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Sample records for catalonia ne spain

  1. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgueño, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Lana, X., E-mail: francisco.javier.lana@upc.edu [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Serra, C. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Martínez, M.D. [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950–2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  2. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgueño, A.; Lana, X.; Serra, C.; Martínez, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950–2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  3. Sediment discharge of the rivers of Catalonia, NE Spain, and the influence of human impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liquete, Camino; Canals, Miquel; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Arnau, Pedro

    2009-03-01

    SummaryThe environmental and anthropogenic factors controlling sediment delivery to the sea are numerous, intricate and usually difficult to quantify. Mediterranean watersheds are historically amongst the most heavily impacted by human activities in the world. This study analyzes some of these factors for nine river systems from Catalonia, NE Spain, that open into the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, and discusses the results obtained from sediment yield models and sediment concentration data series. General models indicate that the natural suspended sediment yield by individual Catalan rivers ranged within a fork from 94 to 621 t km -2 yr -1. Such a sediment yield would be noticeably reduced (moving the fork to 7-148 t km -2 yr -1) because of lithological factors and direct anthropogenic and, possibly, climatic impacts. Damming, water extraction and urbanization appear as the most important direct anthropogenic impacts in Catalonia. Water discharge and sediment concentration measurements by basin authorities provide much lower sediment yield estimations, from 0.4 to 19.8 t km -2 yr -1, which is probably due to the lack of measured sediment loads during flood events, as it is the case in many other Mediterranean rivers. The Catalan watersheds have some of the smallest runoff values amongst Mediterranean rivers. Of the nine river systems studied, water discharge tends to decrease in two and to increase in one. The other six river systems do not show any clear tendency. Related to climatic parameters, temperature raised in all the watersheds between 1961 and 1990, while precipitation did not show significant trends.

  4. A database about the tornadic activity in Catalonia (NE Spain) since 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M. E.; Arús, J.; Llasat, M. C.; Castán, S.

    2009-09-01

    Although tornadic activity is not the most important hazard in Spain, the damages that tornadoes and downburst generate are considerable in urban areas, giving place in some occasions to casualties. In Spain, the oldest systematic works collecting data about tornadoes, refer to the Balearic Islands, although some series about tornadoes in Spain have also been collected and analysed (Gayà, 2005). These series shows a positive increase that is probably more related to a change in the perception level of the population than to climatic change. In some occasions it is difficult to separate the damages produced by the tornado itself from those produced by other associated hazards like heavy rains, hail or a wind storms. It was the case of the September 2006 event, in which flash floods and tornadoes were recorded. In the same sense in some occasions, damages produced by a downsburt are confused with those that produced by a tornado. Having in mind all these facts, having a good systematic data base about tornadoes is necessary, before to obtain some conclusions not enough justified. This kind of database is not easy to obtain, because of it requires to have detailed information about damages, meteorological observations and testimonies that has to be filtered by a good quality control. After a general presentation about tornadoes and downsbursts in Mediterranean Region, this contribution presents the database that have affected Catalonia during the period 1994-2009, starting with the tornado recorded on the Espluga de Francolí the 31 August 1994.This database has been built in basis to the AEMET information, the Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros (the insurance company of Spain for natural disasters), the newspapers and field visits to the affected places.

  5. A statistical approach to bioclimatic trend detection in the airborne pollen records of Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Belmonte, Jordina; Delgado, Rosario; De Linares, Concepción

    2014-04-01

    Airborne pollen records are a suitable indicator for the study of climate change. The present work focuses on the role of annual pollen indices for the detection of bioclimatic trends through the analysis of the aerobiological spectra of 11 taxa of great biogeographical relevance in Catalonia over an 18-year period (1994-2011), by means of different parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. Among others, two non-parametric rank-based statistical tests were performed for detecting monotonic trends in time series data of the selected airborne pollen types and we have observed that they have similar power in detecting trends. Except for those cases in which the pollen data can be well-modeled by a normal distribution, it is better to apply non-parametric statistical methods to aerobiological studies. Our results provide a reliable representation of the pollen trends in the region and suggest that greater pollen quantities are being liberated to the atmosphere in the last years, specially by Mediterranean taxa such as Pinus, Total Quercus and Evergreen Quercus, although the trends may differ geographically. Longer aerobiological monitoring periods are required to corroborate these results and survey the increasing levels of certain pollen types that could exert an impact in terms of public health.

  6. Occurrence and fate of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in sewage treatment plants and impact on receiving waters along the Ter River (Catalonia, NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Raquel; Lacorte, Sílvia; Ginebreda, Antonio; Barceló, Damià

    2008-05-01

    The partitioning of alkylphenols in the dissolved and particulate matter of influents, effluents, accumulation onto sludge and the impact of sewage treatment plant upon receiving waters was studied along the Ter River basin (Catalonia, NE Spain). A solid-phase extraction or pressurized liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and permitted to determine target compounds with high efficiency in waters, particulate material and sludge. Nonylphenol mono- and diethoxylate, nonylphenol and octylphenol partitioned preferably upon particulate matter and sludge, whereas long chain NPE(3-15)O prevailed in the dissolved phase and was released by effluents. Within the treatment process, a net accumulation of alkylphenols in sludge was found, producing up to 148g/t/month. The removal efficiency of alkylphenols was of 37-90% and depended on the treatment. Assessment on the fate of these contaminants within STPs is discussed in terms of flow rates, biological oxygen demand and tons of sludge produced.

  7. Sulphur isotopes as tracers of the influence of a coal-fired power plant on a Scots pine forest in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, R.; Àvila, A.; Soler, A.

    Stable sulphur isotopes and major ionic composition were analysed in precipitation and throughfall samples from a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris, L.) forest near the Cercs coal-fired power plant (Catalonia, NE Spain). The purpose of the study was to determine the main sources of sulphur deposition on this pine forest. Sulphur isotope measurements from the SO 2 power plant stack emissions were used to identify the isotopic signature of this source. Net throughfall fluxes of sulphur (26.1 kg S ha 1 yr -1) and nitrogen (16.3 kg N ha -1 yr -1) were higher—5-25 times higher for S and 5-15 times for N—at this site than in other forests in Catalonia. Sulphur isotope analysis confirmed that the net throughfall fluxes of sulphur were mostly due to the dry deposition of the SO 2 power plant emissions onto the pine canopies. Two potential atmospheric end-members were distinguished: regional background rainwater (δ 34S=+7.2‰) and power plant emissions (δ 34S=-2.8‰). By applying a two-component sulphur isotope mixing model, we found that during periods of low power plant activity (⩽10 emission h day -1), 62% of the throughfall sulphate could be attributed to the power plant emissions. At higher activity periods (⩾14 emission h day -1), this contribution rose to 73%. Although power plant contribution to bulk deposition was lower in both cases (34% and 45%), the possible influence of sulphate coming with long-range transport events from the polluted areas in the Mediterranean basin (δ 34S≈0‰) was not discarded.

  8. Heavy rain prediction using deterministic and probabilistic models - the flash flood cases of 11-13 October 2005 in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, A.; Altava-Ortiz, V.; Llasat, M. C.; Barnolas, M.

    2007-09-01

    Between the 11 and 13 October 2005 several flash floods were produced along the coast of Catalonia (NE Spain) due to a significant heavy rainfall event. Maximum rainfall achieved values up to 250 mm in 24 h. The total amount recorded during the event in some places was close to 350 mm. Barcelona city was also in the affected area where high rainfall intensities were registered, but just a few small floods occurred, thanks to the efficient urban drainage system of the city. Two forecasting methods have been applied in order to evaluate their capability of prediction regarding extreme events: the deterministic MM5 model and a probabilistic model based on the analogous method. The MM5 simulation allows analysing accurately the main meteorological features with a high spatial resolution (2 km), like the formation of some convergence lines over the region that partially explains the maximum precipitation location during the event. On the other hand, the analogous technique shows a good agreement among highest probability values and real affected areas, although a larger pluviometric rainfall database would be needed to improve the results. The comparison between the observed precipitation and from both QPF (quantitative precipitation forecast) methods shows that the analogous technique tends to underestimate the rainfall values and the MM5 simulation tends to overestimate them.

  9. Occurrence and fate of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in sewage treatment plants and impact on receiving waters along the Ter River (Catalonia, NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cespedes, Raquel; Lacorte, Silvia; Ginebreda, Antonio; Barcelo, Damia

    2008-01-01

    The partitioning of alkylphenols in the dissolved and particulate matter of influents, effluents, accumulation onto sludge and the impact of sewage treatment plant upon receiving waters was studied along the Ter River basin (Catalonia, NE Spain). A solid-phase extraction or pressurized liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and permitted to determine target compounds with high efficiency in waters, particulate material and sludge. Nonylphenol mono- and diethoxylate, nonylphenol and octylphenol partitioned preferably upon particulate matter and sludge, whereas long chain NPE 3-15 O prevailed in the dissolved phase and was released by effluents. Within the treatment process, a net accumulation of alkylphenols in sludge was found, producing up to 148 g/t/month. The removal efficiency of alkylphenols was of 37-90% and depended on the treatment. Assessment on the fate of these contaminants within STPs is discussed in terms of flow rates, biological oxygen demand and tons of sludge produced. - Whereas partitioning of nonylphenol upon particulate matter and enrichment in sludge has been detected, long chain NPE n Os were mainly found in the dissolved phase

  10. Lack of evidence of spill-over of Salmonella enterica between cattle and sympatric Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from a protected area in Catalonia, NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Velarde, R; Porrero, M C; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2014-08-01

    Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic agent of worldwide importance found in a wide range of wild hosts. However, its prevalence in many popular game species has never been assessed. Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) is the main game caprinae of the Iberian Peninsula and around two thousand individuals are hunted every year for trophy or for home consumption. In this work, 313 Iberian ibexes from the Ports de Tortosa i Beseit National Game Reserve (NE Spain) were tested for Salmonella enterica in faeces, and anti microbial susceptibility was determined. The exact location of shooting or capture was recorded with a GPS device to study the links of Salmonella infection with cattle presence and human proximity. Additionally, samples were taken from cattle grazing inside this reserve (n = 73). Only three Iberian ibexes (0.96%, 95% CI 0.2-2.8) were positive to Salmonella (serotype Enteritidis, Bardo and 35:r:z35), while prevalence was moderate in cattle: 21.92% (95% CI 13.10-33.14, serotype Meleagridis, Anatum, Kedougou and Othmarschen). All isolates were susceptible to the anti microbial agents tested. Moreover, a case of fatal septicaemic salmonellosis in an 11-year-old male Iberian ibex is described where Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was isolated from the lung, liver and spleen samples. The low prevalence of Salmonella in Iberian ibex and the lack of shared serotypes suggest no association to cattle. Despite this, game meat aimed for human consumption should be examined, and it is strongly recommended that hunters and game keepers manipulate animals and carcasses under maximal hygienic conditions to avoid environmental contamination and human contagion. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Catalonia and Spain at the crossroads: financial and economic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Castells, Antoni (Castells Oliveres)

    2014-01-01

    In some large European countries, in recent decades, economic globalization has gone hand in hand with a powerful trend to political decentralization (this has been the case in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain). In Spain, and after years of apparent stability, the relations between Catalonia and Spain are experiencing troubled times. This paper examines particularly the main economic effects of both the staying together and the secession scenarios. Following the introduction, the ...

  12. Languages, Minorities and Education in Spain: The Case of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Ferran

    2000-01-01

    Examines Catalan's remarkable revival in Catalonia (Spain) in the past 20 years. Discusses the 1978 referendum designating "autonomous communities," their languages having co-official status with Spanish; increases in Catalan usage in many sectors and among the young; Catalan usage in education; and challenges related to bilingual…

  13. [Shared electronic health record in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimon-Suñol, Santiago; Rovira-Barberà, María; Acedo-Anta, Mateo; Nozal-Baldajos, Montserrat A; Guanyabens-Calvet, Joan

    2010-02-01

    Under the law adopted by its Parliament, the Government of Catalonia has developed an electronic medical record system for its National Health System (NHS). The model is governed by the following principles: 1) The citizen as owner of the data: direct access to his data and right to exercise his opposition's privileges; 2) Generate confidence in the system: security and confidentiality strength; 3) Shared model of information management: publishing system and access to organized and structured information, keeping in mind that the NHS of Catalonia is formally an "Integrated system of healthcare public use" (catalan acronym: SISCAT) with a wide variety of legal structures within its healthcare institutions; 4) Use of communication standards and catalogs as a need for technological and functional integration. In summary: single system of medical records shared between different actors, using interoperability tools and whose development is according to the legislation applicable in Catalonia and within its healthcare system. The result has been the establishment of a set of components and relation rules among which we highlight the following: 1) Display of information that collects sociodemographic data of the citizen, documents or reports (radiology, laboratory, therapeutic procedures, hospital release, emergency room), diagnostic health, prescription and immunization plus a summary screen with the most recent and relevant references; 2) Set of tools helping the user and direct messaging between professionals to facilitate their cooperation; 3) Model designed for supranational connections which will allow adding later, with ad hoc rules, clinical data provided by the private health sector or the proper citizen. 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleras, Luis; Salleras, Montse; Salvador, Patricia; Soldevila, Núria; Prat, Andreu; Garrido, Patricio; Domínguez, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the descriptive epidemiology and costs of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in people aged ≥50 years in Catalonia (Spain). The incidence of HZ in Catalonia was estimated by extrapolating the incidence data from Navarre (Spain) to the population of Catalonia. The incidence of PHN was estimated according to the proportion of cases of HZ in the case series of the Hospital del Sagrado Corazón de Barcelona that evolved to PHN. Drug costs were obtained directly from the prescriptions included in the medical record (according to official prices published by the General Council of the College of Pharmacists). The cost of care was obtained by applying the tariffs of the Catalan Health Institute to the number of outpatient visits and the number and duration of hospital admissions. The estimated annual incidence of HZ was 31 763, of which 21 532 (67.79%) were in patients aged ≥50 years. The respective figures for PHN were 3194 and 3085 (96.59) per annum, respectively. The mean cost per patient was markedly higher in cases of PHN (916.66 euros per patient) than in cases of HZ alone (301.52 euros per patient). The cost increased with age in both groups of patients. The estimated total annual cost of HZ and its complications in Catalonia was € 9.31 million, of which 6.54 corresponded to HZ and 2.77 to PHN. This is the first Spanish study of the disease burden of HZ in which epidemiological data and costs were collected directly from medical records. The estimated incidence of HZ is probably similar to the real incidence. In contrast, the incidence of PHN may be an underestimate, as around 25% of patients in Catalonia attend private clinics financed by insurance companies. It is also probable that the costs may be an underestimate as the costs derived from the prodromal phase were not included. In Catalonia, HZ and PHN cause an important disease burden (21 532 cases of HZ and 3085 de PHN with an annual cost

  15. A Mediterranean derecho: Catalonia (Spain), 17th August 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. Manuel

    2007-02-01

    At approximately 6:10 UTC in the morning of 17th August 2003, a squall line developed over south Catalonia (the northeast region of Spain). During the next 9 h, the squall moved rapidly northeast and crossed Catalonia and the French regions of Languedoc-Roussillon and Province, damaging and uprooting hundreds of trees and blocking trains in the region. Wind gusts reached were recoded up to 52 m/s with evidence of F2 intensity damage. This case study shows the characteristics of a derecho (widespread convectively induced windstorm). Radar observations of the evolving squall line show signatures often correlated with damaging surface winds, including: Bow echoes, Rear inflow notches, Rear inflow jets, Medium altitude radial convergence, Narrow gradient of very marked reflectivity, Development of isolated cells ahead of the convective line, A band of convection off the northern end of the line known as a "warm advection wing". When examining the different surface observations, satellite, radar imagery and cloud-to-ground lightning data, this case shows many similarities to those investigated in the United States. The derecho is a hybrid case, but has many characteristics of warm season derechoes. This emanates from a mesoscale convective complex (MCC) moving along a quasi-stationary, low-level thermal boundary in an environment characterized by high potential instability and relatively strong mid-tropospheric winds.

  16. Hepatitis A outbreaks in the vaccination era in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ana; Broner, Sonia; Torner, Nuria; Godoy, Pere; Batalla, Joan; Alvarez, Josep; Barrabeig, Irene; Camps, Neus; Carmona, Gloria; Minguell, Sofía; Sala, Rosa; Caylà, Joan; Domínguez, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis A outbreaks have a major impact on public health services and involve case investigation and intervention measures to susceptible contacts. At the end of 1998 a universal vaccination program with a combined hepatitis A+B vaccine was started in Catalonia (Spain) in 12-years-old preadolescents. The objective of this study was to compare the characteristics of hepatitis A outbreaks in the periods before and after the introduction of the preadolescent vaccination program and to estimate the preventable fraction of cases associated to outbreaks. The incidence rates of outbreaks, cases and hospitalization associated with each outbreak were calculated. Two periods were considered: before (1991-1998) and after (2000-2007) the introduction of mass vaccination. The preventable fraction and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of cases associated with outbreaks was calculated. The rate of associated cases with outbreaks was higher in the period before the vaccination program than in the post vaccination period (1.53 per 100,000 person-year vs 1.12 ; pcases associated to outbreaks was 19.6%(95%CI 6.7-32.5) in the 0-4 years group and 16.7% (95% CI 6.0-27.5) in the 5-14 years group, but the highest figure (38.6%; 95%CI 21.3-55.9) was observed in the 15-24 years age group. The estimated proportion of cases associated with outbreaks that would theoretically have been prevented with the vaccination program suggests that substantial benefits have been obtained in Catalonia in people aged less than 25 years.

  17. Dietary intake of organic pollutants in children from Catalonia, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocio, A.; Falco, G.; Llobet, J.M.; Domingo, J.L. [Lab. of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Reus (Spain); Mueller, L. [SGS GmbH, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Potential human toxicity of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is well known. Moreover, it is also well established that dietary intake is the major route of human exposure for most POPs. In recent years, concern on dietary intake of POPs and other organic environmental contaminants has notably increased. Dietary intake of these pollutants is of special interest in children populations, who in relation to their body weights consume greater quantities of food than adults. Consequently, they are more exposed to potentially toxic pollutants. In 2000, a wide survey on dietary intake of a number of organic contaminants by the general population of Catalonia Spain was carried out. The levels of the following pollutants were determined in an important number of food samples belonging to various food groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The present study was undertaken to estimate the dietary intake of the above pollutants by children between 4 and 9 years old, as well as to assess the potential health risks derived from this intake.

  18. Estimating the biogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds from the North Western Mediterranean vegetation of Catalonia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, R.; Gasso, S.; Baldasano, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    An estimation of the magnitude of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted by vegetation in Catalonia (NE of the Iberian Peninsula, Spain), in addition to their superficial and temporal distribution, is presented for policy and scientific (photochemical modelling) purposes. It was developed for the year 2000, for different time resolutions (hourly, daily, monthly and annual) and using a high-resolution land-use map (1-km 2 squared cells). Several meteorological surface stations provided air temperature and solar radiation data. An adjusted mathematical emission model taking account of Catalonia's conditions was built into a geographic information system (GIS) software. This estimation uses the latest information, mainly relating to: (1) emission factors; (2) better knowledge of the composition of Catalonia's forest cover; and (3) better knowledge of the particular emission behaviour of some Mediterranean vegetal species. Results depict an annual cycle with increasing values in the March-April period with the highest emissions in July-August, followed by a decrease in October-November. Annual biogenic NMVOCs emissions reach 46.9 kt, with monoterpenes the most abundant species (24.7 kt), followed by other biogenic volatile organic compounds (e.g. alcohols, aldehydes and acetone) (16.3 kt), and isoprene (5.9 kt). These compounds signify 52%, 35% and 13%, respectively, of total emission estimates. Peak hourly total emission for a winter day could be less than 10% of the corresponding value for a summer day

  19. A method for livestock waste management planning in NE Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teira-Esmatges, M.R.; Flotats, X.

    2003-01-01

    A method of decision-making on livestock wastes management in areas with nutrient surplus due to high livestock density is applied in Catalonia (NE Spain). Nutrient balance is made considering soil nitrogen application as the limiting factor. Special attention is paid to the centralized treatment option. The method presented consists of: - minimizing livestock waste generation (at farm scale) as a step previous to any other, both in amount and limiting components,; - applying the nitrogen balance method at regional and municipal scale and providing enough storage capacity in order to apply wastes in an agronomically correct way,; - spatially refining the results of the nitrogen balance by a proposed method that allows precisely pinpointing the hotspots of livestock waste generation, where centralized treatment might be an interesting option, and; - deciding on the waste treatment objectives, provided that treatments be necessary. Knowledge about the wastes, meeting the interests and merging the efforts of the various actors, as well as an adequate budget are necessary ingredients for the success of any waste management plan

  20. Teacher Gender and Student Performance in Mathematics. Evidence from Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escardíbul, Josep-Oriol; Mora, Toni

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of teacher gender towards students' test results in a blinded Math test administered to students in Catalonia (Spain). The data for this analysis are drawn from a sample of secondary school students who participated in an international blind-test known as the "Mathematical Kangaroo" in 2008. The estimation…

  1. [Intervention to improve hand hygiene compliance in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrequés, Jordi; Espuñes, Jordi; Bañeres, Joaquim

    2014-07-01

    Hand hygiene (HM) is the single most important measure and effective in reducing the risk of Healthcare acquired infections (IRAS). Although HM is an effective, simple and cheap measure, it is usual to find results of low compliance among health professionals. The main objective of this strategy has been to give new force to the promotion of HM in hospitals and educate professionals about the importance of this single action. The strategy was planned as a multicenter intervention study to promote HM in health centers of Catalonia in 2009-2010. The intervention is based on 4 main areas: a survey of barriers and facilitators, distribution of graphic material, training at different levels and measure of quality indicators. With this strategy a total of 57% of the number of acute beds in the concerted public and private network of hospitals were reached. The survey revealed that training was perceived as the main facilitator of the HM action. 15,376 professionals registered to the on-line training. The overall compliance with HM indications (based on "five moments for HM") was 56.45% in the acute areas. The campaigns and programs to promote HM carried out in the last four years in Catalonia has helped to achieve an increasing number of hospitals associated to the strategy of the Alliance for Patient Safety in Catalonia. The on-line curse acceptance was very high and seems a powerful tool to improve hand hygiene knowledge and compliance among health professionals. The compliance of HM seems to increase in the hospitals of Catalonia evaluated. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  2. Mumps: a year of enhanced surveillance in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Angela; Oviedo, Manuel; Torner, Nuria; Carmona, Gloria; Costa, Josep; Caylà, Joan; Sala, M Rosa; Barrabeig, Irene; Camps, Neus; Minguell, Sofia; Alvarez, Josep; Godoy, Pere; Jansà, Josep M

    2009-05-26

    Mumps is a vaccine-preventable disease candidate for elimination. Positive predictive value (PPV) of clinical case definition was assessed. During 2007, 410 suspected cases were reported in Catalonia: 348 fulfilled clinical case definition and 159 were laboratory confirmed. Incidence rate was 4.8 per 100,000 for cases that fulfilled the clinical definition, and 2.2 for laboratory confirmed cases. Global PPV was 44.5%; 38.5% in or =15 years (p=0.04). Most laboratory confirmed cases (72.3%) received at least one MMR dose. With sustained high MMR coverage, laboratory confirmation is necessary to control the disease and assess vaccine failure.

  3. Hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in Catalonia, Spain, 2003-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis among young children in Spain and worldwide. We evaluated hospitalizations due to community and hospital-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) and estimated related costs in children under 5 years old in Catalonia, Spain. Results We analyzed hospital discharge data from the Catalan Health Services regarding hospital admissions coded as infectious gastroenteritis in children under 5 for the period 2003-2008. In order to estimate admission incidence, we used population estimates for each study year published by the Statistic Institut of Catalonia (Idescat). The costs associated with hospital admissions due to rotavirus diarrhea were estimated for the same years. A decision tree model was used to estimate the threshold cost of rotavirus vaccine to achieve cost savings from the healthcare system perspective in Catalonia. From 2003 through 2008, 10655 children under 5 years old were admitted with infectious gastroenteritis (IGE). Twenty-two percent of these admissions were coded as RVGE, yielding an estimated average annual incidence of 104 RVGE hospitalizations per 100000 children in Catalonia. Eighty seven percent of admissions for RVGE occurred during December through March. The mean hospital stay was 3.7 days, 0.6 days longer than for other IGE. An additional 892 cases of presumed nosocomial RVGE were detected, yielding an incidence of 2.5 cases per 1000 child admissions. Total rotavirus hospitalization costs due to community acquired RVGE for the years 2003 and 2008 were 431,593 and 809,224 €, respectively. According to the estimated incidence and hospitalization costs, immunization would result in health system cost savings if the cost of the vaccine was 1.93 € or less. At a vaccine cost of 187 € the incremental cost per hospitalization prevented is 195,388 € (CI 95% 159,300; 238,400). Conclusions The burden of hospitalizations attributable to rotavirus appeared to be lower in

  4. Proximity Online Media in Catalonia (Spain. The Case Study of Nació Digital Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Puntí Brun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make a conceptualization of proximity digital media. It will define what is local and proximity communication as well as the history and evolution of online journalism and digital media features which are briefly reviewed. Business models that exist nowadays and the state of art in Catalonia (Spain will also be briefly analysed. From this theoretical framework it will be explained the case of Nació Digital and its territorial media. Initially the history of this media group will be developed, as well as its journalistic and business models. The paper seeks to underscore the importance of the journalistic model based on the tradition of the profession, the proximity information and the technology developed for this online media. The Nació Digital is an example of a successful media outlet judging from its audience figures (the second online media in Catalonia and its sustainable model business.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, Anna; Scorza, Valeria; Castellà, Joaquim; Lappin, Mike

    2014-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain, fresh faecal samples from 81 shelter dogs and 88 hunting dogs were collected and analysed by faecal flotation. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 71.6% in each population. In the shelter dog group, 67.9% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 9.8% were positive for helminths. In the hunting dog group, 20.4% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 63.6% were positive for helminths. A subset of Giardia-positive samples was evaluated by PCR; Giardia assemblages C or D were detected. These results suggest that comprehensive parasite control measures should be implemented in both shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The utilization of dental care services according to health insurance coverage in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Vladimir; Ferrer, Montse; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme; Pont, Angels; Schiaffino, Anna; Almansa, Josue; Tresserras, Ricard; Alonso, Jordi

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of dental care service use with health insurance and its evolution. The Catalan Health Interview Survey is a cross-sectional study conducted in 1994 (n = 15 000) and 2001-2 (n = 8400) by interviews at home to a representative sample of Catalonia (Spain). All the estimates were obtained by applying weights to restore the representativeness of the Catalonia general population. In the bivariate analysis, age, gender, social class and health insurance coverage were statistically associated with a dental visit in the previous year (P use in the previous year, from 26.7% in 1994 to 34.3% in 2002. Future studies will be needed to monitor this tendency.

  7. [Personal health records: the case of the Personal Health Folder of Catalonia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigí, Francesc; Cerdá Calafat, Ismael; Guanyabens Calvet, Joan; Carrau Vidal, Elisenda

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the possibilities of the Personal Health Folder and to identify the gap between the potential applications of this tool and what it offers through the Internet. The Personal Health Folder is presented, a project linked to the Shared Medical Record of Catalonia (Spain), which provides citizens with an access point to information about their health insurance, customized and supported by information and communication technologies. The project was carried out by the Ministry of Health of the Government of Catalonia (Generalitat de Catalunya) and data were gathered through an anonymous survey. The results were critical to obtain information on the suitability of the published data and on the expectations of a tool aimed at the general population. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Characteristics of pertussis outbreaks in Catalonia, Spain, 1997 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Inma; Broner, Sonia; Soldevila, Núria; Martínez, Ana; Godoy, Pere; Sala-Farré, Maria-Rosa; Company, Maria; Rius, Cristina; Domínguez, Angela; Group Of Catalonia, The Pertussis Working

    2015-01-01

    In Catalonia, pertussis outbreaks must be reported to the Department of Health. This study analyzed pertussis outbreaks between 1997 and 2010 in general and according to the characteristics of the index cases. The outbreak rate, hospitalization rate and incidence of associated cases and their 95%CI were calculated. Index cases were classified in two groups according to age (<15 years and ≥15 years) and the vaccine type received: whole cell vaccine (DTwP) or acellular vaccine (DTaP). During the study period, 230 outbreaks were reported. The outbreak rate was 2.43 × 10(-6) persons-year, and outbreaks ranged from 2 to 32 cases, with a median duration of 18 days. There were 771 associated cases, with an incidence rate of 0.8 × 10(-5) persons-year.   After classifying outbreaks according to the age of the index case, 126 outbreaks (1.3 × 10(-6) persons-year) had an index case aged <15 y and 87 (0.87 × 10(-6) person-year) had an index case aged ≥15 y (RR = 1.44, 95%CI 1.10-1.90; P = 0.007). Between 2003 and 2010, after the introduction of the acellular vaccine, the index case was vaccinated with DTwP vaccine in 25 outbreaks (0.43 × 10(-6) persons-year) and with DTaP vaccine in 32 outbreaks (0.55 × 10(-6) person-year) (RR = 0.78, 95%CI 0.46-1.31; P = 0.35). Of cases, 37.2% were correctly vaccinated, suggesting waning immunity of pertussis vaccine protection and endogenous circulation of pertussis. A greater number of outbreaks had an index case aged <15 y. No changes in the disease incidence, associated cases and hospitalization rate were observed after the introduction of DTaP.

  9. [Norovirus outbreaks in hospitals and nursing homes in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Pere; Domínguez, Angela; Alvarez, Josep; Camps, Neus; Barrabeig, Irene; Bartolomé, Rosa; Sala, María Rosa; Ferre, Dolors; Pañella, Helena; Torres, Joan; Minguell, Sofía; Alsedà, Miquel; Pumares, Analía

    2009-01-01

    The low infectious dose and multiple transmission routes favour the appearance of norovirus outbreaks. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of norovirus outbreaks in hospitals and nursing homes in Catalonia. A descriptive study of norovirus outbreaks between 15/10/2004 and 30/10/2005 was carried out. An epidemiological survey was completed for each outbreak. Norovirus in clinical samples was determined by PCR techniques. The incidence in each centre and the annual incidence of outbreaks by centre were calculated. Differences were calculated using the chi-square test and the Student's t test, taking a p value of > 0.05 as significant. Seventeen outbreaks (6 in hospitals and 11 in nursing homes) were detected. The global attack rate was 33.4% (652/1951) and was slightly higher in nursing homes (35.2%) than in hospitals (31.4%). A total of 94.1% (16/17) of outbreaks were caused by person-to-person transmission and only 5.9% (1/17) by foods. The mean number of days between the first and last case was 11.4 (SD = 6.9). The mean duration of symptoms was 2.39 days (SD=1.6), and was higher hospitals, 2.63 (SD=1.7), than in nursing homes, 1.97 (SD=1.7) (p < 0.0001). Norovirus is responsible for a large number of outbreaks due to person-to-person transmission. Control should be standardized to reduce the number and duration of outbreaks.

  10. Rickettsia felis in fleas from Catalonia (Northeast Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueras, María-Mercedes; Pons, Immaculada; Ortuño, Anna; Lario, Sergio; Segura, Ferran

    2011-05-01

    Rickettsia felis produces a syndrome indistinguishable from murine typhus, which has been described in Spain. R. felis is transmitted to humans by fleas. Although no clinical case has been described so far, serologic evidence of infections in humans, cats, and dogs has been obtained in our area. However, no study has been conducted regarding its presence in vectors. Recognition of routes of transmission is of great importance to prevent infection in humans. Taking into account these results, R. felis seems to be present in animals that are in contact with humans. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of R. felis in the fleas of cats and dogs from Northeast Spain, to show the presence of peridomestic cycle in our area. Between May 2006 and July 2008, 78 fleas were collected. Sixty-three fleas were recovered from kennels. Most of them were collected from cages and a few of them on dogs and cats living in kennels. Fifteen fleas were collected from dogs and cats attended at a veterinary clinic. Fleas were rinsed with ethanol, dried, identified, and stored at 4°C. DNA was extracted from each flea individually. Rickettsial DNA was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. OmpB-specific primers and molecular beacon probes targeting specifically R. felis were used. All 78 fleas were identified as Ctenocephalides felis. R. felis was detected in 34 (43.6%) fleas. No nucleic acids were amplified from negative controls and expected results were obtained from positive controls. Eight positive samples were also confirmed by sequencing. R. felis was found in a high percentage of Ct. felis from cats and dogs. It seems that there is a peridomestic cycle in Northeast Spain, which would allow contact of R. felis with humans.

  11. [Results of the implementation of the Bacteremia Zero project in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; Oliva, Glòria; Ferrer, Joan M; Riera, Alba; Palomar, Mercedes

    2014-07-01

    The nationwide Bacteremia Zero (BZ) Project consists in the simultaneous implementation of measures to prevent central venous catheter-related bacteremia (CVC-B) in critically ill patients and in the development of an integral safety plan. The objective is to present the results obtained after the implementation of the BZ project in the ICUs of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia, Spain. All patients admitted to ICUs in Catalonia participating in the ENVIN-HELICS registry between January 2009 and June 2010 were included. Information was provided by 36 (92.3%) of the total possible 39 ICUs. A total of 281 episodes of CVC-B were diagnosed (overall rate of 2.53 episodes per 1000 days of CVC). The rates have varied significantly between ICUs that participated in the project for more or less than 12 months (2.17 vs. 4.27 episodes per 1000 days of CVC, respectively; p<.0001). The implementation of the BZ Project in Catalonia has been associated with a decrease greater than 40% in the CVC-B rates in the ICUs of this community, which is much higher than the initial objective of 4 episodes per 1000 days of CVC). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  12. The impact of future summer temperature on public health in Barcelona and Catalonia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostro, Bart; Barrera-Gómez, Jose; Ballester, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-11-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported associations between increases in summer temperatures and risks of premature mortality. The quantitative implications of predicted future increases in summer temperature, however, have not been extensively characterized. We have quantified these effects for the four main cities in Catalonia, Spain (Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida, Girona). We first used case-crossover analysis to estimate the association between temperature and mortality for each of these cities for the period 1983 to 2006. These exposure-response (ER) functions were then combined with local measures of current and projected changes in population, mortality and temperature for the years 2025 and 2050. Predicted daily mean temperatures were based on the A1B greenhouse gas emission, "business-as-usual" scenario simulations derived from the ENSEMBLES project. Several different ER functions were examined and significant associations between temperature and mortality were observed for all four cities. For these four cities, the age-specific piecewise linear model predicts 520 (95%CI 340, 720) additional annual deaths attributable to the change in temperature in 2025 relative to the average from the baseline period of 1960-1990. For 2050, the estimate increases to 1,610 deaths per year during the warm season. For Catalonia as a whole, the point estimates for those two years are 720 and 2,330 deaths per year, respectively, or about 2 and 3% of the warm season. In comparing these predicted impacts with current causes of mortality, they clearly represent significant burdens to public health in Catalonia.

  13. The impact of immigration and vaccination in reducing the incidence of hepatitis B in Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of liver disease and liver cancer worldwide according to the World Health Organization. Following acute HBV infection, 1-5% of infected healthy adults and up to 90% of infected infants become chronic carriers and have an increased risk of cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the reduction in acute hepatitis B incidence and the universal vaccination programme in preadolescents in Catalonia (Spain), taking population changes into account, and to construct a model to forecast the future incidence of cases that permits the best preventive strategy to be adopted. Methods Reported acute hepatitis B incidence in Catalonia according to age, gender, vaccination coverage, percentage of immigrants and the year of report of cases was analysed. A statistical analysis was made using three models: generalized linear models (GLM) with Poisson or negative binomial distribution and a generalized additive model (GAM). Results The higher the vaccination coverage, the lower the reported incidence of hepatitis B (p  70%, the reduction in incidence was 2-fold higher than in groups with a coverage Catalonia after the introduction of the universal preadolescent vaccination programme, but the incidence increased in male immigrants of working age. Given the potential severity of hepatitis B for the health of individuals and for the community, universal vaccination programmes should continue and programmes in risk groups, especially immigrants, should be strengthened. PMID:22867276

  14. Is leishmaniasis widespread in Spain? First data on canine leishmaniasis in the province of Lleida, Catalonia, northeast Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballart, C; Alcover, M M; Portús, M; Gállego, M

    2012-02-01

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a widespread disease present in 42 countries. It is considered of epidemiological importance because of its role as a reservoir of human leishmaniasis. Knowledge of the real distribution of CanL and its emergence and/or re-emergence is of great importance in order to determine the extension of the disease. This work reports the detection of CanL in a farm dog located in a Pyrenean area of northwest Catalonia (Spain) where the disease was previously unknown. Since the dog had never left the region and sandfly vectors, Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus, were present in the farm the case is considered as autochthonous and is the first to be published in this region of Spain. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemiological trends of HIV-1 infection in blood donors from Catalonia, Spain (2005-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bes, Marta; Piron, Maria; Casamitjana, Natàlia; Gregori, Josep; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Ribera, Esteban; Quer, Josep; Puig, Lluís; Sauleda, Sílvia

    2017-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) subtype B is predominant in Spain. However, the recent arrival of immigrant populations has increased the prevalence of non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes and transmitted drug-resistance mutations in blood donors from the Catalonian region (northeastern Spain). HIV-1-positive blood donors identified in Catalonia from 2005 to 2014 were included. Demographic variables and risk factors for HIV-1 acquisition were recorded. HIV-1 subtyping was carried out by HIV-1 DNA polymerase region sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses were performed using the neighbor-joining method. During the study period, 2.8 million blood donations were screened, and 214 HIV-1-positive donors were identified, yielding an overall prevalence of 7.7 per 100,000 donations (89% men; mean age, 34 ± 10 years). Most HIV-1-positive donors were native to Spain (81%), and 61% were regular blood donors. When risk factors were known, 62% reportedly were men who had sex with men. HIV-1 subtyping was possible in 176 HIV-1-positive individuals: 143 (81%) had HIV-1 subtype B, and 33 (19%) had non-B subtypes. Most HIV-1 non-B subtypes were circulating recombinant forms (n = 20; 61%). Factors associated with HIV-1 subtype B were male sex (p = 0.007) and men who had sex with men (p HIV-1-positive blood donors in Catalonia. Continuous local epidemiological surveillance is required to implement optimal prevention strategies for controlling transfusion-transmitted HIV and to improve health policies regarding HIV infection. © 2017 AABB.

  16. Epidemiology and surveillance of pertussis among infants in Catalonia, Spain, during 1997-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga, Fernando; Roca, Joan; Méndez, Cristina; Rodrigo, Carlos; Pineda, Valentí; Martinez, Antoni; Baraibar, Romà; Boronat, Mercedes

    2005-06-01

    Despite high levels of vaccination coverage in Spain and Catalonia (98% in 2002), pertussis is a significant cause of morbidity among infants. The study aim was to estimate the incidence of hospitalizations for pertussis among infants from 1997 through 2001 in Catalonia. A retrospective review of records for patients <12 months of age with a diagnosis of pertussis (International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, code 033) at discharge from 11 Catalonian hospitals was performed. Three hundred forty-six patients were identified, 62 (1997), 28 (1998), 59 (1999), 150 (2000) and 47 (2001), of whom 284 (82%) were <4 months of age. The incidence of hospitalizations because of whooping cough from 1997 through 2001 in Catalonia was estimated at 118 cases per 100,000 inhabitants <12 months of age. Symptoms included paroxysmal cough (95%), cyanosis (67.9%), vomiting (36.7%) and apneic episodes (27.7%). Three infants (0.8%) died, all <2 months of age. Two hundred thirty-four patients (67.6%) were unvaccinated (222 patients were <3 months of age). Six patients (1.7%) were fully vaccinated (3 doses). Considering that only 220 patients <12 months of age were reported through the Catalonian Notification System in 1997-2001, at least 126 hospitalizations (36.4%) for pertussis were not reported to this system (mean difference per year, 32.6%; range, 8.4-56%). In this study, hospitalizations exceeded the number of notifications by at least 32.6%; therefore, the real incidence is likely to be greatly underestimated. Pertussis incidence remains high among infants, most of whom are <4 months of age and have had no or 1 dose of vaccine.

  17. Effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination for elderly people in Catalonia, Spain: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Angela; Salleras, Lluis; Fedson, David S; Izquierdo, Conchita; Ruiz, Laura; Ciruela, Pilar; Fenoll, Asuncion; Casal, Julio

    2005-05-01

    Observational studies offer an approach to evaluating the effectiveness of vaccination programs. We evaluated the effectiveness of a 23-valent pneumococcal vaccination program for elderly people in Catalonia, Spain, in a matched-set case-control study. We identified 149 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease among patients aged > or =65 years who were hospitalized in 12 large hospitals in Catalonia during the period of 1 January 2001 through 31 March 2002. We selected 2 hospital control patients and 1 outpatient control subject for each case patient, matching on the basis of age and underlying medical conditions. We obtained their pneumococcal vaccination histories and used conditional logistic regression to determine effectiveness of vaccination. Among all 149 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease, 131 (87.9%) were caused by vaccine or vaccine-related serotypes. In the adjusted analysis, overall effectiveness of vaccination against infections due to all serotypes was 70% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48%-82%). Among immunocompetent subjects with or without high-risk conditions, effectiveness of vaccination was 76% (95% CI, 51%-88%), but among immunocompromised subjects it was 50% (95% CI, -44% to 82%). Among subjects with infections due to vaccine or vaccine-related serotypes, effectiveness of vaccination was 72% (95% CI, 50%-85%) overall and 78% (95% CI, 50%-90%) in those who were immunocompetent, but it was only 46% (95% CI, -54% to 81%) in those who were immunocompromised. Overall effectiveness of vaccination was 65% (95% CI, 35%-81%) during the noninfluenza period. Pneumococcal vaccination was effective in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease among all elderly persons in Catalonia. Effectiveness was greater in immunocompetent persons, most of whom had underlying high-risk conditions. The number of subjects was too small to determine whether vaccination was effective in those who were immunocompromised.

  18. [Multidimensional measurement of precarious employment: social distribution and its association with health in Catalonia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Julià, Mireia; Tarafa, Gemma; Mir, Jordi; Molinero, Emilia; Vives, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    To show the prevalence of precarious employment in Catalonia (Spain) for the first time and its association with mental and self-rated health, measured with a multidimensional scale. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the II Catalan Working Conditions Survey (2010) with a subsample of employed workers with a contract. The prevalence of precarious employment using a multidimensional scale and its association with health was calculated using multivariate log-binomial regression stratified by gender. The prevalence of precarious employment in Catalonia was high (42.6%). We found higher precariousness in women, youth, immigrants, and manual and less educated workers. There was a positive gradient in the association between precarious employment and poor health. Precarious employment is associated with poor health in the working population. Working conditions surveys should include questions on precarious employment and health indicators, which would allow monitoring and subsequent analyses of health inequalities. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Sexual risk behaviour and its determinants among men who have sex with men in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, C; Munoz, R; Zaragoza, K; Casabona, J

    2009-11-26

    To evaluate the prevalence of sexual risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Catalonia and to identify sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioural factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with casual partners a convenience sample of 850 MSM was recruited in 2006. An anonymous questionnaire was used to explore risk behaviours during the previous 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to examine the variables associated with UAI. Mean age was 41 years and 20.4% were immigrants. Among those with casual partners (91.7% of all respondents), 31.4% had UAI. The multivariate analysis revealed that the likelihood of UAI was higher in men who were HIV-positive (OR: 1.77), used more than four drugs before sex (OR: 4.90 for +6), were not from Spain (OR: 2.10 for Latin American; OR: 1.86 for other immigrants), had more than 20 sexual partners (OR: 1.56), met casual sex partners on the Internet (OR:1.45) and presented a high level of internalised homophobia (OR: 2.40). HIV/STI prevention programmes for MSM in Catalonia should incorporate activities that strengthen self-esteem, take into account the impact of internalised homophobia, and adapt to the sociocultural reality of immigrants. Furthermore, these programmes should also address substance abuse and alert HIV-positive men about the risk of HIV re-infection and transmission of other STI.

  20. The current screening programme for congenital transmission of Chagas disease in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, L; Oliveira, I; Ciruela, P; Plasencia, A

    2011-09-22

    Due to considerable numbers of migrants from Chagas disease-endemic countries living in Catalonia, the Catalonian Health Department has recently implemented a screening programme for preventing congenital transmission, targeting Latin American pregnant women who attend antenatal consultations. Diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in women is based on two positive serological tests. Screening of newborns from mothers with positive serology is based on a parasitological test during the first 48 hours of life and/or conventional serological analysis at the age of nine months. If either of these tests is positive, treatment with benznidazole is started following the World Health Organization's recommendations. The epidemiological surveillance of the programme is based on the Microbiological Reporting System of Catalonia, a well established network of laboratories. Once a positive case is reported, the responsible physician is asked to complete a structured epidemiological questionnaire. Clinical and demographic data are registered in the Voluntary Case Registry of Chagas Disease, a database administered by the Catalonian Health Department. It is expected that this programme will improve the understanding of the real burden of Chagas disease in the region. Furthermore, this initiative could encourage the implementation of similar programmes in other regions of Spain and even in other European countries.

  1. Inequalities in suicide mortality rates and the economic recession in the municipalities of Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurina, Carme; Marzo, Manel; Saez, Marc

    2015-09-08

    While previous research already exists on the impact of the current economic crisis and whether it leads to an increase in mortality by suicide, our objective in this paper is to determine if the increase in the suicide rate in Catalonia, Spain from 2010 onwards has been statistically significant and whether it is associated with rising unemployment. We used hierarchical mixed models, separately considering the crude death rate of suicides for municipalities with more than and less than 10,000 inhabitants as dependent variables both unstratified and stratified according to gender and/or age group. In municipalities with 10,000 or more inhabitants there was an increase in the relative risk of suicide from 2009 onwards. This increase was only statistically significant for working-aged women (16-64 years). In municipalities with less than 10,000 inhabitants the relative risk showed a decreasing trend even after 2009. In no case did we find the unemployment rate to be associated (statistically significant) with the suicide rate. The increase in the suicide rate from 2010 in Catalonia was not statistically significant as a whole, with the exception of working-aged women (16-64 years) living in municipalities with 10,000 or more inhabitants. We have not found this increase to be associated with rising unemployment in any of the cases. Future research into the effects of economic recessions on suicide mortality should take into account inequalities by age, sex and size of municipalities.

  2. Monitoring of the Gasoline Oxygenate MTBE and BTEX Compounds in Groundwater in Catalonia (Northeast Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fraile

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Headspace (HS gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (HS-GC-FID and purge and trap (P gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (P were used for the determination of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE and benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTEX in groundwater. In this work, we present the first data on the levels of MTBE and BTEX in different groundwater wells in the area of Catalonia (northeast Spain. This monitoring campaign corresponded to 28 groundwater wells that were located near petrol service stations, oil refinery storage tanks, and/or chemical industry at different locations of Catalonia during the period of 1998/1999. The levels of MTBE detected varied between 4—300 μg/l, but two sites had MTBE levels up to 3 and 13 mg/l. In many cases, the BTEX levels were below 1 μg/l, whereas 7 sites had levels varying from 19 μg/l up to 3 mg/l. Most of them were related to leakage from underground tanks in petrol service stations, while the remaining three corresponded respectively to chemical industrial pollution of undetermined origin and to a leak from high-ground petrol tanks in petrochemical refinery factories. The aquifers involved were constituted by detritus coarse materials, sands, and conglomerates. Piezometric levels were roughly comprised between 3 and 40 m, and permeability (K and transmissivity (T values were estimated from field measurements.

  3. Incidence, epidemiology and clinical features of Kawasaki disease in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Manubens, Judith; Antón, Jordi; Bou, Rosa; Iglesias, Estíbaliz; Calzada-Hernandez, Joan

    2016-01-01

    To assess the incidence, epidemiology and clinical features of Kawasaki disease (KD) in Catalonia (northeast region of Spain). This was an observational population-based study including all Paediatric Units in Catalonia, under both public and private management. Retrospective data retrieval was performed for 10 years (2004-2013). A 12-month (March 2013 to March 2014) prospective collection of new cases of KD was carried out to determine the incidence of KD. Data from 399 patients over the 10-year study period was analysed, revealing that 233 (58.4%) had complete KD, 159 (39.8) incomplete KD and 7 (1.7%) were considered atypical KD. Mean annual incidence was 3.5/105 children 10(th) day of illness, ages 8 yo and the presence of sterile piuria, aseptic meningitis, abdominal pain and uveitis at diagnosis were found to have higher risk of coronary aneurisms (CAA) (pIncidence, clinical features and treatment plans in our cohort are similar to those described in other European studies.

  4. Dissemination of periodic mammography and patterns of use, by birth cohort, in Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rue, Montserrat; Carles, Misericordia; Vilaprinyo, Ester; Martinez-Alonso, Montserrat; Espinas, Josep-Alfons; Pla, Roger; Brugulat, Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Background In Catalonia (Spain) breast cancer mortality has declined since the beginning of the 1990s. The dissemination of early detection by mammography and the introduction of adjuvant treatments are among the possible causes of this decrease, and both were almost coincident in time. Thus, understanding how these procedures were incorporated into use in the general population and in women diagnosed with breast cancer is very important for assessing their contribution to the reduction in breast cancer mortality. In this work we have modeled the dissemination of periodic mammography and described repeat mammography behavior in Catalonia from 1975 to 2006. Methods Cross-sectional data from three Catalan Health Surveys for the calendar years 1994, 2002 and 2006 was used. The dissemination of mammography by birth cohort was modeled using a mixed effects model and repeat mammography behavior was described by age and survey year. Results For women born from 1938 to 1952, mammography clearly had a period effect, meaning that they started to have periodic mammograms at the same calendar years but at different ages. The age at which approximately 50% of the women were receiving periodic mammograms went from 57.8 years of age for women born in 1938–1942 to 37.3 years of age for women born in 1963–1967. Women in all age groups experienced an increase in periodic mammography use over time, although women in the 50–69 age group have experienced the highest increase. Currently, the target population of the Catalan Breast Cancer Screening Program, 50–69 years of age, is the group that self-reports the highest utilization of periodic mammograms, followed by the 40–49 age group. A higher proportion of women of all age groups have annual mammograms rather than biennial or irregular ones. Conclusion Mammography in Catalonia became more widely implemented during the 1990s. We estimated when cohorts initiated periodic mammograms and how frequently women are receiving them

  5. Estimation of the individual slaughterhouse surveillance sensitivity for bovine tuberculosis in Catalonia (North-Eastern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Saenz, A; Napp, S; Lopez, S; Casal, J; Allepuz, A

    2015-10-01

    The achievement of the Officially Tuberculosis Free (OTF) status in regions with low bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) herd prevalence, as is the case of North-Eastern Spain (Catalonia), might be a likely option in the medium term. In this context, risk-based approaches could be an alternative surveillance strategy to the costly current strategy. However, before any change in the system may be contemplated, a reliable estimate of the sensitivity of the different surveillance components is needed. In this study, we focused on the slaughterhouse component. The probability of detection of a bTB-infected cattle by the slaughterhouses in Catalonia was estimated as the product of three consecutive probabilities: (P1) the probability that a bTB-infected animal arrived at the slaughterhouse presenting Macroscopically Detectable Lesions (MDL); (P2) the probability that MDL were detected by the routine meat inspection process and (P3) the probability that the veterinary officer suspected bTB and sent the sample for laboratory confirmation. The first probability was obtained from data collected through the bTB eradication program carried out in Catalonia between 2005 and 2008, while the last two were obtained through the expert opinion of the veterinary officers working at the slaughterhouses who fulfilled a questionnaire administered during 2014. The bTB surveillance sensitivity of the different cattle slaughterhouses in Catalonia obtained in this study was 31.4% (CI 95%: 28.6-36.2), and there were important differences among them. The low bTB surveillance sensitivity was mainly related with the low probability that a bTB-infected animal arrived at the slaughterhouse presenting MDL (around 44.8%). The variability of the sensitivity among the different slaughterhouses could be explained by significant associations between some variables included in the survey and P2. For instance, factors like attendance to training courses, number of meat technicians and speed of the slaughter chain

  6. Catalonia-Spain political conflict and the potential application of Article 7 TEU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    Catalonia-Spain political conflict and the potential application of Article 7 TEU My presentation will explore the appropriateness of applying Article 7 TEU in response to potential disproportionate measures taken by a Member State as a reaction to the threat of celebration of a referendum for self...... and the rule of law; the limits of the principle of non-intervention; the definition of Nation and the principle of self-determination. The celebration of a referendum without the state´s consent also tensions and contrasts some of the EU founded values (Article 2 TEU) promoted and safeguarded by art. 7 TEU....... On the one hand we have the rule of law and on the other hand we have democracy and freedom of expression. This presentation will focus in the second section of the precedent sentence, meaning the collision of EU founded values. The presentation will follow analysing the meaning of Article 7 TEU designed...

  7. Application of seasonal forecasting for the drought forecasting in Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Zaragoza, Albert; Aznar, Blanca; Cabot, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    Low flows and droughts are a hydro-climatic feature in Spain (Alvarez et al, 2008). The construction of dams as water reservoirs has been a usual tool to manage the water resources for agriculture and livestock, industries and human needs (MIMAM, 2000, 2007). The last drought that has affected Spain has last four years in Catalonia, from 2004 to the spring of 2008, and it has been particularly hard as a consequence of the precipitation deficit in the upper part of the rivers that nourish the main dams. This problem increases when the water scarcity affects very populated areas, like big cities. The Barcelona city, with more than 3.000.000 people concentrated in the downtown and surrounding areas is a clear example. One of the objectives of the SOSTAQUA project is to improve the water resources management in real time, in order to improve the water supply in the cities in the framework of sustainable development. The work presented here deals with the application of seasonal forecasting to improve the water management in Catalonia, particularly in drought conditions. A seasonal prediction index has been created as a linear combination of climatic data and the ECM4 prediction that has been validated too. This information has implemented into a hydrological model and it has been applied to the last drought considering the real water demands of population, as well as to the water storage evolution in the last months. It has been found a considerable advance in the forecasting of water volume into reservoirs. The advantage of this methodology is that it only requires seasonal forecasting free through internet. Due to the fact that the principal rivers that supply water to Barcelona, birth on the Pyrenees and Pre-Pyrenees region, the analysis and precipitation forecasting is focused on this region (Zaragoza, 2008).

  8. [Medication adherence and use of health services in patients with psychosis in the region of Osona (Catalonia, Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmarola-Ginesta, Joan; Chirveches-Pérez, Emilia; Puigoriol-Juvanteny, Emma; Bleda-García, Francesc; Villa-Ribas, Ester; Arrufat-Nebot, Francesc Xavier

    2014-04-01

    To describe and analyze sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, medication adherence and use of health resources by country of birth of psychosis diagnosed patients treated with long-term antipsychotic injectable drugs in the region of Osona (Catalonia, Spain). Descriptive observational study in psychosis diagnosed patients over 18 years old, receiving long-term antipsychotic injectable treatment and treated at a Mental Health Center for adults in Vic (Catalonia, Spain). 185 patients were included, of them: 163 (88.1%) were born in Spain and 22 (17.9%) abroad. The sample was gender homogeneous with differences in age, employment status, family situation and diagnosis (p Spain-born patients and 9.1% of abroad-born patients received the injectable treatment at Primary Care Center (p Spain and 6 (27.3%) abroad (p = 0.012). All patients diagnosed with psychosis, either born or not in Spain, describe good adherence to long-term antipsychotic injectable treatment, with similar use of health resources from a quantitative point of view and some differences in the type of visits.

  9. The "Prediflood" database of historical floods in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) AD 1035-2013, and its potential applications in flood analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriendos, M.; Ruiz-Bellet, J. L.; Tuset, J.; Mazón, J.; Balasch, J. C.; Pino, D.; Ayala, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    "Prediflood" is a database of historical floods that occurred in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula), between the 11th century and the 21st century. More than 2700 flood cases are catalogued, and more than 1100 flood events. This database contains information acquired under modern historiographical criteria and it is, therefore, suitable for use in multidisciplinary flood analysis techniques, such as meteorological or hydraulic reconstructions.

  10. Monitoring persistent organic pollutants in an industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, M.; Schuhmacher, M.; Domingo, J.L. [Rovira i Virgili University, Reus (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    It is well known that combustion of different materials is one of the most important sources of environmental contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Therefore, environments affected by this kind of processes should be strictly controlled. In relation to it, the 2001 Stockholm Convention for the regulation of POPs was undertaken in order to establish agreements and mechanisms to erase the release of 12 POPs on a global scale. While polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were included in this list, other pollutants such as polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be added in a near future. Since more than 30 years ago, one of the largest chemical and petrochemical industrial complexes in Southern Europe is located in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). Several chemical industries (such as a PVC production facility and a chlor-alkali plant) and a big oil refinery are located in this residential area (up to 300,000 inhabitants), together with a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) and a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI). Moreover, the presence of a highway and several roads with an important traffic density influences also the environment of the zone. The current study is a preliminary investigation to assess the levels of several POPs (PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs and PAHs) in soil and vegetation samples collected in Tarragona's industrial and residential areas and to compare them with data obtained in unpolluted sites as well as in other industrial and residential zones.

  11. Environmental performance of construction waste: Comparing three scenarios from a case study in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, O; Pasqualino, J C; Castells, F

    2010-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate environmental impacts of construction wastes in terms of the LIFE 98 ENV/E/351 project. Construction wastes are classified in accordance with the Life Program Environment Directive of the European Commission. Three different scenarios to current waste management from a case study in Catalonia (Spain) have been compared: landfilling, recycling and incineration, and these scenarios were evaluated by means of Life Cycle Assessment. The recommendations of the Catalan Waste Catalogue and the European Waste Catalogue have been taken into account. Also, the influence of transport has been evaluated. Results show that in terms of the Global Warming Potential, the most environmentally friendly treatment was recycling, followed by incineration and lastly landfilling. According to the influence of treatment plants location on the GWP indicator, we observe that incineration and recycling of construction wastes are better than landfilling, even for long distances from the building site to the plants. This is true for most wastes except for the stony types, than should be recycled close to the building site. In summary, data from construction waste of a Catalan case study was evaluated using the well established method of LCA to determine the environmental impacts. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental performance of construction waste: Comparing three scenarios from a case study in Catalonia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, O.; Pasqualino, J.C.; Castells, F.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate environmental impacts of construction wastes in terms of the LIFE 98 ENV/E/351 project. Construction wastes are classified in accordance with the Life Program Environment Directive of the European Commission. Three different scenarios to current waste management from a case study in Catalonia (Spain) have been compared: landfilling, recycling and incineration, and these scenarios were evaluated by means of Life Cycle Assessment. The recommendations of the Catalan Waste Catalogue and the European Waste Catalogue have been taken into account. Also, the influence of transport has been evaluated. Results show that in terms of the Global Warming Potential, the most environmentally friendly treatment was recycling, followed by incineration and lastly landfilling. According to the influence of treatment plants location on the GWP indicator, we observe that incineration and recycling of construction wastes are better than landfilling, even for long distances from the building site to the plants. This is true for most wastes except for the stony types, than should be recycled close to the building site. In summary, data from construction waste of a Catalan case study was evaluated using the well established method of LCA to determine the environmental impacts.

  13. Prevalence of selected infectious disease agents in stray cats in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ravicini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objective of the current study was to investigate the prevalence rates of the following infectious agents in 116 stray cats in the Barcelona area of Spain: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia felis, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia species, feline calicivirus (FCV, feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species. Methods Serum antibodies were used to estimate the prevalence of exposure to A phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, B burgdorferi, Ehrlichia species and FIV; serum antigens were used to assess for infection by D immitis and FeLV; and molecular assays were used to amplify nucleic acids of Anaplasma species, Bartonella species, C felis, D immitis, Ehrlichia species, FCV, FHV-1, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species from blood and nasal or oral swabs. Results Of the 116 cats, 63 (54.3% had evidence of infection by Bartonella species, FeLV, FIV or a haemoplasma. Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species or Rickettsia species DNA was not amplified from these cats. A total of 18/116 cats (15.5% were positive for FCV RNA (six cats, Mycoplasma species DNA (six cats, FHV-1 DNA (three cats or C felis DNA (three cats. Conclusions and relevance This study documents that shelter cats in Catalonia are exposed to many infectious agents with clinical and zoonotic significance, and that flea control is indicated for cats in the region.

  14. Hepatitis delta genotypes in chronic delta infection in the northeast of Spain (Catalonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrina, M; Buti, M; Jardi, R; Quer, J; Rodriguez, F; Pascual, C; Esteban, R; Guardia, J

    1998-06-01

    Based on genetic analysis of variants obtained around the world, three genotypes of the hepatitis delta virus have been defined. Hepatitis delta virus variants have been associated with different disease patterns and geographic distributions. To determine the prevalence of hepatitis delta virus genotypes in the northeast of Spain (Catalonia) and the correlation with transmission routes and clinical disease, we studied the nucleotide divergence of the consensus sequence of HDV RNA obtained from 33 patients with chronic delta hepatitis (24 were intravenous drug users and nine had no risk factors), and four patients with acute self-limited delta infection. Serum HDV RNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction technique and a fragment of 350 nucleotides (nt 910 to 1259) was directly sequenced. Genetic analysis of the nucleotide consensus sequence obtained showed a high degree of conservation among sequences (93% of mean). Comparison of these sequences with those derived from different geographic areas and pertaining to genotypes I, II and III, showed a mean sequence identity of 92% with genotype I, 73% with genotype II and 61% with genotype III. At the amino acid level (aa 115 to 214), the mean identity was 87% with genotype I, 63% with genotype II and 56% with genotype III. Conserved regions included the RNA editing domain, the carboxyl terminal 19 amino acids of the hepatitis delta antigen and the polyadenylation signal of the viral mRNA. Hepatitis delta virus isolates in the northeast of Spain are exclusively genotype I, independently of the transmission route and the type of infection. No hepatitis delta virus subgenotypes were found, suggesting that the origin of hepatitis delta virus infection in our geographical area is homogeneous.

  15. Statistical downscaling of daily precipitation over Llobregat river basin in Catalonia (Spain) using three downscaling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinas, R.; Versini, P.-A.; Sempere, D.; Escaler, I.

    2009-09-01

    environmental impact studies. Downscaling methods to assess the effect of large-scale circulations on local parameters have. Statistical downscaling methods are based on the view that regional climate can be conditioned by two factors: large-scale climatic state and regional/local features. Local climate information is derived by first developing a statistical model which relates large-scale variables or "predictors" for which GCMs are trustable to regional or local surface "predictands" for which models are less skilful. The main advantage of these methods is that they are computationally inexpensive, and can be applied to outputs from different GCM experiments. Three statistical downscaling methods are applied: Analogue method, Delta Change and Direct Forcing. These methods have been used to determine daily precipitation projections at rain gauge location to study the intensity, frequency and variability of storms in a context of climate change in the Llobregat River Basin in Catalonia, Spain. This work is part of the European project "Water Change" (included in the LIFE + Environment Policy and Governance program). It deals with Medium and long term water resources modelling as a tool for planning and global change adaptation. Two stakeholders involved in the project provided the historical time series: Catalan Water Agency (ACA) and the State Meteorological Agency (AEMET).

  16. Groundwater dependence of coastal lagoons: The case of La Pletera salt marshes (NE Catalonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menció, A.; Casamitjana, X.; Mas-Pla, J.; Coll, N.; Compte, J.; Martinoy, M.; Pascual, J.; Quintana, X. D.

    2017-09-01

    Coastal wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems of the world, playing an important role in coastal defense and wildlife conservation. These ecosystems, however, are usually affected by human activities, which may cause a loss and degradation of their ecological status, a decline of their biodiversity, an alteration of their ecological functioning, and a limitation of their ecosystem services. La Pletera salt marshes (NE Spain) are located in a region mainly dominated by agriculture and tourism activities. Part of these wetlands and lagoons has been affected by an incomplete construction of an urban development and in this moment is the focus of a Life+ project, whose aim is to restore this protected area. Several studies have analyzed the role of hydrological regime in nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton in this area, however, the role of groundwater was never considered as a relevant factor in the lagoon dynamics, and its influence is still unknown. In this study, the hydrogeological dynamics in La Pletera salt marshes has been analyzed, as a basis to set sustainable management guidelines for this area. In order to determine their dependence on groundwater resources, monthly hydrochemical (with major ions and nutrients) and isotopic (δ18OH2O and δD) campaigns have been conducted, from November 2014 to October 2015. In particular, groundwater from six wells, surface water from two nearby streams and three permanent lagoons, and sea water was considered in these surveys. Taking into account the meteorological data and the water levels in the lagoons, the General Lake Model has been conducted to determine, not only evaporation and rainfall occurring in the lagoons, but also the total inflows and outflows. In addition, the Gonfiantini isotopic model, together with equilibrium chemical-speciation/mass transfer models, has been used to analyze the evaporation and the physicochemical processes affecting the lagoons. Results show that during the dry

  17. Gender differences in HIV risk behaviours among intravenous drug users in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Cinta; Casabona, Jordi; Espelt, Albert; Majó, Xavier; Meroño, Mercè; Gonzalez, Victoria; Brugal, Maria Teresa

    2013-01-01

    To describe gender differences in injection and sexual risks behaviours, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence among injecting drug users (IDU) in Catalonia, Spain. Cross-sectional studies in 2008-2009 (n=748) and 2010-2011 (n=597) in the network of harm reduction centres. Face to face interviews were conducted and oral fluid samples were collected to estimate HIV/HCV prevalence. Female were more likely than male IDU to have had a steady sexual partner (68.2% versus 44.9%), to have had an IDU steady sexual partner (46.6% versus 15.1%) and to have exchanged sex for money or drugs in the last 6 months (25.5% versus 2.3%). There were no gender differences in injecting risk behaviours. HIV prevalence was 38.7% (91/235) in women and 31.5% (347/1103) in men (p=0.031). HIV prevalence among female IDU who reported having exchange sex for money or drugs was 53.3% (32/60). The prevalence of HCV was 67.4% (159/236) and 73.6% (810/1101) in female and male IDU, respectively (p=0.053). After adjustment by immigrant status, age and years of injection, differences among HIV/HCV prevalence by gender were not significant. This study demonstrated differences in sexual risk behaviours between male and female IDU, but failed to find gender differences in injecting risk behaviours. Apart from that, the higher prevalence of HIV among women than among men, together with a lower prevalence of HCV, provides evidence that sexual transmission of HIV is important among female IDU. Additional studies are needed to analyze in-depth these specific risk factors for women in order to develop appropriate prevention and health education programs. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving suicide mortality statistics in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain) between 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbería, Eneko; Gispert, Rosa; Gallo, Belén; Ribas, Gloria; Puigdefàbregas, Anna; Freitas, Adriana; Segú, Elena; Torralba, Pilar; García-Sayago, Francisco; Estarellas, Aina

    2016-07-20

    Monitoring and preventing suicidal behaviour requires, among other data, knowing suicide deaths precisely. They often appear under-reported or misclassified in the official mortality statistics. The aim of this study is to analyse the under-reporting found in the suicide mortality statistics of Tarragona (a province of Catalonia, Spain). The analysis takes into account all suicide deaths that occurred in the Tarragona Area of the Catalan Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (TA-CILMFS) between 2004 and 2012. The sources of information were the death data files of the Catalan Mortality Register, as well as the Autopsies Files of the TA-CILMFS. Suicide rates and socio-demographic profiles were statistically compared between the suicide initially reported and the final one. The mean percentage of non-reported cases in the period was 16.2%, with a minimum percentage of 2.2% in 2005 and a maximum of 26.8% in 2009. The crude mortality rate by suicide rose from 6.6 to 7.9 per 100,000 inhabitants once forensic data were incorporated. Small differences were detected between the socio-demographic profile of the suicide initially reported and the final one. Supplementary information was obtained on the suicide method, which revealed a significant increase in poisoning and suicides involving trains. An exhaustive review of suicide deaths data from forensic sources has led to an improvement in the under-reported statistical information. It also improves the knowledge of the method of suicide and personal characteristics. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Comorbidity and metabolic syndrome in patients with multiple sclerosis from Asturias and Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Ruíz-Beato, Elena; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Maurino, Jorge

    2017-07-17

    The impact of comorbidity on multiple sclerosis (MS) is a new area of interest. Limited data on the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is currently available. The aim of this study was to estimate the presence of comorbid conditions and MetS in a sample of adult patients with MS. A retrospective, cohort study was conducted using electronic medical records from 19 primary care centres in Catalonia and Asturias, Spain. The number of chronic diseases (diagnoses), the Charlson Comorbidity Index and the individual Case-mix Index were used to assess general comorbidity variables. MetS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Patients were distributed into two groups according to the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score: 0-3.5 and 4-10. A total of 222 patients were studied (mean age = 45.5 (SD 12.5) years, 64.4% were female and 62.2% presented a diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS). Mean EDSS score was 3.2 (SD 2.0). Depression (32.4%), dyslipidaemia (31.1%), hypertension (23.0%) and obesity (22.5%) were the most common comorbidities. Overall MetS prevalence was 31.1% (95% CI: 25.0-37.2%). Patients with an EDSS ≥ 4.0 showed a significantly higher number of comorbidities (OR=2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-3.0; p<0.001). MS patients had a high prevalence of MetS. Screening for comorbidity should be part of standard MS care. Further studies are necessary to confirm this association and the underlying mechanisms of MS and its comorbidities.

  20. Geographical differences in whooping cough in Catalonia, Spain, from 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Whooping cough is a communicable disease whose incidence has increased in recent years in some countries with vaccination. Since 1981, in Catalonia (Spain), cases must be reported to the Public Health Department. In 1997, surveillance changed from aggregated counts to individual report and the surveillance system was improved after 2002. Catalan public health is universal with equal coverage geographically. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in whooping cough incidence in rural and urban counties. Methods Cases in 1990–2010 were classified as rural or urban. Incidences and risk ratios (RR) between urban and rural counties and 95% CI were calculated. Associations between rural and urban counties and structural changes during the study period were analysed. Results Twelve years of the whole study period showed differences in incidence between rural and urban counties. The incidence was higher in urban counties in seven years and rural counties in five years. There was a positive association of whooping cough incidence in rural and urban counties in four-week periods. Structural changes were detected in the following four-week periods: 4th in 1993, 7th in 1996 and 3rd 2005 in rural counties and 5th 1993, 9th in 1996 and 8th in 2007 in urban counties. Conclusions Differences in whooping cough between rural and urban counties were found. In most years, the incidence was higher in urban than in rural counties. Rural and urban counties show similar cyclic behaviour when four-week periods were considered. PMID:24649975

  1. Geographical variability of the incidence of Type 1 diabetes in subjects younger than 30 years in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellana, Rosa; Ascaso, Carlos; Carrasco, Josep L; Castell, Conxa; Tresserras, Ricard

    2009-04-04

    We decided to assess the geographical variability of the incidence of Type 1 diabetes in Catalonia (Spain) in subjects younger than 30 years at onset during the period 1989-1998. The effect of sex, age at onset, periods of years, and population density was also analyzed. Data were obtained from the prospective Catalan Registry of Diabetes Mellitus. Generalized linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of the risk factors and to find out the geographical distribution. The best model was selected by the AKAIKE information criterion. The crude incidence of type 1 diabetes in subjects younger than 30 years was 11.8/100,000/year (95% CI 11.4-12.3). The incidence was similar between males and females in the 0-14 age group. However, there was a male preponderance in young adults. The incidence did not vary annually and was not associated with population density. The incidence did not present a spatial pattern around Catalonia. There was an unstructured geographical variability. Some regions of Catalonia displayed values of type I diabetes higher or lower than the expected incidence. Counties with extreme values of incidence were specific for each demographic group and in no case did these counties make up clusters, suggesting that there are explanatory factors with patterns of geographic distribution. The incidence of diabetes in young male adults in some counties was similar to that of European countries with a high incidence.

  2. INVESTIGATING DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN E-SERVICES IMPLEMENTING OR NOT ISO 9001: CUSTOMERS' OUTLOOK IN THE BACKDROP OF E-SERVICES IN CATALONIA (SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petnji Yaya Luc Honore

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate from customers ? perspective, if the implementation of ISO 9001 with the scope directly related to customers (offices, claims, etc., spawn any discrepancies on service quality, customer perceived value, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer service recovery; in the backdrop of e-services in Catalonia (Spain. Design/methodology/approach The main research target consists of e-banks operating in the region of Catalonia (Spain, besides customers who regularly use internet to do their banking. Self completed questionnaire was designed from a blend of existing constructs. An analysis of variance (ANOVA was per formed to a convenience sample of 428 customers of e-banking services (123 of them reported a complained about the service and 16 banks. Findings The results reveal that e-banking customers in Catalonia were not sensitive to the usage of ISO 9001. However, customers from banks that do not implement ISO 9001 perceived that the prices of the service available on their bank site were more economical. Research limitations and implication this study was done only in Catalonia expandability might be restricted. Further investigation may be done in Spain as a whole or in different countries and settings. Originality/value based on literature reviews, this study will be on e of the first to carry out such research from customers' perspective and more specifically in Catalonia. The results of the study were useful in validating previous findings.

  3. INVESTIGATING DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN E-SERVICES IMPLEMENTING OR NOT ISO 9001: CUSTOMERS' OUTLOOK IN THE BACKDROP OF E-SERVICES IN CATALONIA (SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petnji Yaya Luc Honore

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate from customers ? perspective, if the implementation of ISO 9001 with the scope directly related to customers (offices, claims, etc., spawn any discrepancies on service quality, customer perceived value, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer service recovery; in the backdrop of e-services in Catalonia (Spain. The main research target consists of e-banks operating in the region of Catalonia (Spain, besides customers who regularly use internet to do their banking. Self completed questionnaire was designed from a blend of existing constructs. An analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to a convenience sample of 428 customers of e-banking services (123 of them reported a complained about the service and 16 banks. The results reveal that e-banking customers in Catalonia were not sensitive to the usage of ISO 9001. However, customers from banks that do not implement ISO 9001 perceived that the prices of the service available on their bank site were more economical. Research limitations and implication this study was done only in Catalonia expandability might be restricted. Further investigation may be done in Spain as a whole or in different countries and settings. Originality/value based on literature reviews, this study will be one of the first to carry out such research from customers' perspective and more specifically in Catalonia. The results of the study were useful in validating previous findings.

  4. Fracture and slope stability monitoring at Puigcercós landslide (Catalonia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaradze, Giorgi; Vasquez, Sebastian; López, Robert; Guinau, Guinau; Calvet, Jaume; Vilaplana, Joan Manuel; Blanch, Xabier; Tapia, Mar; Roig, Pere; Suriñach, Emma

    2017-04-01

    The village of Puigcercós ( 50 inhabitants) is located in the region of Pallars Jussà (Lleida) in Catalonia, several km south of the town of Tremp. In 1881 the entire village had to be moved from its historical location on top of the hill to its current location. This was caused by a series of landslides caused by continuing rainfall. The most important landslide occurred on January 13th 1881, which displaced more than 5 million cubic meters of sediments and rocks and created an impressive rock scar of approximately 25 m height and 150 m width. The area where the sediments were accumulated is extensive, reaching 8 hectares. During the last years, our group has chosen the site of Puigcercós to conduct pilot studies of landslides and rockfalls using multidisciplinary approach, involving Terrestrial Laser Scanner, Total Station, DGPS, seismic monitoring and geophysical techniques. The geophysical surveys of the zone of the sediment accumulation, can help determine the internal structure of the displaced sediments. The work presented here mainly concerns the deformation monitoring at the site using geodetic techniques. In July 2015, a network of 11 new geodetic points has been established and measured with GPS. The location of these points was chosen with the purpose of answering two important questions in the studies of the stability and geomorphological activity of the Puigcercós landslide: 1) As a result of combined analysis of the tape-meter, total station and GPS measurements, we hope to obtain absolute values of deformation in the upper part of the escarpment, controlling the stability of the escarpment front and the associated fractures near the coronation. For this purpose, two geodetic control points have been established at the hilltop, some 5 meters away from the escarpment itself. 2) Determine the slope stability of the depositional area, where we established nine geodetic points. As of today, these points have been measured twice, in 2015 and 2016

  5. Prevalence of measles antibodies among health care workers in Catalonia (Spain) in the elimination era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Interruption of measles transmission was achieved in Catalonia (Spain) in 2000. Six years later, a measles outbreak occurred between August 2006 and June 2007 with 381 cases, 11 of whom were health care workers (HCW). The objective was to estimate susceptibility to measles in HCW and related demographic and occupational characteristics. Methods A measles seroprevalence study was carried out in 639 HCW from six public tertiary hospitals and five primary healthcare areas. Antibodies were tested using the Vircell Measles ELISA IgG Kit. Data were analyzed according to age, sex, type of HCW, type of centre and vaccination history. The odds ratios (OR) and their 95% CI were calculated to determine the variables associated with antibody prevalence. OR were adjusted using logistic regression. Positive predictive values (PPV) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of having two documented doses of a measles containing vaccine (MCV) for the presence of measles antibodies and of reporting a history of measles infection were calculated. Results The prevalence of measles antibodies in HCW was 98% (95% CI 96.6-98.9), and was lower in HCW born in 1981 or later, after the introduction of systematic paediatric vaccination (94.4%; 95% CI 86.4-98.5) and higher in HCW born between 1965 and 1980 (99.0%; 95% CI 97.0-99.8). Significant differences were found for HCW born in 1965–1980 with respect to those born in 1981 and after (adjusted OR of 5.67; 95% CI: 1.24-25.91). A total of 187 HCW reported being vaccinated: the proportion of vaccinated HCW decreased with age. Of HCW who reported being vaccinated, vaccination was confirmed by the vaccination card in 49%. Vaccination with 2 doses was documented in only 50 HCW, of whom 48 had measles antibodies. 311 HCW reported a history of measles. The PPV of having received two documented doses of MCV was 96% (95% CI 86.3-99.5) and the PPV of reporting a history of measles was 98.7% (95% CI 96.7-99.6). Conclusions Screening to detect

  6. Morbidity, outcomes and cost-benefit analysis of wildlife rehabilitation in Catalonia (Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Angel Molina-López

    Full Text Available There are few studies of careful examination of wildlife casualties in Wildlife Rehabilitation Centers. These studies are essential for detecting menaces to wild species and providing objective criteria about cost-benefit of treatments in those centers. The release rate is considered the main outcome indicator, but other parameters such as length of stay at the center and a cost-benefit index expressed as number of released animals per euro and day, could be used as reliable estimators of the rehabilitation costs.A retrospective study based on 54772 admissions recorded from 1995-2013 in the database of the Wildlife Rehabilitation Center of Torreferrussa (Catalonia, NW Spain assessed the morbidity, outcomes and cost-benefits of the rehabilitation practices.Three hundred and two species were included: 232 birds (n = 48633, 37 mammals (n = 3293, 20 reptiles (n = 2705 and 13 amphibians (n = 141. The most frequent causes of admission were: 39.8% confiscation of protected species (89.4% passerines, 31.8% orphaned young animals (35.3% swifts, 21.7% diurnal raptors and owls and 17.4% trauma casualties (46.7% raptors and owls. The highest proportion of releases was found in the captivity confiscation category [87.4% passerines (median time of stay: 12 days], followed by the orphaned category [78% owls (66 days, 76.5% diurnal birds of prey (43 days, 75.6% hedgehogs (49 days, 52.7% swifts (19 days and 52% bats (55 days]. For the trauma group, 46.8% of releases were hedgehogs (44 days and 25.6% owls (103 days. As regards the cost-benefit index, the trauma casualties and infectious diseases had the worse values with 1.3 and 1.4 released animals/euro/day respectively, and were particularly low in raptors, waders, marine birds and chiroptera. On the contrary, captivity (4.6 and misplacement (4.1 had the best index, particulary in amphibian, reptiles and passerines.Cost-benefit studies including the release rate, the time of stay at the center and the cost

  7. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, M., E-mail: montse.meneses@uab.cat [Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Systems Engineering and Telecomunication Department, ESE, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Torres, C.M.; Castells, F. [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Environmental Analysis and Management Group, AGA, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  8. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses, M.; Torres, C.M.; Castells, F.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  9. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, M; Torres, C M; Castells, F

    2016-08-15

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  10. Non-invasive Geophysical Surveys in Search of the Roman Temple of Augustus Under the Cathedral of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain): A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Albert; Cosentino, Pietro L.; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Himi, Mahjoub; Macias, Josep M.; Martorana, Raffaele; Muñoz, Andreu; Rivero, Lluís; Sala, Roger; Teixell, Imma

    2018-04-01

    An integrated geophysical survey has been conducted at the Tarragona's Cathedral (Catalonia, NE Spain) with the aim to confirm the potential occurrence of archaeological remains of the Roman Temple dedicated to the Emperor Augustus. Many hypotheses have been proposed about its possible location, the last ones regarding the inner part of the Cathedral, which is one of the most renowned temples of Spain (twelfth century) evolving from Romanesque to Gothic styles. A geophysical project including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground probing radar (GPR) was planned over 1 year considering the administrative and logistic difficulties of such a project inside a cathedral of religious veneration. Finally, both ERT and GPR have been conducted during a week of intensive overnight surveys that provided detailed information on subsurface existing structures. The ERT method has been applied using different techniques and arrays, ranging from standard Wenner-Schlumberger 2D sections to full 3D electrical imaging with the advanced Maximum Yield Grid array. Electrical resistivity data were recorded extensively, making available many thousands of apparent resistivity data to obtain a complete 3D image after a full inversion. In conclusion, some significant buried structures have been revealed providing conclusive information for archaeologists. GPR results provided additional information about shallowest structures. The geophysical results were clear enough to persuade religious authorities and archaeologists to conduct selected excavations in the most promising areas that confirmed the interpretation of geophysical data. In conclusion, the significant buried structures revealed by geophysical methods under the cathedral were confirmed by archaeological digging as the basement of the impressive Roman Temple that headed the Provincial Forum of Tarraco, seat of the Concilium of Hispania Citerior Province.

  11. Can Language Attitudes Be Improved? A Longitudinal Study of Immigrant Students in Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianos, Maria-Adelina; Huguet, Ángel; Janés, Judit; Lapresta, Cecilio

    2017-01-01

    This study explores changes in attitudes towards Catalan, Spanish, and English over a 2-year period, on the part of secondary education students of immigrant origin residing in Catalonia. It aims to provide new data by adopting a longitudinal design and by focusing on the immigrant population, which has raised new challenges for the Catalan…

  12. Constructing Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Philips

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a situation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  13. [New design of the Health Survey of Catalonia (Spain, 2010-2014): a step forward in health planning and evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcañiz-Zanón, Manuela; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Guillén-Estany, Montserrat; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Aragay-Barbany, Josep M; Brugulat-Guiteras, Pilar; Tresserras-Gaju, Ricard

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the genesis of the Health Survey of Catalonia (Spain, 2010-2014) with its semiannual subsamples and explains the basic characteristics of its multistage sampling design. In comparison with previous surveys, the organizational advantages of this new statistical operation include rapid data availability and the ability to continuously monitor the population. The main benefits are timeliness in the production of indicators and the possibility of introducing new topics through the supplemental questionnaire as a function of needs. Limitations consist of the complexity of the sample design and the lack of longitudinal follow-up of the sample. Suitable sampling weights for each specific subsample are necessary for any statistical analysis of micro-data. Accuracy in the analysis of territorial disaggregation or population subgroups increases if annual samples are accumulated. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. [Prevalence and determinants of obesity in children and young people in Catalonia, Spain, 2006-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posso, Margarita; Brugulat-Guiteras, Pilar; Puig, Teresa; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Alcañiz, Manuela; Guillén, Montserrat; Tresserras-Gaju, Ricard

    2014-12-09

    To estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight in children aged 2 to 14 years in Catalonia, its trends between 2006 and 2010-2012, and to evaluate social determinants and lifestyle associated with obesity. A cross-sectional study, using the data from 4,389 surveys from Catalonia Health Surveys of the years 2006 and 2010-2012, was conducted. Obesity and overweight were determined by World Health Organization criteria. Socioeconomic position, parent's education, usual diet and activity, and hours of sleep were assessed. The prevalence of obesity and overweight were: 15.4 and 20.2% in 2010-2012. The prevalence of obesity was higher in boys (15.5%) compared to girls (12.8%) (Pchildren ranging from 2 to 9 years old (17.5%) than children aged 10 to 14 years (7.7%) (Pobesity and overweight were similar to the prevalence in 2010-2012. Obesity was more frequent in children with parents with a low socioeconomic position and/or a primary or elementary parent's education. During the last 5 years (2006-2012), child obesity and overweight have remained stable in Catalonia, yet they are relatively high in Europe. Public health programmes against obesity must consider conducting an intersectional action taking social determinants and family life styles into account. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Archeological glass from the Ciutadella de Roses site (Empordà, Girona, NE Spain): chemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valles, M.; Puig, A. M.; Gimeno, D.; Aulinas, M.

    2012-04-01

    The town of Roses is placed in the homonymous bay some 15 km north of the greek-roman city of Emporium, in the Empordà Country (Catalonia, NE Spain). The north sector of the Empordà constitutes a fertile river plain located within the Pyrenees Range and the Montgrí calcareous block that has been extensively occupied at least since Neolitic times. The Roses fortress is a space of more than 130.000 m2 of renaissance style built in 1543 that constitutes one of the rare fort places preserved in Catalonia after the Succession War (1701-1714). The archaeological excavations conducted in the area of the Ciutadella have shown the rests of the Greek city of Rhode, founded at 776 B.C. by Rhodian people; the Hellenistic quartier (especially important at IV-III centuries B.C.; a roman villa (occupied between centuries II B.C. and VI D.C.); a romain-lombard monastery (Santa Maria, century XI), and a series of rests till century XIX. The excavations conducted in the period 1993-1996 provided glass remnants of several ages in a number of strata at several places within the Ciutadella walls. A number of 25 samples were chosen and cleaned in order to characterize its main chemistry by EMPA. Samples were mounted on a epoxy resin, cut and polished, and external sectors with surface alteration were avoided during analysis. The major constituents Si, Al, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Ti and P were analysed, as well as a number of trace elements (metals) that give indication on the colour of glass: Co, Cu, Cr, Sb and Pb. The archaeological data allow dating the concerned strata in several periods: end of VI century-beginning of VII (3 samples) and from middle XVI century to XVIII century. The scope of this work is to provide a first characterization of the glass chemical composition variation along time since late roman times in a near to permanent occupied site. All the studied glass fragments show a sodic-lime composition, being the ones corresponding to VI-VII of low magnesia and

  16. [Design, implementation and evaluation of a management model of patient safety in hospitals in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Rosa Maria; Moreno, Pilar; Vallejo, Paula; Oliva, Glòria; Alava, Fernando; Esquerra, Miquel; Davins, Josep; Vallès, Roser; Bañeres, Joaquim

    2014-07-01

    Since its inception in 2006, the Alliance for Patient Safety in Catalonia has played a major role in promoting and shaping a series of projects related to the strategy of the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality, for improving patient safety. One such project was the creation of functional units or committees of safety in hospitals in order to facilitate the management of patient safety. The strategy has been implemented in hospitals in Catalonia which were selected based on criteria of representativeness. The intervention was based on two lines of action, one to develop the model framework and the other for its development. Firstly the strategy for safety management based on EFQM (European Foundation for Quality Management) was defined with the development of standards, targets and indicators to implement security while the second part involved the introduction of tools, methodologies and knowledge to the management support of patient safety and risk prevention. The project was developed in four hospital areas considered higher risk, each assuming six goals for safety management. Some of these targets such as the security control panel or system of adverse event reporting were shared. 23 hospitals joined the project in Catalonia. Despite the different situations in each centre, high compliance was achieved in the development of the objectives. In each of the participating areas the security control panel was developed. Stable structures for safety management were established or strengthened. Training in patient safety played and important role, 1415 professionals participated. Through these kind of projects not only have been introduced programs of proven effectiveness in reducing risks, but they also provide to the facilities a work system that allows autonomy in diagnosis and analysis of the different risk situations or centre specific safety issues. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  17. Social demand for multiple benefits provided by Aleppo pine forest management in Catalonia, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varela, Elsa; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Mavsar, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the social demand for key benefits provided by Aleppo pine forests in Catalonia that can be enhanced by management. These so-called externalities are the side effects of forest management on citizens’ welfare and can be either positive or negative. The externalities addressed...... are: biodiversity (measured as the number of tree species), accessibility for practicing recreational activities, CO2 sequestration and annual burned area by wildfires. By the use of a choice experiment, an economic valuation method, we estimate in a joint manner people’s preferences...

  18. New contributions to the knowledge of the alien flora in Baix Llobregat county (Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Álvarez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We provide new records of 17 exotic plants in the Baix Llobregat region observed between the years 2011 and 2014. Two species are the first records for Europe: Acacia rostellifera Benth. and Trichloris crinita (Lag. Parodi; two are new plants for the Iberian Peninsula: Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt. Columbus and Nassella tenuissima (Trin. Barkworth; three are recorded by their first time in Catalonia: Atriplex semibaccata R. Br., Oenothera speciosa Nutt. and Verbena incompta P. W. Michael; five correspond to first records in Baix Llobregat: Parkinsonia aculeata L., Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth., Physalis peruviana L., Salpichroa origanifolia (Lam. Baill. and Verbena brasiliensis Vell. The remaining species are very rare in the studied area: Abutilon grandifolium (Willd. Sweet, Asperugo procumbens L., Eclipta prostrata (L. L. and Oenothera indecora Cambess.

  19. Widespread increase of empirical carbapenem use in acute care hospitals in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Santiago; Fondevilla, Esther; Echeverría-Esnal, Daniel; Alcorta, Amaia; Limon, Enric; Gudiol, Francesc

    2018-04-24

    The overall increase in the use of carbapenems could lead to the selection of carbapenem-resistant bacteria. The objectives of this study were to analyze carbapenem use from 2008 to 2015 and their prescription profile in 58 hospitals affiliated to the VINCat Programme (nosocomial infection vigilance system). Retrospective, longitudinal and descriptive study of carbapenem use. Consecutive case-series study, looking for carbapenem prescription characteristics, conducted in January 2016. Use was calculated in defined daily doses (DDD)/100 patient-days (PD); prescription profiles were assessed using a standardized survey. Carbapenem use increased 88.43%, from 3.37 DDD/100-PD to 6.35 DDD/100-PD (pCatalonia. Stewardship interventions are required to prevent carbapenem overuse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. [Surveillance Plan on Recent Outbreak of Measles and Rubella in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jané, Mireia; Torner, Nuria; Vidal, Ma José

    2015-01-01

    Measles and rubella are two immuno-preventive illnesses. In Catalonia, since 1988 all children are given two doses of measles and rubella vaccine with high levels of vaccination coverage. The measles elimination programme has been carried out since 1990 in Catalonia. This programme includes achieving and keeping high immunization levels among population with high vaccination coverage, intense epidemiological surveillance and an immediate response to the appearance of a case or outbreak. In 2014, the measles incidence rate was 1.9 cases/ 100,000 inhabitants. There were 4 recent outbreaks in 2006, 2011, 2013 and 2014 that affected 381, 289, 31 and 124 people respectively. All outbreaks were triggered by an imported case. In 2011 and 2014 measles outbreaks, 6% and 5.5% of affected people were health care workers. All outbreaks presented a great variety of measles genotypes. Concerning rubella elimination programme, since 2002, 68 cases of postnatal rubella and 5 cases of congenital rubella were confirmed. Regarding measles and rubella surveillance and control, in addition to strengthen vaccination coverage, it is essential immediate notification, within the first 24 hours since suspicion and laboratory confirmation. In addition there is a need to enforce vaccination among health care workers as well as in other susceptible and unvaccinated people. It is recommended to vaccinate all people who were born after 1966 and who have not been vaccinated with two doses of trivalent measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Furthermore, we have to emphasize that the progress concerning genotypes study allows identifying various imported cases from other European countries with active outbreaks, aspect that makes easier the surveillance of these illnesses.

  1. Environmental analysis of raw cork extraction in cork oak forests in southern Europe (Catalonia--Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rives, Jesús; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Ivan; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2012-11-15

    Cork oak grows endemically in a narrow region bordering the western Mediterranean, and especially in the Iberian Peninsula. The importance of cork agro-forestry systems lies in the fact that a natural and renewable raw material - cork - can be extracted sustainably without endangering the tree or affecting biodiversity. This paper describes an environmental analysis of the extraction of raw cork in cork oak forests in Catalonia, using data from five representative local forest exploitations. The evaluation was carried out using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, and all the forestry management required to obtain a tonne of raw cork was included. The aim of the study was to evaluate the environmental impacts - in terms of global warming, acidification, eutrophication, human toxicity, and so on - caused by cork extraction and determine the carbon dioxide balance of these forestry systems, with a tree lifespan of about 200 years. During the life cycle extraction of cork in Catalonia, 0.2 kg of CO(2) eq. was emitted per kg of raw cork extracted. Moreover, cork cannot be extracted without the tree, which will be fixing carbon dioxide throughout its technological useful life (200 years), despite the fact that the bark is removed periodically: every 13-14 years. If the emission from extraction and the carbon contained in the material is discounted, the carbon dioxide balance indicates that 18 kg of CO(2) are fixed per kg of raw cork extracted. Therefore, cork is a natural, renewable and local material that can replace other non-renewable materials, at local level, to reduce the environmental impacts of products, and particularly to reduce their carbon footprint. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbon flow dynamics in the pelagic community of the Sau Reservoir (Catalonia, NE Spain)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Comerma, M.; García, J. C.; Romero, M.; Armengol, J.; Šimek, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 504, - (2003), s. 87-98 ISSN 0018-8158. [Reservoir Limnology and Water Quality /4./. České Budějovice, 12.08.2002-16.08.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : reservoir * longitudinal plankton succession * carbon flow through microbial food webs Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2003

  3. Impact of the mass media OBERTAMENT campaign on the levels of stigma among the population of Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Valera, M; Fernández, A; Evans-Lacko, S; Luciano, J V; Thornicroft, G; Aznar-Lou, I; Serrano-Blanco, A

    2016-01-01

    Reducing public stigma could improve patients' access to care, recovery and social integration. The aim of the study was to evaluate a mass media intervention, which aimed to reduce the mental health, related stigma among the general population in Catalonia (Spain). We conducted a cross-sectional population-based survey of a representative sample of the Catalan non-institutionalized adult population (n=1019). We assessed campaign awareness, attitudes to people with mental illness (CAMI) and intended behaviour (RIBS). To evaluate the association between campaign awareness and stigma, multivariable regression models were used. Over 20% of respondents recognized the campaign when prompted, and 11% when unprompted. Campaign aware individuals had better attitudes on the benevolence subscale of the CAMI than unaware individuals (P=0.009). No significant differences in authoritarianism and support for community mental health care attitudes subscales were observed. The campaign aware group had better intended behaviour than the unaware group (Pstigma campaign had a positive impact to improve the attitudes and intended behaviour towards people with mental illness of the Catalan population. The impact on stigma was limited to attitudes related to benevolence. A wider range of anti-stigma messages could produce a stronger impact on attitudes and intended behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers based on random breath tests in a roadside survey in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Guillén, Montserrat; Santolino, Miguel; Sánchez-Moscona, Daniel; Llatje, Oscar; Ramon, Lluís

    2014-04-01

    Sobriety checkpoints are not usually randomly located by traffic authorities. As such, information provided by non-random alcohol tests cannot be used to infer the characteristics of the general driving population. In this paper a case study is presented in which the prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving is estimated for the general population of drivers. A stratified probabilistic sample was designed to represent vehicles circulating in non-urban areas of Catalonia (Spain), a region characterized by its complex transportation network and dense traffic around the metropolis of Barcelona. Random breath alcohol concentration tests were performed during spring 2012 on 7596 drivers. The estimated prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers was 1.29%, which is roughly a third of the rate obtained in non-random tests. Higher rates were found on weekends (1.90% on Saturdays and 4.29% on Sundays) and especially at night. The rate is higher for men (1.45%) than for women (0.64%) and it shows an increasing pattern with age. In vehicles with two occupants, the proportion of alcohol-impaired drivers is estimated at 2.62%, but when the driver was alone the rate drops to 0.84%, which might reflect the socialization of drinking habits. The results are compared with outcomes in previous surveys, showing a decreasing trend in the prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A CHARACEAN THALLUS WITH ATTACHED GYROGONITES AND ASSOCIATED FOSSIL CHAROPHYTES FROM THE MAASTRICHTIAN OF THE EASTERN PYRENEES (CATALONIA, SPAIN)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba-Breva, Sheila; Martín-Closas, Carles

    2011-02-01

    The new species Clavatoraxis microcharophorus is described from the Lower Maastrichtian of the Eastern Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain). Microchara sp. gyrogonites were found in anatomical connection with this thallus, attached to bract-cell rosettes and coated by a structural tunica, formed by an expanded bract cell. This is a feature unknown in extant characeans, which only display lime incrustations similar to tunicae in extremely alkaline and well-illuminated environments. This is the first time that a complete fossil characean is described. The attribution of characean vegetative remains to the genus Clavatoraxis shows that this genus is not exclusive of clavatoraceans as previously thought. The taphonomic study of C. microcharophorus sp. nov. and associated fossil charophytes, along with sedimentological and microfacies analyses, has enabled us to characterize the habitat of this species in the Maastrichtian lake of Vallcebre. They grew forming meadows, and their remains were deposited in the poorly oxygenated lake bottom, where they were well preserved. A number of other characeans and porocharaceans were living in shallower belts. This was the case for Peckichara sp. and Munieria grambasti in the freshwater lacustrine meadows. Another species, Feistiella malladae, was found parautochthonous in brackish lakes. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  6. Direct and indirect costs of Multiple Sclerosis in Baix Llobregat (Catalonia, Spain, according to disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubieras Laura

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is an incurable chronic disease that predominantly affects young adults. It has a high socio-economic impact which increases as disability progresses. An assessment of the real costs of MS may contribute to our knowledge of the disease and to treat it more efficiently. Our objective is to assess the direct and indirect costs of MS from a societal perspective, in patients monitored in our MS Unit (Baix Llobregat, Catalonia and grouped according to their disability (EDSS. Methods We analysed data from 200 MS patients, who answered a questionnaire on resource consumption, employment and economical status. Mean age was 41.6 years, mean EDSS 2.7, 65.5% of patients were female, 79.5% had a relapsing-remitting course, and 67.5% of them were receiving immunomodulatory treatment (IT. Patients were grouped into five EDSS stages. Data from the questionnaires, hospital charts, Catalan Health Service tariffs, and figures from Catalan Institute of Statistics were used to calculate the direct and indirect costs. The cost-of-illness method, and the human capital approach for indirect costs, were applied. Sensitivity analyses were performed to strengthen results. Results The mean total annual cost of MS per patient results 24272 euros. This cost varied according to EDSS: 14327 euros (EDSS = 0, 18837 euros (EDSS = 1–3, 27870 euros (EDSS = 3.5–5.5, 41198 euros (EDSS = 6–7 and 52841 euros (EDSS>7.5. When the mean total annual costs was adjusted by the mean % of patients on IT in our Unit (31% the result was 19589 euros. The key-drivers for direct costs were IT in low EDSS stages, and caregiver costs in high stages. Indirect costs were assessed in terms of the loss of productivity when patients stop working. Direct costs accounted for around 60% of total costs in all EDSS groups. IT accounts from 78% to 11% of direct costs, and decreased as disability progressed. Conclusion The total mean social costs of MS in a

  7. “Burden of osteoporotic fractures in primary health care in Catalonia (Spain: a population-based study”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagès-Castellà Aina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge on the epidemiology of non-hip fractures in Spain is limited and somewhat outdated. Using computerized primary care records from the SIDIAP database, we derived age and sex-specific fracture incidence rates for the region of Catalonia during the year 2009. Methods The SIDIAP database contains quality-checked clinical information from computerized medical records of a representative sample of >5,800,000 patients (80% of the population of Catalonia. We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all patients aged ≥50 years, and followed them from January 1 to December 31, 2009. Major osteoporotic fractures registered in SIDIAP were ascertained using ICD-10 codes and validated by comparing data to hospital admission and patient-reported fractures records. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results In total, 2,011,430 subjects were studied (54.6% women. Overall fracture rates were 10.91/1,000 person-years (py [95%CI 10.89–10.92]: 15.18/1,000 py [15.15–15.21] in women and 5.78/1,000 py [5.76–5.79] in men. The most common fracture among women was wrist/forearm (3.86/1,000 py [3.74–3.98], while among men it was clinical spine (1.25/1,000 py [1.18–1.33]. All fracture rates increased with age, but varying patterns were observed: while most of the fractures (hip, proximal humerus, clinical spine and pelvis increased continuously with age, wrist and multiple rib fractures peaked at age 75–80 and then reached a plateau. Conclusions Our study provides local estimates of age, sex and site-specific fracture burden in primary health care, which will be helpful for health-care planning and delivery. A proportion of fractures are not reported in primary care records, leading to underestimation of fracture incidence rates in these data.

  8. Simultaneous occurrence of nitrates and sulfonamide antibiotics in two ground water bodies of Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Galán, M. a. Jesús; Garrido, Teresa; Fraile, Josep; Ginebreda, Antoni; Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2010-03-01

    SummaryIn the present work the occurrence of 19 selected sulfonamides, including one acetylated metabolite, was investigated in ground water samples taken from two ground water bodies in Catalonia (Plana de Vic and La Selva). Both include areas designated as nitrate vulnerable zones, according to Directive 91/676/EEC. A fully automated analytical methodology based on on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS) was developed for this purpose. The high selectivity and sensitivity achieved (limits of detection between 0.005 and 0.8 ng/L) permitted to demonstrate the ubiquity of these antibiotics in both ground water bodies. Results showed a wide range of concentrations, from 0.01 ng/L up to 3460.57 ng/L. Since sulfonamides are related to livestock veterinary practices, they can be used as a specific indicator of manure contamination. However, the presence of sulfonamides appeared not to be directly related to the concentration of nitrates, as it is reflected on the low correlation coefficients found.

  9. Influenza vaccine coverage, influenza-associated morbidity and all-cause mortality in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M Pilar; Soldevila, Núria; Martínez, Anna; Carmona, Glòria; Batalla, Joan; Acosta, Lesly M; Domínguez, Angela

    2011-07-12

    The objective of this work was to study the behaviour of influenza with respect to morbidity and all-cause mortality in Catalonia, and their association with influenza vaccination coverage. The study was carried out over 13 influenza seasons, from epidemiological week 40 of 1994 to week 20 of 2007, and included confirmed cases of influenza and all-cause mortality. Two generalized linear models were fitted: influenza-associated morbidity was modelled by Poisson regression and all-cause mortality by negative binomial regression. The seasonal component was modelled with the periodic function formed by the sum of the sinus and cosines. Expected influenza mortality during periods of influenza virus circulation was estimated by Poisson regression and its confidence intervals using the Bootstrap approach. Vaccination coverage was associated with a reduction in influenza-associated morbidity (pcase of influenza-associated morbidity, an increase of 5% in vaccination coverage represented a reduction of 3% in the incidence rate of influenza. There was a positive association between influenza-associated morbidity and all-cause mortality. Excess mortality attributable to influenza epidemics was estimated as 34.4 (95% CI: 28.4-40.8) weekly deaths. In conclusion, all-cause mortality is a good indicator of influenza surveillance and vaccination coverage is associated with a reduction in influenza-associated morbidity but not with all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hospital Costs of Foreign Non-Resident Patients: A Comparative Analysis in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Borrell, Elena; Renart-Vicens, Gemma; Saez, Marc; Carreras, Marc

    2017-09-14

    Although patient mobility has increased over the world, in Europe there is a lack of empirical studies. The aim of the study was to compare foreign non-resident patients versus domestic patients for the particular Catalan case, focusing on patient characteristics, hospitalisation costs and differences in costs depending on the typology of the hospital they are treated. We used data from the 2012 Minimum Basic Data Set-Acute Care hospitals (CMBD-HA) in Catalonia. We matched two case-control groups: first, foreign non-resident patients versus domestic patients and, second, foreign non-resident patients treated by Regional Public Hospitals versus other type of hospitals. Hospitalisation costs were modelled using a GLM Gamma with a log-link. Our results show that foreign non-resident patients were significantly less costly than domestic patients (12% cheaper). Our findings also suggested differences in the characteristics of foreign non-resident patients using Regional Public Hospitals or other kinds of hospitals although we did not observe significant differences in the healthcare costs. Nevertheless, women, 15-24 and 35-44 years old patients and the days of stay were less costly in Regional Public Hospitals. In general, acute hospitalizations of foreign non-resident patients while they are on holiday cost substantially less than domestic patients. The typology of hospital is not found to be a relevant factor influencing costs.

  11. Ten years measuring PCDDs/PCDFs in ambient air in Catalonia (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lluis, G; Gomez, R; Guinart, X; Hernandez, I [Dept. de Medi Ambient de la Generalitat de Catalunya (Spain); Esteban, A; Caixach, J; Manich, A; Rivera, J [Mass Spectrometry Lab., Dept. of Ecotechnologies, IIQAB-CSIC (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    PCDDs and PCDFs can be formed as unwanted by-products in many anthropogenic processes and their presence in the atmosphere comes mainly from several industrial activities which include, for instance, a variety of thermal processes such as waste management plants, cement kiln plants, sintering plants and other diffuse sources. Furthermore, once released into the atmosphere, these toxicants can be transported far from their original sources and as a result their presence can be determined in remote areas. In this sense, great efforts have been made to increase the knowledge about these pollutants and stringent regulations aiming to protect public health have already been established. Monitoring programs play an important role in public and sanitary decisions. In particular, the presence and trend of this pollutants in the atmosphere have been subject of many environmental studies performed all over the world. In 1994, the Environmental Department (Departament de Medi Ambient) of the Catalonian Government (Generalitat de Catalunya) in collaboration with the Dioxin Laboratory /Mass Spectrometry Laboratory (Dept.of Ecotechnologies) of the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) started a surveillance programme on PCDDs/PCDFs in ambient air. The aim of the study was to determine dioxin levels and to assess temporal trends of the atmospheric content of these pollutants in major industrial sites all over Catalonia. Moreover, samples from urban and rural areas as well as other supposedly non-affected sites were also considered. Furthermore, in accordance with the new regulatory framework, a comparison of two different sampling devices, TSP and PM10, has also been performed during the study.

  12. Results of the rubella elimination program in Catalonia (Spain), 2002–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrabeig, Irene; Torner, Nuria; Martínez, Ana; Carmona, Gloria; Ciruela, Pilar; Batalla, Joan; Costa, Josep; Hernández, Sergi; Salleras, Luis; Domínguez, Angela; Group of Catalonia, the Rubella Surveillance

    2013-01-01

    Rubella is usually a mild disease with nonspecific symptoms, but can cause congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) when infection occurs during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and positive predictive value of different data sources used for surveillance purposes in the Rubella Elimination Program of Catalonia between 2002 and 2011. The Urgent Notification to the Statutory Disease Reporting System, the Individualized Disease Reporting System, screening for other viruses included in the Measles Elimination Program, the Microbiological Reporting System and the Minimum Hospital Discharge Data were evaluated. 100 suspected cases of postnatal rubella and 6 suspected cases of CRS were detected. For postnatal rubella, Urgent Notification had the highest sensitivity (32.5%; 95%CI 18.6–49.1), followed by the Virus screening in Measles Elimination Program (25%; 95%CI 12.7-41.2). Virus screening in the Measles Elimination Program had the highest PPV (76.9%; 95%CI 46.1–94.9), followed by the Individualized Disease Reporting System (57.1%; 95%CI 28.9–82.3). For CRS cases, the Individualized Disease Reporting System had the highest sensitivity (100%, 95%CI 29.2–100) and the highest PPV (60%; 95%CI 14.7–100). Most confirmed postnatal cases (25 cases, 48.1%) were in the 25–44 y age group followed by the 15–24 y age group (11 cases, 21.2%). The highest values of sensitivity and PPV for the detection of confirmed cases corresponded to activities that were specifically introduced in the measles and rubella elimination programs. PMID:23299566

  13. Assessment of different surveillance systems for avian influenza in commercial poultry in Catalonia (North-Eastern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, A; Casal, J; Napp, S; Martin, P A J

    2010-11-01

    Compulsory surveillance programmes for avian influenza (AI) have been implemented in domestic poultry and wild birds in all the European Member States since 2005. The implementation of these programmes is complex and requires a close evaluation. A good indicator to assess their efficacy is the sensitivity (Se) of the surveillance system. In this study, the sensitivities for different sampling designs proposed by the Spanish authorities for the commercial poultry population of Catalonia were assessed, using the scenario tree model methodology. These samplings were stratified throughout the territory of Spain and took into account the species, the types of production and their specific risks. The probabilities of detecting infection at different prevalences at both individual and holding level were estimated. Furthermore, those subpopulations that contributed more to the Se of the system were identified. The model estimated that all the designs met the requirements of the European Commission. The probability of detecting AI circulating in Catalonian poultry did not change significantly when the within-holding design prevalence varied from 30% to 10%. In contrast, when the among-holding design prevalence decreased from 5% to 1%, the probability of detecting AI was drastically reduced. The sampling of duck and goose holdings, and to a lesser extent the sampling of turkey and game bird holdings, increased the Se substantially. The Se of passive surveillance in chickens for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) were also assessed. The probability of the infected birds manifesting apparent clinical signs and the awareness of veterinarians and farmers had great influence on the probability of detecting AI. In order to increase the probability of an early detection of HPAI in chicken, the probability of performing AI specific tests when AI is suspected would need to be increased. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  14. Drug use in patients with dementia: a register-based study in the health region of Girona (Catalonia/Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Castells, Pilar; Garre-Olmo, Josep; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Turró-Garriga, Oriol; Alsina, Elisabet; Carmona, Olga; Perkal, Héctor; Roig, Anna Maria; Cuy, Josep Ma; Lozano, Manuela; Molins, Albert; Vallmajó, Natàlia; López-Pousa, Secundino

    2013-05-01

    To describe the pattern of drug consumption among patients with dementia in a geographically defined general population in Catalonia (Spain), and to determine its association with age, gender, type of dementia and severity indicators. Cross-sectional study that included 1,894 cases of dementia registered by the Registry of Dementias of Girona from 2007 to 2009. Prescribed drugs were categorized according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. A descriptive analysis of drug consumption was stratified according to age, gender, dementia subtypes and dementia severity. Binary logistic regression models were adjusted to detect the association of these variables with drug consumption according to the ATC groups. The most commonly prescribed drugs were for the central nervous system (CNS) (96.4 %), cardiovascular system (79.4 %) and digestive and metabolic system categories (77.7 %). No significant differences were found between the use of nervous system drugs and age, gender, dementia subtypes or dementia severity. The use of alimentary tract and metabolism related drugs, as well as cardiovascular and blood system drugs, were positively correlated with age and secondary dementia. The prevalence of use of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal drugs was higher in women than in men (OR: 1.34; OR: 1.26 respectively). A negative association was found between the severity of dementia and the use of musculoskeletal drugs (OR: 0.71), while its use was significantly higher in the youngest patients (OR: 1.71). Almost all patients with dementia received a CNS drug, being at risk of inappropriate treatment. Treatment for comorbidities in patients with dementia should not be withheld on the basis of age or dementia severity, but rather on the benefit/risk ratio of its prescription. Further studies are needed to evaluate potentially inappropriate drug use and possible untreated conditions in this population.

  15. Expectations and perceptions of primary healthcare professionals regarding their own continuous education in Catalonia (Spain): a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundet-Tuduri, Xavier; Crespo, Ramon; Fernandez-Coll, Ma Luisa; Saumell, Montserrat; Millan-Mata, Flor; Cardona, Àngels; Codern-Bové, Núria

    2017-11-15

    The planning and execution of continuous education in an organization that provides health services is a complex process. The objectives, learning sequences, and implementation strategies should all be oriented to improving the health of the population. The aim of this study was to analyse the expectations and perceptions of continuous educations by primary healthcare professionals (physicians and nurses) and identify aspects that hinder or encourage the process. A qualitative study with 5 focus groups made up of 25 primary healthcare professionals from the Catalan Health Institute, Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). The focus groups were audio-recorded and the results transcribed. The analysis involved: a) Reading of the data looking for meanings b) Coding of the data by themes and extracting categories c) Reviewing and refining codes and categories d) Reconstruction of the data providing an explanatory framework for the meanings e) Discussion about the interpretations of the findings and f) Discussed with relevant professionals from PHC (physicians and nurses)"Data regarding thematic content were analyzed with the support of Atlasti 5.1 software. The health needs of the population were often at the core of the learning processes but the participants' views did not always spontaneously refer to improvements in these issues. Common themes that could hinder learning and where identified, including contextual aspects such as work constraints (timetables, places being covered during training) and funding policies. New learning strategies to improve the effectiveness of continuous education were proposed such as the exchange of knowledge, the activation of personal commitment to change, and the improvement of organizational aspects. The primary healthcare professionals in our study viewed continuous education as a professional necessity and would like to translate the knowledge acquired to improving the health of the population. Nevertheless, professional, structural, and

  16. Main components of PM10 in an area influenced by a cement plant in Catalonia, Spain: Seasonal and daily variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Sierra, Jordi; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2018-05-01

    Particulate matter (PM) composition has a key role in a wide range of health outcomes, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, and death, among others. Montcada i Reixac, a municipality located in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Catalonia, Spain), for its location and orography, is an interesting case- study to investigate air pollution. The area is also characterized by the presence of different industrial emission sources, including a cement factory and a large waste management plant, as well as an intense traffic. In this study, PM 10 levels, trace elements, ions, and carbonaceous particles were determined for a long time period (2013-2016) in this highly polluted area. PM 10 samples were collected during six consecutive days in two campaigns (cold and warm) per year. A number of elements (As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Hg, Ho, K, La, Li, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V, W, Y, Yb, and Zr), ions (Cl - , SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , and NH 4 + ), and carbonaceous content (total carbon, organic plus elemental carbon, and CO 3 2- ), were analysed. These data were used to identify the PM 10 main components: mineral matter, sea spray, secondary inorganic aerosols, organic matter plus elemental carbon, trace elements or indeterminate fraction. Although a clear seasonality (cold vs. warm periods) was found, there were no differences between working days and weekends. Obviously, the cement plant influences the surrounding environment. However, no differences in trace elements related with the cement plant activity (Al, Ca, Ni and V) between weekdays and weekends were noted. However, some traffic-related elements (i.e., Co, Cr, Mn, and Sb) showed significantly higher concentrations in weekdays. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Integument Mycobiota of Wild European Hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) from Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, R A; Adelantado, C; Arosemena, E L; Obón, E; Darwich, L; Calvo, M A

    2012-01-01

    There are some reports about the risk of manipulating wild hedgehogs since they can be reservoirs of potential zoonotic agents like dermatophytes. The aim of this study was to describe the integument mycobiota, with special attention to dermatophytes of wild European hedgehogs. Samples from spines and fur were cultured separately in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) with antibiotic and dermatophyte test medium (DTM) plates. Nineteen different fungal genera were isolated from 91 cultures of 102 hedgehogs. The most prevalent genera were Cladosporium (79.1%), Penicillium (74.7%), Alternaria (64.8%), and Rhizopus (63.7%). A lower prevalence of Aspergillus (P = 0,035; χ (2) = 8,633) and Arthrinium (P = 0,043; χ (2) = 8,173) was isolated during the spring time and higher frequencies of Fusarium (P = 0,015; χ (2) = 10,533) during the autumn. The prevalence of Acremonium was significantly higher in young animals (70%, 26/37) than in adults (30%, 11/37) (P = 0,019; χ (2) = 5,915). Moreover, the majority of the saprophytic species that grew at the SDA culture were also detected at the DTM. Finally, no cases of ringworm were diagnosed and no dermatophytes spp. were isolated. Concluding, this study provides the first description of fungal mycobiota of the integument of wild European hedgehogs in Spain, showing a large number of saprophytic species and the absence of dermatophytes.

  18. Radionuclides in biota collected near a dicalcium phosphate plant, southern Catalonia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mola, M.; Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C.; Borrull, F.

    2013-01-01

    Industrial waste containing radioactive U-decay series isotopes was released into the Ebro River, Spain, over a period of >20 years from a dicalcium phosphate (DCP) plant. This release raised activities of several natural radionuclides (e.g. 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 232 Th and 226 Ra) in biota taken from the area near the DCP plant. Plants and animals selected for this study included the green algae (Cladophora glomerata), the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the scavenger catfish (Silurus glanis) because they are all common in the area. Multiple sampling points were chosen for this study: (1) a site in the Riba-Roja Reservoir, above the DCP plant's area of influence, (2) four sites in the area surrounding the DCP plant, close to the town of Flix, and (3) a location in the Ebro Delta Estuary in Fangar Bay. Significant differences in the activities (in Bq kg -1 of dry weight) for the radioisotopes included in this study among samples were attributed to sample location and the species evaluated. For instance, relatively high activities for uranium and radium were obtained in algae collected around the DCP plant, compared to results obtained for algae samples taken from the unimpacted Riba-Roja Reservoir. In contrast, for zebra mussels, enhanced activities were observed for all radionuclides and, in particular, for thorium and radium isotopes within the area of influence. Among catfish samples, activity values from different locations were not significantly different, though slightly higher activities were observed at the sampling point just downstream of the DCP factory. (author)

  19. Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in house dust and indoor air in Catalonia, Spain: implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson Jogsten, I; Nadal, M; van Bavel, B; Lindström, G; Domingo, J L

    2012-02-01

    A total of 27 per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were determined in both house dust (n=10) and indoor air (n=10) from selected homes in Catalonia, Spain. Concentrations were found to be similar or lower than those previously reported for household microenvironments in other countries. Ten PFCs were detected in all house dust samples. The highest mean concentrations corresponded to perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), 10.7 ng/g (median: 1.5 ng/g) and 10.4 ng/g (median: 5.4 ng/g), respectively, while the 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) was the dominating neutral PFC at a concentration of 0.41 ng/g (median: 0.35 ng/g). The indoor air was dominated by the FTOHs, especially the 8:2 FTOH at a mean (median) concentration of 51 pg/m(3) (median: 42 pg/m(3)). A limited number of ionic PFCs were also detected in the indoor air samples. Daily intakes of PFCs were estimated for average and worst case scenarios of human exposure from indoor sources. For toddlers, this resulted in average intakes of ∑ionic PFCs of 4.9ng/day (0.33 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 15 kg toddlers) and ∑neutral PFCs of 0.072 ng/day (0.005 ng/kg(bw)/day) from house dust. For adults, the average daily intakes of dust were 3.6 and 0.053 ng/day (0.05 and 0.001 ng/kg(bw)/day for a 70 kg adult) for ∑ionic and ∑neutral PFCs, respectively. The average daily inhalation of ∑neutral PFCs was estimated to be 0.9 and 1.3 ng/day (0.06 and 0.02 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. For PFOS, the main ionic PFC detected in indoor air samples, the median intakes (based on those samples where PFOS was detected), resulted in indoor exposures of 0.06 and 0.11 ng/day (0.004 and 0.002 ng/kg(bw)/day) for toddlers and adults, respectively. Based on previous studies on dietary intake and drinking water consumption, both house dust and indoor air contribute significantly less to PFC exposure within this population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Plant diversity across five vegetation belts in the Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferré, A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the size and habitat partitioning of the vascular floras of five areas of the NE Iberian Peninsula, representing five distinct vegetation belts and three floristic regions: Mediterranean (basal belt, medio-European (submontane and montane belts and Boreo-Alpine (subalpine and alpine belts. Each area covered over 1000 ha, and was fairly uniform in terms of potential vegetation, bedrock and bioclimate. They excluded large villages and field areas, the landscape being mainly natural or moderately anthropized.
    The size of the local floras showed a unimodal function with respect to altitude, with the highest number of species (568 in the submontane belt. The decrease in species richness was moderate toward the neighbouring belts (basal and montane but more marked from the montane to the subalpine belt and then to the alpine belt (the poorest area, with 217 species. However, considering the size of the areas studied, the montane belt showed higher species richness than the submontane belt. The species impoverishment toward higher altitudes followed general tendencies found in other altitude and latitude gradients, and reflects the increasing environmental constraints and the decreasing habitat diversity of colder landscapes. On the contrary, the richer floras of the submontane and montane areas reflect less stressful general conditions, but also the occurrence within them of a number of taxa from the neighbouring regions (Mediterranean and Boreo-Alpine.
    The forest flora in the basal to subalpine landscapes accounted for a small percentage of the local floras (6.5-13.2%. Among the other species, roughly one half (42-46% made up diverse serial communities (forest clearings, scrubs, pastures while the other half (44-51% occurred in particular habitats (water sides, rocky areas or in anthropogenic habitats. In the alpine area almost half of the taxa were found in the pasture mosaic, and a similar amount thrived in rocky

  1. Official language knowledge among foreign-born immigrants in Catalonia, Spain, and implications for their social integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Solana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Catalonia has experienced asignificant in flux of international immigrants, added to the already important internal migration flows of prior decades. Now, however, this immigration takes place in a political and social context in which Catalan is the language of official use in all branches of government administration as well as in the education system. Knowledge of the Catalan language has been consideredan essential part of the process of integration for the immigrant population residing in Catalonia. Using the data provided by therecent 2007 National Survey of Immigrants, this article analyzes the immigrant population’s knowledge of Catalan in relation totheir knowledge of Castilian (Spanish. The data indicates that inspite of the offi cial status of the Catalan language in Catalonia,knowledge of Catalan among immigrants to the region is relatively low and much lower than that of Castilian, a situation that invitesrefl ection on the social implications of this reality.

  2. Impact of the Legionella urinary antigen test on epidemiological trends in community outbreaks of legionellosis in Catalonia, Spain, 1990-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Josep; Domínguez, Angela; Sabrià, Miquel; Ruiz, Laura; Torner, Nuria; Cayla, Joan; Barrabeig, Irene; Sala, M Rosa; Godoy, Pere; Camps, Neus; Minguell, Sofia

    2009-11-01

    To describe the characteristics of community outbreaks of legionellosis in Catalonia, Spain from 1990 to 2004, to compare two time periods (1990-1996 and 1997-2004), and to assess the influence of outbreak characteristics on the case fatality rate (CFR). This is a descriptive analysis of the outbreaks detected by epidemiological surveillance units in Catalonia. Variables potentially related to the CFR were analyzed by logistic regression. Of the 118 outbreaks involving 690 patients (overall CFR 4.5%), the urinary antigen test (UAT) was used for first case diagnosis in 80.5%. The origin of the outbreak was identified as a cooling tower in 35.6%, as a water distribution system in a public building in 14.4%, and a water distribution system at other sites in 7.6%. Statistically significant differences were found in the CFR (12.2% vs. 3.9%; p=0.018) and detection of the first case by UAT (0.0% vs. 87.2%; pcases involved in outbreaks of legionellosis.

  3. Grazing effect on the species-area relationship: Variation along a climatic gradient in NE Spain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Bello, F.; Lepš, Jan; Sebastia, M.-T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1, (2007), s. 25-34 ISSN 1100-9233 Grant - others:University of Nuoro, the Government of Catalonia(ES) FI-2002-2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : competition * heterogeneity * land use Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.251, year: 2007

  4. Six-year surveillance of Newcastle disease virus in wild birds in north-eastern Spain (Catalonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napp, Sebastian; Alba, Anna; Rocha, Ana Isabel; Sánchez, Azucena; Rivas, Raquel; Majó, Natalia; Perarnau, Mireia; Massot, Cristina; Miguel, Elena San; Soler, Mercé; Busquets, Núria

    2017-02-01

    Given that Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the major threats for the poultry industry, testing of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been carried out since 2010 in cases of mortality in wild birds (passive surveillance) in Catalonia. The objective is to provide an early warning system to prevent the infection of poultry. Since 2010, 35 episodes of mortality in wild birds were attributed to NDV infection. Throughout this period there was a progressive expansion of NDV to new areas, with an increase in the episodes of mortality, although it is not clear whether they were the result of the spread of the virus, or of the improvement of the surveillance. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that two distinct sublineages of NDV, 4a and 4b, were circulating in Catalonia. Both sublineages seem to be endemic in the wild bird population, affecting mainly Eurasian-collared doves, with a clear pattern in relation to its spatial distribution (coincident with the distribution of this species), and its temporal distribution (with the majority of cases between September and February). So far, endemicity in wild birds has not resulted in ND outbreaks in poultry. However, there are still many uncertainties about, for example, whether NDV may expand to new areas of Catalonia (with higher poultry density), or about the threat that the apparently more novel sublineage 4a may represent. Hence, efforts should be made so that measures to prevent infection of poultry farms (particularly in high-risk areas and periods) are encouraged, and surveillance is maintained.

  5. [Estimating non work-related sickness leave absences related to a previous occupational injury in Catalonia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero-Ruiz, Emilia; Navarro, Albert; Moriña, David; Albertí-Casas, Constança; Jardí-Lliberia, Josefina; de Montserrat-Nonó, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the frequency of non-work sickness absence (ITcc) related to previous occupational injuries with (ATB) or without (ATSB) sick leave. Prospective longitudinal study. Workers with ATB or ATSB notified to the Occupational Accident Registry of Catalonia were selected in the last term of 2009. They were followed-up for six months after returning to work (ATB) or after the accident (ATSB), by sex and occupation. Official labor and health authority registries were used as information sources. An "injury-associated ITcc" was defined when the sick leave occurred in the following six months and within the same diagnosis group. The absolute and relative frequency were calculated according to time elapsed and its duration (cumulated days, measures of central trend and dispersion), by diagnosis group or affected body area, as compared to all of Catalonia. 2,9%of ATB (n=627) had an injury-associated ITcc, with differences by diagnosis, sex and occupation; this was also the case for 2,1% of ATSB (n=496).With the same diagnosis, duration of ITcc was longer among those who had an associated injury, and with respect to all of Catalonia. Some of the under-reporting of occupational pathology corresponds to episodes initially recognized as being work-related. Duration of sickness absence depends not only on diagnosis and clinical course, but also on criteria established by the entities managing the case. This could imply that more complicated injuries are referred to the national health system, resulting in personal, legal, healthcare and economic cost consequences for all involved stakeholders. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  6. [Road traffic injuries in Catalonia (Spain): an approach using the minimum data set for acute-care hospitals and emergency resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clèries, Montse; Bosch, Anna; Vela, Emili; Bustins, Montse

    2015-09-01

    To verify the usefulness of the minimum data set (MDS) for acute-care hospitals and emergency resources for the study of road traffic injuries and to describe the use of health resources in Catalonia (Spain). The study population consisted of patients treated in any kind of emergency service and patients admitted for acute hospitalization in Catalonia in 2013. A descriptive analysis was performed by age, gender, time and clinical variables. A total of 48,150 patients were treated in hospital emergency departments, 6,210 were attended in primary care, and 4,912 were admitted to hospital. There was a higher proportion of men (56.2%), mainly aged between 20 and 40 years. Men accounted for 54.9% of patients with minor injuries and 75.1% of those with severe injuries. Contusions are the most common injury (30.2%), followed by sprains (28.7%). Fractures mostly affected persons older than 64 years, internal injuries particularly affected men older than 64 years, and wounds mainly affected persons younger than 18 years and older than 64 years. In the adult population, the severity of the injuries increased with age, leading to longer length of stay and greater complexity. Hospital mortality was 0.2%. Fractures, internal injuries and wounds were more frequent in the group of very serious injuries, and sprains and contusions in the group of minor injuries. MDS records (acute hospitals and emergency resources) provide information that is complementary to other sources of information on traffic accidents, increasing the completeness of the data. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Concentrations of trace elements and PCDD/Fs around a municipal solid waste incinerator in Girona (Catalonia, Spain). Human health risks for the population living in the neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2018-07-15

    Previously to the modernization of the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) of Campdorà (Girona, Catalonia, Spain) two sampling campaigns (2015 and 2016) were conducted. In each campaign, 8 soil and 4 air samples (PM 10 and total particle phase and gas phase) were collected. The levels of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl and V, and PCDD/Fs were analysed at different distances and wind directions around the MSWI. Environmental levels of trace elements and PCDD/Fs were used to assess exposure and health risks (carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic) for the population living around the facility. In soils, no significant differences were observed for trace elements and PCDD/Fs between both campaigns. In air, significant higher levels of As, Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl and V were detected in 2016. Regarding soil levels, only Cd (distances) and As, Cu, Mn, and Ni (wind directions) showed significant differences. No differences were noted in the concentrations of trace elements and PCDD/Fs in air levels with respect to distances and directions to the MSWI. No differences were registered in air levels (elements and PCDD/Fs) between points influenced by MSWI emissions and background point. However some differences in congener profile were noted regarding from where back-trajectories come from (HYSPLIT model results), pointing some influence of Barcelona metropolitan area. The concentrations of trace elements and PCDD/Fs were similar -or even lower- than those reported around other MSWIs in Catalonia and various countries. Non-carcinogenic risks were below the safety limit (HQ<1). In turn, carcinogenic risks due to exposure to trace elements and PCDD/Fs were in acceptable ranges, according to national and international standard regulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Adaptive capacity of the Adjusted Clinical Groups Case-Mix System to the cost of primary healthcare in Catalonia (Spain): a observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Velasco-Velasco, Soledad; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Bolibar-Ribas, Buenaventura; Violan-Fors, Concepción

    2012-01-01

    To describe the adaptive capacity of the Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) system to the cost of care in primary healthcare centres in Catalonia (Spain). Retrospective study (multicentres) conducted using computerised medical records. 13 primary care teams in 2008 were included. All patients registered in the study centres who required care between 1 January and 31 December 2008 were finally studied. Patients not registered in the study centres during the study period were excluded. Demographic (age and sex), dependent (cost of care) and case-mix variables were studied. The cost model for each patient was established by differentiating the fixed and variable costs. To evaluate the adaptive capacity of the ACG system, Pearson's coefficient of variation and the percentage of outliers were calculated. To evaluate the explanatory power of the ACG system, the authors used the coefficient of determination (R(2)). The number of patients studied was 227 235 (frequency: 5.9 visits per person per year), with a mean of 4.5 (3.2) episodes and 8.1 (8.2) visits per patient per year. The mean total cost was €654.2. The explanatory power of the ACG system was 36.9% for costs (56.5% without outliers). 10 ACG categories accounted for 60.1% of all cases and 19 for 80.9%. 5 categories represented 71% of poor performance (N=78 887, 34.7%), particularly category 0300-Acute Minor, Age 6+ (N=26 909, 11.8%), which had a coefficient of variation =139% and 6.6% of outliers. The ACG system is an appropriate manner of classifying patients in routine clinical practice in primary healthcare centres in Catalonia, although improvements to the adaptive capacity through disaggregation of some categories according to age groups and, especially, the number of acute episodes in paediatric patients would be necessary to reduce intra-group variation.

  9. Trends in rainfall erosivity in NE Spain at annual, seasonal and daily scales, 1955–2006

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    S. Beguería

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall erosivity refers to the ability of precipitation to erode soil, and depends on characteristics such as its total volume, duration, and intensity and amount of energy released by raindrops. Despite the relevance of rainfall erosivity for soil degradation prevention, very few studies have addressed its spatial and temporal variability. In this study the time variation of rainfall erosivity in the Ebro Valley (NE Spain is assessed for the period 1955–2006. The results show a general decrease in annual and seasonal rainfall erosivity, which is explained by a decrease of very intense rainfall events whilst the frequency of moderate and low events increased. This trend is related to prevailing positive conditions of the main atmospheric teleconnection indices affecting the West Mediterranean, i.e. the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO and the Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO.

  10. A methodological approach to be used in integrated coastal zone management processes: the case of the Catalan Coast (Catalonia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardá, Rafael; Avila, Conxita; Mora, Joan

    2005-02-01

    Since early 1999, we have been working on an environmental information system as a preliminary phase to develop the National Strategy of the Catalan Coast. Using the tourism industry as the main pressuring driver and the municipality as the territorial unit, we have compiled a vast amount of information that has been converted into an information platform for the general public, politicians, and public administrators. Working in close co-operation with the planning authorities of the Generalitat of Catalonia, we developed decision support tools as a methodological approach for coastal management. The decision support system is composed by: (a) the development of an environmental indicator-based report; (b) the use of a geographical information system (GIS); and (c) the incorporation of different types of graphical packages. These tools have been applied to the 70 municipalities of the Catalan Coast and a specific development of the system was carried out in the region of La Selva, municipalities of Blanes, Lloret de Mar, and Tossa de Mar (southern Costa Brava, Girona). The system has been designed to help coastal managers in Catalonia, and it is thought to be used in the process of developing the National Strategy for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) of the Catalan Coast following the EC Recommendation (COM/00/545).

  11. Correlates of intensive alcohol and drug use in men who have sex with men in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Cinta; Esteve, Anna; Zaragoza, Kati; Muñoz, Rafa; Casabona, Jordi

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of alcohol and drug use before or during sex among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Catalonia during 2006, and to identify factors associated with variables of intensive alcohol and drug use. Cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires. Men were recruited in saunas, sex shops, bars and a public park and by mail to all the members of the Catalonia Gay Federation. 19.6% of men said they were frequent users of alcohol, some type of drug (21.7%), or that they were multidrug users (18%) in the last 12 months. The multivariate analysis showed an association between having suffered discrimination and frequent alcohol and multidrug use. Being human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive was associated with frequent use of drugs and multidrug use. Associations between substance use and sexual risk behaviour also emerged. The high percentage of MSM who use alcohol and drugs before and during sex and association between these substances and sexual risk behaviours reveals the need to intensify interventions to reduce their levels of use and/or to reduce the associated damage and risks. These programs must try to cover MSM-specific psychosocial aspects and include prevention for HIV-positive men.

  12. Scientists and scientific associations in Catalonia (Spain in the early 20th century: manuscript vs. published research in earth sciences

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    Josep Batlló

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available


    Culture in Catalonia and, specifically, science had an important rebirth in the second half of the 19th century. But, due to the lack of State support, development of earth physical sciences in Catalonia at the beginning of the 20th century was almost a private enterprise. This situation caused dispersion of the efforts that, in any case, were extensive. The study of the evolution of earth sciences and the recovery and study of the accumulated data in such circumstances requires relying heavily on manuscript information. The present study deals with the problems and possibilities of this situation, shows some study cases and extracts some conclusions of general interest from them.


  13. [Outcome mesurement: the case of the "Center of Results" of the public healthcare providers network in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenter-Giralt, Miquel; Barba-Albós, Genoveva; Román-Martínez, Anna

    2010-02-01

    The health information system in Catalonia has experienced an important evolution but obtaining integrated data to evaluate the health services is still difficult. At the end of 2008 the basis of the information system of the "Center of Results" and a first set of indicators has been approved by the health system stakeholders. The "Center of Results" is assigned to the Catalan Health Service. It has a Direction Board and a Technical Committee to regulate its operation. The "Center of Results" has the mission to measure, evaluate and disseminate the results obtained in health care by the members of the public health services, to facilitate decision making with shared responsibility at the service of the quality of the health care given to the citizens of Catalonia. The "Center of Results" is based on performance principles that determine their operation: to share and to coordinate the existing information, to stimulate the participation and the co-responsibility of the implied agents, continuous improvement of the health information, promotion of good practices in the use of information and its responsible use, efficient instrumentation of technologies and analytical capacity to transform data into information. A participative process has been made to select and prioritize indicators. This process has reached consensus on a set of indicators. These indicators must contribute to assess the impact of the interventions of the health system on the level of the population's health and how results, with an efficient use of the resources, are obtained. 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental levels of PCDD/Fs and metals around a cement plant in Catalonia, Spain, before and after alternative fuel implementation. Assessment of human health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira, Joaquim [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Nadal, Martí, E-mail: marti.nadal@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, José L. [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V, and Zn, and the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans were determined in samples of soil, vegetation, and air, collected in the vicinity of a cement plant (Catalonia, Spain), before (January 2011 and July 2011) and after (January 2012 and June 2013) alternative fuel partial substitution (fossil fuels by sewage sludge). Seven sampling points were selected at different directions and distances to the facility including two background sampling points. The results were used to assess the health risk assessment for the population living near the facility. Only few significant differences were found before and after alternative fuel partial substitution (Mn in soils and Cd in vegetation). Non-carcinogenic risks were below the safety threshold (HQ < 1), while carcinogenic risks were below 10{sup −5}, or exceeding slightly that value, always in the range considered as assumable (10{sup −6}–10{sup −4}). - Highlights: • The environmental impact of a cement plant using alternative fuel was monitored. • No significant differences in most pollutants were noted after the fuel change. • Traffic has a notable influence on the environmental levels of PCDD/Fs and metals. • Human health risks were below safety thresholds regardless of the used fuel.

  15. Factors influencing the movements during the breeding season of a female booted eagle (Aquila pennata tagged by satellite in central Catalonia (Spain

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    Bosch Josep

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Foraging movements during the breeding season are a poorly studied aspect of booted eagle behaviour. We have investigated the relationship between weather and other abiotic factors and foraging behaviour, and also resource use by a female booted eagle, tagged by satellite-GPS transmitter in central Catalonia, during summer 2012 and spring 2013. Generalized Linear Models (GLMs revealed that the distance travelled from the nest was significantly related to temperature, but also to the time of day and the age of chicks. Temperature also had a significant positive influence on flight altitude and the latter on flight speed. The Resource Utilization Function (RUF showed significant resource use in locations close to water (rivers and water bodies and also in agricultural areas, preferably close to urban areas and rivers. On the other hand, unlike in other areas of Spain, the use of the edges between forest and agricultural areas and forest areas themselves showed negative coefficients with values not significant, perhaps related to changes in prey availability in the traditional hunting grounds.

  16. Reduction of Direct Health Costs Associated with Pertussis Vaccination with Acellular Vaccines in Children Aged 0-9 Years with Pertussis in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans-Rubió, Pedro; Navas, Encarna; Godoy, Pere; Carmona, Gloria; Domínguez, Angela; Jané, Mireia; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Brotons, Pedro

    2018-05-14

    The aim of this study was to assess direct health costs in children with pertussis aged 0-9 years who were vaccinated, partially vaccinated, and unvaccinated during childhood, and to assess the association between pertussis costs and pertussis vaccination in Catalonia (Spain) in 2012-2013. Direct healthcare costs included pertussis treatment, pertussis detection, and preventive chemotherapy of contacts. Pertussis patients were considered vaccinated when they had received 4-5 doses, and unvaccinated or partially vaccinated when they had received 0-3 doses of vaccine. The Chi square test and the odds ratios were used to compare percentages and the t test was used to compare mean pertussis costs in different groups, considering a p case after taking into account the effect of other study variables, and €200 per case after taking into account pertussis severity. Direct healthcare costs were lower in children with pertussis aged 0-9 years vaccinated with 4-5 doses of acellular vaccines than in unvaccinated or partially vaccinated children with pertussis of the same age.

  17. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Psychotropic Drug Consumption in a Cohort from a Semi-Urban Region in Catalonia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Maria A.; Coll-Negre, Montserrat; Coll-de-Tuero, Gabriel; Saez, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Evidence of whether the recent economic crisis has or has not had an effect on psychotropic drug consumption is very scarce. Our objective was to determine if there had in fact been an increase in psychotropic drug use as a result of the financial crisis. Methods In our study a retrospective cohort (between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012) was made up of individuals from the general population in a region in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain. We specified a generalized linear mixed model along with combined ‘selection on observables’ as (propensity scoring) matching and ‘selection on unobservables’ as (random coefficient) the panel data model methods, and performed inferences using a Bayesian framework. Results In the period following the economic crisis (post 2009), there was an increase in the consumption of psychotropic drugs which was significantly higher among those who had already been consuming psychotropic drugs prior to 2009 and those most likely to be unemployed. The increase was of greater significance when consumption was measured by the number of drugs being taken, rather than by the defined daily dose (DDD), with the greatest increase occurring in 2011; the very year in which Spain was most affected by the crisis. Conclusions Once the financial crisis had ended, there was an increase in the severity, rather than the intensity, of mental health disorders in individuals who had already had disorders before the crisis. This increase occurred in those most likely to be unemployed, and the severity was accentuated in the toughest year of the economic crisis. PMID:26872210

  18. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Psychotropic Drug Consumption in a Cohort from a Semi-Urban Region in Catalonia, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Barceló

    Full Text Available Evidence of whether the recent economic crisis has or has not had an effect on psychotropic drug consumption is very scarce. Our objective was to determine if there had in fact been an increase in psychotropic drug use as a result of the financial crisis.In our study a retrospective cohort (between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012 was made up of individuals from the general population in a region in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain. We specified a generalized linear mixed model along with combined 'selection on observables' as (propensity scoring matching and 'selection on unobservables' as (random coefficient the panel data model methods, and performed inferences using a Bayesian framework.In the period following the economic crisis (post 2009, there was an increase in the consumption of psychotropic drugs which was significantly higher among those who had already been consuming psychotropic drugs prior to 2009 and those most likely to be unemployed. The increase was of greater significance when consumption was measured by the number of drugs being taken, rather than by the defined daily dose (DDD, with the greatest increase occurring in 2011; the very year in which Spain was most affected by the crisis.Once the financial crisis had ended, there was an increase in the severity, rather than the intensity, of mental health disorders in individuals who had already had disorders before the crisis. This increase occurred in those most likely to be unemployed, and the severity was accentuated in the toughest year of the economic crisis.

  19. Innovative reactive layer to enhance soil aquifer treatment: successful installation in the Llobregat aquifer (Catalonia, ne Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M.; Gilbert, O.; Bernat, X.; Valhondo, C.; Kock-Schulmeyer, M.; Huerta-Fontela, M.; Colomer, M. V.

    2014-10-01

    The Life+ ENSAT project has demonstrated the effectiveness of a reactive organic layer on the improvement of recharge water quality in an aquifer recharge system. The vegetal compost layer was installed at the bottom of an existing infiltration pond in the Llobregat Lower Valley (Barcelona region) with the purpose of promoting biodegradation and improving the removal emerging micro-pollutants from Llobregat River water. A comprehensive monitoring of water quality including bulk chemistry, emerging micro-pollutants and priority substances indicated that hydro biochemical changes within the organic layer enhance denitrification processes and reduce the levels of gemfibrozil and carbamazepine TP. This effect is due to the release of dissolved organic carbon which promotes biodegradation processes at local scale in the unsaturated zones, without affecting the furthest piezometers. The reactive layer is still active more than 3 years after its installation. The economic assessment of this innovative reactive layer shows that it is a promising solution for the improvement of aquifer recharge with low quality waters, not only technically but also from the economic sustainability standpoint. (Author)

  20. Atmospheric mercury pollution around a chlor-alkali plant in Flix (NE Spain): an integrated analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbrí, José M; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Díez, Sergi

    2015-04-01

    An integrated analysis approach has been applied to a mercury (Hg) case study on a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River basin, close to the town of Flix (NE Spain). The study focused on atmospheric Hg and its incorporation in soils and lichens close to a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant (CAP), which has been operating since the end of the 19th century. Atmospheric Hg present in the area was characterized by means of seven total gaseous mercury (TGM) surveys carried out from 2007 to 2012. Surveys were carried out by car, walking, and at fixed locations, and covered an area of some 12 km(2) (including the CAP area, the village in which workers live, Flix town, and the Sebes Wildlife Reserve). Finally, an atmospheric Hg dispersion model was developed with ISC-AERMOD software validated by a lichen survey of the area. The results for the atmospheric compartment seem to indicate that the Flix area currently has the highest levels of Hg pollution in Spain on the basis of the extremely high average concentrations in the vicinity of the CAP (229 ng m(-3)). Moreover, the Hg(0) plume affects Flix town center to some extent, with values well above the international thresholds for residential areas. Wet and dry Hg deposition reached its highest values on the banks of the Ebro River, and this contributes to increased soil contamination (range 44-12,900 ng g(-1), average 775 ng g(-1)). A good fit was obtained between anomalous areas indicated by lichens and the dispersion model for 1 year.

  1. Results of a sector-wide quality improvement initiative for substance-abuse care: an uncontrolled before-after study in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilarion, Pilar; Groene, Oliver; Colom, Joan; Lopez, Rosa M; Suñol, Rosa

    2010-10-23

    The Health Department of the Regional Government of Catalonia, Spain, issued a quality plan for substance abuse centers. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of a multidimensional quality improvement initiative in the field of substance abuse care and to discuss potentials and limitations for further quality improvement. The study uses an uncontrolled, sector-wide pre-post design. All centers providing services for persons with substance abuse issues in the Autonomous Community of Catalonia participated in this assessment. Measures of compliance were developed based on indicators reported in the literature and by broad stakeholder involvement. We compared pre-post differences in dimension-specific and overall compliance-scores using one-way ANOVA for repeated measures and the Friedman statistic. We described the spread of the data using the inter-quartile range and the Fligner-Killen statistic. Finally, we adjusted compliance scores for location and size using linear and logistic regression models. We performed a baseline and follow up assessment in 22 centers for substance abuse care and observed substantial and statistically significant improvements for overall compliance (pre: 60.9%; post: 79.1%) and for compliance in the dimensions 'care pathway' (pre: 66.5%; post: 83.5%) and 'organization and management' (pre: 50.5%; post: 77.2%). We observed improvements in the dimension 'environment and infrastructure' (pre: 81.8%; post: 95.5%) and in the dimension 'relations and user rights' (pre: 66.5%; post: 72.5%); however, these were not statistically significant. The regression analysis suggests that improvements in compliance are positively influenced by being located in the Barcelona region in case of the dimension 'relations and user rights'. The positive results of this quality improvement initiative are possibly associated with the successful involvement of stakeholders, the consciously constructed feedback reports on individual and sector

  2. Home range and habitat use of little owl (Athene noctua in an agricultural landscape in coastal Catalonia, Spain

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    Framis, H.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades agricultural landscapes in Catalonia have undergone a profound transformation as in most of Europe. Reforestation and urban development have reduced farmland and therefore the availability of suitable habitat for some bird species such as the little owl (Athene noctua. The outskirts of the city of Mataró by the Mediterranean Sea exemplify this landscape change, but still support a population of little owl where agriculture is carried out. Three resident little owls were monitored with telemetry weekly from November 2007 until the beginning of August 2008 in this suburban agricultural landscape. Mean home range ± SD was 10.9 ± 5.5 ha for minimum convex polygon (MCP100 and 7.4 ± 3.8 ha for Kernel 95% probability function (K95. Home ranges of contiguous neighboring pairs overlapped 18.4% (MCP100 or 6% (K95. Home range varied among seasons reaching a maximum between March and early August but always included the nesting site. Small forested patches were associated with roosting and nesting areas where cavities in Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua were important. When foraging in crop fields, the owls typically fed where crops had recently been harvested and replanted. All three owls bred successfully.

  3. Characteristics of Hospitalized Cases of Pertussis in Catalonia and Navarra, Two Regions in the North of Spain.

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    Inma Crespo

    Full Text Available Pertussis causes a large number of cases and hospitalizations in Catalonia and Navarra. We made a study of household cases of pertussis during 2012 and 2013 in order to identify risk factors for hospitalization in pertussis cases. Each primary case reported triggered the study of their contacts. Close contacts at home and people who were in contact for >2 hours during the transmission period of cases were included. The adjusted OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI was calculated using logistic regression. A total of 1124 pertussis cases were detected, of which 14.9% were hospitalized. Inspiratory whoop (aOR: 1.64; CI: 1.02-2.65, apnoea (aOR: 2.47; CI: 1.51-4.03 and cyanosis (aOR: 15.51; CI: 1.87-128.09 were more common in hospitalized than in outpatient cases. Hospitalization occurred in 8.7% of correctly-vaccinated cases, 41.1% of non-vaccinated cases and 9.4% of partially-vaccinated cases. In conclusion, inspiratory whoop, apnoea and cyanosis were associated factors to hospitalization while vaccination reduced hospitalizations due to pertussis.

  4. Characteristics of Hospitalized Cases of Pertussis in Catalonia and Navarra, Two Regions in the North of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Inma; Toledo, Diana; Soldevila, Núria; Jordán, Iolanda; Solano, Rubén; Castilla, Jesús; Caylà, Joan A; Godoy, Pere; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Domínguez, Ángela

    2015-01-01

    Pertussis causes a large number of cases and hospitalizations in Catalonia and Navarra. We made a study of household cases of pertussis during 2012 and 2013 in order to identify risk factors for hospitalization in pertussis cases. Each primary case reported triggered the study of their contacts. Close contacts at home and people who were in contact for >2 hours during the transmission period of cases were included. The adjusted OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated using logistic regression. A total of 1124 pertussis cases were detected, of which 14.9% were hospitalized. Inspiratory whoop (aOR: 1.64; CI: 1.02-2.65), apnoea (aOR: 2.47; CI: 1.51-4.03) and cyanosis (aOR: 15.51; CI: 1.87-128.09) were more common in hospitalized than in outpatient cases. Hospitalization occurred in 8.7% of correctly-vaccinated cases, 41.1% of non-vaccinated cases and 9.4% of partially-vaccinated cases. In conclusion, inspiratory whoop, apnoea and cyanosis were associated factors to hospitalization while vaccination reduced hospitalizations due to pertussis.

  5. [Performance assessment of health services in Catalonia (Spain): evaluation of initial results of the Catalan healthcare service project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Altés, Anna; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Colls, Cristina; Mendivil, Joan; Benet, Josep; Mompart, Anna; Torné, Elvira; Zara, Corinne; Borrell, Carme; Brugulat, Pilar; Guarga, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Performance assessment of healthcare services is receiving greater attention due to increasing health care expenditures, greater expectations among the population, and the need to obtain results from the invested resources. Taking advantage of the existing experience of the Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona and the Consorci Sanitari de Barcelona, which compared the healthcare services of Barcelona and Montreal, a grant from the Agència d'Avaluació de Tecnologia i Recerca Mèdiques, and the health planning interest of the Departament de Salut, the performance assessment of the Catalan healthcare service project was started in Catalonia in 2005. This article aims to present the development of the project, to provide some examples that illustrate the kind of numerical and graphical information that could be obtained and the kind of analysis that could be performed, to provide possible explanations for the results shown, and to discuss some limitations and implications. Currently, the added value of this project is that it identifies the extent to which the healthcare system is achieving its objectives, establishes a set of homogeneous indicators that could be used in the future, and is a key tool in the development of the Central de Resultats del Departament de Salut de la Generalitat de Catalunya.

  6. [Evaluation of the management of nonwork-related sick leave lasting more than 15 days in Catalonia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Fernando G; Torá, Isabel; Miguel Martínez, José; Jardí, Josefina; Manzanera, Rafael; Alberti, Constança; Delclós, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    To compare the length of nonwork-related sick leave among cases managed by an insurance company versus those managed by the National Institute of Social Security (NISS). We performed a retrospective cohort study of 289,686 cases of sick leave lasting for more than 15 days that began in 2005 after certification by a primary care physician in Catalonia, were reported to the Catalonian Institute of Medical Evaluations, and were followed to term. Of the total, 156,676 cases were managed by the NISS. To account for repeat episodes (approximately 25% of the total), the Wang-Chang estimator was used to calculate the median duration and percentiles; comparisons were made using log-logistic regression with shared gamma frailty models, with calculation of time ratios (TR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The median duration of sick leave was 43 days for cases managed by the NISS and 39 days for those managed by the insurance company. This difference was statistically significant both for men employed under contract (TR=0.87; 95% CI: 0.85-0.88) and for those who were self-employed (TR=0.78; 95% CI: 0.75-0.80) as well as for women under contract (TR=0.85; 95% CI: 0.84-0.87) and self-employed women (TR=0.84; 95% CI: 0.81-0.88). These differences persisted after adjustment was performed for age and health region. For sick leave lasting more than 15 days, these results confirm that cases managed by an insurance company ended earlier than for those managed by the NISS, both for contract and self-employed workers. Further research is needed to explore the reasons for these differences. Copyright 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Economic costs of outbreaks of acute viral gastroenteritis due to norovirus in Catalonia (Spain), 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Encarna; Torner, Nuria; Broner, Sonia; Godoy, Pere; Martínez, Ana; Bartolomé, Rosa; Domínguez, Angela

    2015-10-01

    To determine the direct and indirect costs of outbreaks of acute viral gastroenteritis (AVG) due to norovirus in closed institutions (hospitals, social health centers or nursing homes) and the community in Catalonia in 2010-11. Information on outbreaks were gathered from the reports made by epidemiological surveillance units. Direct costs (medical visits, hospital stays, drug treatment, sample processing, transport, diagnostic tests, monitoring and control of the outbreaks investigated) and indirect costs (lost productivity due to work absenteeism, caregivers time and working hours lost due to medical visits) were calculated. Twenty-seven outbreaks affecting 816 people in closed institutions and 74 outbreaks affecting 1,940 people in the community were detected. The direct and indirect costs of outbreaks were € 131,997.36 (€ 4,888.79 per outbreak) in closed institutions and € 260,557.16 (€ 3,521.04 per outbreak) in community outbreaks. The cost per case was € 161.76 in outbreaks in closed institutions and € 134.31 in community outbreaks. The main costs were surveillance unit monitoring (€ 116,652.93), laboratory diagnoses (€ 119,950.95), transport of samples (€ 69,970.90), medical visits (€ 25,250.50) and hospitalization (€ 13,400.00). The cost of outbreaks of acute viral gastroenteritis due to norovirus obtained in this study was influenced by the number of people affected and the severity of the outbreak, which determined hospitalizations and work absenteeism. Urgent reporting of outbreaks would allow the implementation of control measures that could reduce the numbers affected and the duration of the illness and thus the costs derived from them.

  8. [Project Shared Medical Record in Catalonia, Spain: legal framework and enforcement of rights of access, rectification, cancellation and opposition (ARCO)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás-Pascual, Maria Josep; Busquets-Font, Josep Maria; García-Martínez, Anna; Manent-González, Martí

    2010-02-01

    The Constitution and especially the Constitutional Court's jurisprudence have recognized the so-called right of habeas data, providing legal protection at the highest level of personal data. Health information, falls within the scope of protection, but we see that there are peculiarities in the health and development legislation that compels us to treat such information with special characteristics. This article will review the citizen's rights to access to health information, taking into account both the protection of personal data such as regulating access to specific health information and tools that have been developed for the exercise of these rights under the "Shared Medical Record" project developed by the Department of Health of the Generalitat of Catalonia. In particular the rights that are discussed are: the right of access to information, the right of correction, the right of cancellation. The right of access to information enables anyone to know if their personal data are processed, the purpose of treatment and the available information on the origin of personal data. In addition the law also allows to know whether the data have been disclosed to a third party. The right of rectification gives -concerned in this case the patient- the right to correct any data that contain errors. The cancellation right is restricted to situations where it really is exercising a right of correction against information. Finally, the right to object is for patients to be able to oppose their health data is consulted by various health care facilities to generate them. 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Exposure assessment to ochratoxin A in Catalonia (Spain) based on the consumption of cereals, nuts, coffee, wine, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, M B; Marín, S; Cano-Sancho, G; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) was analysed in composite samples of cereal-based baby foods, beer, breakfast cereals (corn- and rice and wheat-based), loaf bread, peanuts and pistachios. Foodstuffs were collected in hypermarkets and supermarkets from 12 cities in the Spanish region of Catalonia, and composite samples were prepared for analysis involving liquid-liquid extraction, followed by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC with fluorescence detection. Consumption data for the selected foodstuffs were collected by means of a food-frequency questionnaire. The studied population was grouped by age in infants, children, adolescents and adults; and exposure to OTA through the specified foodstuffs, and through wine and coffee, was assessed. Exposure assessment was done through deterministic and probabilistic modelling of the contamination and consumption data. OTA occurrence and mean of positive samples (ng g(-1) or ng ml(-1), for beer) were the following: 8.7% and 0.233 in baby foods; 88.7% and 0.022 in beer; 2.8% and 0.728 in corn-based breakfast cereals; 25% and 0.293 in wheat-based breakfast cereals; 12.9% and 0.283 in loaf bread; 41.7% and 0.241 in peanuts; and 2.9% and 0.228 in pistachios. The median estimated daily intake of OTA through the foodstuffs by each age group were below the latest provisional tolerable daily intakes (PTDIs) of 17 and 14 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2006 and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 2007, respectively, ranging from 1% and 2% of those values in adolescents and children, to 3% and 11% in adults and infants.

  10. Estimation of the impacts of different homogenization approaches on the variability of temperature series in Catalonia (North Eastern-Spain), Andorra and South Eastern - France. An experiment under the umbrella of the HOME-COST action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, E.; Prohom, M.; Mestre, O.; Esteban, P.; Kuglitsch, F. G.; Gruber, C.; Herrero, M.

    2008-12-01

    The almost unanimously accepted fact of climate change has brought many scientists to investigate the seasonal and interannual variability and change in instrumental climatic records. Unfortunately, these records are nearly always affected by homogeneity problems caused by changes in the station or its environment. The European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST) is sponsoring the action COST-ES0601: Advances in homogenisation methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME), which aims amongst others to investigate the impacts of different homogenisation ap-proaches on the observed data series. In this work, we apply different detection/correction methods (SNHT, RhTest, Caussinus-Mestre, Vincent Interpolation Method, HOM Method) to annual, sea-sonal, monthly and daily data of a multi-country quality controlled dataset (17 stations in Catalonia (NE Spain); 3 stations in Andorra and 11 stations in SE France). The different outputs are analysed and the differences in the final se-ries studied. After this experiment, we can state that - although all the applied methods im-prove the homogeneity of the original series - the conclusions extracted from the analysis of the homogenised annual, seasonal, monthly data and extreme indices derived from daily data demonstrate important differences. As an exam-ple, some methods (SNHT) tend to detect fewer breakpoints than others (Caussinus-Mestre). Even if metadata or a pre-identified list of breakpoints is available, the correction factors calculated by the different approaches differ both in annual, seasonal, monthly and daily scales. In the latter case, some methods like HOM - based on the modelling of a candidate series against a reference series - present a richest solution than others based on the mere in-terpolation of monthly factors (Vincent Method), although the former are not al-ways applicable due to lack of good reference stations. In order to identify the best performing

  11. Managing the impact of climate change on the hydrology of the Gallocanta Basin, NE-Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J; Baumhauer, Roland; Schütt, Brigitta

    2011-02-01

    The Gallocanta Basin represents an environment highly sensitive to climate change. Over the past 60 years, the Laguna de Gallocanta, an ephemeral lake situated in the closed Gallocanta basin, experienced a sequence of wet and dry phases. The lake and its surrounding wetlands are one of only a few bird sanctuaries left in NE-Spain for grey cranes on their annual migration from Scandinavia to northern Africa. Understanding the impact of climate change on basin hydrology is therefore of utmost importance for the appropriate management of the bird sanctuary. Changes in lake level are only weakly linked to annual rainfall, with reaction times between hours and months after rainfall. Both the total amount of rainfall over the reaction period, as well as individual extreme events, affect lake level. In this study the characteristics and frequencies of daily, event, monthly and bi-monthly rainfall over the past 60 years were analysed. The results revealed a clear link between increased frequencies of high magnitude rainfall and phases of water filling in the Laguna de Gallocanta. In the middle of the 20th century, the absolute amount of rainfall appears to have been more important for lake level, while more recently the frequency of high magnitude rainfall has emerged as the dominant variable. In the Gallocanta Basin, climate change and the distinct and continuing land use change since Spain joined the EU in 1986 have created an environment that is in a more or less constant state of transition. This highlights two challenges faced by hydrologists and climatologists involved in developing water management tools for the Gallocanta Basin in particular, but also other areas with sensitive and rapidly changing environments. Hydrologists have to understand the processes and the spatial and temporal patterns of surface-climate interaction in a watershed to assess the impact of climate change on its hydrology. Climatologists, on the other hand, have to develop climate models

  12. Do workers' health surveillance examinations fulfill their occupational preventive objective? Analysis of the medical practice of occupational physicians in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Jareño, Mari Cruz; Molinero, Emilia; de Montserrat, Jaume; Vallès, Antoni; Aymerich, Marta

    2017-10-06

    Although routine workers' health examinations are extensively performed worldwide with important resource allocation, few studies have analyzed their quality. The objective of this study has been to analyze the medical practice of workers' health examinations in Catalonia (Spain) in terms of its occupational preventive aim. A cross-sectional study was carried out by means of an online survey addressed to occupational physicians who were members of the Catalan Society of Safety and Occupational Medicine. The questionnaire included factual questions on how they performed health examinations in their usual practice. The bivariate analysis of the answers was performed by type of occupational health service (external/internal). The response rate was 57.9% (N = 168), representing 40.3% of the reference population. A high percentage of occupational physicians had important limitations in their current medical practice, including availability of clinical and exposure information, job-specificity of tests, and early detection and appropriate management of suspected occupational diseases. The situation in external occupational health services - that covered the great majority of Catalan employees - was worse remarkably in regard to knowledge of occupational and nonoccupational sickness absence data, participation in the investigation of occupational injuries and diseases, and accessibility for workers to the occupational health service. This study raises serious concerns about the occupational preventive usefulness of these health examinations, and subsequently about our health surveillance system, based primarily on them. Professionals alongside health and safety institutions and stakeholders should promote the rationalization of this system, following the technical criteria of need, relevance, scientific validity and effectiveness, whilst ensuring that its ultimate goal of improving the health and safety of workers in relation to work is fulfilled. Other countries with

  13. Self-rated health and chronic conditions are associated with blood concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the general population of Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasull, Magda; Pallarès, Natàlia; Salcedo, Natalia; Pumarega, José; Alonso, Jordi; Porta, Miquel

    2015-11-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is a powerful predictor of mortality, morbidity, and need for health services. SRH generally increases with educational level, and decreases with age, number of chronic conditions, and body mass index (BMI). Because human concentrations of most persistent organic pollutants (POPs) also vary by age, education, and BMI, and because of the physiological and clinical effects of POPs, we hypothesized that body concentrations of POPs are inversely associated with SRH. To analyze the relation between serum concentrations of POPs and SRH in the general population of Catalonia, Spain, taking into account sociodemographic factors and BMI, as well as chronic health conditions and mental disorders, measured by the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). POP serum concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection in 919 participants of the Catalan Health Interview Survey. Individuals with higher concentrations of POPs had significantly poorer SRH; e.g., the median concentration of HCB in subjects with poor SRH was twice as high as in subjects with excellent SRH (366 ng/g vs. 169 ng/g, respectively; p-valuehigher in subjects with POP concentrations in the top quartile. In models adjusted for age or for chronic conditions virtually all ORs were near unity. No associations were found between POP levels and GHQ-12. Individuals with higher concentrations of POPs had significantly poorer SRH, an association likely due to age and chronic conditions, but not to sex, education, social class, BMI, or mental disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Variability in the quality of rectal cancer care in public hospitals in Catalonia (Spain): clinical audit as a basis for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchon-Walsh, P; Borras, J M; Espinas, J A; Aliste, L

    2011-04-01

    Clinical practice guidelines in cancer are a relevant component of Catalonian Cancer Strategy aimed at promoting equity of access to therapy and quality of cancer care. The colorectal cancer (CRC) guideline was first published in 2003 and subsequently updated in 2008. This study examined the quality of therapy administered to patients with rectal cancer in public hospitals in Catalonia (Spain) in 2005 and 2007, according to CRC guideline recommendations. We conducted a multicentre retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent curative-intent surgery for primary rectal cancer at Catalonian public hospitals in 2005 and 2007. Data were drawn from clinical records. The study covered 1831 patients with rectal cancer. Performance of total mesorectal excision (TME) was poorly reported by surgeons (46.4%) and pathologists (36.2%). Pre-operative radiotherapy was performed on 52% of stage-II and -III patients. Compared to high-caseload hospitals, those with a low caseload (≤11 cases/year) registered more Hartman's procedures, worse TME quality, a higher rate of post-operative complications and lower adherence to recommended pre-operative radio-chemotherapy. Reporting quality of care is essential for ascertaining current performance status and opportunities for improvement. In our case, there is a need for the quality of the information included in clinical records to be improved, and variability in adherence to guideline recommendations to be reduced. In view of the fact that heterogeneity in the quality of the health care process was linked to hospital caseload, the health authorities have decided to reorganise the provision of rectal cancer care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Do workers’ health surveillance examinations fulfill their occupational preventive objective? Analysis of the medical practice of occupational physicians in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Cruz Rodríguez-Jareño

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Although routine workers’ health examinations are extensively performed worldwide with important resource allocation, few studies have analyzed their quality. The objective of this study has been to analyze the medical practice of workers’ health examinations in Catalonia (Spain in terms of its occupational preventive aim. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out by means of an online survey addressed to occupational physicians who were members of the Catalan Society of Safety and Occupational Medicine. The questionnaire included factual questions on how they performed health examinations in their usual practice. The bivariate analysis of the answers was performed by type of occupational health service (external/internal. Results: The response rate was 57.9% (N = 168, representing 40.3% of the reference population. A high percentage of occupational physicians had important limitations in their current medical practice, including availability of clinical and exposure information, job-specificity of tests, and early detection and appropriate management of suspected occupational diseases. The situation in external occupational health services – that covered the great majority of Catalan employees – was worse remarkably in regard to knowledge of occupational and nonoccupational sickness absence data, participation in the investigation of occupational injuries and diseases, and accessibility for workers to the occupational health service. Conclusions: This study raises serious concerns about the occupational preventive usefulness of these health examinations, and subsequently about our health surveillance system, based primarily on them. Professionals alongside health and safety institutions and stakeholders should promote the rationalization of this system, following the technical criteria of need, relevance, scientific validity and effectiveness, whilst ensuring that its ultimate goal of improving the health

  16. [Notification of incidents related to patient safety in hospitals in Catalonia, Spain during the period 2010-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Glòria; Alava, Fernando; Navarro, Laura; Esquerra, Miquel; Lushchenkova, Oksana; Davins, Josep; Vallès, Roser

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to discover the aggregated results of a general notification system for incidents related to patient safety implemented in Catalan hospitals from 2010 to 2013. Observational study describing the incidents notified from January 2010 to December 2013 from all hospitals in Catalonia forming part of the project to create operational patient safety management units. The Patient Safety Notification and Learning System (SiNASP) was used. This makes it possible to classify incidents depending on the area where they occur, the type of incident notified, the consequences, the seriousness according to the Severity Assessment Code (SAC) and the profession of the notifying party, as the principal variables. The system was accessed via the Internet (SiNASP portal). Access was voluntary and anonymous or with a name given and later removed. During the study period, notification of a total of 5,948 incidents came from 22-29 hospitals. 5,244 of the incidents were handled by the centres and these are the ones analysed in the study. 64% (3,380) affected patients, 18% (950) created a situation capable of causing an incident and 18% (914) did not affect patients. 26% of incidents that affected patients (864) caused some kind of harm. Most incidents occurred during hospitalisation (54%) and in casualty (15%), followed by the ICU (9%) and the surgical block (8%). The most frequent notifying parties were nurses (71%) followed by doctors (15%) and pharmacists (9%). In terms of severity, most incidents were classified as low-risk (37%) or incidents that did not affect the patient (36%). However, 40 cases (0.76%) of extreme risk should be highlighted. In terms of the types of incident notified, most were due to a medication error (26.8%), followed by falls (16.3%) and patient identification (10.6%). The majority of notifications were incidents that affected patients and, of these, 26% caused harm. In general, they occurred in hospitalisation units and notification was

  17. Thermal shock and splash effects on burned gypseous soils from the Ebro Basin (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, J.; Seeger, M.; Badía, D.; Peters, P.; Echeverría, M. T.

    2014-03-01

    Fire is a natural factor of landscape evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems. The middle Ebro Valley has extreme aridity, which results in a low plant cover and high soil erodibility, especially on gypseous substrates. The aim of this research is to analyze the effects of moderate heating on physical and chemical soil properties, mineralogical composition and susceptibility to splash erosion. Topsoil samples (15 cm depth) were taken in the Remolinos mountain slopes (Ebro Valley, NE Spain) from two soil types: Leptic Gypsisol (LP) in a convex slope and Haplic Gypsisol (GY) in a concave slope. To assess the heating effects on the mineralogy we burned the soils at 105 and 205 °C in an oven and to assess the splash effects we used a rainfall simulator under laboratory conditions using undisturbed topsoil subsamples (0-5 cm depth of Ah horizon). LP soil has lower soil organic matter (SOM) and soil aggregate stability (SAS) and higher gypsum content than GY soil. Gypsum and dolomite are the main minerals (>80%) in the LP soil, while gypsum, dolomite, calcite and quartz have similar proportions in GY soil. Clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) are scarce in both soils. Heating at 105 °C has no effect on soil mineralogy. However, heating to 205 °C transforms gypsum to bassanite, increases significantly the soil salinity (EC) in both soil units (LP and GY) and decreases pH only in GY soil. Despite differences in the content of organic matter and structural stability, both soils show no significant differences (P pores is reduced by heating, as derived from variations in soil water retention capacity.

  18. Hydrologic and landscape changes in the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain: implications for restoration and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabezas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The changes of landscape (1927–2003, discharge regime and anthropic activities with the river-floodplain of one reach at the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain were investigated with the objective to identify the factors that best explain the natural ecotope succession and propose a realistic restoration option with consideration of the landscape dynamics during the last century and the socio-economic context. Our results indicate that hydrological and landscape patterns have been dramatically changed during the last century as a consequence of human alteration of the fluvial dynamics within the studied reach. The magnitude and variability of river discharge events have decreased at the end of the last century, and flood protection structures have disrupted the river floodplain connectivity. As a result, the succesional pathways of riparian ecotopes have been heavily modified because natural rejuvenation no longer takes place, resulting in decreased landscape diversity. It is apparent from these data that floodplain restoration must be incorporated as a significant factor into river management plans if a more natural functioning wants to be retrieved. The ecotope structure and dynamics of the 1927–1957 period should be adopted as the guiding image, whereas current hydrologic and landscape (dykes, raised surfaces patterns should be considered. Under the current socio-economic context, the more realistic option seems to create a dynamic river corridor reallocating dykes and lowering floodplain heights. The extent of this river corridor should adapt to the restored flow regime, although periodic economic investments could be an option if the desired self-sustained dynamism is not reached.

  19. Screening of perfluorinated compounds in water, sediment and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Julian; Perez, Francisca; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia; Andreu, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    PFCs present significant thermal and chemical stability being persistent in the environment, where they can bio-accumulate and adversely affect humans and wildlife (Llorca et al., 2012). Human exposure to PFCs is of concern since PFCs tend to be associated with fatty acid binding proteins in the liver or albumin proteins in blood, and have been detected in human serum, urine, saliva, seminal plasma and breast milk (Sundstrom et al., 2011). This study is aimed at the screening of 21 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmental samples by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The main objective is to identify target compounds at low levels in water, sediments and biota of the Llobregat River (2010), second longest river in Catalonia and one of Barcelona's major drinking water resources. PFCs were extracted from water samples by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE); from sediment by ultrasonication with acidified methanol followed by an off-line SPE procedure (Picó et al., 2012), and from biota (fish) with alkaline digestion, clean-up by TurboFlow™ on line technology coupled to LC-MS/MS (Llorca et al., 2012). The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the method were calculated by analysis of spiked river water, sediment, and biota with minimum concentrations of each individual compound at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and 10, respectively. The LODs and LOQs of the method in river water ranged between 0.004 and 0.8 ng L-1 and between 0.01 and 2 ng L-1, respectively. In sediment LODs were 0.013-2.667 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) and LOQs were 0.04-8 ng g-1 dw, meanwhile in biota these were 0.006-0.7 pg μL-1 and 0.02-2.26 pg μL-1, respectively. Recoveries ranged between 65% and 102% for all target compounds. The method was applied to study the spatial distribution of these compounds in the Llobregat River basin. For this, a total of 40 samples were analysed (14 water, 14 sediments, 12 fishes). Of the 21 target

  20. Bacterial diversity of Grenache and Carignan grape surface from different vineyards at Priorat wine region (Catalonia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Maria del Carmen; Franquès, Judit; Araque, Isabel; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert

    2016-02-16

    Epiphytic bacteria on grape berries play a critical role in grape health and quality, which decisively influence the winemaking process. Despite their importance, the bacteria related with grape berry surface remain understudied and most previous work has been based on culture-dependent methods, which offer a limited view of the actual diversity. Herein, we used high-throughput sequencing to investigate the bacterial diversity on the surface from two grape varieties, Grenache and Carignan, and compared them across five vineyards included within the Priorat region (Spain). We could detect up to 14 bacterial phyla with Firmicutes (37.6% Bacillales and 14% Lactobacillales), Proteobacteria (16.8% Pseudomonadales and 11.6% Enterobacteriales) and Actinobacteria (3.4% Actinomycetales) being the most abundant. Bacterial community was different at each vineyard being grape varietal, geographical situation and orientation related with changes in bacterial populations. The most abundant bacterial taxa and those driving differences between the vineyards and grape varietals were identified. This study indicates that bacterial community heterogeneities can be influenced by geographic factors like orientation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Julian; Pérez, Francisca; Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in water, sediment, and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, being the most frequently found perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS). In general, mean PFAS concentrations measured in sediments (0.01–3.67 ng g −1 ) and biota (0.79–431 μg kg −1 ) samples were higher than those found in water (0.01–233 ng L −1 ). L-PFOS presented very high levels in biota and water, particularly in the Anoia River where a maximum concentration of 2.71 μg L −1 was related to important industrial activities. However, this pollution does not extend down the Llobregat River according to cumulated values. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). According to Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) proposed by the European Commission (L-PFOS) and to Provisional Health Advisory (PHA) values (PFOA, L-PFOS) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), only two water samples exceeded PHA concentration for L-PFOS. - Highlights: • Distribution of 21 PFASs in water, sediment, biota of Llobregat River is investigated. • High L-PFOS concentration in the Anoia River related to industrial activities • PFAS concentration was sediment ≫ water, suggesting accumulation in river's mouth. • Highest PFAS values in biota observed after the Cardener River's confluence • Barbus graellsii accumulates more PFHxA and Cyprinus carpio more L-PFOS. • None of the calculated HQs indicates potential risk for the different tropic

  2. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Julian, E-mail: Julian.Campo@uv.es [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Pérez, Francisca [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Farré, Marinella [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Emili Grahit, 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    The occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in water, sediment, and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, being the most frequently found perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS). In general, mean PFAS concentrations measured in sediments (0.01–3.67 ng g{sup −1}) and biota (0.79–431 μg kg{sup −1}) samples were higher than those found in water (0.01–233 ng L{sup −1}). L-PFOS presented very high levels in biota and water, particularly in the Anoia River where a maximum concentration of 2.71 μg L{sup −1} was related to important industrial activities. However, this pollution does not extend down the Llobregat River according to cumulated values. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). According to Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) proposed by the European Commission (L-PFOS) and to Provisional Health Advisory (PHA) values (PFOA, L-PFOS) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), only two water samples exceeded PHA concentration for L-PFOS. - Highlights: • Distribution of 21 PFASs in water, sediment, biota of Llobregat River is investigated. • High L-PFOS concentration in the Anoia River related to industrial activities • PFAS concentration was sediment ≫ water, suggesting accumulation in river's mouth. • Highest PFAS values in biota observed after the Cardener River's confluence • Barbus graellsii accumulates more PFHxA and Cyprinus carpio more L-PFOS. • None of the calculated HQs indicates potential risk for the

  3. Multi-component determination of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds in soils and vegetation from Tarragona County, Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Morueco, Noelia; Carvalho, Mariana; Sierra, Jordi; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José Luis; Ratola, Nuno; Nadal, Martí

    2018-08-01

    Tarragona County (Spain) is home to the most important chemical/petrochemical industrial complex in Southern Europe, which raises concerns about the presence and effects of the numerous environmental contaminants. In order to assess the levels and patterns of five classes of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), synthetic musks (SMs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and one organochlorine pesticide, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 27 samples of soil and vegetation (Piptatherum L.) from different areas (petrochemical, chemical, urban/residential, and background) of Tarragona County were analysed. The results show that PAHs levels in soils ranged from 45.12 to 158.00ng/g and the urban areas presented the highest concentrations, mainly associated with the presence of a nearby highway and several roads with heavy traffic. PAHs levels in vegetation samples ranged from 42.13 to 80.08ng/g, where the greatest influence came from the urban and petrochemical areas. In the case of SMs, levels in soils and vegetation samples ranged from 5.42 to 10.04ng/g and from 4.08 to 17.94ng/g, respectively, and in both cases, background areas (at least 30km away from the main SVOCs emission sources) showed the highest levels, suggesting an influence of the personal care products derived from beach-related tourism in the coast. PCBs (from 6.62 to 14.07ng/g in soils; from 0.52 to 4.41ng/g in vegetation) prevailed in the chemical area in both matrices, probably associated with the presence of two sub-electrical stations located in the vicinities. In general terms, BFRs and HCB values recorded in soil and vegetation samples were quite similar between matrices and sampling areas. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Self-rated health and chronic conditions are associated with blood concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the general population of Catalonia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasull, Magda; Pallarès, Natàlia; Salcedo, Natalia; Pumarega, José; Alonso, Jordi; Porta, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-rated health (SRH) is a powerful predictor of mortality, morbidity, and need for health services. SRH generally increases with educational level, and decreases with age, number of chronic conditions, and body mass index (BMI). Because human concentrations of most persistent organic pollutants (POPs) also vary by age, education, and BMI, and because of the physiological and clinical effects of POPs, we hypothesized that body concentrations of POPs are inversely associated with SRH. Objectives: To analyze the relation between serum concentrations of POPs and SRH in the general population of Catalonia, Spain, taking into account sociodemographic factors and BMI, as well as chronic health conditions and mental disorders, measured by the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). Methods: POP serum concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection in 919 participants of the Catalan Health Interview Survey. Results: Individuals with higher concentrations of POPs had significantly poorer SRH; e.g., the median concentration of HCB in subjects with poor SRH was twice as high as in subjects with excellent SRH (366 ng/g vs. 169 ng/g, respectively; p-value<0.001). In crude models and in models adjusted for sex and BMI, the POPs-SRH association was often dose-dependent, and the likelihood of poor or regular SRH was 2 to 4-times higher in subjects with POP concentrations in the top quartile. In models adjusted for age or for chronic conditions virtually all ORs were near unity. No associations were found between POP levels and GHQ-12. Conclusions: Individuals with higher concentrations of POPs had significantly poorer SRH, an association likely due to age and chronic conditions, but not to sex, education, social class, BMI, or mental disorders. - Highlights: • The relation between POPs and self-rated and mental health has seldom been studied. • Subjects with higher POP levels had poorer self-rated health (SRH) (dose

  5. Relative effects of educational level and occupational social class on body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in a representative sample of the general population of Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasull, Magda; Pumarega, José; Rovira, Gemma; López, Tomàs; Alguacil, Juan; Porta, Miquel

    2013-10-01

    Scant evidence is available worldwide on the relative influence of occupational social class and educational level on body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the general population. The objective was to analyse such influence in a representative sample of the general population of Catalonia, Spain. Participants in the Catalan Health Interview Survey aged 18-74 were interviewed face-to-face, gave blood, and underwent a physical exam. The role of age, body mass index (BMI), and parity was analysed with General Linear Models, and adjusted geometric means (GMs) were obtained. Crude (unadjusted) concentrations were higher in women and men with lower education, and in women, but not men, in the less affluent social class. After adjusting for age, in women there were no associations between POP levels and social class or education. After adjusting for age and BMI, men in the less affluent class had higher p,p'-DDE concentrations than men in class I (p-value=0.016), while men in class IV had lower HCB than men in the upper class (p-valuesocial class were co-adjusted for, some positive associations with education in men remained statistically significant, whereas class remained associated only with p,p'-DDE. Educational level influenced blood concentrations of POPs more than occupational social class, especially in men. In women, POP concentrations were mainly explained by age/birth cohort, parity and BMI. In men, while concentrations were also mainly explained by age/birth cohort and BMI, both social class and education showed positive associations. Important characteristics of socioeconomic groups as age and BMI may largely explain crude differences among such groups in internal contamination by POPs. The absence of clear patterns of relationships between blood concentrations of POPs and indicators of socioeconomic position may fundamentally be due to the widespread, lifelong, and generally invisible contamination of human food webs. Decreasing

  6. Obtaining the mean relative weights of the cost of care in Catalonia (Spain): retrospective application of the adjusted clinical groups case-mix system in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Velasco-Velasco, Soledad; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Aguado Jodar, Alba; Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Hermosilla-Pérez, Eduardo; Bolibar-Ribas, Bonaventura; Prados-Torres, Alejandra; Violan-Fors, Concepción

    2013-04-01

    The study aims to obtain the mean relative weights (MRWs) of the cost of care through the retrospective application of the adjusted clinical groups (ACGs) in several primary health care (PHC) centres in Catalonia (Spain) in routine clinical practice. This is a retrospective study based on computerized medical records. All patients attended by 13 PHC teams in 2008 were included. The principle measurements were: demographic variables (age and sex), dependent variables (number of diagnoses and total costs), and case-mix or co-morbidity variables (International Classification of Primary Care). The costs model for each patient was established by differentiating the fix costs from the variable costs. In the bivariate analysis, the Student's t, analysis of variance, chi-squared, Pearson's linear correlation and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests were used. In order to compare the MRW of the present study with those of the United States (US), the concordance [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC)] and the correlation (coefficient of determination: R²) were measured. The total number of patients studied was 227,235, and the frequentation was 5.9 visits/habitant/year) and with a mean diagnoses number of 4.5 (3.2). The distribution of costs was €148.7 million, of which 29.1% were fixed costs. The mean total cost per patient/year was €654.2 (851.7), which was considered to be the reference MRW. Relationship between study-MRW and US-MRW: ICC was 0.40 [confidential interval (CI) 95%: 0.21-0.60] and the CCC was 0.42 (CI 95%: 0.35-0.49). The correlation between the US MRW and the MRW of the present study can be seen; the adjusted R² value is 0.691. The explanatory power of the ACG classification was 36.9% for the total costs. The R² of the total cost without considering outliers was 56.9%. The methodology has been shown appropriate for promoting the calculation of the MRW for each category of the classification. The results provide

  7. First survey on canine leishmaniasis in a non classical area of the disease in Spain (Lleida, Catalonia) based on a veterinary questionnaire and a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballart, Cristina; Alcover, M Magdalena; Picado, Albert; Nieto, Javier; Castillejo, Soledad; Portús, Montserrat; Gállego, Montserrat

    2013-04-01

    The Spanish distribution of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is heterogeneous and very few data are available for the north of the country, including the province of Lleida (Catalonia, Spain). This work describes the results obtained from a questionnaire sent to veterinarians throughout the province of Lleida. The majority of veterinarians (25/32, 78.1%) believed CanL cases were increasing and that the dogs had been infected locally (30/32, 93.8%). Also, a cross-sectional study was performed on the seroprevalence of CanL in kennel dogs, with and without compatible clinical signs, in the county of Pallars Sobirà (Pyrenees of Lleida), where an autochthonous case of CanL had been previously detected. Four serological tests were used (IFAT, ELISA, Western blot, ICF) and dogs that tested positive with at least two immunological methods were considered seropositive and probably infected. 33.1% (48/145) of the dogs were seropositive. The results of a mixed logistic regression model showed that the risk of seropositivity increased with age (OR=1.35, p-value=0.002), among dogs living in the southern part of Pallars Sobirà (OR=6.20, p-value=0.025) and among dogs whose owners considered their animals to be at risk of leishmaniasis infection (OR=1.26, p-value=0.024) and who were unaware of anti-sand fly preventive methods (OR=11.6, p-value=0.009). The risk decreased when dogs lived in an urban-periurban habitat (OR=0.17, p-value=0.002). The information gathered in the veterinary questionnaires helped us to define the knowledge, perception and awareness of the disease in a naïve region, supporting the hypothesis of an existing CanL focus in Pallars Sobirà, which was confirmed by the seroepidemiological survey. The seroprevalence study carried out on kennel dogs of local origin proved useful for detecting an autochthonous focus of leishmaniasis through the analysis of a small number of animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-rated health and chronic conditions are associated with blood concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the general population of Catalonia, Spain

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    Gasull, Magda; Pallarès, Natàlia [Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); School of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Spain); Salcedo, Natalia [Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); School of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Spain); Pumarega, José [Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Alonso, Jordi [Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Catalonia (Spain); Porta, Miquel, E-mail: mporta@imim.es [Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); School of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    Background: Self-rated health (SRH) is a powerful predictor of mortality, morbidity, and need for health services. SRH generally increases with educational level, and decreases with age, number of chronic conditions, and body mass index (BMI). Because human concentrations of most persistent organic pollutants (POPs) also vary by age, education, and BMI, and because of the physiological and clinical effects of POPs, we hypothesized that body concentrations of POPs are inversely associated with SRH. Objectives: To analyze the relation between serum concentrations of POPs and SRH in the general population of Catalonia, Spain, taking into account sociodemographic factors and BMI, as well as chronic health conditions and mental disorders, measured by the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). Methods: POP serum concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection in 919 participants of the Catalan Health Interview Survey. Results: Individuals with higher concentrations of POPs had significantly poorer SRH; e.g., the median concentration of HCB in subjects with poor SRH was twice as high as in subjects with excellent SRH (366 ng/g vs. 169 ng/g, respectively; p-value<0.001). In crude models and in models adjusted for sex and BMI, the POPs-SRH association was often dose-dependent, and the likelihood of poor or regular SRH was 2 to 4-times higher in subjects with POP concentrations in the top quartile. In models adjusted for age or for chronic conditions virtually all ORs were near unity. No associations were found between POP levels and GHQ-12. Conclusions: Individuals with higher concentrations of POPs had significantly poorer SRH, an association likely due to age and chronic conditions, but not to sex, education, social class, BMI, or mental disorders. - Highlights: • The relation between POPs and self-rated and mental health has seldom been studied. • Subjects with higher POP levels had poorer self-rated health (SRH) (dose

  9. Estado de la neumología pública en Cataluña: estudio comparativo entre 1993 y 2003 State of public pneumology in Catalonia (Spain: 1993 versus 2003

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    Jesús Ribas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio era realizar un análisis descriptivo de la situación de la neumología pública en Cataluña en el año 2003 y comparar los resultados con datos de 1993. Se remitió un cuestionario a todos los hospitales de la red pública de Cataluña (XHUP solicitando información sobre el número de neumólogos. También se contactó con los servicios de atención primaria (SAP de Cataluña para conocer el número de neumólogos que trabajan en atención primaria. Se ha obtenido respuesta del 100% de los hospitales y SAP contactados. El 83% de los hospitales de la XHUP disponen de servicio de neumología, y se observa un incremento significativo en la proporción de hospitales que disponen de la especialidad respecto a 1993. La tasa de neumólogos por 100.000 habitantes para toda Cataluña es de 3,15. El grado de implantación de la neumología en la XHUP ha mejorado significativamente en el decenio 1993-2003.The aim of this study was to perform a descriptive analysis of the state of public pneumology in Catalonia (Spain in 2003 and to compare the results with data from 1993. A questionnaire was sent to all hospitals of the public hospitals network in Catalonia requesting information on the number of pulmonologists. To determine the number of pulmonologists working in primary care, we also contacted all the primary care services (PCS in Catalonia. All the hospitals and PCS contacted responded. Eighty-three percent of the public network hospitals had a pneumology service. From 1993-2003, the proportion of hospitals with this specialty increased. The rate of pulmonologists per 100,000 persons for the whole of Catalonia was 3.15. The degree of implantation of pneumology in the public hospitals network of Catalonia significantly improved in the decade between 1993 and 2003.

  10. Molecular characterization of two high-level ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates detected in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Jordi; Serra, Judit; Ayats, Josefina; Bastida, Teresa; Carnicer-Pont, Dolors; Andreu, Antònia; Ardanuy, Carmen

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the first two extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates collected from two sexually related patients (men who have sex with men) in Spain. Antimicrobial susceptibility was studied by Etest. Genes involved in quinolone, ceftriaxone and multidrug resistance were amplified by PCR and sequenced in both directions. The isolates were typed by N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). The two isolates had the same MDR profile, showing resistance to penicillin (MIC 0.094 mg/L; β-lactamase negative), ceftriaxone (MIC 1.5 mg/L), cefixime (MIC 1.5 mg/L), cefotaxime (MIC 1 mg/L), ciprofloxacin (MIC >32 mg/L) and tetracycline (MIC 1.5 mg/L). NG-MAST showed that both isolates belonged to sequence type (ST) 1407 (porB-908 and tbpB-110). Ciprofloxacin resistance was due to amino acid substitutions in GyrA (S91F and D95G) and ParC (S87R). An A deletion in the promoter of the MtrCDE efflux pump (mtrR) was detected. No changes were detected in the pilQ gene. The outer membrane protein PorB showed two substitutions at G120K and A121N. An L421P substitution was observed in the PBP1A (ponA) sequence. The sequence of PBP2 (penA) showed a mosaic structure related to genotype XXXIV with a single additional amino acid substitution (A501P). This genotype was identical to a recently described French isolate (F89). This is the first reported case of high-level extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae transmission. The molecular typing and MDR genotype suggest possible European spread of this strain, highlighting the need for surveillance and the importance of testing the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to extended-spectrum cephalosporins.

  11. Pilot survey of a broad range of priority pollutants in sediment and fish from the Ebro river basin (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacorte, Silvia; Raldua, Demetrio; Martinez, Elena; Navarro, Alicia; Diez, Sergi; Bayona, Josep M.; Barcelo, Damia

    2006-01-01

    Priority organic pollutants were investigated in sediments and fish collected along the Ebro river basin (NE Spain) to evaluate their occurrence, transport and bioavailability. Sediments were collected in 18 sites and two species of fish were captured in nine sites according to the availability in each area. The sampling sites covered industrial, urban and agricultural areas. Four methods were used to detect 20 organochlorine compounds (OCs), 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 3 organotin compounds, 2 alkylphenols and 40 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from purified extracts. The contamination pattern was site specific and no downstream increase in concentration of pollutants was observed but rather a generalized low level diffuse pollution. Target compounds were detected in sediments at 0.01 to 2331 μg/kg dry weight, and only OCs and PBDEs were accumulated in benthopelagic fish. Toxicological assessment was performed according to predicted environmental levels and revealed sites where adverse effects could occur. - Organic pollutants were monitored in sediments and fish from the Ebro river basin (NE Spain)

  12. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970–2010, NE Spain

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    M. Turco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the recent evolution of fires in Catalonia (north-eastern Iberian Peninsula, a typical Mediterranean region. We examine a homogeneous series of forest fires in the period 1970–2010. During this period, more than 9000 fire events greater than 0.5 ha were recorded, and the total burned area was more than 400 kha. Our analysis shows that both the burned area and number of fire series display a decreasing trend. Superposed onto this general decrease, strong oscillations on shorter time scales are evident. After the large fires of 1986 and 1994, the increased effort in fire prevention and suppression could explain part of the decreasing trend. Although it is often stated that fires have increased in Mediterranean regions, the higher efficiency in fire detection could have led to spurious trends and misleading conclusions.

  13. Analyzing the vegetation response under different treatments after wildfires in NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Javier; Cerdà, Artemi; Badía, David; Echeverría, Maite; Martí, Clara

    2014-05-01

    Fire is a natural factor of landscape evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems. The socio-economic changes that occurred in the last decades have contributed to an increase in forest fires (Shakesby, 2011). There was found a change in the fire regimes in terms of frequency, size, seasonality, recurrence as well as fire intensity and severity (Keeley, 2009), which resulted in severe effects on soils, water and vegetation (Guénon et al., 2013). Fire affects soil properties directly by the heat impact (Aznar et al., 2013), and the ash cover (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008) and the reduction of the plant cover (Neary et al., 1999). The lack of vegetation and the heating promotes changes in the soil organic matter content (González-Pérez et al., 2004), on the structural stability (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011), on the hydrophobic response (Bodí et al., 2012), and on the infiltration capacity (Cerdà, 1998a). This is why the vegetation cover and the litter are key factors on soil erosion after forest fires (Prats et al., 2013). Besides, the ash plays an important paper in the soil protection after the forest fire and after the first storms and winds (León et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013). The objective of this experiment is to asses the vegetation response after a forest fire and the impact of vegetation recovery on soil erosion. The experiment consisted in a sampling of a linear transect of 10 m with samples each 2 m, under different slope position and aspect. To measure the soil erosion rates we used rainfall simulation experiments (León et al., 2013). The experiments were carried in Castejón (UTM 30T, X671106, Y4644584) in a forest burned in 2008, in the Zuera Mountains, both located in the north of Zaragoza province (NE Spain). The soils on limestone parent material are Rendzic Phaeozem (IUSS, 2007) and the texture of Ah horizons of soils developed on limestone is sandy-loam (Badía et al., 2013). The result shows fast and successful vegetation regeneration in the north

  14. Evolución temporal y distribución geográfica de la mortalidad por suicidio en Cataluña y España (1986-2002 Geographical distribution and time trends of suicide mortality in Catalonia and Spain (1986-2002

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    María Arán Barés

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estudiar la evolución temporal de la mortalidad por suicidio en Cataluña (1986-2002 y España (1986-2001, y analizar su distribución geográfica en esta comunidad autónoma. Métodos: Se calcularon las tasas anuales estandarizadas por edad para ambos sexos por el método directo y el porcentaje de cambio anual mediante un modelo de regresión de Poisson, por sexo y grupos de edad para Cataluña (1986-2002 y España (1986-2001. Para Cataluña, se calculó la razón de mortalidad estandarizada por el método indirecto (RME por sexo, para los 46 sectores sanitarios y para todo el período, y la razón de mortalidad comparativa (RMC y los intervalos de confianza (IC del 95% agrupando los años en período 1 (1986-1994 y período 2 (1995-2002. Resultados: En Cataluña, la mortalidad en hombres es inferior que en España y se aprecia un incremento (no significativo en el período estudiado en ambos territorios; en mujeres, la evolución y la magnitud de las tasas son similares a las del conjunto del Estado, y en los dos lugares se observa un ligero descenso (significativo de las tasas. La evolución según la edad y el sexo muestra patrones diferenciados, destacando el descenso de las tasas en edades avanzadas en ambos sexos y el aumento en jóvenes en España y Cataluña. Los sectores sanitarios de la zona central, noreste y sur de Cataluña presentan una mortalidad superior a la media. Conclusiones: La evolución temporal de la mortalidad por suicidio en Cataluña y España muestra patrones diferentes según la edad y el sexo. En la distribución territorial en Cataluña se observa una progresiva homogeneización por sectores sanitarios.Objective: To analyze time trends in Catalonia (1986-2002 and Spain (1986-2001 in suicide mortality and its geographical variation by health areas in Catalonia. Methods: Standard annual mortality rates were calculated by the direct method for Catalonia (1986-2002 and Spain (1986-2001 (standard

  15. Benefits and limitations of using the weather radar for the definition of rainfall thresholds for debris flows. Case study from Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abancó, C.; Hürlimann, M.; Sempere, D.; Berenguer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Torrential processes such as debris flows or hyperconcentrated flows are fast movements formed by a mix of water and different amounts of unsorted solid material. They occur in steep torrents and suppose a high risk for the human settlements. Rainfall is the most common triggering factor for debris flows. The rainfall threshold defines the rainfall conditions that, when reached or exceeded, are likely to provoke one or more events. Many different types of empirical rainfall thresholds for landslide triggering have been defined. Direct measurements of rainfall data are normally not available from a point next to or in the surroundings of the initiation area of the landslide. For this reason, most of the thresholds published for debris flows have been established by data measured at the nearest rain gauges (often located several km far from the landslide). Only in very few cases, the rainfall data to analyse the triggering conditions of the debris flows have been obtained by weather (Doppler) radar. Radar devices present certain limitations in mountainous regions due to undesired reboots, but their main advantage is that radar data can be obtained for any point of the territory. The objective of this work was to test the use of the weather radar data for the definition of rainfall thresholds for debris-flow triggering. Thus, rainfall data obtained from 3 to 5 rain gauges and from radar were compared for a dataset of events occurred in Catalonia (Spain). The goal was to determine in which cases the description of the rainfall episode (in particular the maximum intensity) had been more accurate. The analysed dataset consists of: 1) three events occurred in the Rebaixader debris-flow monitoring station (Axial Pyrenees) including two hyperconcentrated flows and one debris flow; 2) one debris-flow event occurred in the Port Ainé ski resort (Axial Pyrenees); 3) one debris-flow event in Montserrat (Mediterranean Coastal range). The comparison of the hyetographs from the

  16. Trends in adverse weather patterns and large wildland fires in Aragón (NE Spain from 1978 to 2010

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    A. Cardil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the effects of high temperature days on large wildland fires during 1978–2010 in Aragón (NE Spain. A high temperature day was established when air temperature was higher than 20 °C at 850 hPa. Temperature at 850 hPa was chosen because it properly characterizes the low troposphere state, and some of the problems that affect surface reanalysis do not occur. High temperature days were analyzed from April to October in the study period, and the number of these extreme days increased significantly. This temporal trend implied more frequent adverse weather conditions in later years that could facilitate extreme fire behavior. The effects of those high temperatures days in large wildland fire patterns have been increasingly important in the last years of the series.

  17. Estimating the HIV undiagnosed population in Catalonia, Spain: descriptive and comparative data analysis to identify differences in MSM stratified by migrant and Spanish-born population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin N J; Vives, Núria; Esteve, Anna; Ambrosioni, Juan; Tural, Cristina; Ferrer, Elena; Navarro, Gemma; Force, Lluis; García, Isabel; Masabeu, Àngels; Vilaró, Josep M; García de Olalla, Patricia; Caylà, Joan Artur; Miró, Josep M; Casabona, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Objective Undiagnosed HIV continues to be a hindrance to efforts aimed at reducing incidence of HIV. The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the HIV undiagnosed population in Catalonia and compare the HIV care cascade with this step included between high-risk populations. Methods To estimate HIV incidence, time between infection and diagnosis and the undiagnosed population stratified by CD4 count, we used the ECDC HIV Modelling Tool V.1.2.2. This model uses data on new HIV and AIDS diagnoses from the Catalan HIV/AIDS surveillance system from 2001 to 2013. Data used to estimate the proportion of people enrolled, on ART and virally suppressed in the HIV care cascade were derived from the PISCIS cohort. Results The total number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Catalonia in 2013 was 34 729 (32 740 to 36 827), with 12.3% (11.8 to 18.1) of whom were undiagnosed. By 2013, there were 8458 (8101 to 9079) Spanish-born men who have sex with men (MSM) and 2538 (2334 to 2918) migrant MSM living with HIV in Catalonia. A greater proportion of migrant MSM than local MSM was undiagnosed (32% vs 22%). In the subsequent steps of the HIV care cascade, migrants MSM experience greater losses than the Spanish-born MSM: in retention in care (74% vs 55%), in the proportion on combination antiretroviral treatment (70% vs 50%) and virally suppressed (65% vs 46%). Conclusions By the end of 2013, there were an estimated 34 729 PLHIV in Catalonia, of whom 4271 were still undiagnosed. This study shows that the Catalan epidemic of HIV has continued to expand with the key group sustaining HIV transmission being MSM living with undiagnosed HIV. PMID:29490955

  18. Estimating the HIV undiagnosed population in Catalonia, Spain: descriptive and comparative data analysis to identify differences in MSM stratified by migrant and Spanish-born population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Urueña, Juliana Maria; Campbell, Colin N J; Vives, Núria; Esteve, Anna; Ambrosioni, Juan; Tural, Cristina; Ferrer, Elena; Navarro, Gemma; Force, Lluis; García, Isabel; Masabeu, Àngels; Vilaró, Josep M; García de Olalla, Patricia; Caylà, Joan Artur; Miró, Josep M; Casabona, Jordi

    2018-02-28

    Undiagnosed HIV continues to be a hindrance to efforts aimed at reducing incidence of HIV. The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the HIV undiagnosed population in Catalonia and compare the HIV care cascade with this step included between high-risk populations. To estimate HIV incidence, time between infection and diagnosis and the undiagnosed population stratified by CD4 count, we used the ECDC HIV Modelling Tool V.1.2.2. This model uses data on new HIV and AIDS diagnoses from the Catalan HIV/AIDS surveillance system from 2001 to 2013. Data used to estimate the proportion of people enrolled, on ART and virally suppressed in the HIV care cascade were derived from the PISCIS cohort. The total number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Catalonia in 2013 was 34 729 (32 740 to 36 827), with 12.3% (11.8 to 18.1) of whom were undiagnosed. By 2013, there were 8458 (8101 to 9079) Spanish-born men who have sex with men (MSM) and 2538 (2334 to 2918) migrant MSM living with HIV in Catalonia. A greater proportion of migrant MSM than local MSM was undiagnosed (32% vs 22%). In the subsequent steps of the HIV care cascade, migrants MSM experience greater losses than the Spanish-born MSM: in retention in care (74% vs 55%), in the proportion on combination antiretroviral treatment (70% vs 50%) and virally suppressed (65% vs 46%). By the end of 2013, there were an estimated 34 729 PLHIV in Catalonia, of whom 4271 were still undiagnosed. This study shows that the Catalan epidemic of HIV has continued to expand with the key group sustaining HIV transmission being MSM living with undiagnosed HIV. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. IS RUSSIAN DECOMMODIFYING IN CATALONIA?

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    Микел Кабал-Гуарро

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The data collected in an ethnographic study conducted between 2014 and 2016 in tourist areas in Catalonia, Spain shows that the mastery of Russian has become a profitable commodity in Spanish tourism industry. The purpose of this paper is to show where and how Russian is used in the service industry and trace the commodification of the language over time. Against the background of fluctuating numbers of Russian-speaking visitors, this analysis will contribute to a better understanding of processes of language commodification and decommodification and the relationship between wider political and economic con-texts and valorisation of particular languages and speakers.

  20. Los registros de salud personal: el caso de la Carpeta Personal de Salud de Cataluña Personal health records: the case of the Personal Health Folder of Catalonia (Spain

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    Francesc Saigí

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo explora las posibilidades de la Carpeta Personal de Salud e identifica la brecha entre el potencial de esta herramienta y las aplicaciones que ofrece a través de Internet. Se presenta la Carpeta Personal de Salud, un proyecto vinculado a la Historia Clínica Compartida de Cataluña, que ofrece un punto de acceso a la información sobre la propia salud que es seguro, personalizado y soportado por las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación. La experiencia, realizada íntegramente por la Consejería de Salud de la Generalitat de Cataluña, escogió una metodología mediante encuesta anónima. Los resultados han sido de gran relevancia para obtener información sobre la idoneidad de los datos publicados y las expectativas de una herramienta dirigida a la población en general.The aims of this study were to explore the possibilities of the Personal Health Folder and to identify the gap between the potential applications of this tool and what it offers through the Internet. The Personal Health Folder is presented, a project linked to the Shared Medical Record of Catalonia (Spain, which provides citizens with an access point to information about their health insurance, customized and supported by information and communication technologies. The project was carried out by the Ministry of Health of the Government of Catalonia (Generalitat de Catalunya and data were gathered through an anonymous survey. The results were critical to obtain information on the suitability of the published data and on the expectations of a tool aimed at the general population.

  1. Bone accumulation by leopards in the Late Pleistocene in the Moncayo massif (Zaragoza, NE Spain.

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    Víctor Sauqué

    Full Text Available Eating habits of Panthera pardus are well known. When there are caves in its territory, prey accumulates inside them. This helps to prevent its kill from being stolen by other predators like hyenas. Although the leopard is an accumulator of bones in caves, few studies have been conducted on existing lairs. There are, however, examples of fossil vertebrate sites whose main collecting agent is the leopard. During the Late Pleistocene, the leopard was a common carnivore in European faunal associations. Here we present a new locality of Quaternary mammals with a scarce human presence, the cave of Los Rincones (province of Zaragoza, Spain; we show the leopard to be the main accumulator of the bones in the cave, while there are no interactions between humans and leopards. For this purpose, a taphonomic analysis is performed on different bone-layers of the cave.

  2. Quality of in-hospital stroke care according to evidence-based performance measures: results from the first audit of stroke, Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abilleira, Sònia; Gallofré, Miquel; Ribera, Aida; Sánchez, Emília; Tresserras, Ricard

    2009-04-01

    Evidence-based standards are used worldwide to determine quality of care. We assessed quality of in-hospital stroke care in all acute-care hospitals in Catalonia by determining adherence to 13 evidence-based performance measures (PMs) of process of care. Data on PMs were collected by retrospective review of medical records of consecutive stroke admissions (January to June, 2005). Compliance with PMs was calculated according to 3 hospital levels determined by their annual stroke case-load (level 1, 350). We defined sampling weights that represented each patient's inverse probability of inclusion in the study sample. Sampling weights were applied to produce estimates of compliance. Factors that predicted good/bad compliance were determined by multivariate weighted logistic regression models. An external monitoring of 10% of cases recruited at each hospital was undertaken, after random selection, to assess quality of data. We analyzed data from 1791 stroke cases (17% of all stroke admissions). Global interobserver agreement was 0.7. Eight PMs achieved compliances >or=75%, 4 of which were more than 90%, and the remaining showed adherences Catalonia was heterogeneous across hospital levels. Rehabilitation-related measures showed poor compliances compared to acute care-related ones, which achieved more satisfactory adherences.

  3. Analysis of micronucleated erythrocytes in heron nestlings from reference and impacted sites in the Ebro basin (N.E. Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiros, Laia; Ruiz, Xavier; Sanpera, Carolina; Jover, Lluis; Pina, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral erythrocytes was tested for 59 heron nestlings (Ardea purpurea, Egretta garzetta and Bubulcus ibis) sampled at two areas (polluted and reference) on the River Ebro (NE Spain) and at its Delta during Spring 2006. Flow-cytometry analysis revealed higher (three- to six-fold) MN counts in samples from the most polluted site relative to samples from the reference area. Samples from the Delta showed intermediate values. Age, morphometric parameters (weight, tarsus size and bill-head length) and maturation status showed no significant differences among the different populations for each species; nor were they correlated with MN levels. The data suggest that elevated levels of MN in chicks in impacted areas reflected the chemical pollution of their nesting sites. The use of nestlings for this assay appears to be a convenient, non-destructive method to assess the impact of pollution in natural bird populations. - Frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of waterbird nestlings correlates with chemical pollution loads in their nesting sites

  4. Isotope analyses to explore diet and mobility in a medieval Muslim population at Tauste (NE Spain.

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    Iranzu Guede

    Full Text Available The Islamic necropolis discovered in Tauste (Zaragoza, Spain is the only evidence that a large Muslim community lived in the area between the 8th and 10th centuries. A multi-isotope approach has been used to investigate the mobility and diet of this medieval Muslim population living in a shifting frontier region. Thirty-one individuals were analyzed to determine δ15N, δ13C, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr composition. A combination of strontium and oxygen isotope analysis indicated that most individuals were of local origin although three females and two males were non-local. The non-local males would be from a warmer zone whereas two of the females would be from a more mountainous geographical region and the third from a geologically-different area. The extremely high δ15N baseline at Tauste was due to bedrock composition (gypsum and salt. High individual δ15N values were related to the manuring effect and consumption of fish. Adult males were the most privileged members of society in the medieval Muslim world and, as isotope data reflected, consumed more animal proteins than females and young males.

  5. Assessment of PM10 and heavy metals concentration in a Ceramic Cluster (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belen Vicente, Ana; Pardo, Francisco; Sanfeliu, Teofilo; Bech, Joan

    2013-04-01

    Environmental pollution control is one of the most important goals in pollution risk assessment today. The aim of this study is conducting a retrospective view of the evolution of particulate matter (PM10) and heavy metals (As, Cd, Ni and Pb) at different localities in the Spanish cluster ceramic in the period between January 2007 and December 2011. The study area is in the province of Castellón. This province is a strategical area in the framework of European Union Pollution control. Approximately 80% of European ceramic tiles and ceramic frits manufacturers are concentrated in two areas, forming the so-called "Ceramics Clusters"; one is in Modena (Italy) and the other in Castellón (Spain). In this kind of areas, there are a lot of pollutants from this industry that represent an important contribution to soil contamination so it is necessary to control the air quality in them. These atmospheric particles are deposited in the ground through both dry and wet deposition. Soil is a major sink for heavy metals released into the environment. The level of pollution of soils by heavy metals depends on the retention capacity of the soil, especially on physical-chemical properties (mineralogy, grain size, organic matter) affecting soil particle surfaces and also on the chemical properties of the metal. The most direct consequences on the ground of air pollutants are acidification, salinization and the pollutions that can cause heavy metals as components of suspended particulate matter. For this purpose the levels of PM10 in ambient air and the corresponding annual and weekly trend were calculated. The results of the study show that the PM10 and heavy metals concentrations are below the limit values recommended by European Union Legislation for the protection of human health and ecosystems in the study period. There is an important reduction of them from 2009 in all control stations due to the economic crisis. References Moral, R., Gilkes, R.J., Jordán, M.M., 2005

  6. Looking for a participatory scheme between public administrations and stakeholders: example of the Baix Penedès aquifers (Catalonia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torras, Blanca; Pérez-Paricio, Alfredo

    2010-05-01

    The Catalan Agency of Water (l'Agència) is the institution that has full competences concerning the control, management and planning of water resources in approximately the Eastern half of the Catalan territory, in NE Spain. L'Agència determined the need to further characterise and assess the conceptual model of the aquifers included in the groundwater body (GWD) #21, called "Detrític neogen del Baix Penedès". One of the issues to face was to the fact that piezometric data were were not consistent with the final state of risk defined for GWB 21, because the information used was not updated. GWB 21 includes different layers of detritic and carbonated rocks, although the hydrological relationship between them are not well known. The first step was collecting information about wells, extractions, geology (lithological logs), pumping regimes, and all that can be implemented in a conceptual model. Completing this first step required treating with stakeholders, consisting mostly of local administrations, farmers and industries present within the working area. These contacts served the l'Agència not only to improve the characterisation of GXB 21, but also to explain the goals of the work to the aquifer users and to get them involved. But one of the most remarkable and fruitful experiences took place when the town council of Banyeres del Penedès organised a public meeting about the main aquifer of GWB 21, known as "Sorres de Santa Oliva" in order to close the gap between scientific aspects and social awareness. The meeting gathered together representatives of private enterprises, the university and water administrations, and participating in the sessions was really enriching for the audience, since people could understand technical processes and management problems that usually seem to be hidden. Furthermore, it was an opportunity for the speakers to get to know each other, to discuss and share knowledge of the hydrogeology and management of GWB 21, and of course to

  7. Is convective precipitation increasing? The case of Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, M. C.; Marcos, R.; Turco, M.

    2012-04-01

    A recent work (Turco and Llasat, 2011) has been performed to analyse the trends of the ETCCDI (Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices) precipitation indices in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) from 1951 to 2003, calculated from a interpolated dataset of daily precipitation, namely SPAIN02, regular at 0.2° horizontal resolution. This work has showed that no general trends at a regional scale have been observed, considering the annual and the seasonal regional values, and only the consecutive dry days index (CDD) at annual scale shows a locally coherent spatial trend pattern. Simultaneously, Llasat et al (2009, 2010) have showed an important increase of flash-flood events in the same region. Although aspects related with vulnerability, exposure and changes in uses of soil have been found as the main responsible of this increase, a major knowledge on the evolution of high rainfall events is mandatory. Heavy precipitation is usually associated to convective precipitation and therefore the analysis of the latter is a good indicator of it. Particularly, in Catalonia, funding was raised to define a parameter, designated as β, related with the greater or lesser convective character of the precipitation (Llasat, 2001). This parameter estimates the contribution of convective precipitation to total precipitation using 1-min or 5-min rainfall intensities usually estimated by rain gauges and it can be also analysed by means of the meteorological radar (Llasat et al, 2007). Its monthly distribution shows a maximum in August, followed by September, which are the months with the major number of flash-floods in Catalonia. This parameter also allows distinguishing between different kinds of precipitation events taking into account the degree of convective contribution. The main problem is the lack of long rainfall rate series that allow analysing trends in convective precipitation. The second one is related with its heterogeneous spatial and temporal distribution. To

  8. Temporal assemblage turnovers of intertidal foraminiferal communities from tropical (SE Caribbean) and temperate (NE England and SW Spain) regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, Ashleigh; Wilson, Brent; Horton, Benjamin P.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.

    2018-05-01

    This is the first quantitative study of temporal assemblage turnovers of the relationships between intertidal foraminifera. Time series datasets collected from tropical Caroni Swamp and Claxton Bay (Trinidad, SE Caribbean) and temperate Cowpen Marsh (NE England, U.K.) and Bay of Cadiz (SW Spain) were used. The assemblage turnover index (ATI) examined species interrelationships through comparisons of monthly or biweekly species proportional abundances over one or two years. Species contributing to major assemblage turnovers (ATI > x + σ) were identified using the conditioned on-boundary index (CoBI). Foraminiferal species are heterogeneously distributed within the sediment; multiple sample stations at a study location cumulatively represent the foraminiferal metacommunity and clusters represent foraminiferal assemblages. The ATI and CoBI were applied to the proportional abundances of live specimens recorded for the metacommunity and assemblages at each location. At Caroni Swamp and Claxton Bay, major assemblage turnovers were driven by the most abundant species and the majority coincided with seasonal change or the arrival of the seasonal Orinoco plume in the Gulf of Paria. Seasonal turnovers of the foraminiferal metacommunities at temperate Cowpen Marsh and Bay of Cádiz occurred during the summer and winter. Major assemblage turnovers in the upper Cowpen Marsh occurred in the summer, and the lower marsh in the winter. Foraminiferans are useful bioindicators for monitoring the health of coastal environments. Understanding foraminiferal population dynamics will allow cyclical changes to be differentiated from abrupt and persistent changes, which are related to anthropogenic disturbances or long-term climate change. The ATI and CoBI are useful indices for quantitatively exploring relationships of foraminiferal populations over time.

  9. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poyatos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. forests located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain. The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drought episode during the summer, the oak stand (Ec was only 110 mm compared to the 239 mm transpired by the Scots pine stand, although the ratio of transpiration to reference evapotranspiration (Ec/ET0 in the oak stand compares well with the expected values predicted for low leaf area index (LAI oak forests in southern Europe. Scots pine showed a strong reduction in (Ec/ET0 as the drought developed, whereas pubescent oak was less affected by soil moisture deficits in the upper soil. As a second objective, and given the contrasting meteorological conditions between 2003 and 2004 summer periods, the interannual variability of transpiration was studied in the Scots pine plot. Rainfall during the summer months (June-September in 2003 was almost 40% less than in the same interval in 2004. Accordingly, transpiration was also reduced about 25% in 2003. Finally, Scots pine data from 2003 and 2004 was used to calibrate a simple transpiration model using ET0 and soil moisture deficit (SMD as input variables, and implicitly including stomatal responses to high vapour pressure deficits (Dd and soil water status.

  10. Fluvial diffluence episodes reflected in the Pleistocene tufa deposits of the River Piedra (Iberian Range, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Urbez, M.; Pardo, G.; Arenas, C.; Sancho, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Pleistocene deposits of the valley of the River Piedra (NE Spain) are represented by thick tufas with small amounts of detrital material; the development of these deposits correlates with marine isotopic stages 9, 7, 6, and 5. The sedimentary scenario in which they formed mostly corresponded to stepped fluvial systems with barrage-cascade and associated dammed areas separated by low gradient fluvial stretches. Mapping and determining the sedimentology and chronology of these deposits distinguished two main episodes of fluvial diffluence that originated as a result of the temporary blockage of the river — a consequence of the vertical growth of tufa barrages in the main channel. In both episodes, water spilt out toward a secondary course from areas upstream of barrages where the water level surpassed the height of the divide between the main and secondary course. As a consequence, extensive and distinct tufa deposits with very varied facies formed over a gently inclined area toward and, indeed, within the secondary course. The hydrology of this secondary course was episodic, fed only by surface water. The two diffluence episodes detected occurred during MIS 7 and 7-6 and were interrupted by incision events, reflected by detrital deposits at the base of each tufa sedimentation stage in the main channel. Incision, which caused the breakage of the barrages, allowed water to again flow through the main channel. No evidence of diffluence was seen in any younger (MIS 5 to present-day) tufa deposits. The proposed diffluence model might help explain other carbonate fluvial systems in which (1) tufas appear in areas with no permanent water supply, and (2) tufas are absent over extensive areas despite conditions favourable to their formation.

  11. Retrospective study of pestivirus infection in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) and other ungulates in the Pyrenees (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Ignasi; Cabezón, Oscar; Rosell, Rosa; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Allepuz, Alberto; Lavín, Santiago

    2011-04-21

    In 2001 a new Pestivirus (Family Flaviviridae) was associated with an outbreak of a previously unreported disease in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in the Pyrenees (NE Spain). Molecular characterization assigned this virus to the Border Disease Virus (BDV) cluster, BDV-4 genotype. A retrospective study was performed in archived sera and spleen of 74 Pyrenean chamois and in archived sera of 28 mouflon (Ovis ammon), 56 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 43 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 29 fallow deer (Dama dama) from the Pyrenees between the years 1990 and 2000. Thirty six of 74 (48.6%) sera of Pyrenean chamois, one of mouflon and one of red deer were positive by an ELISA antibody test. Comparative virus neutralization tests were performed on 26 seropositive chamois, one mouflon and one red deer, using five pestivirus strains. An ELISA antigen test was performed on 37 seronegative chamois and yielded positive results in one chamois and inconclusive result in two. RT-PCR and virus isolation performed on spleen samples from these three animals gave positive results in the positive and one inconclusive animal. Sequence analysis in the 5' unstranslated region revealed that they were grouped into the BDV-4 genotype. Virological and serological data of the present study indicate that BDV infection has been present in the chamois population since at least 1990, 11 years before the first outbreak of disease. Therefore, the emergence of the disease in 2001 is apparently due to other factors rather than the introduction of a new virus in the chamois population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalencia del consumo de medicamentos en la población adulta de Cataluña Prevalence of drug utilization in the adult population of Catalonia, Spain

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    S. Sans

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir la prevalencia de la utilización de medicamentos según factores sociodemográficos y estado de salud autopercibido en la población adulta. Métodos: Examen de salud transversal del estudio CRONICAT/MONICA-Cataluña realizado en 1994-1996 en una muestra aleatoria de la población general de 25 a 64 años. Se interrogó a 3.421 participantes (tasa de respuesta del 72% con cuestionario abierto sobre los medicamentos consumidos durante las dos semanas previas y otros hábitos de salud. Los medicamentos se codificaron posteriormente según la clasificación ATC (versión 1993. Resultados: Mayor proporción de mujeres (38% que de varones (26% autopercibió peor estado de salud (p Objectives: To describe the prevalence of drug utilization according to sociodemographic factors and self-perceived health in the adult population. Methods: Cross-sectional health survey of the CRONICAT/MONICA-Catalonia study carried out in 1994-96 in a random sample of the general population aged 25-64 years. A total of 3,421 participants (72% response rate were interviewed about drug consumption in the previous two weeks with an open questionnaire. The participants were also asked about other health habits. Drugs were subsequently classified according to the ATC classification (1993 version. Results: A higher proportion of women (38% than men (26% self-perceived poor health status (p < 0.001. Age-adjusted total drug utilization was 57% in men (95%CI: 55-59 and 76% in women (95%CI: 74-78. Excluding contraceptives, regular drug utilization was 35% in men (95%CI: 33-37 and 48% in women (95%CI: 46-51. Twenty-nine percent of men and 48% of women (p < 0.001 took more than one drug. Neither educational level nor marital status influenced drug utilization. Among men, drug consumption was higher in retired individuals and pensioners (68%; 95%CI: 62-74 than in active workers (54%; 95%CI: 52-57. The most frequently used drugs were those for the nervous system

  13. Has the quality of health care for the immigrant population changed during the economic crisis in Catalonia (Spain)? Opinions of health professionals and immigrant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porthé, Victoria; Vargas, Ingrid; Ronda, Elena; Malmusi, Davide; Bosch, Lola; Vázquez, M Luisa

    2017-06-02

    To analyse changes in health professionals' and immigrant users' perceptions of the quality of care provided to the immigrant population during the crisis. A qualitative descriptive-interpretative and exploratory study was conducted in two areas of Catalonia. Semi-structured individual interviews were used with a theoretical sample of medical (n=24) and administrative (n=10) professionals in primary care (PC) and secondary care (SC), and immigrant users (n=20). Thematic analysis was conducted and the results were triangulated. Problems related to technical and interpersonal quality emerged from the discourse of both professionals and immigrants. These problems were attributed to cutbacks during the economic crisis. Regarding technical quality, respondents reported an increase in erroneous or non-specific diagnoses, inappropriate use of diagnostic tests and non-specific treatments, due to reduction in consultation times as a result of cuts in human resources. With regard to interpersonal quality, professionals reported less empathy, and users also reported worse communication, due to changes in professionals' working conditions and users' attitudes. Finally, a reduction in the resolution capacity of the health services emerged: professionals described unnecessary repeated PC visits and limited responses in SC, while young immigrants reported an insufficient response to their health problems. The results indicate a deterioration in perceived technical and interpersonal quality during the economic crisis, due to cutbacks mainly in human resources. These changes affect the whole population, but especially immigrants. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. A case of respiratory toxigenic diphtheria: contact tracing results and considerations following a 30-year disease-free interval, Catalonia, Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jané, Mireia; Vidal, Maria José; Camps, Neus; Campins, Magda; Martínez, Ana; Balcells, Joan; Martin-Gomez, Maria Teresa; Bassets, Gloria; Herrera-León, Silvia; Foguet, Anton; Maresma, Mar; Follia, Nuria; Uriona, Sonia; Pumarola, Tomàs

    2018-03-01

    In May 2015, following a 30-year diphtheria-free interval in Catalonia, an unvaccinated 6-year-old child was diagnosed with diphtheria caused by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae . After a difficult search for equine-derived diphtheria antitoxin (DAT), the child received the DAT 4 days later but died at the end of June. Two hundred and seventeen contacts were identified in relation to the index case, and their vaccination statuses were analysed, updated and completed. Of these, 140 contacts underwent physical examination and throat swabs were taken from them for analysis. Results were positive for toxigenic C. diphtheriae in 10 contacts; nine were asymptomatic vaccinated children who had been in contact with the index case and one was a parent of one of the nine children. Active surveillance of the 217 contacts was initiated by healthcare workers from hospitals and primary healthcare centres, together with public health epidemiological support. Lack of availability of DAT was an issue in our case. Such lack could be circumvented by the implementation of an international fast-track procedure to obtain it in a timely manner. Maintaining primary vaccination coverage for children and increasing booster-dose immunisation against diphtheria in the adult population is of key importance.

  15. Influenza sentinel surveillance network: a public health-primary care collaborative action to assess influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Nuria; Baricot, Maretva; Martínez, Ana; Toledo, Diana; Godoy, Pere; Dominguez, Ángela

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of a collaborative action between Public Health services and Primary Care in the context of a case-control study on effectiveness of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical measures to prevent hospitalization in a pandemic situation. To carry out this research the collaborative action of the primary care physicians members of the Influenza surveillance network was needed, they had to recall clinical information from influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 confirmed outpatient cases and negative outpatient controls matching their corresponding hospitalized confirmed case.   A survey questionnaire to assess involvement of Influenza Sentinel Surveillance Primary care physicians' Network of Catalonia (PIDIRAC) regarding the outpatient case and control outreach during the pandemic influenza season was performed. A total of 71,1% of completed surveys were received. Perception of pandemic activity was considered to be similar to seasonal influenza activity in 43.8% or higher but not unbearable in 37.5% of the replies. There was no nuisance reported from patients regarding neither the questions nor the surveyor. Collaborative research between Public Health services and Primary Care physicians enhances Public Health actions and research.

  16. Urban solid wastes management in Montnegre-Corredor (Catalonia, Spain); La gestion de residos solidos urbanos en parques naturales. El Montnegre- Corredor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieradevall i Pons, J.; Boada i Unca, M.; Fresquet, C. M.

    2004-07-01

    With a aim to gaining some knowledge about urban solid waste management in the Montnegre- Corredor Park (Catalonia), the most significant related aspects were analyzed: the different public administrations involved, waste collector type of transport, treatment and, finally, waste disposal and its production from 1999 to 2002. Economical, environmental and social aspects of solid waste management at the Park were also studied. From this analysis we can establish that there is no specific plant for solid waste management in the Park, and action is limited to basic waste collection services. Moreover, there is a multiplicity of managers. In terms of maintenance it must be pointed out that selective collection is non-existent, and critical points have been identified in the most popular areas. The study also put forward a new solid waste management plan for the Park, recommending the unification of managers and the reduction of about 23% of emissions from waste collection. The plan is designed to improve the solid waste management peculiar to the Montnegre- Corredor Natural Park (Catalonian). (Author)

  17. Remote sensing observing systems of the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC): application to thunderstorm surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argemí, O.; Bech, J.; Pineda, N.; Rigo, T.

    2009-09-01

    Remote sensing observing systems of the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) have been upgraded during the last years with newer technologies and enhancements. Recent changes on the weather radar network have been motivated to improve precipitation estimates by radar as well as meteorological surveillance in the area of Catalonia. This region has approximately 32,000 square kilometres and is located in the NE of Spain, limited by the Pyrenees to the North (with mountains exceeding 3000 m) and by the Mediterranean Sea to the East and South. In the case of the total lightning (intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning) detection system, the current upgrades will assure a better lightning detection efficiency and location accuracy. Both upgraded systems help to enhance the tracking and the study of thunderstorm events. Initially, the weather radar network was designed to cover the complex topography of Catalonia and surrounding areas to support the regional administration, which includes civil protection and water authorities. The weather radar network was upgraded in 2008 with the addition of a new C-band Doppler radar system, which is located in the top of La Miranda Mountain (Tivissa) in the southern part of Catalonia enhancing the coverage, particularly to the South and South-West. Technically the new radar is very similar to the last one installed in 2003 (Creu del Vent radar), using a 4 m antenna (i.e., 1 degree beam width), a Vaisala-Sigmet RVP-8 digital receiver and processor and a low power transmitter using a Travelling Wave Tube (TWT) amplifier. This design allows using pulse-compression techniques to enhance radial resolution and sensitivity. Currently, the SMC is upgrading its total lightning detection system, operational since 2003. While a fourth sensor (Amposta) was added last year to enlarge the system coverage, all sensors and central processor will be upgraded this year to the new Vaisala’s total lightning location technology. The new LS8000

  18. Togetherness, coexistence or confrontation : the impact of school climate and culture on peer-to-peer social relations in Catalonia, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ponferrada-Arteaga, Maribel; Carrasco-Pons, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents some of the results of the study ‘Coexistence and Confrontation among Peers in Secondary Schools in Catalonia’ commissioned by the Ombudsman’s Office of the Catalan government and carried out at the Institute of Childhood and the Urban World (CIIMU) in Barcelona, Spain, in 2005-2006. It offers a description of the indicators of malaise and exclusion among students at nine public and private secondary schools serving varying social environments in Cataloni...

  19. Geological-geophysical techniques applied to urban planning in karst hazardous areas. Case study of Zaragoza, NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo Anchuela, O.; Soriano, A.; Casas Sainz, A.; Pocoví Juan, A.

    2009-12-01

    Industrial and urban growth must deal in some settings with geological hazards. In the last 50 years, the city of Zaragoza (NE Spain) has developed an increase of its urbanized area in a progression several orders higher than expected from its population increase. This fast growth has affected several areas around the city that were not usually used for construction. Maps of the Zaragoza city area at the end of the XIXth century and beginning of the XXth reveal the presence of karst hazards in several zones that can be observed in more modern data, as aerial photographs taken during a period ranging from 1927 to present. The urban and industrial development has covered many of these hazardous zones, even though potential risks were known. The origins of the karst problems are related to the solution of evaporites (mainly gypsum, glauberite and halite) that represent the Miocene substratum of the Zaragoza area underlying the Quaternary terraces and pediments related to the Ebro River and its tributaries. Historical data show the persistence of subsidence foci during long periods of time while in recent urbanized areas this stability is not shared, observing the increase of activity and/or radius affection in short periods of time after building over. These problems can be related to two factors: i) urban development over hazardous areas can increase the karst activity and ii) the affection radius is not properly established with the commonly applied methods. One way to develop these detailed maps can be related to the geophysical approach. The applied geophysical routine, dependent on the characteristics of the surveyed area, is based on potential geophysical techniques (magnetometry and gravimetry) and others related to the application of induced fields (EM and GPR). The obtained results can be related to more straightforward criteria as the detection of cavities in the subsoil and indirect indicators related to the long-term activity of the subsidence areas

  20. Soil and Water Assessment Tool soil loss simulation at the sub-basin scale in the Alt Penedès-Anoia vineyard region (Ne Spain) in the 2000s

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Casasnovas, José Antonio; Ramos Martín, Ma. C. (Ma. Concepción); Benites, Grace

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates soil loss due to water erosion in an area of 32,362 ha with a predominant land use of vineyards (Alt Penedès-Anoia region, Catalonia, Spain). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used incorporating daily climatic data for the period 2000-2010 and also detailed soil and land use maps. Particular attention was given to the universal soil loss equation cover and management factor (C factor) of vineyards, with a minimum value of 0·15 being determined for this crop. T...

  1. The Role of Bullfighting and FC Barcelona in the Emancipation of Catalonia from Spain (El papel de la corrida de toros y FC Barcelona en la emancipación de Cataluña de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. TKac

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper looks at the role that bullfighting and FC Barcelona have played in the growing independence movement in Catalonia. This article will discuss nations, the importance of bullfighting and soccer to Iberian cultures, Catalan political parties and their role in the nationalist movement, the vote to prohibit bullfighting and FC Barcelona´s increasing political conscious. I conclude that bullfighting and soccer have been used by political parties and those associated with the nationalist movement to foster feelings of difference with Spain. These feelings have been passed from the top down to the Catalan people and risk alienating those who are not in agreement with the nationalist movement.Resumen: Este trabajo examina el papel que la corrida de toros y el equipo de fútbol FC Barcelona han hecho en el movimiento continuo hacia la independencia en Cataluña. Discute el concepto de la nación, la importancia de las corridas y el fútbol en culturas ibéricas, partidos políticos catalanes y su rol en el voto a favor de la prohibición de las corridas en Cataluña y la evolución de la conciencia política cada vez más evidente de FC Barcelona. Concluyo que los partidos políticos y otros asociados con el movimiento hacia la independencia se han aprovechado de las corridas y el fútbol para destacar diferencias culturales con España. Esta actitud de diferencia se ha trasladado de arriba-abajo al pueblo catalán y el movimiento nacionalista corre el riesgo de alienar a los que no comparten sus creencias.

  2. Factors associated with commencing smoking in 12-year-old students in Catalonia (Spain: a cross-sectional population-based study

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    Basora Josep

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade notable progress has been made in developed countries on monitoring smoking although experimenting with cigarettes and smoking in young people remains a serious public health problem. This paper reports a cross-sectional study at the beginning of the 3-year follow-up community study TA_BES. The aim was to study the prevalence of smoking in addition to determining predictive factors for when smoking commences in a representative population of 12-year-old first year compulsory secondary education students. Methods Twenty-nine secondary schools (N = 29 from an area of Catalonia participated in the study. In these schools 2245 students answered a questionnaire to study the attitudes, behaviors, and tobacco consumption in the subject's surrounding circle and family in relation to smoking; carbon monoxide measurements were taken by means of co-oximetry on 2 different occasions. A smoker was defined as a student who had smoked daily or occasionally in the last 30 days. For non-smokers the criteria of not considering was set up for those who answered that in the future they would not be smokers and considering those who answered that they did not rule out becoming a smoker in the future. Results Among the total 2245 students included in the analysis 157(7% were classified as smokers. Among non-smokers we differentiated between those not considering smoking 1757 (78.3% and those considering smoking 288 (12.8%. Age is among the factors related to commencing smoking. The risk of becoming a smoker increases 2.27 times/year. The influence of the group of friends with a very high risk for boys OR 149.5 and lower, albeit high, in girls OR 38.1. Tobacco consumption of parents produces different effects in young people. A smoking father does not produce alterations in the smoking behavior of young people. However having a smoking mother or former smoking is a risk factor for boys and a protective factor for girls. We

  3. The impact of droughts and climate change on sinkhole occurrence. A case study from the evaporite karst of the Fluvia Valley, NE Spain.

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    Linares, Rogelio; Roqué, Carles; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Zarroca, Mario; Carbonel, Domingo; Bach, Joan; Fabregat, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    This work introduces the concept that sinkhole frequency in some karst settings increases during drought periods. This conception is tested in a sector of the Fluvia River valley in NE Spain, where subsidence phenomena is related to the karstification of folded Eocene evaporite formations. In the discharge areas, the evaporites behave as confined aquifers affected by hypogene karstification caused by aggressive artesian flows coming form an underlying carbonate aquifer. A sinkhole inventory with chronological data has been constructed, revealing temporal clusters. Those clusters show a good correlation with drought periods, as revealed by precipitation, river discharge and piezometric data. This temporal association is particularly obvious for the last and current drought starting in 1998, which is the most intense of the record period (1940-present). Climatic projections based on recent studies foresee an intensification of the droughts in this sector of NE Spain, which could be accompanied by the enhancement of the sinkhole hazard and the associated risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Artroplastias de cadera y rodilla en Cataluña desde 1994 a 2005 Hip and knee arthroplasties in Catalonia (Spain from 1994 to 2005

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    Alejandro Allepuz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Las artroplastias de cadera y rodilla están entre los procedimientos quirúrgicos más frecuentes en Cataluña. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir su evolución y los cambios en sus características entre 1994 y 2005. Métodos: Estudio transversal de altas por artroplastias totales primarias de cadera (ATC o rodilla (ATR y de revisión seleccionadas del Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos al Alta Hospitalaria: códigos 81.51, 81.53, 81.54 y 81.55 (CIE-9-MC. Se calcularon las tasas de ATC y ATR estandarizadas por edad y sexo, y la carga de revisión, analizando su evolución mediante la regresión de joinpoint. Se definieron 4 períodos y se analizaron las características de los pacientes y de los episodios asistenciales comparando los períodos 4 y 1 a partir de modelos de regresión logística. Resultados: Las tasas por 10.000 habitantes se incrementaron entre 1994 y 2000 en ATC, pasando de 4,1 a 6,6, y entre 1994 y 2005 en ATR, pasando de 2,6 a 15,5. La carga de revisión aumentó en la cadera hasta 2001 y en la rodilla durante todo el período de estudio. El principal motivo de artroplastia primaria fue la artrosis. Los pacientes de 75 años o mayores y la comorbilidad aumentaron en ATC y ATR. Conclusiones: El incremento de las tasas y el cambio del perfil de los pacientes reflejan una posible ampliación de los criterios de indicación. El previsible aumento de la cirugía de revisión se podría reducir mediante sistemas de evaluación de la supervivencia de las prótesis y el desarrollo de guías de práctica clínica.Objective: Hip and knee arthroplasties are the most frequent surgical procedures in Catalonia. The aim of this study was to describe changes in the rates of these procedures and in their characteristics between 1994 and 2005. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of total hip (THR and knee (TKR primary and revision joint replacement discharges using the Minimum Data Set (ICD-9-CM codes 81.51, 81

  5. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppo, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on nuclear export activities in Spain, as elsewhere, which occur in a political, economic, and technological context. The factors operating the process are not always explicitly related in the public and the private sectors, nor between these sectors, by the relevant decision makers. A redefinition of Spain's policies in the nuclear sector has been going on since at least 1984, when a new energy plan was legislated by the newly elected Socialist government. It would be accurate to suggest that this process remains dynamic and not fully completed for policy purposes. This condition has resulted from the fact that Spain underwent a crucial political regime change from dictatorship to parliamentary democracy about a decade ago, with the transition to democracy only recently consolidated. Moreover, no policy in regard to nuclear nonproliferation existed during the Franco regime. Instead, Spain's official position was to maintain the right to preserve a nuclear option for national defense. However, this option was not developed into a concerted program to develop a nuclear military capability

  6. Crystal preferred orientations of minerals from mantle xenoliths in alkali basaltic rocks form the Catalan Volcanic Zone (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Roig, Mercè; Galán, Gumer; Mariani, Elisabetta

    2015-04-01

    Mantle xenoliths in alkali basaltic rocks from the Catalan Volcanic Zone, associated with the Neogene-Quaternary rift system in NE Spain, are formed of anhydrous spinel lherzolites and harzburgites with minor olivine websterites. Both peridotites are considered residues of variable degrees of partial melting, later affected by metasomatism, especially the harzburgites. These and the websterites display protogranular microstructures, whereas lherzolites show continuous variation between protogranular, porphyroclastic and equigranular forms. Thermometric data of new xenoliths indicate that protogranular harzburgites, lherzolites and websterites were equilibrated at higher temperatures than porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites. Mineral chemistry also indicates lower equilibrium pressure for porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites than for the protogranular ones. Crystal preferred orientations (CPOs) of olivine and pyroxenes from these new xenoliths were determined with the EBSD-SEM technique to identify the deformation stages affecting the lithospheric mantle in this zone and to assess the relationships between the deformation fabrics, processes and microstructures. Olivine CPOs in protogranular harzburgites, lherzolites and a pyroxenite display [010]-fiber patterns characterized by a strong point concentration of the [010] axis normal to the foliation and girdle distribution of [100] and [001] axes within the foliation plane. Olivine CPO symmetry in porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites varies continuously from [010]-fiber to orthorhombic and [100]-fiber types. The orthorhombic patterns are characterized by scattered maxima of the three axes, which are normal between them. The rare [100]-fiber patterns display strong point concentration of [100] axis, with normal girdle distribution of the other two axes, which are aligned with each other. The patterns of pyroxene CPOs are more dispersed than those of olivine, especially for clinopyroxene, but

  7. Nursing workload predictors in Catalonia (Spain: a home care cohort study Variables predictoras de las cargas de trabajo de enfermería en Cataluña: seguimiento de una cohorte de atención domiciliaria

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    Joan Gené Badia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the characteristics of chronic patients and their environment in order to predict the nursing workload required 1 year after their inclusion in a home care program. Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out in 72 primary health care teams in Catalonia (Spain with a 1-year follow-up of 1,068 home care patients over 64 years old. The variables collected from each patient included data on health and social status (Charlson and Barthel indexes and the Pfeiffer, Braden and Gijon scales, carer overburden (Zarit scale, hospital admissions, use of emergency services, self-perceived health (SF-12 and the number of health worker visits. Results: Patients received 7.2 (SD 10.4 visits per year from their nurse-in-charge, out of a total of 8.7 (SD 13.1 nursing visits per year. Risk factors for receiving more nursing visits at home were male gender (IRR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.20-1.67, dependency for daily activities (IRR=1.65, 95%CI: 1.29-2.13, decubitus ulcers (IRR=4.03, 95%CI: 2.27-7.14 and receiving emergency medical care at home (IRR=1.65, 95%CI: 1.31-2.07. In contrast, patients with major cognitive impairment (IRR=0.78, 95%CI: 0.63-0.98 had a lower probability of receiving nursing visits at home. Conclusions: Workload can be predicted by patients' clinical characteristics. The positive correlation of workload with variables related to disease severity and the negative correlation with variables related to cognitive impairment show that home care nursing in Catalonia is basically demand-oriented.Objetivo: Identificar las características basales de los pacientes crónicos y su entorno que predicen la carga de trabajo de enfermería durante el año siguiente a su inclusión en un programa de atención domiciliaria (ATDOM. Métodos: Estudio longitudinal realizado en 72 equipos de atención primaria de salud en Cataluña. Seguimiento durante un año de 1068 pacientes de ATDOM mayores de 64 años de edad. Variables recogidas: nivel de salud

  8. Prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+ using HPV DNA testing after a diagnosis of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASC-US in Catalonia, Spain

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    Ibáñez Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A protocol for cervical cancer screening among sexually active women 25 to 65 years of age was introduced in 2006 in Catalonia, Spain to increase coverage and to recommend a 3-year-interval between screening cytology. In addition, Human Papillomavirus (HPV was offered as a triage test for women with a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US. HPV testing was recommended within 3 months of ASC-US diagnosis. According to protocol, HPV negative women were referred to regular screening including a cytological exam every 3 years while HPV positive women were referred to colposcopy and closer follow-up. We evaluated the implementation of the protocol and the prediction of HPV testing as a triage tool for cervical intraepithelial lesions grade two or worse (CIN2+ in women with a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US. Methods During 2007-08 a total of 611 women from five reference laboratories in Catalonia with a novel diagnosis of ASC-US were referred for high risk HPV (hrHPV triage using high risk Hybrid Capture version 2. Using routine record linkage data, women were followed for 3 years to evaluate hrHPV testing efficacy for predicting CIN2+ cases. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio for CIN2 +. Results Among the 611 women diagnosed with ASC-US, 493 (80.7% had at least one follow-up visit during the study period. hrHPV was detected in 48.3% of the women at study entry (mean age 35.2 years. hrHPV positivity decreased with increasing age from 72.6% among women younger than 25 years to 31.6% in women older than 54 years (p At the end of the 3 years follow-up period, 37 women with a diagnosis of CIN2+ (18 CIN2, 16 CIN3, 2 cancers, and 1 with high squamous intraepithelial lesions -HSIL were identified and all but one had a hrHPV positive test at study entry. Sensitivity to detect CIN2+ of hrHPV was 97.2% (95%confidence interval (CI = 85.5-99.9 and specificity was 68.3% (95%CI

  9. Prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+) using HPV DNA testing after a diagnosis of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASC-US) in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Raquel; Moreno-Crespi, Judit; Sardà, Montserrat; Autonell, Josefina; Fibla, Montserrat; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Lloveras, Belen; Alejo, María; Català, Isabel; Alameda, Francesc; Casas, Miquel; Bosch, F Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2012-01-26

    A protocol for cervical cancer screening among sexually active women 25 to 65 years of age was introduced in 2006 in Catalonia, Spain to increase coverage and to recommend a 3-year-interval between screening cytology. In addition, Human Papillomavirus (HPV) was offered as a triage test for women with a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US). HPV testing was recommended within 3 months of ASC-US diagnosis. According to protocol, HPV negative women were referred to regular screening including a cytological exam every 3 years while HPV positive women were referred to colposcopy and closer follow-up. We evaluated the implementation of the protocol and the prediction of HPV testing as a triage tool for cervical intraepithelial lesions grade two or worse (CIN2+) in women with a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US. During 2007-08 a total of 611 women from five reference laboratories in Catalonia with a novel diagnosis of ASC-US were referred for high risk HPV (hrHPV) triage using high risk Hybrid Capture version 2. Using routine record linkage data, women were followed for 3 years to evaluate hrHPV testing efficacy for predicting CIN2+ cases. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio for CIN2 +. Among the 611 women diagnosed with ASC-US, 493 (80.7%) had at least one follow-up visit during the study period. hrHPV was detected in 48.3% of the women at study entry (mean age 35.2 years). hrHPV positivity decreased with increasing age from 72.6% among women younger than 25 years to 31.6% in women older than 54 years (p < 0.01). At the end of the 3 years follow-up period, 37 women with a diagnosis of CIN2+ (18 CIN2, 16 CIN3, 2 cancers, and 1 with high squamous intraepithelial lesions--HSIL) were identified and all but one had a hrHPV positive test at study entry. Sensitivity to detect CIN2+ of hrHPV was 97.2% (95%confidence interval (CI) = 85.5-99.9) and specificity was 68.3% (95%CI = 63.1-73.2). The odds ratio for CIN2

  10. A youth-led social marketing intervention to encourage healthy lifestyles, the EYTO (European Youth Tackling Obesity) project: a cluster randomised controlled0 trial in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauradó, Elisabet; Aceves-Martins, Magaly; Tarro, Lucia; Papell-Garcia, Ignasi; Puiggròs, Francesc; Arola, Lluís; Prades-Tena, Jordi; Montagut, Marta; Moragas-Fernández, Carlota M; Solà, Rosa; Giralt, Montse

    2015-07-03

    The encouragement of healthy lifestyles for obesity prevention in young people is a public health priority. The European Youth Tackling Obesity (EYTO) project is a multicentric intervention project with participation from the United Kingdom, Portugal, the Czech Republic and Spain. The general aim of the EYTO project is to improve lifestyles, including nutritional habits and physical activity practice, and to prevent obesity in socioeconomically disadvantaged and vulnerable adolescents. The EYTO project works through a peer-led social marketing intervention that is designed and implemented by the adolescents of each participating country. Each country involved in the project acts independently. This paper describes the "Som la Pera" intervention Spanish study that is part of the EYTO project. In Spain, the research team performed a cluster randomised controlled intervention over 2 academic years (2013-2015) in which 2 high-schools were designated as the control group and 2 high-schools were designated as the intervention group, with a minimum of 121 schoolchildren per group. From the intervention group, 5 adolescents with leadership characteristics, called "Adolescent Challenge Creators" (ACCs), were recruited. These 5 ACCs received an initial 4 h training session about social marketing principles and healthy lifestyle theory, followed by 24 sessions (1.30 h/session) divided in two academic years to design and implement activities presented as challenges to encourage healthy lifestyles among their peers, the approximately 180-200 high-school students in the intervention group. During the design of the intervention, it was essential that the ACCs used the 8 social marketing criteria (customer orientation, behaviour, theory, insight, exchange, competition, segmentation and methods mix). The expected primary outcomes from the Spanish intervention will be as follows: increases in the consumption of fruits and vegetables and physical activity practice along with

  11. Cross-sectional survey on awareness of colorectal cancer and a screening programme for primary health care professionals in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, L; García, M; Binefa, G; Mila, N; Vidal, C; Lluch, M T; Puig, M

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to assess whether primary health care professionals have accurate information regarding colorectal cancer (CRC) screening procedures, surveillance recommendations and referral strategies. This cross-sectional descriptive study was based on a survey conducted among primary health care professionals in Barcelona, Spain. The questionnaire was used to gather information regarding CRC screening procedures as well as demographic and professional characteristics of the study subjects. A CRC and screening awareness score (ranging from 0 to 12) was created based on the survey questions. The response rate was 58.9% (206/305). The estimated mean score (standard deviation) was 8.43 (SD: 1.30). For four questions, more than 60% of the answers were incorrect: one related to risk factors, two concerning follow-up colonoscopy, and one related to surveillance. Only 30.8% of the participants believed that they were responsible for determining the appropriate surveillance intervals and for scheduling colonoscopies. Although the professionals had sufficient knowledge of CRC screening, professional knowledge of some aspects related to the major non-modifiable risk factors for the disease and surveillance colonoscopy procedures could be improved. Frequent communication with professionals is necessary to maintain updated screening-related information. Possible methods for facilitating communication could include continuous briefings, regular message reminders or educational websites. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Stratigraphic and structural controls on groundwater flow in an outcropping fossil fan delta: the case of Sant Llorenç del Munt range (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglés, Marc; Folch, Albert; Oms, Oriol; Maestro, Eudald; Mas-Pla, Josep

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogeological models of mountain regions present the opportunity to understand the role of geological factors on groundwater resources. The effects of sedimentary facies and fracture distribution on groundwater flow and resource exploitation are studied in the ancient fan delta of Sant Llorenç de Munt (central Catalonia, Spain) by integrating geological field observations (using sequence stratigraphy methods) and hydrogeological data (pumping tests, hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes). A comprehensive analysis of data portrays the massif as a single unit, constituted by different compartments determined by specific layers and sets of fractures. Two distinct flow systems—local and regional—are identified based on pumping test analysis as well as hydrochemical and isotopic data. Drawdown curves derived from pumping tests indicate that the behavior of the saturated layers, whose main porosity is given by the fracture network, corresponds to a confined aquifer. Pumping tests also reflect a double porosity within the system and the occurrence of impervious boundaries that support a compartmentalized model for the whole aquifer system. Hydrochemical data and associated spatial evolution show the result of water-rock interaction along the flow lines. Concentration of magnesium, derived from dolomite dissolution, is a tracer of the flow-path along distinct stratigraphic units. Water stable isotopes indicate that evaporation (near a 5% loss) occurs in a thick unsaturated zone within the massif before infiltration reaches the water table. The hydrogeological analysis of this outcropping system provides a methodology for the conceptualization of groundwater flow in similar buried systems where logging and hydrogeological information are scarce.

  13. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  14. Access and utilisation of social and health services as a social determinant of health: the case of undocumented Latin American immigrant women working in Lleida (Catalonia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Gastaldo, Denise; Molina-Luque, Fidel; Otero-García, Laura

    2017-03-01

    Although Spain has social and healthcare systems based on universal coverage, little is known about how undocumented immigrant women access and utilise them. This is particularly true in the case of Latin Americans who are overrepresented in the informal labour market, taking on traditionally female roles of caregivers and cleaners in private homes. This study describes access and utilisation of social and healthcare services by undocumented Latin American women working and living in rural and urban areas, and the barriers these women may face. An exploratory qualitative study was designed with 12 in-depth interviews with Latin American women living and working in three different settings: an urban city, a rural city and rural villages in the Pyrenees. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed, yielding four key themes: health is a tool for work which worsens due to precarious working conditions; lack of legal status traps Latin American women in precarious jobs; lack of access to and use of social services; and limited access to and use of healthcare services. While residing and working in different areas of the province impacted the utilisation of services, working conditions was the main barrier experienced by the participants. In conclusion, decent working conditions are the key to ensuring undocumented immigrant women's right to social and healthcare. To create a pathway to immigrant women's health promotion, the 'trap of illegality' should be challenged and the impact of being considered 'illegal' should be considered as a social determinant of health, even where the right to access services is legal. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Epidemiology of Otitis Media with Spontaneous Perforation of the Tympanic Membrane in Young Children and Association with Bacterial Nasopharyngeal Carriage, Recurrences and Pneumococcal Vaccination in Catalonia, Spain - The Prospective HERMES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilveti, Robert; Olmo, Montserrat; Pérez-Jove, Josefa; Picazo, Juan-José; Arimany, Josep-Lluis; Mora, Emiliano; Pérez-Porcuna, Tomás M; Aguilar, Ignacio; Alonso, Aurora; Molina, Francesc; Del Amo, María; Mendez, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The Epidemiology of otitis media with spontaneous perforation of the tympanic membrane and associated nasopharyngeal carriage of bacterial otopathogens was analysed in a county in Catalonia (Spain) with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) not included in the immunization programme at study time. A prospective, multicentre study was performed in 10 primary care centres and 2 hospitals (June 2011-June 2014), including all otherwise healthy children ≥2 months ≤8 years with otitis media presenting spontaneous tympanic perforation within 48h. Up to 521 otitis episodes in 487 children were included, showing by culture/PCR in middle ear fluid (MEF): Haemophilus influenzae [24.2%], both Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae [24.0%], S. pneumoniae [15.9%], Streptococcus pyogenes [13.6%], and Staphylococcus aureus [6.7%]. Culture-negative/PCR-positive otitis accounted for 31.3% (S. pneumoniae), 30.2% (H. influenzae) and 89.6% (mixed S. pneumoniae/H. influenzae infections). Overall, incidence decreased over the 3-year study period, with significant decreases in otitis by S. pneumoniae and by H. influenzae, but no decreases for mixed S. pneumoniae/H. influenzae infections. Concordance between species in nasopharynx and MEF was found in 58.3% of cases, with maximal rates for S. pyogenes (71.8%), and with identical pneumococcal serotype in 40.5% of cases. Most patients (66.6%) had past episodes. PCV13 serotypes were significantly more frequent in first episodes, in otitis by S. pneumoniae as single agent, and among MEF than nasopharyngeal isolates. All non-PCV13 serotypes separately accounted for <5% in MEF. Up to 73.9% children had received ≥1 dose of PCV, with lower carriage of PCV13 serotypes than among non-vaccinated children. Pooling pneumococcal isolates from MEF and nasopharynx, 30% were multidrug resistant, primarily belonging to serotypes 19A [29.8%], 24A [14.3%], 19F [8.3%] and 15A [6.0%]. Our results suggest that increasing PCV13 vaccination would

  16. Epidemiology of Otitis Media with Spontaneous Perforation of the Tympanic Membrane in Young Children and Association with Bacterial Nasopharyngeal Carriage, Recurrences and Pneumococcal Vaccination in Catalonia, Spain - The Prospective HERMES Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cilveti

    Full Text Available The Epidemiology of otitis media with spontaneous perforation of the tympanic membrane and associated nasopharyngeal carriage of bacterial otopathogens was analysed in a county in Catalonia (Spain with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs not included in the immunization programme at study time. A prospective, multicentre study was performed in 10 primary care centres and 2 hospitals (June 2011-June 2014, including all otherwise healthy children ≥2 months ≤8 years with otitis media presenting spontaneous tympanic perforation within 48h. Up to 521 otitis episodes in 487 children were included, showing by culture/PCR in middle ear fluid (MEF: Haemophilus influenzae [24.2%], both Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae [24.0%], S. pneumoniae [15.9%], Streptococcus pyogenes [13.6%], and Staphylococcus aureus [6.7%]. Culture-negative/PCR-positive otitis accounted for 31.3% (S. pneumoniae, 30.2% (H. influenzae and 89.6% (mixed S. pneumoniae/H. influenzae infections. Overall, incidence decreased over the 3-year study period, with significant decreases in otitis by S. pneumoniae and by H. influenzae, but no decreases for mixed S. pneumoniae/H. influenzae infections. Concordance between species in nasopharynx and MEF was found in 58.3% of cases, with maximal rates for S. pyogenes (71.8%, and with identical pneumococcal serotype in 40.5% of cases. Most patients (66.6% had past episodes. PCV13 serotypes were significantly more frequent in first episodes, in otitis by S. pneumoniae as single agent, and among MEF than nasopharyngeal isolates. All non-PCV13 serotypes separately accounted for <5% in MEF. Up to 73.9% children had received ≥1 dose of PCV, with lower carriage of PCV13 serotypes than among non-vaccinated children. Pooling pneumococcal isolates from MEF and nasopharynx, 30% were multidrug resistant, primarily belonging to serotypes 19A [29.8%], 24A [14.3%], 19F [8.3%] and 15A [6.0%]. Our results suggest that increasing PCV13 vaccination

  17. Situación y perspectivas laborales de los técnicos de salud de atención primaria de Cataluña Working conditions of public health workers in the primary care in Catalonia, Spain

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    Maria Salut Martínez Ferrer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Explorar la situación laboral de los técnicos de salud adscritos a las unidades docentes de medicina de familia y comunitaria de Cataluña. Métodos: Estudio transversal. Resultados: De 53 posibles técnicos de salud, se obtuvieron 40 respuestas, 29 completas. Más de la mitad de los técnicos de salud del Institut Català de la Salut son interinos. Sus principales actividades son la docencia, el apoyo metodológico a la investigación y la evaluación de servicios y personal sanitario. Desean mayor definición de sus funciones y mejorar sus condiciones de trabajo. Aunque una pequeña proporción considera muy difícil la coordinación en la salud pública, la mayoría muestra disposición a colaborar. Conclusiones: La inestabilidad laboral, las mejoras salariales y la definición de funciones son prioritarias para los técnicos de salud. Consideran deseable la coordinación de la atención primaria con los servicios de salud pública.Objective: To describe the working conditions and tasks of health workers in the health training unit of family medicine in Catalonia, Spain. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Results: Fifty-three public health workers were located. Forty responses were obtained, of which 29 were complete. More than half the health technicians in the Catalan Health Service had temporary contracts. Their main tasks were teaching, providing methodological assistance in research, and auditing healthcare services and healthcare workers. Health technicians wanted more precise job definition and better working conditions. Although a small proportion believed coordination of primary care and public health to be very difficult, most would take part in it. Conclusions: The main issues for public health workers were work instability, better salaries, and greater job definition. Coordination between primary care and public health was considered desirable.

  18. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  19. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castello Lagoon, NE Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ejarque

    Full Text Available We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain, an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1 the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2 fluctuations in salinity; and 3 natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the

  20. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Spanish low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are disposed of at the El Cabril Disposal Facility, in the province of Cordoba (SPAIN). The fundamental safety objective of the facility consists of the immediate and longer term protection of people and the environment. This objective leads to the need to isolate the wastes from the human surroundings, such that any release of the radionuclides contained in them does not pose any radiological risk for either people or the environment over the necessary time period. Consequently, it is necessary to fully protect the wastes against external aggression, from both the climatic and biological point of view (infiltration of water, temperature variations, chemical action of water, attacks by living macro and microorganisms, plants, etc.). This waste isolation is achieved by means of a multi-barrier system separating the activity stored from the aforementioned actions

  1. Tornadoes and waterspouts in Catalonia (1950-2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Gayà, M.; Llasat Botija, María del Carmen; Arús Dumenjó, Joan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary climatology of tornadoes and waterspouts in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula). A database spanning 60 yr (1950–2009) has been developed on the basis of information collected from various sources such as weather reports, insurance companies, newspapers and damage surveys. This database has been subjected to a rigorous validation process, and the climatology describes its main features: timing, spatial pattern, and trends in the tornado and wat...

  2. Gender differences in sexual risk behaviour among adolescents in Catalonia, Spain Diferencias de género en conductas sexuales de riesgo en adolescentes en Cataluña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Puente

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the factors associated with sexual risk behavior in adolescent girls and boys in order to plan future school health interventions. Methods: A cross-sectional study with two-stage cluster sampling that included 97 schools and 9,340 students aged between 14 and 16 years old was carried out in 2005-2006 in Catalonia (Spain. For the survey, a self-administered paper-based questionnaire was used. The questionnaire contained items on sociodemographic variables, use of addictive substances and mood states, among other items. These variables were tested as risk factors for unsafe sexual behavior. Results: This study included 4,653 boys and 4,687 girls with a mean age of 15 years. A total of 38.7% of students had had sexual relations at least once and 82.3% of boys and 63.0% of girls were engaged in sexual risk behaviors. The prevalence of sexual relations and risk behaviors was generally higher in boys than in girls, independently of the variables analyzed. Boys had more sexual partners (PObjetivos: El objetivo de este estudio es analizar aquellos factores relacionados con conductas sexuales de riesgo en chicos y chicas para poder plantear futuras intervenciones. Métodos: Estudio transversal basado en un muestreo por conglomerados bietápico, que incluía 97 escuelas y 9.340 estudiantes de entre 14 y16 años, llevado a cabo en Cataluña durante 2005-2006. La información se recogió mediante una encuesta autoadministrada que incluía, entre otras, variables sociodemográficas, uso de sustancias adictivas y estado de ánimo de los adolescentes. Estas variables fueron analizadas como factores de riesgo de conducta sexual insegura. Resultados: El estudio incluyó 4.653 chicos y 4.687 chicas con una edad media de 15 años. El 30,7% de los estudiantes habían tenido al menos una relación sexual. El 82,3% de los chicos y el 63% de las chicas tenían un aumento de riesgo de experimentar una relación sexual insegura. La prevalencia de

  3. Empirical evidence of direct rebound effect in Catalonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire Gonzalez, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature concerning the direct rebound effect in households; it briefly analyzes the main theoretical and methodological aspects, and finally estimates the magnitude of direct rebound effect for all energy services using electricity in households of Catalonia (Spain) using econometric techniques. The main results show an estimated direct rebound effect of 35% in the short term and 49% in the long term. The existence of a rebound effect reduces the effectiveness of energy efficiency policies.

  4. [Health services' utilization patterns in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Carmen; Salvador, Xavier; Faixedas, M Teresa; Gallo, Pedro

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this article is disclose services utilization patterns among the Catalan population with particular emphasis on primary care, specialised care, hospital care and emergency care. A number of logistic regression models were used to explain the utilization of the various types of services. Variables in the analysis included self-perceived need, lifestyles, and sociodemographic variables. Separate analyses were performed for male, female, adults, and children as well as for the general population. Women use all types of services more often than men. Children and people over 64 are more frequent users of primary care. Primary care is also associated to lower socioeconomic conditions. Young adults and the migrant population in general are found to be under users of services, except of emergency care services. The use of specialised care is associated to the better-off, to those with university level education attainment, individual private insurance, and those living in the city of Barcelona. Hospital care is largely associated to need variables. The use of health services is explained by self-perceived need as well as by demographic, socioeconomic and geographical factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Modernist architecture in Barcelona reveals a new trace fossil from the Miocene of Montjuïc (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belaústegui, Z.; Belaústegui, A.

    2017-11-01

    A new ichnotaxon, Lapillitubus montjuichensis n. i gen. n. isp., is described from the middle Miocene (Serravallian) of Montjuïc mountain (Barcelona, northeastern Spain). This ichnotaxon consists of a horizontal to vertical, cylindrical burrow with an agglutinated lining exclusively composed of lithoclasts. Lapillitubus montjuichensis is interpreted as the result of the burrowing activity of a deposit- or suspension-feeding annelid worm. This new ichnotaxon extends the record of the informal group known as clast-armored or agglutinated trace fossils. In addition, since part of its type material is located in the blocks that make up the façades of several modernist buildings in the city of Barcelona, this new ichnotaxon highlights the importance of fossils in urban settings for those cases in which natural outcrops are reduced, restricted or even missing.

  6. Modernist architecture in Barcelona reveals a new trace fossil from the Miocene of Montjuïc (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaústegui, Z.; Belaústegui, A.

    2017-01-01

    A new ichnotaxon, Lapillitubus montjuichensis n. i gen. n. isp., is described from the middle Miocene (Serravallian) of Montjuïc mountain (Barcelona, northeastern Spain). This ichnotaxon consists of a horizontal to vertical, cylindrical burrow with an agglutinated lining exclusively composed of lithoclasts. Lapillitubus montjuichensis is interpreted as the result of the burrowing activity of a deposit- or suspension-feeding annelid worm. This new ichnotaxon extends the record of the informal group known as clast-armored or agglutinated trace fossils. In addition, since part of its type material is located in the blocks that make up the façades of several modernist buildings in the city of Barcelona, this new ichnotaxon highlights the importance of fossils in urban settings for those cases in which natural outcrops are reduced, restricted or even missing.

  7. Climatic implications of correlated upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits on the Cinca and Gallego rivers, NE Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Claudia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcdonald, Eric [NON LANL; Sancho, Carlos [NON LANL; Pena, Jose- Luis [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    We correlate Upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits of the Cinca and Gallego River valleys (south central Pyrenees and Ebro basin, Spain) using geomorphic position, luminescence dates, and time-related trends in soil development. The ages obtained from glacial deposits indicate glacial periods at 85 {+-} 5 ka, 64 {+-} 11 ka, and 36 {+-} 3 ka (from glacial till) and 20 {+-} 3 ka (from loess). The fluvial drainage system, fed by glaciers in the headwaters, developed extensive terrace systems in the Cinca River valley at 178 {+-} 21 ka, 97 {+-} 16 ka, 61 {+-} 4 ka, 47 {+-} 4 ka, and 11 {+-} 1 ka, and in the Gallego River valley at 151 {+-} 11 ka, 68 {+-} 7 ka, and 45 {+-} 3 ka. The times of maximum geomorphic activity related to cold phases coincide with Late Pleistocene marine isotope stages and heinrich events. The maximum extent of glaciers during the last glacial occurred at 64 {+-} 11 ka, and the terraces correlated with this glacial phase are the most extensive in both the Cinca (61 {+-} 4 ka) and Gallego (68 {+-} 7 ka) valleys, indicating a strong increase in fluvial discharge and availability of sediments related to the transition to deglaciation. The global Last Glacial Maximum is scarcely represented in the south central Pyrenees owing to dominantly dry conditions at that time. Precipitation must be controlled by the position of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation system. The glacial systems and the associated fluvial dynamic seem sensitive to (1) global climate changes controlled by insolation, (2) North Atlantic thermohaline circulation influenced by freshwater pulses into the North Atlantic, and (3) anomalies in atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic controlling precipitation on the Iberian peninsula. The model of glacial and fluvial evolution during the Late Pleistocene in northern Spain could be extrapolated to other glaciated mountainous areas in southern Europe.

  8. A study of the 21 March 2012 tornadic quasi linear convective system in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Joan; Arús, Joan; Castán, Salvador; Pineda, Nicolau; Rigo, Tomeu; Montanyà, Joan; van der Velde, Oscar

    2015-05-01

    This study presents a description of a quasi linear convective system that took place in Catalonia (NE Spain) on 21 March 2012 producing heavy rainfall, moderate lightning activity and a weak tornado in the village of Ivars d'Urgell around 19 UTC after local sunset. A post-event survey indicated EF0 and EF1 damage in houses of the village - roofs and ceilings, broken windows, fences and walls and trees knocked down - along a track approximately 4 km long and about 20 m wide. Doppler radar observations show that the parent thunderstorm that spawned the tornado was one of a series that developed along a convective line that moved from S to N, initiating convective activity in terms of precipitation and lightning in the Mediterranean Sea and moving inland in S Catalonia (Tarragona and Salou coastal areas, producing local flash floods). Convective activity remained several hours with series of thunderstorms developing along the same paths. The synoptic situation was dominated by a high pressure ridge extending from northern Africa to central Europe, with a closed maximum sea level pressure area around 1036 hPa over northern France, southern Germany and Austria. On the other hand a relative low pressure area seen on 850 hPa and upper levels was present over the Iberian Peninsula, favouring a southern maritime flow from the Mediterranean between the forward part of the low pressure area and the high pressure system which blocked the advance of the low to the east. In the study we examine both the synoptic environment and storm scale observations with Doppler radar and total lightning data (cloud to ground and intracloud flashes) that lead to this cool-season severe convective event which is remarkable given the fact that, unlike in this case, most reported tornadoes in the region occur during the warm season (with peaks in August and September) and during daylight hours (6 to 18 UTC).

  9. The microfauna assemblages as indicators of paleoenvironmental changes in the Miocene fluvial- lacustrine cycles (NE Duero Basin, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herrero-Hernández

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The siliclastic and carbonate deposits are interbedded in the Villadiego area (Miocene, NE Duero Basin. They have been subdivided into two high-rank depositional sequences: DDS and CDS. The sedimentary analysis of these units and the study of the microfauna content, mainly ostracods, led to the identification of lacustrine-fluvial interaction systems. The sedimentary characteristics reveal the existence of fluvial systems of gravel, flood plains and lacustrine systems that were interconnected and intimately related in north-south direction. In the sedimentological analysis, thirteen types of fluvial and lacustrine lithofacies and six genetic facies associations were recognized. The top of DDS is the result of lake level risings. The CDS shows a deepening-shallowing cycle. The ostracod micropaleontological analysis of the sediments have been studied, with the aim of reconstructing the palaeoenvironmental evolution of this area. These microfauna assemblages integrated with the analysis of the sedimentary facies allowed to conclude the existence of lakes with a water-bearing level of few tens of meters. A change in the chemical conditions of the waters, which evolved from oligohaline and carbonated to mesohaline and sulphated is concluded.

  10. Analysis and Mapping of the Spectral Characteristics of Fractional Green Cover in Saline Wetlands (NE Spain Using Field and Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Domínguez-Beisiegel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Inland saline wetlands are complex systems undergoing continuous changes in moisture and salinity and are especially vulnerable to human pressures. Remote sensing is helpful to identify vegetation change in semi-arid wetlands and to assess wetland degradation. Remote sensing-based monitoring requires identification of the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation and their correspondence with the vegetation cover and soil conditions. We studied the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation of saline wetlands in Monegros, NE Spain, through field and satellite images. Radiometric and complementary field measurements in two field surveys in 2007 and 2008 were collected in selected sites deemed as representative of different soil moisture, soil color, type of vegetation, and density. Despite the high local variability, we identified good relationships between field spectral data and Quickbird images. A methodology was established for mapping the fraction of vegetation cover in Monegros and other semi-arid areas. Estimating vegetation cover in arid wetlands is conditioned by the soil background and by the occurrence of dry and senescent vegetation accompanying the green component of perennial salt-tolerant plants. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI was appropriate to map the distribution of the vegetation cover if the green and yellow-green parts of the plants are considered.

  11. Response of alluvial systems to Late Pleistocene climate changes recorded by environmental magnetism in the Añavieja Basin (Iberian Range, NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Muñoz, A.; Larrasoaña, J.C.; Luzon, A.; Perez, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Jiang, Z.; Liu, Q.; Roman-Berdi, T.

    2016-07-01

    Environmental magnetic proxies were analyzed in a relatively monotonous, ~25.3m thick alluvial sedimentary sequence drilled in the Añavieja Basin (NE Spain). Results from the core AÑ2 suggest that the concentrationdependent magnetic parameters mainly reflect variations in the content of detrital magnetite, sourced in the catchment rocks and soils of the basin, via changes in the dynamics of alluvial fans due to temperature changes in the northern hemisphere during the Late Pleistocene. The correspondence between the magnetic proxies and the temperature variations in the North Atlantic region (NGRIP curve) indicates that higher (lower) concentrations and finer (coarser) magnetite grains coincide with warm (cold) periods. We propose that during cold periods, a sparser vegetation cover favored the incoming of higher energy runoff bearing coarser sediments to the basin that are relatively impoverished in magnetite. In contrast, during warm periods, the wider distribution of the vegetation cover associated with the lower runoff energy lead to finer, magnetite-richer sediment input to the basin. Maghemite, presumably of pedogenic origin, appears to be present also in the studied alluvial sediments. Further studies are necessary to unravel its palaeoclimatic significance. (Author)

  12. Hillslope terracing effects on the spatial variability of plant development as assessed by NDVI in vineyards of the Priorat region (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Casasnovas, José A; Ramos, María Concepción; Espinal-Utgés, Sílvia

    2010-04-01

    The availability of heavy machinery and the vineyard restructuring and conversion plans of the European Union Common Agricultural Policy (Commission Regulation EC no. 1227/2000 of 31 May 2000) have encouraged the restructuring of many vineyards on hillslopes of Mediterranean Europe, through the creation of terraces to favor the mechanization of agricultural work. Terrace construction requires cutting and filling operations that create soil spatial variability, which affects soil properties and plant development. In the present paper, we study the effects of hillslope terracing on the spatial variability of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in fields of the Priorat region (NE Spain) during 2004, 2005, and 2006. This index was computed from high-resolution remote sensing data (Quickbird-2). Detailed digital terrain models before and after terrace construction were used to assess the earth movements. The results indicate that terracing by heavy machinery induced high variability on the NDVI values over the years, showing significant differences as effect of the cut and fill operations.

  13. Blood biomarkers and contaminant levels in feathers and eggs to assess environmental hazards in heron nestlings from impacted sites in Ebro basin (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, C; Fabregat, M C; Cotín, J; Huertas, D; Solé, M; Quirós, L; Sanpera, C; Jover, L; Ruiz, X; Grimalt, J O; Piña, B

    2010-03-01

    Blood biomarkers and levels of major pollutants in eggs and feathers were used to determine pollution effects in nestlings of the Purple Heron Ardea purpurea and the Little Egret Egretta garzetta, sampled on three Ebro River (NE Spain) areas: a reference site, a site affected by the effluents of a chlor-alkali industry and the river Delta. The two impacted heron populations showed mutually different pollutant and response patterns, suggesting different sources of contamination. In the population nesting near the chlor-alkali plant, elevated levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in eggs, and mercury in feathers in A. purpurea chicks were related with reduced blood antioxidant defenses and increased levels of micronuclei. In Ebro Delta, high levels of plasmatic lactate dehydrogenase in A. purpurea chicks and high frequency of micronuclei in blood of both species were tentatively associated with intensive agricultural activities taking place in the area. These results provide the first evidence of a biological response in heron chicks to the release of pollutants at a chlor-alkali plant. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Blood biomarkers and contaminant levels in feathers and eggs to assess environmental hazards in heron nestlings from impacted sites in Ebro basin (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barata, C.; Fabregat, M.C.; Cotin, J.; Huertas, D.; Sole, M.; Quiros, L.; Sanpera, C.; Jover, L.; Ruiz, X.; Grimalt, J.O.; Pina, B.

    2010-01-01

    Blood biomarkers and levels of major pollutants in eggs and feathers were used to determine pollution effects in nestlings of the Purple Heron Ardea purpurea and the Little Egret Egretta garzetta, sampled on three Ebro River (NE Spain) areas: a reference site, a site affected by the effluents of a chlor-alkali industry and the river Delta. The two impacted heron populations showed mutually different pollutant and response patterns, suggesting different sources of contamination. In the population nesting near the chlor-alkali plant, elevated levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in eggs, and mercury in feathers in A. purpurea chicks were related with reduced blood antioxidant defenses and increased levels of micronuclei. In Ebro Delta, high levels of plasmatic lactate dehydrogenase in A. purpurea chicks and high frequency of micronuclei in blood of both species were tentatively associated with intensive agricultural activities taking place in the area. These results provide the first evidence of a biological response in heron chicks to the release of pollutants at a chlor-alkali plant. - High levels of organochlorine and mercury levels in eggs and feathers were related with altered blood biomarkers of heron nesting chicks.

  15. Serologic and virologic investigations into pestivirus infection in wild and domestic ruminants in the Pyrenees (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, I; Rosell, R; Cabezón, O; Beneria, M; Mentaberre, G; Casas, E; Hurtado, A; López-Olvera, J R; Lavín, S

    2009-08-01

    An outbreak of disease associated to a border disease virus was described in the Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in Spain in 2002. Sera and/or spleen samples from 57 mouflon, 15 red deer, 21 roe deer, 3 fallow deer, 55 sheep, 32 cattle, and 68 goats sharing the chamois habitat were studied. An antibody ELISA test yielded an inconclusive result in 2 mouflon and positive results in 5 goat sera. Comparative virus neutralization tests were performed on the 2 inconclusive mouflons, 3 of the 5 seropositive goats, 55 sheep and 32 cattle, using 6 pestivirus strains. Positive results were obtained in 1 mouflon, 2 goats, 69% of sheep and 78% of cattle. Virological investigations performed with an antigen ELISA test yielded negative results in 21 goats and 39 mouflons, the result in 1 mouflon being inconclusive. PCR performed on 12 goats and the inconclusive mouflon gave negative results. These results suggested that it is unlikely that chamois BDV is infecting wild and domestic ruminants.

  16. [Evaluation of Articles 33 and 59, of the Code of Deontology of Doctors in Catalonia (2005), judicially annulled].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo Chao, Eliseo

    2009-01-01

    At the end of the year 2004, the Autonomous Conseil of the Medical School in Catalonia (Spain) approved its Deontology Code. The articles 33 and 59 were then judicially resorted by more than one hundred doctors in Catalonia; nowadays those articles themselves have been annulled by judicial sentence. This research aims to accomplish a valuation ethical and deontological of the annulled articles, according to the statutes.

  17. Ten years of energy policy in Catalonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masalles Roman, I.; Marin Sanchez, J.M.; Gurgui Ferrer, A.; Figuerola Perez, E.

    1992-01-01

    Catalonia is located in the north-east corner of Spain, on the Mediterranean coast and bordering with France in the north. It is one of the most industrialized and developed regions of Spain, with a per capita income of 10879 ECU per year (1989), 21.9% higher than the Spanish average. It contributes to 20.3% of the Spanish GDP. Primary energy consumption was 16.5 M toe in 1989, covered by the following sources: 3.5% coal, 51.8% oil, 9.4% natural gas, 3.6% hydro, 30.8% nuclear, 0.1% electrical import/export balance and 0.8% waste residuals. Oil dependence is distorted by the existence of a major petrochemical industry that uses more than 2.6 Mtoe of oil derivatives for non-energy purposes. Final energy demand in 1989 was 8.8 Mtoe, 40.9% for industry, 36.9% for transportation and 22.3% for the domestic and services sector. In the 60's, Catalonia's socio-economic development was accompanied by a spectacular increase in the demand for primary energy: from slightly above 2.5 million toe in 1960 to 5.6 Mtoe ten years later. If this decade can be characterized by a steady increase in the total value of consumption, the 70's also constitute years of major changes in the field of energy on an international scale (the oil crisis) and in politics in the Spanish State. 6 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Trends analysis of PM source contributions and chemical tracers in NE Spain during 2004–2014: a multi-exponential approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pandolfi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work for the first time data from two twin stations (Barcelona, urban background, and Montseny, regional background, located in the northeast (NE of Spain, were used to study the trends of the concentrations of different chemical species in PM10 and PM2.5 along with the trends of the PM10 source contributions from the positive matrix factorization (PMF model. Eleven years of chemical data (2004–2014 were used for this study. Trends of both species concentrations and source contributions were studied using the Mann–Kendall test for linear trends and a new approach based on multi-exponential fit of the data. Despite the fact that different PM fractions (PM2.5, PM10 showed linear decreasing trends at both stations, the contributions of specific sources of pollutants and of their chemical tracers showed exponential decreasing trends. The different types of trends observed reflected the different effectiveness and/or time of implementation of the measures taken to reduce the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants. Moreover, the trends of the contributions of specific sources such as those related with industrial activities and with primary energy consumption mirrored the effect of the financial crisis in Spain from 2008. The sources that showed statistically significant downward trends at both Barcelona (BCN and Montseny (MSY during 2004–2014 were secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, and V–Ni-bearing source. The contributions from these sources decreased exponentially during the considered period, indicating that the observed reductions were not gradual and consistent over time. Conversely, the trends were less steep at the end of the period compared to the beginning, thus likely indicating the attainment of a lower limit. Moreover, statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for the contributions to PM from the industrial/traffic source at MSY (mixed metallurgy and road traffic and from the industrial (metallurgy

  19. La declaración de los nuevos diagnósticos de VIH en Cataluña: ¿es posible el consenso técnico? Reporting new HIV cases in Catalonia, Spain: Is technical consensus feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Casabona

    2003-02-01

    único, al igual que las enfermedades de declaración obligatoria individualizada. La información derivada de la notificación de infección es imprescindible para la mejor planificación de las intervenciones preventivas y la provisión de servicios sanitarios. Las principales dificultades observadas son el hecho de que la infección por VIH no se haya incluido entre las enfermedades de declaración obligatoria (EDO, así como la baja implantación del CIP en la historia clínica de los centros hospitalarios. Todos los sectores implicados tienen un importante papel para la construcción del entorno necesario que haga que el sistema de información sobre nuevos diagnósticos de infección por VIH sea posible y de utilidad.Objective: To describe the process performed in Catalonia (Spain to design an information system for monitoring new cases of HIV infection. Methods: A survey was used to evaluate perception of the need for notification of HIV infection by health care professionals (n = 106, as well as their opinions of the various possibilities for the implementation of the notification system. As a result of this evaluation, a specific technical report defining the objectives and technical characteristics of the new notification system was produced. The feasibility of the system in health centres was evaluated through discussions with health care professionals, health authorities and Non-Governmental Organizations, and a second survey was designed to evaluate the use of a personal identification code (PIC from the individual health card (IHC. This process took plabe between 1998 and 2000. Results: A total of 84.5% of the health care professionals believed that HIV notification should be mandatory and confidential; 90.4%, were of the opinion that notification would enable identification of the epidemiological characteristics of infected individualos, and 75% believed that these individuals would have to be identified by name. Finally, 66% of the health care

  20. A flood geodatabase and its climatological applications: the case of Catalonia for the last century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnolas, M.; Llasat, M. C.

    2007-04-01

    Floods are the natural hazards that produce the highest number of casualties and material damage in the Western Mediterranean. An improvement in flood risk assessment and study of a possible increase in flooding occurrence are therefore needed. To carry out these tasks it is important to have at our disposal extensive knowledge on historical floods and to find an efficient way to manage this geographical data. In this paper we present a complete flood database spanning the 20th century for the whole of Catalonia (NE Spain), which includes documentary information (affected areas and damage) and instrumental information (meteorological and hydrological records). This geodatabase, named Inungama, has been implemented on a GIS (Geographical Information System) in order to display all the information within a given geographical scenario, as well as to carry out an analysis thereof using queries, overlays and calculus. Following a description of the type and amount of information stored in the database and the structure of the information system, the first applications of Inungama are presented. The geographical distribution of floods shows the localities which are more likely to be flooded, confirming that the most affected municipalities are the most densely populated ones in coastal areas. Regarding the existence of an increase in flooding occurrence, a temporal analysis has been carried out, showing a steady increase over the last 30 years.

  1. Environmental isotopes (N, S, C, O, D) to determine natural attenuation processes in nitrate contaminated waters: Example of Osona (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitoria, Laura [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: lvitoria@ub.edu; Soler, Albert; Canals, Angels [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Otero, Neus [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Geologia Ambiental, Institut de Ciencies de la Terra ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    Nitrate-contaminated groundwater from an aquifer in the Osona region (NE Spain) was chemically and isotopically ({delta}{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}},{delta}{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}},{delta}{sup 34}S{sub SO{sub 4}},{delta}{sup 18}O{sub SO{sub 4}}, {delta}D, {delta}{sup 18}O{sub H{sub 2}}{sub O} and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC}) characterized. Diffuse- NO{sub 3}{sup -} contamination reached values of 366 mg/L. Nearly 75% of the 37 sampled sites had higher concentrations than the 50 mg/L in NO{sub 3}{sup -} limit for drinking water. To identify the source of pollution {delta}{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}} and {delta}{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}} were used with results, for most samples, in the range of pig manure NO{sub 3}{sup -}. Nitrification processes were evaluated by means of the {delta}{sup 18}O of NO{sub 3}{sup -} and water. Isotopic data suggested that natural attenuation of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was taking place. This process was confirmed using the {delta}{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}} coupled with the NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -} ratio, avoiding the influence of continuous NO{sub 3}{sup -} inputs. A further insight on denitrification processes was obtained by analyzing the ions involved in denitrification reactions. Although the role of organic matter oxidation could neither be confirmed nor discarded, this approach showed a link between denitrification and pyrite oxidation. Therefore, in areas with no adequate infrastructure (e.g. multipiezometers), such as the one studied, this approach could be useful for implementing better water management.

  2. Modelling impacts of climate change on water resources in ungauged and data-scarce watersheds. Application to the Siurana catchment (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Olivares, Gonzalo; Gomez, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    Gaining knowledge on potential climate change impacts on water resources is a complex process which depends on numerical models capable of describing these processes in quantitative terms. Under limited data or ungauged basin conditions, which constrain the modelling approach, a physically based coherent methodological approach is required. The traditional approach to assess flow regime and groundwater recharge impacts, based on coupling general atmosphere-ocean circulation models (GCM) and hydrologic models, has been investigated in the Siurana ungauged catchment (NE Spain). The future A2 (medium-high) and B1 (medium-low) greenhouse gas scenarios and time slices 2013-2037 (2025) and 2038-2062 (2050), developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), have been selected. For scenario simulations, coupled GCM ECHAM5 scenarios, stochastically downscaled outputs and surface-subsurface modelling to simulate changes in water resources were applied to the catchment. Flow regime analysis was assessed by HEC-HMS, a physically based hydrologic model to assess rainfall-runoff in a catchment, while recharge was estimated with VisualBALAN, a distributed model for natural recharge estimation. Simulations show that the projected climate change at the catchment will affect the entire hydrological system with a maximum of 56% reduction of water resources. While subtle changes are observed for the 2025 time slice, the temperature and precipitation forecast for 2050 shows a maximum increase of 2.2 °C and a decreased precipitation volume of 11.3% in relation to historical values. Regarding historical values, runoff output shows a maximum 20% decrease, and 18% decrease of natural recharge with a certain delay in relation to runoff and rainfall data. According to the results, the most important parameters conditioning future water resources are changes in climatic parameters, but they are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  3. The net effect of abiotic conditions and biotic interactions in a semi-arid ecosystem NE Spain: implications for the management and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Yolanda; Arroyo, Antonio I.; Saiz, Hugo; Alados, Concepción L.

    2014-05-01

    Degradation in arid and semiarid lands can be irreversible without human intervention, due to a positive plant-soil feedback where the loss of vegetation cover leads to soil degradation, which in turn hampers plant establishment. Human intervention in restoration actions usually involves the amendment of the degraded abiotic conditions, revegetation of bare areas, or both. However, abiotic amelioration is often expensive and too intrusive, and revegetation is not successful in many cases. Biotic interactions between plants, and more specifically facilitation by a "nurse" plant, have been proposed as a new via to take profit of improved abiotic conditions without intervention, and to increase the success rate of revegetation actions. But "nurse" plants can also interfere with others (i.e. by competition for resources or the release of allelopathic compounds), and the net balance between facilitation and interference could depend on plant types involved. We present recent observational and experimental studies performed in the semiarid ecosystems of the Middle Ebro Valley (NE Spain) about the role of abiotic conditions and biotic interactions in the productivity, dynamics and diversity of plant communities under different stress conditions (aridity and grazing). We found that all plant types studied (shrubs and perennial grasses) improved abiotic conditions (soil temperature and water availability for plants) with respect to open areas. However, only some shrubs (mainly Salsola vermiculata) had a positive net balance in the biotic interactions between plants, while other shrubs (Artemisia herba-alba) and perennial grasses (Lygeum spartum) showed interference with other plants. Moreover, the net balance between facilitation and interference among plants in the community shifted from competitive to neutral or from neutral to facilitative with increasing aridity. Grazing status did not strongly change the net biotic interactions between plants. Our results suggest that

  4. Deformation and seismic anisotropy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle in NE Spain: EBSD data on xenoliths from the Catalan Volcanic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Roig, Mercè; Galán, Gumer; Mariani, Elisabetta

    2017-02-01

    Mantle xenoliths in Neogene-Quaternary basaltic rocks related to the European Cenozoic Rift System serve to assess the evolution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the Catalan Volcanic Zone in NE Spain. Crystallographic preferred orientations, major element composition of minerals, and temperature and pressure estimates have been used to this end. The mantle consists of spinel lherzolites, harzburgites and subordinate websterites. Protogranular microstructures are found in all peridotites and websterites, but lherzolites also display finer-grained porphyroclastic and equigranular microstructures. The dominant olivine deformation fabric is [010] fiber, but subordinate orthorhombic and [100]-fiber types are also present, especially in porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites. The fabric strength (J index = 10.12-1.91), equilibrium temperature and pressure are higher in xenoliths with [010]-fiber fabric and decrease in those with orthorhombic and [100]-fiber type. Incoherence between olivine and pyroxene deformation fabric is mostly found in porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites. Seismic anisotropy, estimated from the crystal preferred orientations, also decreases (AVp = 10.2-2.60%; AVs max = 7.95-2.19%) in porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites. The olivine [010]-fiber fabric points to deformation by simple shear or transpression which is likely to have occured during the development of late-Hercynian strike-slip shear zones, and to subsequent annealing during late Hercynian decompression, Permian and Cretaceous rifting. Also, it cannot be excluded that the percolation of mafic magmas during these extensional events provoked the refertilization of the lithospheric mantle. However, no clear relationship has been observed between fabric strength and mineral mode and composition. Later transtensional deformation during late Alpine orogenesis, at higher stress and decreasing temperature and pressure, transformed the earlier fabric into

  5. Diversity of Language Ideologies in Spanish-Speaking Youth of Different Origins in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchs-Parera, Mireia; Newman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    To explore language attitudes and ideologies in urban Catalonia, focus group structured interviews were conducted with two groups of adolescents of Spanish-speaking origins: the Autochthonous group, descendents of mid-late twentieth century immigrants from other parts of Spain, and the Immigrant group, who came from Latin America. The…

  6. Mathematical E-Learning: State of the Art and Experiences at the Open University of Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, A.; Huertas, A.; Steegmann, C.; Corcoles, C.; Serrat, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we present a review of the state of the art in mathematical e-learning and some personal experiences on this area developed during the last eleven years at the Open University of Catalonia (UOC), a completely online university located in Spain. The article discusses important aspects related to online mathematics courses offered in…

  7. The Evolution of cluster concept in Catalonia : the case of Cork Cluster – AECORK

    OpenAIRE

    Serarols Tarrés, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this final degree project is two-fold: first, to introduce the evolutionary concept of the cluster in Catalonia from a strategic perspective and, second, to analyse the case of the Catalan Cork cluster located in the province of Girona, that is, the northeast of Spain

  8. The wildland-urban interface raster dataset of Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín J. Alcasena

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide the wildland urban interface (WUI map of the autonomous community of Catalonia (Northeastern Spain. The map encompasses an area of some 3.21 million ha and is presented as a 150-m resolution raster dataset. Individual housing location, structure density and vegetation cover data were used to spatially assess in detail the interface, intermix and dispersed rural WUI communities with a geographical information system. Most WUI areas concentrate in the coastal belt where suburban sprawl has occurred nearby or within unmanaged forests. This geospatial information data provides an approximation of residential housing potential for loss given a wildfire, and represents a valuable contribution to assist landscape and urban planning in the region. Keywords: Wildland-urban interface, Wildfire risk, Urban planning, Human communities, Catalonia

  9. Modelling impacts of climate change on water resources in ungauged and data-scarce watersheds. Application to the Siurana catchment (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Olivares, Gonzalo; Gomez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Gaining knowledge on potential climate change impacts on water resources is a complex process which depends on numerical models capable of describing these processes in quantitative terms. Under limited data or ungauged basin conditions, which constrain the modelling approach, a physically based coherent methodological approach is required. The traditional approach to assess flow regime and groundwater recharge impacts, based on coupling general atmosphere–ocean circulation models (GCM) and hydrologic models, has been investigated in the Siurana ungauged catchment (NE Spain). The future A2 (medium-high) and B1 (medium-low) greenhouse gas scenarios and time slices 2013–2037 (2025) and 2038–2062 (2050), developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), have been selected. For scenario simulations, coupled GCM ECHAM5 scenarios, stochastically downscaled outputs and surface–subsurface modelling to simulate changes in water resources were applied to the catchment. Flow regime analysis was assessed by HEC-HMS, a physically based hydrologic model to assess rainfall–runoff in a catchment, while recharge was estimated with VisualBALAN, a distributed model for natural recharge estimation. Simulations show that the projected climate change at the catchment will affect the entire hydrological system with a maximum of 56% reduction of water resources. While subtle changes are observed for the 2025 time slice, the temperature and precipitation forecast for 2050 shows a maximum increase of 2.2 °C and a decreased precipitation volume of 11.3% in relation to historical values. Regarding historical values, runoff output shows a maximum 20% decrease, and 18% decrease of natural recharge with a certain delay in relation to runoff and rainfall data. According to the results, the most important parameters conditioning future water resources are changes in climatic parameters, but they are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions. -- Highlights:

  10. Modelling impacts of climate change on water resources in ungauged and data-scarce watersheds. Application to the Siurana catchment (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candela, Lucila, E-mail: lucila.candela@upc.edu [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geoscience, Technical University of Catalonia-UPC, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Tamoh, Karim [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geoscience, Technical University of Catalonia-UPC, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Olivares, Gonzalo; Gomez, Manuel [Flumen Research Institute, UPC Gran Capitan s.n. Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-12-01

    Gaining knowledge on potential climate change impacts on water resources is a complex process which depends on numerical models capable of describing these processes in quantitative terms. Under limited data or ungauged basin conditions, which constrain the modelling approach, a physically based coherent methodological approach is required. The traditional approach to assess flow regime and groundwater recharge impacts, based on coupling general atmosphere-ocean circulation models (GCM) and hydrologic models, has been investigated in the Siurana ungauged catchment (NE Spain). The future A2 (medium-high) and B1 (medium-low) greenhouse gas scenarios and time slices 2013-2037 (2025) and 2038-2062 (2050), developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), have been selected. For scenario simulations, coupled GCM ECHAM5 scenarios, stochastically downscaled outputs and surface-subsurface modelling to simulate changes in water resources were applied to the catchment. Flow regime analysis was assessed by HEC-HMS, a physically based hydrologic model to assess rainfall-runoff in a catchment, while recharge was estimated with VisualBALAN, a distributed model for natural recharge estimation. Simulations show that the projected climate change at the catchment will affect the entire hydrological system with a maximum of 56% reduction of water resources. While subtle changes are observed for the 2025 time slice, the temperature and precipitation forecast for 2050 shows a maximum increase of 2.2 Degree-Sign C and a decreased precipitation volume of 11.3% in relation to historical values. Regarding historical values, runoff output shows a maximum 20% decrease, and 18% decrease of natural recharge with a certain delay in relation to runoff and rainfall data. According to the results, the most important parameters conditioning future water resources are changes in climatic parameters, but they are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions. -- Highlights

  11. Dataset of herbarium specimens of threatened vascular plants in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nualart, Neus; Ibáñez, Neus; Luque, Pere; Pedrol, Joan; Vilar, Lluís; Guàrdia, Roser

    2017-01-01

    This data paper describes a specimens' dataset of the Catalonian threatened vascular plants conserved in five public Catalonian herbaria (BC, BCN, HGI, HBIL and MTTE). Catalonia is an administrative region of Spain that includes large autochthon plants diversity and 199 taxa with IUCN threatened categories (EX, EW, RE, CR, EN and VU). This dataset includes 1,618 records collected from 17 th century to nowadays. For each specimen, the species name, locality indication, collection date, collector, ecology and revision label are recorded. More than 94% of the taxa are represented in the herbaria, which evidence the paper of the botanical collections as an essential source of occurrence data.

  12. Distribución geográfica y evolución temporal de la mortalidad evitable en Cataluña (1986-2001 Geographical distribution and time trends in avoidable mortality in Catalonia, Spain (1986-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arán Barés

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar la evolución temporal y la distribución geográfica por sectores sanitarios de la mortalidad evitable en Cataluña. Material y métodos: Se analizó la mortalidad evitable según la clasificación utilizada en el Departamento de Salud de Cataluña por sectores sanitarios durante el período 1986-2001 y se agruparon las causas en tratables o prevenibles. Se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por el método directo e indirecto y la razón de mortalidad comparativa para el grupo de tratables y prevenibles y para los 46 sectores sanitarios. También se calculó el promedio de cambio anual ajustado por edad mediante la regresión de Poisson de la mortalidad evitable y general. Resultados: El total de defunciones evitables fue 61.261 (el 7,3% de la mortalidad general. 10.623 (17,34% se clasificaron como tratables y 50.638 (82,65% como prevenibles. El promedio de cambio anual para las causas evitables fue del -2,43% (intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, -2,60 a -2,26, superior al -1,57% (IC del 95%, -1,61 a -1,52 de la mortalidad general. Las tasas fueron más elevadas para las causas prevenibles que para las tratables, aunque en ambos grupos se apreció un descenso de la mortalidad. El sector sanitario del Segrià destaca por presentar sobremortalidad en los 2 períodos y en los 2 grupos de causas. Cuatro sectores sanitarios presentan un aumento significativo de la mortalidad por causas prevenibles, pero ninguno por causas tratables. Conclusiones: En Cataluña, durante el período 1986-2001 se produce un descenso de la mortalidad evitable, mayor que el de la mortalidad general. La distribución geográfica muestra una gran dispersión, aunque se identifican claramente zonas en las que es necesaria la intervención preventiva.Objectives: To analyze time trends and geographical variation in avoidable mortality by health areas in Catalonia. Material and methods: Avoidable mortality was analyzed according to the

  13. Recursos diagnósticos para las infecciones de transmisión sexual en los laboratorios de Cataluña (España Diagnostic resources for sexually-transmitted infections in laboratories in Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Calmet

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la capacidad y organización de los laboratorios de Cataluña (España para el diagnóstico de infecciones de transmisión sexual. Para ello, entre noviembre de 2005 y marzo de 2006 se realizó un estudio transversal incluyendo 140 laboratorios. Resultados: 98 realizan alguna prueba diagnóstica, 45 reciben más de 50 muestras vaginales al mes, 42 diagnostican Chlamydia trachomatis, pero solo 6 mediante amplificación de ácidos nucleicos. Ninguno diagnostica el linfogranuloma venéreo. 80 detectan la Neisseria gonorrhoeae (n 1/4 80, 76 de ellos mediante cultivo y 63 analizan su sensibilidad antimicrobiana. En total 23, 22, 22 y 14 laboratorios reciben más de 500 peticiones al mes, respectivamente de hepatitis B, hepatitis C, VIH y sífilis. 84 disponen de pruebas no treponémicas parala sífilis y 51 disponen de pruebas treponémicas. Conclusiones: La actividad de los laboratorios cubre prácticamente todo el espectro patológico, pero es necesario introducir nuevas técnicas y mejorar la eficiencia de los circuitos de muestras.Objective: With the aim of describing both the capacity and organization of the laboratories in Catalonia to diagnose sexually transmitted infections, a cross-sectional study was performed between November 2005 and March 2006, which included 140 laboratories. Results: Ninety-eight laboratories performed some STI tests, 45 received more than 50 vaginal swabs per month, 42 diagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis, but only six used polymerase chain reaction techniques. None diagnosed venereal lymphogranuloma. Eighty were able to detect Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 76 by means of culture and 63 analyzed its antibiotic resistance. A total of 23, 22, 22 and 14 laboratories received more than 500 blood samples for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis, respectively. Non-treponemic and treponemic tests were available in 84 and 52 laboratories, respectively. Conclusions: In Catalonia, most STIs can be diagnosed but

  14. The Phenological Network of Catalonia: an historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busto, Montserrat; Cunillera, Jordi; de Yzaguirre, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    The Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) began systematic phenological observation in 1932. Forty-four observers registered the phenophases of 45 plant species, the first or last sighting of six bird species and the first sighting of one species of butterfly. The study First results of phenological observation in Catalonia was published in 1936, showing the different behaviour of the vegetal species and birds according to geographical location. The SMC worked against the military fascist uprising during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). Therefore, once the war was finished, the organisation was quickly closed by the Franco dictatorship and the National Meteorological Service became the official institution in Spain. This organization created the Spanish Phenological Network in 1943 following similar standards to the former Catalan network. The reintroduction of democracy and the return of the Catalan self-government structures (1977) allowed the re-foundation of the SMC in 1996. The Climatology Department needed phenological data to complement the study of climatic indicators and realised the fragile situation of phenology observations in Catalonia, with very few operational series. Following a preliminary analysis of the different systems of recording and saving data, the Phenological network of Catalonia (Fenocat) was re-established in 2013. Fenocat is an active partner of the Pan European Phenology Database (PEP725) that uses BBCH-scale coding and the USA National Phenology Network observation system. It is an example of citizen science. As at December 2016, Fenocat had recorded more than 450,000 data. The extension of summer climatic conditions in the Western Mediterranean region has resulted in repetition of phenopases in the same year, such as the second flowering of the holm oak (Quercus ilex), almond tree (Prunus dulcis) and sweet cherry tree (Prunus avium), or the delay in the departure data of the swallow (Hirundo rustica) and hoopoe (Upupa epops

  15. A probabilistic approach of the Flash Flood Early Warning System (FF-EWS) in Catalonia based on radar ensemble generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, David; Sempere-Torres, Daniel; Corral, Carles; Llort, Xavier; Velasco, Enrique

    2010-05-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) are commonly identified as the most efficient tools in order to improve the preparedness and risk management against heavy rains and Flash Floods (FF) with the objective of reducing economical losses and human casualties. In particular, flash floods affecting torrential Mediterranean catchments are a key element to be incorporated within operational EWSs. The characteristic high spatial and temporal variability of the storms requires high-resolution data and methods to monitor/forecast the evolution of rainfall and its hydrological impact in small and medium torrential basins. A first version of an operational FF-EWS has been implemented in Catalonia (NE Spain) under the name of EHIMI system (Integrated Tool for Hydrometeorological Forecasting) with the support of the Catalan Water Agency (ACA) and the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC). Flash flood warnings are issued based on radar-rainfall estimates. Rainfall estimation is performed on radar observations with high spatial and temporal resolution (1km2 and 10 minutes) in order to adapt the warning scale to the 1-km grid of the EWS. The method is based on comparing observed accumulated rainfall against rainfall thresholds provided by the regional Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves. The so-called "aggregated rainfall warning" at every river cell is obtained as the spatially averaged rainfall over its associated upstream draining area. Regarding the time aggregation of rainfall, the critical duration is thought to be an accumulation period similar to the concentration time of each cachtment. The warning is issued once the forecasted rainfall accumulation exceeds the rainfall thresholds mentioned above, which are associated to certain probability of occurrence. Finally, the hazard warning is provided and shown to the decision-maker in terms of exceeded return periods at every river cell covering the whole area of Catalonia. The objective of the present work includes the

  16. Final disposition and quality auditing of the rehabilitation process in wild raptors admitted to a Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre in Catalonia, Spain, during a twelve year period (1995-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, Rafael A; Casal, Jordi; Darwich, Laila

    2013-01-01

    Variability in reporting and classification methods in previous published data of the final dispositions in the rehabilitation of wild raptors makes use of this data limited in trying to audit the quality of the rehabilitation process. Crude as well as stratified disposition rates are needed if quality auditing of the rehabilitation process is to be adequately performed. Final dispositions of 6221 hospitalized wild raptors admitted at a wildlife rehabilitation centre (WRC) of Catalonia during 1995-2007 were analyzed. These dispositions were calculated as the euthanasia (Er), unassisted mortality (Mr), release (Rr) and captivity rates (Cr)., time to death (Td) for dead and euthanized raptors, and length of stay for released (Tr) raptors was estimated. Stratified analyses by main causes of admission and clinical signs were performed. THE DISPOSITION FOR THE TOTAL POPULATION WERE: Er = 30.6%, Mr = 19.1%, Rr = 47.2%, and Cr = 3%. By main causes of admission, Er was higher in the trauma category (34.2%), whereas Mr was found similar between trauma (37.4%) and non-trauma categories (34.8%). The highest Rr was observed for the orphaned group (77.9%). Furthermore, Cr was low in all the categories (auditing of the rehabilitation process quality.

  17. Spatial and temporal changes in land cover and its relation to the wildfire risk in Montes de Zuera (NE-Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Remón, E.; Badía-Villas, D.; Ibarra-Benlloch, P.

    2012-04-01

    Land cover changes in a territory can be as result of the diverse human activities, and also, by the dynamic natural ecosystem. The analysis of these changes constitutes a fundamental indicator in improving the knowledge towards a potential sustainable development (OSE, 2006). This paper analyzes the evolution of the land cover at detailed scale 1:5000, along the years 1957, 1984, and 2005, in the Montes de Zuera (UTM: 665000-680000 East /4640000-4650000 North), nearby Zaragoza city (NE-Spain). Despite they are located in the midst of the semiarid Central Ebro Basin, the area have an uncommon, extensive and dense forest cover. For these reasons, Montes de Zuera form part of the "Natura 2000 Network" of Aragon. Because this region has a high incidence of wildfires and, as a measure to prevent them, land cover changes have been analyzed in this study. To get this objective, a methodology is developed based on GIS and Remote Sensing tools, and this makes it possible to establish the relationship between the dynamic land cover and "fire hazard". According to FAO (1986), fire hazard is the measure of risk of wildfire, which is explained by the presence of combustible materials available to burn (Chuvieco et al, 2004). It is understood that the areas with major fire hazard present a high vulnerability to suffer vast wildfires. To develop this work, the type of vegetation, its distribution and the state of maturity of the forest masses are analyzed. Moreover, the wildfires that occurred during the last five decades have been located, and the forest masses and the processes (anthropic and natural) associated to them have been characterized in the regions affected by vast wildfires. Moreover, the cartography of fire hazard is obtained, and this is useful tool to fre prevention and to promote the sustainable management of the forest masses. Two regions with high rate of fire hazards are differentiated (region 1 and region 2). The Aleppo pine cover occupies the majority of

  18. Recent climate trends and multisecular climate variability: temperature and precipitation during the cold season (October-March) in the Ebro Basin (NE of Spain) betrween 1500 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saz-Sanchez, M.-A.; Cuadrat-Prats, J.-M.

    2009-09-01

    One of the goals of Paleoclimatology is to assess the importance and the exceptional nature of recent climate trends related to the anthropogenic climate change. Instrumental data enable the analysis of last century's climate, but do not give any information on previous periods' precipitation and temperature, during which there was no anthropic intervention on the climate system. Dendroclimatology is one of the paleoclimatic reconstruction sources giving best results when it comes to reconstructing the climate of the time before instruments could be used. This work presents the reconstructed series of precipitation and temperature of the cold season (October-March) In the central sector of the Ebro Valley (NE of Spain). The chronologies used for the reconstruction come on the one hand from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) and on the other hand from the dendrochronological information bank created in the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula within the framework of the Spanish Interministerial Commission for Science and Technology (CICYT) CLI96-1862 project. The climate data used for chronology calibration and the reconstruction of the temperature and precipitation values are those of the instrumental observatory number 9910 (Pallaruelo) belonging to the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología or AEMET), located in the central sector of the Ebro Valley. The reconstruction obtained covers the 1500-1990 period. In order to extend the series up to 2008, instrumental information has been used. Thanks to data from a set of AEMET instrumental observatories close to the one used for chronology calibration, a regional series of temperatures as well as a precipitation one were generated. The series reconstructed through dendroclimatic methods and the regional series do not show statistically significant differences in their mean and variance values. R values between both series exceed 0.85. Taking these statistical characteristics

  19. La Serra d'Almos (Tarragona): an example of phenological data rescue and preservation in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busto, Montserrat; Cunillera, Jordi; de Yzaguirre, Xavi; Borrell, Josep

    2016-04-01

    The interruption of important phenological series and the progressive disappearance of phenological observations in Catalonia led the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) to design and impulse a new phenological network promoted by the Climate Change Unit of this Met Service. The "Fenocat" network was born in March 2013, and currently has around fifty observers distributed throughout Catalonia that observe plants, birds and butterflies. We are providing data from different plant phenophases to PEP725 database. Besides this new phenological network (Fenocat), one of the aims of SMC is to rescue and preserve historical data from different observation points in Catalonia. We show in this poster the example of rescue and preservation of phenological data from la Serra d'Almos (in Tivissa, near Tarragona, Catalonia, NE Iberian Peninsula), an observation series that began in 1973. After digitalization process and quality control tasks, we show preliminary results of this phenological series, and we compare them with those of similar European series. We show the evolution trends for different observed species, such as almond tree (Prunus dulcis), hazel (Corylus avellana), plum (Prunus domestica), olive tree (Olea europea), apple tree (Malus domestica) or vineyard (Vitis vinifera).

  20. Characterization of a newly established aggregation of the invasive ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis and current status of the invader in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons, X.; Roca, M.; Lumbierres, B.; Lucas, E.

    2015-07-01

    The multicoloured Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), an invasive biocontrol agent introduced in North and South America, as well as in Europe for aphid control, drastically affected assemblages of native coccinellid species, local communities and people. Although the insect is common in several European countries and it was released in Spain for aphid control in 1995, no evidence of population establishment has been reported until 2011. In the present paper, 1) we summarize the records of the invasive ladybeetle in Spain and provide numerous new mentions, and 2) we follow for the first time an overwintering aggregation from autumn to spring and characterize some individual features which allow us to determine its phenology of the establishment and spreading. The results establish clearly that: 1) H. axyridis is (until now) restricted to Catalonia (NE Spain) but the invading process is in progress and the insect is able to occupy different habitats; 2) the ladybeetle overwinters successfully in Spain without significant natural mortality or parasitism; 3) the form succinea represents 73-81% of the overwintering individuals, and 4) the invasion takes probably its origin from Southern France. The potential impact of the invasion by H. axyridis in Spain is discussed. (Author)

  1. Predictive ability of severe rainfall events over Catalonia for the year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comellas, A.; Molini, L.; Parodi, A.; Sairouni, A.; Llasat, M. C.; Siccardi, F.

    2011-07-01

    This paper analyses the predictive ability of quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) and the so-called "poor-man" rainfall probabilistic forecasts (RPF). With this aim, the full set of warnings issued by the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) for potentially-dangerous events due to severe precipitation has been analysed for the year 2008. For each of the 37 warnings, the QPFs obtained from the limited-area model MM5 have been verified against hourly precipitation data provided by the rain gauge network covering Catalonia (NE of Spain), managed by SMC. For a group of five selected case studies, a QPF comparison has been undertaken between the MM5 and COSMO-I7 limited-area models. Although MM5's predictive ability has been examined for these five cases by making use of satellite data, this paper only shows in detail the heavy precipitation event on the 9-10 May 2008. Finally, the "poor-man" rainfall probabilistic forecasts (RPF) issued by SMC at regional scale have also been tested against hourly precipitation observations. Verification results show that for long events (>24 h) MM5 tends to overestimate total precipitation, whereas for short events (≤24 h) the model tends instead to underestimate precipitation. The analysis of the five case studies concludes that most of MM5's QPF errors are mainly triggered by very poor representation of some of its cloud microphysical species, particularly the cloud liquid water and, to a lesser degree, the water vapor. The models' performance comparison demonstrates that MM5 and COSMO-I7 are on the same level of QPF skill, at least for the intense-rainfall events dealt with in the five case studies, whilst the warnings based on RPF issued by SMC have proven fairly correct when tested against hourly observed precipitation for 6-h intervals and at a small region scale. Throughout this study, we have only dealt with (SMC-issued) warning episodes in order to analyse deterministic (MM5 and COSMO-I7) and probabilistic (SMC

  2. Predictive ability of severe rainfall events over Catalonia for the year 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Comellas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the predictive ability of quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF and the so-called "poor-man" rainfall probabilistic forecasts (RPF. With this aim, the full set of warnings issued by the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC for potentially-dangerous events due to severe precipitation has been analysed for the year 2008. For each of the 37 warnings, the QPFs obtained from the limited-area model MM5 have been verified against hourly precipitation data provided by the rain gauge network covering Catalonia (NE of Spain, managed by SMC. For a group of five selected case studies, a QPF comparison has been undertaken between the MM5 and COSMO-I7 limited-area models. Although MM5's predictive ability has been examined for these five cases by making use of satellite data, this paper only shows in detail the heavy precipitation event on the 9–10 May 2008. Finally, the "poor-man" rainfall probabilistic forecasts (RPF issued by SMC at regional scale have also been tested against hourly precipitation observations. Verification results show that for long events (>24 h MM5 tends to overestimate total precipitation, whereas for short events (≤24 h the model tends instead to underestimate precipitation. The analysis of the five case studies concludes that most of MM5's QPF errors are mainly triggered by very poor representation of some of its cloud microphysical species, particularly the cloud liquid water and, to a lesser degree, the water vapor. The models' performance comparison demonstrates that MM5 and COSMO-I7 are on the same level of QPF skill, at least for the intense-rainfall events dealt with in the five case studies, whilst the warnings based on RPF issued by SMC have proven fairly correct when tested against hourly observed precipitation for 6-h intervals and at a small region scale.

    Throughout this study, we have only dealt with (SMC-issued warning episodes in order to analyse deterministic (MM5 and COSMO-I7

  3. Mixed Schools versus Single-Sex Schools: Are There Differences in the Academic Results for Boys and Girls in Catalonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gracia, Maribel; Donoso Vázquez, Trinidad

    2016-01-01

    This study carries out a comparative analysis of achievement according to gender between mixed and single-sex schools in the region of Catalonia, Spain, for the subjects of Spanish, Catalan, English and Mathematics. After a brief contextualisation, a review of the main findings from international studies on differences in results for mixed schools…

  4. La atención hospitalaria al paciente con ictus en Cataluña: Resultados del «Primer Audit Clínic de l'Ictus. Catalunya, 2005/2006» In-hospital stroke care in Catalonia [Spain]: Results of the «First Clinical Audit of Stroke. Catalonia, 2005/2006»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sònia Abilleira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar la calidad de la atención hospitalaria al paciente con ictus en los hospitales públicos catalanes antes de la difusión de la Guía de Práctica Clínica (GPC del ictus, estudiando el grado de adhesión a determinadas recomendaciones de la GPC. Métodos: Mediante revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas de pacientes con ictus definidos mediante los códigos CIE-9 431, 433.x1, 434.x1, 436, e ingresados consecutivamente en 48 hospitales públicos catalanes en el primer semestre de 2005, se recogió información sobre distintos indicadores del proceso asistencial al ictus seleccionados según su evidencia científica o su importancia clínica. Los hospitales participantes reclutaron 20, 40 o 60 casos, según el número de ingresos/año. Se llevó a cabo una auditoría externa en el 9,3% de los casos reclutados en cada centro, tras selección aleatoria, para determinar la calidad de los datos recogidos. Los indicadores se agruparon en 6 perfiles relacionados con diferentes aspectos de la práctica clínica. Resultados: Se incluyeron 1.791 casos, un 53,9% hombres, con una media (desviación estándar de edad de 75,6 (12,4 años. La concordancia global entre observadores fue de 0,7. El cumplimiento de los perfiles asistenciales (porcentaje medio [intervalo de confianza del 95%] fue: calidad de la historia clínica, 78,5% (77,5-79,4; estándares de atención básica, 92,4% (91,5-93,2; evaluación neurológica, 38,3% (37,3-39,3; medidas iniciales del tratamiento rehabilitador, 44,9% (43,2-46,7; prevención y manejo de complicaciones, 68,4% (66,9-70, y medidas preventivas iniciales, 78,9% (77,3-80,4. Conclusiones: En 2005 la atención hospitalaria al ictus era mejorable, sobre todo los aspectos relacionados con la evaluación y el seguimiento neurológico del paciente y la rehabilitación.Objective: To determine the quality of in-hospital stroke care in public acute care hospitals in Catalonia before the implementation of a

  5. Final Disposition and Quality Auditing of the Rehabilitation Process in Wild Raptors Admitted to a Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre in Catalonia, Spain, during a Twelve Year Period (1995–2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, Rafael A.; Casal, Jordi; Darwich, Laila

    2013-01-01

    Background Variability in reporting and classification methods in previous published data of the final dispositions in the rehabilitation of wild raptors makes use of this data limited in trying to audit the quality of the rehabilitation process. Crude as well as stratified disposition rates are needed if quality auditing of the rehabilitation process is to be adequately performed. Methodology Final dispositions of 6221 hospitalized wild raptors admitted at a wildlife rehabilitation centre (WRC) of Catalonia during 1995–2007 were analyzed. These dispositions were calculated as the euthanasia (Er), unassisted mortality (Mr), release (Rr) and captivity rates (Cr)., time to death (Td) for dead and euthanized raptors, and length of stay for released (Tr) raptors was estimated. Stratified analyses by main causes of admission and clinical signs were performed. Results The disposition for the total population were: Er  = 30.6%, Mr = 19.1%, Rr  = 47.2%, and Cr  = 3%. By main causes of admission, Er was higher in the trauma category (34.2%), whereas Mr was found similar between trauma (37.4%) and non-trauma categories (34.8%). The highest Rr was observed for the orphaned group (77.9%). Furthermore, Cr was low in all the categories (<4%). By clinical signs, the highest Er was found in animals suffering musculoskeletal (37.9%) or skin (32.3%) lesions; Mr was high in infectious/parasitic diseases (66.7%) and in case of neurological symptoms (64.5%). The euthanized birds had a median Td  = 1 day (P10 = 0-P90 = 59) for both trauma and non-trauma categories, and Td  = 36 days for the orphaned young group (P10 = 0; P90 = 596). The median Td in the unassisted dead birds was 2 days for all the categories (P10 = 0-P90 = 31). Finally, the median Tr in the centre was variable among categories. Conclusions/Significance Reporting of final dispositions in wildlife rehabilitation should include the crude and stratified rates (Er, Mr, Rr

  6. Final disposition and quality auditing of the rehabilitation process in wild raptors admitted to a Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre in Catalonia, Spain, during a twelve year period (1995-2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A Molina-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variability in reporting and classification methods in previous published data of the final dispositions in the rehabilitation of wild raptors makes use of this data limited in trying to audit the quality of the rehabilitation process. Crude as well as stratified disposition rates are needed if quality auditing of the rehabilitation process is to be adequately performed. METHODOLOGY: Final dispositions of 6221 hospitalized wild raptors admitted at a wildlife rehabilitation centre (WRC of Catalonia during 1995-2007 were analyzed. These dispositions were calculated as the euthanasia (Er, unassisted mortality (Mr, release (Rr and captivity rates (Cr., time to death (Td for dead and euthanized raptors, and length of stay for released (Tr raptors was estimated. Stratified analyses by main causes of admission and clinical signs were performed. RESULTS: THE DISPOSITION FOR THE TOTAL POPULATION WERE: Er = 30.6%, Mr = 19.1%, Rr = 47.2%, and Cr = 3%. By main causes of admission, Er was higher in the trauma category (34.2%, whereas Mr was found similar between trauma (37.4% and non-trauma categories (34.8%. The highest Rr was observed for the orphaned group (77.9%. Furthermore, Cr was low in all the categories (<4%. By clinical signs, the highest Er was found in animals suffering musculoskeletal (37.9% or skin (32.3% lesions; Mr was high in infectious/parasitic diseases (66.7% and in case of neurological symptoms (64.5%. The euthanized birds had a median Td = 1 day (P10 = 0-P90 = 59 for both trauma and non-trauma categories, and Td = 36 days for the orphaned young group (P10 = 0; P90 = 596. The median Td in the unassisted dead birds was 2 days for all the categories (P10 = 0-P90 = 31. Finally, the median Tr in the centre was variable among categories. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Reporting of final dispositions in wildlife rehabilitation should include the crude and stratified rates (Er, Mr, Rr, and Cr, by causes and clinical presentation, as well

  7. Integrating geomorphological mapping, InSAR, GPR and trenching for the identification and investigation of buried sinkholes in the mantled evaporite karst of the Ebro Valley (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Lucha, Pedro; Bonachea, Jaime; Castañeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    The first and most important step in sinkhole hazard analysis is the construction of a cartographic sinkhole inventory. The effectiveness of the mitigation measures and the reliability of the susceptibility and hazard maps will depend on the completeness and accuracy of the sinkhole inventories on which they are based. Sinkhole data bases preferably should include information on the following aspects: (1) Precise location of the sinkholes edges. (2) Morphometric parameters. (3) Geomorphological and hydrological context. (4) Genetic type; that is subsidence mechanisms and material affected by subsidence. (5) Chronology; this information is essential to calculate probability of occurrence values. (6) Active or inactive character. (7) Kinematical regime (gradual, episodic or mixed). (8) Current and/or long-term subsidence rates. (9) Evolution of the subsidence and its relationship with causal factors. Sinkholes are generally mapped using conventional geomorphological methods like aerial photographs, topographic maps and field surveys. However, the usefulness of these methods may be limited in areas where the geomorphic expression of sinkholes has been obliterated by natural processes or anthropogenic fill. Additionally, gaining data on some of the practical aspects indicated above requires the application of other techniques. In this contribution we present the main findings learnt through the construction of a sinkhole inventory in a terrace of the Ebro River valley (NE Spain). The study area covers around 27.5 ha and is located west of Zaragoza city. The bedrock consists of subhorizontal evaporites including gypsum, halite and glauberite. The terrace is situated at 7-10 m above the channel and the alluvium, 10-30 m thick, is composed of unconsolidated gravels and subordinate fines. Previous studies carried out in this sector of the valley reveal that: (1) Three main types of sinkholes may be differentiated: cover collapse, cover and bedrock collapse, and cover and

  8. Effect on a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain as reflected in soil C and N isotopic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; González-Pérez, José Antonio; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) (Carceller and Vallejo, 1996). Stable isotopic signatures of light elements (d13C, d15N) in soils and plants are valuable proxies for the identification of biogeochemical processes and their rates in the pedosphere (Andreeva et al., 2013 and refs therein). In this work the C and N stable isotopic analysis is used as a proxy to detect changes in SOM surrogated to the effect of centennial replacement of beech by the Scots pinewood. Two acid soil profiles, developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl, have been sampled in Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three O-layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. Content and bulk isotopic signature of light elements (C and N) were analysed in a Flash 2000 elemental micro-analyser coupled via a ConFlo IV interface to a Delta V Advantage isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) (Thermo Scientific, Bremen, Germany). Isotopic ratios are reported as parts per thousand deviations from appropriate standards. The standard deviations of d13C and d15N were typically less than ± 0.05 per thousand, ± 0.2 per thousand, respectively. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, no differences on C content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 30-47% in pine soils and 37-47 % in beech soils. Similarly, no differences on N content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 1.24-1.86 % in pine soils and 1.70-1.71 % in beech soils. C and N contents decrease progressively in depth with the exception of E-horizons where the lowest C and N content values were found. C/N ratio is higher in pine soil (20.7-38.1) than in beech O soil horizons (21.8-27.5), showing similar behavior with soil depth. Pine biomass was slightly

  9. Effect of a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain revealed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; González-Pérez, José Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) [1]. It is known that the products generated by Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) pyrolysis of organic matter are related to their origin [2 and references therein]. Therefore this technique can be used to investigate said changes. In this work, Py-GC/MS is used to study changes in SOM quality surrogated to the effect of the centennial replacement of beech by Scots pine. The soils studied were two acid soil profiles developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl from Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three organic layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and the mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, differences in the relative abundance of lipids released by pyrolysis were observed in the O-layers ranging from 3.82-7.20% in pine soils and 0.98-1.25% in beech soils. No differences were observed in mineral horizons with depth except for the C horizons where beech lipid content was much higher (21.25%) than in that under pine (1.07%). Both pine and beech soils show similar nitrogen compounds relative contents along the soil profile, increasing from OL to Ah (3.49-9.11% and 2.75-11.73% in beech and pine respectively) with a conspicuous reduction in the E horizon. It is remarkable the absence of nitrogen compounds in beech Bhs and C horizons. The relative content of aromatic compounds in O-layers show opposite trends for beech and pine; an enrichment in aromatic compounds is observed in beech OL layer (12.39%) decreasing to 4.11% in OH layer in contrast, whereas for pine O-layers the aromatic compounds relative abundance was higher in the OH (5.83%) than in the OL layer (2.8%). Mineral Ah and E horizons show similar values in

  10. Structural and functional analysis of a microbial mat ecosystem from a unique permanent hypersaline inland lake: ‘La Salada de Chiprana’ (NE Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonkers, Henk M.; Ludwig, Rebecca; De Wit, Rutger

    2003-01-01

    The benthic microbial mat community of the only permanent hypersaline natural inland lake of Western Europe, ‘La Salada de Chiprana’, northeastern Spain, was structurally and functionally analyzed. The ionic composition of the lake water is characterized by high concentrations of magnesium...

  11. El marco sanitario y el entorno psicosocial de la población inmigrante magrebí en Cataluña Study of the healthcare background and psychosocial environment of the Maghrebian immigrant population in Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Saura

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Este estudio pretende obtener información sobre el marco sanitario y el entorno psicosocial de la población inmigrante magrebí en Cataluña, para orientar las actuaciones en planificación y provisión de servicios sociales y de las organizaciones que apoyan a este colectivo. Método: Se utilizó un cuestionario de creación propia que explora aspectos sanitarios y psicosociales, incluidos los factores estresores y de apoyo social. La recogida de datos se realizó mediante encuestadores y en lengua árabe. Resultados: Se realizaron 403 entrevistas. La mayoría de los encuestados tenían tarjeta sanitaria y sabían a dónde acudir para recibir asistencia. Los servicios más utilizados son los de atención primaria y urgencias hospitalarias. En atención primaria, casi todos los encuestados reciben explicaciones, pero un 30% no las comprende adecuadamente. Se percibe que los profesionales sanitarios no tienen muy en cuenta las diferencias culturales o religiosas. Trabajo, vivienda, alejamiento familiar y legalización son factores estresores para más de la mitad de esta población. El apoyo social es bajo. Tres cuartas partes de los encuestados se sienten solos. Más de la mitad de esta población ve cumplidas total o parcialmente sus expectativas migratorias y un 11% considera estar peor. Conclusiones: Las principales áreas de acción pasan por reforzar la información sobre condiciones de acceso al sistema sanitario, fomentar la interacción social y el asociacionismo entre los inmigrantes, especialmente durante las primeras fases del proceso migratorio, y facilitar las actividades religiosas. Parece importante formar a los profesionales sanitarios sobre las culturas de origen.Introduction: The aim of this study was to gather information on the healthcare background and social environment of the Maghrebian immigrant population in Catalonia in order to guide the management and provision of social services and the work of the

  12. Barreras y facilitadores de la coordinación asistencial en dos organizaciones sanitarias integradas en Cataluña Barriers and facilitators to health care coordination in two integrated health care organizations in Catalonia (Spain

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    Ingrid Vargas Lorenzo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar 2 organizaciones sanitarias integradas (OSI en Cataluña e identificar las áreas de desarrollo futuro que mejoren su eficacia. Métodos: Investigación cualitativa, exploratoria y descriptiva, basada en un estudio de casos, mediante análisis de documentos y entrevista individual semiestructurada. Se seleccionó una muestra teórica de casos y, para cada caso, de documentos e informantes. Los casos de estudio fueron: el Consorci Sanitari del Maresme (CSdM y el Consorci Sanitari de Terrassa/Fundació Hospital Sant Llàtzer (CSdT/FHSLL. Se analizaron 127 documentos y se entrevistaron 29 informantes: directivos de las OSI (n = 10, técnicos de apoyo (n = 5, directivos de las unidades operativas (n = 5 y profesionales asistenciales (n = 9. Se realizó un análisis de contenido, con generación mixta de categorías y segmentación por casos y temas. Resultados: El CSdM y el CSdT/FHSLL son organizaciones sanitarias con integración vertical hacia atrás, producción total de servicios, con propiedad real (CSdM y virtual (CSdT/FHSLL. Reciben la financiación por nivel asistencial. El órgano de gobierno es centralizado en CSdM y descentralizado en CSdT/FHSLL. En ambas, los objetivos globales se orientan a la mejora de la coordinación y la eficiencia, pero sin alinearse con los de las unidades operativas. Su estructura es funcional, con integración de las funciones de apoyo, y utilizan mecanismos de coordinación entre niveles asistenciales basados en la normalización de los procesos de trabajo. Conclusiones: Se identifican los elementos facilitadores y también las barreras a la coordinación, que requieren cambios tanto del entorno (sistema de asignación como internos (papel del gobierno, estructura organizativa y tipos de mecanismos de coordinación entre niveles.Objectives: To analyze 2 integrated delivery systems (IDS in Catalonia and identify areas for future development to improve their effectiveness. Methods: An

  13. Comparison of absolute biochemical parameters of undisturbed soils in Mediterranean environments (NE Spain) with corresponding parameters relative to soil organic carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez de Ridder, Patrícia; Marando, Graciela; Josa March, Ramon; Ginovart Gisbert, Marta; Ras Sabido, Antoni; Bonmati Pont, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The study of soil quality requires the establishment of quality standards. To this end, several authors have highlighted the need to create databases of quality indicators, such as biochemical properties, for different types of undisturbed soils under various climates and to establish standardised methodologies for their development. In Spain, studies of the quality of native soils were initiated > 15 years ago by several groups of authors from differing locations, but little is known regardi...

  14. Perfil de los usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral que mantienen conductas de riesgo relacionadas con la inyección en Cataluña Characteristics of intravenous drug users who share injection equipment in Catalonia (Spain

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    Cinta Folch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de las prácticas de riesgo directas e indirectas relacionadas con la inyección de drogas e identificar los factores asociados en los usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral (UDVP en centros de reducción de daños en Cataluña. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado entre 2008 y 2009 en centros de reducción de daños. La información conductual se recogió mediante un cuestionario anónimo administrado por entrevistadores previamente formados. Resultados: De los 748 entrevistados, el 31,5% compartió jeringas usadas en los últimos 6 meses y el 55,2% compartió la cuchara, el agua o el filtro, o realizó el front/backloading con jeringas usadas. Los UDVP que se inyectan diariamente (odds ratio [OR]=1,5, se inyectan cocaína (OR=1,6, obtienen menos jeringas gratuitas (OR=2,5 menos de la mitad a ninguna, tienen una pareja sexual UDVP (OR=1,8 y comparten indirectamente (OR=4,1 presentaron una mayor probabilidad de haber compartido jeringas. Por otro lado, tener una fuente de ingresos ilegal (OR=1,5, inyectarse diariamente (OR=1, 5, inyectarse cocaína (OR=1,4, haber compartido jeringas (OR=3,9 y haber tenido alguna sobredosis en la vida (OR=1,5 fueron factores asociados a compartir de forma indirecta. Conclusiones: A pesar de la generalización de los programas de reducción de daños, en Cataluña se mantiene un porcentaje de UDVP que realizan conductas de riesgo relacionadas con la inyección. Sería necesario mejorar el acceso a todo el material estéril de inyección, en especial entre los que se inyectan cocaína y los que se inyectan con mayor frecuencia, e incluir también a las parejas sexuales UDVP en estas intervenciones preventivas.Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of direct and indirect syringe sharing among intravenous drug users (IDUs attending a harm reduction center in Catalonia (Spain and to identify factors associated with risk behaviors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted

  15. El dolor de espalda en la población catalana: Prevalencia, características y conducta terapéutica Back pain in the general population of Catalonia (Spain: Prevalence, characteristics and therapeutic behavior

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    A. Bassols

    2003-04-01

    situación clínica de elevada frecuencia en la población catalana y un motivo muy importante de utilización de atención médica y de limitación de la actividad personal y profesional.Background: Back pain is a common symptom of health assistance in Western countries. The goal of the present survey was to establish the prevalence of back pain in the general population in Catalonia, as well as to establish its characteristics, its relationship to sociodemographic variables, the therapeutic behavior followed by those affected and the associated-impairment and disabilities for the sufferers. Methods: The survey was a descriptive study including a sample of 1,964 people, obtained from the census (1991 and representative of the population older than 18 years. The study was done in 1994 and data were obtained by means of a telephone interview. The prevalence of pain in the last six months was determined. Among those suffering back pain, additional information was obtained concerning its characteristics, the relationship with socio-demographic variables, the therapeutic behaviors used by patients, and the personal, social and work impairment and disabilities. Results: Back pain was highly prevalent (50.9%, appeared in all ages (mean age of 47.6 years, was the highest in women (60.7%, in manual workers (54.9% and in those less educated (71.1%. Back pain was long lasting (69.2% more than 3 years, frequent (49.7% more than the half of the days, and highly painful (severe-unbearable in 51.4%. The therapeutic behaviors most commonly used were the visit to the physician (71.9%, the use of alternative medical treatments (24.7%, physical therapy (22.7%, physical exercises and electrotherapy and self-medication (14.6%, being acetylsalicylic acid the most employed. In general, the duration and degree of improvement was variable. Back pain limited the daily activities (36.7% and forced to bed rest (22.7%. It was also a significant reason for time off work (17% and disability pension (6

  16. The catalan language in the educational system of Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siguan, Miquel

    1991-03-01

    Since the establishment of a democratic regime in Spain, not only does the Constitution recognize the multilingualism of the Spanish State but also, in certain autonomous regions, Catalan, Galician and Basque have been given joint official status with Castillian or Spanish. This article describes the introduction of Catalan into the education system of Catalonia. Previously the system had only taken Spanish into consideration, but the Statute of Autonomy of 1979 ensured the teaching of Catalan to all pupils, and Catalan is gradually becoming the medium of instruction. In a situation in which around half of the six million or so inhabitants of Catalonia have Catalan as their mother tongue which they use at home, and the other half — immigrants — are Castillian-speaking, the educational system lays down that all pupils should, at the end of compulsory schooling, be able to use both languages. It has thus faced complex problems which appear up to the present to have been satisfactorily resolved. The Catalan experience may therefore act as a reference point and a stimulus for other regions with minority languages.

  17. Tornadoes and waterspouts in Catalonia (1950–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gayà

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary climatology of tornadoes and waterspouts in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula. A database spanning 60 yr (1950–2009 has been developed on the basis of information collected from various sources such as weather reports, insurance companies, newspapers and damage surveys. This database has been subjected to a rigorous validation process, and the climatology describes its main features: timing, spatial pattern, and trends in the tornado and waterspout distribution. Results show the highest concentration of tornadoes from August to October, the highest density in the heavily populated coastal areas and a growing positive trend that is likely more closely linked to an increase in observation and perception rather than a real climatic trend.

  18. Construction of the birth weight by gestational age population reference curves of Catalonia (Spain: Methods and development Elaboración de las curvas poblacionales de referencia del peso al nacer, según la edad gestacional, de Cataluña: métodos y desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ramos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Infant size at birth is a useful indicator to evaluate fetal growth in relation to gestational age. There is no standard model to create anthropometric reference curves in neonates, but the method chosen could determine the reference values estimated. We describe the methods used to construct population-based reference curves of birth weight for gestational age in Catalonia, Spain. These methods included detection of implausible values of birth weight for gestational age by a probabilistic cluster model, utilization of the Generalized Additive Model for Location and Scale method to obtain smoothed percentiles and z-scores, and calculation of 95% confidence intervals by bootstrapping. To our knowledge, these are the first reference curves in neonates constructed through a method allowing asymmetric distributions with kurtosis to be modelled. Estimation of confidence intervals is useful to determine which reference intervals can be employed to assess newborn size.La evaluación del tamaño en el nacimiento es uni ndicador útil para evaluar elcrecimiento fetal en relación con la edad gestacional. No hay un modelo estándar para crear curvas de referencia antropométricas en recién nacidos, pero el método escogido podría determinar los valores de referencia estimados. Describimos los métodos utilizados para elaborar las curvas de referencia poblacionales del peso al nacer según la edad gestacional en Cataluña, España. Estos métodos incluyen la detección de los valores inverosímiles de peso al nacer para la edad gestacional mediante un modelo probabilístico de agrupaciones, la utilización del modelo Generalized Additive Model for Location and Scale para la obtención de los percentiles alisados, y las puntuaciones z y el cálculo de los intervalos de confianza del 95% mediante remuestreos. Hasta donde conocemos, éstas son las primeras curvas de referencia en recién nacidos en las cuales se ha utilizado un método que permite modelar

  19. The wildland-urban interface raster dataset of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J; Evers, Cody R; Vega-Garcia, Cristina

    2018-04-01

    We provide the wildland urban interface (WUI) map of the autonomous community of Catalonia (Northeastern Spain). The map encompasses an area of some 3.21 million ha and is presented as a 150-m resolution raster dataset. Individual housing location, structure density and vegetation cover data were used to spatially assess in detail the interface, intermix and dispersed rural WUI communities with a geographical information system. Most WUI areas concentrate in the coastal belt where suburban sprawl has occurred nearby or within unmanaged forests. This geospatial information data provides an approximation of residential housing potential for loss given a wildfire, and represents a valuable contribution to assist landscape and urban planning in the region.

  20. Adherencia al programa poblacional de detección precoz de cáncer colorrectal en Cataluña, 2000-2008 Adherence to a population-based colorectal cancer screening program in Catalonia (Spain, 2000-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Milà

    2012-06-01

    successive rounds of a population-based colorectal cancer screening program in L'Hospitalet de Llobregat (Barcelona, Spain. Subjects were classified according to their adherence to colorectal cancer screening guidelines (non-adherent, irregular adherent and totally adherent. Independent variables were sociodemographic variables, self-perceived health, attitudes and beliefs regarding colorectal cancer and preventive activities. Binary and politomous logistic regression models were performed. Results: Of the individuals invited to participate in the screening program, 14.4% were adherent to screening recommendations and 18.4% were occasionally adherent. Significant differences were found in beliefs and attitudes regarding colorectal cancer and its early detection among adherent and non-adherent individuals. Sharing the decision to participate in screening with a family member increased adherence by nine- and tweve-fold. A positive perception of the screening process was a facilitator to adherence. Conclusions: Attitudes and beliefs regarding colorectal cancer and its early detection, as well as familial support, are associated with initial participation in colorectal cancer screening but do not affect the persistence of preventive behavior over time.

  1. Industrial mining forecasts for the North East of Spain. La cuenca pirenaica-catalana: perspectivas para la industria minera en el NE de Espaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A

    1993-05-01

    The North-Eastern part of Spain shows a variety of lithologies morphologies and structures. A lot of different ores can be found but deposit reserves are very scarce and widespread. Metallic mines were important in the past but now are spent. All types of coal are present but deposits are small and exploitation has reduced very much the reserves. Only uranium and lignite are significant materials but the current trends of international prices makes them unworthy of their extraction. Gas and Petroleum are being extracted and their well known deposits will keep activity as nowadays. The paper makes an additional review on other non-energetic ores like special clays, sodium an potassium salts, sodium sulphates, gypsum and other.

  2. Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurina Carme

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010 and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010. Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7% and the pill (28.0% being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood. With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to

  3. Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurina, Carme; Vall-Llosera, Laura; Saez, Marc

    2012-07-20

    In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010) and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010). Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain) by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users' sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use) of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU) and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7%) and the pill (28.0%) being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood) and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood). With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to use family planning methods (36.68%, 38.59% and 70

  4. Foreign Language Competence and Content and Language Integrated Learning in Multilingual Schools in Catalonia: An "Ex Post Facto" Study Analysing the Results of State Key Competences Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral, Josep; Lleixà, Teresa; Ventura, Carles

    2018-01-01

    The member states of the European Union have funded many initiatives supporting the teaching and learning of foreign languages. Content and language integrated learning is one of the experimental language programmes that have been introduced in Catalonia, in the north-east of Spain. The aims of this study are to analyse the results achieved by…

  5. Fault rocks and veins formation in the crystalline Palaeozoic basement of the N margin of the Littoral Chain (Catalan Coastal Ranges, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alías, Gemma; Belmonte, Alba; Cantarero, Irene; Inglés, Montserrat; Travé, Anna

    2013-04-01

    The Littoral Chain corresponds to a horst of NE-SW direction formed during the Neogene extension which in the studied area (Collserola-Montnegre massif) is mainly composed by Paleozoic materials. At the northern margin the horst limits with the Vallès basin which is infilled by Miocene detrital materials. In the Forques Hill, two km to the est of Martorell, an excellent outcrop of Ordovician phyllites summarise an spread tectonic evolution from Hercynian to Neogene deformation. This work evaluates the behaviour of phyllites during the Hercynian ductile deformation and later during the fragile Mesozoic and Neogene tectonics. The weakness of these rocks together with the situation very close to the Vallès Fault favour that this area concentrates many deformation structures related to extensional tectonics, such as veins, cataclasites and gouges. Phyllites present a pervasive regional hercynian foliation oriented WNW-ESE and dipping moderately to the NNE; a huge amount of quartz veins, up to 20% of the rock volume, were injected during and immediately after the main foliation development. Two groups of fractures cutting the phyllites can be distinguished in the field according to the fault rock products, the vein infilling, the orientation and the geometry. The first one corresponds to Mesozoic fractures that have a NE-SW trend and dip indistinctly to the NW or SE, in a conjugate system. They are characterized by the formation of a broad zone of 0,2 m up to 1,5 m formed either by cataclasites or en echelon veins that indicate a normal movement. The cataclasites are cohesive greenish rocks, with 50% of clasts of wall rock from mm to dm in size. Neoformed minerals in the matrix are chlorite - albite - barite ± titanite and rutile. Veins are white to pinkish in colour and two types of infill have been identified: albite - chlorite - iron oxides± rutile and dolomite - chlorite. The second group belongs to Neogene fractures which although similar orientation than those

  6. Wildfire spread, hazard and exposure metric raster grids for central Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín J. Alcasena

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide 40 m resolution wildfire spread, hazard and exposure metric raster grids for the 0.13 million ha fire-prone Bages County in central Catalonia (northeastern Spain corresponding to node influence grid (NIG, crown fraction burned (CFB and fire transmission to residential houses (TR. Fire spread and behavior data (NIG, CFB and fire perimeters were generated with fire simulation modeling considering wildfire season extreme fire weather conditions (97th percentile. Moreover, CFB was also generated for prescribed fire (Rx mild weather conditions. The TR smoothed grid was obtained with a geospatial analysis considering large fire perimeters and individual residential structures located within the study area. We made these raster grids available to assist in the optimization of wildfire risk management plans within the study area and to help mitigate potential losses from catastrophic events. Keywords: Catalonia, Wildfire exposure, Fire transmission, Crown fire activity, Prescribed fires

  7. Effectiveness of family work interventions on schizophrenia: evidence from a multicentre study in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Esther Pousa; Hurtado, Gemma; Noguer, Sílvia; Domènech, Cristina; García, Montse; López, Nuria; Negredo, Maríacruz; Penadés, Rafael; Reinares, María; Serrano, Dolors; Dolz, Montse; Gallo, Pedro

    2012-11-01

    Despite their proven efficacy, family work interventions on families of patients with schizophrenia are not being implemented in routine clinical practice in contexts where expressed emotion levels among caregivers are relatively high. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of a family work intervention in a Mediterranean environment in Catalonia, Spain. Participants were 23 patients and 35 key relatives in five different clinical settings. The family intervention was provided by 10 trained health care professionals during a nine-month period. A six-month follow-up was also conducted. Statistically significant improvements were found in patients' clinical status, global functioning and social functioning levels, as well as in caregivers' burden of care. These results were maintained during follow-up. This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of family intervention in a high-expressed emotion context in Catalonia. The findings add weight to the growing literature supporting these interventions in different cultural settings.

  8. The Parliament of Catalonia, representing a millenary people

    OpenAIRE

    Mateu Vilaseca, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Catalonia is a millenary nation, which the current Spanish constitutional order frames as an “autonomous community”. However, Catalonia as a nation was not born with the Spanish Constitution in 1978, nor has any possibility for the future been democratically barred. The most important contribution to Catalonia made by the 1978 Constitution was to make it possible for the Catalan Statute to create the Catalan Parliament, an institution that democratically represents the people of Catalonia and...

  9. Structural and functional analysis of a microbial mat ecosystem from a unique permanent hypersaline inland lake: 'La Salada de Chiprana' (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkers, Henk M; Ludwig, Rebecca; Wit, Rutger; Pringault, Olivier; Muyzer, Gerard; Niemann, Helge; Finke, Niko; Beer, Dirk

    2003-05-01

    The benthic microbial mat community of the only permanent hypersaline natural inland lake of Western Europe, 'La Salada de Chiprana', northeastern Spain, was structurally and functionally analyzed. The ionic composition of the lake water is characterized by high concentrations of magnesium and sulfate, which were respectively 0.35 and 0.5 M at the time of sampling while the total salinity was 78 g l(-1). Community composition was analyzed by microscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pigment analyses and by studying culturable bacteria from different functional groups. Therefore, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was applied on most probable number (MPN) dilution cultures. Microscopy revealed that a thin layer of Chloroflexus-like bacteria overlaid various cyanobacteria-dominated layers each characterized by different morphotypes. DGGE analysis of MPN dilution cultures from distinct mat layers showed that various phylotypes of anoxygenic phototrophic, aerobic heterotrophic, colorless sulfur-, and sulfate-reducing bacteria were present. The mats were furthermore functionally studied and attention was focussed on the relationship between oxygenic primary production and the flow of carbon through the microbial community. Microsensor techniques, porewater and sediment photopigment analysis were applied in order to estimate oxygenic photosynthetic rates, daily dynamics of (in)organic carbon porewater concentration and migration behavior of phototrophs. Chiprana microbial mats produced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) both during the day and night. It was estimated that 14% of the mats gross photosynthetic production and 49% of the mats net photosynthetic production diffused out of the mat in the form of low molecular mass fatty acids, although these compounds made up only 2% of the total DOC pool. The high flux of dissolved fatty acids from the microbial mat to the water column may explain why in this system Chloroflexus-like bacteria

  10. Multivariate approach to matrimonial mobility in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafell, F; Hernández, M

    1993-10-01

    Matrimonial mobility in Catalonia was studied using 1986 census data. Comarca (a geographic division) of birth was used as the population unit, and a measure of affinity (a statistical distance) between comarques in spouse geographic origin was defined. This distance was analyzed with multivariate methods drawn from numerical taxonomy to detect any discontinuities in matrimonial mobility and gene flow between comarques. Results show a three-level pattern of gene flow in Catalonia: (1) a strong endogamy within comarques; (2) a 100-km matrimonial circle around every comarca; and (3) the capital, Barcelona, which attracts migrants from all over Catalonia. The regionalization in matrimonial mobility follows the geographically clear-cut groups of comarques almost exactly.

  11. Catalan Nationalism and Challenges to the Territorial Integrity of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Volkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century Spain faced a number of challenges, primarily the growth of separatist sentiments in the regions fraught with the danger of its fragmentation on ethno-national basis. In the context of increased ethno-national mobilization of “small peoples” in Spain one of its most economically developed regions – Catalonia – envisages a rise of the regional identity. Against the backdrop of economic problems generated by the crisis of 2008-2014 the autonomous communities of Spain, including Catalonia, came across the rise of socio-political problems, particularly the growing distance between the society and the central administrative bodies formed in democratic conditions, as well as the two-party administrative system.

  12. The case-fatality rate of meningococcal disease in Catalonia, 1990-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Angela; Cardeñosa, Neus; Pañella, Helena; Orcau, Angels; Companys, Maria; Alseda, Miquel; Oviedo, Manuel; Carmona, Glòria; Minguell, Sofia; Salleras, Lluis

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to analyse the case-fatality rate (CFR) of meningococcal disease (MD) in Catalonia, Spain. A retrospective study was carried out. Clinical histories of cases of MD reported for the period 1990-1997 in Catalonia were reviewed. For all cases, the variables gender, age, clinical type, y of presentation, province, phenotype and death by meningococcal disease were collected. The association between death and the other variables was studied by bivariate and unconditional logistic regression analysis. In the 2343 cases studied there were 146 deaths (6.2%) due to meningococcal disease. The CFR was higher in females (OR: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-2.1), in the 20 to 49 y (OR: 2.4, 95%CI: 1.2-4.9) and > or = 50 y (OR: 5.3, 95%CI: 2.8-10.1) age groups, in cases with septicaemia (OR: 2.4, 95%CI: 1.6-3.5), in the cases produced by serogroup A (OR: 4.7, 95%CI: 1.0-23.4) and in cases occurring during 1993 (OR: 2.1, 95%CI: 1.1-4.1) or in the province of Lleida (OR: 2.9, 95%CI: 1.2-7.2). In the multivariate analysis, death was associated with the 20-49 y age group (OR: 3.9, 95%CI: 1.8-8.4), the > or = 50 y age group (OR: 7.3, 95%CI: 3.6-14.7), septicaemia (OR: 3.1; 95%CI: 2.0-4.7) and residing in the province of Lleida (OR: 3.2; 95%CI: 1.2-8.5). The CFR of meningococcal disease in Catalonia was not associated with the emergent phenotype C:2b:P1.2,5 strain, which caused an outbreak in other regions of Spain.

  13. Tourism Demand in Catalonia: detecting external economic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Clavería González, Óscar; Datzira, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of studies on tourism demand in Catalonia. To fill the gap, this paper focuses on detecting the macroeconomic factors that determine tourism demand in Catalonia. We also analyse the relation between these factors and tourism demand. Despite the strong seasonal component and the outliers in the time series of some countries, overnight stays give a better indication of tourism demand in Catalonia than the number of tourists. The degree of linear association between the macroecon...

  14. “Do you want Catalonia to be an independent state in the form of a republic?”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    government that has vowed to use all possible means to stop the referendum from being held. The call triggers another political and legal quarrel with the Spanish government that is inexorably opposed to recognize the right of self-determination of Catalonia. After a brief introduction on the political...... the Catalonia-Spain political issue that highlights many legal and political dilemmas, such as the boundaries of federalism; the undesirable clash between democracy and the rule of law; the limits of the principle of non-intervention; the definition of Nation and the principle of self-determination. After...... of Autonomy. The last section of the paper deals with the Catalan referendum on independence analysing in detail both the Spanish arguments to abort the voting and the Catalan thesis to hold the plebiscite. The section also examines the political alternatives and mechanisms to the referendum on independence...

  15. Explosive cyclogenesis of extra-tropical cyclone Klaus and its effects in Catalonia. A case study of hurricane force gusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, J.; López, J. A.; Martín, F.; Morales, G.; Pascual, R.

    2009-09-01

    On 23th and 24th of January 2009, the extra-tropical cyclone Klaus crossed the north of Spain and the south of France producing several deaths and generalized damages. The cyclone of Atlantic origin underwent an explosive deepening of more than 1 hPa per hour at the surface level. Catalonia region was affected by gale-force winds and hurricane gusts. The Atlantic depression underwent a process called explosive cyclogenesis (when a surface cyclone deepens at a rate higher than 1 hPa/hr over 24 hours, approximately) in front of the Spanish Atlantic coasts. In this study we focus on its impact in the Catalonia areas where both synoptic and local effects were important. Also we evaluate the performance of the numerical weather prediction model outputs against observed data.

  16. Groundwater nitrate pollution and climate change: learnings from a water balance-based analysis of several aquifers in a western Mediterranean region (Catalonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Pla, Josep; Menció, Anna

    2018-04-11

    Climate change will affect the dynamics of the hydrogeological systems and their water resources quality; in particular nitrate, which is herein taken as a paradigmatic pollutant to illustrate the effects of climate change on groundwater quality. Based on climatic predictions of temperature and precipitation for the horizon of 2021 and 2050, as well as on land use distribution, water balances are recalculated for the hydrological basins of distinct aquifer systems in a western Mediterranean region as Catalonia (NE Spain) in order to determine the reduction of available water resources. Besides the fact that climate change will represent a decrease of water availability, we qualitatively discuss the modifications that will result from the future climatic scenarios and their impact on nitrate pollution according to the geological setting of the selected aquifers. Climate effects in groundwater quality are described according to hydrological, environmental, socio-economic, and political concerns. Water reduction stands as a major issue that will control stream-aquifer interactions and subsurface recharge, leading to a general modification of nitrate in groundwater as dilution varies. A nitrate mass balance model provides a gross estimation of potential nitrate evolution in these aquifers, and it points out that the control of the fertilizer load will be crucial to achieve adequate nitrate content in groundwater. Reclaimed wastewater stands as local reliable resource, yet its amount will only satisfy a fraction of the loss of available resources due to climate change. Finally, an integrated management perspective is necessary to avoid unplanned actions from private initiatives that will jeopardize the achievement of sustainable water resources exploitation under distinct hydrological scenarios.

  17. Climatic indicators over Catalonia during the last century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busto, M.; Prohom, M.

    2010-09-01

    the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). The sea temperature trend in l'Estartit (NE coast of Catalonia, Costa Brava) since 1974 shows a steady increment in all the measured levels (surface, -20 m, -50 m and -80 m) of +0,33 °C/decade on average. Temperature increment is maximum at -20 m, with +0.36 °C/decade variation. Moreover, there is an increase in the sea level of +3.35 cm/decade. CAUSSINUS, H. and MESTRE, O. (2004): Detection and correction of artificial shifts in climate series. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series C - Applied Statistics, 53, 405-425. VINCENT, L.A., ZHANG, X., BONSAL, B.R., HOGG, W.D. (2002): Homogenization of daily temperatures over Canada. Journal of Climate, 15, 1322-1334

  18. A press database on natural risks and its application in the study of floods in Northeastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Llasat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to introduce a systematic press database on natural hazards and climate change in Catalonia (NE of Spain and to analyze its potential application to social-impact studies. For this reason, a review of the concepts of risk, hazard, vulnerability and social perception is also included. This database has been built for the period 1982–2007 and contains all the news related with those issues published by the oldest still-active newspaper in Catalonia. Some parameters are registered for each article and for each event, including criteria that enable us to determine the importance accorded to it by the newspaper, and a compilation of information about it. This ACCESS data base allows each article to be classified on the basis of the seven defined topics and key words, as well as summary information about the format and structuring of the new itself, the social impact of the event and data about the magnitude or intensity of the event. The coverage given to this type of news has been assessed because of its influence on construction of the social perception of natural risk and climate change, and as a potential source of information about them. The treatment accorded by the press to different risks is also considered. More than 14 000 press articles have been classified. Results show that the largest number of news items for the period 1982–2007 relates to forest fires and droughts, followed by floods and heavy rainfalls, although floods are the major risk in the region of study. Two flood events recorded in 2002 have been analyzed in order to show an example of the role of the press information as indicator of risk perception.

  19. Educational Achievement of Immigrant Adolescents in Spain: Do Gender and Region of Origin Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquera, Elizabeth; Kao, Grace

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the educational achievement of immigrant youth in Spain employing data from 3 waves of the Longitudinal Study of Families and Childhood (Panel de Families i Infancia), a representative sample of children in Catalonia first interviewed at ages 13-16 in 2006 (N = 2,710). Results suggest consistent disadvantage in achievement…

  20. Contribution to the improvement of radon risk evaluation in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, X.; Vargas, A.

    2002-01-01

    The 96/29/Euratom Directive aims to introduce radon regulation at working places in European Countries. Within the framework, the Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Body, the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), is interested in obtaining a reliable level of quality for radon measurements in Spain. The radon laboratory group at the Institute of Energetic Techniques of the Technical University of Catalonia in Barcelona (INTE) has been commissioned to adequate its radon chamber for testing radon instruments using standards as IEC 61577 and ISO 13466

  1. The Universe Observation Center: an educational center devoted to Astronomy in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, D.

    The Universe Observation Center (in Catalan language, Centre d'Observació de l'Univers, COU) is located in close proximity to the Montsec Astronomical Observatory (Observatori Astronòmic del Montsec, OAM), in eastern Catalonia (Spain). Both centers comprise the Montsec Astronomical Park (Parc Astronòmic Montsec, PAM), managed by the Consorci del Montsec. Montsec Mountain remains the finest location for astronomical observation in Catalonia, as demonstrated by a site-testing campaign conducted by the Astronomy and Meteorology Department of the University of Barcelona. The COU consists of a Central Building (including a permanent exhibition and three classrooms possessing broadband Internet access), the Telescope Park (two astronomical domes equipped with medium-size telescopes, a coelostat for solar observation, and a portable telescope park), the Eye of Montsec (a digital planetarium and, at the same time, an extremely innovative platform for sky observation) and the Garden of the Universe (a tour of the land surrounding the COU, visiting several areas within it). The COU will offer to the Spanish academic community a host of fascinating and unique activities in the fields of astronomy and geology. The Center is open not only to students (from primary school through university), but also to amateur astronomers, people interested in science and the general public.

  2. Paleoclimatic implications of micromorphic features of a polygenetic soil in the Monegros Desert (NE-Spain Implicaciones paleoclimáticas de los rasgos micromorfológicos de un suelo policíclico en el Desierto de Monegros (NE-España Implicações paleoclimáticas das características micromorfológicas de um solo policíclico no Deserto de Monegros (NE-Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Badía

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pedofeatures can be repositories of information about soil forming factors such as climate. The aim of this work is to provide a model of interpretation of a polygenetic soil in the Monegros desert (Ebro Basin, NE-Spain and its relationship to environmental changes during the Quaternary. To achieve this goal, the physical, chemical, mineralogical and especially the micromorphic pedofeatures of this profile were studied. Carbonate accumulations extend into all of the horizons of the profile. The paleosol has a thick petrocalcic horizon at the top, with a massive-laminar structure comprising layers of micrite and sparite that sometimes form pendants. Towards its base, the petrocalcic horizon contains a spaced framework of orthic micrite nodules packed between relatively pure micritic laminar bands. Below the petrocalcic horizon, coatings and infillings of microcrystalline calcite occur in old channels, and soft concretions (some of them geodic indicate an in situ accumulation process (Bkc, calcic horizon. Another calcic horizon with orthic nodules of calcite, impregnative and diffuse (Ckc, is present at the bottom part of the profile. Between the two nodular calcic horizons, two recarbonated argic horizons are found (Btkc and Btk with coarse orthic nodules of dense micrite superimposed on textural pedofeatures. These textural micromorphic pedofeatures are: (1 interbedded microlaminated clay pockets not associated with current or past pores and (2 microlaminated clay and silt (dusty clay present as weakly oriented coatings on channel walls. Reduction pedofeatures are associated with textural ones: (1 coatings of manganese oxides around pore channels and cracks, and (2 nodules of manganese and iron oxides within the peds. The presence of calcic horizons alternating with argic horizons, all positioned below the petrocalcic horizon, confirm fluctuations in paleohydrological conditions in the Pleistocene. Its presence indicates that the oldest soil

  3. Screening of cervical cancer in Catalonia 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Ibáñez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Peris, Mercè; Roura, Esther; Diaz, Mireia; Torné, Aureli; Costa, Dolors; Canet, Yolanda; Falguera, Gemma; Alejo, Maria; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Bosch, F Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The early detection of intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, through the periodic examination of cervical cells, has been fundamental for the prevention of invasive cervical cancer and its related mortality. In this report, we summarise the cervical cancer screening activities carried out in Catalonia, Spain, within the National Health System during 2008-2011. The study population covers over two million women resident in the area. The evaluation includes 758,690 cervical cytologies performed on a total of 595,868 women. The three-year coverage of cervical cytology among women aged between 25 and 65 years was 40.8%. About 50% of first screened women with negative results had not returned to the second screening round. The introduction of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV) detection, as a primary screening cotest with cytology among women over age 40 with a poor screening history, significantly improved the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), being far superior to cytology alone. Cotesting did not improve the detection of CIN2+. The use of the HPV test for the triage of atypical squamous cell undetermined significance (ASC-US) improved the selection of women at high risk of CIN2+. Sampling (both cytology and HPV test) was largely performed by midwives (66.7%), followed by obstetricians (23.8%) and nurses (7%). Over half of the centres (54.8%) had full use of online medical records. During the study period, educational activities for professionals and for women were carried out periodically. The organisation of screening as a population activity in which women are actively called to the screening visit and the introduction of HPV testing as a primary screening tool are strongly recommended to ensure the maximum population impact in the reduction of the cervical cancer burden.

  4. An integrative cross-design synthesis approach to estimate the cost of illness: an applied case to the cost of depression in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendeck, Murielle; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; García-Alonso, Carlos; Bonet, Pere; Jordà, Esther; Sabes-Figuera, Ramon; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Cost of illness (COI) studies are carried out under conditions of uncertainty and with incomplete information. There are concerns regarding their generalisability, accuracy and usability in evidence-informed care. A hybrid methodology is used to estimate the regional costs of depression in Catalonia (Spain) following an integrative approach. The cross-design synthesis included nominal groups and quantitative analysis of both top-down and bottom-up studies, and incorporated primary and secondary data from different sources of information in Catalonia. Sensitivity analysis used probabilistic Monte Carlo simulation modelling. A dissemination strategy was planned, including a standard form adapted from cost-effectiveness studies to summarise methods and results. The method used allows for a comprehensive estimate of the cost of depression in Catalonia. Health officers and decision-makers concluded that this methodology provided useful information and knowledge for evidence-informed planning in mental health. The mix of methods, combined with a simulation model, contributed to a reduction in data gaps and, in conditions of uncertainty, supplied more complete information on the costs of depression in Catalonia. This approach to COI should be differentiated from other COI designs to allow like-with-like comparisons. A consensus on COI typology, procedures and dissemination is needed.

  5. Determinantes de la transmisión vertical del VIH en Cataluña (1997-2001: ¿es posible su eliminación? Determinants of HIV mother-to-child transmission in Catalonia, Spain [1997-2001]: is it possible to eliminate it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ramos

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar y describir los factores que han hecho posible la existencia de nuevas infecciones de VIH por transmisión vertical desde la implementación del tratamiento antirretroviral en la gestante seropositiva (1997-2001 en Cataluña. Métodos: Revisión sistemática de casos identificados en servicios de pediatría de todos los hospitales de Cataluña. Resultados: Se identificaron 28 casos de infección pediátrica por VIH: 9, 9, 8, 2 y 0 por año de nacimiento de 1997 a 2001, respectivamente. De 16 madres con diagnóstico de infección por VIH conocido antes o durante el embarazo, 9 realizaron profilaxis antirretroviral durante éste (5 con buena adhesión, uno desconocido y el resto con mala adhesión y 7 no realizaron profilaxis (6 por rechazo y uno no se conoce. De 12 diagnosticadas después del parto, 5 fueron embarazos no controlados y el resto poco o bien controlados. De estos últimos, en 6 no se practicó serología para VIH y en uno fue negativa en el primer trimestre. Conclusiones: La transmisión vertical del VIH en Cataluña ha disminuido en los últimos años, pero se han producido infecciones por la mala implementación en algún caso de las medidas preventivas conocidas. Debería ofrecerse la prueba diagnóstica para VIH a toda gestante no sólo en el primer trimestre de embarazo sino también al final, si se sospecha exposición al virus, y en caso de gestaciones no controladas hay que usar pruebas diagnósticas de lectura rápida en la sala de partos.Objectives: To identify and describe the factors that have led to new cases of HIV infection through mother-to-child transmission since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-seropositive pregnant women (1997-2001 in Catalonia. Methods: Systematic review of cases identified in the pediatric services of all the hospitals in Catalonia. Results: Twenty-eight cases of pediatric HIV infection were identified: 9, 9, 8, 2 and 0 per year of birth from 1997 to 2001

  6. Gangs in Catalonia. The approach from the Catalonia Government Police Troopers

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    Santiago Herrero Blanco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the presence of gangs was detected in Catalonia. The groups had their origins in bands from the American continent, with whom they maintained communication and dependency relationships. Since then, there has been steady increase both in the number of gangs and youth involved in them, as well as the level of criminal activity linked to these groups. The police corps have followed the evolution of these groups closely, although the social context is radically different and the levels of crime and violence are not comparable to the other side of the Atlantic. This article seeks to explain the Catalonia Government Troopers’ approach to this phenomenon during this time.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i2.1360

  7. "Ne kreshtshenogo, ne otpetogo..." : [luuletused] / Marina Petrova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petrova, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Sisu: "Ne kreshtshenogo, ne otpetogo..." ; "Inogo mesta vstretshi v mire net..." ; "Moi put lezhit tsherez Moskvu..." ; "Osvoboditelnaja ossen - ..." ; Pjuhtitskim aistam ; "Vesjolõje svetshi kanona..." ; Vjuga ; Materi Bozhijei Pjuhtitskoi ; "Pustõnja moja, pustõnja..." ; "Odinnadtsat let v mojo serdtse gljadjat kupola..."

  8. Chronic and integrated care in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contel, Juan Carlos; Ledesma, Albert; Blay, Carles; Mestre, Assumpció González; Cabezas, Carmen; Puigdollers, Montse; Zara, Corine; Amil, Paloma; Sarquella, Ester; Constante, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Chronicity Prevention and Care Programme set up by the Health Plan for Catalonia 2011–2015 has been an outstanding and excellent opportunity to create a new integrated care model in Catalonia. People with chronic conditions require major changes and transformation within the current health and social system. The new and gradual context of ageing, increase in the number of chronic diseases and the current fragmented system requires this transformation to be implemented. Method The Chronicity Prevention and Care Programme aims to implement actions which drive the current system towards a new scenario where organisations and professionals must work collaboratively. New tools should facilitate this new context- or work-like integrated health information systems, an integrative financing and commissioning scheme and provide a new approach to virtual care by substituting traditional face-to-face care with transfer and shared responsibilities between patients, citizens and health care professionals. Results It has been observed some impact reducing the rate of emergency admissions and readmission related to chronic conditions and better outcome related to better chronic disease control. Some initiative like the Catalan Expert Patient Program has obtained good results and an appropriate service utilization. Discussion The implementation of a Chronic Care Program show good results but it is expected that the new integrated health and social care agenda could provoke a real change and transformation. Some of the results related to better health outcomes and a decrease in avoidable hospital admissions related to chronic conditions confirm we are on the right track to make our health and social system more sustainable for the decades to come. PMID:26150763

  9. Chronic and integrated care in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Contel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Chronicity Prevention and Care Programme set up by the Health Plan for Catalonia 2011–2015 has been an outstanding and excellent opportunity to create a new integrated care model in Catalonia. People with chronic conditions require major changes and transformation within the current health and social system. The new and gradual context of ageing, increase in the number of chronic diseases and the current fragmented system requires this transformation to be implemented. Method: The Chronicity Prevention and Care Programme aims to implement actions which drive the current system towards a new scenario where organisations and professionals must work collaboratively. New tools should facilitate this new context- or work-like integrated health information systems, an integrative financing and commissioning scheme and provide a new approach to virtual care by substituting traditional face-to-face care with transfer and shared responsibilities between patients, citizens and health care professionals. Results: It has been observed some impact reducing the rate of emergency admissions and readmission related to chronic conditions and better outcome related to better chronic disease control. Some initiative like the Catalan Expert Patient Program has obtained good results and an appropriate service utilization. Discussion: The implementation of a Chronic Care Program show good results but it is expected that the new integrated health and social care agenda could provoke a real change and transformation. Some of the results related to better health outcomes and a decrease in avoidable hospital admissions related to chronic conditions confirm we are on the right track to make our health and social system more sustainable for the decades to come.

  10. Mother Tongue as a Determining Variable in Language Attitudes. The Case of Immigrant Latin American Students in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Angel; Janes, Judit

    2008-01-01

    Bearing in mind the relevance of immigration in Spain, we consider the linguistic idiosyncrasy of the autonomous community of Catalonia in the present study to describe and analyse language attitudes to Catalan and Spanish in a sample of 225 students of immigrant origin living in different parts of the region. We focus on language attitudes in so…

  11. Incremento en la prevalencia del VIH y en las conductas de riesgo asociadas en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres: 12 años de encuestas de vigilancia conductual en Cataluña Increase in the prevalence of HIV and in associated risk behaviors in men who have sex with men: 12 years of behavioral surveillance surveys in Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinta Folch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las tendencias en la prevalencia de la infección por VIH, las conductas de riesgo asociadas a su transmisión y las actitudes respecto a los tratamientos antirretrovirales en el colectivo de hombres que tienen sexo con hombres reclutados en Cataluña entre 1995 y 2006. Métodos: Estudios transversales bianuales en una muestra de conveniencia de hombres que tienen sexo con hombres reclutados en saunas, sex-shops, bares y un parque público, y por correo a los socios de la Coordinadora Gai-Lesbiana, mediante un cuestionario anónimo y autoadministrado. Se recogieron muestras de saliva para determinar la prevalencia de la infección por VIH. La significación de las tendencias lineales en las proporciones se analizó mediante el test de ji² de tendencia lineal, estratificando por edad. Resultados: La prevalencia global del VIH aumentó del 8,5% (1995 al 14,1% (2006 en los menores de 30 años (p=0,162, y del 18,2% (1995 al 21,2% (2006 en los de 30 años y más (p=0,07. El uso consistente del preservativo en la penetración anal con parejas ocasionales descendió del 72,9% al 58,7% en los menores de 30 años (pObjectives: To describe trends in HIV prevalence, in risk behaviors associated with HIV transmission, and in knowledge and attitudes related to antiretroviral therapy (ART among men who have sex with men (MSM recruited in Catalonia between 1995 and 2006. Methods: Biannual cross-sectional surveys were performed. An opportunistic sample of MSM was recruited in saunas, sex shops, bars and a cruising site in a public park. In addition, an anonymous self-administered questionnaire was sent by mail to all members of a gay and lesbian association (Coordinadora Gai-Lesbiana. Oral fluid samples were collected to determine HIV prevalence. Linear trends in proportions were assessed by the chi² test, stratified by age. Results: The overall prevalence of HIV infection increased from 8.5% (1995 to 14.1% (2006 among men aged less than

  12. Declaración de los nuevos diagnósticos de infección por el VIH en Cataluña: Implementación y resultados Reporting of newly diagnosed HIV infections in Catalonia. Barcelona. Spain: Implementation and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Romaguera

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir los resultados de la notificación de nuevos diagnósticos de infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (NDIVIH en Cataluña (2001-2003, y comparar las características de la epidemia como resultado de la utilización de este nuevo sistema de información junto con el Registro de casos de sida de Cataluña, con las halladas únicamente en el Registro de casos de sida. Métodos: Datos de las notificaciones de NDIVIH y de casos de sida entre 2001 y 2003 en Cataluña. Resultados: Entre los NDIVIH (n = 1.765, la vía de transmisión más frecuente fue las relaciones heterosexuales (46,8%, seguida de las relaciones homosexuales entre varones (26,7% y el uso de drogas por vía parenteral (19,9%. Entre los 1.210 casos de sida, la forma de transmisión más frecuente fue el uso de drogas por vía parenteral (42,2%, seguida de relaciones heterosexuales (34,5% y de las relaciones homosexuales entre varones (18,0%. La diferencia de utilizar una o 2 fuentes de información respecto a la variable vía de transmisión de la infección fue estadísticamente significativa. Conclusiones: El sistema de información basado en los datos sobre NDIVIH es viable, ha sido útil para conseguir los objetivos previstos en el sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica del VIH y proporciona información más precisa que el Registro de sida para describir los actuales patrones de transmisión del virus. La exhaustividad del nuevo sistema de información podría mejorar mediante la incorporación del diagnóstico de infección al sistema de enfermedades de declaración obligatoria.Objectives: To describe newly diagnosed HIV infections from the HIV Reporting System in Catalonia (2001-2003, and to compare the characteristics of the epidemic based on the use of the HIV Reporting System and the Catalonian AIDS Registry versus those based on the Catalonian AIDS Registry alone. Methods: Data were collected from newly diagnosed HIV infections and AIDS

  13. Political and Territorial Construction of Regional and National Identities in Spain since 1978

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlebæk, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the Statute-related parliamentary debates of the Catalan and Valencian autonomous regions and analyses the conceptions of the political communities defended by the political parties, both of Spain, Valencia and Catalonia and the relationship between them. The goal...... is to analyse the differences over time and across ideologies of the identification patterns and the preferences with regards to the territorial organisation of the Spanish state and the arguments used to legitimise these positions. Unsurprising, the investigation shows that the secessionist crisis in Catalonia...... is reflected in many ways, but it also shows indications of conflict or of highly sensitive areas with conflict potential as early as 1979. Furthermore there are significant differences in the ways the political parties act in Valencia and Catalonia, respectively. The results suggest that the decentralisation...

  14. About One Memorable Date in the History of Spain

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    Galina I. Volkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1714 the Catalans, being in the camp of the losers in the War of the Spanish Succession, finally lost any hope to gain independence. 300 years later, nationalists, who are in power now in Catalonia, want to take advantage of that memorable date by organizing a regional referendum in order to choose their own path of development. In the aggravating conflict of interests between Madrid and Barcelona both parties use not only political and propaganda measures, but also financial leverages of influence. The ethnonational issue in the multiethnic Spain is far from being solved, because for centuries the process of forming a unified Spanish state was characterized by political union of several genetically related (except Basque ethnic communities, although with significant socio-cultural and linguistic differences among them. It is not coincidental that regional identity in Spain is still extremely strong, while the interethnic consolidation of the Spanish nation can be characterized as incomplete, which can be seen, particularly, in the intensification in recent decades of radical nationalist and separatist sentiments in Catalonia, the Basque Country and some other autonomies. Among reasons which escalated confrontation between supporters and opponents of Catalonian independence, we should mention the global financial crisis that hit the regions of Spain as well as the overall national economy. The separatists have many barriers on their way, starting from the constitutional provisions proclaiming Spain a united and indivisible state which impede to carry out regional plebiscites, and ending by an ambiguous attitude towards the hypothetical independence of Catalonia by both the residents of the region and in other parts of the country. It is important to keep in mind that in today's world the possibility of breaking large multiethnic state into ethnically constituting elements is more possible than 40-50 years ago. Disintegration of Yugoslavia and

  15. Flash floods in Catalonia: a recurrent situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, M. C.; Lindbergh, S.; Llasat-Botija, M.; Rodríguez, A.; Zaragoza, A.

    2009-09-01

    A database with information about the social impact produced by all the flood events recorded in Catalonia between 1982 and 2007 has been built. Original information comes from the INUNGAMA database (1900-2000) presented by Barnolas and Llasat (2007), the PRESSGAMA database (1982-2007) (Llasat et al., in rev.) and information from different published works (Barriendos et al, 2003; Barriendos and Pomés, 1993). Social impact has been obtained systematically in basis to news press data and, occasionally, in basis to insurance data. Flood events have been classified in ordinary floods, extraordinary floods and catastrophic ones, following the proposal of Llasat et al (2005). However, having in mind the flash floods effects, some new categories concerning casualties and car damages have also been introduced. The spatial and temporal distribution of these flood events has been analysed. Results have been compared with those obtained for the period 1900-2000 (Barnolas and Llasat, 2007) and 1350-2000 (Barrera et al, 2006). In order to better estimate the social impact and vulnerability some indicators have been defined and analyzed for some specific cases and a specific region. Besides the indicators applied in the INUNCAT Plan to obtain a cartography of flood risk in Catalonia, other ones like the number of cars affected or the number of request received by the meteorological service, has been also taken into account. These indicators allow analyzing global and temporal trends as well as characterizing the events. The selected region has been the Maresme, which is a flood prone region with a great density of population and that experiences every year one or more flash floods. The annual number of floods shows a positive trend that cannot be justified by the rainfall trend. Both vulnerability and hazard components have been considered and a discussion about the flood prevention measures is presented. The third part of this work has been centred in the analysis and

  16. An updated biostratigraphy for the late Aragonian and Vallesian of the Valles Basin (Catalonia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanovas-Vilar, I.; Garces, M.; Dam, J. van; Garcia-Paredes, I.; Robles, J.M.; Alba, D.M.

    2016-07-01

    The Valles Basin (Catalonia, Spain) is a classical area for the study of the Miocene land mammal faunas and includes one of the densest and most continuous records in Eurasia. Furthermore, it is the type area for the Vallesian European land mammal age. After decades of study a huge amount of bio- and magnetostratigraphic data have been collected, allowing an unprecedented dating accuracy. Here we provide an updated local biostratigraphy for the late Aragonian, Vallesian and Turolian of the Vallès-Penedès Basin. This new biostratigraphic scheme is almost exclusively based on fossil rodents, which are the most abundant and one of the best known mammal orders in the area. Our proposal represents a significant refinement compared to previous attempts and provides a formal diagnosis and description of each zone, as well as clear definition of boundaries and a reference locality and section. The chronology of zone boundaries and main bioevents is based on detailed magnetostratigraphic data. The defined biozones allow for the correlation of the sites without associated magnetostratigraphical data. Finally, the correlation of the Vallès-Penedès local zones with other detailed local biostratigraphies, such as those of the Calatayud-Montalbán and Teruel basins (east-central Spain) is discussed. The sequence and chronology of the main bioevents is roughly comparable, although the rodent succession and the structure of the assemblage show important differences between these areas. (Author)

  17. Varicella-zoster virus immunity among health care workers in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbiztondo, L; Bayas, J M; Broner, S; Costa, J; Esteve, M; Campins, M; Borrás, E; Domínguez, A

    2014-10-14

    To determine varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunity among healthcare workers (HCWs). Cross-sectional study. HCWs attending voluntary periodic health examinations between June 2008 and December 2010. Six public hospitals and five primary care areas in Catalonia, Spain. A self-administered questionnaire was given to eligible HCWs. Variables including age, sex, professional category, type of centre, history of varicella infection, and VZV vaccination were collected. The study was carried out using a convenience sample. The prevalence of antibodies and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of the history of clinical VZV infection or vaccination were calculated. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and ORa) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to determine the variables associated with antibody prevalence. Of 705 HCWs who agreed to participate, 644 were finally included. The overall prevalence of antibodies to varicella was 94.9% (95% CI: 92.9-96.4). Of the variables studied, only age was associated with serological susceptibility to VZV. HCWs aged 25-35 years had the highest serological susceptibility (8.1%, 95% CI: 4.6-13.0). The prevalence of antibodies was 96% in subjects reporting previous VZV infection or vaccination, compared with 93% in subjects who did not report these states or did not know. The high proportion of serologically-susceptible HCWs found in this study indicates the need to develop for screening and vaccination strategies in Catalonia. Due to the high capacity of propagation of the VZV in health settings and its consequences, VZV vaccination programmes in HCWs should be reinforced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Programa piloto para la mejora de la certificación de las causas de muerte en atención primaria en Cataluña A pilot program to improve causes of death certification in primary care of Catalonia, Spain

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    Rafael Abós

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El programa piloto BEDTAR (Boletín Estadístico de Defunción en Tarragona evaluó el cambio en la calidad de la certificación de las defunciones, tras una intervención formativa a los médicos de atención primaria del Ámbito de Tarragona, en Cataluña. Diseño: Estudio evaluativo «antes-después» con intervención y sin grupo control. Emplazamiento y participantes: La población objeto de estudio estaba constituida por los médicos de la red reformada de atención primaria del AT. Material y métodos: Se iniciaba la sesión con el ejercicio «antes», que consistía en certificar 3 defunciones. Luego le seguía el seminario teórico-práctico y, finalmente, el ejercicio «después», en el que se certificaban de nuevo las defunciones del primer ejercicio. Las variables utilizadas para evaluar la calidad de la certificación fueron: certificación de las causas en secuencia lógica, posición correcta en el boletín estadístico de defunción de las causas inmediatas, intermedia y fundamental, uso del paro cardiorrespiratorio y otras entidades mal definidas, uso adecuado de las abreviaturas, letra ilegible, vocabulario y uso de toda la información disponible. Resultados: La participación final de los profesionales en el programa fue del 71% y la eficacia de cambio para la mejora global que podemos atribuir al programa fue del 59%. Conclusiones: El programa BEDTAR mejoró la calidad de la certificación y puso de manifiesto la relevancia y la aplicabilidad de los resultados obtenidos.Objective: The BEDTAR pilot program assessed changes in the quality of certification of death's causes after a training session for the primary care physicians in the Tarragona's Area of Catalonia, in the Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula. Design: Before-after evaluative study with intervention and without control group. Setting and participants: The study population was the physicians of the reformed primary health care network of the AT

  19. Health-related quality of life assessment in people with multiple sclerosis and their family caregivers. A multicenter study in Catalonia (Southern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Aymerich

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Marta Aymerich1, Imma Guillamón2, Albert J Jovell3,41Medical Sciences Department, University of Girona, Catalonia, Spain; 2Catalan Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Research, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 3Fundació Biblioteca Josep Laporte, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 4Autonomous University of Barcelona, Catalonia, SpainObjectives: To measure the health-related quality of life (HRQoL of multiple sclerosis (MS patients and their caregivers, and to assess which factors can best describe HRQoL.Methods: A cross-sectional multicenter study of nine hospitals enrolled MS patients and their caregivers who attended outpatient clinics consecutively. The instruments used were the SF-36 for patients and the SF-12 and GHQ-12 for caregivers. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to analyze the explanatory factors of HRQoL.Results: A total of 705 patients (mean age 40.4 years, median Expanded Disability Status Scale 2.5, 77.8% with relapsing-remitting MS and 551 caregivers (mean age 45.4 years participated in the study. MS patients had significantly lower HRQoL than in the general population (physical SF-36: 39.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 39.1–40.6; mental SF-36: 44.4; 95% CI: 43.5–45.3. Caregivers also presented lower HRQoL than general population, especially in its mental domain (mental SF-12: 46.4; 95% CI: 45.5–47.3. Moreover, according to GHQ-12, 27% of caregivers presented probable psychological distress. Disability and co-morbidity in patients, and co-morbidity and employment status in caregivers, were the most important explanatory factors of their HRQoL.Conclusions: Not only the HRQoL of patients with MS, but also that of their caregivers, is indeed notably affected. Caregivers’ HRQoL is close to population of chronic illness even that the patients sample has a mild clinical severity and that caregiving role is a usual task in the study context.Keywords: health-related quality of life, multiple sclerosis

  20. Trends and patterns in the use of computed tomography in children and young adults in Catalonia - results from the EPI-CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch de Basea, Magda; Cardis, Elisabeth; Salotti, Jane A.; Pearce, Mark S.; Muchart, Jordi; Riera, Luis; Barber, Ignasi; Pedraza, Salvador; Pardina, Marina; Capdevila, Antoni; Espinosa, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Although there are undeniable diagnostic benefits of CT scanning, its increasing use in paediatric radiology has become a topic of concern regarding patient radioprotection. To assess the rate of CT scanning in Catalonia, Spain, among patients younger than 21 years old at the scan time. This is a sub-study of a larger international cohort study (EPI-CT, the International pediatric CT scan study). Data were retrieved from the radiological information systems (RIS) of eight hospitals in Catalonia since the implementation of digital registration (between 1991 and 2010) until 2013. The absolute number of CT scans annually increased 4.5% between 1991 and 2013, which was less accentuated when RIS was implemented in most hospitals. Because the population attending the hospitals also increased, however, the rate of scanned patients changed little (8.3 to 9.4 per 1,000 population). The proportions of patients with more than one CT and more than three CTs showed a 1.51- and 2.7-fold increase, respectively, over the 23 years. Gradual increases in numbers of examinations and scanned patients were observed in Catalonia, potentially explained by new CT scanning indications and increases in the availability of scanners, the number of scans per patient and the size of the attended population. (orig.)

  1. Trends and patterns in the use of computed tomography in children and young adults in Catalonia - results from the EPI-CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch de Basea, Magda; Cardis, Elisabeth [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Salotti, Jane A.; Pearce, Mark S. [Royal Victoria Infirmary, Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Sir James Spence Institute of Child Health, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Muchart, Jordi [Hospital Sant Joan de Deu Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Riera, Luis [Corporacio Sanitaria Parc Tauli, Sabadell (Spain); Barber, Ignasi [Hospital Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Pedraza, Salvador [Hospital Universitari de Girona Doctor Josep Trueta, Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge (IDI), Girona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona Dr. Josep Trueta (IDIBGI), Girona (Spain); Universitat de Girona, Girona (Spain); Pardina, Marina [Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida (Spain); Capdevila, Antoni [Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Espinosa, Ana [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Although there are undeniable diagnostic benefits of CT scanning, its increasing use in paediatric radiology has become a topic of concern regarding patient radioprotection. To assess the rate of CT scanning in Catalonia, Spain, among patients younger than 21 years old at the scan time. This is a sub-study of a larger international cohort study (EPI-CT, the International pediatric CT scan study). Data were retrieved from the radiological information systems (RIS) of eight hospitals in Catalonia since the implementation of digital registration (between 1991 and 2010) until 2013. The absolute number of CT scans annually increased 4.5% between 1991 and 2013, which was less accentuated when RIS was implemented in most hospitals. Because the population attending the hospitals also increased, however, the rate of scanned patients changed little (8.3 to 9.4 per 1,000 population). The proportions of patients with more than one CT and more than three CTs showed a 1.51- and 2.7-fold increase, respectively, over the 23 years. Gradual increases in numbers of examinations and scanned patients were observed in Catalonia, potentially explained by new CT scanning indications and increases in the availability of scanners, the number of scans per patient and the size of the attended population. (orig.)

  2. Uneven chances of breastfeeding in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Río Isabel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No large scale studies on breastfeeding onset patterns have been carried out in Spain. This work aims to explore the prevalence and the risk factors for not initiating breastfeeding in hospitals from Catalonia (CAT and Valencia (V, two regions accounting approximately for 30% of the annual births in Spain. Methods The prevalence of not initiating breastfeeding was calculated by maternal/neonatal characteristics and type of hospital, and logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted risks of not breastfeeding in each region. Results Prevalence of breastfeeding initiation was 81.7% and 82.5% in Catalonia and Valencia, respectively. We identified conspicuous regional differences in the adjusted-risk of not breastfeeding, especially for multiple [CAT = 3.12 (95% CI: 2.93, 3.31, V = 2.44 (95% CI: 2.23, 2.67] and preterm and low birth weight deliveries [very preterm and very low birth weight: CAT = 7.61 (95% CI: 6.50, 8.92, V = 4.03 (95% CI: 3.13, 5.19; moderate preterm and moderate low birth weight: CAT = 4.28 (95% CI: 4.01, 4.57, V = 2.55 (95% CI:2.34, 2.79]. Conclusions Our results suggest the existence of regional variations in breastfeeding initiation in Spain. Taking into account the known short and long-term benefits of breastfeeding it is recommended that further research should explore these differences in order to prevent potential inequities in neonatal, child and adult health.

  3. Importancia de los problemas reumáticos en la población de Cataluña: prevalencia y repercusión en la salud percibida, restricción de actividades y utilización de recursos sanitarios Importance of chronic musculoskeletal problems in the population of Catalonia (Spain: prevalence and effect on self-perceived health, activity restriction and use of health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Pueyo

    2012-02-01

    population of Catalonia (Spain and their effect on self-perceived health, activity restriction and use of health services. Methods: A population-based survey of 15,926 adults was performed. Multistage stratified sampling was performed. The variables gathered were sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported chronic health problems, self-perceived health, activity restriction and use of health services. Musculoskeletal problems were grouped into four categories: osteoarthritis-arthritis or rheumatism (OA, chronic dorsal or lumbar pain (LBP, chronic cervical pain (UBP, and osteoporosis. Results: Chronic health problems were reported by 77.4% of the adult population. The most frequent health problem was LBP, followed by UBP and OA. After adjustment by age was performed, female sex increased the risk of reporting OA, LBP, UBP and osteoporosis (OR=2.6, 1.5, 2.3, and 5.3, respectively. The prevalence increased with greater age and with lower socioeconomic status. After adjustment was performed by age, sex, social class and obesity, self-perceived health was worse in people with these problems (42.7% vs 11%. The four categories were the main causes of activity restriction in the last year (OR 2.70 and the last 15 days (OR=2.32 and were associated with a higher use of health services. Conclusiones: Los problemas reumáticos son los principales problemas de salud crónicos declarados por la población adulta. La prevalencia es mayor es las mujeres, aumenta con la edad y en las clases desfavorecidas. Hay una asociación significativa entre declarar problemas musculoesqueléticos y salud autopercibida mala o regular, y mayor restricción de actividades y uso de servicios sanitarios.

  4. [Tuberculosis control in the Central Health Region of Catalonia during the period 1986-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret Cuadras, P; Pina Gutiérrez, J M; López Sanmartín, J L; Sala Farré, M R

    2003-10-01

    To assess tuberculosis control in the Central Health Region, Catalonia, Spain, from the implementation of the area's Tuberculosis Control Program in 1986 until the year 2000. To study the epidemiological profile of tuberculosis and the outcome of the following control measures in sputum smear-positive patients: final outcome of treatment and monitoring, and the percentage of patients for whom a contact investigation (CI) was carried out. Tuberculosis control is considered effective if the sum of noncompliant patients, plus the cases in which treatment failed, plus the patients transferred out remains below 10% of the cohort of patients studied, and if a CI has been conducted in at least 80% of this cohort. The number of cases reported was 6326, of which 7% were retreatments. A total of 5865 new cases was detected. Of these, 5652 (96%) were patients born in Spain. The number of cases reported annually peaked in 1990 (474) and then declined continuously until 2000, when it was 54% lower (220). Foreign-born patients numbered 213 (4%), and 95% of them came from countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis. In the cohort of patients studied between 1997 and 2000, the sum of noncompliant patients, plus cases in which treatment failed, plus the patients transferred out came to 11%. Since 1994, a CI has been carried out for over 80% of patients, and this figure reached 92% in 2000. We consider that a substantial degree of tuberculosis control has been achieved given the decline in tuberculosis morbidity among people born in Spain, the fact that the percentage of noncompliant patients, treatment failures and transfers was only slightly over 10%, and that a CI has been conducted for over 80% of patients since 1994 (92% in 2000).

  5. Mortality in Catalonia in the context of the third, fourth and future phases of the epidemiological transition theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1960-2000, male and female life expectancy increased by 8,2 and 10,5 years, respectively, in Catalonia, one of Spain's Autonomous Regions, to one of the highest in the world. Initially, most gains were due to lower infant mortality, but as cardiovascular diseases declined this later shifted to advanced ages. Between the mid-1980s and early 1990s life expectancy improvements stagnated as the mortality risk from traffic accidents and HIV/AIDS in young adults increased. Both the age-delay in old-age mortality and the simultaneous influence of behaviour and life style reflect distinct aspects of the fourth stage of the epidemiological transition. This analysis quantifies the age and cause of death contributions to changes and sex-differences in life expectancy in Catalonia. It subsequently compares the most recent life table for women with the Duchene-Wunsch limited life table to estimate the potential gain in life expectancy when all deaths would be ageing-related and on which ages these improvements would fall.

  6. Focus: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, Spain's nuclear program has had its share of successes and challenges. The country currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity and accounting for more than a third of Spain's electricity generation. Yet four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed due to a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at one reactor in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, Spain opted to continue the moratorium and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. The current nuclear facilities will continue to operate, and the government will continue to pursue advanced reactor research, and expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe

  7. Evaluación de la gestión de los casos de incapacidad temporal por contingencia común de más de 15 días en Cataluña Evaluation of the management of nonwork-related sick leave lasting more than 15 days in Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando G. Benavides

    2010-06-01

    care physician in Catalonia, were reported to the Catalonian Institute of Medical Evaluations, and were followed to term. Of the total, 156,676 cases were managed by the NISS. To account for repeat episodes (approximately 25% of the total, the Wang-Chang estimator was used to calculate the median duration and percentiles; comparisons were made using log-logistic regression with shared gamma frailty models, with calculation of time ratios (TR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results: The median duration of sick leave was 43 days for cases managed by the NISS and 39 days for those managed by the insurance company. This difference was statistically significant both for men employed under contract (TR=0.87; 95% CI: 0.85-0.88 and for those who were self-employed (TR=0.78; 95% CI: 0.75-0.80 as well as for women under contract (TR=0.85; 95% CI: 0.84-0.87 and self-employed women (TR=0.84; 95% CI: 0.81-0.88. These differences persisted after adjustment was performed for age and health region. Conclusions: For sick leave lasting more than 15 days, these results confirm that cases managed by an insurance company ended earlier than for those managed by the NISS, both for contract and self-employed workers. Further research is needed to explore the reasons for these differences.

  8. Language Policy and Identity: The Case of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Henry; Miller, Kate

    1996-01-01

    Examines the dynamics of language in Catalonia and the development of Catalan educational policy. Discusses the suppression of the Catalan language under Generalissimo Francisco Franco and its reappearance after his death in 1975. Summarizes key arguments concerning the relationships among identity, nationality, education, and language. (MJP)

  9. The estimation of probable maximum precipitation: the case of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, M Carmen; Rodríguez, Raül; Nieto, Raquel; Redaño, Angel

    2008-12-01

    A brief overview of the different techniques used to estimate the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) is presented. As a particular case, the 1-day PMP over Catalonia has been calculated and mapped with a high spatial resolution. For this purpose, the annual maximum daily rainfall series from 145 pluviometric stations of the Instituto Nacional de Meteorología (Spanish Weather Service) in Catalonia have been analyzed. In order to obtain values of PMP, an enveloping frequency factor curve based on the actual rainfall data of stations in the region has been developed. This enveloping curve has been used to estimate 1-day PMP values of all the 145 stations. Applying the Cressman method, the spatial analysis of these values has been achieved. Monthly precipitation climatological data, obtained from the application of Geographic Information Systems techniques, have been used as the initial field for the analysis. The 1-day PMP at 1 km(2) spatial resolution over Catalonia has been objectively determined, varying from 200 to 550 mm. Structures with wavelength longer than approximately 35 km can be identified and, despite their general concordance, the obtained 1-day PMP spatial distribution shows remarkable differences compared to the annual mean precipitation arrangement over Catalonia.

  10. The Strong Wind event of 24th January 2009 in Catalonia: a social impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, J.; Aran, M.; Barberia, L.; Llasat, M. C.

    2009-09-01

    Although strong winds are frequent in Catalonia, one of the events with the strongest impact in recent years was on January 24th 2009. An explosive cyclogenesis process took place in the Atlantic: pressure fell 30 hPa in less than 24 hours. The strong wind storm pounded the northern of Spain and the south of France with some fatalities and important economic losses in these regions. Several automatic weather stations recorded wind gusts higher than 100 km/h in Catalonia. Emergency services received more than 20.000 calls in 24 hours and there were 497 interventions in only 12 hours. As a consequence of fallen and uprooted trees railway and road infrastructures got damages and more than 30.000 customers had no electricity during 24 hours. Unfortunately there were a total of 6 fatalities, two of them because of fallen trees and the other ones when a sports centre collapsed over a group of children. In Spain, insurance policies cover damages due to strong winds when fixed thresholds are overcome and, according to the Royal Decree 300/2004 of 20th February, extraordinary risk are assumed by the Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros. Subsequently, Public Weather Services (PWS) had an increased on the number of requests received from people affected by this event and from insurance companies, for the corresponding indemnity or not. As an example, during the first month after the event, in the Servei Meteorològic de Catalunya (SMC) more than 600 requests were received only related to these damages (as an average PWS of SMC received a total of 400 requests per month). Following the research started by the Social Impact Research Group of MEDEX project, a good vulnerability indicator of a meteorological risk can be the number of requests reported. This study uses the information received in the PWS of the SMC during the six months after the event, according the criteria and methodology established in Gayà et al (2008). The objective is to compare the vulnerability with the

  11. Geosciences Information for Teachers (GIFT) in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlenghi, Angelo; Cacho, Isabel; Calvo, Eva; Demol, Ben; Sureda, Catalina; Artigas, Carme; Vilaplana, Miquel; Porbellini, Danilo; Rubio, Eduard

    2010-05-01

    CATAGIFT is the acronym of the project supported by the Catalan Government (trough the AGAUR agency) to support the activities of the EGU Committee on Education in Catalonia. The objective of this project is two-fold: 1) To establish a coordinated action to support the participation of three Catalan science teachers of primary and secondary schools in the GIFT Symposium, held each year during the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (EGU). 2) To produce a video documentary each year on hot topics in geosciences. The documentary is produced in Catalan, Spanish and English and is distributed to the Catalan science teachers attending the annual meeting organized by the Institute of Education Sciences and the Faculty of Geology of the University together with the CosmoCaixa Museum of Barcelona, to the international teachers attending the EGU GIFT Workshop, and to other schools in the Spanish territory. In the present-day context of science dissemination through documentaries and television programs there is a dominance of products of high technical quality and very high costs sold and broadcasted world wide. The wide spread of such products tends to standardize scientific information, not only in its content, but also in the format used for communicating science to the general public. In the field of geosciences in particular, there is a scarcity of products that combine high scientific quality and accessible costs to illustrate aspects of the natural life of our planet Earth through the results of the work of individual researchers and / or research groups. The scientific documentaries produced by CATAGIFT pursue the objective to support primary and secondary school teachers to critically interpret scientific information coming from the different media (television, newspapers, magazines, audiovisual products), in a way that they can transmit to their students. CataGIFT has created a series of documentaries called MARENOSTRUM TERRANOSTRA designed and

  12. Latin American students and language learning in Catalonia: what does the linguistic interdependence hypothesis show us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    The massive arrival in Spain of students of immigrant origin has visibly altered the traditional configuration of schools, where ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversity is becoming increasingly manifest. This situation is worth being mentioned insofar as it affects all the different autonomous communities in the country, even more clearly Catalonia, where the educational system is organized under the parameters of bilingual education. One of the theoretical constructs supporting this educational model is the Linguistic Interdependence Hypothesis, developed by Jim Cummins at the beginning of the 1980s. According to the author, whenever the instruction in a given language (Lx) takes place under certain conditions, competence acquired in this language can be transferred onto another (Ly). Bearing this theoretical construct in mind, our study focuses on a sample of 237 Spanish-speaking subjects (123 native and 114 immigrant students) who completed a series of parallel tests evaluating their skills in Catalan and Spanish. Drawing on the data analyzed we can conclude that the Hypothesis accounts for the results in both native and immigrant students with the same L1.

  13. Medicine, religion and ayahuasca in Catalonia. Considering ayahuasca networks from a medical anthropology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apud, Ismael; Romaní, Oriol

    2017-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychoactive beverage from the Amazon, traditionally used by indigenous and mestizo populations in the region. Widespread international use of the beverage began in the 1990s in both secular contexts and religious/spiritual networks. This article offers an analysis of these networks as health care systems in general and for the case of Spain and specifically Catalonia, describing the emergence and characteristics of their groups, and the therapeutic itineraries of some participants. The medical anthropology perspective we take enables us to reflect on the relationship between medicine and religion, and problematize the tensions between medicalization and medical pluralism. Closely linked to the process of medicalization, we also analyze prohibitionist drug policies and their tensions and conflicts with the use of ayahuasca in ritual and 'health care' contexts. The paper ends with a reflection on the problem of ayahuasca as 'medicine', since the connection between religion and medicine is a very difficult one to separate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Iodine nutritional status of women in their first trimester of pregnancy in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Maria Teresa; Francés, Lidia; Vila, Lluis; Manresa, Josep María; Falguera, Gemma; Prieto, Gemma; Casamitjana, Roser; Toran, Pere

    2017-07-26

    Sufficient iodine intake is needed during pregnancy to ensure proper fetal development. The iodine levels of women in their first trimester of pregnancy in Catalonia are currently unknown. This data would help to determine whether our public health services should establish recommendations or interventions in this line. The aim of this study was to investigate the iodine nutritional status, prevalence of urinary iodine pregnancy in our setting. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected during 2008-2009 from women in their first trimester at the primary care centers of the province of Barcelona (Spain). Pregnant women included in the study completed a questionnaire on eating habits and underwent urinary iodine concentration (UIC) assessment. Nine hundred forty five women completed the dietary questionnaire and urinary iodine testing. Median UIC was 172 μg/L, with 407 participants (43.1%) showing levels 2 glasses, OR = 0.593 95% CI (0.37-0.95); iodized salt consumption, OR = 0.678 95% CI (0.51-0. 90); and use of iodine supplementation, OR = 0.410 95% CI (0.31-0.54), protected against the risk of UIC nutritional status according to the criteria established by the WHO and ICCIDD. The risk of urinary iodine <150 μg/L decreased with simultaneous consumption of milk and iodized salt, similar to the decrease seen with iodine supplementation.

  15. Training on radiation protection in university area. Experience of Technical University of Catalonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, X.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the different agents that are involved in training on Radiation Protection in Spain. The main circumstances which can introduce new challenges in radiation protection practices are reviewed, namely the planned modifications in the regulation framework, the mobility of European workers, the consequences of deregulation of the electric system, the moratorium of the Spanish nuclear programme and the changes in Spanish studies resulting from implementation of the European Higher Education Area. In relation to the contributions that university groups can develop in this field, the author makes some suggestions according to his own experience in the Technical University of Catalonia. It is emphasized that this contribution must be characterized by its quality, credibility and independence. It should include activities such as development of R and D studies, the implementation of accredited laboratories, organization of post-graduate courses, preparation of teaching materials and technical publications, and collaboration with public institutions, scientific and professional societies and other organizations. Finally, the other new activity that is stressed is related to the efforts required to improve information and communication to the stake holders and a growing social interest. (Author)

  16. Optimizing prescribed fire allocation for managing fire risk in central Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J; Ager, Alan A; Salis, Michele; Day, Michelle A; Vega-Garcia, Cristina

    2018-04-15

    We used spatial optimization to allocate and prioritize prescribed fire treatments in the fire-prone Bages County, central Catalonia (northeastern Spain). The goal of this study was to identify suitable strategic locations on forest lands for fuel treatments in order to: 1) disrupt major fire movements, 2) reduce ember emissions, and 3) reduce the likelihood of large fires burning into residential communities. We first modeled fire spread, hazard and exposure metrics under historical extreme fire weather conditions, including node influence grid for surface fire pathways, crown fraction burned and fire transmission to residential structures. Then, we performed an optimization analysis on individual planning areas to identify production possibility frontiers for addressing fire exposure and explore alternative prescribed fire treatment configurations. The results revealed strong trade-offs among different fire exposure metrics, showed treatment mosaics that optimize the allocation of prescribed fire, and identified specific opportunities to achieve multiple objectives. Our methods can contribute to improving the efficiency of prescribed fire treatment investments and wildfire management programs aimed at creating fire resilient ecosystems, facilitating safe and efficient fire suppression, and safeguarding rural communities from catastrophic wildfires. The analysis framework can be used to optimally allocate prescribed fire in other fire-prone areas within the Mediterranean region and elsewhere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Wind Farm Siting and Protected Areas in Catalonia: Planning Alternatives or Reproducing 'One-Dimensional Thinking'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine N. Farrell

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is an emblem of sustainability with the potential to promote a qualitative alternative to current energy systems and nuclear options for CO2 reduction. However, wind farm siting often conflicts with aspirations to conserve traditional landscapes and wildlife habitats. In this paper we adopt a Critical Theory perspective, informed by Herbert Marcuse`s work, to study the discourse concerning wind energy siting in Catalonia, Spain. We give particular attention to how tensions between potentially conflicting sustainability objectives are addressed and by whom. Based on a review of this siting discourse and the application of Marcuse’s theory, we find that the Catalan wind energy siting discourse is both influenced by and reproducing what Marcuse referred to as the ‘one-dimensional thinking’ of technology as ideology: erasing the possibility of critical dialectical thought by subsuming the question of “what should be” under the question of “what is”. This has implications both for how these conflicts are investigated and for the sustainability of decisions taken. We conclude that closer attention to the role of ‘one-dimensional thinking’ in wind energy siting discourses could improve not only the understanding of their logic but might also have the potential to help make them more democratic.

  18. Photoionization of Ne8+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindzola, M. S.; Abdel-Naby, Sh. A.; Robicheaux, F.; Colgan, J.

    2014-05-01

    Single and double photoionization cross sections for Ne8+ are calculated using a non-perturbative fully relativistic time-dependent close-coupling method. A Bessel function expansion is used to include both dipole and quadrupole effects in the radiation field interaction and the repulsive interaction between electrons includes both the Coulomb and Gaunt interactions. The fully correlated ground state of Ne8+ is obtained by solving a time-independent inhomogeneous set of close-coupled equations. Propagation of the time-dependent close-coupled equations yields single and double photoionization cross sections for Ne8+ at energies easily accessible at advanced free electron laser facilities. This work was supported in part by grants from NSF and US DoE. Computational work was carried out at NERSC in Oakland, California, NICS in Knoxville, Tennessee, and OLCF in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  19. [Smoking among nursing students in Catalonia: knowledge, attitudes and practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras Tébar, A; García Sanchón, C; Hernández López, M C; Ballestín, N; Nebot, M

    1997-01-01

    Determine the prevalence and characteristics of tobaccoism, as well as some attitudes and their knowledge about tobaccoism in nursing university students in Catalonia. A descriptive study with transversal section has been done. A self-filling anonymous questionnaire was designed following the guidelines of the European Regional Office of the W.H.O. We selected a sample of conglomerates of classrooms at random which was stratified according to levels in all the university schools in Catalonia. The field work was performed during the first term of the academic year 1994-1995 handing the questionnaires individually to the students and collecting them once filled. In the data analysis we used the ji squared test to Pearson with the Yates' correction and the lineal tendency test of Mantel-Haenszel. 904 students answered the questionnaire. The global prevalence of smokers is 38.7% (IC 95%: 35.8-41.6). There were no significant differences when considering levels or sex. The prevalence of tobaccoism in students over 24 years of age is 13% higher (p Catalonia has been observed for the nursing professionals in the year 2000.

  20. How Do Catalan Students Narrate the History of Catalonia When They Finish Primary Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Edda; González-Monfort, Neus; Fernández, Antoni Santisteban; Blanch, Joan Pagès; Freixa, Montserrat Oller

    2015-01-01

    In this article we analyze how a group of Catalan students (aged 11-13, N = 245) narrate the history of Catalonia and we compare their narratives with the official Catalan narrative. From an interpretative approach, we collect data by requiring the students to write down what they remember about the history of Catalonia. The research is conducted…

  1. Primary health care utilization by immigrants as compared to the native population: a multilevel analysis of a large clinical database in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Miguel-Angel; Pastor, Esther; Pujol, Joan; Del Val, José Luis; Cordomí, Silvia; Hermosilla, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    Immigration is a relevant public health issue and there is a great deal of controversy surrounding its impact on health services utilization. To determine differences between immigrants and non-immigrants in the utilization of primary health care services in Catalonia, Spain. Population based, cross-sectional, multicentre study. We used the information from 16 primary health care centres in an area near Barcelona, Spain. We conducted a multilevel analysis for the year 2008 to compare primary health care services utilization between all immigrants aged 15 or more and a sample of non-immigrants, paired by age and sex. Overall, immigrants living in Spain used health services more than non-immigrants (Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR) 1.16 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.15-1.16) and (IRR 1, 26, 95% CI: 1.25-1.28) for consultations with GPs and referrals to specialized care, respectively. People coming from the Maghreb and the rest of Africa requested the most consultations involving a GP and nurses (IRR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.33-1.36 and IRR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.03-1.44, respectively). They were more frequently referred to specialized care (IRR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.41-1.46) when compared to Spaniards. Immigrants from Asia had the lowest numbers of consultations with a GP and referrals (IRR 0.76, 95% CI: 0.66-0.88 and IRR 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61-0.95, respectively. On average, immigrants living in Catalonia used the health services more than non-immigrants. Immigrants from the Maghreb and other African countries showed the highest and those from Asia the lowest, number of consultations and referrals to specialized care.

  2. The impact of climate change on natural risks in the context of sustainable development: the case of Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Queralt, Arnau

    2013-04-01

    The evidence of the impact of the anthropogenic activity over the climate change, as well as the consequent impacts in temperature, snow cover and sea level has been widely demonstrated (IPCC, 2007). However, the impact of climate change on natural risks is still not clear, and the degree of uncertainty is high. The main problem lays in the complexity of the factors involved in the production of natural disasters, mainly those related with the vulnerability (in the more holistic sense of the expression), that is continuously being modified. In terms of the impact of climate change on hazards, the analysis is still complicated, and this difficulty increases when meteorological hazards that combine meteorological factors with other ones (human and/or natural) are considered (i.e. floods, wet landslides, forest fires, etc.). The Advisory Council for the Sustainable Development of Catalonia (CADS) is an advisory body which gives strategic advice to the Catalan Government in the field of sustainable development. This contribution shows the main results of a recent report elaborated by the CADS that analyses the present and potential evolution of natural risks in Catalonia (NE of Iberian Peninsula) and the influence of climate change in it. The analysis is made from the point of view of sustainable development, having in mind the international approach (IPCC, 2007, 2011; UNISDR, 2009; Molin, 2009; Brauch, 2010) and with special incidence in potential problems related with security and civil protection. Conclusions identify as main problems those that will affect health (as a consequence of the increase of heat waves and temperature extremes) and water scarcity.

  3. Comparative analysis of the incidence of bladder cancer in the communities of Andalusia, Catalonia and Madrid in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, J M; Miñana, B; Palou-Redorta, J; Medina, R A; de la Rosa-Kehrmann, F; Lozano-Palacio, F; Ribal-Caparrós, M J; Hernández-Fernández, C; Castiñeiras-Fernández, J J; Requena, M J; Moreno-Sierra, J; Carballido-Rodríguez, J; Baena-González, V

    2015-09-01

    To determine the incidence of bladder cancer (BC) in the autonomous communities that include the largest number of cases in the national hospital BC registry (Andalusia, Catalonia and Madrid) and report the clinical, pathological and diagnostic differences and similarities of BC in these regions. An observational epidemiological study was performed in 2011 in 12 public hospitals with reference population areas according to the National Health System (Spain). Demographic and clinical variables were collected from new cases and relapses, with histopathologic confirmation of BC. The raw incidence rate was calculated using the number of diagnosed cases in all the participating centers compared with the aggregate total population assigned to each center. The raw rates by age and sex were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics (2011) by weighting the assigned population with the distribution by age and sex. The 3 autonomous communities recorded 51% of the 4285 cases included in the national registration, with relapses corresponding to 42.8% of these cases. The raw annual incidence rate for new episodes was 22.6 (95% CI: 20.7; 24.6) in Andalusia, 23.5 (95% CI: 20.9; 26.0) in Catalonia and 22.0 (95% CI: 19.9; 24.1) in Madrid. Except for the larger proportion of smokers and lower tumor grade of lesions in Andalusia, the 3 autonomous communities studied are similar in terms of clinical characteristics, comorbidities, patient symptoms and diagnostic processes for BC. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Vaccination coverage against pertussis in pregnant women of Catalonia in the first year of implementation of the immunisation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cano, María Isabel; Espada-Trespalacios, Xavier; Reyes-Lacalle, Azahara; Manresa Domínguez, Josep Maria; Armadans-Gil, Lluís; Campins-Martí, Magda; Falguera-Puig, Gemma; Toran Monserrat, Pere

    2017-11-01

    The re-emergence of pertussis and the severity of its complications in infants younger than 3 months, were determining factors for starting a vaccination program for pregnant women in the third trimester of gestation in Catalonia in February 2014. This was the first autonomous community to introduce it in Spain. The aim of the study was to estimate the coverage of the program in its first year of implementation. A retrospective analysis was performed on the data from the Primary Care Centre computerised medical records of pregnant women attending Sexual and Reproductive Health Care centres of the Metropolitan Nord area of the province of Barcelona, part of the Catalan Institute of Health. The overall coverage was estimated, as well as the sociodemographic variables of Tdap vaccination of women who had registered a delivery of a live birth between August 2014 and August 2015. A total of 6,697 deliveries of live births were recorded, and 1,713 pregnant women were vaccinated, which represented an overall coverage of 25.6% (95% CI; 24.1-26.1). Vaccination coverage was higher in pregnant women under 18 years and Spanish women (P=.018 and P=.036, respectively). The estimation of vaccine coverage against pertussis in pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy, after the first year of implementation of the program in a health area of Catalonia was lower than the objective set. Strategies need to be designed in order to improve program coverage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Interval Cancers in a Population-Based Screening Program for Colorectal Cancer in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze interval cancers among participants in a screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC during four screening rounds. Methods. The study population consisted of participants of a fecal occult blood test-based screening program from February 2000 to September 2010, with a 30-month follow-up (n = 30,480. We used hospital administration data to identify CRC. An interval cancer was defined as an invasive cancer diagnosed within 30 months of a negative screening result and before the next recommended examination. Gender, age, stage, and site distribution of interval cancers were compared with those in the screen-detected group. Results. Within the study period, 97 tumors were screen-detected and 74 tumors were diagnosed after a negative screening. In addition, 17 CRC (18.3% were found after an inconclusive result and 2 cases were diagnosed within the surveillance interval (2.1%. There was an increase of interval cancers over the four rounds (from 32.4% to 46.0%. When compared with screen-detected cancers, interval cancers were found predominantly in the rectum (OR: 3.66; 95% CI: 1.51–8.88 and at more advanced stages (P=0.025. Conclusion. There are large numbers of cancer that are not detected through fecal occult blood test-based screening. The low sensitivity should be emphasized to ensure that individuals with symptoms are not falsely reassured.

  6. Synoptic analysis of heat waves in the Barcelona city (Catalonia, Spain) during 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Jéssica; Peña, Juan Carlos; Miró, Josep Ramon; Aran, Montserrat

    2017-04-01

    The impact of extremely warm episodes on health has been analysed by a large number of studies conducted in different countries and cities, showing that heat waves events (HWE) can cause an abrupt increase in mortality. A HWE was defined as a 7-day sequence following a key-day labelled by the 95th percentile of Barcelona daily mortality (see Peña et al., 2015). The aim of this study is to identify synoptic patterns associated to HWE in Barcelona over the 21st century and evaluate the impact and possible mitigations. To achieve it, a multivariate analysis (MVA) integrating different atmospheric levels (sea level pressure, temperature at 850 hPa and geopotential at 500 hPa) was undertaken. The observed data used for this study was the 20th Century Reanalysis. The Max Planck Institute Earth system model was used to study two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) during the 21st century. The model was calibrated given the variability in the climate scenario, using the Quantile-Quantile mapping transformation (Q-Q). The MVA applied to the observed period (1990-2015) distinguish three main synoptic patterns: two dynamic configurations produced by southern fluxes related to an Atlantic low, associated with HWE recorded in southern Europe, and a third pattern identified by a stagnation situation related to persistent anticyclone periods. These patterns were also detected in the control simulated period (1961-2005) after the Q-Q calibration, preserving, therefore, the climatic variability: the number of HWE during the warm period (1990-2005) is twice more than during the cold period (1976-1989) due to an intensification of the warm masses. In the RCP 4.5 scenario (2006-2100 period) a positive and significant trend is shown in synoptic patterns which provoke HWE in Barcelona, especially during August; in the RCP 8.5 scenario there is no significant trend, but the intensification of the warm masses is higher.

  7. Analysis of di-calcic phosphate from the Erkimia plant in Flix, Catalonia (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    As an investigation showed that solid wastes released in the Ebra River between 1978 and 1988 from the Erkimia factory displayed high natural radionuclides contents, this document reports analysis performed on the di-calcic phosphate produced by this factory (from Moroccan phosphorite). It indicates and comments the results obtained by gamma spectrometry for some radionuclides belonging to the U 238 and U 235 chains (uranium 238, thorium 230 and 234, radium 226, lead 210, Uranium 235). It comments the associated potential radiological risks, and gives some recommendations to limit these risks

  8. Serological survey of hepatitis B immunity in healthcare workers in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, A; Urbiztondo, L; Bayas, J M; Borrás, E; Broner, S; Campins, M; Costa, J; Esteve, M

    2017-02-01

    Healthcare workers (HCW) are exposed to preventable infectious diseases, notably hepatitis B (HB). The aim of this study was to determine the immunity of HCW against hepatitis B. We made a seroprevalence study using a self-administered survey and obtained blood samples. Antibodies against the HB surface antigen (anti-HBs) and against the HB core antigen (anti-HBc) were studied. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The adjusted OR were calculated using logistic regression. Of the 644 HCW who participated (29.7% physicians, 38.7% nurses, 13.4% other clinical workers and 18.3% non-clinical workers), 46.4% were primary care workers and 53.6% hospital workers. The overall prevalence of anti-HBs was 64.4%. HCW aged 44 y with respect to those aged 25-34 y. 75.6% of HCW stated they were vaccinated, but only 39.3% had a vaccination card. In HCW who stated they were unvaccinated, 10.8% had a vaccinated serological pattern (anti-HBc-negative and anti-HBs -positive). Written, updated vaccination records are essential to reliably determine the vaccination status.

  9. [Living arrangements of elderly adults in Catalonia (Spain). The impact of health deterioration on residential independence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zueras, Pilar; Ajenjo Cosp, Marc

    2010-01-01

    To identify the effect of health deterioration on residential dependency. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the microdata from the Catalan Survey of Health (2006), which features a sample of 3566 individuals aged 65 and over. A set of socio-demographic (sex, age, marital status, educational level and municipality size), as well as health variables (self-rated health, BADL and IADL dependency) associated with residential dependency are analysed by bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Multivariate analysis shows that age, marital status and health are the variables that most affect living arrangements and cohabitation. Among men, being aged 80 or over (OR>4), being unmarried or widowed (OR=6.4) and having one or more IADL dependencies (OR>2.8) increases the risk of residential dependency. Whereas for women being aged 80 and over (OR>4), being unmarried (OR=6.8) or widowed (OR=11.8) and having three or more IADL dependencies (OR=2.7) is associated with residential dependency. Municipality size and the level of education (in the latter case only for men) are also significant determining factors (P<0.05). Although health deterioration, and especially IADL dependency, affects residential dependency, its impact is lower than that of socio-demographic variables, such as marital status or age. What is more, health has a greater influence on men than women, who live independently until they experience great difficulty in coping with their activities of daily living. On the other hand, men seem to fall more easily into residential dependency once they experience any IADL dependency. Copyright © 2009 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. A Comprehensive Approach to Managing School Safety: Case Studies in Catalonia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Vicario, Anna; Gairín Sallán, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Background: Schools should be safe spaces for students, teaching staff and non-teaching staff. For the concept of "safety" to be meaningful, it must be interpreted broadly to encompass well-being in its widest sense. A common challenge for schools and educational authorities is, therefore, to manage school safety appropriately not only…

  11. Changes in the evolution of meningococcal disease, 2001-2008, Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ana I; Dominguez, Angela; Oviedo, Manuel; Minguell, Sofia; Jansa, Josep M; Codina, Gemma; Vazquez, Julio A

    2009-05-26

    Reported cases of meningococcal disease between 1997 and 2008 were analyzed to determine the evolution after the introduction of a conjugated vaccine. In case-fatality-rate increased only in serogroup B (3% and 7.4%, p=0.026). Serosubtype P1.15 was the most frequent in serogroup B (31%), mainly associated with serotype 4 (80%), and in serogroup C subtype P1.5 (36%), with serosubtype 2a (86%). Exhaustive surveillance of circulating meningococcal strains is essential.

  12. Managing for Recreational Experience Opportunities: The Case of Hikers in Protected Areas in Catalonia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farías Torbidoni, Estela Inés

    2011-03-01

    Planning and management for recreational activities in protected areas involves an understanding of many complex factors. Segmentation of recreation demand and of the main physical or sporting activities can contribute to the design of more efficient management strategies, which may help to maintain or significantly enhance satisfaction with the recreation experience, and this in turn could improve the interest in and appreciation of the natural environment. The current study examined the motivations of hikers in three small Natura 2000 protected areas. It establishes a typology or categorization as a contribution to better management based on a survey conducted through on-site personal interviews with a representative sample of 569 hikers. Through an analysis of the principal intervening components by means of cluster analysis, we identified three groups of hikers based on three motivational dimensions: (1) nature-minded hikers, (2) sporting hikers and (3) general-purpose hikers. The most striking results were the significant differences among group variables related to visit behaviour (frequency and duration of visits and number of people per group), previous knowledge (protection status of the areas) and recreational frequentation (trail categories and protected areas visited). A positive correlation between the degree of sympathy for nature and the degree of satisfaction with the recreational experience (including positive evaluation of the public facilities, signposting and services offered) was also observed. The results are discussed in terms of their applicability and implications in hiking management in protected natural areas such as those of Natura 2000.

  13. Participation in protected areas: A social network case study in Catalonia, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvet-Mir, L.; Maestre Andrés, S.; Molina, J.L.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Local participation of stakeholders in governance of protected areas is considered to be important to natural resource management and biodiversity conservation. Social network analysis (SNA) is a useful tool for analysis because it allows the understanding of stakeholders’ relationships,

  14. Application of a very detailed soil survey method in viticultural zoning in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Miquel Ubalde

    2009-06-01

    Significance and impact of study: This study showed how very detailed soil maps, which can be difficult to interpret and put into practice, can be valorised as viticultural zoning maps by means of a simple methodology.

  15. Home Environment and Parental Involvement in Homework during Adolescence in Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Toni; Escardíbul, Josep-Oriol

    2018-01-01

    It is well documented that parental behavior is a strong determinant of a child's educational achievement and general well-being. Thus, it seems relevant to analyze the determinants of parental involvement in the education of their children. While most studies analyze the effect of family characteristics (such as parents' education, ethnicity, or…

  16. [Distribution of the duration of nonoccupational sick leave by medical diagnosis (Catalonia, Spain, 2006-2008)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delclós, Jordi; Gimeno, David; Torá, Isabel; Martínez, José Miguel; Manzanera, Rafael; Jardí, Josefina; Alberti, Constança; G Benavides, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    We present a simple and practical tool that allows the usual distribution of the duration of non-occupational sick leave to be determined by medical diagnosis. A total of 2,646,352 episodes of medically certified sick leave, registered by the Catalan Institute of Medical Evaluations for the period 2006-2008, were followed to closure and were entered into a spreadsheet. Given its asymmetric distribution, the median duration of sick leave was 9 days. Musculoskeletal disorders were the most frequent diagnostic group (22.5%), while neoplasms had the longest median duration (56 days). The most common specific diagnoses were diarrhea-gastroenteritis (8.2%; median: 3 days) and acute rhinopharyngitis (5.2%; median: 4 days). The distribution of the duration of sick leave in a population varies by diagnosis and is asymmetric, with most episodes being much shorter than the mean duration. This finding is important for better clinical and administrative management of sick leave episodes. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduction of pharmaceutical expenditure by a drug appropriateness intervention in polymedicated elderly subjects in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campins, Lluís; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Palomera, Elisabet; Bolibar, Ignasi; Martínez, Miquel Àngel; Gallo, Pedro

    2017-11-18

    To assess the monetary savings resulting from a pharmacist intervention on the appropriateness of prescribed drugs in community-dwelling polymedicated (≥8 drugs) elderly people (≥70 years). An evaluation of pharmaceutical expenditure reduction was performed within a randomised, multicentre clinical trial. The study intervention consisted of a pharmacist evaluation of all drugs prescribed to each patient using the "Good Palliative-Geriatric Practice" algorithm and the "Screening Tool of Older Persons Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment" criteria (STOPP/START). The control group followed the routine standard of care. A time horizon of one year was considered and cost elements included human resources and drug expenditure. 490 patients (245 in each group) were analysed. Both groups experienced a decrease in drug expenditure 12 months after the study started, but this decrease was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (-14.3% vs.-7.7%; p=0.041). Total annual drug expenditure decreased 233.75 €/patient (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 169.83-297.67) in the intervention group and 169.40 €/patient (95%CI: 103.37-235.43) in the control group over a one-year period, indicating that 64.30 € would be the drug expenditure savings per patient a year attributable to the study intervention. The estimated return per Euro invested in the programme would be 2.38 € per patient a year on average. The study intervention is a cost-effective alternative to standard care that could generate a positive return of investment. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Sovereignty, Robustness, and Short-Term Energy Security Levels. The Catalonia Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-Casals, Martí, E-mail: rosas@mmt.upc.edu [Sustainability Measurement and Modelling Lab, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya – Barcelona Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Marzo, Mariano [Geomodels Institute, Department of Stratigraphy, Paleontology and Marine Geosciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Salas-Prat, Pep [Sustainability Measurement and Modelling Lab, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya – Barcelona Tech, Barcelona (Spain); SmartGrid.cat, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-05-12

    Energy-related impacts and conflicts have been used to account for the emergence, maintenance, and collapse of complex societies. On the other hand in the last years, sustainability science has incorporated different frames of reference in order to facilitate the vision of sustainable futures. Most of them suggest that the search for satisfiers of human needs should be rooted on the local (a) construction of organic articulations of people with nature and technology and (b) generation of growing levels of social, economic, and energy self-reliance. This new regional kind of social agreement implies a redefinition of cultural norms and institutions, which at the same time leads toward increased levels of sovereignty for the social group engaged in this process. Sovereignty must not only be understood here in its political sense (as traditionally found in the literature) but also in its technological and energy acceptations. In this paper, we address this last constituent in terms of energy security levels and hierarchy in energy infrastructures between Spain and Catalonia, the latter being a Spanish autonomous community known for its sovereignty aspirations. We show a remarkable difference in energy security levels between both regions, which clearly hinders Catalonia’s capacity to currently achieve a higher level of self-reliance in energetic terms. We suggest that this result is a consequence of the imperfect hierarchy that characterizes energy infrastructures at the spatial scale, and that it can be generalized to all regions where infrastructural systems have been historically assessed and developed under a nationwide planning scheme.

  19. Sovereignty, Robustness, and Short-Term Energy Security Levels. The Catalonia Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas-Casals, Martí; Marzo, Mariano; Salas-Prat, Pep

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related impacts and conflicts have been used to account for the emergence, maintenance, and collapse of complex societies. On the other hand in the last years, sustainability science has incorporated different frames of reference in order to facilitate the vision of sustainable futures. Most of them suggest that the search for satisfiers of human needs should be rooted on the local (a) construction of organic articulations of people with nature and technology and (b) generation of growing levels of social, economic, and energy self-reliance. This new regional kind of social agreement implies a redefinition of cultural norms and institutions, which at the same time leads toward increased levels of sovereignty for the social group engaged in this process. Sovereignty must not only be understood here in its political sense (as traditionally found in the literature) but also in its technological and energy acceptations. In this paper, we address this last constituent in terms of energy security levels and hierarchy in energy infrastructures between Spain and Catalonia, the latter being a Spanish autonomous community known for its sovereignty aspirations. We show a remarkable difference in energy security levels between both regions, which clearly hinders Catalonia’s capacity to currently achieve a higher level of self-reliance in energetic terms. We suggest that this result is a consequence of the imperfect hierarchy that characterizes energy infrastructures at the spatial scale, and that it can be generalized to all regions where infrastructural systems have been historically assessed and developed under a nationwide planning scheme.

  20. Sovereignty, robustness and short-term energy security levels. The Catalonia case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marti eRosas-Casals

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy related impacts and conflicts have been used to account for the emergence, maintenance and collapse of complex societies. On the other hand in the last years, sustainability science has incorporated different frames of reference in order to facilitate the vision of sustainable futures. Most of them suggest that the search for satisfiers of human needs should be rooted on the local (a construction of organic articulations of people with nature and technology and (b generation of growing levels of social, economic and energy self-reliance. This new regional kind of social agreement implies a redefinition of cultural norms and institutions, which at the same time leads toward increased levels of sovereignty for the social group engaged in this process. Sovereignty must not only be understood here in its political sense (as traditionally found in the literature but also in its technological and energy acceptations. In this paper we address this last constituent in terms of energy security levels and hierarchy in energy infrastructures between Spain and Catalonia, the latter being a Spanish autonomous community known for its sovereignty aspirations. We show a remarkable difference in energy security levels between both regions which clearly hinders Catalonia’s capacity to currently achieve a higher level of self-reliance in energetic terms. We suggest that this result is a consequence of the imperfect hierarchy that characterize energy infrastructures at the spatial scale, and that it can be generalized to all regions where infrastructural systems have been historically assessed and developed under a nationwide planning scheme.

  1. Analysis of warm convective rain events in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballart, D.; Figuerola, F.; Aran, M.; Rigo, T.

    2009-09-01

    Between the end of September and November, events with high amounts of rainfall are quite common in Catalonia. The high sea surface temperature of the Mediterranean Sea near to the Catalan Coast is one of the most important factors that help to the development of this type of storms. Some of these events have particular characteristics: elevated rain rate during short time periods, not very deep convection and low lightning activity. Consequently, the use of remote sensing tools for the surveillance is quite useless or limited. With reference to the high rain efficiency, this is caused by internal mechanisms of the clouds, and also by the air mass where the precipitation structure is developed. As aforementioned, the contribution of the sea to the air mass is very relevant, not only by the increase of the big condensation nuclei, but also by high temperature of the low layers of the atmosphere, where are allowed clouds with 5 or 6 km of particles in liquid phase. In fact, the freezing level into these clouds can be detected by -15ºC. Due to these characteristics, this type of rainy structures can produce high quantities of rainfall in a relatively brief period of time, and, in the case to be quasi-stationary, precipitation values at surface could be very important. From the point of view of remote sensing tools, the cloud nature implies that the different tools and methodologies commonly used for the analysis of heavy rain events are not useful. This is caused by the following features: lightning are rarely observed, the top temperatures of clouds are not cold enough to be enhanced in the satellite imagery, and, finally, reflectivity radar values are lower than other heavy rain cases. The third point to take into account is the vulnerability of the affected areas. An elevated percentage of the Catalan population lives in the coastal region. In the central coast of Catalonia, the urban areas are surrounded by a not very high mountain range with small basins and

  2. Attitudes toward business creation: A comparative study between Catalonia and Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Marinés Aponte; David Urbano; Carlos A. Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    In this research the attitudes towards entrepreneurship of two samples of university students from Catalonia and Puerto Rico are analysed. Perceptions of desirability, feasibility and the intention to start a new firm are studied and compared. Institutional Economic Theory is used as a theoretical framework of the research due to its adequacy to the analysis of the conditioning factors to entrepreneurship. Not relevant differences in the attitudes to entrepreneurship between Catalonia and Pue...

  3. Attitudes toward business creation: A comparative study between Catalonia and Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinés Aponte

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research the attitudes towards entrepreneurship of two samples of university students from Catalonia and Puerto Rico are analysed. Perceptions of desirability, feasibility and the intention to start a new firm are studied and compared. Institutional Economic Theory is used as a theoretical framework of the research due to its adequacy to the analysis of the conditioning factors to entrepreneurship. Not relevant differences in the attitudes to entrepreneurship between Catalonia and Puerto Rico are found in the research.

  4. Social media and tourism: case study in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Francesc Fondevila-Gascón

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the social media use by business tourists coming to Barcelona (Catalonia. The methodology used is a quantitative method that converts the object of study into numerical data, with emphasis on the measurable objective. We devise a quantitative questionnaire. The multiple choices are an instrument for obtaining data and it is used to gather the information needed: facts, opinions, trends. Data collection was carried out for 4 months in 2015 with a final sample of 494 participants. We conclude that Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Foursquare are the social media more used by young people and gender does not influence their use. However, the degree of use of Google+, Linkedin, TripAdvisor and Booking have no significant relationship, taking into account such variables as age and gender.

  5. A database to manage flood risk in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, S.; Toldrà, R.; Verdaguer, I.

    2009-09-01

    We call priority action spots those local sites where heavy rain, increased river flow, sea storms and other flooding phenomena can cause human casualties or severe damage to property. Some examples are campsites, car parks, roads, chemical factories… In order to keep to a minimum the risk of these spots, both a prevention programme and an emergency response programme are required. The flood emergency plan of Catalonia (INUNCAT) prepared in 2005 included already a listing of priority action spots compiled by the Catalan Water Agency (ACA), which was elaborated taking into account past experience, hydraulic studies and information available by several knowledgeable sources. However, since land use evolves with time this listing of priority action spots has become outdated and incomplete. A new database is being built. Not only does this new database update and expand the previous listing, but adds to each entry information regarding prevention measures and emergency response: which spots are the most hazardous, under which weather conditions problems arise, which ones should have their access closed as soon as these conditions are forecast or actually given, which ones should be evacuated, who is in charge of the preventive actions or emergency response and so on. Carrying out this programme has to be done with the help and collaboration of all the organizations involved, foremost with the local authorities in the areas at risk. In order to achieve this goal a suitable geographical information system is necessary which can be easily used by all actors involved in this project. The best option has turned out to be the Spatial Data Infrastructure of Catalonia (IDEC), a platform to share spatial data on the Internet involving the Generalitat de Catalunya, Localret (a consortium of local authorities that promotes information technology) and other institutions.

  6. [Quality of life in Latin American immigrant caregivers in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover, Andreu; Taltavull, Joana Maria; Gastaldo, Denise; Luengo, Raquel; Izquierdo, María Dolores; Juando-Prats, Clara; Sáenz de Ormijana, Amaia; Robledo, Juana

    2015-01-01

    To describe perceived quality of life in Latin American caregivers working in Spain and how it varies in relation to certain variables shared by this group. We used the SF-36 to measure perceived quality of life in 517 women residing in five Spanish regions: the Balearic Islands, Catalonia, the Basque Country, the Canary Islands, and Madrid. Several variables related to the socio-demographic profile and migration process were studied using Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models. The participants scored very low on the dimensions of physical and emotional roles. The factors associated with lower quality of life scores within the group were working as a live-in caregiver, lack of contract, multitasking, irregular status, and younger age. The vulnerability of these women can be explained by poor working conditions and other factors related to the migratory process. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Radioactive waste management in Spain: co-ordination and projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The sixth workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by ENRESA, the Spanish agency responsible for the management of radioactive waste and the dismantling of nuclear power plants, and the Council of Nuclear Safety (CSN), with the support of the Association of Spanish Municipalities in Areas Surrounding Nuclear Power Plants (AMAC). The workshop took place at L'Hospitalet de l'Infant, Catalonia, Spain, on 21-23 November 2005. At this workshop, Spanish stakeholders and delegates from 14 countries discussed current co-ordination of radioactive waste management decision making in Spain. Findings were shared from Cowam-Spain, a co-operative research project on the involvement of local stakeholders, the relationship between national and local levels of decision making, and the long-term sustainability of decisions regarding the siting of a centralized interim storage facility for high-level waste. These proceedings include the workshop presentations and discussions, as well as the rapporteurs' reflections on what was learned about policy making and participative decision making. (author)

  8. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  9. Language Use in the Context of Double Minority: The Case of Japanese-Catalan/Spanish Families in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Makiko

    2017-01-01

    This study explores language use in Japanese-Catalan/Spanish families in Catalonia with a special attention to Japanese. In a community such as Catalonia wherein two languages of different status are in conflict within its own territory, the ability of families to maintain a socially "weaker" language and transmit yet another language…

  10. [Primary health care professionals attitudes towards influenza immunzation in Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Nuria; Godoy, Pere; Soldevila, Núria; Toledo, Diana; Rius, Cristina; Domínguez, Angela

    2016-03-01

    Health personnel are at risk of acquiring influenza infection and of nosocomial influenza transmission. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the knowledge and attitudes of primary care health personnel in Catalonia as regards influenza vaccine and the factors related to the uptake of this vaccine. A cross-sectional study using a web survey. Primary care health personnel of the Catalan Health Institute. A total of 1212 primary health care personnel were included in the survey. Those who had medical reasons for being or not being vaccinated were excluded. A total of 423 replies were valid, with a 46.6% overall vaccination coverage. Vaccination rate was higher among 45 to 54 year-olds, paediatricians, those vaccinated in preceding seasons, and those living with chronic patients. There was an association between having received the vaccine and considering vaccination the best preventive action, advocating vaccination to at risk population, concern about acquiring influenza, and considering health personnel vaccination important. Actions taken to increase vaccination rate among health personnel should aim at correcting lack of knowledge and misconceptions about influenza vaccination of health personnel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. [Social and health resources in Catalonia. Current situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullich-Marín, Ingrid; Sánchez-Ferrín, Pau; Cabanes-Duran, Concepció; Salvà-Casanovas, Antoni

    The network of social and health care has advanced since its inception. Furthermore, news services have been created and some resources have been adapted within the framework of respective health plans. This article presents the current situation of the different social and health resources in Catalonia, as well as the main changes that have occurred in recent years, more specifically in the period of the Health Plan 2011-2015. This period is characterised by an adaptation of the social and health network within the context of chronic care, for which the development of intermediate care resources has become the most relevant aspect. There is also a need to create a single long-term care sector in which the health care quality is guaranteed. Moreover, in this period, integral and cross-care level is promoted in the health system through a greater coordination between all different levels of care. The social and health network, due to its trajectory and expertise, plays a key role in the quality of care for people with social and medical needs. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. [The White Paper of the health professions of Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomés, Xavier; Oriol, Albert; de Oleza, Rafael; Ania, Olinda; Avila, Alicia; Branda, Luis; Brugulat, Pilar; Gual, Arcadi; Creus, Mariona; Zurro, Amando Martin

    2003-01-01

    The White Paper of the Health Professions of Catalonia (WPHPC) is a strategic document for the development of the health professions. It deals with the main components of the manpower development (education, management and planning) in relation to the health services development required to attain the objectives defined in the Catalan Health Plan. The WPHPC fosters the coherence between social needs and professional competencies required to respond to them, as well as to the quantitative aspects of service needs under adequate standards of quality, effectiveness and efficiency. The WPHPC has followed a methodological process with maximum stakeholder participation and transparency. Citizens, professionals and health organizations have contributed significantly. The conclusions and recommendations of the WPHPC are organized around four axis: the citizenship, the professionals, the health care organizations and the health care model. Key elements are: the requirement of a new social contract between the different stakeholders, the values of professionalism, the need for a new credentialism of professional competencies, innovation in the education process, innovation of governance and management for organization of knowledge, the redistribution of work inside teams requires deregulation and reregulation of the professions, the need for actualized data on workforce and job positions and the permanent requirement of sociological research.

  13. The 1448 earthquake in Catalonia. Some effects and local reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Salicrù i Lluch

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The May 1448 earthquake. the last destructive one that took place in Catalonia in the Middle Ages, was known chiefly from several chronistic and narrative medieval sources. To these sources I add new previously unknown data proceeding Eroin documentary archival sources in Barcelona, and other data that up to now have been wrongly considered as a consequence of the weak quake recorded in September 1450. They allow us to locate the epicentre in the Vall&s Oriental, around Llinars, to deny the existence of two almost simultaneous earthquakes, and to extend the range of the earthquake damage. to pinpoint them better and to suppose that the effects of the 1448 earthquake were more important than we had previously thought. All this information leads to several reflections on compulsory critical analysis of historical seismic documentary sources in order for them to be useful to historical seismicity. Finally. by the opposition of the three lands of documentary sources that refer to the damage caused by the earthquake in the township of Mataro. I show how natural catastrophes could be manipulated, and the skill of a society in exploiting them to deal with an adverse situation.

  14. NE2561 and NE2611A - are they different?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntley, R.; Boas, J.; Kotler, L.; Webb, D.; Stucki, G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Evidence is mounting that the nominally identical ionization chamber types NE2561 and NE2611A have significantly different energy dependences. This is revealed by comparing the radiation quality correction factors k q . The factor k q is the ratio of the absorbed dose to water calibration factors (for a particular type of ionization chamber) at radiation quality Q to that for 60 Co. k q values for NE2561 and NE2611A chambers have been compared for various kV and MV X-ray beams at several standards laboratories. Measurements at ARPANSA (Australia) on six NE2561 and five NE2611A show a consistent difference in k q of 1-2% for 16 and 19 MV X-rays. Work at OFMET (Switzerland) has shown similar differences at 6 and 18 MV. No such differences are seen at NPL (UK) - this inconsistency is currently ascribed to differences in the radiation beams. Consistent differences of up to 3% between these two chamber types have been observed at both ARPANSA and NRC (Canada) at the BIPM medium energy X-ray intercomparison qualities between 50 kV and 250 kV. We conclude that the two types of chamber should not be regarded as identical. ARPANSA and several other laboratories in Europe and North America will shortly participate in a Euromet project to be coordinated by OFMET, to investigate high energy X-ray beam quality specifiers. This project will provide additional data that may lead to a better understanding of this anomaly. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  15. Physics at DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzini, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this talk, I will give a brief description of the φ factory DAΦNE at Frascati, explaining why a φ factory is an interesting place to do new physics, and then discuss the physics that can be done at DAΦNE. I will concentrate on CP violation as it can be studied at DAΦNE. This is, after all, the raison d'etre of DAΦNE. I start with a brief general introduction to CP violation in the KK system, and the distinction between mass-mixing CP violation (ε) and intrinsic CP violation (ε'/ε). After presenting a summary of ε'/ε measurements up to now, and briefly discussing the theory of ε'/ε (the so-called 'penguins'), I will cover the particularities of measuring ε'/ε at a φ factory, such as tagging and interferometry. Finally, I will say a few words about searching for CP violation in modes where it has never before been seen. I will end my talk with a list of other physics topics at DAΦNE, and rare decay branching ratio limits that can be achieved there, just to give a flavor of what else can be done. (author) 8 figs., 2 tabs., 22 refs

  16. ETIČNE DILEME PODJETNIKA

    OpenAIRE

    Cvek, Tadej

    2010-01-01

    Etika in morala se skozi čas nenehno spreminjata in nekatere stvari, ki so danes nedovoljene, so bile še pred kratkim dovoljene in obratno. Razlog za to so predvsem družbene in kulturne spremembe, ki vodijo do drugačnih pogledov na stvari in okolico. Skladno z razvojem etike in morale, se razvijajo tudi nove etične teorije, ki še ne dosegajo starejših teorij a vendarle pridobivajo na pomembnosti in kdo ve, mogoče jih bodo kdaj v prihodnosti tudi presegle. Za MNP je pomembno, da razlikuje...

  17. Updated distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Spain: new findings in the mainland Spanish Levante, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Elbal, Pedro María; Estrella, Sarah Delacour; Arrondo, Ignacio Ruiz; Collantes, Francisco; Iniesta, Juan Antonio Delgado; Morales-Bueno, José; Sánchez-López, Pedro Francisco; Amela, Carmen; Sierra-Moros, María José; Molina, Ricardo; Lucientes, Javier

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) was observed for the first time in Catalonia, northeastern Spain. A decade later, it has spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean region of the country and the Balearic Islands. Framed within a national surveillance project, we present the results of monitoring in 2013 in the autonomous communities of the mainland Levante. The current study reveals a remarkable increase in the spread of the invasive mosquito in relation to results from 2012; the species was present and well-established in 48 municipalities, most of which were along the Mediterranean coastline from the Valencian Community to the Region of Murcia. PMID:25317706

  18. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  19. Energy Made in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz del Arbol, M.

    2011-01-01

    Spain is the first country in Europe and the second worldwide in installed thermoelectric solar power, the second place in Europe and fourth worldwide in wind energy. Moreover, Spain is the second country in photovoltaic energy so in Europe as in the World.

  20. Population-based analysis of patients with COPD in Catalonia: a cohort study with implications for clinical management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Emili; Tényi, Ákos; Cano, Isaac; Monterde, David; Cleries, Montserrat; Garcia-Altes, Anna; Hernandez, Carme; Escarrabill, Joan; Roca, Josep

    2018-01-01

    Background Clinical management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) shows potential for improvement provided that patients’ heterogeneities are better understood. The study addresses the impact of comorbidities and its role in health risk assessment. Objective To explore the potential of health registry information to enhance clinical risk assessment and stratification. Design Fixed cohort study including all registered patients with COPD in Catalonia (Spain) (7.5 million citizens) at 31 December 2014 with 1-year (2015) follow-up. Methods A total of 264 830 patients with COPD diagnosis, based on the International Classification of Diseases (Ninth Revision) coding, were assessed. Performance of multiple logistic regression models for the six main dependent variables of the study: mortality, hospitalisations (patients with one or more admissions; all cases and COPD-related), multiple hospitalisations (patients with at least two admissions; all causes and COPD-related) and users with high healthcare costs. Neither clinical nor forced spirometry data were available. Results Multimorbidity, assessed with the adjusted morbidity grouper, was the covariate with the highest impact in the predictive models, which in turn showed high performance measured by the C-statistics: (1) mortality (0.83), (2 and 3) hospitalisations (all causes: 0.77; COPD-related: 0.81), (4 and 5) multiple hospitalisations (all causes: 0.80; COPD-related: 0.87) and (6) users with high healthcare costs (0.76). Fifteen per cent of individuals with highest healthcare costs to year ratio represented 59% of the overall costs of patients with COPD. Conclusions The results stress the impact of assessing multimorbidity with the adjusted morbidity grouper on considered health indicators, which has implications for enhanced COPD staging and clinical management. Trial registration number NCT02956395. PMID:29511004

  1. Structural social capital and local-level forest governance: Do they inter-relate? A mushroom permit case in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorriz-Mifsud, Elena; Secco, Laura; Da Re, Riccardo; Pisani, Elena; Bonet, José Antonio

    2017-03-01

    In diffuse forest uses, like non-timber forest products' harvesting, the behavioural alignment of pickers is crucial for avoiding a "tragedy of the commons". Moreover, the introduction of policy tools such as a harvest permit system may help in keeping the activity under control. Besides the official enforcement, pickers' engagement may also derive from the perceived legitimate decision of forest managers and the community pressure to behave according to the shared values. Framed within the social capital theory, this paper examines three types of relations of rural communities in a protected area in Catalonia (Spain) where a system of mushroom picking permits was recently introduced. Through social network analysis, we explore structural changes in relations within the policy network across the policy conception, design and implementation phases. We then test whether social links of the pickers' community relate to influential members of the policy network. Lastly, we assess whether pickers' bonding and bridging structures affect the rate of permit uptake. Our results show that the high degree of acceptance could be explained by an adequate consideration of pickers' preferences within the decision-making group: local pickers show proximity to members of the policy network with medium-high influence during the three policy phases. The policy network also evolves, with some members emerging as key actors during certain phases. Significant differences are found in pickers' relations among and across the involved municipalities following an urban-rural gradient. A preliminary relation is found between social structures and differential pickers' engagement. These results illustrate a case of positive social capital backing policy design and, probably, also implementation. This calls for a meticulous design of forest policy networks with respect to communities of affected forest users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Health services utilization by the immigrant population in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique; Sanz, Belén; Pascual, Cruz; Lostao, Lourdes; Sánchez, Elisabeth; Díaz Olalla, José Manuel

    2009-12-01

    To compare health services utilization between the immigrant and indigenous populations in Spain. We used information provided by the following four health surveys carried out around 2005: Catalonia 2005; city of Madrid 2005, Canary Islands 2004 and the Autonomous Community of Valencia 2005. The health services studied were general practice, specialist services, emergency services, hospitalization, and two preventive services: pap smear test and mammography. In general, most health services were less frequently used by the immigrant population than by the Spanish population. The health services showing the least differences between the two populations were general practice and hospitalization, while the greatest differences were found in the use of specialist and preventive services. The most heterogeneous results were found in general practice and hospitalization, since some immigrant groups showed a relatively high frequency of use in some geographical areas and a relatively low frequency in other areas. The results of the present study reproduce those found in other studies carried out in countries with similar social and economic characteristics to Spain. Like previous results, the present results are difficult to explain. Future research should aim to use other study designs and to test hypotheses not put forward by the scientific community to date.

  3. "Living to the Rhythm of the City": Internationalisation of Universities and Tourism Discourse in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Balsà, Lídia; Cots, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the tourism discourse on the self-representation strategies that a university in Catalonia adopts towards international students, and the extent to which these strategies connect with the stance of international students towards their study-abroad experience. The data were ethnographically collected during the…

  4. Changes in the Linguistic Confidence of Primary and Secondary Students in Catalonia: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretxa, Vanessa; Comajoan, Llorenç; Ubalde, Josep; Vila, F. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in first (L1) and second language (L2) acquisition has provided evidence that linguistic confidence is a key construct that can explain linguistic behaviour. In this paper, we apply previous research in the socio-contextual model of L2 learning to data from Catalonia. More specifically, the paper investigates linguistic…

  5. Needs and Supports of People with Intellectual Disability and Their Families in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaseca, Rosa; Gràcia, Marta; Beltran, Francesc S.; Dalmau, Mariona; Alomar, Elisabeth; Adam-Alcocer, Ana Luisa; Simó-Pinatella, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: The study assesses the support needs of individuals with intellectual disability and their families in Catalonia. The present authors examine family quality of life (FQoL), identify the individual services required and assess families' perceptions of the extent to which their family member with intellectual disability and they…

  6. Catalonia's energy metabolism: Using the MuSIASEM approach at different scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Martin, Jesus; Canellas-Bolta, Silvia; Giampietro, Mario; Gamboa, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies the so-called Multi-Scale Integrated Analysis of Societal and Ecosystem Metabolism (MuSIASEM), based on Georgescu-Roegen's fund-flow model, to the Spanish region of Catalonia. It arrives to the conclusion that within the context of the end of cheap oil, the current development model of the Catalan economy, based on the growth of low-productivity sectors such as services and construction, must be changed. The change is needed not only because of the increasing scarcity of affordable energy and the increasing environmental impact of present development, but also because of the aging population. Moreover, the situation experienced by Catalonia is similar to that of other European countries and many other developed countries. This implies that we can expect a wave of major structural changes in the economy of developed countries worldwide. To make things more challenging, according to current trends, the energy intensity and exosomatic energy metabolism of Catalonia will keep increasing in the near future. To avoid a reduction in the standard of living of Catalans due to a reduction in the available energy it is important that the Government of Catalonia implement major adjustments and conservation efforts in both the household and paid-work sectors.

  7. Crossing the Line in Quebec and Catalonia: The Consequences of the Linguistically "Mixed" Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Paul E.

    2000-01-01

    The linguistically mixed marriage stands at he crossroads of important factors in the future of French in North American and Catalan in Europe: reversing language shift. While Quebec and Catalonia appear strikingly similar, strong evidence indicates that demographic, linguistic, socioeconomic, and even lifestyle factors may make linguistic exogamy…

  8. Traineeship as Vocational Training in Catalonia: Between the Law, the Actors and the Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria i Serrano, Josep F.

    2006-01-01

    In-company training undertaken by vocational students can be a very good opportunity to acquire skills; but it is also a very delicate process. The author, who examined the traineeships of students in formal vocational training in Catalonia as part of his doctoral thesis in economics, understands skills acquisition as an interactive process…

  9. Language-in-Education Policies, Immigration and Social Cohesion in Catalonia: The Case of Vic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Catrin Wyn

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the language-in-education policies implemented to integrate international immigrants into the Catalan language community in Vic, Catalonia. It focuses on the Catalan Government's "Languages and Social Cohesion Plan" (LIC) plan, Vic city council's local education plans, which were adopted as part of LIC plan, and the…

  10. Operational warnings issued by the SMC in the 8th March snow event in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaclara, E.; Segalà, S.; Andrés, A.; Aran, M.

    2010-09-01

    The snowfall event of 8th March 2010 was one of the most important of the last years in Catalonia, with high societal impact in the communication and in the power distribution. Since 2002, after an agreement between Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) and Civil Protection authority, the SMC is the agency responsible to carry out meteorological warnings in Catalonia. These warnings are issued depending on the thresholds which are expected to be exceeded (three different probability degrees are defined), and are characterized by a high spatial and temporal resolution. In the snow event of 8th March, forecasting team of the SMC did the first meteorological warning three days before, on 5th March. During the two following days broadcasted four different warnings, taking into account the high probability of exceeding 2 cm of snow above 200 meters, 15 above 400 m and 30 above 800 m. Furthermore, the SMC disseminated also two special press releases with the aim to extend the forecast to the public. In the afternoon of Sunday, 7th March, the snow precipitation started in some areas of Catalonia. From this moment, the SMC followed the surveillance of situation with the remote sensing tools and the Meteorological Observers Network data. This network is formed by a hundred of spotters with mobile phones able to transmit observations in real time to our web site. This surveillance and the conceptual model of snow events in Catalonia allowed the forecasters to improve the estimation of the snow level forecasted by mesoscale meteorological models. In this event, the snow level obtained from these models was higher than the real one. In spite of the accuracy of the forecast, the impact was very important in Catalonia. On one hand, it was due to the exceptionality of the event, with 3 cm of snow in Barcelona in the afternoon of a working day. On the other hand, the large amount of wet snow precipitation (until 100 mm), and the wind, contributed to an important snow

  11. The 11 May 2011 earthquake at Lorca (SE Spain) viewed in a structural-tectonic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, R.L.M.; Meijninger, B.M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Lorca earthquake of 11 May 2011 in the Betic Cordillera of SE Spain occurred almost exactly on the Alhama de Murcia fault, a marked fault that forms part of a NE-SW trending belt of faults and thrusts. The fault belt is reminiscent of a strike-slip corridor, but recent structural studies have

  12. Models of political public relations: Testing the situation in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Jordi Xifra Triadú

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea that political communication strategies are an application of marketing strategies to political field is today commonly shared by specialists. For them public relations is viewed like a set of techniques that serves political parties and other actors of the political scene, concentrated on media relations. This instrumental perspective is not in keeping with structural dimension of public relations in political activity and communication of his actors: political parties, pressure groups and political leaders. In this point of view, during managing periods of governance or opposition and during electoral campaigns, the most applied communication form by political parties is structured in accordance with the major public relations models: press agent model, public information model, two way asymmetrical model, and two way symmetrical model. This research prove hypothesis in Catalonia according the results of a quantitative survey focused on inside professionals who provide services for the seven main political parties in this Spanish Autonomous Community.RESUMEN:La idea de que las estrategias de comunicación política constituyen una aplicación de las estrategias del marketing al ámbito político es hoy comúnmente compartida por los analistas. Para éstos, las relaciones públicas son percibidas como un conjunto de técnicas al servicio de los partidos políticos y de otros actores de la escena política concentradas en las relaciones con la prensa. Esta perspectiva instrumental no concuerda con la dimensión estructural de las relaciones públicas en la actividad política y comunicativa de sus actores: partidos políticos, grupos de presión y líderes. Desde este punto de vista, tanto en los periodos de gestión u oposición como en los electorales, la forma comunicativa más aplicada por los partidos políticos se estructura de acuerdo con los modelos tradicionales de las relaciones públicas: agente de prensa, información p

  13. Mapping urban geology of the city of Girona, Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Miquel; Torrades, Pau; Pi, Roser; Monleon, Ona

    2016-04-01

    A detailed and systematic geological characterization of the urban area of Girona has been conducted under the project '1:5000 scale Urban geological map of Catalonia' of the Catalan Geological Survey (Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya). The results of this characterization are organized into: i) a geological information system that includes all the information acquired; ii) a stratigraphic model focused on identification, characterization and correlation of the geological materials and structures present in the area and; iii) a detailed geological map that represents a synthesis of all the collected information. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment pre-existing cartographic documentation (geological and topographical), core data from compiled boreholes, descriptions of geological outcrops within the urban network and neighbouring areas, physico-chemical characterisation of representative samples of geological materials, detailed geological mapping of Quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits and, 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces. The stratigraphic model is structured in a system of geological units that from a chronostratigrafic point of view are structured in Palaeozoic, Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary and Anthropocene. The description of the geological units is guided by a systematic procedure. It includes the main lithological and structural features of the units that constitute the geological substratum and represents the conceptual base of the 1:5000 urban geological map of the Girona metropolitan area, which is organized into 6 map sheets. These map sheets are composed by a principal map, geological cross sections and, several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also represents the main artificial deposits, features related to geohistorical processes, contours of outcrop areas, information obtained in stations, borehole data, and contour

  14. Epidemiology of two large measles virus outbreaks in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Núria; Anton, Andres; Barrabeig, Irene; Lafuente, Sara; Parron, Ignasi; Arias, César; Camps, Neus; Costa, Josep; Martínez, Ana; Torra, Roser; Godoy, Pere; Minguell, Sofia; Ferrús, Glòria; Cabezas, Carmen; Domínguez, Ángela; Elimination Program Surveillance Network of Spain, the Measles

    2013-01-01

    Measles cases in the European Region have been increasing in the last decade; this illustrates the challenge of what we are now encountering in the form of pediatric preventable diseases. In Catalonia, autochthonous measles was declared eliminated in the year 2000 as the result of high measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) coverage for first and second dose (15 mo and 4 y) since the mid-1990s. From then on, sporadic imported cases and small outbreaks appeared, until in 2006–2007 a large measles outbreak affecting mostly unvaccinated toddlers hit the Barcelona Health Region. Consequently, in January 2008, first dose administration of MMR was lowered from 15 to 12 mo of age. A new honeymoon period went by until the end of 2010, when several importations of cases triggered new sustained transmission of different wild measles virus genotypes, but this time striking young adults. The aim of this study is to show the effect of a change in MMR vaccination schedule policy, and the difference in age incidence and hospitalization rates of affected individuals between both outbreaks. Epidemiologic data were obtained by case interviews and review of medical records. Samples for virological confirmation and genotyping of cases were collected as established in the Measles Elimination plan guidelines. Incidence rate (IR), rate ratio (RR) and their 95% CI and hospitalization rate (HR) by age group were determined. Statistic z was used for comparing proportions. Total number of confirmed cases was 305 in the 2010 outbreak and 381 in the 2006–2007 outbreak; mean age 20 y (SD 14.8 y; 3 mo to 51 y) vs. 15 mo (SD 13.1 y; 1 mo to 50 y). Highest proportion of cases was set in ≥ 25 y (47%) vs. 24.2% in 2006 (p < 0.001). Differences in IR for ≤ 15 mo (49/100,000 vs. 278.2/100,000; RR: 3,9; 95%CI 2,9–5.4) and in overall HR 29.8% vs. 15.7% were all statistically significant (p < 0.001). The change of the month of age for the administration of the first MMR dose proved successful to

  15. Spain: NATO or Neutrality,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    having Spain as a member. Spain is a traditional country in many ways. Religion is still a strongly-felt part of national life and atheism is looked at... Siglo XXI, 30 April 1979. Pedro J. Ramirez, "Diez Razones a favor de la OTAN," ABC, 17 September 1978, p. 7. 8 Ibid. Il 167 - SPAIN - WHAT’S IN IT...Cordoba and Granada. All three of the country’s major religions lived in relative harmony primarily in Moorish kingdoms, where the arts, commerce, and the

  16. Production of the Ne Auger electrons by Ne/sup +/ bombardment of Mg and Al surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrante, J; Pepper, S V [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, Ohio (USA). Lewis Research Center

    1976-07-01

    The authors have bombarded Mg and Al surfaces with Ne/sup +/ ions and in this letter present evidence for the production of an inner shell vacancy in the Ne by the asymmetric Ne-Mg and Ne-Al collision. In addition, autoionization states of neutral Ne have been observed. These states are to be distinguished from the more usual case in Auger electron spectroscopy of de-excitation of an ion with a core vacancy.

  17. INES in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzuela, J.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the INES activities in Spain addressing the following issues: applicability; rating procedure; public information; activities in 1997; events above level 0 (October 1996 - September 1997); difficulties

  18. Molecular Gastronomy in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García-Segovia, Purificación; Garrido, María Dolores; Vercet Tormo, Antonio; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; FISZMAN DAL SANTO, SUSANA; Martínez Monzó, Javier; Laguarda, Sergio; Palacios, Victor; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientificand technological universe in the culinary area. Nowadays, this is a well-established discipline in Spain, with a number of research groups covering related topics, several companies commercializing appliances and additives worl...

  19. A survey of mosquitoes breeding in used tires in Spain for the detection of imported potential vector species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiz, D; Eritja, R; Escosa, R; Lucientes, J; Marquès, E; Melero-Alcíbar, R; Ruiz, S; Molina, R

    2007-06-01

    The used tire trade has facilitated the introduction, spread, and establishment of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and other mosquito species in several countries of America, Africa, Oceania, and Europe. A strategy for detecting these imported mosquito vectors was developed in Spain during 2003-2004 by EVITAR (multidisciplinary network for the study of viruses transmitted by arthropods and rodents). A survey in 45 locations found no invasive species. Eight autochthonous species of mosquitoes were detected in used tires, including Culex pipiens, Cx. hortensis, Cx. modestus, Anopheles atroparvus, An. claviger, Culiseta longiareolata, Cs. annulata, and Aedes caspius. Dominant species were Cx. pipiens and Cs. longiareolata. Aedes caspius was found in only once, near its natural breeding habitat. Considering the recent discovery of an established population of Ae. albopictus in Catalonia, the increasing commerce of used tires in Spain for recycling, storage, and recapping might greatly contribute to the rapid spread of this species across the Iberian Peninsula.

  20. Eugenics without the state: anarchism in Catalonia, 1900-1937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleminson, Richard

    2008-06-01

    Current historiography has considered eugenics to be an emanation from state structures or a movement which sought to appeal to the state in order to implement eugenic reform. This paper examines the limitations of that view and argues that it is necessary to expand our horizons to consider particularly working-class eugenics movements that were based on the dissemination of knowledge about sex and which did not aspire to positions of political power. The paper argues that anarchism, with its contradictory practice afforded by the convulsive social situation of the Civil War in Spain, allows us to assess critically the parameters of the social action of eugenics, its many alliances, and its struggle for existence in changing political circumstances not of its own making.

  1. [Epidemiology of the meningococcal disease in Catalonia before and after vaccination against serogroup C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ana I; Domínguez, Angela; Oviedo, Manuel; Minguell, Sofía; Jansà, Josep M; Codina, Gemma; Vázquez, Julio A

    2009-01-01

    Meningococcal disease remains a serious public health problem worldwide. In Catalonia, after implementing the vaccination program, there has been a significant decrease in cases caused by meningococcus C. Reported cases of meningococcal disease between 1997 and 2008 were analyzed to determine the evolution after the introduction of a conjugated vaccine in Catalonia. In case-fatality-rate increased only in serogroup B (3% and 7.4%). Serosubtype P1.15was the most frequent in serogroup B (31%), mainly associated with serotype 4 (80%), and in serogroup C subtype P1.5 (36%), with serotype 2a (86%). During 2008, 5 apparently unrelated cases of B:2a:P1.5 were identified in the same geographic area, with a case-fatality-rate of 80%. Exhaustive surveillance of circulating meningococcal strains is essential.

  2. Migrant Women and Labour Integration in Catalonia: The Impact of New Information and Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Vancea

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article uses data from 35 semi-structured interviews of migrant women from three different ethnic backgrounds living in Catalonia to explore the use of ICTs in their economic integration. The results show that the three groups of migrant women studied perceive ICTs as important instruments of economic integration, though they tend to use them rather marginally for this purpose. The mediating role of network capital is not forthcoming, bridging social networks being rather a consequence than a determinant of migrant women’s economic integration. Digital connectivity does not seem to cancel out the relevance of traditional variables of social inequality such as education, age, or origin. Young educated women, and particularly of Romanian and Ecuadorian origins, tend to make a better use of ICTs for their economic integration in Catalonia.

  3. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain): study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Gemma; Torres, Maria Teresa; Francés, Lidia; Falguera, Gemma; Vila, Lluis; Manresa, Josep María; Casamitjana, Roser; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Acera, Amèlia; Guix, Dolors; Torrent, Anna; Grau, Josep; Torán, Pere

    2011-03-08

    It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care educational programmes for pregnant women. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01301768.

  4. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, D.; Chang, C. T.; Peñuelas, J.; Gracia, C.; Sabaté, S.

    2014-10-01

    Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (Arbutus unedo L.). Therefore, we collected twigs from the field during a period of mild winter conditions and after a sudden cold period. After both periods, the state of the photosynthetic machinery was tested in the laboratory by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max), the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax), and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The responses of Vc, max and Jmax were highly species specific, with Q. ilex exhibiting the highest and P. halepensis the lowest reductions. In contrast, the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) was significantly lower in A. unedo after the cold period. The leaf position played an important role in Q. ilex showing a stronger winter effect on sunlit leaves in comparison to shaded leaves. Our results generally agreed with the previous classifications of photoinhibition-tolerant (P. halepensis) and photoinhibition-avoiding (Q. ilex) species on the basis of their susceptibility to dynamic photoinhibition, whereas A. unedo was the least tolerant to photoinhibition, which was chronic in this species. Q. ilex and P. halepensis seem to follow contrasting photoprotective strategies. However, they seemed equally successful under the prevailing conditions exhibiting an adaptive advantage over A. unedo. These results show that our understanding of the dynamics of interspecific competition in Mediterranean ecosystems requires consideration of the physiological behaviour during winter which may have important implications for long-term carbon budgets and growth trends.

  5. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogsten, Ingrid Ericson; Perelló, Gemma; Llebaria, Xavier; Bigas, Esther; Martí-Cid, Roser; Kärrman, Anna; Domingo, José L

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the role that some food processing and packaging might play as a source of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) through the diet was assessed. The levels of PFCs were determined in composite samples of veal steak (raw, grilled, and fried), pork loin (raw, grilled, and fried), chicken breast (raw, grilled, and fried), black pudding (uncooked), liver lamb (raw), marinated salmon (home-made and packaged), lettuce (fresh and packaged), pate of pork liver, foie gras of duck, frankfurt, sausages, chicken nuggets (fried), and common salt. Among the 11 PFCs analyzed, only PFHxS, PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA were detected in at least one composite sample, while the levels of the remaining PFCs (PFBuS, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA) were under their respective detection limits. PFOS was the compound most frequently detected, being found in 8 of the 20 food items analyzed, while PFHxA was detected in samples of raw veal, chicken nuggets, frankfurt, sausages, and packaged lettuce. According to the results of the present study, it is not sufficiently clear if cooking with non-stick cookware, or packaging some foods, could contribute to a higher human exposure to PFCs.

  6. The five wonders of Spain (Catalonia), Italy, France, the UK (Wales), Hungary, Poland and Estonia / Maarika Ruuse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruuse, Maarika

    2014-01-01

    Melliste Algkool-Lasteaia osalemisest rahvusvahelises projektis Friends around Europe (Sõbrad Euroopas), mida rahastab Sihtasutus Archimedes. Erinevate koolide koostöö eesmärkideks on õpilaste teadmiste arendamine kultuuride ja keelte mitmekesisusest, teiste riikide rahvakommete ja traditsioonide õppimine ning oma maa rahvakultuuri jagamine

  7. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactive materials in sediments from the Ebro river reservoir in Flix (Southern Catalonia, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola, M.; Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria (URAIS), Consorci d' Aiguees de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra Nacional 340, km 1094, 43895 L' Ampolla (Spain); Borrull, F., E-mail: francesc.borrull@urv.cat [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria (URAIS), Consorci d' Aiguees de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra Nacional 340, km 1094, 43895 L' Ampolla (Spain)

    2011-12-30

    Industrial waste containing radioactive isotopes (from U-decay series) was released into Ebro river basin due to the activity of a dicalcium phosphate (DCP) plant for a period of more than two decades. Gross alpha, gross beta, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb activities were determined in several sludge samples taken at different depths from different points in the area of influence of the DCP plant located in Flix. Samples were collected from two different zones: one in front of the DCP plant and the second in front of a wastewater treatment plant installed several years after the DCP plant. The data obtained verify the influence of industrial DCP production on radioactivity levels present in the area.

  8. [Validation of the structure and resources of nosocomial infection control team in hospitals ascribed to VINCat program in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limón, Enrique; Pujol, Miquel; Gudiol, Francesc

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to validate the structure of the infection control team (ICT) in the hospitals adhered to VINCat program and secondary objective was to establish the consistency of resources of each center with the requirements established by the program. Qualitative research consisting of an ethnographic study using participant observation during the years 2008-2010. The centers were stratified in three groups by complexity and beds. The instrument was a semistructured interview to members of the ICT. The transcription of the interview was sent to informants for validation. In November 2010 a questionnaire regarding human resources and number hours dedicated to the ICT was sent. During 2008-2010, 65 centers had been adhered to VINCat program. In 2010, the ICT of Group I hospitals had a mean of two physician, one in full-time and one nurse for every 230 beds. In Group II, one physician part-time and one nurse per 180 beds and in Group III a physician and a nurse for every 98 beds, both part-time. In 2010, all hospitals had a structured ICT, an operative infection committee, and a hospital member representing the center at the program as well as enough electronic resources. The hospitals participating in the program have now VINCat an adequate surveillance structure and meet the minimum technical and human resources required to provide high-quality data. However human resources are not guaranteed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  9. A community outbreak of Legionnaires' disease associated with a cooling tower in Vic and Gurb, Catalonia (Spain) in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, M R Sala; Arias, C; Oliva, J M; Pedrol, A; García, M; Pellicer, T; Roura, P; Domínguez, A

    2009-02-01

    We report the investigation of a community-acquired outbreak of Legionnaires' disease. An epidemiological, environmental, and meteorological investigation was undertaken. Fifty-five cases were reported in October and November 2005. The exposure occurred in a large area, with 12 cases (21.8%) located between 1,800 and 3,400 metres from the source. Water sample cultures showed that Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp-1) was present in five cooling towers in two industrial locations in Gurb (plants A and B). Two Lp-1 strains were recovered from plants A and B, but only Lp-1 strains from plant A showed a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile identical to those obtained from three of the cases. Inspection of the cooling towers in plant A revealed inadequate maintenance. Weather conditions in October 2005, with mostly high temperatures and high humidity, together with the flat terrain could have been favouring factors. This study showed a community outbreak from a cooling tower as a common source in a large area. Climate and terrain could explain the dissemination of contaminated aerosols.

  10. Naturbanization and Urban – Rural Dynamics in Spain: Case Study of New Rural Landscapes in Andalusia and Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallarès-Blanch Marta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available : Se ha desarrollado un proceso de urbanización del espacio rural desde principios del siglo XX (Berry, 1976a; 1976b descrito como la “counterurbanización” (Champion, 1989. La creación de los espacios naturales protegidos (ENP ha delimitado unos espacios rurales, relativamente alejados de las grandes conurbaciones urbanas, donde la valoración ecológica y paisajística genera, en algunos casos, una atracción urbanizadora (Prados, 2005. De este modo, los ENP hacen más atractivo al espacio rural y promueven la naturbanización (Prados, 2009. En esta presentación trataremos el tema en seis apartados: (i Introducción (ii El marco conceptual de la naturbanización; (iii La metodología para analizar la naturbanización; (iv Los procesos de naturbanización en Andalucía y en Cataluña; (v El análisis comparativo de los dos casos estudiados y, finalmente, (vi presentamos conclusiones y propuestas de implementación.

  11. Epidemiologic and biogeographic analysis of 542 VFR traveling children in Catalonia (Spain). A rising new population with specific needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Lluís; Roure, Sílvia; Sabrià, Miquel; de Balanzó, Xavier; Moreno, Nemesio; Martinez-Cuevas, Octavio; Peguero, Carme

    2011-01-01

    Imported diseases recorded in the European Union (EU) increasingly involve traveling immigrants returning from visits to their relatives and friends (VFR). Children of these immigrant families can represent a population of extreme vulnerability. A randomized cross-sectional study of 698 traveling children under the age of 15 was performed. VFR traveling children and non-VFR (or tourist) children groups were compared. A total of 698 individuals were analyzed: 354 males (50.7%) and 344 females (49.3%), with a median age (interquartile range) of 4 (2-9) years. Of these, 578 (82.8%) had been born in the EU with 542 (77.7%) being considered as VFR, whereas 156 (22.3%) were considered tourists. VFR children were younger (4.7 vs 8.2 yr; p travel time interval was shorter (21.8 vs 32.2 d; p traveling children showed a greater risk of exposure to infectious diseases compared with tourists. Immigrant families may represent a target group to prioritize international preventive activities. © 2011 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  12. Impact of industries in the accumulation of radionuclides in the lower part of Ebro river (Catalonia, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C.; Borrull, F.

    2010-01-01

    Ebro River extends over almost 930 km and is the main Spanish river entering the Mediterranean Sea. There are several industries located along this river course including a di-calcium phosphate factory (DCP) and two nuclear power reactors. These installations, together with other factors such as the geology, can contribute to the radiological content of the river. Therefore, this study was performed to determine some natural and also some anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in the Ebro River ecosystem. We analysed water samples, solid samples (rice field sludge and surface marine sediment samples), and also biota samples (Cladophora glomerata and Cynodon dactylon). For water samples, gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, uranium, thorium and also a group of gamma-emitting isotopes' activities were determined. The main contribution to radioactivity for these samples was due to some isotopes from the uranium and thorium chain. For the solid samples, we quantified some natural and artificial gamma radioisotopes, which may be related to the geological and/or industrial activities located in this zone. In the case of biota, the results indicate that the presence of the DCP has a significant influence, since the highest activity was observed in the surroundings of this industry (Flix), where isotopes such as 214 Bi and 214 Pb presented activity values of 105 ± 43 Bq/kg and 100 ± 58 Bq/kg, respectively. (authors)

  13. Rockfall monitoring by Terrestrial Laser Scanning - case study of the basaltic rock face at Castellfollit de la Roca (Catalonia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, A.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Calvet, J.; García-Sellés, D.; Asensio, E.

    2011-03-01

    This case study deals with a rock face monitoring in urban areas using a Terrestrial Laser Scanner. The pilot study area is an almost vertical, fifty meter high cliff, on top of which the village of Castellfollit de la Roca is located. Rockfall activity is currently causing a retreat of the rock face, which may endanger the houses located at its edge. TLS datasets consist of high density 3-D point clouds acquired from five stations, nine times in a time span of 22 months (from March 2006 to January 2008). The change detection, i.e. rockfalls, was performed through a sequential comparison of datasets. Two types of mass movement were detected in the monitoring period: (a) detachment of single basaltic columns, with magnitudes below 1.5 m3 and (b) detachment of groups of columns, with magnitudes of 1.5 to 150 m3. Furthermore, the historical record revealed (c) the occurrence of slab failures with magnitudes higher than 150 m3. Displacements of a likely slab failure were measured, suggesting an apparent stationary stage. Even failures are clearly episodic, our results, together with the study of the historical record, enabled us to estimate a mean detachment of material from 46 to 91.5 m3 year-1. The application of TLS considerably improved our understanding of rockfall phenomena in the study area.

  14. Revision of the Maastrichtian-Palaeocene charophyte biostratigraphy of the Fontllonga reference section (southern Pyrenees, Catalonia, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, A.; Villalba-Breva, S.; Ferrandez-Cañadell, C.; Martin-Closa

    2016-07-01

    The Fontllonga section is one of the best-known stratigraphic sections wordwide for the study of charophyte biostratigraphy of the Maastrichtian and lower Palaeocene. An updated proposal for the charophyte biostratigraphy of this section is presented after summarizing previous knowledge. The zone of Peckichara cancellata allows the upper Campanian–lowermost Maastrichtian to be characterised in the base of the section (La Maçana Formation). The Microchara punctata biozone represents most of the Maastrichtian (Figuerola Formation). Within this biozone, a Clavator ultimus subzone is proposed to improve characterisation of the lower and middle Maastrichtian. Both the upper and lower boundaries of the Microchara punctata biozone proposed in previous studies are modified based on new occurrences of the index species. A charophyte assemblage belonging to the Dughiella bacillaris biozone is reported for the first time from the middle of the section (Perauba Complex) and provides an age for this unit ranging from the upper Danian to lower Thanetian. A foraminifer assemblage found in the basal marine deposits above the non-marine succession of the Fontllonga section provides new biostratigraphic data to locate the upper boundary of the non-marine succession at least within the upper Thanetian. (Author)

  15. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the food web of a high mountain lake, Pyrenees, Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives, Ingrid; Grimalt, Joan O; Ventura, Marc; Catalan, Jordi

    2005-06-01

    We investigated the contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food web organisms included in the diet of brown trout from a remote mountain lake. The preferential habitat and trophic level of the component species have been assessed from the signature of stable isotopes (delta13C and delta15N). Subsequently, the patterns of accumulation and transformation of these hydrocarbons in the food chain have been elucidated. Most of the food web organisms exhibit PAH distributions largely dominated by phenanthrene, which agrees with its predominance in atmospheric deposition, water, and suspended particles. Total PAH levels are higher in the organisms from the littoral habitat than from the deep sediments or the pelagic water column. However, organisms from deep sediments exhibit higher proportions of higher molecular weight PAH than those in other lake areas. Distinct organisms exhibit specific features in their relative PAH composition that point to different capacities for uptake and metabolic degradation. Brown trout show an elevated capacity for metabolic degradation because they have lower PAH concentrations than food and they are enriched strongly in lower molecular weight compounds. The PAH levels in trout highly depend on organisms living in the littoral areas. Fish exposure to PAH, therefore, may vary from lake to lake according to the relative contribution of littoral organisms to their diet.

  16. Examining alternative landscape metrics in ecological forest planning: a case for capercaillie in Catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Palahi, M.; Pukkala, T.; Pascual, L.; Trasobares, A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the performance of four different landscape metrics in a landscape ecological forest planning situation in Catalonia: (1) proportion of suitable habitat (non-spatial) (%H); (2) spatial autocorrelation; (3) the proportion of habitat-habitat boundary of the total compartment boundary (H-H) and (4) the proportion of habitat-non-habitat boundary (H-nonH). They were analysed in a case study problem that aimed at the maintenance and improvement of capercaillie habitats in two si...

  17. Spain's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Spain currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity, contributing about one-third of all electricity generated in Spain. Four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed as the result of a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at Vandellos 1 in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, which was sent to the Spanish Parliament on July 25, 1991, Spain opted to continue the nuclear moratorium that began in 1984 and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. Under the new plan, nuclear power's share of Spain's total installed electrical generating capacity will fall from about 17 percent in 1990, to approximately 14 percent by the end of the century, as only the current nuclear facilities will continue to operate and no new nuclear plants will be built. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe. To supply the existing reactors, the government is supporting a major expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry

  18. [Implementation of nurse demand managment in primary health care service providers in Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugués Brugués, Alba; Cubells Asensio, Irene; Flores Mateo, Gemma

    2017-11-01

    To describe and analyse the implementaction of nurse demand managment (NDM) among health care providers in Catalonia from 2005 to 2014. Cross sectional survey. Participants All service providers in Catalonia (n=37). Main measurements Interviews with nurse manager of each health care provides about ht barriers and facilitators concerning NDM. Facilitators and barriers were classified into 3 types: (i)health professional (competence, attitudes, motivation for change and individual characteristics); (ii)social context (patients and companions), and (iii)system related factors (organization and structure, economic incentives). Of the 37 providers, 26 (70.3%) have implemented the Demand Management Nurse (NDM). The main barriers identified are the nurse prescriptin regulation, lack of knowledge and skills of nurses, and the lack of protocols at the start of implantation. Among the facilitators are the specific training of professionals, a higher ratio of nurses to doctors, consensus circuits with all professionals and linking the implementation of NDM to economic incentives. NDM is consolidated in Catalonia. However, the NDM should be included in the curricula of nursing degree and continuing education programs in primary care teams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. [Implementation and evaluation of case management in Catalonia: the ISP-SMD program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsera Gómez, J; Rodríguez Medina, C; Caba Calvet, R; Vega Prada, R; Ruiz Ureña, H; Berruezo Ortiz, L; Clusa Gironella, D; Rodríguez Montes, M J; Haro Abad, J M

    2002-01-01

    The pilot study of the Individualized Service Program for people with Severe Mental Disorders (ISP-SMD) consists of the implementation of case management services in Catalonia. The ISP-SMD has been implemented in two health care sectors and will be expanded to the rest of Catalonia in the next years. The program serves people with persistent mental disorders who have serious social or family problems and/or who have inadequate mental health service use (high use of inpatient services, no use of community services). The ISP-SMD is a community intervention program that focuses its activities on direct care and coordination between services. Thirty patients have been included in the evaluation. The results of the pilot study have shown that, compared to the year before entering the program, the patients show better clinical status, they decrease their unmet need level, they have more appropriate use of health services and have lower treatment costs. Satisfaction of the patients, family members and professionals with the program is very high. It is possible to adapt and implement case management services in Catalonia. When implemented, they improve patient quality of life.

  20. [Duration of work absence attributable to non work-related diseases by health regions in catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torá Rocamora, Isabel; Martínez Martínez, José Miguel; Delclos Clanchet, Jordi; Jardí Lliberia, Josefina; Alberti Casas, Constança; Serra Pujadas, Consol; Manzanera López, Rafael; Benavides, Fernando G

    2010-01-01

    This study analyze the duration of episodes of work absence due to non work-related diseases in Catalonia by health regions, assuming a homogeneous distribution of durations between health regions. A retrospective cohort study of 811.790 episodes in 2005 and followed to episode closure through July 2007 provided by the Institut Català d'Avaluacions Mèdiques, describing their median duration (MD) in days for each of the seven health regions of Catalonia. The probability of returning to work was plotted according to Wang_Chang survival curves and median durations were then compared using the Barcelona health region as the referent group. Results were extended through stratification by sex. The Camp de Tarragona health region had the shortest MD (5 days), while the episodes in the Alt Pirineu i Aran region had the longest (MD, 13 days). The Barcelona health region had a MD of 7 days as was the case for Cataluña Central. MD in Girona was 8 days, and in Lleida and Terres de l'Ebre it was 9 days. This latter region also had the highest median duration 13 days. The are significant differences in the duration of work absence between the health regions of Catalonia. These differences persisted after adjusting for age, management of episodes and social security system status, in both men and women.

  1. Neutrino Interactions in MicroBooNE

    OpenAIRE

    Del Tutto, Marco

    2017-01-01

    MicroBooNE is a liquid-argon-based neutrino experiment, which began collecting data in Fermilab's Booster neutrino beam in October 2015. Physics goals of the experiment include probing the source of the anomalous excess of electron-like events in MiniBooNE. In addition to this, MicroBooNE is carrying out an extensive cross section physics program that will help to probe current theories on neutrino-nucleon interactions and nuclear effects. These proceedings summarise the status of MicroBooNE'...

  2. Quality assurance in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villate, J.

    1980-01-01

    The first part of this lecture is devoted to present the energy program in Spain and the three generations of nuclear plants. The evolution of QA is outlined pointing out how IAEA Codes of Practice on QA is now a requirement and also how USA regulations, codes and standards have constituted, up to now, the main framework to develop QA activities in Spain. A general idea is given of the Spanish program of courses to qualify the personnel to be involved in QA tasks in nuclear power plants. Finally a general scheme is given, emphasizing the three main aspects: design, procurement and fabrication; construction (QA on site). (orig./RW)

  3. Spain investigates PLEX options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia, F.

    1990-01-01

    Spain's nuclear generation capacity will be reduced by some 6000MWe by the year 2015 if decommissioning of the units currently in operation takes place at the end of their 40-year design life. Bearing this in mind, in 1988 the Santa Maria de Garona BWR and the Jose Cabrera PWR were chosen by their respective owners as reference units for plant life extension (PLEX) activities. These plants are the oldest of their types operating in Spain and PLEX programmes were already under way. (author)

  4. [Smoking in the hospitality sector: an observational study in Barcelona (Spain), 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Baranda, Lucía; López, M José; Nebot, Manel

    2010-01-01

    To describe the actual presence of smoking in restaurant and hospitality premises after the smoking prevention act banning smoking in workplaces came into force in 2006, with wide exemptions in this sector. We performed an observational, descriptive study in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) in 2008 based on cluster sampling, with 1130 premises. The results were stratified by premise type. Up to 85.7% of food shops allowing consumption within their premises (bakeries, pastry shops...) ban smoking, as well as 85% of fast food establishments. Among restaurants, 40% are smoke-free or have separate smoking areas. Bar-cafés and café-restaurants (the most abundant premises) usually allow smoking. There are more smoke-free options in central districts and in shopping malls. Up to 75.4% of all premises allow smoking freely. These results show the limitations of the law. Copyright 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. An approach to the statistics of wild lagomorph captive rearing for releasing purposes in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sánchez García-Abad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of rearing wild lagomorphs in captivity for hunting and predator conservation in Spain, little is known about this production sector.  Taking official data into account, in this work the number and distribution of farms in Spain and the possible number of animals produced were analysed during the period 2005-2010.  In 2010, 114 wild rabbit farms were widely distributed throughout the country (especially Catalonia, Galicia, Andalusia and Castile-La Mancha regions, while 21 hare farms were registered, the majority in Extremadura, Castile-La Mancha and Andalusia.  A possible production figure of 225000-265000 rabbits and 1034 hares was estimated in 2010.  Game farms of wild lagomorphs are established in Spain and placement would be related to a high demand for hunting and predator conservation in certain regions. Although more research is needed, the number of animals produced would be an important part of the total animals released to the wild.

  6. Distribution of Bartonella henselae Variants in Patients, Reservoir Hosts and Vectors in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Horacio; Escudero, Raquel; Pons, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Vargas, Manuela; García-Esteban, Coral; Rodríguez-Moreno, Isabel; García-Amil, Cristina; Lobo, Bruno; Valcárcel, Félix; Pérez, Azucena; Jiménez, Santos; Jado, Isabel; Juste, Ramón; Segura, Ferrán; Anda, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the diversity of B. henselae circulating in patients, reservoir hosts and vectors in Spain. In total, we have fully characterized 53 clinical samples from 46 patients, as well as 78 B. henselae isolates obtained from 35 cats from La Rioja and Catalonia (northeastern Spain), four positive cat blood samples from which no isolates were obtained, and three positive fleas by Multiple Locus Sequence Typing and Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeats Analysis. This study represents the largest series of human cases characterized with these methods, with 10 different sequence types and 41 MLVA profiles. Two of the sequence types and 35 of the profiles were not described previously. Most of the B. henselae variants belonged to ST5. Also, we have identified a common profile (72) which is well distributed in Spain and was found to persist over time. Indeed, this profile seems to be the origin from which most of the variants identified in this study have been generated. In addition, ST5, ST6 and ST9 were found associated with felines, whereas ST1, ST5 and ST8 were the most frequent sequence types found infecting humans. Interestingly, some of the feline associated variants never found on patients were located in a separate clade, which could represent a group of strains less pathogenic for humans. PMID:23874563

  7. Analysis of employment rate and social status in young adults with childhood-onset rheumatic disease in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Mendoza, Ana Carolina; Modesto Caballero, Consuelo; Navarro-Cendejas, José

    2015-07-11

    Rheumatic diseases of childhood, in particular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, are chronic conditions associated with considerable morbidity and mortality that can have repercussions on aspects of adult life. The aim of this study was to determine the employment rate and social status of patients with childhood-onset rheumatic disease attending a pediatric rheumatology transition unit. A census was taken of patients seen in the Pediatric Rheumatology Transition Unit of Hospital Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona, Spain). We collected demographic and clinical variables and determined the patients' functional capacity. All patients seen during the period of September to December 2013 underwent a survey containing items related to their social situation, maximum academic level achieved, and working life. Correlations were sought between clinical variables associated with a poor prognosis and the patients' job performance. The data were analyzed and compared with those of an age-matched cohort from the general population of Catalonia. Of 130 patients included in the census, 96 responded to the survey. Steinbrocker grade III and IV disability (poorer functional capacity) (p = 0.0025) and longer disease duration (p = 0.017) were significantly related to greater difficulty getting a job. Patients with grade III and IV disability and those with more severe disease showed trends to having more problems carrying out work-related tasks. Our cohort included a higher percentage of students than the age-matched comparison population (50 % vs 24 %, respectively) (p = 0.0001); 82 % of patients had completed studies beyond the compulsory education level. The employment rate was lower in our patient cohort than in the comparison cohort (38.3 % vs 59.9 %) (p = 0.0001), whereas the percentage of unemployed was similar. Patients with milder disease had a higher probability of living with their parents up to a later age (OR = 3.2, 95 % CI 0.38-6.15; p = 0

  8. The Catalonia World Health Organization demonstration project for palliative care implementation: quantitative and qualitative results at 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Batiste, Xavier; Caja, Carmen; Espinosa, Jose; Bullich, Ingrid; Martínez-Muñoz, Marisa; Porta-Sales, Josep; Trelis, Jordi; Esperalba, Joaquim; Stjernsward, Jan

    2012-04-01

    Catalonia (Spain) has a total population of 7.3 million citizens for whom the National Health Service (NHS) provides health care that is free at the point of access. The prevalence of terminally ill patients is between 30,100 and 39,600. Twenty years ago, the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with the Catalan Department of Health and the Catalan Institute of Oncology, began a demonstration project (WHO Demonstration Project) in palliative care (PC) with the aim of implementing specialist PC services, generating experience in this field, identifying areas for improvement, and introducing educative procedures (clinical and nonclinical). Over the past 20 years, 237 PC clinical services (72 home care support teams, 49 hospital support teams, 60 units with 742 dedicated beds, 50 outpatient clinics, and six psychosocial support teams) have been implemented. In the five years since the previous evaluation, 57 new clinical services (15 new hospital support teams, 36 outpatient clinics, and six psychosocial support teams among others) and four nonclinical services (education, research, WHO Collaborating Center, and planning) have been implemented. During the year 2010, a total of 46,200 processes were undertaken for the care of 23,100 patients, of whom 12,100 (52%) had cancer and 11,000 (48%) had other chronic advanced diseases. The overall yearly costs are around €52,568,000, with an overall savings of €69,300,000 (€2275 per patient, net savings to the NHS of €16,732,000). In the last five years, three qualitative evaluations and a benchmarking process have been performed to identify weak points and inequities in care provision among districts. Systematic assessments indicate high cost-effectiveness of care as well as high levels of satisfaction by patients and their relatives, thus reinforcing the principle that access to PC under the auspices of the NHS at the end of life is a basic human right. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee

  9. MiniBooNE Oscillation Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurcic, Zelimir

    2009-01-01

    These proceedings summarize the MiniBooNE ν μ → ν e results, describe the first (bar ν) μ → (bar ν) e result, and current analysis effort with the NuMI neutrinos detected in the miniBooNE detector

  10. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientific and technological universe...... with scientists for facing the future of Spanish gastronomy....

  11. [Conflicts between nursing ethics and health care legislation in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Terés-Vidal, Lourdes; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Molina, Fidel; Gastaldo, Denise; Otero-García, Laura

    2016-01-01

    To identify the ethical conflicts that may arise between the nursing codes of ethics and the Royal Decree-law 16/2012 modifying Spanish health regulations. We conducted a review and critical analysis of the discourse of five nursing codes of ethics from Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Europe and International, and of the discourse of the Spanish legislation in force in 2013. Language structures referring to five different concepts of the theoretical framework of care were identified in the texts: equity, human rights, right to healthcare, access to care, and continuity of care. Codes of ethics define the function of nursing according to equity, acknowledgement of human rights, right to healthcare, access to care and continuity of care, while legal discourse hinges on the concept of beneficiary or being insured. The divergence between the code of ethics and the legal discourse may produce ethical conflicts that negatively affect nursing practice. The application of RDL 16/2012 promotes a framework of action that prevents nursing professionals from providing care to uninsured collectives, which violates human rights and the principles of care ethics. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Polycentricity, Performance and Planning: Concepts, Evidence and Policy in Barcelona, Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Masip-Tresserra

    2017-11-01

    that is located in Spain. The study on the multiple links among polycentricity, performance, and planning within the Barcelona metropolitan region yields learning potential for other metropolitan regions because there exists, for example, a strong historical planning tradition in Catalonia and ideas on polycentric development have been around for many decades. This enables the study of transition patterns in the conceptualization of polycentric development in planning over time. Even the most recent plan for the Barcelona metropolitan region, the 2010 Barcelona Metropolitan Territorial Plan, is influenced by a planning vision of polycentricity that was coined by the 1966 Director Scheme of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area. The latter plan was one of the first to break with the then-popular concentric model of green belts and satellite cities and to propose networked, polycentric spatial configurations to resolve the pressure of urbanization on metropolitan regions’ central cities. Research methods This dissertation employs several research methods to explore how the multiple relationships among polycentricity, performance, and planning manifest themselves in the Barcelona metropolitan region. The methods used include qualitative methods such as policy/discourse analysis to answer the first general research question about how the conceptualization of polycentric development in spatial plans has evolved over time and what can be learned from this evolution. Additionally, this thesis employs quantitative methods such as descriptive statistics, correspondence analysis, simple regression models, and advanced regression models (in which both spatial autocorrelation and endogeneity issues are controlled to avoid biased estimation results to address the second general question, which refers to how polycentricity has been identified and measured in research and how this identification and measurement of polycentricity can inform planning practice. Finally, this research uses

  13. Rockfall induced seismic signals: case study in Montserrat, Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajosana, I.; Suriñach, E.; Abellán, A.; Khazaradze, G.; Garcia, D.; Llosa, J.

    2008-08-01

    After a rockfall event, a usual post event survey includes qualitative volume estimation, trajectory mapping and determination of departing zones. However, quantitative measurements are not usually made. Additional relevant quantitative information could be useful in determining the spatial occurrence of rockfall events and help us in quantifying their size. Seismic measurements could be suitable for detection purposes since they are non invasive methods and are relatively inexpensive. Moreover, seismic techniques could provide important information on rockfall size and location of impacts. On 14 February 2007 the Avalanche Group of the University of Barcelona obtained the seismic data generated by an artificially triggered rockfall event at the Montserrat massif (near Barcelona, Spain) carried out in order to purge a slope. Two 3 component seismic stations were deployed in the area about 200 m from the explosion point that triggered the rockfall. Seismic signals and video images were simultaneously obtained. The initial volume of the rockfall was estimated to be 75 m3 by laser scanner data analysis. After the explosion, dozens of boulders ranging from 10-4 to 5 m3 in volume impacted on the ground at different locations. The blocks fell down onto a terrace, 120 m below the release zone. The impact generated a small continuous mass movement composed of a mixture of rocks, sand and dust that ran down the slope and impacted on the road 60 m below. Time, time-frequency evolution and particle motion analysis of the seismic records and seismic energy estimation were performed. The results are as follows: 1 A rockfall event generates seismic signals with specific characteristics in the time domain; 2 the seismic signals generated by the mass movement show a time-frequency evolution different from that of other seismogenic sources (e.g. earthquakes, explosions or a single rock impact). This feature could be used for detection purposes; 3 particle motion plot analysis shows

  14. The MiniBooNE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Anderson, C.E.; Bartoszek, L.M.; Bazarko, A.O.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J.M.; Cox, D.C.; Curioni, A.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D.A.; Fleming, B.T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F.G.; Garvey, G.T.; Green, C.; Green, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector was designed and built to look for ν μ →ν e oscillations in the (sin 2 2θ,Δm 2 ) parameter space region where the LSND experiment reported a signal. The MiniBooNE experiment used a beam energy and baseline that were an order of magnitude larger than those of LSND so that the backgrounds and systematic errors would be completely different. This paper provides a detailed description of the design, function, and performance of the MiniBooNE detector.

  15. The NeXus data format

    OpenAIRE

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F.; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Campbell, Stuart I.; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe

    2015-01-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamlin...

  16. The MiniBooNE Detector

    OpenAIRE

    MiniBooNE Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector was designed and built to look for muon-neutrino to electron-neutrino oscillations in the mixing parameter space region where the LSND experiment reported a signal. The MiniBooNE experiment used a beam energy and baseline that were an order of magnitude larger than those of LSND so that the backgrounds and systematic errors would be completely different. This paper provides a detailed description of the design, function, and performance of the MiniBooNE detector.

  17. Analysing surface runoff and erosion responses to different land uses from the NE of Iberian Peninsula through rainfall simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regüés, David; Arnáez, José; Badía, David; Cerdà, Artemi; Echeverría, María Teresa; Gispert, María; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Lasanta, Teodoro; León, Javier; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Pardini, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall simulation experiments are being used by soil scientists, geomorphologists, and hydrologist to study runoff generation and erosion processes. The use of different apparatus with different rainfall intensities and size of the wetted area contribute to determine the most vulnerable soils and land uses (Cerdá, 1998; Cerdà et al., 2009; Nadal-Romero et al., 2011; Martínez-Murillo et al., 2013; León et al., 2014). This research aims to determine the land uses that yield more sediments and water and to know the factors that control the differences. The information from 152 experiments of rainfall simulation was jointly analysed. Experiments were done in 17 land uses (natural forest, tree plantation, burned forest, scrub, meadows, crops and badlands), with contrasted exposition (north-south), and vegetation cover variety and/or density. These situations were selected from four geographic contexts (NE of Catalonia, high and medium lands from the Ebro valley and Southern range of central Pyrenees) with significant altitude variations, between 90 and 1000 meters above sea level, which represent the heterogeneity of the Mediterranean climate. The use of similar rainfall simulation apparatus, with the same spray nozzle, spraying components and plot size, favours the comparison of the results. A wide spectrum of precipitation intensities was applied, in order to reach surface runoff generation in all cases. Results showed significant differences in runoff amounts and erosion rates, which were mainly associated with land uses, even more than precipitation differences. Runoff coefficient shows an inversed exponential relationship with rainfall intensity, which is the opposite what could be previously expected (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013). This may be only justified by land use characteristics because a direct effect between runoff generation intensity and soil degradation conditions, with respect vegetation covers features and density, was observed. In fact, even though

  18. [Occupational aspects of emergency medicine practice in Catalonia: the OPENCAT opinion survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Javier; Gené, Emili; Alonso, Gilberto; Rimbau, Pere; Zorrilla, José; Casarramona, Francesc; Netto, Cristina; Sánchez, Pere; Hernández, Ricard; Escalada, Xavier; Miró, Òscar

    2017-01-01

    To gather information on the contracting and training of members of the Catalan Society of Emergency Medicine (SoCMUE) who work in emergency medicine and services in Catalonia. To survey their opinions on certain aspects of resource availability and working conditions. Cross-sectional descriptive study based on a survey sent to SoCMUE members. We studied the opinions of 5 types of respondent: hospital physicians, out-of-hospital physicians, hospital nurses, out-of-hospital nurses, and emergency medical technicians. Responses were grouped to compare the opinions of physicians and nurses and workers in hospital and prehospital settings. We received 616 responses from 1273 members (48.4% response rate). More physicians than nurses come from outside Catalonia and have contracts specifically linked to emergency care; in addition, physicians have done less postgraduate training in emergency medicine. More hospital staff than prehospital staff have permanent contracts linked to the department where they work. More hospital physicians are specialized in internal medicine than in family and community medicine. The opinion that emergency services are inadequately staffed was widespread. Most respondents believed that patient transport is good or adequate. However, respondents working in prehospital services expressed a lower opinion of transport. Great difficulty in combining work with family (life achieving work-life balance) was expressed by 13.5% overall, and more often by hospital staff. Some type of aggression was experienced by 88.2%; 60% reported the event to superiors. Nurses reported aggression more often than physicians. A police report was filed by 10.1%. Emergency medicine working conditions can be improved in Catalonia according to members of SoCMUE. Relations between groups of professionals are not optimum in some aspects.

  19. [Attitude of primary care professionals to gender violence. A comparative study between Catalonia and Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Loría, Kattia; Gutiérrez Rosado, Teresa; Alvarado, Ricardo; Fernández Sánchez, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Describe the relationship between the attitude towards violence against women (VAW) of professionals of the health of primary care with variables such professional satisfaction, workload, orientation of professional practice, knowledge, training and use of network in Catalonia and Costa Rica. Cross-exploratory and comparative study. Primary care in Barcelona and nearby counties and the Greater Metropolitan Area (GAM) of Costa Rica. 235 primary health professionals of Medicine, Nursing, Psychology and Social Work. Questionnaire with eight sections about attitudes, professional satisfaction, and orientation of professional practice, workload, knowledge, training and use of network. Three types of analysis were carried out: a descriptive one by country; a bivariate analysis; and a multivariable linear regression model. Primary Health Professionals attitudes towards VAW health were similar in both contexts (Catalonia: 3.90 IC 95% 3.84-3.96; Costa Rica: 4.03 IC 95% 3.94-4.13). The variables associated with attitudes towards VAW were: Use of network resources (B=0.20, 95% CI -0.14-0.25, P=<.001), Training (B=0.10, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.17, P=<0.001), and country, Costa Rica (B=0.16, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.25, P=<0.001). There was no interaction between the country and the other variables, suggesting that the association between the variables and the attitude is similar in both countries. The results suggest that increased use of network resources and training are related to a positive attitude towards VWA in primary health professionals, both in Catalonia and Costa Rica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [Gender differences in the relationship between long working hours and health status in Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Gutiérrez Vera, Anabel

    2012-01-01

    To analyze gender differences in the relationship of long working hours with type of contract, psychosocial risk factors and health status in Catalonia. Cross sectional study of a representative sample of the working population in Catalonia who worked up to 60 hours per week, interviewed in the 2005 I Survey of Working Conditions in Catalonia (1624 men and 1221 women). The analysis was conducted separately by sex and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted. The reference category was employees working 30-40 hours per week. In both sexes, working 41 to 60 hours per week was associated with non fixed term temporary contracts, low autonomy, low support from colleagues and high skill discretion. In addition, among women, they were also associated with high psychological demands. No relationship with self-perceived health status was observed, but working 41 to 60 hours a week was associated with job dissatisfaction in both sexes (crude odds ratio, 95% confidence intervals: cOR=1.52; 95%CI 1.05 to 2.18 for men; cOR=2.53; 95% CI 1.44 to 4.45 for women) and in women also with nervous disorders/depression (cOR=3.41; 95%CI 1.42 to 8.22). After adjustment for psychosocial risk factors, these associations disappeared among men but not in women. Long working hours are associated with non-fixed term temporary contracts and more psychosocial hazards, as well as with some health indicators, primarily among women. It is likely that the association with health status in women is partially explained by the sum of hours of paid and domestic and family work. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  1. Cross-National comparison of antiepileptic drug use: Catalonia, Denmark and Norway, 2007-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pili Ferrer-Argeles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antiepileptic drug  (AEDconsumption has increased in recent years mainly from those AEDs marketed since 1990. The purpose is to describe and compare AED consumption in Catalonia, Denmark and Norway.Methods: Population-based descriptive study set in the outpatient healthcare sector. Data were retrieved from the Norwegian Prescription Register, Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics and DATAMART® in Catalonia, for 2007-2011.We calculated defined daily doses/1000 inhabitants/day (DID, by age and gender. AEDs were defined according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification (N03A. We reviewed the population covered by the databases, the drug data source and the definition of outpatient healthcare sector to compare the results across the three settings.Results: Total AED use steadily increased over the study period in the three settings. In 2011, consumption was highest in Catalonia (15.20 DID, followed by Denmark (15.06 DID and Norway (14.24 DID. The “other AEDs” (N03AX subgroup represented 60% of all AED use. The N03A pattern by gender did not differ across the three settings. Marked differences by age and gender appeared when studying lamotrigine, topiramate, gabapentin, pregabalin and levetiracetam.  Differences among the databases were mainly in the definition of outpatient healthcare setting.Conclusions: There was a rapid increase in “other AEDs” in all three settings. Although we did not have information on the indication for the use of AEDs, the drug data source, population coverage of the database and definition of the healthcare setting helped us interpret the results.

  2. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isla, M.

    1984-01-01

    The 'Plan Energetico Nacional de 1983' (1983 National Energy Program)(PEN-83) was approved recently by the Spanish Government and presented to the 'Cortes Espanolas' (Spanish Parliament) in May 1984. The PEN-83 is being discussed at present in the Parliament and it is possible that some modifications be introduced, but expectedly will be rather limited and minor. PEN-83 covers the period 1983-1992. It includes a comparative analysis of the evolution and situation in OECD countries and in Spain. In Spain the offer, supply and consumption of primary energy and of the interrelation with other economic indicators, such as the gross domestic product, inflation rate and unemployment compared with that of the industrialized OECD countries, has shown a much lower capability to adapt its structure to the energy price increases

  3. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    the plans of the Spanish Government to reduce their dependence on oil over the next ten years by a considerable increase in nuclear generating capacity are outlined. Data on the type, generating power, location and commissioning data of a number of nuclear power stations in Spain are tabulated. The use of foreign companies for the design and construction of the nuclear stations and the national organisations responsible for different aspects of the programme are considered. (UK)

  4. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  5. Analysis on the implementation of the unique model of Services Cards in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Caraza Cristín

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In Catalonia, services cards have an unique regulation, so far singular. The law on transparency, access to public information and corporate governance of this community has given them statutory and binding legal effects. They have gone from soft to hard law. And this fact has important consequences in the field of administration’s patrimonial responsibility. Two years after the entry into force of this law, it is time to analyze what has been the actual implementation of this new regulation and draw conclusions.

  6. The NeXus data format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A; Bernstein, Herbert J; Brewster, Aaron S; Campbell, Stuart I; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R; Männicke, David; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitions for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.

  7. UCB-NE-107 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-03-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide users of UCB-NE-107 with the information necessary to use UCB-NE-107 effectively. UCB-NE-107 is a computer code for calculating the fractional rate of readily soluble radionuclides that are released from nuclear waste emplaced in water-saturated porous media. Waste placed in such environments will gradually dissolve. For many species such as actinides and rare earths, the process of dissolution is governed by the exterior flow field, and the chemical reaction rate or leaching rate. However, for readily soluble species such as 135 Cs, 137 Cs, and 129 I, it has been observed that their dissolution rates are rapid. UCB-NE-107 is a code for calculating the release rate at the waste/rock interface, to check compliance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) subsystem performance objective. It is an implementation of the analytic solution given below. 5 refs., 2 figs

  8. Physics Motivations of SciBooNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraide, K.

    2007-01-01

    SciBooNE is a new experiment for measuring neutrino-nucleus cross sections around one GeV region, which is important for the interpretaion of neutrino oscillation experiments. Physics motivations of the experiment are described here

  9. Geomorphological criteria applied to the study of the neotectonic of the internal areas of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Elorza, M.; Pena, J.L.; Rodriguez Vidal, J.; Simon Gomez, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Some geomorphological criteria, based on the study of erosion surfaces, glacis, terraces and slopes, after a brief discussion of the geomorphological methodology, are here applied in several internal areas of NE. Spain, specially in the Iberian Cordillera. Several episodes of neotectonic activity are recognised within this Cordillera: a more intense one at the base of Villafranchian times, a second one at the Pliocene/Pleistocene transitional levels, and a latent, more sporadic, intraquaternary activity. (author)

  10. Change in cognitive performance is associated with functional recovery during post-acute stroke rehabilitation: a multi-centric study from intermediate care geriatric rehabilitation units of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Laura Mónica; Inzitari, Marco; Roqué, Marta; Duarte, Esther; Vallés, Elisabeth; Rodó, Montserrat; Gallofré, Miquel

    2015-10-01

    Recovery after a stroke is determined by a broad range of neurological, functional and psychosocial factors. Evidence regarding these factors is not well established, in particular influence of cognition changes during rehabilitation. We aimed to investigate whether selective characteristics, including cognitive performance and its change over time, modulate functional recovery with home discharge in stroke survivors admitted to post-acute rehabilitation units. We undertook a multicenter cohort study, including all patients discharged from acute wards to any geriatric rehabilitation unit in Catalonia-Spain during 2008. Patients were assessed for demographics, clinical and functional variables using Conjunt Mínim Bàsic de Dades dels Recursos Sociosanitaris (CMBD-RSS), which adapts the Minimum Data Set tool used in America's nursing homes. Baseline-to-discharge change in cognition was calculated on repeated assessments using the Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS, range 0-6, best-worst cognition). The multivariable effect of these factors was analyzed in relation to the outcome. 879 post-stroke patients were included (mean age 77.48 ± 10.18 years, 52.6% women). A worse initial CPS [OR (95% CI) = 0.851 (0.774-0.935)] and prevalent fecal incontinence [OR (95% CI) = 0.560 (0.454-0.691)] reduced the likelihood of returning home with functional improvement; whereas improvement of CPS, baseline to discharge, [OR (95% CI) = 1.348 (1.144-1.588)], more rehabilitation days within the first 2 weeks [OR (95% CI) = 1.011 (1.006-1.015)] and a longer hospital stay [OR (95% CI) = 1.011 (1.006-1.015)] were associated with the outcome. In our sample, different clinical characteristics, including cognitive function and its improvement over time, are associated with functional improvement in stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation. Our results might provide information to further studies aimed at exploring the influence of cognition changes during rehabilitation.

  11. Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing acute otitis media among children in Southern Catalonia throughout 2007-2013: Incidence, serotype distribution and vaccine's effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Gondar, O; Figuerola-Massana, E; Vila-Corcoles, A; Aguirre, C A; de Diego, C; Satue, E; Gomez, F; Raga, X

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated incidence and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing acute otitis media (AOM) in Catalonian children, evaluating vaccination effectiveness in the current era of extended valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Population-based surveillance study that included all AOM cases with isolation of pneumococcus (from otic fluids/otorrea) identified among children ≤14 years in the region of Tarragona (Southern Catalonia, Spain) from 01/01/2007 to 31/12/2013. Prevalence of infections caused by serotypes covered by the different PCVs formulations were calculated for the periods before and after 30/06/2010 (date of PCV7/PCV13 replacement). The indirect cohort method was used to estimate PCV7/13 effectiveness against vaccine-type infections. A total of 78 children with a pneumococcal AOM were identified across study period, which meant an incidence rate of 23 cases per 100,000 population-year. Thirty-six cases (46.2%) occurred within the late PCV7 era and 42 cases (53.8%) during the early PCV13 era. Overall, the most common serotypes were type 19A (21.7%), type 3 (13.3%) and type 15B (6.7%). Prevalence of cases caused by serotypes included in PCV7 did not substantially change between the first and the second study period (from 10.3% to 12.9%), whereas prevalence of cases caused by PCV13 serotypes showed a decreasing trend between both periods (from 65.5% to 48.4%). The aggregate PCV7/13 effectiveness against vaccine-type infections was 72% (95% confidence interval: -26 to 94). Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination appears an acceptable preventive option to prevent pneumococcal AOM in infants. However, its serotype coverage and clinical effectiveness are not optimal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A descriptive study of the characteristics of differentiated thyroid cancer in Catalonia during the period 1998-2012. The CECaT registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafon, Carles; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Biarnés, Josefina; Halperin, Irene; Bella, Maria Rosa; Castells, Ignasi; González, Cintia; Megía, Ana; Santos, Lola; García-Pascual, Luís; Reverter, Jordi Lluís; Pizarro, Eduarda; Mauricio, Dídac

    2015-01-01

    The consortium for the study of thyroid cancer (CECaT), including 20 hospitals and one research institute, was recently created in Catalonia (Spain). One of the first initiatives of the group was to perform a descriptive analysis of the characteristics of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The cohort included 1,855 patients from 11 hospitals treated over a period of 15 years (1998-2012). In this series, 1.470 (79.2%) patients were women. Mean age was 47.7 (15.7) years old. Age was significantly higher in male than in female patients, 49.3 (15) versus 47.3 (15.8); p=0.02. Papillary thyroid carcinoma accounted for 88.9% of cases. Mean tumor size was 21.5 (16) mm, and was significantly lower in females than in males, 20.1 (14.5) mm and 26.6 (20.3) mm respectively (p<0.001). After a follow-up period of 5.5 (3.7) years, information was available for 1,355 patient, of whom 1065 (78.6%) were free of disease, 239 (17.6%) had no tumor persistence, and 51 (3.8) % had died. The risk of persistent or recurrent disease was significantly associated to older age at diagnosis, male gender, larger tumor size, lymph node metastases at surgery, no signs of thyroiditis in the remaining thyroid tissue, and presence of vascular and/or extraglandular invasion. Patient characteristics analyzed are similar to those reported in other parts of the world. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. [Accesibility and use of spirometry in primary care centers in Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauger, M Antònia; Rosas, Alba; Burgos, Felip; Torrente, Elena; Tresserras, Ricard; Escarrabill, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Examine the accessibility and use of forced spirometry (FS) in public primary care facilities centers in Catalonia. Cross-sectional study using a survey. Three hundred sixty-six Primary Care Teams (PCT) in Catalonia. Third quarter of 2010. Survey with information on spirometers, training, interpretation and quality control, and the priority that the quality of spirometry had for the team. Indicators FS/100 inhabitants/year, FS/month/PCT; FS/month/10,000 inhabitants. Response rate: 75%. 97.5% of PCT had spirometer and made an average of 2.01 spirometries/100 inhabitants (34.68 spirometry/PCT/month). 83% have trained professionals.>50% centers perform formal training but no information is available on the quality. 70% performed some sort of calibration. Interpretation was made by the family physician in 87.3% of cases. In 68% of cases not performed any quality control of exploration. 2/3 typed data manually into the computerized medical record.>50% recognized a high priority strategies for improving the quality. Despite the accessibility of EF efforts should be made to standardize training, increasing the number of scans test and promote systematic quality control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. [The Health Plan for Catalonia: an instrument to transform the health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constante i Beitia, Carles

    2015-11-01

    The Department of Health of the Generalitat in Catalonia periodically draws up the Health Plan, which is the strategic document that brings together the reference framework for initiatives concerning public health in terms of the Catalan health administration. The 2011-2015 version of the Health Plan incorporates key care and system governance-related elements, which, in conjunction with health goals, make up the complete picture of what the health system in Catalonia should look like until 2015. The Plan was drawn up at a time when the environmental conditions were extremely particular, given the major economic crisis that began in 2007. This has meant that the system has been forced to address public health problems using a significant reduction in the economic resources available, while aiming to maintain the level of care provided, both quantitatively and qualitatively, and preserve the sustainability of the system whose defining traits are its universality, equity and the wide range of services on offer. The Health Plan focuses on three areas of action, 9 major courses of action and 32 strategic projects designed to respond to new social needs: addressing the most common health issues, comprehensive care for chronic patients and organizational modernization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. 6th International Accounting Congress of Barcelona (1929 organised by the Association of Accountants of Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josepa Alemany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the work presented is a descriptive, contextual and detailed analysis of the activity, and the conclusions developed in the first international accounting conference held in Barcelona. The 6th International Conference on Accounting which took place in Barcelona coinciding with the International Exhibition of 1929, was organised by the Association Internationale de Comptabilité of Brussels. This association proposed holding regular meetings to discuss and study technical accounting and economic issues related to that time. Approach: the originality of the work lies in being an analytical description of the original documents prepared by the Association of Accountants of Catalonia about the conference. Findings/Originality: this study allows redoing assumptions made in previous works, because the documents before this work were contradictory regarding dates, facts and some of the content covered. Limitations: the biggest limitation of the work comes from the lack of written documentation existing on this conference. Value: the present study continues the research on topics of history of accounting in Catalonia. It is expected to complement this work by a deeper analysis of the contents and the topics covered in the papers presented at the conference, and by linking them with the theoretical accounting lines existing at that time.

  16. [The Catalan Patient Council: the direct voice of the patient in health policies in Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès Navarro, Roser; Costa Vilar, Núria; Davins Miralles, Josep; Garcia Cirera, Montserrat; Hernando Ortega, Maria Rosario; Iniesta Blasco, Cristina

    2015-11-01

    The transition from a more paternalistic model of care focused on the disease and on the medical professional's authority towards a more participatory model centered on the rights and duties of informed patients represents a significant change in public health policy. One of the most widespread methods of social participation in Catalonia today is the tendency to form associations around a particular disease. This kind of organizational participation is a pioneering tool in the debate around public health policy. The Government of the Generalitat de Catalunya undertook to promote the Strategic Plan of patient participation within the public health system. The Department of Health created the Patient Advisory Council of Catalonia (CCPC, as per the acronym in Catalan). This initiative constitutes a permanent consultative and participatory body for patient representatives in the Catalan healthcare system. The CCPC was set up with a solid determination to place the patient at the centre of the healthcare system, including them in the decision-making processes which directly affect them. This patient participation plan has defined and developed 8 different lines approved by the government, with consensus approval between regional government and the organisations. The CCPC has proven itself to be an effective tool for fostering active patient participation in health policy and its relationship with the system has evolved from that of a monologue to becoming the mechanism for dialogue it is today. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Surveillance of hospitalized and outpatient cases of pertussis in Catalonia from 2003 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Fernández, Inma; Soldevila, Núria; Carmona, Gloria; Sala, Maria Rosa; Godoy, Pere; Domínguez, Angela; Group of Catalonia, the Pertussis Surveillance

    2013-01-01

    Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease that generates a large number of cases and hospitalizations. In Catalonia, the vaccination schedule includes three doses of vaccine at 2, 4 and 6 mo and two booster doses at 18 mo and 4–6 y. In 2002, DTPw was replaced by DTPa. The aim of this study was to determine how the vaccination status affects pertussis hospitalizations. Cases were obtained from the epidemiological surveillance system of the Generalitat of Catalonia from 2003 to 2009. Hospitalization, immunization status and type of vaccine received in reported cases were analyzed. OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. To control the effect of age (cases were reported. Cases below vaccination age (cases were hospitalized: 137 (51.7%) had no vaccine administrated, 104 (39.2%) were correctly vaccinated according to age and 24 (9.1%) were poorly vaccinated. Correct vaccination protected against hospitalization (ORMH: 0.33; 95%CI: 0.23–0.47). Of hospitalized cases, 38 (14.3%) had received DTPw and 91 (34.2%) DTPa. Both vaccines were effective in avoiding hospitalization, and comparison showed no differences (ORMH: 0.73; 95%CI: 0.46–1.14). We highlight the importance of a correct follow-up immunization schedule in reducing the number of cases and hospitalizations. PMID:23302866

  18. Pregnancy as an opportunity to diagnose human-immunodeficiency virus immigrant women in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; López-Lacort, Mónica; Soler-Palacín, Pere; Mur, Antonio; Méndez, María; Mayol, Lluís; Vallmanya, Teresa; Almeda, Jesús; Carnicer-Pont, Dolors; Casabona, Jordi; Fortuny, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is relevant in the global epidemiology of human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as it represents the main route of infection in children. The study objectives were to determine the rate of HIV-MTCT and its epidemiological trend between the Spanish-born and immigrant population in Catalonia in the period 2000-2014. A prospective observational study of mother-child pairs exposed to HIV, treated in 12 hospitals in Catalonia in the period 2000-2014. HIV-MTCT rate was estimated using a Bayesian logistic regression model. R and WinBUGS statistical software were used. The analysis included 909 pregnant women, 1,009 pregnancies, and 1,032 children. Data on maternal origin was obtained in 79.4% of women, of whom 32.7% were immigrants, with 53.0% of these from sub-Saharan Africa. The overall HIV-MTCT rate was 1.4% (14/1,023; 95% CI; 0.8-2.3). The risk of MTCT-HIV was 10-fold lower in women with good virological control (P=.01), which was achieved by two-thirds of them. The proportion of immigrants was significantly higher in the period 2008-2014 (Pde Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Language Learning Actions in Two 1x1 Secondary Schools in Catalonia: The Case of Online Language Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Boris Vázquez; Cassany, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes current attitudes towards classroom digitization and digital language learning practices under the umbrella of EduCAT 1x1, the One-Laptop-Per-Child (OLPC or 1x1) initiative in place in Catalonia. We thoroughly analyze practices worked out by six language teachers and twelve Compulsory Secondary Education (CSE)…

  20. Enhancing the Participation of Immigrant Families in Schools through Intermediary Organizations? the Case of Parents' Associations in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Alejandro

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of an action-research project developed in a federation of Parents Associations (PAs) in Catalonia, aimed at helping PAs involve immigrant families. First, I nuance the idea of participation in schools to highlight some of the problems associated with participative initiatives targeting"'hard to reach"…

  1. Does On-Line Distance Higher Education Pay off for Adult Learners? The Case of the Open University of Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin; Rabling, Brenda Jarillo; Castano-Munoz, Jonatan; Montoliu, Josep Maria Duart; Sancho-Vinuesa, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The increasing opportunities created for adults by on-line distance universities raise important issues about the payoff to such education. This study uses a unique set of survey data gathered by the Open University of Catalonia (UOC) in 2009 to estimate the earnings gains of the 2000-2003 cohorts of UOC students in six programmes of study over an…

  2. Outsourcing the State's Responsibilities? Third Sector Organizations Supporting Migrant Families' Participation in Schools in Catalonia and London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Alejandro; D'Angelo, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    Based on two case studies of Third Sector Organizations (TSOs) working with schools and parents in Catalonia and London, this paper aims to discuss some of the implications of "participative" programmes aimed at involving those migrant families seen by schools as "hard to reach". First, we describe how an ambiguous notion of…

  3. [Suicide in Spain today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Olry de Labry-Lima, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Spain presents one of the lowest suicide rates (8.7 per 100,000) but, as well as Ireland, it has also experienced one of the highest rate increases both within Europe and within the world. In our country, it can be observed an increase in the suicide rates from 1975 to 1994, being this increase greater in men than in women. It can also be noted that there was a stabilisation in the following years. Social factors, specially those which have to deal with gender roles and changes in these roles, are the most common explanations. Another possible explanation for the observed increase in mortality due to suicide among young men could be the AIDS epidemic and intravenous drug addiction, that was observed in Spain during the eighties and nineties. Furthermore, we are witnessing an epidemic related to violence against children and women. Literature strongly suggests that child abuse (psychological and sexual) is associated with increased suicide risk in adolescent or adult life. Women experience violence from their intimate partners and have a greater risk of suffering from chronic pain, diverse somatisations, greater substance use like drugs and alcohol, depression and suicide attempt. The association between work precariousness and suicide seems to be due to economic and social and family support factors, which can lead to greater vulnerability to mental health problems. These factors are of great relevance, since Spain presents one of the highest unemployment and temporary employment rates in the European Union. It seems reasonable that, due to the individualism that characterises the contemporary society, its demands and the new role of women in the work market that cause, among others, a greater difficulty in combining work and family life, are factors that could explain the lack of decrease in suicide rates.

  4. Energy planning in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina Garcia, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report aims to describe energy planning in Spain. It briefly analyses the three completed national energy plans (Plan Energetico Nacional, PEN). The fourth PEN 1991-2000 is analysed in detail, by reference to its objectives and characteristics and to developments during its first five years in operation. The Ministry of Industry and Energy has updated PEN en 1995, almost halfway through its period, and this is also summarised. Finally, there are some reflections on the future of energy planning. (Author) 46 refs

  5. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velilla, A.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.) [pt

  6. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  7. Cross section analyses in MiniBooNE and SciBooNE experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Katori, Teppei

    2013-01-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment (2002-2012) and the SciBooNE experiment (2007-2008) are modern high statistics neutrino experiments, and they developed many new ideas in neutrino cross section analyses. In this note, I discuss selected topics of these analyses.

  8. MicroBooNE: The Search For The MiniBooNE Low Energy Excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaleko, David [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes work towards the search for a low energy excess in MicroBooNE. What MicroBooNE is, what the low energy excess is, and how one searches for the latter in the former will be described in detail.

  9. Grapevine yellows diseases in Spain: eight year survey of disease spread and molecular characterization of phytoplasmas involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres, Ester

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Among grapevine yellows phytoplasma diseases in Europe, flavescence dorée (FD is the most devastating and in the last decade has reached Spanish vineyards, mainly in Catalonia. An eight-year survey was carried out in the areas where the disease has spread (Alt Empordà, Catalonia, Northern Spain and in the remaining vine-growing areas of Catalonia. Sequence analyses of a portion of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA cistron, from selected grapevine samples from Catalonia, showed that the phytoplasmas involved in grapevine yellows belong to 16S ribosomal subgroups V-D (flavescence dorée, FD and XII-A (bois noir, BN. A set of Spanish FD isolates collected during these years were further studied by RFLP analyses of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA fragment, as well as the rpS3 and SecY genes. All the FD phytoplasma strains studied were related to phytoplasmas belonging to ribosomal protein subgroup rp-E.La flavescencia dorada (FD es la enfermedad más agresiva de entre todas las enfermedades de fitoplasmas que causan amarilleos de vid en Europa, y que en la última década ha alcanzado también a los viñedos de España, principalmente en Cataluña. Se ha realizado un seguimiento durante ocho años en las zonas donde la enfermedad se había difundido (Alt Empordà, Cataluña y en el resto de zonas con cultivo de vid de Cataluña. El análisis del fragmento del gen DNA ribosomal 16S-23S, de una selección de muestras de vides de Cataluña, indica que los fitoplasmas que están implicados en los amarilleos de vid pertenecen a los subgrupos ribosomales 16S V-D (flavescencia dorada, FD y XII-A (bois noir, BN. Una selección de aislados españoles de FD obtenidos durante estos años se ha examinado mediante análisis RFLP del fragmento del gen ribosomal 16S-23S, y de los genes rpS3 y SecY. Todos los aislamientos de fitoplasmas FD estudiados están relacionados con fitoplasmas pertenecientes al subgrupo de proteína ribosomal rp-E.

  10. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  11. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villota, C. de

    2007-01-01

    Carlos Villota. Director of Nuclear Energy of UNESA gave an overview of the Spanish nuclear industry, the utility companies and the relevant institutions. Companies of the nuclear industry include firms that produce heavy components or equipment (ENSA), manufacturers of nuclear fuel (ENUSA), engineering companies, the National Company for Radioactive Waste Management (ENRESA), and nuclear power plants (nine units at seven sites). Nuclear energy is a significant component of the energy mix in Spain: 11% of all energy produced in Spain is of nuclear origin, whilst the share of nuclear energy in the total electricity generation is approximately 23%. The five main players of the energy sector that provide for the vast majority of electricity production, distribution, and supply have formed the Spanish Electricity Industry Association (UNESA). The latter carries out co-ordination, representation, management and promotion tasks for its members, as well as the protection of their business and professional interests. In the nuclear field, UNESA through its Nuclear Energy Committee co-ordinates aspects related to nuclear safety and radiological protection, regulation, NPP operation and R and D. Regarding the institutional framework of the nuclear industry, ENSA, ENUSA and ENRESA are controlled by the national government through the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Ministry of Science and Technology. All companies of the nuclear industry are licensed by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITYC), while the regulatory body is the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). It is noteworthy that CSN is independent of the government, as it reports directly to Parliament. (author)

  12. Reaction cross section for Ne isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, R.N.; Sahu, B.K.; Patra, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present contribution, first the bulk properties are calculated, such as binding energy (BE), root mean square charge radius r ch , matter radius r m and quadrupole deformation parameter β 2 for 18-32 Ne isotopes in the Relativistic mean field (RMF) and effective field theory motivated RMF (E-RMF) formalisms . Then the total nuclear reaction cross section σR is analyzes for the scattering of 20 Ne and 28-32 Ne from a 12 C target at 240 MeV/nucleon by using the RMF model. Thus the objective of the present study is to calculate the bulk properties as well as a systematic analysis of σR over a range of neutron rich nuclei in the frame work of Glauber model

  13. Middle Jurassic shear zones at Cap de Creus (eastern Pyrenees, Spain) : a record of pre-drift extension of the Piemonte–Ligurian Ocean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Reinoud L. M.; Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Wilkinson, Camilla M.; Ganerød, Morgan

    The Cap de Creus peninsula in NE Spain consists of greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metasediments and granitoid bodies of the Variscan Axial Zone of the Pyrenees, overprinted in the north by anastomosed greenschist-facies shear zones. Current tectonic interpretations ascribe these shear zones to

  14. Fish fauna of the Camp dels Ninots locality (Pliocene; Caldes de Malavella, province of Girona, Spain) - first results with notes on palaeoecology and taphonomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Gómez de Soler, B.; Oms, O.; Roubach, S.; Blain, H-A.; Agustí, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2016), s. 347-357 ISSN 0891-2963 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Camp dels Ninots * Cyprinidae * maar lake * NE Spain * Pliocene * Teleostei Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.556, year: 2016

  15. Burnup credit in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J.M.; Recio, M.

    2001-01-01

    The status of development of burnup credit for criticality safety analyses in Spain is described in this paper. Ongoing activities in the country in this field, both national and international, are resumed. Burnup credit is currently being applied to wet storage of PWR fuel, and credit to integral burnable absorbers is given for BWR fuel storage. It is envisaged to apply burnup credit techniques to the new generation of transport casks now in the design phase. The analysis methodologies submitted for the analyses of PWR and BWR fuel wet storage are outlined. Analytical activities in the country are described, as well as international collaborations in this field. Perspectives for future research and development of new applications are finally resumed. (author)

  16. The tuberculosis program of Catalonia's Central Health Region (1986-1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret-Cuadras, P; Gonzalez-Fernandez, P; Lopez-Sanmartin, J L; Martin-Ramos, A; Pina Gutierrez, J M

    1997-04-01

    Catalonia's Central Health Region antituberculosis program, which began in 1985. To evaluate the cooperation of health staff and the program's effectiveness after 8 years. The following data from the nominal notifications and the expanded case reports were processed: epidemiological, clinical and treatment data, each patient's end results and the outcome of the contact investigation. The implementation of the program was evaluated by means of the number of notifications and contact investigations received, and its effectiveness was assessed by the percentage of sputum smear positive cases having completed treatment. There was an increase in the number of patients with an expanded case report (from 74% to 100%), with a final notification (from 61% to 99%) and with contact investigation (from 29% to 79%). The sputum smear positive cases who completed the treatment after 1990 exceeded 85%. The implementation of the program in the Region's health system is good and is improving in parallel with the control of the disease.

  17. Police governmentality of fear on social movements around 15M in Catalonia (2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Amor Benedicto Salmerón

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 began a period of major global structural changes that are significantly affecting the lives of many countries and social protest increases. To implement these changes, it is resorting to forms of governmentality of exception related to military logic. In these logics, fear is often used as a tool for driving the behavior of the population. In this article, we asked about the use of fear as a tool of governmentality; we analyzed how is fear management in policing on the social movements and their possible consistent with those warlike logic of exception in the situation in Catalonia, in times of social mobilization around 15M, also known as the indignados (2011 -2012. We conducted a field research in everyday life through which we locate numerous government and policing activity relatable to the management of fear. Key words: 15M; Political Repression; Governmentality of Exception; Fear

  18. Medieval Settlement Formation in Catalonia: Villages, their Territories and communication paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi BOLÒS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses its attention on Catalonia and points to the importance of using several literary sources as a means of identifying the main characteristics of Catalan settlements throughout the Early Middle Ages (6th-10th Centuries. Apart from the need to use written and archaeological documents, the study highlights the importance of understanding and interpreting place-names and of reconstructing landscape history. Special emphasis is placed on the interest of interpreting by means of consulting documents, maps and orthophotomaps as witnesses that allow us to know the boundaries of the Early Medieval settlements. At the centre of these boundaries stand several small population centres (hamlets and a church. Several agricultural territories of various villages are reconstructed. Likewise, the study relates population with communication paths, churches and necropolis of the Early Middle Ages.

  19. [Coordination between pharmaceutical services for integrated pharmacotherapy: the case of Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Karen Sarmento; Goldbaum, Moisés; Guayta-Escolies, Rafel; Modamio, Pilar; Mariño, Eduardo Luis; Tolsá, José Luis Segú

    2017-08-01

    Pharmaceutical policies have been considered strategies to contribute to the guarantee of care coordination and clinical integration. This study sought to describe the pharmaceutical services developed at different levels of care in the health network in Catalonia, as well as to identify and analyze the mechanisms and instruments that act as facilitators and/or barriers to the coordination of pharmacotherapy. This is a descriptive study of 12 cases of hospital pharmacy services, primary care and community pharmacies. Advances related to the perception, formalization and clinical and assistance coordination of the pharmaceutical services were identified. However, weaknesses and potential improvements in coordination were observed. The conclusion drawn was that the different tools and instruments implemented appear to facilitate a greater possibility of integration between pharmaceutical services and the latter with the health services network to contribute to integrated pharmacotherapy.

  20. Milk, social acceptance of a new food in Europe: Catalonia, 19th-20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau-Nos, Roser; Pujol-Andreu, Josep; Hernández, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    In this article we analyse the time course of the consumption of fresh milk in different regions of Europe between the 1870s and 1930s. Working from the case of Catalonia, we affirm that the increasing consumption of milk in that period must be especially linked to the spreading of new scientific knowledge in microbiology and nutrition that followed Pasteur's discoveries. We particularly highlight the information dissemination activities in this direction carried out by health sector professionals (medical doctors and pharmacists), governing local institutions and the milk industry. The initiatives developed by these groups changed people's preferences--fresh milk became accepted as a necessary food-stuff, and demand for it increased. However, the evolution of consumption was not the same in all regions of Europe due to their different environmental and agronomic conditions.

  1. The productive efficiency of organic farming: the case of grape sector in Catalonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guesmi, B.; Serra, T.; Kallas, Z.; Gil Roig, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    Knowledge about productivity and efficiency differences between conventional and organic farms has important implications for the evaluation of the economic viability of these two agricultural practices. The main purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency ratings of organic and conventional grape farms in Catalonia. To do so, we fit a stochastic production frontier to cross sectional, farm-level data collected from a sample of 141 Catalan farms that specialize in grape growing. Results show that organic farmers, on average, are more efficient than their conventional counterparts (efficiency ratings are on the order of 0.80 and 0.64, respectively). Apart from adoption of organic practices, experience is also found to improve technical efficiency. Conversely, technical efficiency tends to decrease with the relevance of unpaid family labor, farm location in less favored areas, and farmers strong environmental preservation preferences. (Author) 41 refs.

  2. Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the high river Ter valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigat, Montse; Bonet, Maria Angels; Garcia, Sònia; Garnatje, Teresa; Vallès, Joan

    2007-09-05

    An ethnobotanical study has been carried out in the high river Ter valley (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula) a small area located in the eastern Pyrenees, with 294 km(2) and 4526 inhabitants. Through 42 interviews with 60 informants of a mean age of 71.1, 220 species belonging to 71 botanical families were reported, 90.6% of which were used in human medicine and 7.8% in veterinary therapy. The present paper is focused on human medicinal plant uses. One fungal and four vascular plant species have not, or have very rarely been cited as medicinal, and for other taxa some very scarcely reported medicinal uses have been recorded (110 uses concerning 78 species).

  3. Thermal shock and splash effects on burned gypseous soils from the Ebro Basin (NE Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon, J.; Seeger, M.; Badia, D.; Peters, P.; Echeverria, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Fire is a natural factor of landscape evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems. The middle Ebro Valley has extreme aridity, which results in a low plant cover and high soil erodibility, especially on gypseous substrates. The aim of this research is to analyze the effects of moderate heating on physical

  4. Groundwater Contamination by Uranium and Mercury at the Ridaura Aquifer (Girona, NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Navarro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated concentrations of uranium and mercury have been detected in drinking water from public supply and agricultural wells in alluvial and granitic aquifers of the Ridaura basin located at Catalan Coastal Ranges (CCR. The samples showed high concentrations of U above the U.S. standards and the World Health Organization regulations which set a maximum value of 30 µg/L. Further, high mercury concentrations above the European Drinking Water Standards (1 μg/L were found. Spatial distribution of U in groundwater and geochemical evolution of groundwater suggest that U levels appear to be highest in granitic areas where groundwater has long residence times and a significant salinity. The presence of high U concentrations in alluvial groundwater samples could be associated with hydraulic connection through fractures between the alluvial system and deep granite system. According to this model, oxidizing groundwater moving through fractures in the leucocratic/biotitic granite containing anomalous U contents are the most likely to acquire high levels of U. The distribution of Hg showed concentrations above 1 μg/L in 10 alluvial samples, mainly located near the limit of alluvial aquifer with igneous rocks, which suggests a possible migration of Hg from granitic materials. Also, some samples showed Hg concentrations comprised between 0.9 and 1.5 μg/L, from wells located in agricultural areas.

  5. Establishing a tracer-based sediment budget to preserve wetlands in Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, Ana, E-mail: anavas@eead.csic.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); López-Vicente, Manuel, E-mail: mvicente@eead.csic.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); Gaspar, Leticia, E-mail: leticia.gaspar@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Science, Plymouth University, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Palazón, Leticia, E-mail: lpalazon@eead.csic.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); Quijano, Laura, E-mail: lquijano@eead.cisc.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Mountain wetlands in Mediterranean regions are particularly threatened in agricultural environments due to anthropogenic activity. An integrated study of source-to-sink sediment fluxes was carried out in an agricultural catchment that holds a small permanent lake included in the European NATURA 2000 Network. More than 1000 yrs of human intervention and the variety of land uses pose a substantial challenge when attempting to estimate sediment fluxes which is the first requirement to protect fragile wetlands. To date, there have been few similar studies and those that have been carried out have not addressed such complex terrain. Geostatistical interpolation and GIS tools were used to derive the soil spatial redistribution from point {sup 137}Cs inventories, and to establish the sediment budget in a catchment located in the Southern Pyrenees. The soil redistribution was intense and soil erosion predominated over soil deposition. On the areas that maintained natural vegetation the median soil erosion and deposition rates were moderate, ranging from 2.6 to 6 Mg ha yr{sup −1} and 1.5 to 2.1 Mg ha yr{sup −1}, respectively. However, in cultivated fields both erosion and deposition were significantly higher (ca. 20 Mg ha yr{sup −1}), and the maximum rates were always associated with tillage practices. Farming activities in the last part of the 20th century intensified soil erosion, as evidenced by the 1963 {sup 137}Cs peaks in the lake cores and estimates from the sediment budget indicated a net deposition of 671 Mg yr{sup −1}. Results confirm a siltation risk for the lake and provide a foundation for designing management plans to preserve this threatened wetland. This comprehensive approach provides information useful for understanding processes that influence the patterns and rates of soil transfer and deposition within fragile Mediterranean mountain wetlands subjected to climate and anthropogenic stresses. - Highlights: • Soil erosion threatens long-term sustainability of mountain wetlands and agriculture. • {sup 137}Cs was applied for estimation of soil redistribution in a complex catchment. • A tracer derived sediment budget identified main sources causing lake siltation. • Fallout tracer and GIS provided information useful for wetland preservation. • Vegetation strips around fields would reduce siltation from tillage erosion.

  6. Natural and human-induced sinkholes in gypsum terrain and associated environmental problems in NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, G.; Del Campo, P. Pérez; Gutiérrez-Elorza, M.; Sancho, C.

    1995-04-01

    The central Ebro Basin comprises thick evaporite materials whose high solubility produces typically karstic landforms. The sinkhole morphology developed in the overlying alluvium has been studied using gravimetry and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) on stream terraces, as well as analyzing the evolution of sinkhole morphologies observed in aerial photographs taken in 1928, 1957, and 1985. The sinkhole morphologies give some idea of possible subsurface processes as well as an indication of the final mechanisms involve in sinkhole development. On stream terraces and cover pediments the most commonly encountered dolines are bowl-shaped in their morphology with both diffuse and scarped edges. In contrast, dolines developed in the gypsiferous silt infilled valleys have a funnel and well-shaped morphology. The diffuse-edged bowl-shaped dolines are developed through the progressive subsidence of the alluvial cover, due to washing down of alluvial particles through small voids and cracks into deeper subsurface caves, resulting in a decrease alluvial density. Future compaction of the alluvial cover will produce surface subsidences. This type of dolines are associated with negative gravity anomalies. In contrast, the scarped-edge dolines are formed by the sudden collapse of a cavity roof. The cavities and cracks formed in the gypsum karst may migrate to the surface through the alluvial deposits by piping, and they may subsequently collapse. In this instance, the cavities can be detected by both gravity and GPR anomalies where the voids are not deeper than 4 5 m from the surface. These processes forming sinkholes can be enhanced by man-induced changes in the groundwater hydrologic regime by both inflows, due to irrigation, ditch losses, or pipe leakages, and by outflows from pumping activities.

  7. Environmental risk analysis of oil handling facilities in port areas. Application to Tarragona harbor (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdor, Paloma F; Gómez, Aina G; Puente, Araceli

    2015-01-15

    Diffuse pollution from oil spills is a widespread problem in port areas (as a result of fuel supply, navigation and loading/unloading activities). This article presents a method to assess the environmental risk of oil handling facilities in port areas. The method is based on (i) identification of environmental hazards, (ii) characterization of meteorological and oceanographic conditions, (iii) characterization of environmental risk scenarios, and (iv) assessment of environmental risk. The procedure has been tested by application to the Tarragona harbor. The results show that the method is capable of representing (i) specific local pollution cases (i.e., discriminating between products and quantities released by a discharge source), (ii) oceanographic and meteorological conditions (selecting a representative subset data), and (iii) potentially affected areas in probabilistic terms. Accordingly, it can inform the design of monitoring plans to study and control the environmental impact of these facilities, as well as the design of contingency plans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated approach for sinkhole evaluation and evolution prediction in the Central Ebro Basin (NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pueyo Anchuela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of karst hazards benefits from the integration of different techniques, methodologies and approaches. Each one presents a different signature and is sensitive to certain indicators related to karst hazards. In some cases, detailed analysis permits the evaluation of representativeness either from isolated approaches or by means of integrated analyses. In this study, we present the evaluation of an area with high density of karstic collapses at different evolutionary stages through the integration of surficial, historical, geomorphological and geophysical data in order to finally define the evolutionary model for karst activity development. The obtained dataset permits to identify different steps in sinkhole evolution: (i cavities and open sinkholes, (ii filling of these cavities, with materials having different signatures, (iii the progression from collapses to subsidence sinkholes and (iv enlargement through collapses in marginal areas of previous sinkholes. The presence of different stages of this evolutionary model permits to determine their own signatures that can be of application in contexts where analysis cannot be so systematic and also to evaluate the definition of the marginal areas of previous sinkholes as the most hazardous sectors.

  9. Changes of the fluid regime behaviour through time in fault zones (Catalan Coastal Ranges, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Irene; Lanari, Pierre; Alías, Gemma; Travé, Anna; Vidal, Olivier; Baqués, Vinyet

    2013-04-01

    Most Neogene normal faults of the central Catalan Coastal Ranges are the reactivation of previous normal Mesozoic faults and Paleogene thrust faults. These faults, such as the Vallès and the Hospital faults, are characterised by developing polyphasic fault-fluid systems. These systems have been inferred from regional to thin section scale observations combined with geochemical analyses. Moreover, the neoformation of chlorite and K-white mica in fault rocks has allowed us to constrain the P-T conditions during fault evolution using thermodynamic modelling. In these two faults, deformation is mainly localized in the basement granodiorite from the footwall. As a whole, four tectonic events have been distinguished. The first event corresponds to the Hercynian compression, which is characterised by mylonite bands in the Hospital fault. After this first compressional event and during the exhumation of the pluton, crystallization of M1 and M2 muscovite and microcline occurred in the Vallès fault as result of deuteric alteration, at temperatures between 330°C and 370°C. The second event, attributed to the Mesozoic rifting, is characterized by precipitation of M3 and M4 phengite together with chlorite and calcite C1 at temperatures between 190 and 310°C. These minerals precipitated from a fluid resulting from the mixing between marine waters and meteoric waters, which had been warmed at depth, upflowing along the faults. The third event, corresponding to the Paleogene compression, is characterised by low-temperature meteoric fluids, responsible of precipitation of calcite C2, in the Hospital fault. In the Vallès fault, the Paleogene compression generated a shortcut that produced a blue gouge and the uplift of the Mesozoic structures, avoiding the formation of new minerals within them. Finally, the fourth event, related to the Neogene extension, was responsible of syn-rift cements such as chlorite, calcite C4 and laumontite in the Vallès fault and calcite C3 in the Hospital fault. Fluids responsible of their precipitation had temperatures between 125 and 190°C. Regarding their origin, fluids of the Vallès fault are meteoric fluids which have been warmed at depth and have upflowed through the faults, whereas in the Hospital fault, these fluids have been mixed at the surface with marine waters, due to the situation of this fault in the Miocene shoreline. During the post-rift stage, the Hospital fault was dominated by low-temperature meteoric fluids whereas in the Vallès fault hydrothe