts makes. it clear that there was, at the time, more than one 'inspired' text, among these were the Septuagint and the Masoretic Text 'to name but two'. The latter eventually gained ascendancy which is why it forms the basis of our translated Old Testament today. Yet we have to ask: what do we make of that other text that was the inspired Bible to the early Church, especially to the writer of the book of Hebrews, who ignored the Masoretic text? This article will take a brief look at some suggestions for a doctrine of inspiration that keeps up with the facts of Scripture. Allied to this, the article is something of a bibliographical study of recent developments in textual research following the discovery of the Dead Sea scrolls.

  13. MECHANICAL STRENGTH AND RELIABILITY OF SOLID CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongdan Li; Dongfang Wu; Y.S. Lin

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical strength of solid catalysts is one of the key parameters for reliable and efficient performance of a fixed bed reactor. Some recent developments and their basic mechanics within this context are reviewed. The main concepts discussed are brittle fracture which leads to the mechanical failure of the catalyst pellets, measurement and statistical properties of the catalyst strength data, and mechanical reliability of the catalyst pellets and their packed bed. The scientific basis for the issues on the catalyst mechanical properties calls yet for further elucidation and advancement.

  14. A micro-structured 5kW complete fuel processor for iso-octane as hydrogen supply system for mobile auxiliary power units Part I. Development of autothermal reforming catalyst and reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Kolb, Gunther; Baier, Tobias; Schürer, Jochen; Tiemann, David; Ziogas, Athanassios; Ehwald, Hermann; Alphonse, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    A micro-structured autothermal reformer was developed for a fuel processing/fuel cell system running on iso-octane and designed for an electrical power output of 5kWel. The target application was an automotive auxiliary power unit (APU). The work covered both catalyst and reactor development. In fixed bed screening, nickel and rhodium were identified as the best candidates for autothermal reforming of gasoline. Under higher feed flow rates applied in microchannel testing, a catalyst formul...

  15. PROGRESS IN CATALYST AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR LOW SULFUR AND LOW AROMATICS DIESEL PRODUCTION%低硫低芳烃柴油生产技术开发进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇; 韩崇仁

    2003-01-01

    The article includes three parts: ①The development and performance of FH-DS catalyst for deep and ultra-deep distillate HDS; ②The single stage HDS/HDA hydrotreating process for the production of low sulfur and low aromatics diesels from straight run and coker AGO by using highly active base metal catalyst at moderate pressure; ③A two-stage aromatics saturation system utilizing noble metal catalyst in the second stage developed for production of low sulfur and low aromatics diesel from LCO. FDA catalyst developed by FRIPP has high activity for aromatics saturation together with high tolerance for sulfur and nitrogen in the feed. The process is effective in reducing density and increasing cetane number.

  16. Control in the Rate-Determining Step Provides a Promising Strategy To Develop New Catalysts for CO2 Hydrogenation: A Local Pair Natural Orbital Coupled Cluster Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Bhaskar; Neese, Frank; Ye, Shengfa

    2015-08-03

    The development of efficient catalysts with base metals for CO2 hydrogenation has always been a major thrust of interest. A series of experimental and theoretical work has revealed that the catalytic cycle typically involves two key steps, namely, base-promoted heterolytic H2 splitting and hydride transfer to CO2, either of which can be the rate-determining step (RDS) of the entire reaction. To explore the determining factor for the nature of RDS, we present herein a comparative mechanistic investigation on CO2 hydrogenation mediated by [M(H)(η(2)-H2)(PP3(Ph))](n+) (M = Fe(II), Ru(II), and Co(III); PP3(Ph) = tris(2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)phosphine) type complexes. In order to construct reliable free energy profiles, we used highly correlated wave function based ab initio methods of the coupled cluster type alongside the standard density functional theory. Our calculations demonstrate that the hydricity of the metal-hydride intermediate generated by H2 splitting dictates the nature of the RDS for the Fe(II) and Co(III) systems, while the RDS for the Ru(II) catalyst appears to be ambiguous. CO2 hydrogenation catalyzed by the Fe(II) complex that possesses moderate hydricity traverses an H2-splitting RDS, whereas the RDS for the high-hydricity Co(III) species is found to be the hydride transfer. Thus, our findings suggest that hydricity can be used as a practical guide in future catalyst design. Enhancing the electron-accepting ability of low-hydricity catalysts is likely to improve their catalytic performance, while increasing the electron-donating ability of high-hydricity complexes may speed up CO2 conversion. Moreover, we also established the active roles of base NEt3 in directing the heterolytic H2 splitting and assisting product release through the formation of an acid-base complex.

  17. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model that modula......In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model...... that modulates the parameters of the locomotor central pattern generators. We present phonotactic performance results of the simulated lizard-salamander hybrid robot....

  18. Holography inspired stringy hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Holography inspired stringy hadrons (HISH) is a set of models that describe hadrons: mesons, baryons and glueballs as strings in flat four dimensional space-time. The models are based on a "map" from stringy hadrons of holographic confining backgrounds. In this note we review the "derivation" of the models. We start with a brief reminder of the passage from the AdS5 ×S5 string theory to certain flavored confining holographic models. We then describe the string configurations in holographic backgrounds that correspond to a Wilson line, a meson, a baryon and a glueball. The key ingredients of the four dimensional picture of hadrons are the "string endpoint mass" and the "baryonic string vertex". We determine the classical trajectories of the HISH. We review the current understanding of the quantization of the hadronic strings. We end with a summary of the comparison of the outcome of the HISH models with the PDG data about mesons and baryons. We extract the values of the tension, masses and intercepts from best fits, write down certain predictions for higher excited hadrons and present attempts to identify glueballs.

  19. Inspiration, anyone? (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available I have to admit that writing an editorial for this issue was a struggle. Trying to sit down and write when the sun was shining outside and most of my colleagues were on vacation was, to say the least, difficult. Add to that research projects and conferences…let’s just say that I found myself less than inspired. A pitiful plea for ideas to a colleague resulted in the reintroduction to a few recent evidence based papers and resources which inspired further searching and reading. Though I generally find myself surrounded (more like buried in research papers and EBLIP literature, somehow I had missed the great strides that have been made of late in the world of evidence based library and information practice. I realize now that I am inspired by the researchers, authors and innovators who are putting EBLIP on the proverbial map. My biggest beef with library literature in general has been the plethora of articles highlighting what we should be doing. Take a close look at the evidence based practitioners in the information professions: these are some of the people who are actively practicing what has been preached for the past few years. Take, for example, the about‐to‐be released Libraries using Evidence Toolkit by Northern Sydney Central Coast Health and The University of Newcastle, Australia (see their announcement in this issue. An impressive advisory group is responsible for maintaining the currency and relevancy of the site as well as promoting the site and acting as a steering committee for related projects. This group is certainly doing more than “talking the talk”: they took their experience at the 3rd International Evidence Based Librarianship Conference and did something with the information they obtained by implementing solutions that worked in their environment. The result? The creation of a collection of tools for all of us to use. This toolkit is just what EBLIP needs: a portal to resources aimed at supporting the information

  20. Inspired by CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Art students inspired by CERN will be returning to show their work 9 to 16 October in Building 500, outside the Auditorium. Seventeen art students from around Europe visited CERN last January for a week of introductions to particle physics and astrophysics, and discussions with CERN scientists about their projects. A CERN scientist "adopted"each artist so they could ask questions during and after the visit. Now the seeds planted during their visit have come to fruition in a show using many media and exploring varied concepts, such as how people experience the online world, the sheer scale of CERN's equipment, and the abstractness of the entities scientists are looking for. "The work is so varied, people are going to love some pieces and detest others," says Andrew Charalambous, the project coordinator from University College London who is also curating the exhibition. "It's contemporary modern art, and that's sometimes difficult to take in." For more information on this thought-provoking show, see: htt...

  1. 日本当代城市化发展分析及对我国的启示%Analysis of Japanese Contemporary Urbanization Development and the Inspirations to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕾; 王国梁

    2016-01-01

    Stages of Japanese urbanization development were divided by S curve .The characteristics of Japanese contemporary urbanization de-velopment were summarized.Since the basic law of urbanization had the characteristics of universality, we discussed its inspirations to the urbani-zation development of China based on the current status and fundamental realities of high -speed urbanization development of China .%选用S型曲线划分日本城市化发展的阶段,总结日本当代城市化发展的特点;鉴于城市化的基本规律具有普适性,基于我国当前城市化高速发展的现状和基本国情,论述其对我国城市化发展的启示及对策。

  2. Synthesis of Organic Compounds over Selected Types of Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mohamed Saad Ismail

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an overview for the utilization of different catalytic material in the synthesis of organic compounds for important reactions such as heck reaction, aldol reaction, Diels- Alder and other reactions. Comparisons between multiple catalysts for the same reaction and justifications for developing new catalyzed materials are discussed. The following topics are introduced in this work; (1 solid base catalysts, (2 clay catalysts, (3 palladium catalysts, and (4 catalysts to produce organic compound from CO2. The features of these catalysts a long with the conjugated reactions and their selectivity are explained in details, also, some alternatives for toxic or polluting catalysts used in industry are suggested.

  3. FCC Catalysts to Meet Demand of New Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Daping

    2008-01-01

    The CGP series FCC catalysts for manufacture of clean gasoline and propylene and the catalyst RSC-2006 for processing inferior residuum with high yield of light distillates are novel catalysts jointly developed by Qilu Catalyst Branch Company of SINOPEC Corp. and the Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (RIPP). The results of commercial application of these catalysts have revealed that they can satisfactorily meet the requirements for environmental protection, good economic benefits and capability for processing inferior FCC feed under new circumstances.

  4. Development of high-performance cathode catalyst of polypyrrole modified carbon supported CoOOH for direct borohydride fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Zhu, Cai; Chen, Kaijian; Wang, Juan; Qin, Haiying; Liu, Jiabin; Yan, Shuai; Yang, Ke; Li, Aiguo

    2017-01-01

    Polypyrrole modified carbon supported CoOOH electrocatalyst (CoOOH-PPy-C) is prepared by impregnation-chemical method, and the catalytic properties for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media are investigated. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results confirm the presence of the expected CoOOH. The electrochemical tests show that the CoOOH-PPy-C catalyst exhibits good electrocatalytic activity towards ORR. The direct borohydride fuel cell using CoOOH-PPy-C as the cathode catalyst demonstrates a good stability performance. There is only 4% decrease of the cell voltage after 80-h operation. The ORR occurs an average 4-electron transfer pathway on the CoOOH-PPy-C catalyst. The good catalytic activity towards ORR benefits from the Cosbnd N bond, which is identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy test. X-ray absorption fine structure experiments further show that two nearest O atoms are substituted by two N atoms bonding to Co ion at a distance of 1.64 Å. The CoOOH-PPy-C exhibits better electrochemical properties than the Co(OH)2 counterpart even though the valence state of Co ion is +3 in CoOOH-PPy-C. Those results indicate that the bonding of Co ion with N atoms should be a key issue regardless the valence of Co ion.

  5. Bio-inspired computational techniques based on advanced condition monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Liangcheng; He Shan; Li Xiaoli; Li Xinglin

    2011-01-01

    The application of bio-inspired computational techniques to the field of condition monitoring is addressed.First, the bio-inspired computational techniques are briefly addressed; the advantages and disadvantages of these computational methods are made clear. Then, the roles of condition monitoring in the predictive maintenance and failures prediction and the development trends of condition monitoring are discussed. Finally, a case study on the condition monitoring of grinding machine is described, which shows the application of bio-inspired computational technique to a practical condition monitoring system.

  6. Nature-inspired optimization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2014-01-01

    Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms provides a systematic introduction to all major nature-inspired algorithms for optimization. The book's unified approach, balancing algorithm introduction, theoretical background and practical implementation, complements extensive literature with well-chosen case studies to illustrate how these algorithms work. Topics include particle swarm optimization, ant and bee algorithms, simulated annealing, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, bat algorithm, flower algorithm, harmony search, algorithm analysis, constraint handling, hybrid methods, parameter tuning

  7. 儒家音乐思想中的教化功能及对当代音乐的启示%The Confucius Influence upon Chinese Traditional Music and Its Inspiration toward the Development of Modern Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周娴

    2012-01-01

    在儒家思想影响下,主流音乐一直发挥着政治教化功能,这种音乐教化功能强调了音乐对个人道德修养和促进社会和谐发展的积极作用,对当代音乐创作有一定的参考价值和启示作用。%Under the influence of Confucianism, music had long been developed as a tool of educative management, so it was a constrained process. Yet, this process of development stresses the contribution of art toward moral cultivation and harmonious development of the society, which provides much inspiration for modem music.

  8. SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NOX IN OXYGEN RICH ENVIRONMENTS WITH PLASMA-ASSISTED CATALYSIS: CATALYST DEVELOPMENT AND MECHANISTIC STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peden, C; Barlow, S; Hoard, J; Kwak, J; *Balmer-Millar, M; *Panov, A; Schmieg, S; Szanyi, J; Tonkyn, R

    2003-08-24

    The control of NOx (NO and NO2) emissions from so-called ''lean-burn'' vehicle engines remains a challenge. In recent years, there have been a number of reports that show that a plasma device combined with a catalyst can reduce as high as 90% or more of NOx in simulated diesel and other ''lean-burn'' exhaust. In the case of propylene containing simulated diesel exhaust, the beneficial role of a plasma treatment is now thought to be due to oxidation of NO to NO2, and the formation of partially oxidized hydrocarbons that are more active for the catalytic reduction of NO2 than propylene. Thus, the overall system can be most usefully described as hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (SCR) enhanced by 'reforming' the exhaust with a non-thermal plasma (NTP) device. For plasma-enhanced catalysis, both zeolite- and alumina-based materials have shown high activity, albeit in somewhat different temperature ranges, when preceded by an NTP reactor. This paper will briefly describe our research efforts aimed at optimizing the catalyst materials for NTP-catalysis devices based, in part, on our continuing studies of the NTP- and catalytic-reaction mechanisms. Various alkali- and alkaline earth-cation-exchanged Y zeolites have been prepared, their material properties characterized, and they have been tested as catalytic materials for NOx reduction in laboratory NTP-catalysis reactors. Interestingly, NO2 formed in the plasma and not subsequently removed over these catalysts, will back-convert to NO, albeit to varying extents depending upon the nature of the cation. Besides this comparative reactivity, we will also discuss selected synthesis strategies for enhancing the performance of these zeolite-based catalyst materials. A particularly important result from our mechanistic studies is the observation that aldehydes, formed during the plasma treatment of simulated diesel exhaust, are the important species for the reduction of

  9. The scientific study of inspiration in the creative process: Challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C. Oleynick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration is a motivational state that compels individuals to bring ideas into fruition. Creators have long argued that inspiration is important to the creative process, but until recently, scientists have not investigated this claim. In this article, we review challenges to the study of creative inspiration, as well as solutions to these challenges afforded by theoretical and empirical work on inspiration over the past decade. First, we discuss the problem of definitional ambiguity, which has been addressed through an integrative process of construct conceptualization. Second, we discuss the challenge of how to operationalize inspiration. This challenge has been overcome by the development and validation of the Inspiration Scale, which may be used to assess trait or state inspiration. Third, we address ambiguity regarding how inspiration differs from related concepts (creativity, insight, positive affect by discussing discriminant validity. Next, we discuss the preconception that inspiration is less important than perspiration (effort, and we review empirical evidence that inspiration and effort both play important—but different—roles in the creative process. Finally, with many challenges overcome, we argue that the foundation is now set for a new generation of research focused on neural underpinnings. We discuss potential challenges to and opportunities for the neuroscientific study of inspiration. A better understanding of the biological basis of inspiration will illuminate the process through which creative ideas fire the soul, such that individuals are compelled to transform ideas into products and solutions that may benefit society.

  10. INSPIRE: A new scientific information system for HEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, R.; Raae, L.

    2010-04-01

    The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project - a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will introduce the "Web 2.0" paradigm of user-enriched content in the domain of sciences, with community-based approaches to scientific publishing. INSPIRE represents a natural evolution of scholarly communication built on successful community-based information systems, and it provides a vision for information management in other fields of science. Inspired by the needs of HEP, we hope that the INSPIRE project will be inspiring for other communities.

  11. INSPIRE: A new scientific information system for HEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, R; Raae, L, E-mail: Radoslav.Ivanov@cern.c, E-mail: Lars.Christian.Raae@cern.c [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project - a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will introduce the 'Web 2.0' paradigm of user-enriched content in the domain of sciences, with community-based approaches to scientific publishing. INSPIRE represents a natural evolution of scholarly communication built on successful community-based information systems, and it provides a vision for information management in other fields of science. Inspired by the needs of HEP, we hope that the INSPIRE project will be inspiring for other communities.

  12. Concepts and Development of Bio-Inspired Distributed Embedded Wired/Wireless Sensor Array Architectures for Acoustic Wave Sensing in Integrated Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Anindya; Prosser, William H.; Kirikera, Goutham; Schulz, Mark J.; Hughes, Derke J.; Orisamolu, Wally

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling of acoustic emissions in plate structures and their sensing by embedded or surface bonded piezoelectric sensor arrays. Three different modeling efforts for acoustic emission (AE) wave generation and propagation are discussed briefly along with their advantages and disadvantages. Continuous sensors placed at right angles on a plate are being discussed as a new approach to measure and locate the source of acoustic waves. Evolutionary novel signal processing algorithms and bio-inspired distributed sensor array systems are used on large structures and integrated aerospace vehicles for AE source localization and preliminary results are presented. These systems allow for a great reduction in the amount of data that needs to be processed and also reduce the chances of false alarms from ambient noises. It is envisioned that these biomimetic sensor arrays and signal processing techniques will be useful for both wireless and wired sensor arrays for real time health monitoring of large integrated aerospace vehicles and earth fixed civil structures. The sensor array architectures can also be used with other types of sensors and for other applications.

  13. Preparation of biodiesel from soybean oil by using heterogeneous catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniz Ferdous, M. Rakib Uddin, Maksudur R. Khan, M. A. Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The predicted shortage of fossil fuels and related environmental concerns has recently attracted significant attention to search alternative fuel. Biodiesel is one of the alternatives to fossil fuel. Now-a-days, most biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of oils using methanol and a homogeneous base catalyst. The use of homogeneous catalysts is normally limited to batch mode processing followed by a catalyst separation step. The immiscible glycerol phase, which accumulates during the course of the reaction, solubilizes the homogeneous base catalyst and therefore, withdraws from the reaction medium. Moreover, other difficulties of using homogeneous base catalysts relate to their sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA and water and resulting saponification phenomenon. High energy consumption and costly separation of the catalyst from the reaction mixture have inspired the use of heterogeneous catalyst. The use of heterogeneous catalysts does not lead to the formation of soaps through neutralization of FFA and saponification of oil. In the present paper, biodiesel was prepared from crude (soybean oil by transesterification reaction using heterogeneous base catalyst name calcium oxide (CaO. Various reaction parameters were optimized and the biodiesel properties were evaluated.

  14. Preparation of biodiesel from soybean oil by using heterogeneous catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdous, Kaniz; Rakib Uddin, M.; Islam, M.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science, Shah Jalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); Khan, Maksudur R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science, Shah Jalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2013-07-01

    The predicted shortage of fossil fuels and related environmental concerns has recently attracted significant attention to search alternative fuel. Biodiesel is one of the alternatives to fossil fuel. Now-a-days, most biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of oils using methanol and a homogeneous base catalyst. The use of homogeneous catalysts is normally limited to batch mode processing followed by a catalyst separation step. The immiscible glycerol phase, which accumulates during the course of the reaction, solubilizes the homogeneous base catalyst and therefore, withdraws from the reaction medium. Moreover, other difficulties of using homogeneous base catalysts relate to their sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA) and water and resulting saponification phenomenon. High energy consumption and costly separation of the catalyst from the reaction mixture have inspired the use of heterogeneous catalyst. The use of heterogeneous catalysts does not lead to the formation of soaps through neutralization of FFA and saponification of oil. In the present paper, biodiesel was prepared from crude (soybean) oil by transesterification reaction using heterogeneous base catalyst name calcium oxide (CaO). Various reaction parameters were optimized and the biodiesel properties were evaluated.

  15. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  16. 氨合成钌基催化剂的研究进展%Development in ruthenium based catalysts for ammonia synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭淑静; 高俊文

    2015-01-01

    Recently,ruthenium based catalysts for ammonia synthesis have been attracting interest increasingly due to their higher activity,higher stability and mild reaction conditions. The advance in development of Ru based catalysts for ammonia synthesis at home and abroad,especially the influence of the catalyst supports,promoters and precursors on the performance of ammonia synthetic catalysts were introduced in this paper. The carbon supports,carbon covered oxide and their complex with high graphitic degree and good electrical conductivity were good choice for ammonia synthesis supports. Alkali metals and alkaline-earth metals were good promoters for ammonia synthesis,and the promoting effects of alkaline-earth metals were better than those of alkali metals. Rear earth metals Sm could inhibit carbon methanation. Compared with RuCl3 ,Ru3( CO )12 was the ideal precursor for ammonia synthesis. A electride C12 A7:e- with high surface area,which worked as an excellent electron donor and reversible hydrogen-storage material,was used as support for Ru based catalyst for ammonia synthesis,and the cata-lytic activity for ammonia synthesis was greatly enhanced. The development of non-noble metal ammonia synthesis catalysts under mild conditions in the future is also proposed.%近年来,钌基氨合成催化剂因其高活性、高稳定性和反应条件温和成为研究热点。综述国内外氨合成钌基催化剂的研究进展,重点介绍钌基催化剂载体、助剂和前驱体对氨合成反应性能的影响。石墨化程度高、导电性能良好的碳载体或氧化物与碳的复合载体是氨合成反应的良好载体;碱金属和碱土金属类助剂通过改变活性金属表面静电场,起到电子助剂的作用,并且碱土金属对反应的促进作用优于碱金属,稀土金属Sm能够抑制碳载体的甲烷化反应;与RuCl3相比,Ru3( CO)12是氨合成反应的理想前驱体。简介以电子化合物为载体的钌基氨合

  17. Molecular catalysts structure and functional design

    CERN Document Server

    Gade, Lutz H

    2014-01-01

    Highlighting the key aspects and latest advances in the rapidly developing field of molecular catalysis, this book covers new strategies to investigate reaction mechanisms, the enhancement of the catalysts' selectivity and efficiency, as well as the rational design of well-defined molecular catalysts. The interdisciplinary author team with an excellent reputation within the community discusses experimental and theoretical studies, along with examples of improved catalysts, and their application in organic synthesis, biocatalysis, and supported organometallic catalysis. As a result, readers wil

  18. Rhodium-catalyzed [5 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition of ene-vinylcyclopropanes and CO: reaction design, development, application in natural product synthesis, and inspiration for developing new reactions for synthesis of eight-membered carbocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Yu, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-08-18

    Practical syntheses of natural products and their analogues with eight-membered carbocyclic skeletons are important for medicinal and biological investigations. However, methods and strategies to construct the eight-membered carbocycles are limited. Therefore, developing new methods to synthesize the eight-membered carbocycles is highly desired. In this Account, we describe our development of three rhodium-catalyzed cycloadditions for the construction of the eight-membered carbocycles, which have great potential in addressing the challenges in the synthesis of medium-sized ring systems. The first reaction described in this Account is our computationally designed rhodium-catalyzed two-component [5 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition of ene-vinylcyclopropanes (ene-VCPs) and CO for the diastereoselective construction of bi- and tricyclic cyclooctenones. The design of this reaction is based on the hypothesis that the C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) reductive elimination of the eight-membered rhodacycle intermediate generated from the rhodium-catalyzed cyclopropane cleavage and alkene insertion, giving Wender's [5 + 2] cycloadduct, is not easy. Under CO atmosphere, CO insertion may occur rapidly, converting the eight-membered rhodacycle into a nine-membered rhodacycle, which then undergoes an easy C(sp(2))-C(sp(3)) reductive elimination process and furnishes the [5 + 2 + 1] product. This hypothesis was supported by our preliminary DFT studies and also served as inspiration for the development of two [7 + 1] cycloadditions: the [7 + 1] cycloaddition of buta-1,3-dienylcyclopropanes (BDCPs) and CO for the construction of cyclooctadienones, and the benzo/[7 + 1] cycloaddition of cyclopropyl-benzocyclobutenes (CP-BCBs) and CO to synthesize the benzocyclooctenones. The efficiency of these rhodium-catalyzed cycloadditions can be revealed by the application in natural product synthesis. Two eight-membered ring-containing natural products, (±)-asterisca-3(15),6-diene and (+)-asteriscanolide, have been

  19. Inspiring Student Self-Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Brackett

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While normally appreciative of the invitation to join colleagues in a discussion of pedagogy and what “works” in the classroom, I have in most instances reluctantly participated in discussion of student motivation. I dip my toe into this philosophical quagmire only if permitted license to substitute the phrase student inspiration in place of student motivation. I also find it helpful to turn the rhetorical tables, as it were, and consider self-motivation on the part of students. The concept of individuals who hold some sense of self that a classroom mentor may nurture through student inspiration is one in which I place a modicum of trust. To “inspire” is literally to “breathe in,” to actively pull sustenance from a proffered external source. Active student determination based on some sense of self may couple with instructor inspiration to promote academic success.

  20. Development of a reactor with carbon catalysts for modular-scale, low-cost electrochemical generation of H 2 O 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Shucheng; Siahrostami, Samira; Chakthranont, Pongkarn; Hahn, Christopher; Nordlund, Dennis; Dimosthenis, Sokaras; Nørskov, Jens K.; Bao, Zhenan; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2017-03-01

    The development of small-scale, decentralized reactors for H2O2 production that can couple to renewable energy sources would be of great benefit, particularly for water purification in the developing world. Herein, we describe our efforts to develop electrochemical reactors for H2O2 generation with high Faradaic efficiencies of >90%, requiring cell voltages of only ~1.6 V. The reactor employs a carbon-based catalyst that demonstrates excellent performance for H2O2 production under alkaline conditions, as demonstrated by fundamental studies involving rotating-ring disk electrode methods. The low-cost, membrane-free reactor design represents a step towards a continuous, modular-scale, de-centralized production of H2O2.

  1. Bio-inspired dynamic robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alan S.; Wax, Steven G.; Christodoulou, Leo

    2003-09-01

    The unique performance of biological systems across a wide spectrum of phylogenetic species has historically provided inspirations for roboticists in new designs and fabrication of new robotic platforms. Of particular interest to a number of important applications is to create dynamic robots able to adapt to a change in their world, unplanned events that are sometimes unexpected, and sometimes unstable, harsh conditions. It is likely that the exploring dynamics in biological systems will continue to provide rich solutions to attaining robots capable of more complex tasks for this purpose. This is because the long-term design process of evolution utilizes a natural selection process that responds to such changes. Recently, there have been significant advances across a number of interdisciplinary efforts that have generated new capabilities in biorobotics. Whole body dynamics that capture the force dynamics and functional stability of legged systems over rough terrain have been elucidated and applied in legged robotic systems. Exploying the force dynamics of flapping winged insect flight has provided key discoveries and enabled the fabrication of new micro air vehicles. New classes of materials are being developed that emulate the ability of natural muscle, capturing the compliant and soft subtle movement and performance of biological appendages. In addition, classes of new multifunctional materials are being developed to enable the design of biorobotics with the structural and functional efficiency of living organisms. Optical flow and other sensors based on the principles of invertebrate vision have been implemented on robotic platforms for autonomous robotic guidance and control. These fundamental advances have resulted in the emergence of a new generation of bioinspired dynamic robots which show significant performance improvements in early prototype testing and that could someday be useful in a number of significant applications such as search and rescue and

  2. Organic synthesis with olefin metathesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubbs, R.H. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Over the past nine years, early transition metal catalysts for the ring opening metathesis polymerization of cyclic olefins have been developed. These catalysts are simple organometallic complexes containing metal carbon multiple bonds that in most cases polymerize olefins by a living process. These catalysts have been used to prepare a family of near monodispersed and structurally homogeneous polymers. A series of group VII ROMP catalysts that allow a wide range of functionality to be incorporated into the polymer side chains have been prepared. The most important member of this family of complexes are the bisphosphinedihalo-ruthenium carbene complexes. These polymerization catalysts can also be used in the synthesis of fine chemicals by ring closing (RCM) and vinyl coupling reactions. The availability of the group VII catalysts allow metathesis to be carried out on highly functionalized substrates such as polypeptides and in unusual environments such as in aqueous emulsions.

  3. Biological Inspiration in Human Centred Robotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Huo-sheng; LIU Jin-dong; Calderon Carlos A

    2004-01-01

    Human centred robotics (HCR) concerns with the development of various kinds of intelligent systems and robots that will be used in environments coexisting with humans. These systems and robots will be interactive and useful assistants/companions for people in different ages, situations, activities and environments in order to improve the quality of life. This paper presents the autors' current research work toward the development of advanced theory and technologies for HCR applications, based on inspiration from biological systems. More specifically, both bio-mimetic system modelling and robot learning by imitation are discussed respectively, and some preliminary results are demonstrated.

  4. Science Letters:Development of supported boron-doping TiO2 catalysts by chemical vapor deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study, supported nonmetal (boron) doping TiO2 coating photocatalysts were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to enhance the activity under visible light irradiation and avoid the recovering of TiO2. Boron atoms were successfully doped into the lattice of TiO2 through CVD, as evidenced from XPS analysis. B-doped TiO2 coating catalysts showed drastic and strong absorption in the visible light range with a red shift in the band gap transition. This novel B-TiO2 coating photocatalyst showed higher photocatalytic activity in methyl orange degradation under visible light irradiation than that of the pure TiO2 photocatalyst.

  5. Interaction between Nafion ionomer and noble metal catalyst for PEMFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    The implement of polymer impregnation in electrode structure (catalyst layer) decreasing the noble metal catalyst loading by a factor of ten , , is one of the essential mile stones in the evolution of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells’ development among the application of catalyst support...... and electrode deposition etc. In fuel cell reactions, both electrons and protons are involved. Impregnation of Nafion ionomer in catalyst layer effectively increases the proton-electron contact, enlarge the reaction zone, extend the reaction from the surface to the entire electrode. Therefore, the entire...... catalyst layer conducts both electrons and protons so that catalyst utilization in the layer is improved dramatically. The catalyst layer will in turn generate and sustain a higher current density. One of the generally adapted methods to impregnate Nafion into the catalyst layer is to mix the catalysts...

  6. Foundation Flash Catalyst

    CERN Document Server

    Goralski, Greg

    2010-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to Flash Catalyst for designers with intermediate to advanced skills. It discusses where Catalyst sits within the production process and how it communicates with other programs. It covers all of the features of the Flash Catalyst workspace, teaching you how to create designs from scratch, how to build application designs and add functionality, and how to master the Catalyst/Flex workflow. * Introduces Flash Catalyst * Focuses on production process * Covers the interrelation between Flash Catalyst and Photoshop/Illustrator/Flex/Flash What you'll learn Starting f

  7. Catalyst and electrode research for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, A. C.; King, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of the development status of phosphoric acid fuel cells' high performance catalyst and electrode materials. Binary alloys have been identified which outperform the baseline platinum catalyst; it has also become apparent that pressurized operation is required to reach the desired efficiencies, calling in turn for the use of graphitized carbon blacks in the role of catalyst supports. Efforts to improve cell performance and reduce catalyst costs have led to the investigation of a class of organometallic cathode catalysts represented by the tetraazaannulenes, and a mixed catalyst which is a mixture of carbons catalyzed with an organometallic and a noble metal.

  8. Inspiration: One Percent and Rising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Donovan R.

    2009-01-01

    Inventor Thomas Edison once famously declared, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." If that's the case, then the students the author witnessed at the International Student Media Festival (ISMF) last November in Orlando, Florida, are geniuses and more. The students in the ISMF pre-conference workshop had much to…

  9. Inversion exercises inspired by mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2016-02-01

    An elementary calculus transform, inspired by the centroid and gyration radius, is introduced as a prelude to the study of more advanced transforms. Analysis of the transform, including its inversion, makes use of several key concepts from basic calculus and exercises in the application and inversion of the transform provide practice in the use of technology in calculus.

  10. Immobilized Ruthenium Catalyst for Carbon Dioxide Hydrogenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Min YU; Jin Hua FEI; Yi Ping ZHANG; Xiao Ming ZHENG

    2006-01-01

    Three kinds of cross linked polystyrene resin (PS) supported ruthenium complexes were developed as catalysts for the synthesis of formic acid from carbon dioxide hydrogenation. Many factors, such as the functionalized supports, solvents and ligands, could influence their activities and reuse performances greatly. These immobilized catalysts also offer the industrial advantages such as easy separation.

  11. Manufacture of Catalyst Systems for Ammonia Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAKH S.V.; SAVENKOV D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Platinum catalyst gauzes have been in use since the moment of development of the process of catalyst oxidation of ammonia for production of nitric acid or hydrocyanic acid.Catalyst gauzes are usually made of platinum or its alloys with rhodium and palladium.These precious metals have remarkable properties that make them ideal catalysts for acceleration of the ammonia/oxygen reaction.In 2008,OJSC "SIC ‘Supermetal’" and Umicore AG&Co.KG launched a production line for Pt-alloy-based catalyst systems to be used for ammonia oxidation in the production of weak nitric acid.Catalyst systems consist of a pack of catalyst gauzes and a pack of catchment gauzes,which are made using flat-bed knitting machines and wire-cloth looms.Today,up-to-date catalyst systems MKSpreciseTM are being manufactured,the basic advantages of which are an individual structure of gauzes and composition of the material,which allows to define precisely the position of each gauze in the catalyst pack,a high activity of the catalyst pack,direct catching of platinum and rhodium in the catalyst system,and a reasonable combination of single- and multilayer types of gauzes.This makes it possible to vary the configuration of the catalyst and select an optimum composition of the system to ensure the maximum efficiency of the ammonia oxidation process.We also produce the catchment systems that allow to find the best decision from the economic point view for each individual case.

  12. Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Topical report No. 14. Catalyst activity trends in two-stage coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    The Two Stage Coal Liquefaction process became operational at Wilsonville in May 1981, with the inclusion of an H-OIL ebullated-bed catalytic reactor. The two stage process was initially operated in a nonintegrated mode and has recently been reconfigurated to fully integrate the thermal and the catalytic stages. This report focuses on catalyst activity trends observed in both modes of operation. A literature review of relevant catalyst screening studies in bench-scale and PDU units is presented. Existing kinetic and deactivation models were used to analyze process data over an extensive data base. Based on the analysis, three separate, application studies have been conducted. The first study seeks to elucidate the dependence of catalyst deactivation rate on type of coal feedstock used. A second study focuses on the significance of catalyst type and integration mode on SRC hydrotreatment. The third study presents characteristic deactivation trends observed in integrated operation with different first-stage thermal severities. In-depth analytical work was conducted at different research laboratories on aged catalyst samples from Run 242. Model hydrogenation and denitrogenation activity trends are compared with process activity trends and with changes observed in catalyst porosimetric properties. The accumulation of metals and coke deposits with increasing catalyst age, as well as their distribution across a pellet cross-section, are discussed. The effect of catalyst age and reactor temperature on the chemical composition of flashed bottoms product is addressed. Results from regenerating spent catalysts are also presented. 35 references, 31 figures, 18 tables.

  13. Biomimetic microsensors inspired by marine life

    CERN Document Server

    Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    This book narrates the development of various biomimetic microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors, such as pressure, flow, acceleration, chemical, and tactile sensors, that are inspired by sensing phenomenon that exist in marine life. The research described in this book is multi-faceted and combines the expertise and understanding from diverse fields, including biomimetics, microfabrication, sensor engineering, MEMS design, nanotechnology, and material science. A series of chapters examine the design and fabrication of MEMS sensors that function on piezoresistive, piezoelectric, strain gauge, and chemical sensing principles. By translating nature-based engineering solutions to artificial manmade technology, we could find innovative solutions to critical problems.

  14. A Tony Thomas-Inspired Guide to INSPIRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, Heath B.; /Fermilab

    2010-04-01

    The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

  15. Pd Close Coupled Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Hua SHI; Mao Chu GONG; Yao Qiang CHEN

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst comprised novel high surface area alumina support was prepared to control emission of automobiles. The results showed that prepared catalyst could satisfy the requirements of a high performance close coupled catalyst for its good catalytic activity at low temperature and good stability at high temperature.

  16. Catalyst and Fuel Interactions to Optimize Endothermic Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    tungsten and molybdenum carbides exhibit enhanced catalytic activity for reactions such as benzene hydrogenation, ammonia synthesis , hydrodehalogenation and...and coking of the catalysts. Finally, there was significant methods development in the areas of theory, catalyst synthesis and characterization, and...theory, catalyst synthesis and characterization, and methods for catalytic reaction analysis. Endothermic fuels, catalysis, DFT, clusters, X-ray

  17. Nanostructured Basic Catalysts: Opportunities for Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, William C; Huber, George; Auerbach, Scott

    2009-06-30

    This research studied and developed novel basic catalysts for production of renewable chemicals and fuels from biomass. We focused on the development of unique porous structural-base catalysts zeolites. These catalysts were compared to conventional solid base materials for aldol condensation, that were being commercialized for production of fuels from biomass and would be pivotal in future biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Specifically, we had studied the aldolpyrolysis over zeolites and the trans-esterification of vegetable oil with methanol over mixed oxide catalysts. Our research has indicated that the base strength of framework nitrogen in nitrogen substituted zeolites (NH-zeolites) is nearly twice as strong as in standard zeolites. Nitrogen substituted catalysts have been synthesized from several zeolites (including FAU, MFI, BEA, and LTL) using NH3 treatment.

  18. Decrypting $SO(10)$-inspired leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bari, Pasquale; Fiorentin, Michele Re

    2014-01-01

    Encouraged by the recent results from neutrino oscillation experiments, we perform an analytical study of $SO(10)$-inspired models and leptogenesis with hierarchical right-handed (RH) neutrino spectrum. Under the approximation of negligible misalignment between the neutrino Yukawa basis and the charged lepton basis, we find an analytical expression for the final asymmetry directly in terms of the low energy neutrino parameters that fully reproduces previous numerical results. This expression also shows that is possible to identify an effective leptogenesis phase for these models. When we also impose the wash-out of a large pre-existing asymmetry $N^{\\rm p,i}_{B-L}$, the strong thermal (ST) condition, we derive analytically all those constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters that characterise the {\\rm ST}-$SO(10)$-inspired leptogenesis solution, confirming previous numerical results. In particular we show why, though neutrino masses have to be necessarily normally ordered, the solution implies an analy...

  19. Observing binary inspiral with LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, L S

    1994-01-01

    Gravitational radiation from a binary neutron star or black hole system leads to orbital decay and the eventual coalescence of the binary's components. During the last several minutes before the binary components coalesce, the radiation will enter the bandwidth of the United States Laser Inteferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and the French/Italian VIRGO gravitational radiation detector. The combination of detector sensitivity, signal strength, and source density and distribution all point to binary inspiral as the most likely candidate for observation among all the anticipated sources of gravitational radiation for LIGO/VIRGO. Here I review briefly some of the questions that are posed to theorists by the impending observation of binary inspiral.

  20. Latent catalyst; Senzaisei shokubai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Epoxy resin, an important function material to support such main industries as electric and electronic devices, automobiles, civil engineering, and building construction, is demanded of development of single liquid type resin having excellent quick hardening performance and storage stability. This requirement comes from environmental problems with an intention of saving energies and reducing resin wastes. The Company, using freely its independent phase separation technology that controls molecular structure of catalysts, developed a latent catalyst having excellent storage stability and high-temperature quick hardening performance. Its major features may be summarized as follows: (1) excellent storage stability at room temperature keeping the product stable for 2.5 months or longer (2 days in conventional products); (2) quick hardening performance hardening the resin in seven seconds at 150 degrees C (equivalent to conventional products); and (3) excellent insulation performance of hardened resin at 140 degrees C of 7 times 10 {sup 13} (ohm) (center dot) cm (2 times 10 {sup 12} (ohm) (center dot) cm in conventional products) (translated by NEDO)

  1. Photocatalytic hydrogen production on SOLECTRO {sup registered} titanium dioxide layers. Development and characterization of an efficient catalyst; Photokatalytische Wasserstoffgewinnung an SOLECTRO {sup registered} -Titandioxidschichten. Entwicklung und Charakterisierung eines geeigneten Katalysators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saborowski, Sarah

    2010-03-03

    A catalyst for photocatalytic hydrogen production from methanol and water was developed on the basis of SOLECTRO {sup registered} titanium dioxide layers. A test facility was constructed in which several modified catalysts could be tested for this reaction. Detailed characterization of the electronic and optical characteristics of these catalysts made it possible to gain deeper insight into the processes involved in the reaction. (orig.) [German] Auf Basis der SOLECTRO {sup registered} -TiO{sub 2} -Schichten wurde ein Katalysator fuer die photokatalytische Wasserstoffdarstellung aus Methanol und Wasser entwickelt. Der Aufbau einer geeigneten Versuchsanlage ermoeglichte es, verschieden modifizierte Katalysatoren fuer diese Reaktion zu testen. Durch die ausfuehrliche Charakterisierung insbesondere der elektronischen und optischen Eigenschaften dieser Katalysatoren konnten vertiefende Erkenntnisse zu den waehrend der Reaktion ablaufenden Prozessen gewonnen werden. (orig.)

  2. 美国专利制度发展对我国专利制度国际化的启示%Inspiration of Development of Patent System of United States to Internationalization National Patent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂国强

    2012-01-01

    总结了在专利制度国际化发展进程及趋势的基础上,分析了美国推动自身专利制度的改革以及积极引导专利制度的国际统一化和一体化进程的发展过程。进而以我国专利法的修订为引导分析我国专利制度存在的问题.以及在国际化进程中的被动改革,提出美国专利制度的发展对我国专利制度发展和引导国际化趋势的启示。%In this paper, based on the process of intemational development and trends of the patent system, the author analyzed the developmental process of the United States to promote its own patent system reform, actively guide the process of international harmonization and integration of the patent system. And then guidance the analysis of the problems of our patent system, as well as passive in the process of internationalization of the reform of Patent Law Amendment of China, the author proposed inspiration of development of patent system of United States to internationalization national patent system.

  3. Study on the Inspiration of Reality Show on Developing Sports Teaching Games%真人秀节目对体育教学游戏开发启示研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志杰

    2016-01-01

    Using methods of literature and video analysis,the paper studies the inspiration of sports elements expression characteristics in reality show on developing P.E.teaching games.The study shows that the developing of P.E.teaching games should be conducted on the premise of respecting the spirit of physical education and should carry out scientific,interest -oriented and effective adjustment on teaching skills to stimulate students’ interest and enhance their study quality.%运用文献法及录像分析法,从研究真人秀节目中体育元素表达特点入手,从而引发对体育教学游戏开发的启示。研究认为:体育教学游戏开发中应该在尊重体育精神的前提下对需要教学技能进行科学化、兴趣化、有效性调整,从而激发学生兴趣、提高学习质量。

  4. Process development for the separation and recovery of Mo and Co from chloride leach liquors of petroleum refining catalyst by solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banda, Raju [Department of Advanced Material Science and Engineering, Mokpo National University, Chonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Seong Ho [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon Technology Service Centre, 7-47, Songdo-dong, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Man Seung, E-mail: mslee@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Material Science and Engineering, Mokpo National University, Chonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Separation of Mo and Co from HCl solution was investigated by solvent extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solution was synthetic leaching solution of spent HDS catalysts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extraction with TOPO led to complete separation of Mo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alamine 308 can separate Co from the Mo free raffinate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recovery percentage of both metals was higher than 99%. - Abstract: The separation and recovery of Mo and Co from the synthetic chloride leach liquors of petroleum refining catalyst has been investigated by employing TOPO and Alamine 308 as extractants. The synthetic leach liquor contained Mo 394 mg/L, Al 1782 mg/L, Co 119 mg/L in 3 M HCl. The separation of Mo from Co and Al was achieved with 0.05 M TOPO in Escaid 110 and complete stripping of Mo was attained with combination of 0.1 M NH{sub 4}OH and 0.05 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}. After separation of molybdenum, cobalt can be selectively extracted by Alamine 308 from Mo free raffinate after adjusting the concentration of chloride ion to 5 M by adding AlCl{sub 3}. The back-extraction of cobalt was obtained easily from loaded Alamine 308 with acidified water (pH = 1.0). McCabe-Thiele diagrams were constructed from the extraction and stripping experiments of each element (Mo and Co). From the batch simulation of the counter-current extraction and stripping experiments, it was confirmed that Mo and Co recovery of 99.4% and 99.1% respectively was obtained from the synthetic leach liquor of the chloride solutions. Finally a hydrometallurgical process flow sheet was developed.

  5. 日本网球发展经验借鉴与启示%Japanese tennis development experience reference and inspiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛

    2016-01-01

    以日本网球发展历程为研究对象,总结出日本网球发展的成功经验,为“后李娜时代”中国竞技网球发展提供参考。%This paper take the development of Japanese tennis as the research object, and try to summarize the successful experience of Japanese tennis in order to provide useful reference for the development of Chinese competitive tennis in the“post-Li Na era”.

  6. Developing Teachers' Capacities to Create Caring Relationships with Students: A Case Study of a Gandhi-Inspired Private School in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Victoria S.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that many factors may impede teachers' ability to develop caring relationships with students such as the school environment (Schaps, 2009), lack of cultural understanding (Thompson, 1998), the teacher's beliefs and attitudes about care (Goldstein, 2002), and personal experience of being cared for (Noddings, 1984). Yet, little…

  7. MMC-High Propylene Selectivity DCC Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zheng; Xie Chaogang; Luo Yibin; Zhao Liuzhou; Shu Xingtian

    2007-01-01

    RIPP has developed the third generation novel DCC catalysts aimed at increasing the propylene yield, named as the MMC series catalysts. This catalyst is of the MFI structure composed of the ZSP zeolite as the main active component, which has higher capability for producing low-carbon olefins, in particular the propylene. The commercial application of this catalyst at SINOPEC Anqing Petrochemical Company has revealed that the adoption of the MMC-2 catalyst has resulted in a 1.6-4.0 percentages increase in propylene yield under basically similar conditions in terms of the feedstock property and process operating regime coupled with reduction in gasoline olefin content and increase in aromatic content to improve the gasoline quality.

  8. Alternative deNOx catalysts and technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes

    . The commercial catalyst used for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides exhibits high activity and selectivity towards N2. However, the vanadia-titania-based catalyst used is very sensitive to deactivation by alkali-species (primarily potassium), which are typically present in high amounts...... in the flue gas when biomass is combusted. By co-firing with large amounts of CO2-neutral straw or wood (tomeet stringent CO2 emission legislation), the lifetime of the traditional SCR catalyst is thus significantly reduced due to the presence of deactivating species originating from the fuel. To develop...... active species distributed on the support were investigated, such as iron, copper and vanadium oxides. However, based on the catalysts performance in the SCR reaction and their resistances towards potassium, the most promising candidate of the formulations studied was the vanadia-loaded catalyst, i.e. V2...

  9. Development of PHR fix-bed residue hydrodemetallization catalysts%PHR系列固定床渣油加氢脱金属催化剂的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程涛; 赵愉生; 谭青峰; 崔瑞利

    2016-01-01

    为有效解决渣油加氢脱金属过程中沥青质和胶质等大分子物质的扩散、反应和沉积难题,提高催化剂脱杂质活性和容金属能力,对催化剂设计进行了优化集成,开发出了一系列催化剂制备关键技术,研制成功4个牌号的脱金属催化剂(PHR-101、PHR-102、PHR-103、PHR-104)。以非酸性的黏结剂代替胶溶酸实现氧化铝的无酸成型,大幅提高了载体孔容和孔径;采用复合扩孔方法制备出双峰孔结构载体,大于1000nm 孔比例达到16.4%,改善了催化剂孔道结构;实现活性金属组分的非均匀负载,优化活性分布,促进杂质向催化剂内部的扩散和沉积。小型装置2000h 评价结果表明,催化剂脱杂质(脱金属、脱硫、脱残炭)活性与稳定性明显高于常规催化剂。模拟工业运转条件下,在1L中型装置上进行了5500h长周期试验,结果表明,加氢全馏分产品金属含量满足指标要求,催化剂预期寿命达到8000h以上,满足工业应用要求。14个月的挂篮试验表明,与工业催化剂相比,所开发催化剂的金属容纳能力更高,金属沉积更为均匀。%In order to solve the diffusion,reaction and deposition problems of high molecular materials such as asphaltenes and resins,and to improve the catalyst’s activity and metal capacity during the process of residue hydrodemetallization,we developed a series of key technologies and 4 grades residue hydrodemetallization catalysts(PHR-101,PHR-102,PHR-103,PHR-104)by optimized catalyst design. Non-acidic binder was employed to replace the traditional acids to prepare alumina support with substantially increased pore volume and size. Dual-peak-pore-structure support,with 16.4% pore size above 1000nm,was obtained through compound pore expanding method to improve catalysts’ pore structure. And non-uniform distribution of active metal components was achieved to promote impurities to diffuse to and

  10. 欧洲足球俱乐部发展研究及启示%The Development and Inspiration of European Football Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵方晔

    2014-01-01

    Through the methods of document literature and logical analysis,this paper makes a research on European five foot-ball league cup’s transfer system transition and the development of some typical football club,such as Man Utd,Real Madrid, Juventus,and get to know the development of European football club.It shows that European football clubs emphasized in intro-ducing high level football athletes,and its football athletes exchange system is impeccable,and its management method and oper-ation mode is successful.Taking their development experience for reference,this article comes up with some suggestions from the aspects of brand-building,athletes-introducing,and back-up-training.%运用文献资料法和逻辑分析法,对欧洲五大联赛转会制度的变迁及曼联、皇马、尤文图斯几个典型俱乐部的发展情况进行研究,以管窥欧洲足球俱乐部的发展。指出,欧洲足球俱乐部重视高水平足球运动员的引进,球员转会制度完善,经营手段和运作模式各不相同但都很成功。借鉴其发展经验,从品牌塑造、球员引进、后备人才培养等方面,为我国足球俱乐部的发展提出建议。

  11. Development of International Rehabilitation Medicine and Inspiration%浅谈国际康复医学发展及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何红晨; 徐月萌; 熊恩富; 何成奇

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation medicine also known as Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R), is a branch of medicine that aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities. After nearly a century of development, rehabilitation medicine has reached a considerable level in developed countries. All rehabilitation programs are carried out in multidisciplinary rehabilitation teams including medical specialists for physical and rehabilitation medicine, as well as physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech, to improve the patients’ quality of life.%康复医学也被称为物理医学与康复(Physical medicine and rehabilitation,PM&R),是医学的一个分支,旨在提高和恢复患者的功能、能力和生活质量。经过近百年的发展,国际康复医学在发达国家已经达到相当发达的程度,其发展趋势就是通过合理地整合医学、治疗学、生物学、工程学、社会学等的理论和方法,为患者提供更加全面人性化的服务,提高患者的生活质量。

  12. Experience and Inspiration of the Aged Manpower Resource Development in Japan%日本开发老年人力资源的经验及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁英顺

    2015-01-01

    在人口老龄化不断加剧的情况之下,社会发展将更多地依赖于老年人的积极参与。而且随着长寿社会的到来,老年人的参与愿望和参与能力都在提升。日本是世界上人口老龄化程度最高的国家,已进入人口减少和超老龄社会。人口下降和老龄化将带来劳动力减少问题,对日本整个社会的均衡和可持续发展产生严重影响。为了应对劳动力不足问题,日本不仅修改《老年人就业稳定法》逐渐延长退休年龄,保障老年人继续工作,而且开展老年志愿者活动积极为退休的老年人创造再就业的环境。%As the aging population is intensifying, the development of society will more and more depend on the positive participation of the elderly. As well as the coming society of longevity, the participation will and abilities of the elderly are improving.Japan, the country of the highest degree of aging population in the world, is becoming a society of depopulation and hyper-aging. Depopulation and aging will results in the reduction of labor force, which has a strong impact on the whole social development and sustainable development. In order to deal with labor shortage, Japan not only modiifes , gradually raises the retirement age and ensures their proceeding of work, but also implements volunteers’ activities of the elderly and positively creates an environment of reemployment for the retired elderly.

  13. The Manipulation of Hydrophobicity in Catalyst Design for Applications of Aerobic Alcohols Oxidation and Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Batian

    2016-05-17

    Hydrophobicity is the generalized characteristic of non-polar substances that brings about their exclusion from aqueous phases. This property, entropic in its nature, drives key self-assembly and phase separation processes in water. Protein folding, the formation of DNA double helix, the existence of lipid bilayers and the wetting properties of leaf surfaces are all due to hydrophobic interactions. Inspired by Nature, we aimed to use hydrophobicity for creating novel and improved catalytic systems. (I) A number of fluorous amphiphilic star block-copolymers containing a tris(benzyltriazolylmethyl)amine motif have been prepared. These polymers assembled into well-defined nanostructures in water, and their mode of assembly could be controlled by changing the composition of the polymer. The polymers were used for enzyme-inspired catalysis of alcohol oxidation. (II) An enzyme-inspired catalytic system based on a rationally designed multifunctional surfactant was developed. The resulting micelles feature metal-binding sites and stable free radical moieties as well as fluorous pockets that attract and preconcentrate molecular oxygen. In the presence of copper ions, the micelles effect chemoselective aerobic alcohol oxidation under ambient conditions in water, a transformation that is challenging to achieve nonenzymatically. (III) Development of a facile means of photo/electrocatalytic water splitting is one of the main barriers to establishing of a solar hydrogen economy. Of the two half-reactions involved in splitting water into O2 and H2, water oxidation presents the most challenge due to its mechanistic complexity. A practical water oxidation catalyst must be highly active, yet inexpensive and indefinitely stable under harsh oxidative conditions. Here, I shall describe the synthesis of a library of molecular water oxidation catalysts based on the Co complex of tris(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)amine, (BimH)3. A wide range of catalysts differing in their electronic properties

  14. Documentation of cultural heritage sites using the INSPIRE directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkadolou, Eleni; Prastacos, Poulicos

    2016-08-01

    The INSPIRE directive, adopted by the EC in 2007 provides the guidelines for the organization of all geographic data and is the basis for establishing a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). Documentation of cultural heritage sites such as archeological areas, historic places and others is not a thematic area addressed in the directive. However, as discussed in this paper the directive can be extended to cover the documentation of these sites as well. The location of an archaeological area and its monuments, its legal status, the surrounding physical environment (NATURA protected areas), the protection zones around the site and the permitted development can be documented following the INSPIRE directive. Additionally, results of research carried out in these sites such as geophysical surveys, use of satellite images or topographical surveys can be also organized using the INSPIRE guidelines.

  15. Bio-inspired algorithms applied to molecular docking simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlé, G; de Azevedo, W F

    2011-01-01

    Nature as a source of inspiration has been shown to have a great beneficial impact on the development of new computational methodologies. In this scenario, analyses of the interactions between a protein target and a ligand can be simulated by biologically inspired algorithms (BIAs). These algorithms mimic biological systems to create new paradigms for computation, such as neural networks, evolutionary computing, and swarm intelligence. This review provides a description of the main concepts behind BIAs applied to molecular docking simulations. Special attention is devoted to evolutionary algorithms, guided-directed evolutionary algorithms, and Lamarckian genetic algorithms. Recent applications of these methodologies to protein targets identified in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome are described.

  16. Advances in HDS catalysts design: relation between catalyst structure and feed composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagami, Narinobu

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose a better understanding of ultra deep HDS for diesel, to contribute to the development of advanced catalysts. The characterization of catalyst structure was examined by XRD, TPR, TPS and Raman spectroscopy. The ranking of catalytic activities were tested using vario

  17. A nanoscale bio-inspired light-harvesting system developed from self-assembled alkyl-functionalized metallochlorin nano-aggregates

    KAUST Repository

    Ocakoǧlu, Kasim

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembled supramolecular organization of nano-structured biomimetic light-harvesting modules inside solid-state nano-templates can be exploited to develop excellent light-harvesting materials for artificial photosynthetic devices. We present here a hybrid light-harvesting system mimicking the chlorosomal structures of the natural photosynthetic system using synthetic zinc chlorin units (ZnChl-C6, ZnChl-C12 and ZnChl-C 18) that are self-aggregated inside the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nano-channel membranes. AAO nano-templates were modified with a TiO2 matrix and functionalized with long hydrophobic chains to facilitate the formation of supramolecular Zn-chlorin aggregates. The transparent Zn-chlorin nano-aggregates inside the alkyl-TiO2 modified AAO nano-channels have a diameter of ∼120 nm in a 60 μm length channel. UV-Vis studies and fluorescence emission spectra further confirm the formation of the supramolecular ZnChl aggregates from monomer molecules inside the alkyl-functionalized nano-channels. Our results prove that the novel and unique method can be used to produce efficient and stable light-harvesting assemblies for effective solar energy capture through transparent and stable nano-channel ceramic materials modified with bio-mimetic molecular self-assembled nano-aggregates. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  18. 美军运输技术装备发展特点与启示%Traits of and Inspiration from the U.S. Army in the Development of Technical Equipment of Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 曾令国; 赵自力

    2011-01-01

    从运输需求、装备配套发展、现代信息技术研究方面,探讨了美军运输技术装备发展的做法和特点,结合我军实际,提出了转变观念、创新理论,注重借鉴、适时引进,自主创新、技术赶超,寓军于民、军地结合,夯实基础、配套改造,优化配置、系统集成等有针对性的建议,以期对我军军交运输保障装备建设有所启示。%The traits and experience of the US army in the development of technical equipment of transportation are explored in the paper from the angles of transportation needs,the development of equipment and its corollary equipment,and the modern research on information technology,with some corresponding suggestions on the development of military transportation support equipment,such as conversing our old concept,carrying out theoretical innovation,paying attention to learning from foreign armies,performing timely importation,advocating independent innovation,overtaking and surpassing foreign armies in technology,performing civilian-military integration,storing military resources in civilian facilities,strengthening the construction of the foundation for military transport equipment,carrying out whole range of reforms,optimizing the configuration,strengthening the systematic integration,etc.,put forward.It is highly expected that they may give some inspiration to the construction of our military transport-supporting equipment.

  19. Natural photonics for industrial inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew R

    2009-05-13

    There are two considerations for optical biomimetics: the diversity of submicrometre architectures found in the natural world, and the industrial manufacture of these. A review exists on the latter subject, where current engineering methods are considered along with those of the natural cells. Here, on the other hand, I will provide a modern review of the different categories of reflectors and antireflectors found in animals, including their optical characterization. The purpose of this is to inspire designers within the $2 billion annual optics industry.

  20. A nanoscale bio-inspired light-harvesting system developed from self-assembled alkyl-functionalized metallochlorin nano-aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocakoglu, Kasim; Joya, Khurram S.; Harputlu, Ersan; Tarnowska, Anna; Gryko, Daniel T.

    2014-07-01

    Self-assembled supramolecular organization of nano-structured biomimetic light-harvesting modules inside solid-state nano-templates can be exploited to develop excellent light-harvesting materials for artificial photosynthetic devices. We present here a hybrid light-harvesting system mimicking the chlorosomal structures of the natural photosynthetic system using synthetic zinc chlorin units (ZnChl-C6, ZnChl-C12 and ZnChl-C18) that are self-aggregated inside the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nano-channel membranes. AAO nano-templates were modified with a TiO2 matrix and functionalized with long hydrophobic chains to facilitate the formation of supramolecular Zn-chlorin aggregates. The transparent Zn-chlorin nano-aggregates inside the alkyl-TiO2 modified AAO nano-channels have a diameter of ~120 nm in a 60 μm length channel. UV-Vis studies and fluorescence emission spectra further confirm the formation of the supramolecular ZnChl aggregates from monomer molecules inside the alkyl-functionalized nano-channels. Our results prove that the novel and unique method can be used to produce efficient and stable light-harvesting assemblies for effective solar energy capture through transparent and stable nano-channel ceramic materials modified with bio-mimetic molecular self-assembled nano-aggregates.Self-assembled supramolecular organization of nano-structured biomimetic light-harvesting modules inside solid-state nano-templates can be exploited to develop excellent light-harvesting materials for artificial photosynthetic devices. We present here a hybrid light-harvesting system mimicking the chlorosomal structures of the natural photosynthetic system using synthetic zinc chlorin units (ZnChl-C6, ZnChl-C12 and ZnChl-C18) that are self-aggregated inside the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nano-channel membranes. AAO nano-templates were modified with a TiO2 matrix and functionalized with long hydrophobic chains to facilitate the formation of supramolecular Zn-chlorin aggregates. The

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of the PEMFC catalyst layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongxing; CAO Pengzhen; WANG Yuxin

    2007-01-01

    The performance of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is greatly controlled by the structure of the catalyst layer.Low catalyst utilization is still a significant obstacle to the commercialization of the PEMFC.In order to get a fundamental understanding of the electrode structure and to find the limiting factor in the low catalyst utilization,it is necessary to develop the mechanical model on the effect of catalyst layer structure on the catalyst utilization and the performance of the PEMFC.In this work,the structure of the catalyst layer is studied based on the lattice model with the Monte Carlo simulation.The model can predict the effects of some catalyst layer components,such as Pt/C catalyst,electrolyte and gas pores,on the utilization of the catalyst and the cell performance.The simulation result shows that the aggregation of conduction grains can greatly affect the degree of catalyst utilization.The better the dispersion of the conduction grains,the larger the total effective area of the catalyst is.To achieve higher utilization,catalyst layer components must be distributed by means of engineered design,which can prevent aggregation.

  2. Aurelia aurita bio-inspired tilt sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Colin; Villanueva, Alex; Priya, Shashank

    2012-10-01

    The quickly expanding field of mobile robots, unmanned underwater vehicles, and micro-air vehicles urgently needs a cheap and effective means for measuring vehicle inclination. Commonly, tilt or inclination has been mathematically derived from accelerometers; however, there is inherent error in any indirect measurement. This paper reports a bio-inspired tilt sensor that mimics the natural balance organ of jellyfish, called the ‘statocyst’. Biological statocysts from the species Aurelia aurita were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the morphology and size of the natural sensor. An artificial tilt sensor was then developed by using printed electronics that incorporates a novel voltage divider concept in conjunction with small surface mount devices. This sensor was found to have minimum sensitivity of 4.21° with a standard deviation of 1.77°. These results open the possibility of developing elegant tilt sensor architecture for both air and water based platforms.

  3. Open Flexible Lifelong Learning As A Catalyst For 
Sustainable Development In Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    OLAKULEHIN, Felix Kayode

    2015-01-01

    Educational provision in developing sub-Saharan Africa states has been severely hindered by the hydra-headed problems of access, cost and quality. Amidst these challenges is the pledge of regional and national education policymakers and development planners to ensure that there is maximum access equitable and qualitative education for all (EFA) in Africa. There is also a burning need for improved literacy levels and functional education, in order to overcome the development deficits that are ...

  4. Development of Anthropology of Children and Certain Inspiration to Pedagogy%儿童人类学的发展及其教育启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱雨

    2011-01-01

    As a new branch of anthropology, anthropology of children had an uneven but lengthy history, with work oftencarried out under the rubrics of "Childhood Studies" or the "Anthropology of Childhoods. "' In this article, we introduced the work of Margaret Mead and Hardman. Now the anthropologists consider children as developing beings, in possession of agency, and to varying degrees vulnerable. They are also looking forward to having children' s voice in the social complex relationship. We have challenges and opportunities for the anthropological study of children and childhoods. How to welcome a real century of children and to inte~ate the study of children and childhood into our education will be a long term project in China.%儿童人类学是人类学的一个新兴分支,但人类学对儿童与童年的关注已经有相当漫长的历史。儿童人类学研究的核心是儿童与童年研究。本文梳理了儿童人类学的历史与发展现状,重点介绍了美国人类学家米德和哈德曼等人的观点。米德认为,20世纪最大的成就就是将对儿童本质的理解融入到对儿童的养护与教育中去。当代儿童人类学家承认儿童既是“脆弱的”,也是“主动的行动者”,并致力于在社会复杂的关系中寻找儿童的声音。如何迎接真正的“儿童的世纪”,将对儿童与童年的理解融入中国的儿童教育中去,这将是一个值得我们长期探索的课题。

  5. Bioinspired copper catalyst effective for both reduction and evolution of oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiong; Wang, Kang; Wang, Feng-Bin; Xia, Xing-Hua

    2014-10-01

    In many green electrochemical energy devices, the conversion between oxygen and water suffers from high potential loss due to the difficulty in decreasing activation energy. Overcoming this issue requires full understanding of global reactions and development of strategies in efficient catalyst design. Here we report an active copper nanocomposite, inspired by natural coordination environments of catalytic sites in an enzyme, which catalyzes oxygen reduction/evolution at potentials closely approaching standard potential. Such performances are related to the imperfect coordination configuration of the copper(II) active site whose electron density is tuned by neighbouring copper(0) and nitrogen ligands incorporated in graphene. The electron transfer number of oxygen reduction is estimated by monitoring the redox of hydrogen peroxide, which is determined by the overpotential and electrolyte pH. An in situ fluorescence spectroelectrochemistry reveals that hydroxyl radical is the common intermediate for the electrochemical conversion between oxygen and water.

  6. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  7. Clay Corner: Italian Inspiration...An Interview with Susan Snyder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Harriet

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Susan Snyder, a ceramic artist who produces pottery inspired by Italian designs from the 13th to 18th centuries. Presents her discussion of topics such as her development as an artist, techniques used when creating her art, and her thoughts on the importance of art education. (CMK)

  8. Inspiring Academics to Engage in Collegial Socialization: Pedagogical Provocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuka, Heather; Braga, John

    2011-01-01

    Academics who engage in collegial socialization can benefit in a variety of ways. The challenge, however, is creating a culture which inspires, within a voluntary model, academics to participate in such activities. Teaching development programs have tended to focus on teaching competencies and problem areas through offerings of workshops. It has…

  9. In the Zone: Vygotskian-Inspired Pedagogy for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Cosette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Lev Vygotsky's (1978) Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) provides inspiration for a teaching approach for sustainability in a social science discipline, where students often lack or have widely varied levels of foundational understanding. This qualitative case study describes intellectual processes and aspects of the educational…

  10. Catalyst and process development for hydrogen preparation from future fuel cell feedstocks. Quarterly report, April 1-June 30, 1980. [Pt/Pd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarrington, R M; Feins, I R; Hwang, H S

    1980-07-01

    Phase II of the contract, which involved catalyst preparation and evaluation, was nearly completed this quarter. Phase III, which calls for the design and construction of a fuel processor, was started. During the quarter, four types of tests were run on the small scale catalyst screening unit. The operating line for coke-free operations was found to be approximately between 0.41 to 0.44 O/sub 2//C level. Screening at lower O/sub 2//C levels led to problems with plugging. In other tests, increased severity for screening steam reforming catalysts was obtained by doubling the space velocity. Another series of tests were run to determine the gas composition from the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) section and to evaluate two CPO catalysts. In the other series of tests, catalysts were aged for about 20 hours using a propane, steam, and air mixture before testing with No. 2 oil for another five hours. This latter test has been used to study Pt/Rh catalysts made with various supports. Differences were readily determined for Pt/Rh supported on alpha alumina and Pt/Rh supported on stabilized alumina. This test method will find continued use in evaluating metal-support interactions. Several samples must be evaluated by this method before aging runs are made in the larger unit. After leaching alumina from a used Pt/Rh catalyst, the x-ray diffraction pattern showed the presence of a Pt-Rh alloy in the metal residue. Experiments were run to show that the alloy was formed in the reactor during testing and not during catalyst preparation. A larger version of the ATR reactor has been designed and major components are on order. Completion of the construction phase is scheduled for the next quarter.

  11. Nanostructured hydrotreating catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Guio, Carlos G; Stern, Lucas-Alexandre; Hu, Xile

    2014-09-21

    Progress in catalysis is driven by society's needs. The development of new electrocatalysts to make renewable and clean fuels from abundant and easily accessible resources is among the most challenging and demanding tasks for today's scientists and engineers. The electrochemical splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen has been known for over 200 years, but in the last decade and motivated by the perspective of solar hydrogen production, new catalysts made of earth-abundant materials have emerged. Here we present an overview of recent developments in the non-noble metal catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Emphasis is given to the nanostructuring of industrially relevant hydrotreating catalysts as potential HER electrocatalysts. The new syntheses and nanostructuring approaches might pave the way for future development of highly efficient catalysts for energy conversion.

  12. Ceramic catalyst materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sault, A.G.; Gardner, T.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanprasopwattanna, A.; Reardon, J.; Datye, A.K. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) ion-exchange materials show great potential as ceramic catalyst supports due to an inherently high ion-exchange capacity which allows facile loading of catalytically active transition metal ions, and an ability to be cast as thin films on virtually any substrate. By coating titania and HTO materials onto inexpensive, high surface area substrates such as silica and alumina, the economics of using these materials is greatly improved, particularly for the HTO materials, which are substantially more expensive in the bulk form than other oxide supports. In addition, the development of thin film forms of these materials allows the catalytic and mechanical properties of the final catalyst formulation to be separately engineered. In order to fully realize the potential of thin film forms of titania and HTO, improved methods for the deposition and characterization of titania and HTO films on high surface area substrates are being developed. By varying deposition procedures, titania film thickness and substrate coverage can be varied from the submonolayer range to multilayer thicknesses on both silica and alumina. HTO films can also be formed, but the quality and reproducibility of these films is not nearly as good as for pure titania films. The films are characterized using a combination of isopropanol dehydration rate measurements, point of zero charge (PZC) measurements, BET surface area, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and elemental analysis. In order to assess the effects of changes in film morphology on catalytic activity, the films are being loaded with MoO{sub 3} using either incipient wetness impregnation or ion-exchange of heptamolybdate anions followed by calcining. The MoO{sub 3} is then sulfided to form MOS{sub 2}, and tested for catalytic activity using pyrene hydrogenation and dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulfurization, model reactions that simulate reactions occurring during coal liquefaction.

  13. LC-finer catalyst testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D.; Bronfenbrenner, J.C.

    1983-09-01

    The activity and aging rate of modified Shell 324 Ni-Mo-Al catalyst were studied in ICRC's process development unit (PDU) under SRC-I Demonstration Plant hydroprocessing conditions. The studies determined variations in SRC conversion, hydrocarbon gas production, hydrogen consumption, and heteroatom removal at both constant and increasing reaction temperatures. Samples of spent catalyst were analyzed to ascertain the reasons for catalyst deactivation. Finally, the PDU hydroprocessing results were compared with those generated at Lummus and Wilsonville pilot plants. 14 references, 25 figures, 16 tables.

  14. Process development for the separation and recovery of Mo and Co from chloride leach liquors of petroleum refining catalyst by solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Raju; Sohn, Seong Ho; Lee, Man Seung

    2012-04-30

    The separation and recovery of Mo and Co from the synthetic chloride leach liquors of petroleum refining catalyst has been investigated by employing TOPO and Alamine 308 as extractants. The synthetic leach liquor contained Mo 394 mg/L, Al 1782 mg/L, Co 119 mg/L in 3 M HCl. The separation of Mo from Co and Al was achieved with 0.05 M TOPO in Escaid 110 and complete stripping of Mo was attained with combination of 0.1M NH(4)OH and 0.05 M (NH(4))(2)CO(3). After separation of molybdenum, cobalt can be selectively extracted by Alamine 308 from Mo free raffinate after adjusting the concentration of chloride ion to 5 M by adding AlCl(3). The back-extraction of cobalt was obtained easily from loaded Alamine 308 with acidified water (pH=1.0). McCabe-Thiele diagrams were constructed from the extraction and stripping experiments of each element (Mo and Co). From the batch simulation of the counter-current extraction and stripping experiments, it was confirmed that Mo and Co recovery of 99.4% and 99.1% respectively was obtained from the synthetic leach liquor of the chloride solutions. Finally a hydrometallurgical process flow sheet was developed.

  15. Highly Durable Catalysts for Ignition of Advanced Monopropellants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed SBIR Phase I addresses the development of catalysts and technology for the ignition of advanced monopropellants consisting of mixtures of...

  16. 气象科技发展历程的若干回顾及启示%Some Reviews and Inspirations on the Development of Meteorological Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许小峰; 张萌

    2014-01-01

    探索大气层及其演变规律,科学预测其发展变化趋势,是人类适应环境、趋利避害的必然选择。在回顾大气科学发展史多个关键事件的基础上,通过分析气象学界著名的挪威学派、芝加哥学派产生和发展情况及近代中国气象学者对于大气科学学科发展所做出的贡献,以此来探讨大气科学发展史对于当代大气科学发展的启示,即:大气科学的发展依赖于自然科学和技术的最新成果,同时又与其他学科相互促进、协同发展;在大气科学学科发展过程中应宽容不同意见,不迷信神话和权威;大气科学学科的兴盛离不开领军人才。%In order to adapt to the environment and avoid disadvantages, human beings must keep exploring the atmosphere and its evolution rules, predicting its trends of change scientiifcally. Seeking the inspiration of atmospheric science history for the present, this paper reviews some key events in the history of atmospheric science by analyzing the development of the Bergen School and Chicago School of Meteorology, and putting forward the contributions of Chinese meteorologists in modern times. This paper sums up some viewpoints. The development of atmospheric science depends on the latest achievements of natural sciences, and it also contributes to the development of other subjects. With the development of atmospheric science, one should be tolerant to different viewpoints and not be superstitious to authority. And the leading talents are quite essential for the development of atmospheric science.

  17. Sensing Structures Inspired by Blind Cave Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Michael E.; Chen, Nannan; Lu, David; Anderson, Kyle D.; Hu, Huan; Liu, Chang; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-03-01

    Blind cave fish, with degenerated non-functioning eyes, have evolved to ``see'' their hydrodynamic environment by using the flow receptors of the lateral line system. The hair-cell receptors are encapsulated in a hydrogel-like material, called a cupula, which increases the sensitivity of the hair-cell receptors by coupling their motion to the surrounding flowing media. We characterized the viscoelastic properties and of blind cave fish cupulae by using colloidal-probe spectroscopy in fluid. A photo-patternable hydrogel with similar properties was developed to mimic the fish receptor coupling structure. Flow-based measurements indicated that the hydrogels enhance drag through increased surface area, but also inherent material properties. These bio-inspired structures endowed micro-fabricated flow sensors with sensitivities rivaling that of fish.

  18. Bio-inspired odor-based navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maynard J., III; Vasquez, Juan R.

    2006-05-01

    The ability of many insects, especially moths, to locate either food or a member of the opposite sex is an amazing achievement. There are numerous scenarios where having this ability embedded into ground-based or aerial vehicles would be invaluable. This paper presents results from a 3-D computer simulation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) autonomously tracking a chemical plume to its source. The simulation study includes a simulated dynamic chemical plume, 6-degree of freedom, nonlinear aircraft model, and a bio-inspired navigation algorithm. The emphasis of this paper is the development and analysis of the navigation algorithm. The foundation of this algorithm is a fuzzy controller designed to categorize where in the plume the aircraft is located: coming into the plume, in the plume, exiting the plume, or out of the plume.

  19. Bio-inspired Ant Algorithms: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Roy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ant Algorithms are techniques for optimizing which were coined in the early 1990’s by M. Dorigo. The techniques were inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants in the nature. The focus of ant algorithms is to find approximate optimized problem solutions using artificial ants and their indirect decentralized communications using synthetic pheromones. In this paper, at first ant algorithms are described in details, then transforms to computational optimization techniques: the ACO metaheuristics and developed ACO algorithms. A comparative study of ant algorithms also carried out, followed by past and present trends in AAs applications. Future prospect in AAs also covered in this paper. Finally a comparison between AAs with well-established machine learning techniques were focused, so that combining with machine learning techniques hybrid, robust, novel algorithms could be produces for outstanding result in future.

  20. Consonance and Dissonance in a Study Abroad Program as a Catalyst for Professional Development of Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindley, Roger; Quinn, Suzanne; Morton, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    This research examines the experiences of elementary and early childhood pre-service teachers from the U.S. engaged in a month long study abroad internship program in England. Using data from participants written journals, we use a hermeneutic approach to interrogate their evolving sense of professional development and their understanding of…

  1. Privatization and economic liberalization: the role of the entrepreneur as a catalyst for economic development in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibrell, Clay; Danskin Englis, Paula; Kedia, Ben L.; Lakatos, Gergo M.

    2008-01-01

    Many nations with transition economies are attempting to develop their national competitiveness through such processes as privatisation of state owned enterprises (SOEs) and/or the use of economic liberalisation (e.g. lessening of tariffs, industry regulations, etc.) to spur economic growth and deve

  2. 美国大学服务学习对中国高等教育的启示%The Student Service-Based Learning Developed in American Universities and Its Inspiration for China Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟可心

    2012-01-01

    摘要:美国大学除了具备教学和科研基础功能外,服务社会已成为其第三大核心功能。而在美国大学的服务学习作为一种教育方法,能够帮助和促进学生的学习和成长,在培养具有知识和技能、分析能力和合作水平以及社会责任感的合格公民方面发挥着重要的作用。美国大学服务学习对中国大学毕业生就业、课堂教学,以及对高等学校思想政治教育提供了借鉴作用和有益启示。%Abstract: In America, apart from basic teaching and research functions, service-based learning has become the third core function of its higher education. Service-based learning, as a method of teaching and learning can assist students with learning and promote their growth. Also, the service-based learning plays an important role in cultivating the eligible citizens with knowledge, skill, analytic ability, cooperative spirit and a sense of social responsibility. Moreover, the service-based learning developed in American universities is thought to be possessed of referable value for the current Chinese higher education reform and able to inspire the work done by the Chinese universities, such as graduate employment, classroom teaching, ideological and political education, etc.

  3. Alloy catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...

  4. Catalyst for Ammonia Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation, a method for producing a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation and a method for tuning the catalytic activity of a transition metal. By depositing an overlayer of less catalytic active metal onto a more catalytic...

  5. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  6. Magnetic catalyst bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, Wendy; Bol, A.A.; Geus, John W.

    2001-01-01

    After a discussion about the importance of the size of the catalyst bodies with reactions in the liquid-phase with a suspended catalyst, the possibilities of magnetic separation are dealt with. Deficiencies of the usual ferromagnetic particles are the reactivity and the clustering of the particles.

  7. Carbon-based catalysts:Opening new scenario to develop next-generation nano-engineered catalytic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudio Ampelli; Siglinda Perathoner; Gabriele Centi

    2014-01-01

    This essay analyses some of the recent development in nanocarbons (carbon materials having a defined and controlled nano-scale dimension and functional properties which strongly depend on their nano-scale features and architecture), with reference to their use as advanced catalytic materials. It is remarked how their features open new possibilities for catalysis and that they represent a new class of catalytic materials. Although carbon is used from long time in catalysis as support and electrocatalytic applications, nanocarbons offer unconventional ways for their utilization and to address some of the new challenges deriving from moving to a more sustainable future. This essay comments how nanocarbons are a key element to develop next-generation catalytic materials, but remarking that this goal requires overcoming some of the actual limits in current research. Some aspects are discussed to give a glimpse on new directions and needs for R&D to progress in this direction.

  8. An Experimental Program in the Development of Musical Literacy among Musically Gifted Children in the Upper Elementary Grades with Emphasis on the Potential Impact of Kodaly-Inspired Musical Education. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, Alexander L.

    A project is presented in which 10 American music teachers studied the Zoltan Kodaly teaching approach to musical literacy in Hungarian primary schools, helped adapt American musical materials to be used in a Kodaly-inspired teaching program in the United States, and tested these methods and materials in selected American elementary schools. The…

  9. [Nikola Tesla: flashes of inspiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo-Galende, Albero; Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro

    2013-01-16

    Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions.

  10. Collide@CERN: sharing inspiration

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Late last year, Julius von Bismarck was appointed to be CERN's first "artist in residence" after winning the Collide@CERN Digital Arts award. He’ll be spending two months at CERN starting this March but, to get a flavour of what’s in store, he visited the Organization last week for a crash course in its inspiring activities.   Julius von Bismarck, taking a closer look... When we arrive to interview German artist Julius von Bismarck, he’s being given a presentation about antiprotons’ ability to kill cancer cells. The whiteboard in the room contains graphs and equations that might easily send a non-scientist running, yet as Julius puts it, “if I weren’t interested, I’d be asleep”. Given his numerous questions, he must have been fascinated. “This ‘introduction’ week has been exhilarating,” says Julius. “I’ve been able to interact ...

  11. How Agile Methods Inspire Project Management - The Half Double Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tordrup Heeager, Lise; Svejvig, Per; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    Increased complexity in projects has forced new project management initiatives. In software development several agile methods have emerged and are today highly implemented in practice. Observations of general project management practice show how it has been inspired by agile software development......, but very little research addresses the issue of agile project management. In order to understand and to provide suggestions for future practice on how agility can be incorporated in general project management, this paper provides an analysis which compares ten characteristics of agile software development...... (identified in theory) and the Half Double Methodology developed by the Danish Project Half Double initiative; a Methodology developed with practitioners and tested in seven Danish case companies. The analysis shows how the general project management to a great extent has been inspired by agile methods...

  12. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  13. Decrypting SO(10-inspired leptogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Di Bari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Encouraged by the recent results from neutrino oscillation experiments, we perform an analytical study of SO(10-inspired models and leptogenesis with hierarchical right-handed (RH neutrino spectrum. Under the approximation of negligible misalignment between the neutrino Yukawa basis and the charged lepton basis, we find an analytical expression for the final asymmetry directly in terms of the low energy neutrino parameters that fully reproduces previous numerical results. This expression also shows that it is possible to identify an effective leptogenesis phase for these models. When we also impose the wash-out of a large pre-existing asymmetry NB−Lp,i, the strong thermal (ST condition, we derive analytically all those constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters that characterise the ST-SO(10-inspired leptogenesis solution, confirming previous numerical results. In particular we show why, though neutrino masses have to be necessarily normally ordered, the solution implies an analytical lower bound on the effective neutrino-less double beta decay neutrino mass, mee≳8 meV, for NB−Lp,i=10−3, testable with next generation experiments. This, in combination with an upper bound on the atmospheric mixing angle, necessarily in the first octant, forces the lightest neutrino mass within a narrow range m1≃(10–30 meV (corresponding to ∑imi≃(75–125 meV. We also show why the solution could correctly predict a non-vanishing reactor neutrino mixing angle and requires the Dirac phase to be in the fourth quadrant, implying sin⁡δ (and JCP negative as hinted by current global analyses. Many of the analytical results presented (expressions for the orthogonal matrix, RH neutrino mixing matrix, masses and phases can have applications beyond leptogenesis.

  14. Bio-inspired routes for synthesizing efficient nanoscale platinum electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jennifer N. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Wang, Joseph [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to use fundamental advances in bionanotechnology to design powerful platinum nanocrystal electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. The new economically-viable, environmentally-friendly, bottom-up biochemical synthetic strategy will produce platinum nanocrystals with tailored size, shape and crystal orientation, hence leading to a maximum electrochemical reactivity. There are five specific aims to the proposed bio-inspired strategy for synthesizing efficient electrocatalytic platinum nanocrystals: (1) isolate peptides that both selectively bind particular crystal faces of platinum and promote the nucleation and growth of particular nanocrystal morphologies, (2) pattern nanoscale 2-dimensional arrays of platinum nucleating peptides from DNA scaffolds, (3) investigate the combined use of substrate patterned peptides and soluble peptides on nanocrystal morphology and growth (4) synthesize platinum crystals on planar and large-area carbon electrode supports, and (5) perform detailed characterization of the electrocatalytic behavior as a function of catalyst size, shape and morphology. Project Description and Impact: This bio-inspired collaborative research effort will address key challenges in designing powerful electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications by employing nucleic acid scaffolds in combination with peptides to perform specific, environmentally-friendly, simultaneous bottom-up biochemical synthesis and patterned assembly of highly uniform and efficient platinum nanocrystal catalysts. Bulk synthesis of nanoparticles usually produces a range of sizes, accessible catalytic sites, crystal morphologies, and orientations, all of which lead to inconsistent catalytic activities. In contrast, biological systems routinely demonstrate exquisite control over inorganic syntheses at neutral pH and ambient temperature and pressures. Because the orientation and arrangement of the templating biomolecules can be precisely

  15. Mechanistic studies aimed at the development of single site metal alkoxide catalysts for the production of polyoxygenates from renewable resources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Malcolm H. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The work proposed herein follows on directly from the existing 3 year grant and the request for funding is for 12 months to allow completion of this work and graduation of current students supported by DOE. The three primary projects are as follows. 1.) A comparative study of the reactivity of LMg(OR) (solvent), where L= a β-diiminate or pyrromethene ligand, in the ring-opening of cyclic esters. 2.) The homopolymerization of expoxides, particularly propylene oxide and styrene oxide, and their copolymerizations with carbon dioxide or organic anhydrides to yield polycarbonates or polyesters, respectively. 3.) The development of well-defined bismuth (III) complexes for ring-opening polymerizations that are tolerant of both air and water. In each of these topics special emphasis is placed on developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of the ring-opening event and how this is modified by the employment of specific metal and ligand combinations. This document also provides a report on findings of the past grant period that are not yet in the public domain/published and shows how the proposed work will bring the original project to conclusion.

  16. Fish-inspired robots: design, sensing, actuation, and autonomy--a review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Aditi; Thakur, Atul

    2016-04-13

    Underwater robot designs inspired by the behavior, physiology, and anatomy of fishes can provide enhanced maneuverability, stealth, and energy efficiency. Over the last two decades, robotics researchers have developed and reported a large variety of fish-inspired robot designs. The purpose of this review is to report different types of fish-inspired robot designs based upon their intended locomotion patterns. We present a detailed comparison of various design features like sensing, actuation, autonomy, waterproofing, and morphological structure of fish-inspired robots reported in the past decade. We believe that by studying the existing robots, future designers will be able to create new designs by adopting features from the successful robots. The review also summarizes the open research issues that need to be taken up for the further advancement of the field and also for the deployment of fish-inspired robots in practice.

  17. Idea of environmental catalyst and its application; Kankyo shokubai no hasso to sono riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inumaru, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-20

    The catalyst creating environmental conservation and comfortable environment is generally named an `environmental catalyst (EC).` EC is roughly classified into direct and indirect type ECs. Purification catalysts for automobile exhaust gas, and catalysts for chemical production process are under investigation as direct and indirect type ECs, respectively. The catalyst was found which can remove NOx under the coexistence of oxygen by using hydrocarbon as reductant. In addition, the practical exhaust gas purification catalyst was also developed for lean-burn engines by combining noble metal catalysts with NOx absorbing materials or zeolite superior in reductant adsorbing power. {epsilon}-caprolactam as raw material of nylon 6 is synthesized from cyclohexanoneoxime through Beckmann` rearrangement reaction. Zeolite system solid catalysts using no ammonia are under investigation. An environment-friendly synthesis method using not phosgene but catalyst was proposed for production of dimethyl carbonate. How to utilize catalysts for global material circulation remains unsolved for the future study. 5 refs.

  18. Catalysts, methods of making catalysts, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Renard, Laetitia

    2014-03-06

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for catalysts, methods of making catalysts, methods of using catalysts, and the like. In an embodiment, the method of making the catalysts can be performed in a single step with a metal nanoparticle precursor and a metal oxide precursor, where a separate stabilizing agent is not needed.

  19. Bio-inspired nano tools for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suradip; Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Fawcett, James W; Bora, Utpal

    2016-07-01

    Research and treatment in the nervous system is challenged by many physiological barriers posing a major hurdle for neurologists. The CNS is protected by a formidable blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits surgical, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. The hostile environment created by reactive astrocytes in the CNS along with the limited regeneration capacity of the PNS makes functional recovery after tissue damage difficult and inefficient. Nanomaterials have the unique ability to interface with neural tissue in the nano-scale and are capable of influencing the function of a single neuron. The ability of nanoparticles to transcend the BBB through surface modifications has been exploited in various neuro-imaging techniques and for targeted drug delivery. The tunable topography of nanofibers provides accurate spatio-temporal guidance to regenerating axons. This review is an attempt to comprehend the progress in understanding the obstacles posed by the complex physiology of the nervous system and the innovations in design and fabrication of advanced nanomaterials drawing inspiration from natural phenomenon. We also discuss the development of nanomaterials for use in Neuro-diagnostics, Neuro-therapy and the fabrication of advanced nano-devices for use in opto-electronic and ultrasensitive electrophysiological applications. The energy efficient and parallel computing ability of the human brain has inspired the design of advanced nanotechnology based computational systems. However, extensive use of nanomaterials in neuroscience also raises serious toxicity issues as well as ethical concerns regarding nano implants in the brain. In conclusion we summarize these challenges and provide an insight into the huge potential of nanotechnology platforms in neuroscience.

  20. From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2010-10-01

    The conference 'From DNA-Inspired Physics to Physics-Inspired Biology' (1-5 June 2009, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy) that myself and two former presidents of the American Biophysical Society—Wilma Olson (Rutgers University) and Adrian Parsegian (NIH), with the support of an ICTP team (Ralf Gebauer (Local Organizer) and Doreen Sauleek (Conference Secretary)), have organized was intended to establish stronger links between the biology and physics communities on the DNA front. The relationships between them were never easy. In 1997, Adrian published a paper in Physics Today ('Harness the Hubris') summarizing his thoughts about the main obstacles for a successful collaboration. The bottom line of that article was that physicists must seriously learn biology before exploring it and even having an interpreter, a friend or co-worker, who will be cooperating with you and translating the problems of biology into a physical language, may not be enough. He started his story with a joke about a physicist asking a biologist: 'I want to study the brain. Tell me something about it!' Biologist: 'First, the brain consists of two parts, and..' Physicist: 'Stop. You have told me too much.' Adrian listed a few direct avenues where physicists' contributions may be particularly welcome. This gentle and elegantly written paper caused, however, a stormy reaction from Bob Austin (Princeton), published together with Adrian's notes, accusing Adrian of forbidding physicists to attack big questions in biology straightaway. Twelve years have passed and many new developments have taken place in the biologist-physicist interaction. This was something I addressed in my opening conference speech, with my position lying somewhere inbetween Parsegian's and Austin's, which is briefly outlined here. I will first recall certain precepts or 'dogmas' that fly in the air like Valkyries, poisoning those relationships. Since the early seventies when I was a first year Ph

  1. Synthesis and Understanding of Novel Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stair, Peter C. [Northwestern University

    2013-07-09

    The research took advantage of our capabilities to perform in-situ and operando Raman spectroscopy on complex systems along with our developing expertise in the synthesis of uniform, supported metal oxide materials to investigate relationships between the catalytically active oxide composition, atomic structure, and support and the corresponding chemical and catalytic properties. The project was organized into two efforts: 1) Synthesis of novel catalyst materials by atomic layer deposition (ALD). 2) Spectroscopic and chemical investigations of coke formation and catalyst deactivation. ALD synthesis was combined with conventional physical characterization, Raman spectroscopy, and probe molecule chemisorption to study the effect of supported metal oxide composition and atomic structure on acid-base and catalytic properties. Operando Raman spectroscopy studies of olefin polymerization leading to coke formation and catalyst deactivation clarified the mechanism of coke formation by acid catalysts.

  2. A Drone with Insect-Inspired Folding Wings

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, Louis; Owen, Kevin; Mintchev, Stefano; Floreano, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Flying robots are increasingly adopted in search and rescue missions because of their capability to quickly collect and stream information from remote and dangerous areas. To further enhance their use, we are investigating the development of a new class of drones, foldable sensorized hubs that can quickly take off from rescuers’ hands as soon as they are taken out of a pocket or a backpack. With this aim, this paper presents the development of a foldable wing inspired by insects. The wing can...

  3. 日本民族传统体育发展中的国民性解读与启示%An interpretation of the national characteristics of and inspirations from the development of Japanese traditional national sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐旭

    2015-01-01

    日本是东方社会中保存和发展民族文化较好的国家,民族传统体育发展与其国民特质密切相关,即集体主义下“无我意识”是传统体育的推广与保护的群众基础、国民现实性与包容性特征是推广的精神基础、侧重精神育化是其现代化的核心驱动力、“情义观”与“名誉观”使得日本体育机构在保护和推广民族传统体育时不遗余力,以及岛国本土意识为传统体育提供生存土壤。从中可得到制度实施的有效性、传统体育精神的提升与理论化等启示。%Among oriental societies, Japan is a country that preserves and develops national culture better;the de-velopment of its traditional national sports is closely related to its national characteristics, i.e. the“no ego aware-ness”under collectivism is the mass foundation for the popularization and protection of traditional sports, the inclu-sive characteristic is the spiritual foundation for popularization, highlighting spiritual cultivation is its core driving force for modernization, the“close feeling view”and“honor view”make Japanese sports organizations spare no ef-fect to protect and popularize traditional national sports, and the native island country awareness provides the soil for the survival of traditional sports. Inspirations gotten therefrom include the effectiveness of system implementa-tion, the promotion and theorization of traditional sports spirit etc.

  4. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  5. Development of new heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition of methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide applying high throughput methods; Entwicklung neuer heterogener Katalysatoren zur Spaltung von Methanol in Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid mittels Hochdurchsatz-Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Torsten

    2008-07-11

    The topic of this thesis has been the development of new heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition of methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. As an important constraint here, the content of noble metals of the catalysts should be as low as possible. High-throughput-methods were applied in some of the syntheses and experiments to accelerate the development, as, for example, the use of liquid based sol-gel syntheses and the examination of catalyst libraries by spatial resolution gas chromatography. This screening technique allowed to test up to 207 different substances during one single experiment. Then, different combinatorial strategies were applied. First, these methods led to a highly active and stable catalyst in the ternary system of Cu-Ni-Zn, which showed high conversion and selectivity comparable to an industrial reference catalyst. Its activity during an 18 hour long term run was constant in contrast to the reference. Second, an additional approach starting from a broader variety of elements led to a Ce- Ru- and to a Cr-Ru-catalyst. Both of them were highly active in short term experiments, but lost their outstanding performances during long term runs. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit befasste sich mit der Entwicklung neuer heterogener Katalysatoren fuer die Spaltung von Methanol zu Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid, die einen moeglichst geringen Gehalt an Edelmetallen aufweisen sollten. Um diesen Prozess zu beschleunigen, wurden in einem Teil der Synthesen und Experimente Hochdurchsatzmethoden verwendet. Neben der Roboter gestuetzten Sol-Gel-Synthese umfasste dies die Untersuchung von Katalysatorbibliotheken mittels ortsaufgeloester Gaschromatographie, die es ermoeglichte, in einem Experiment bis zu 207 verschiedene Substanzen auf ihre katalytische Aktivitaet zu testen. Unter Anwendung verschiedener kombinatorischer Strategien wurde zunaechst ein sehr aktiver und stabiler Katalysator im ternaeren Cu-Ni-Zn-System entdeckt. Neben Umsaetzen und

  6. Carbon-based metal-free catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xien; Dai, Liming

    2016-11-01

    Metals and metal oxides are widely used as catalysts for materials production, clean energy generation and storage, and many other important industrial processes. However, metal-based catalysts suffer from high cost, low selectivity, poor durability, susceptibility to gas poisoning and have a detrimental environmental impact. In 2009, a new class of catalyst based on earth-abundant carbon materials was discovered as an efficient, low-cost, metal-free alternative to platinum for oxygen reduction in fuel cells. Since then, tremendous progress has been made, and carbon-based metal-free catalysts have been demonstrated to be effective for an increasing number of catalytic processes. This Review provides a critical overview of this rapidly developing field, including the molecular design of efficient carbon-based metal-free catalysts, with special emphasis on heteroatom-doped carbon nanotubes and graphene. We also discuss recent advances in the development of carbon-based metal-free catalysts for clean energy conversion and storage, environmental protection and important industrial production, and outline the key challenges and future opportunities in this exciting field.

  7. ALKALI RESISTANT CATALYST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention concerns the selective removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from gasses. In particular, the invention concerns a process, a catalyst and the use of a catalyst for the selective removal of nitrogen oxides in the presence of ammonia from gases containing a significant amount...... of alkali metal and/or alkali-earth compounds which process comprises using a catalyst combined of (i) a formed porous superacidic support, said superacidic support having an Hammett acidity stronger than Ho=-12, and (ii) a metal oxide catalytic component deposited on said superacidic support selected from...

  8. Biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Surbhi; Arora, Ajay K; Badoni, Rajendra P; Tuli, Deepak K

    2011-02-01

    The production and use of biodiesel has seen a quantum jump in the recent past due to benefits associated with its ability to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG). There are large number of commercial plants producing biodiesel by transesterification of vegetable oils and fats based on base catalyzed (caustic) homogeneous transesterification of oils. However, homogeneous process needs steps of glycerol separation, washings, very stringent and extremely low limits of Na, K, glycerides and moisture limits in biodiesel. Heterogeneous catalyzed production of biodiesel has emerged as a preferred route as it is environmentally benign needs no water washing and product separation is much easier. The present report is review of the progress made in development of heterogeneous catalysts suitable for biodiesel production. This review shall help in selection of suitable catalysts and the optimum conditions for biodiesel production.

  9. Biologically inspired robots as artificial inspectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2002-06-01

    Imagine an inspector conducting an NDE on an aircraft where you notice something is different about him - he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your first reaction would probably be to say 'it's unbelievable but he looks real' just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. This science fiction scenario could become a reality at the trend in the development of biologically inspired technologies, and terms like artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. For many years, the trend has been to automate processes in order to increase the efficiency of performing redundant tasks where various systems have been developed to deal with specific production line requirements. Realizing that some parts are too complex or delicate to handle in small quantities with a simple automatic system, robotic mechanisms were developed. Aircraft inspection has benefitted from this evolving technology where manipulators and crawlers are developed for rapid and reliable inspection. Advancement in robotics towards making them autonomous and possibly look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures that are beyond the capability of today's technology with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of these robots may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Making such robots is becoming increasingly feasible and in this paper the state of the art will be reviewed.

  10. Bio-Inspired Autonomous Communications Systems with Anomaly Detection Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate BioComm, a bio-inspired autonomous communications system (ACS) aimed at dynamically reconfiguring and redeploying autonomous...

  11. Fracture Mechanics: Inspirations from Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Taylor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Nature there are many examples of materials performing structural functions. Nature requires materials which are stiff and strong to provide support against various forces, including self-weight, the dynamic forces involved in movement, and external loads such as wind or the actions of a predator. These materials and structures have evolved over millions of years; the science of Biomimetics seeks to understand Nature and, as a result, to find inspiration for the creation of better engineering solutions. There has been relatively little fundamental research work in this area from a fracture mechanics point of view. Natural materials are quite brittle and, as a result, they have evolved several interesting strategies for preventing failure by crack propagation. Fatigue is also a major problem for many animals and plants. In this paper, several examples will be given of recent work in the Bioengineering Research Centre at Trinity College Dublin, investigating fracture and fatigue in such diverse materials as bamboo, the legs and wings of insects, and living cells.

  12. Nature Inspired Hay Fever Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei P.Sommer; Dan Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The survival oriented adaptation of evolved biosystems to variations in their environment is a selective optimization process. Recognizing the optimised end product and its functionality is the classical arena of bionic engineering. In a primordial world, however, the molecular organization and functions of prebiotic systems were solely defined by formative processes in their physical and chemical environment, for instance, the interplay between interracial water layers on surfaces and solar light. The formative potential of the interplay between light (laser light) and interfacial water layers on surfaces was recently exploited in the formation of supercubane carbon nanocrystals. In evolved biosystems the formative potential of interracial water layers can still be activated by light. Here we report a case of hay fever, which was successfully treated in the course of a facial reju-venation program starting in November 2007. Targeting primarily interfacial water layers on elastin fibres in the wrinkled areas, we presumably also activated mast cells in the nasal mucosa, reported to progressively decrease in the nasal mucosa of the rabbit, when frequently irradiated. Hay fever is induced by the release of mediators, especially histamine, a process associated with the degranulation of mast cells. Decrease in mast cells numbers implies a decrease in the release of histamine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the treatment of hay fever with visible light. This approach was inspired by bionic thinking, and could help ameliorating the condition of millions of people suffering from hay fever world wide.

  13. Inspired at a book fair

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    During the Frankfurt book fair last October, the CERN stand drew quite the crowd. Director-General Rolf Heuer was there to promote CERN’s mission and the "LHC: the Large Hadron Collider" book. He met a lot of visitors and for one of them there was also a nice follow-up…   Marcus and his father visiting the LINAC facility. Fifteen year-old Marcus lives in Lauterecken near Frankfurt. The popular book fair last autumn was for him a nice opportunity to get in touch with the CERN environment. Inspired by the stand and what the CERN people were describing, he started to ask more and more questions… So many, that Rolf Heuer decided to invite him to come to CERN and find out some of the answers for himself. A few weeks later, while recovering from an exciting visit to the ATLAS underground cavern and other CERN installations with a cup of tea in Restaurant 1, Marcus shared his enthusiasm about the Organization: “When I was younger, my moth...

  14. La maturità di INSPIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Salvemini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INPIRE's maturityThe INSPIRE Conference 2010 took place from 23 to 25 June 2010 in Kraków, Poland. On 22 June pre-conference workshops have been organized. The theme of this year’s edition has been "INSPIRE as a Framework for Cooperation".The INSPIRE Conference has been organised through a series of plenary sessions addressing common policy issues, and parallel sessions focusing in particular on applications and implementations of SDIs, research issues and new and evolvingtechnologies and applications and poster presentations.

  15. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Sopchak, David A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Reynolds, John G.; Satcher, Joseph H.; Gash, Alex E.

    2010-06-29

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  16. Epoxidation catalyst and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip

    2010-10-26

    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  17. New Catalysts for ROMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Berke; C. Frech; A. Lhamazares; O. Blacque; H.W. Schmalle; C. Adlhart; P. Chen

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) is based on the olefin metathesis reaction, which requires transition metal catalysts. Mainly molybdenum, tungsten and ruthenium based catalysts have up to now been used. The "in-between" metal rhenium was only rarely applied in olefin metathesis reactions, and not at all in ROMP processes.We have found that cationic phosphine substituted dinitrosyl rhenium complexes[1]1a and 1b effectively catalyze ROMP of norbonene, dicyclopentadiene and of cyclooctene. See Fig. 1.

  18. Efficient Catalyst One-Pot Synthesis of 7-(Aryl-10,10-dimethyl-10,11-dihydrochromeno[4,3-b]chromene-6,8(7H,9H-dione Derivatives Complemented by Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasameen K. Al-Majedy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of bacteria resistance to many known agents has inspired scientists and researchers to discover novel efficient antibacterial drugs. Three rapid, clean, and highly efficient methods were developed for one-pot synthesis of 7-(aryl-10,10-dimethyl-10,11-dihydrochromeno[4,3-b]chromene-6,8(7H,9H-dione derivatives. Three components are condensed in the synthesis, 4-hydroxycoumarin, 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione, and aromatic aldehydes, using tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB, diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP, or ferric chloride (FeCl3, respectively. Each method has different reaction mechanisms according to the catalyst. The present methods have advantages, including one-pot synthesis, excellent yields, short reaction times, and easy isolation of product. All catalysts utilized in our study could be reused several times without losing their catalytic efficiency. All synthesized compounds were fully characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity.

  19. A bio-inspired test system for bionic above-knee prosthetic knees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dai-Hua; Xu, Lei; Fu, Qiang; Yuan, Gang

    2013-04-01

    Recently, prosthetic knees in the developing stage are usually tested by installing them on amputees' stumps directly or on above-knee prostheses (AKPs) test platforms. Although amputees can fully provide the actual motion state of the thigh, immature prosthetic knees may hurt amputees. For AKPs test platforms, it just can partly simulate the actual motion state of the thigh with limitation of the motion curve of the thigh, the merits or demerits of newly developed bionic above-knee prosthetic knees cannot be accessed thoroughly. Aiming at the defects of two testing methods, this paper presents a bio-inspired AKPs test system for bionic above-knee prosthetic knees. The proposed bio-inspired AKPs test system is composed of a AKPs test platform, a control system, and a bio-inspired system. The AKPs test platform generates the motion of the thigh simulation mechanism (TSM) via two screw pairs with servo motors. The bio-inspired system includes the tester and the bio-inspired sensor wore by the tester. The control system, which is inspired by the bio-inspired system, generates the control command signal to move the TSM of the AKPs test platform. The bio-inspired AKPs test system is developed and experimentally tested with a commercially available prosthetic knee. The research results show that the bio-inspired AKPs test system can not only ensure the safety of the testers, but also track all kinds of the actual motion state of the thigh of the testers in real time.

  20. Bio-Inspired Optimization of Sustainable Energy Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development always involves complex optimization problems of design, planning, and control, which are often computationally difficult for conventional optimization methods. Fortunately, the continuous advances in artificial intelligence have resulted in an increasing number of heuristic optimization methods for effectively handling those complicated problems. Particularly, algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and/or collective behavior of social colonies have shown a promising performance and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. In this paper we summarize the recent advances in bio-inspired optimization methods, including artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, and their hybridizations, which are applied to the field of sustainable energy development. Literature reviewed in this paper shows the current state of the art and discusses the potential future research trends.

  1. Optimization of fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies for transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon cathode catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna K. Dombrovskis; Cathrin Prestel; Anders E. C. Palmqvist

    2014-01-01

    Transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon (TM-OMC) materials were recently shown to be efficient polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts. The structure and properties of these catalysts are largely different from conventional catalyst materials, thus rendering membrane electrode assembly (MEA) preparation parameters developed for conventional catalysts not useful for applications of TM-OMC catalysts. This necessitates development of a methodology to incorporate...

  2. Nature-inspired computing for control systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The book presents recent advances in nature-inspired computing, giving a special emphasis to control systems applications. It reviews different techniques used for simulating physical, chemical, biological or social phenomena at the purpose of designing robust, predictive and adaptive control strategies. The book is a collection of several contributions, covering either more general approaches in control systems, or methodologies for control tuning and adaptive controllers, as well as exciting applications of nature-inspired techniques in robotics. On one side, the book is expected to motivate readers with a background in conventional control systems to try out these powerful techniques inspired by nature. On the other side, the book provides advanced readers with a deeper understanding of the field and a broad spectrum of different methods and techniques. All in all, the book is an outstanding, practice-oriented reference guide to nature-inspired computing addressing graduate students, researchers and practi...

  3. Towards gecko-feet-inspired bandages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

    2009-01-01

    A novel bandage inspired by gecko feet might one day be used during emergencies and internal surgeries. The bandage uses a combination of nanofabricated structures, biodegradable materials and adhesive surface chemistry that allows adhesion onto even wet, moving tissue.

  4. Role of Inspiration in Creating Textile Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtawer Sabir Malik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In design-making process, Source of inspiration has a vital role, both in defining the characteristics of a new design and in informing the creation of a distinct design. This study was based on the idea to promote creative and original textile designs by using a source of inspiration. The purpose of the study was to create some original and innovative designs for textiles by using natural paintings of William Morris as an inspiration and incorporating modern elements in the design. Several designs were made and three were selected that were innovative and suitable for textile designing. This study marks the significance of a source of inspiration in textile designing.

  5. The innovation catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roger L

    2011-06-01

    A few years ago the software development company Intuit realized that it needed a new approach to galvanizing customers. The company's Net Promoter Score was faltering, and customer recommendations of new products were especially disappointing. Intuit decided to hold a two-day, off-site meeting for the company's top 300 managers with a focus on the role of design in innovation. One of the days was dedicated to a program called Design for Delight. The centerpiece of the day was a PowerPoint presentation by Intuit founder Scott Cook, who realized midway through that he was no Steve Jobs: The managers listened dutifully, but there was little energy in the room. By contrast, a subsequent exercise in which the participants worked through a design challenge by creating prototypes, getting feedback, iterating, and refining, had them mesmerized. The eventual result was the creation of a team of nine design-thinking coaches--"innovation catalysts"--from across Intuit who were made available to help any work group create prototypes, run experiments, and learn from customers. The process includes a "painstorm" (to determine the customer's greatest pain point), a "soljam" (to generate and then winnow possible solutions), and a "code-jam" (to write code "good enough" to take to customers within two weeks). Design for Delight has enabled employees throughout Intuit to move from satisfying customers to delighting them.

  6. Inspirational Catalogue of Master Thesis Proposals 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project.......This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project....

  7. BioAir: Bio-Inspired Airborne Infrastructure Reconfiguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    UAV ) in order to autonomously form and maintain a dynamic communication network. This system draws upon inspirations from biological cell...presents the BioAIR system for autonomous communication , command and control of a swarm of UAVs . The idea is to form a communication network comprised of...deployment, yet maintaining communications should not interfere with the primary tasks of these entities. The BioAIR system was developed to coordinate

  8. Optimization of fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies for transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon cathode catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna K. Dombrovskis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal ion-chelating ordered mesoporous carbon (TM-OMC materials were recently shown to be efficient polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC catalysts. The structure and properties of these catalysts are largely different from conventional catalyst materials, thus rendering membrane electrode assembly (MEA preparation parameters developed for conventional catalysts not useful for applications of TM-OMC catalysts. This necessitates development of a methodology to incorporate TM-OMC catalysts in the MEA. Here, an efficient method for MEA preparation using TM-OMC catalyst materials for PEMFC is developed including effects of catalyst/ionomer loading and catalyst/ionomer-mixing and application procedures. An optimized protocol for MEA preparation using TM-OMC catalysts is described.

  9. Biologically-Inspired Water Propulsion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej Sioma

    2013-01-01

    Most propulsion systems of vehicles travelling in the aquatic environment are equipped with propellers.Observations of nature,however,show that the absolute majority of organisms travel through water using wave motion,paddling or using water jet power.Inspired by these observations of nature,an innovative propulsion system working in aquatic environment was developed.This paper presents the design of the water propulsion system.Particular attention was paid to the use of paddling techniques and water jet power.A group of organisms that use those mechanisms to travel through water was selected and analysed.The results of research were used in the design of a propulsion system modelled simultaneously on two methods of movement in the aquatic environment.A method for modelling a propulsion system using a combination of the two solutions and the result were described.A conceptual design and a prototype constructed based on the solution were presented.With respect to the solution developed,studies and analyses of selected parameters of the prototype were described.

  10. A One-Bead-One-Catalyst Approach to Aspartic Acid-Based Oxidation Catalyst Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtor, Phillip A.; Miller, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    We report an approach to the high-throughput screening of asymmetric oxidation catalysts. The strategy is based on application of the one-bead-one-compound library approach, wherein each of our catalyst candidates is based on a peptide scaffold. For this purpose we rely on a recently developed catalytic cycle that employs an acid-peracid shuttle. In order to implement our approach, we developed a compatible linker and demonstrated that the library format is amenable to screening and sequencing of catalysts employing partial Edman degradation and MALDI mass spectrometry analysis. The system was applied to the discovery (and re-discovery) of catalysts for the enantioselective oxidation of a cyclohexene derivative. The system is now poised for application to unprecedented substrate classes for asymmetric oxidation reactions. PMID:21417485

  11. Bio-inspired cofacial Fe porphyrin dimers for efficient electrocatalytic CO2 to CO conversion: Overpotential tuning by substituents at the porphyrin rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Zaki N.; Mohamed, Eman A.; Naruta, Yoshinori

    2016-04-01

    Efficient reduction of CO2 into useful carbon resources particularly CO is an essential reaction for developing alternate sources of fuels and for reducing the greenhouse effect of CO2. The binuclear Ni, Fe-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODHs) efficiently catalyzes the reduction of CO2 to CO. The location of Ni and Fe at proper positions allows their cooperation for CO2 to CO conversion through a push-pull mechanism. Bio-inspired from CODHs, we used several cofacial porphyrin dimers with different substituents as suitable ligands for holding two Fe ions with suitable Fe-Fe separation distance to efficiently and selectively promote CO2 to CO conversion with high turnover frequencies, TOFs. The substituents on the porphyrin rings greatly affect the catalysis process. By introducing electron-withdrawing/-donating groups, e.g. electron-withdrawing perfluorophenyl, at all meso positions of the porphyrin rings, the catalysis overpotential, η was minimized by ≈0.3 V compared to that obtained by introducing electron-donating mesityl groups. The Fe porphyrin dimers among reported catalysts are the most efficient ones for CO2 to CO conversion. Control experiments indicate that the high performance of the current CO2 to CO conversion catalysts is due to the presence of binuclear Fe centers at suitable Fe-Fe separation distance.

  12. Improving Stability of Gasoline by Using Ionic Liquid Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zhirong; Liu Daosheng; Liao Kejian; Jian Heng

    2003-01-01

    The composition, characteristics and preparation of ionic liquids are presented. The factors influencing the stability of gasoline and the significance of improving gasoline stability are discussed. A novel way to improve the stability of gasoline by using ionic liquid catalyst is developed. The contents of olefin, basic nitrogen and sulfur in gasoline are determined and the optimal experimental conditions for improving gasoline stability are established.The ionic liquid catalyst, which is environmentally friendly, can reduce the olefin content in gasoline, and such process is noted for mild reaction conditions, simple operation, short reaction time, easy recycling of the ionic liquid catalyst and ready separation of products and catalyst.

  13. First Commercial Application of Upflow Residuum Hydrotreating Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Haitao; Sun Zhenguang

    2004-01-01

    This article refers to the first commercial application of upflow residuum hydrotreating serial catalyst, developed by Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals (FRIPP), in the residuum hydrotreating unit at Shengli refinery of Qilu Petrochemical Company. This catalyst features large pore volume and large pore diameter. The production practice for more than one year has revealed that the domestic upflow residuum hydrotreating catalyst has shown good performance and stability over the whole period of operation despite its high activity at the start of run, and has basically reached the level of similar imported catalyst.

  14. Selective Oxidations using Nanostructured Heterogeneous Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen

    and because they produce H2O as the only by-product. Chapter 1 gives a short introduction to basic concepts in heterogeneous catalysis and green chemistry. Furthermore, the chapter gives an overview of the most important strategies to synthesise functional nanostructured materials and highlights how detailed......The aim of this thesis is to investigate and develop new efficient methods to oxidise alcohols and amines using heterogeneous catalysts and either O2 or H2O2 as oxidants. From an economic and environmental point of view, these oxidants are ideal, because they are cheap and readily available...... understanding of size, shape and structure can help in the development of new and more efficient heterogeneous catalysts. The chapter is not intended to give a complete survey, but rather to introduce some of the recent developments in the synthesis of nanostructured heterogeneous catalysts. Finally...

  15. Walkable new urban LEED_Neighborhood-Development (LEED-ND community design and children's physical activity: selection, environmental, or catalyst effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens, Robert B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest is growing in physical activity-friendly community designs, but few tests exist of communities explicitly designed to be walkable. We test whether students living in a new urbanist community that is also a pilot LEED_ND (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design-Neighborhood Development community have greater accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA across particular time periods compared to students from other communities. We test various time/place periods to see if the data best conform to one of three explanations for MVPA. Environmental effects suggest that MVPA occurs when individuals are exposed to activity-friendly settings; selection effects suggest that walkable community residents prefer MVPA, which leads to both their choice of a walkable community and their high levels of MVPA; catalyst effects occur when walking to school creates more MVPA, beyond the school commute, on schooldays but not weekends. Methods Fifth graders (n = 187 were sampled from two schools representing three communities: (1 a walkable community, Daybreak, designed with new urbanist and LEED-ND pilot design standards; (2 a mixed community (where students lived in a less walkable community but attended the walkable school so that part of the route to school was walkable, and (3 a less walkable community. Selection threats were addressed through controlling for parental preferences for their child to walk to school as well as comparing in-school MVPA for the walkable and mixed groups. Results Minutes of MVPA were tested with 3 × 2 (Community by Gender analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs. Community walkability related to more MVPA during the half hour before and after school and, among boys only, more MVPA after school. Boys were more active than girls, except during the half hour after school. Students from the mixed and walkable communities--who attended the same school--had similar in-school MVPA levels, and

  16. New catalysts for exhaust gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, M. [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Major challenge for future catalyst systems was to develop thermally more stable washcoats for close coupled operating conditions and for engines operating under high speed and load conditions. To design these future emission systems extensive research and development was undertaken to develop methods to disperse and stabilize the key catalytic materials for operation at much higher temperatures. Second priority was to design catalysts that are more effective under low temperature exhaust conditions and have improved oxygen storage properties in the washcoats. Incorporating new materials and modified preparation technology a new generation of metallic catalyst formulations emerged, those being trimetallic K6 (Pt:Pd:Rh and bimetallic K7) (Pd+Pd:Rh). The target was to combine the best property of Pt:Rh (good NO{sub x} reduction) with that of the good HC oxidation activity of Pd and to ensure that precious metal/support interactions were positively maintained. Both K6 and K7 concepts contain special catalyst structures with optimized washcoat performance which can be brick converter configuration. Improvement in light-off, thermal stability and transient performance with these new catalyst formulations have clearly been shown in both laboratory and vehicle testing. (author) (20 refs.)

  17. Development of robust Co-based catalysts for the selective H{sub 2}-production by ethanol steam-reforming. The Fe-promoter effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Pena O' Shea, Victor A.; Nafria, Raquel; Ramirez de la Piscina, Pilar; Homs, Narcis [Departament de Quimica Inorganica, Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    The effect of iron promoter on cobalt-based catalysts, active in the ethanol steam-reforming, was studied. Fe{sub x}Co{sub 3-x}O{sub 4}(0{<=} x{<=}0.60) oxides prepared by co-precipitation and an Fe-doped Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} prepared by wetness impregnation are analysed. The activation process of the oxides under reaction conditions was studied by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD); the activation depended on the iron content of the oxides. The systems were characterized by means of temperature programmed reduction (TPR), XRD and tested in the ethanol steam-reforming reaction at 623-673 K. An optimal iron loading that gives rise to a high H{sub 2}selectivity and catalyst stability was determined. (author)

  18. Development of Fe-Ni/YSZ-GDC electro-catalysts for application as SOFC anodes. XRD and TPR characterization, and evaluation in ethanol steam reforming reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz Fiuza, Raigenis da; Silva, Marcos Aurelio da; Boaventura, Jaime Soares [UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil). Energy and Materials Science Group

    2010-07-01

    Electro-catalysts based on Fe-Ni alloys were prepared using physical mixture and modified Pechini methods; they were supported on a composite of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Gadolinia Doped Ceria (GDC). The composites had compositions of 35% metal load and 65% support (70% wt. YSZ and 30% wt. GDC mixture) (cermets). The samples were characterized by Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and evaluated in ethanol steam reforming at 650 C for six hours and in the temperature range 300 - 900 C. The XRD results showed that the bimetallic sample calcined at 800 C formed a mixed oxide (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) in spinel structure; after reducing the sample in hydrogen, Ni-Fe alloys were formed. The presence of Ni decreased the final reduction temperature of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} species. The addition of Fe to Ni anchored to YSZ-GDC increased the hydrogen production and inhibits the carbon deposition. The bimetallic 30Fe5Ni samples reached an ethanol conversion of about 95%, and a hydrogen yield up to 48% at 750 C. In general, the ethanol conversion and hydrogen production were independent of the metal content in the electro-catalyst. However, the substitution of Ni for Fe significantly reduced the carbon deposition on the electro-catalyst: 74, 31 and 9 wt. % in the 35Ni, 20Fe15Ni, and 30Fe5Ni samples, respectively. (orig.)

  19. Mussel-Inspired Materials: Self-Healing through Coordination Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogsgaard, Marie; Nue, Vicki; Birkedal, Henrik

    2016-01-18

    Improved understanding of the underwater attachment strategy of the blue mussels and other marine organisms has inspired researchers to find new routes to advanced materials. Mussels use polyphenols, such as the catechol-containing amino acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), to attach to surfaces. Catechols and their analogues can undergo both oxidative covalent cross-linking under alkaline conditions and take part in coordination chemistry. The former has resulted in the widespread use of polydopamine and related materials. The latter is emerging as a tool to make self-healing materials due to the reversible nature of coordination bonds. We review how mussel-inspired materials have been made with a focus on the less developed use of metal coordination and illustrate how this chemistry can be widely to make self-healing materials.

  20. Understanding Gravitational Waves from Inspiral Binary Systems and its Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Antelis, Javier M

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the events GW150926 and GW151226 has experimentally confirmed the existence of gravitational waves (GW) and has demonstrated the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This finding marks the beginning of a new era that will reveal unexpected features of our universe. This work presents a basic insight to the fundamental theory of GW emitted by inspiral binary systems and describes the scientific and technological efforts developed to measure this waves using the interferometer-based detector called LIGO. Subsequently, the work proposes a comprehensive data analysis methodology based on the matched filter algorithm which aims to detect GW signals emitted by inspiral binary systems of astrophysical sources. The method is validated with freely available LIGO data which contain injected GW signals. Results of experiments performed to assess detection carried out show that the method was able to recover the 85% of the injected GW.

  1. Semiconductor Devices Inspired By and Integrated With Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, John [University of Illinois

    2012-04-25

    Biology is curved, soft and elastic; silicon wafers are not. Semiconductor technologies that can bridge this gap in form and mechanics will create new opportunities in devices that adopt biologically inspired designs or require intimate integration with the human body. This talk describes the development of ideas for electronics that offer the performance of state-of-the-art, wafer- based systems but with the mechanical properties of a rubber band. We explain the underlying materials science and mechanics of these approaches, and illustrate their use in (1) bio- integrated, ‘tissue-like’ electronics with unique capabilities for mapping cardiac and neural electrophysiology, and (2) bio-inspired, ‘eyeball’ cameras with exceptional imaging properties enabled by curvilinear, Petzval designs.

  2. An Immunology-inspired Fault Detection and Identification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Weng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fault detection and identification (FDI approach inspired by the immune system. The salient features of the immune system, such as adaptability, robustness, flexibility, archival memory and distributed cognition abilities, have been the valuable source of inspiration for fundamentally new methods for fault detection and identification. This research makes use of immunological concepts to develop a robust fault detection and identification mechanism, capable of detecting and classifying diverse system faults dynamically. Such an FDI mechanism also has the ability to learn and classify overlapping faults using distributed sensing. Moreover, its detection accuracy can be continuously improved during system operation. As tested by numerical simulations in which faults are represented by overlapping banana functions, the proposed algorithms are adaptive to new types of faults and overlapping faults.

  3. A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Mukul

    2013-01-01

    Biological systems are a source of inspiration in the development of small autonomous sensor nodes. The two major types of optical vision systems found in nature are the single aperture human eye and the compound eye of insects. The latter are among the most compact and smallest vision sensors. The eye is a compound of individual lenses with their own photoreceptor arrays.  The visual system of insects allows them to fly with a limited intelligence and brain processing power. A CMOS image sensor replicating the perception of vision in insects is discussed and designed in this book for industrial (machine vision) and medical applications. The CMOS metal layer is used to create an embedded micro-polarizer able to sense polarization information. This polarization information is shown to be useful in applications like real time material classification and autonomous agent navigation. Further the sensor is equipped with in pixel analog and digital memories which allow variation of the dynamic range and in-pixel b...

  4. Biology-inspired Architecture for Situation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Lodding, Kenneth N.; Olariu, Stephan; Wilson, Larry; Xin, Chunsheng

    2006-01-01

    Situation Management is a rapidly developing science combining new techniques for data collection with advanced methods of data fusion to facilitate the process leading to correct decisions prescribing action. Current research focuses on reducing increasing amounts of diverse data to knowledge used by decision makers and on reducing time between observations, decisions and actions. No new technology is more promising for increasing the diversity and fidelity of observations than sensor networks. However, current research on sensor networks concentrates on a centralized network architecture. We believe this trend will not realize the full potential of situation management. We propose a new architecture modeled after biological ecosystems where motes are autonomous and intelligent, yet cooperate with local neighborhoods. Providing a layered approach, they sense and act independently when possible, and cooperate with neighborhoods when necessary. The combination of their local actions results in global effects. While situation management research is currently dominated by military applications, advances envisioned for industrial and business applications have similar requirements. NASA has requirements for intelligent and autonomous systems in future missions that can benefit from advances in situation management. We describe requirements for the Integrated Vehicle Health Management program where our biology-inspired architecture provides a layered approach and decisions can be made at the proper level to improve safety, reduce costs, and improve efficiency in making diagnostic and prognostic assessments of the structural integrity, aerodynamic characteristics, and operation of aircraft.

  5. Bio-inspired nanomaterials and their applications as antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Sachin Zinjarde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the interdisciplinary field of nanotechnology has expanded extensively. A variety of nanoparticles (NPs have been used for a number of specialized applications. In this era facing a major problem of microorganisms developing antibiotic resistance, NPs are a lucrative option. Most physical and chemical processes of NP synthesis are associated with drawbacks and bio-inspired NPs have now become popular. This review summarizes the recent developments on the biosynthesis, characterization, and applications of NPs with particular reference to their use as antimicrobial agents. Reviewed here is the synthesis of gold and silver NPs (AgNPs by a variety of biological forms and biomolecules as well as their effectiveness toward different fungal and bacterial pathogens. The use of gold NPs (bio-inspired by plants, fungi, and bacteria and AgNPs, synthesized by carbohydrates (of plant, animal, and microbial origin, plant parts (bark, callus, leaves, peels, and tubers, fungi, and bacteria have been highlighted. In addition, the use of zinc oxide NPs (although not bio-inspired as novel antimicrobial agents have also been discussed.

  6. Quantum-Inspired Genetic Algorithm Based on Simulated Annealing for Combinatorial Optimization Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Wanneng Shu

    2009-01-01

    Quantum-inspired genetic algorithm (QGA) is applied to simulated annealing (SA) to develop a class of quantum-inspired simulated annealing genetic algorithm (QSAGA) for combinatorial optimization. With the condition of preserving QGA advantages, QSAGA takes advantage of the SA algorithm so as to avoid premature convergence. To demonstrate its effectiveness and applicability, experiments are carried out on the knapsack problem. The results show that QSAGA performs well, without premature conve...

  7. 7th International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing : Theories and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Pramod; Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Nagar, Atulya

    2013-01-01

    The book is a collection of high quality peer reviewed research papers presented in Seventh International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing (BIC-TA 2012) held at ABV-IIITM Gwalior, India. These research papers provide the latest developments in the broad area of "Computational Intelligence". The book discusses wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of nature/bio-inspired computing and presents invited papers from the inventors/originators of novel computational techniques.

  8. Supported organoiridium catalysts for alkane dehydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R. Thomas; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Li, Hongbo

    2013-09-03

    Solid supported organoiridium catalysts, a process for preparing such solid supported organoiridium catalysts, and the use of such solid supported organoiridium catalysts in dehydrogenation reactions of alkanes is provided. The catalysts can be easily recovered and recycled.

  9. Supported organometallic catalysts for hydrogenation and Olefin Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Tobin J.; Ahn, Hongsang

    2001-01-01

    Novel heterogeneous catalysts for the which hydrogenation of olefins and arenes with high conversion rates under ambient conditions and the polymerization of olefins have been developed. The catalysts are synthesized from Ziegler-type precatalysts by supporting them on sulfate-modified zirconia.

  10. Nanoscale intimacy in bifunctional catalysts for selective conversion of hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zecevic, Jovana; Vanbutsele, Gina; de Jong, Krijn P.; Martens, Johan A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control nanoscale features precisely is increasingly being exploited to develop and improve monofunctional catalysts(1-4). Striking effects might also be expected in the case of bifunctional catalysts, which are important in the hydrocracking of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon source

  11. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O' Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  12. Thermodynamic Properties of Supported Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorte, Raymond J.

    2014-03-26

    The goals of this work were to develop Coulometric Titration as a method for characterizing the thermodynamic redox properties of oxides and to apply this technique to the characterization of ceria- and vanadia-based catalysts. The redox properties of ceria and vanadia are a major part of what makes these materials catalytically active but their properties are also dependent on their structure and the presence of other oxides. Quantifying these properties through the measurement of oxidation energetics was the goal of this work.

  13. MicroChannel Reactors for ISRU Applications Using Nanofabricated Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Susana; Makel, Darby B.; Vander Wal, Randall L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Pushkarev, Vladimir V.

    2006-01-01

    With the new direction of NASA to emphasize the exploration of the Moon, Mars and beyond, quick development and demonstration of efficient systems for In-Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) is more critical and timely than ever before. Affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local resources and the waste products which are formed in manned spacecraft and surface bases. This paper presents current development of miniaturized chemical processing systems that combine microchannel reactor design with nanofabricated catalysts. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are used to produce a nanostructure within microchannel reactors, as support for catalysts. By virtue of their nanoscale dimensions, nanotubes geometrically restrict the catalyst particle size that can be supported upon the tube walls. By confining catalyst particles to sizes smaller than the CNT diameter, a more uniform catalyst particle size distribution may be maintained. The high dispersion permitted by the vast surface area of the nanoscale material serves to retain the integrity of the catalyst by reducing sintering or coalescence. Additionally, catalytic efficiency increases with decreasing catalyst particle size (reflecting higher surface area per unit mass) while chemical reactivity frequently is enhanced at the nanoscale. Particularly significant is the catalyst exposure. Rather than being confined within a porous material or deposited upon a 2-d surface, the catalyst is fully exposed to the reactant gases by virtue of the nanofabricated support structure. The combination of microchannel technology with nanofabricated catalysts provides a synergistic effect, enhancing both technologies with the potential to produce much more efficient systems than either technology alone. The development of highly efficient microchannel reactors will be applicable to multiple ISRU programs. By selection of proper nanofabricated catalysts, the microchannel reactors can be

  14. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...... increasing focus. Activity of the catalyst is important, but stability is essential. In the presented perspective paper, we review recent efforts to investigate fuel cell catalysts ex-situ in electrochemical half-cell measurements. Due to the amount of different studies, this review has no intention to give...

  15. Aerogel derived catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J. G., LLNL

    1996-12-11

    Aerogels area class of colloidal materials which have high surface areas and abundant mesoporous structure. SiO{sub 2} aerogels show unique physical, optical and structural properties. When catalytic metals are incorporated in the aerogel framework, the potential exists for new and very effective catalysts for industrial processes. Three applications of these metal-containing SiO{sub 2} aerogels as catalysts are briefly reviewed in this paper--NO{sub x} reduction, volatile organic compound destruction, and partial oxidation of methane.

  16. Olefin metathesis catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukes, S.G.; Banks, R.L.

    1986-05-20

    A process is described for preparing a disproportionation catalyst comprising admixing a catalytically effective amount of a calcined and activated catalyst consisting essentially of at least one metal oxide selected from molybdenum oxide and tungsten oxide and a support containing a major proportion of silica or alumina with a promoting amount of a methylating agent selected from the group consisting of dimethyl sulfate, dimethylsulfoxide, trimethyloxonium tetrafluorborate, methyl iodide, and methyl bromide, and subjecting same to inert atmospheric conditions for the methylating agent to promote the activity of the calcined molybdenum and tungsten oxides for the disproportionation of olefins.

  17. Mesoporous molecular sieve catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Karen Thrane

    be used as solid acid catalysts but can also be used as a size-selective matrix. It was shown that it is possible to encapsulate 1-2 nm sized gold nanoparticles by silicalite-1 or ZSM-5 zeolite crystals thereby forming a sintering-stable and substrate size-selective oxidation catalyst. After carrying out...... calcination experiments, both in situ and ex situ indicated that the gold nanoparticles embedded in the crystals were highly stable towards sintering. The catalytic tests proved that the embedded gold nanoparticles were active in selective aldehyde oxidation and were only accessible through the micropores...

  18. Dynamics of Catalyst Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Cavalca, Filippo; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    under gas exposure, dynamic phenomena such as sintering and growth can be observed with sub-Ångstrøm resolution. Metal nanoparticles contain the active sites in heterogeneous catalysts, which are important for many industrial applications including the production of clean fuels, chemicals...... and pharmaceuticals, and the cleanup of exhaust from automobiles and stationary power plants. Sintering, or thermal deactivation, is an important mechanism for the loss of catalyst activity. In order to initiate a systematic study of the dynamics and sintering of nanoparticles, various catalytic systems have been...

  19. Towards the Rational Design of Nanoparticle Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Priyabrat

    This research is focused on development of routes towards the rational design of nanoparticle catalysts. Primarily, it is focused on two main projects; (1) the use of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) as greener media for the design of quasi-homogeneous nanoparticle catalysts and (2) the rational design of heterogeneous-supported nanoparticle catalysts from structured nanoparticle precursors. Each project has different studies associated with the main objective of the design of nanoparticle catalysts. In the first project, imidazolium-based ionic liquids have been used for the synthesis of nanoparticle catalysts. In particular, studies on recyclability, reuse, mode-of-stability, and long-term stability of these ionic-liquid supported nanoparticle catalysts have been done; all of which are important factors in determining the overall "greenness" of such synthetic routes. Three papers have been published/submitted for this project. In the first publication, highly stable polymer-stabilized Au, Pd and bimetallic Au-Pd nanoparticle catalysts have been synthesized in imidazolium-based 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF6) ionic liquid (Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 2008, 286, 114). The resulting nanoparticles were found to be effective and selective quasi-homogeneous catalysts towards a wide-range of hydrogenation reactions and the catalyst solution was reused for further catalytic reactions with minimal loss in activity. The synthesis of very pure and clean ILs has allowed a platform to study the effects of impurities in the imidazolium ILs on nanoparticle stability. In a later study, a new mode of stabilization was postulated where the presence of low amounts of 1-methylimidazole has substantial effects on the resulting stability of Au and Pd-Au nanoparticles in these ILs (Chemical Communications, 2009, 812). In further continuation of this study, a comparative study involving four stabilization protocols for nanoparticle

  20. 4th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krömer, Pavel; Snášel, Václav

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains accepted papers presented at IBICA2013, the 4th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications. The aim of IBICA 2013 was to provide a platform for world research leaders and practitioners, to discuss the full spectrum of current theoretical developments, emerging technologies, and innovative applications of Bio-inspired Computing. Bio-inspired Computing is currently one of the most exciting research areas, and it is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The main driving force of the conference is to further explore the intriguing potential of Bio-inspired Computing. IBICA 2013 was held in Ostrava, Czech Republic and hosted by the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava.

  1. Holarchical Systems and Emotional Holons : Biologically-Inspired System Designs for Control of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Pisanich, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The BEES (Bio-inspired Engineering for Exploration Systems) for Mars project at NASA Ames Research Center has the goal of developing bio-inspired flight control strategies to enable aerial explorers for Mars scientific investigations. This paper presents a summary of our ongoing research into biologically inspired system designs for control of unmanned autonomous aerial vehicle communities for Mars exploration. First, we present cooperative design considerations for robotic explorers based on the holarchical nature of biological systems and communities. Second, an outline of an architecture for cognitive decision making and control of individual robotic explorers is presented, modeled after the emotional nervous system of cognitive biological systems. Keywords: Holarchy, Biologically Inspired, Emotional UAV Flight Control

  2. Superior Exploration-Exploitation Balance with Quantum-Inspired Hadamard Walks

    CERN Document Server

    Koppaka, Sisir

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the analogies employed in the development of quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithms by proposing quantum-inspired Hadamard walks, called QHW. A novel quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm, called HQEA, for solving combinatorial optimization problems, is also proposed. The novelty of HQEA lies in it's incorporation of QHW Remote Search and QHW Local Search - the quantum equivalents of classical mutation and local search, that this paper defines. The intuitive reasoning behind this approach, and the exploration-exploitation balance thus occurring is explained. From the results of the experiments carried out on the 0,1-knapsack problem, HQEA performs significantly better than a conventional genetic algorithm, CGA, and two quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithms - QEA and NQEA, in terms of convergence speed and accuracy.

  3. Fifth International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Snášel, Václav

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains accepted papers presented at IBICA2014, the 5th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications. The aim of IBICA 2014 was to provide a platform for world research leaders and practitioners, to discuss the full spectrum of current theoretical developments, emerging technologies, and innovative applications of Bio-inspired Computing. Bio-inspired Computing remains to be one of the most exciting research areas, and it is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The main driving force of the conference was to further explore the intriguing potential of Bio-inspired Computing. IBICA 2014 was held in Ostrava, Czech Republic and hosted by the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava.

  4. Deactivation-resistant catalyst for selective catalyst reduction of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NOx in alkali metal containing flue gas using ammonia as reductant, the catalyst comprising a surface with catalytically active sites, wherein the surface is at least partly coated with a coating comprising at least...... one metal oxide. In another aspect the present invention relates to the use of said catalyst and to a method of producing said catalyst. In addition, the present invention relates to a method of treating an catalyst for conferring thereon an improved resistance to alkali poisoning....

  5. INSPIRE: a new scientific information system for HEP

    CERN Multimedia

    Ivanov, R

    2009-01-01

    The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project – a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate present acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full-text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will ...

  6. Case study on visualizing hurricanes using illustration-inspired techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Alark; Caban, Jesus; Rheingans, Penny; Sparling, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The devastating power of hurricanes was evident during the 2005 hurricane season, the most active season on record. This has prompted increased efforts by researchers to understand the physical processes that underlie the genesis, intensification, and tracks of hurricanes. This research aims at facilitating an improved understanding into the structure of hurricanes with the aid of visualization techniques. Our approach was developed by a mixed team of visualization and domain experts. To better understand these systems, and to explore their representation in NWP models, we use a variety of illustration-inspired techniques to visualize their structure and time evolution. Illustration-inspired techniques aid in the identification of the amount of vertical wind shear in a hurricane, which can help meteorologists predict dissipation. Illustration-style visualization, in combination with standard visualization techniques, helped explore the vortex rollup phenomena and the mesovortices contained within. We evaluated the effectiveness of our visualization with the help of six hurricane experts. The expert evaluation showed that the illustration-inspired techniques were preferred over existing tools. Visualization of the evolution of structural features is a prelude to a deeper visual analysis of the underlying dynamics.

  7. INSPIRE: a new scientific information system for HEP

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, R; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project – a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will ...

  8. Filtering Data Based on Human-Inspired Forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, S T; Adams, J A

    2011-12-01

    Robots are frequently presented with vast arrays of diverse data. Unfortunately, perfect memory and recall provides a mixed blessing. While flawless recollection of episodic data allows increased reasoning, photographic memory can hinder a robot's ability to operate in real-time dynamic environments. Human-inspired forgetting methods may enable robotic systems to rid themselves of out-dated, irrelevant, and erroneous data. This paper presents the use of human-inspired forgetting to act as a filter, removing unnecessary, erroneous, and out-of-date information. The novel ActSimple forgetting algorithm has been developed specifically to provide effective forgetting capabilities to robotic systems. This paper presents the ActSimple algorithm and how it was optimized and tested in a WiFi signal strength estimation task. The results generated by real-world testing suggest that human-inspired forgetting is an effective means of improving the ability of mobile robots to move and operate within complex and dynamic environments.

  9. Bits from Brains for Biologically-Inspired Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eWibral

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration for artificial biologically-inspired computing is often drawn from neural systems. This article shows how to analyze neural systems using information theory with the aim of obtaining constraints that help to identify the algorithms run by neural systems and the information they represent. Algorithms and representations identified this way may then guide the design of biologically inspired computing systems. The material covered includes the necessary introduction to information theory and to the estimation of information theoretic quantities from neural recordings. We then show how to analyze the information encoded in a system about its environment, and also discuss recent methodological developments on the question of how much information each agent carries about the environment either uniquely, or redundantly or synergistically together with others. Last, we introduce the framework of local information dynamics, where information processing is partitioned into component processes of information storage, transfer, and modification -- locally in space and time. We close by discussing example applications of these measures to neural data and other complex systems.

  10. Characterization of Deactivated Bio-oil Hydrotreating Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huamin; Wang, Yong

    2015-10-06

    Deactivation of bio-oil hydrotreating catalysts remains a significant challenge because of the poor quality of pyrolysis bio-oil input for hydrotreating and understanding their deactivation mode is critical to developing improved catalysts and processes. In this research, we developed an understanding of the deactivation of two-step bio-oil hydrotreating catalysts (sulfided Ru/C and sulfided CoMo/C) through detailed characterization of the catalysts using various complimentary analytical techniques. Severe fouling of both catalysts by carbonaceous species was the major form of deactivation, which is consistent with the significant loss of surface area and pore volume of both deactivated catalysts and the significant increase of the bulk density. Further analysis of the carbonaceous species by thermogravimetric analysis and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the carbonaceous species was formed by condensation reaction of active species such as sugars and sugar derivatives (aldehydes and ketones) in bio-oil feedstock during bio-oil hydrotreating under the conditions and catalysts used. Microscopy results did not show metal sintering of the Ru/C catalyst. However, X-ray diffraction indicated a probable transformation of the highly-active CoMoS phase in the sulfided CoMo/C catalyst to Co8S9 and MoS2 phase with low activity. Loss of the active site by transport of inorganic elements from the bio-oil and the reactor construction material onto the catalyst surface also might be a cause of deactivation as indicated by elemental analysis of spent catalysts.

  11. Bifunctional catalysts for the direct production of liquid fuels from syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartipi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Design and development of catalyst formulations that maximize the direct production of liquid fuels by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), hydrocarbon cracking, and isomerization into one single catalyst particle (bifunctional FTS catalyst) have been investigated in this thesis. To achieve th

  12. Sustainable utility of magnetically recyclable nano-catalysts in water: Applications in organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetically recyclable nano-catalysts and their use in aqueous media is a perfect combination for the development of greener sustainable methodologies in organic synthesis. It is well established that magnetically separable nano-catalysts avoid waste of catalysts or reagents and...

  13. Astrophysics of extreme mass ratio inspiral sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hopman, C

    2007-01-01

    Compact remnants on orbits with peri-apses close to the Schwarzschild radius of a massive black hole (MBH) lose orbital energy by emitting gravitational waves (GWs) and spiral in. Scattering with other stars allows successful inspiral of such extreme mass ratio inspiral sources (EMRIs) only within small distances, a < few \\times 0.01 pc from the MBH. The event rate of EMRIs is therefore dominated by the stellar dynamics and content in the inner few \\times 0.01 pc. I discuss the relevant dynamical aspects and resulting estimated event rates of EMRIs. Subjects considered include the loss-cone treatment of inspiral sources; mass segregation; resonant relaxation; and alternative routes to EMRI formation such as tidal binary disruptions, stellar formation in disks and tidal capture of massive main sequence stars. The EMRI event rate is estimated to be of order few \\times 10^2/Gyr per MBH, giving excellent prospects for observation by LISA.

  14. Biologically Inspired Micro-Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, David L.; Waszak, Martin R.

    2003-01-01

    Natural fliers demonstrate a diverse array of flight capabilities, many of which are poorly understood. NASA has established a research project to explore and exploit flight technologies inspired by biological systems. One part of this project focuses on dynamic modeling and control of micro aerial vehicles that incorporate flexible wing structures inspired by natural fliers such as insects, hummingbirds and bats. With a vast number of potential civil and military applications, micro aerial vehicles represent an emerging sector of the aerospace market. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts for biologically inspired micro aerial vehicles are being explored. Research activities focusing on a flexible fixed- wing micro aerial vehicle design and a flapping-based micro aerial vehicle concept are presented.

  15. Compact and Thermosensitive Nature-inspired Micropump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejeong; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-10-01

    Liquid transportation without employing a bulky power source, often observed in nature, has been an essential prerequisite for smart applications of microfluidic devices. In this report, a leaf-inspired micropump (LIM) which is composed of thermo-responsive stomata-inspired membrane (SIM) and mesophyll-inspired agarose cryogel (MAC) is proposed. The LIM provides a durable flow rate of 30 μl/h · cm2 for more than 30 h at room temperature without external mechanical power source. By adapting a thermo-responsive polymer, the LIM can smartly adjust the delivery rate of a therapeutic liquid in response to temperature changes. In addition, as the LIM is compact, portable, and easily integrated into any liquid, it might be utilized as an essential component in advanced hand-held drug delivery devices.

  16. Research advances in the catalysts for the selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; ZHAO Zhen; XU Chunming

    2005-01-01

    Selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes is one of the most difficult processes in the catalysis researches of low alkanes. The development of selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein) is discussed. The latest progress of the catalysts, including bulk or supported metal oxide catalysts, highly dispersed and isolated active sites catalysts, and the photo-catalytic ethane oxidation catalysts, partial oxidation of ethane in the gas phase, and the proposed reaction pathways from ethane to aldehydes are involved.

  17. Studies of Heterogeneous Catalyst Selectivity and Stability for Biorefining Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brandon J.

    The conversion of raw resources into value-added end products has long underlain the importance of catalysts in economic and scientific development. In particular, the development of selective and stable heterogeneous catalysts is a challenge that continues to grow in importance as environmental, sociological, and economic concerns have motivated an interest in sustainability and the use of renewable raw materials. Within this context, biomass has been identified as the only realistic source of renewable carbon for the foreseeable future. The development of processes to utilize biomass feedstocks will require breakthroughs in fundamental understanding and practical solutions to the challenges related to selectivity and stability of the catalysts employed. Selectivity is addressed on multiple fronts. First, the selectivity for C-O bond scission reactions of a bifunctional, bimetallic RhRe/C catalyst is investigated. Using multiple techniques, the origin of Bronsted acidity in the catalyst and the role of pretreatment on the activity, selectivity, and stability are explored. In addition, reaction kinetics experiments and kinetic modeling are utilized to understand the role of chemical functional group (i.e. carboxylic acid versus formate ester) in determining the decarbonylation versus decarboxylation selectivity over a Pd/C catalyst. Finally, kinetic studies over Pd/C and Cu/gamma-Al2O3 were performed so that that may be paired with density functional theory calculations and microkinetic modeling to elucidate the elementary reaction mechanism, identify the active site, and provide a basis for future rational catalyst design. Next, the issue of catalyst stability, important in the high-temperature, liquid-phase conditions of biomass processing, is examined, and a method for stabilizing the base-metal nanoparticles of a Cu/gamma-Al2O 3 catalyst using atomic layer deposition (ALD) is developed. This advancement may facilitate the development of biorefining by enabling

  18. Nanopore and nanoparticle catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Raja, R

    2001-01-01

    The design, atomic characterization, performance, and relevance to clean technology of two distinct categories of new nanocatalysts are described and interpreted. Exceptional molecular selectivity and high activity are exhibited by these catalysts. The first category consists of extended, crystallographically ordered inorganic solids possessing nanopores (apertures, cages, and channels), the diameters of which fall in the range of about 0.4 to about 1.5 nm, and the second of discrete bimetallic nanoparticles of diameter 1 to 2 nm, distributed more or less uniformly along the inner walls of mesoporous (ca. 3 to 10 nm diameter) silica supports. Using the principles and practices of solid-state and organometallic chemistry and advanced physico-chemical techniques for in situ and ex situ characterization, a variety of powerful new catalysts has been evolved. Apart from those that, inter alia, simulate the behavior of enzymes in their specificity, shape selectivity, regio-selectivity, and ability to function under ambient conditions, many of these new nanocatalysts are also viable as agents for effecting commercially significant processes in a clean, benign, solvent-free, single-step fashion. In particular, a bifunctional, molecular sieve nanopore catalyst is described that converts cyclohexanone in air and ammonia to its oxime and caprolactam, and a bimetallic nanoparticle catalyst that selectively converts cyclic polyenes into desirable intermediates. Nanocatalysts in the first category are especially effective in facilitating highly selective oxidations in air, and those in the second are well suited to effecting rapid and selective hydrogenations of a range of organic compounds.

  19. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  20. Heterogeneous chromium catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heterogeneous chromium catalyst system for the polymerisation of ethylene and/or alpha olefins prepared by the steps of: (a) providing a silica-containing support, (b) treating the silica-containing support with a chromium compound to form a chromium-based silica-c