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Sample records for catalonia ne spain

  1. Factors influencing the breeding density of Bearded Vultures, Egyptian Vultures and Eurasian Griffon Vultures in Catalonia (NE Spain): management implications

    OpenAIRE

    Margalida, A.; García, D.; Cortés-Avizanda, A.

    2007-01-01

    Using multivariate analyses we examined differences in breeding density of the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus, the Eurasian Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus and the Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus in NE Spain (Catalonia) in relation to trophic, orographic-landscape and anthropic variables. Sampling units used were regional divisions (comarques). High density of Bearded Vulture was principally linked to areas with scant vegetation and low human population density. In contrast, high densit...

  2. A database about the tornadic activity in Catalonia (NE Spain) since 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M. E.; Arús, J.; Llasat, M. C.; Castán, S.

    2009-09-01

    Although tornadic activity is not the most important hazard in Spain, the damages that tornadoes and downburst generate are considerable in urban areas, giving place in some occasions to casualties. In Spain, the oldest systematic works collecting data about tornadoes, refer to the Balearic Islands, although some series about tornadoes in Spain have also been collected and analysed (Gayà, 2005). These series shows a positive increase that is probably more related to a change in the perception level of the population than to climatic change. In some occasions it is difficult to separate the damages produced by the tornado itself from those produced by other associated hazards like heavy rains, hail or a wind storms. It was the case of the September 2006 event, in which flash floods and tornadoes were recorded. In the same sense in some occasions, damages produced by a downsburt are confused with those that produced by a tornado. Having in mind all these facts, having a good systematic data base about tornadoes is necessary, before to obtain some conclusions not enough justified. This kind of database is not easy to obtain, because of it requires to have detailed information about damages, meteorological observations and testimonies that has to be filtered by a good quality control. After a general presentation about tornadoes and downsbursts in Mediterranean Region, this contribution presents the database that have affected Catalonia during the period 1994-2009, starting with the tornado recorded on the Espluga de Francolí the 31 August 1994.This database has been built in basis to the AEMET information, the Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros (the insurance company of Spain for natural disasters), the newspapers and field visits to the affected places.

  3. Factors influencing the breeding density of Bearded Vultures, Egyptian Vultures and Eurasian Griffon Vultures in Catalonia (NE Spain: management implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margalida, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Using multivariate analyses we examined differences in breeding density of the Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus, the Eurasian Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus and the Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus in NE Spain (Catalonia in relation to trophic, orographic-landscape and anthropic variables. Sampling units used were regional divisions (comarques. High density of Bearded Vulture was principally linked to areas with scant vegetation and low human population density. In contrast, high densities of both the Egyptian and Eurasian Griffon Vultures were associated with availability of trophic resources (sheep and goats. Positive effects were detected in relation to low density of inhabitants (Egyptian Vulture and altitudes between 1,000-2,000 m and landscape with low tree cover (Eurasian Griffon Vulture. The Bearded Vulture seemed to be the most selective species in relation to environmental characteristics while the Eurasian Griffon and the Egyptian Vultures displayed a higher degree of ecological plasticity. Future conservation actions should bear these results in mind in order to optimise management. Food resources from extensive livestock farming, in particular, seem fundamental for the conservation of scavenger species. Preference monitoring and conservation efforts are needed in the regions with highest vulture densities (Alta Ribagorça, Pallars Jussà and Alt Urgell, while regions with low vulture populations should be managed in order to favour the geographical expansion and recolonisation of zones currently not occupied by these species. Conservation priorities should be based on favouring extensive livestock practices, and as an alternative to muladares (traditional animal carcass disposal sites farmers should be encouraged to leave animal carcasses in the field, while ensuring compliance with health regulations.

  4. Lack of evidence of spill-over of Salmonella enterica between cattle and sympatric Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from a protected area in Catalonia, NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Velarde, R; Porrero, M C; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2014-08-01

    Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic agent of worldwide importance found in a wide range of wild hosts. However, its prevalence in many popular game species has never been assessed. Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) is the main game caprinae of the Iberian Peninsula and around two thousand individuals are hunted every year for trophy or for home consumption. In this work, 313 Iberian ibexes from the Ports de Tortosa i Beseit National Game Reserve (NE Spain) were tested for Salmonella enterica in faeces, and anti microbial susceptibility was determined. The exact location of shooting or capture was recorded with a GPS device to study the links of Salmonella infection with cattle presence and human proximity. Additionally, samples were taken from cattle grazing inside this reserve (n = 73). Only three Iberian ibexes (0.96%, 95% CI 0.2-2.8) were positive to Salmonella (serotype Enteritidis, Bardo and 35:r:z35), while prevalence was moderate in cattle: 21.92% (95% CI 13.10-33.14, serotype Meleagridis, Anatum, Kedougou and Othmarschen). All isolates were susceptible to the anti microbial agents tested. Moreover, a case of fatal septicaemic salmonellosis in an 11-year-old male Iberian ibex is described where Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was isolated from the lung, liver and spleen samples. The low prevalence of Salmonella in Iberian ibex and the lack of shared serotypes suggest no association to cattle. Despite this, game meat aimed for human consumption should be examined, and it is strongly recommended that hunters and game keepers manipulate animals and carcasses under maximal hygienic conditions to avoid environmental contamination and human contagion.

  5. Diagenesis and Geochemistry of Upper Muschelkalk (Triassic) Buildups and Associated Facies in Catalonia (NE Spain): a paper dedicated to Francesc Calvet

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, M.; Marshall, J

    2004-01-01

    Carbonate buildups are well developed in the Triassic Upper Muschelkalk of eastern Spain in the La Riba Unit, but they are completely dolomitised. These mud-mounds with reefal caps have well-developed fibrous and botryoidal marine cements which were probably high-Mg calcite and aragonite originally. The dolomite is fabric retentive indicating an early origin, but the d18O values are quite negative (average -3.‰), interpreted as indicating recrystallisation during shallow burial, but without f...

  6. A Mediterranean derecho: Catalonia (Spain), 17th August 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. Manuel

    2007-02-01

    At approximately 6:10 UTC in the morning of 17th August 2003, a squall line developed over south Catalonia (the northeast region of Spain). During the next 9 h, the squall moved rapidly northeast and crossed Catalonia and the French regions of Languedoc-Roussillon and Province, damaging and uprooting hundreds of trees and blocking trains in the region. Wind gusts reached were recoded up to 52 m/s with evidence of F2 intensity damage. This case study shows the characteristics of a derecho (widespread convectively induced windstorm). Radar observations of the evolving squall line show signatures often correlated with damaging surface winds, including: Bow echoes, Rear inflow notches, Rear inflow jets, Medium altitude radial convergence, Narrow gradient of very marked reflectivity, Development of isolated cells ahead of the convective line, A band of convection off the northern end of the line known as a "warm advection wing". When examining the different surface observations, satellite, radar imagery and cloud-to-ground lightning data, this case shows many similarities to those investigated in the United States. The derecho is a hybrid case, but has many characteristics of warm season derechoes. This emanates from a mesoscale convective complex (MCC) moving along a quasi-stationary, low-level thermal boundary in an environment characterized by high potential instability and relatively strong mid-tropospheric winds.

  7. Dietary intake of organic pollutants in children from Catalonia, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocio, A.; Falco, G.; Llobet, J.M.; Domingo, J.L. [Lab. of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Reus (Spain); Mueller, L. [SGS GmbH, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Potential human toxicity of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is well known. Moreover, it is also well established that dietary intake is the major route of human exposure for most POPs. In recent years, concern on dietary intake of POPs and other organic environmental contaminants has notably increased. Dietary intake of these pollutants is of special interest in children populations, who in relation to their body weights consume greater quantities of food than adults. Consequently, they are more exposed to potentially toxic pollutants. In 2000, a wide survey on dietary intake of a number of organic contaminants by the general population of Catalonia Spain was carried out. The levels of the following pollutants were determined in an important number of food samples belonging to various food groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The present study was undertaken to estimate the dietary intake of the above pollutants by children between 4 and 9 years old, as well as to assess the potential health risks derived from this intake.

  8. Epidemiology of foodborne Norovirus outbreaks in Catalonia, Spain

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    Godoy Pere

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses are one of the principal biological agents associated with the consumption of contaminated food. The objective of this study was to analyse the size and epidemiological characteristics of foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Catalonia, a region in the northeast of Spain. Methods In all reported outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with food consumption, faecal samples of persons affected were analysed for bacteria and viruses and selectively for parasites. Study variables included the setting, the number of people exposed, age, sex, clinical signs and hospital admissions. The study was carried out from October 2004 to October 2005. Results Of the 181 outbreaks reported during the study period, 72 were caused by Salmonella and 30 by norovirus (NoV; the incidence rates were 14.5 and 9.9 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. In 50% of the NoV outbreaks and 27% of the bacterial outbreaks (p = 0.03 the number of persons affected was ≥10; 66.7% of NoV outbreaks occurred in restaurants; no differences in the attack rates were observed according to the etiology. Hospitalizations were more common (p = 0.03 in bacterial outbreaks (8.6% than in NoV outbreaks (0.15%. Secondary cases accounted for 4% of cases in NoV outbreaks compared with 0.3% of cases in bacterial outbreaks (p Conclusion Norovirus outbreaks were larger but less frequent than bacterial outbreaks, suggesting that underreporting is greater for NoV outbreaks. Food handlers should receive training on the transmission of infections in diverse situations. Very strict control measures on handwashing and environmental disinfection should be adopted in closed or partially-closed institutions.

  9. Why Do Higher Graduates Regret Their Field of Studies? Some Evidence from Catalonia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Toni

    2010-01-01

    The present paper focuses on transitions from school to work for recent higher education graduates in Catalonia, Spain. In particular, we concentrate on the relationship between mismatch and disappointment with the chosen university career. For that purpose, we employ cross-sectional survey data provided by The Quality Assurance Agency for the…

  10. Are commuting and residential mobility decisions simultaneous? : the case of Catalonia (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Romaní Fernández, Javier, 1969-; Suriñach Caralt, Jordi; Artís Ortuño, Manuel

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we study the commuting and moving decisions of workers in Catalonia (Spain) and its evolution in the 1986-1996 period. Using a microdata sample from the 1991 Spanish Population Census, we estimate a simultaneous, discrete choice model of commuting and moves, thus indirectly addressing the home and job location decisions. The econometrical framework is a simultaneous, binary probit model with a commute equation and a move equation

  11. Participation in protected areas: a social network case study in Catalonia, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Calvet-Mir; Sara Maestre-Andrés; José Luis Molina; Jeroen van den Bergh

    2015-01-01

    Local participation of stakeholders in governance of protected areas is considered to be important to natural resource management and biodiversity conservation. Social network analysis (SNA) is a useful tool for analysis because it allows the understanding of stakeholders' relationships, interactions, and influences through communication networks. We combine quantitative and qualitative data to undertake a SNA for the natural park of Sant Llorenç del Munt in Catalonia, Spain. This is aimed at...

  12. Profile, cost and pattern of prescriptions for polymedicated patients in Catalonia, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lizano-Díez, Irene; Modamio, Pilar; López-Calahorra, Pilar; Lastra, Cecilia F; Gilabert-Perramon, Antoni; Segú, Jose L; Mariño, Eduardo L

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Polypharmacy is one of the main management issues in public health policies because of its financial impact and the increasing number of people involved. The polymedicated population according to their demographic and therapeutic profile and the cost for the public healthcare system were characterised. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Primary healthcare in Barcelona Health Region, Catalonia, Spain (5 105 551 inhabitants registered). PARTICIPANTS: All insured polymedicated p...

  13. The Crisis of Public Local Digital Terrestrial Television in Spain: The case of Catalonia

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    Federica Alborch-Gil, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes and analyses the state of public local digital terrestrial television (L-DTT in Catalonia just after the analogue switch-off in April 2010. The results show that only 12 of the 37 anticipated public television channels were broadcasting, and only five more were expected to do so in the medium term. These data indicate that public local television was experiencing a crisis in the context of the digital switchover process: while some digital programmes were finding it hard to get off the ground due to severe limitations, other historical analogue stations were disappearing.The article is grounded on qualitative research based on in-depth interviews with representatives of the 37 aforementioned channels. The objectives of the paper are: to describe the L-DTT model and its roll-out status in Catalonia as at May 2010; to provide interpretative elements to explain the crisis identified; and to provide insights for the formulation of hypotheses about the state of the sector in the rest of Spain. The results suggest that the problems of public L-DTT stem from the digital roll-out policies of the Government of Spain and the Government of Catalonia, neither of which – especially the first – seems to have taken into account the pre-existing analogue reality. In this respect, the Catalan case offers signs and evidence that can be extrapolated to the situation in Spain as a whole.

  14. Primary health care in Spain and Catalonia: a nursing model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmen Caja

    2011-12-01

    Many years have passed since the Health Care Reform in Spain, nevertheless there are still questions about the achievements in this health care level, as well as the aspects and expectations that are still pending for the medical discipline as well as for nursing. The present article analyzes whether the innovation plans recently put into action in different communities, particularly that taking place in Catalonia. Furthermore, it also addressed the current academic development in nursing in Spain, the development of the different nursing areas and aspects related to nursing prescription, screening and care to acute pathologies in Primary Health Care. PMID:22569662

  15. Proximity Online Media in Catalonia (Spain. The Case Study of Nació Digital Group

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    Mònica Puntí Brun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make a conceptualization of proximity digital media. It will define what is local and proximity communication as well as the history and evolution of online journalism and digital media features which are briefly reviewed. Business models that exist nowadays and the state of art in Catalonia (Spain will also be briefly analysed. From this theoretical framework it will be explained the case of Nació Digital and its territorial media. Initially the history of this media group will be developed, as well as its journalistic and business models. The paper seeks to underscore the importance of the journalistic model based on the tradition of the profession, the proximity information and the technology developed for this online media. The Nació Digital is an example of a successful media outlet judging from its audience figures (the second online media in Catalonia and its sustainable model business.

  16. Influence of wind on daily airborne pollen counts in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    tareq Majeed, Husam; Periago, Cristina; Alarcón, Marta; De Linares, Concepción; Belmonte, Jordina

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analize the influence of wind (speed and direction) on the daily airborne pollen counts recorded in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) of 21 pollen taxa recorded at 6 aerobiological stations: Barcelona, Bellaterra, Girona, Lleida Manresa, and Tarragona for the period 2004-2014. The taxa studied are Alnus, Betula, Castanea, Cupressaceae, Fagus, Fraxinus, Olea, Pinus, Platanus, total Quercus, Quercus deciduous type, Quercus evergreen type, Ulmus, Corylus, Pistacia, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, and Urticaceae. The mean daily wind direction was divided into 8 sectors: N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W and NW. For each sector, the correlation between the daily pollen concentrations and wind speed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was computed and compared with the wind rose charts. The results showed that Tarragona was the station with more significant correlations followed by Bellaterra, Lleida and Manresa. On the other hand, Artemisia was the most correlated taxon with mainly negative values, and Fagus was the least. The W wind direction showed the largest number of significant correlations, mostly positive, while the N direction was the least and negatively correlated.

  17. The impact of immigration and vaccination in reducing the incidence of hepatitis B in Catalonia (Spain

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    Oviedo Manuel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major cause of liver disease and liver cancer worldwide according to the World Health Organization. Following acute HBV infection, 1-5% of infected healthy adults and up to 90% of infected infants become chronic carriers and have an increased risk of cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the reduction in acute hepatitis B incidence and the universal vaccination programme in preadolescents in Catalonia (Spain, taking population changes into account, and to construct a model to forecast the future incidence of cases that permits the best preventive strategy to be adopted. Methods Reported acute hepatitis B incidence in Catalonia according to age, gender, vaccination coverage, percentage of immigrants and the year of report of cases was analysed. A statistical analysis was made using three models: generalized linear models (GLM with Poisson or negative binomial distribution and a generalized additive model (GAM. Results The higher the vaccination coverage, the lower the reported incidence of hepatitis B (p  70%, the reduction in incidence was 2-fold higher than in groups with a coverage Conclusions The results of the adjusted models in this study confirm that the global incidence of hepatitis B has declined in Catalonia after the introduction of the universal preadolescent vaccination programme, but the incidence increased in male immigrants of working age. Given the potential severity of hepatitis B for the health of individuals and for the community, universal vaccination programmes should continue and programmes in risk groups, especially immigrants, should be strengthened.

  18. Monitoring of the Gasoline Oxygenate MTBE and BTEX Compounds in Groundwater in Catalonia (Northeast Spain

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    J. Fraile

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Headspace (HS gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (HS-GC-FID and purge and trap (P gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (P were used for the determination of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE and benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTEX in groundwater. In this work, we present the first data on the levels of MTBE and BTEX in different groundwater wells in the area of Catalonia (northeast Spain. This monitoring campaign corresponded to 28 groundwater wells that were located near petrol service stations, oil refinery storage tanks, and/or chemical industry at different locations of Catalonia during the period of 1998/1999. The levels of MTBE detected varied between 4—300 μg/l, but two sites had MTBE levels up to 3 and 13 mg/l. In many cases, the BTEX levels were below 1 μg/l, whereas 7 sites had levels varying from 19 μg/l up to 3 mg/l. Most of them were related to leakage from underground tanks in petrol service stations, while the remaining three corresponded respectively to chemical industrial pollution of undetermined origin and to a leak from high-ground petrol tanks in petrochemical refinery factories. The aquifers involved were constituted by detritus coarse materials, sands, and conglomerates. Piezometric levels were roughly comprised between 3 and 40 m, and permeability (K and transmissivity (T values were estimated from field measurements.

  19. INVESTIGATING DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN E-SERVICES IMPLEMENTING OR NOT ISO 9001: CUSTOMERS' OUTLOOK IN THE BACKDROP OF E-SERVICES IN CATALONIA (SPAIN)

    OpenAIRE

    Petnji Yaya Luc Honore; Marimon Frederic; Casadesus Marti

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate from customers ? perspective, if the implementation of ISO 9001 with the scope directly related to customers (offices, claims, etc.), spawn any discrepancies on service quality, customer perceived value, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer service recovery; in the backdrop of e-services in Catalonia (Spain). Design/methodology/approach The main research target consists of e-banks operating in the region of Catalonia (Spain), besides customers w...

  20. Decommissioning of an argonaut type reactor at the Technical University of Catalonia in Barcelona (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor ARGOS is a training nuclear reactor that was active, from 1962 to 1976, at the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) in Barcelona (Spain). It is an Argonaut type experimental Reactor with 10 kW of maximal thermal power, and was set up by the main Spanish Nuclear Research Centre, presently named CIEMAT, in the period 1958-1962. In 1977, the nuclear installation was halted for technical, economical and administrative reasons. The fuel burn-up of the reactor was 2.7 kWh. In 1992 the fuel was removed from the site and a dismantling project was launched by an academic team of the UPC Nuclear Energy Department. In 1998 the Spanish authorities approved the dismantling plan which was based on the IAEA document Planning and Management of the Decommissioning of Research and Other Small Nuclear Facilities, IAEA 1993. In this plan the University proposed to set up its own dismantling group mainly based on its own academic staff and experimental facilities

  1. Occurrence of fumonisins in Catalonia (Spain) and an exposure assessment of specific population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Sancho, G; Ramos, A J; Marín, S; Sanchis, V

    2012-01-01

    Fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) and B₂ (FB₂) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum and common contaminants of cereal crops. The objectives of this study were to (1) study the occurrence of fumonisins in Catalonia (north-eastern region of Spain) and (2) assess the exposure of the Catalonian population to these mycotoxins. Contamination data was provided by a wide survey where 928 individual samples were pooled to analyse 370 composite samples. Fumonisins were extracted and purified using immunoaffinity columns and determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The raw consumption data came from a nutritional study specifically designed to assess the dietary intake of the main foodstuffs related to fumonisin contamination for all population age groups. In addition, two specific groups were selected with respect to maize consumption: immigrants and celiac sufferers. Contamination and consumption data were combined by simulation using an essentially parametric-parametric (P-P) method. The P-P method draws sampling values from distribution functions fitted to consumption and contamination datasets. Moreover, to quantify the accuracy and reliability of the statistical estimates, we built related confidence intervals using a Pseudo-Parametric bootstrap method. The results of this study show that fumonisins are commonly found in some commodities on the Catalonian market, such as beer, corn snacks and ethnic foods; however, the values were well below the permitted maximum EU levels. The most exposed group were infants followed by immigrants but, in all cases, they were below the TDI of 2 µg/kg bw/day.

  2. Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical / petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Nadal Lomas, Martí

    2005-01-01

    Tesi: Human health risk assessment of exposure to environmental pollutants in the chemical/petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain).Autor: Martí NadalResum:Un dels complexos químics/ petroquímics més importants del sud d'Europa està ubicat a Tarragona. En els darrers anys, ha augmentat la preocupació pública envers els possibles efectes adversos que el complex industrial podria tenir per a la salut de la població resident a Tarragona. En resposta, el 2002 s'inicià un estu...

  3. A fire probability model for forest stands in Catalonia (north east Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon Gonzalez, José; Palahi, Marc; Trasobares, Antoni; Pukkala, Timo

    2007-01-01

    International audience The study presents a model for the probability of fire occurrence in forest stands of Catalonia. It was developed based on data from the Second Spanish National Forest Inventory (II IFN) and perimeters of the forest fires that occurred in Catalonia during a 12-year period that followed the II IFN measurement. The model was developed for forest planning, which means that the probability of fire was predicted from variables that are known in forest planning calculation...

  4. INVESTIGATING DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN E-SERVICES IMPLEMENTING OR NOT ISO 9001: CUSTOMERS' OUTLOOK IN THE BACKDROP OF E-SERVICES IN CATALONIA (SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petnji Yaya Luc Honore

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate from customers ? perspective, if the implementation of ISO 9001 with the scope directly related to customers (offices, claims, etc., spawn any discrepancies on service quality, customer perceived value, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer service recovery; in the backdrop of e-services in Catalonia (Spain. Design/methodology/approach The main research target consists of e-banks operating in the region of Catalonia (Spain, besides customers who regularly use internet to do their banking. Self completed questionnaire was designed from a blend of existing constructs. An analysis of variance (ANOVA was per formed to a convenience sample of 428 customers of e-banking services (123 of them reported a complained about the service and 16 banks. Findings The results reveal that e-banking customers in Catalonia were not sensitive to the usage of ISO 9001. However, customers from banks that do not implement ISO 9001 perceived that the prices of the service available on their bank site were more economical. Research limitations and implication this study was done only in Catalonia expandability might be restricted. Further investigation may be done in Spain as a whole or in different countries and settings. Originality/value based on literature reviews, this study will be on e of the first to carry out such research from customers' perspective and more specifically in Catalonia. The results of the study were useful in validating previous findings.

  5. INVESTIGATING DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN E-SERVICES IMPLEMENTING OR NOT ISO 9001: CUSTOMERS' OUTLOOK IN THE BACKDROP OF E-SERVICES IN CATALONIA (SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petnji Yaya Luc Honore

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate from customers ? perspective, if the implementation of ISO 9001 with the scope directly related to customers (offices, claims, etc., spawn any discrepancies on service quality, customer perceived value, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer service recovery; in the backdrop of e-services in Catalonia (Spain. The main research target consists of e-banks operating in the region of Catalonia (Spain, besides customers who regularly use internet to do their banking. Self completed questionnaire was designed from a blend of existing constructs. An analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to a convenience sample of 428 customers of e-banking services (123 of them reported a complained about the service and 16 banks. The results reveal that e-banking customers in Catalonia were not sensitive to the usage of ISO 9001. However, customers from banks that do not implement ISO 9001 perceived that the prices of the service available on their bank site were more economical. Research limitations and implication this study was done only in Catalonia expandability might be restricted. Further investigation may be done in Spain as a whole or in different countries and settings. Originality/value based on literature reviews, this study will be one of the first to carry out such research from customers' perspective and more specifically in Catalonia. The results of the study were useful in validating previous findings.

  6. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, M; Torres, C M; Castells, F

    2016-08-15

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  7. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, M; Torres, C M; Castells, F

    2016-08-15

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  8. Tobacco control policies in hospitals before and after the implementation of a national smoking ban in Catalonia, Spain

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    Puig Montse

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diverse projects and guidelines to assist hospitals towards the attainment of comprehensive smoke-free policies have been developed. In 2006, Spain government passed a new smoking ban that reinforce tobacco control policies and banned completely smoking in hospitals. This study assesses the progression of tobacco control policies in the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals before and after a comprehensive national smoking ban. Methods We used the Self-Audit Questionnaire of the European Network for Smoke-free Hospitals to score the compliance of 9 policy standards (global score = 102. We used two cross-sectional surveys to evaluate tobacco control policies before (2005 and after the implementation of a national smoking ban (2007 in 32 hospitals of Catalonia, Spain. We compared the means of the overall score in 2005 and 2007 according to the type of hospital, the number of beds, the prevalence of tobacco consumption, and the number of years as a smoke-free hospital. Results The mean of the implementation score of tobacco control policies was 52.4 (95% CI: 45.4–59.5 in 2005 and 71.6 (95% CI: 67.0–76.2 in 2007 with an increase of 36.7% (p 300 beds (41.1% increase; p Conclusion The national smoking ban appears to increase tobacco control activities in hospitals combined with other non-bylaw initiatives such as the Smoke-free Hospital Network.

  9. Geography in Catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Antoni; Mendizàbal, Enric

    2013-01-01

    A history of Catalan geography The chronological evolution of geography in Catalonia is obviously strongly related to the historical events that took place in Catalonia and in Spain during the same period. Moreover, we should say that the development of Catalan geography follows the same ups and downs of the Catalan national movement over the last century, sometimes becoming the centre of the nationalist discourse with geographical issues such as territorial organization or regional knowledge...

  10. The snow storm of 8 March 2010 in Catalonia (Spain): a paradigmatic wet-snow event with a high societal impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, M. C.; Turco, M.; Quintana-Seguí, P.; Llasat-Botija, M.

    2014-02-01

    A heavy precipitation event swept over Catalonia (NE Spain) on 8 March 2010, with a total amount that exceeded 100 mm locally and snowfall of more than 60 cm near the coast. Unusual for this region and at this time of the year, this snowfall event affected mainly the coastal region and was accompanied by thunderstorms and strong wind gusts in some areas. Most of the damage was due to "wet snow", a kind of snow that favours accretion on power lines and causes line-breaking and subsequent interruption of the electricity supply. This paper conducts an interdisciplinary analysis of the event to show its great societal impact and the role played by the recently developed social networks (it has been called the first "Snowfall 2.0"), as well to analyse the meteorological factors associated with the major damage, and to propose an indicator that could summarise them. With this aim, the paper introduces the event and its societal impact and compares it with other important snowfalls that have affected the Catalan coast, using the PRESSGAMA database. The second part of the paper shows the event's main meteorological features and analyses the near-surface atmospheric variables responsible for the major damage through the application of the SAFRAN (Système d'analyse fournissant des renseignements atmosphériques à la neige) mesoscale analysis, which, together with the proposed "wind, wet-snow index" (WWSI), allows to estimate the severity of the event. This snow storm provides further evidence of our vulnerability to natural hazards and highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in analysing societal impact and the meteorological factors responsible for this kind of event.

  11. Environmental analysis of raw cork extraction in cork oak forests in southern Europe (Catalonia--Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rives, Jesús; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Ivan; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2012-11-15

    Cork oak grows endemically in a narrow region bordering the western Mediterranean, and especially in the Iberian Peninsula. The importance of cork agro-forestry systems lies in the fact that a natural and renewable raw material - cork - can be extracted sustainably without endangering the tree or affecting biodiversity. This paper describes an environmental analysis of the extraction of raw cork in cork oak forests in Catalonia, using data from five representative local forest exploitations. The evaluation was carried out using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, and all the forestry management required to obtain a tonne of raw cork was included. The aim of the study was to evaluate the environmental impacts - in terms of global warming, acidification, eutrophication, human toxicity, and so on - caused by cork extraction and determine the carbon dioxide balance of these forestry systems, with a tree lifespan of about 200 years. During the life cycle extraction of cork in Catalonia, 0.2 kg of CO(2) eq. was emitted per kg of raw cork extracted. Moreover, cork cannot be extracted without the tree, which will be fixing carbon dioxide throughout its technological useful life (200 years), despite the fact that the bark is removed periodically: every 13-14 years. If the emission from extraction and the carbon contained in the material is discounted, the carbon dioxide balance indicates that 18 kg of CO(2) are fixed per kg of raw cork extracted. Therefore, cork is a natural, renewable and local material that can replace other non-renewable materials, at local level, to reduce the environmental impacts of products, and particularly to reduce their carbon footprint.

  12. Improving assessments of tropospheric ozone injury to Mediterranean montane conifer forests in California (USA) and Catalonia (Spain) with GIS models related to plant water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefauver, Shawn C.; Peñuelas, Josep; Ustin, Susan L.

    2012-12-01

    The impacts of tropospheric ozone on conifer health in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA, and the Pyrenees of Catalonia, Spain, were measured using field assessments and GIS variables of landscape gradients related to plant water relations, stomatal conductance and hence to ozone uptake. Measurements related to ozone injury included visible chlorotic mottling, needle retention, needle length, and crown depth, which together compose the Ozone Injury Index (OII). The OII values observed in Catalonia were similar to those in California, but OII alone correlated poorly to ambient ozone in all sites. Combining ambient ozone with GIS variables related to landscape variability of plant hydrological status, derived from stepwise regressions, produced models with R2 = 0.35, p = 0.016 in Catalonia, R2 = 0.36, p full OII, in particular visible chlorotic mottling (R2 = 0.60, p < 0.001). The results show that ozone is negatively impacting forest health in California and Catalonia and also that modeling ozone injury improves by including GIS variables related to plant water relations.

  13. Impact of the mass media OBERTAMENT campaign on the levels of stigma among the population of Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Valera, M; Fernández, A; Evans-Lacko, S; Luciano, J V; Thornicroft, G; Aznar-Lou, I; Serrano-Blanco, A

    2016-01-01

    Reducing public stigma could improve patients' access to care, recovery and social integration. The aim of the study was to evaluate a mass media intervention, which aimed to reduce the mental health, related stigma among the general population in Catalonia (Spain). We conducted a cross-sectional population-based survey of a representative sample of the Catalan non-institutionalized adult population (n=1019). We assessed campaign awareness, attitudes to people with mental illness (CAMI) and intended behaviour (RIBS). To evaluate the association between campaign awareness and stigma, multivariable regression models were used. Over 20% of respondents recognized the campaign when prompted, and 11% when unprompted. Campaign aware individuals had better attitudes on the benevolence subscale of the CAMI than unaware individuals (P=0.009). No significant differences in authoritarianism and support for community mental health care attitudes subscales were observed. The campaign aware group had better intended behaviour than the unaware group (Pmental illness of the Catalan population. The impact on stigma was limited to attitudes related to benevolence. A wider range of anti-stigma messages could produce a stronger impact on attitudes and intended behaviour. PMID:26675784

  14. Economic valuation of a created wetland fed with treated wastewater located in a peri-urban park in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfranca, Oscar; García, Joan; Varela, Hector

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to calculate the economic value (including externalities) of a created wetland located in a peri-urban park in Catalonia, Spain. The wetland, which covers an area of 1 ha, was constructed in 2003 and receives a secondary treated wastewater flow of between 100 and 250 m(3)/day. The externalities of the wetland were evaluated using the travel cost method. The value of the wetland is expressed in terms of the price of the water that flows through the system, which is estimated to range from 0.71 to 0.75 €/m(3). The value of positive externalities (1.25 €/m(3)) was greater than private costs (from 0.50 to 0.54 €/m(3)). These results constitute empirical evidence that created wetlands in peri-urban parks can be considered to be a source of positive externalities when used in environmental restoration projects focusing on the reuse of treated wastewater. This study also illustrates 1) the small influence of the hydraulic infrastructure depreciation costs on the private costs of constructed wetlands (less than 10%), and 2) the low investment costs of constructed wetlands in comparison with operation and maintenance costs (less than 10% of total private costs).

  15. Serotypes and Clonal Diversity of Streptococcus pneumoniae Causing Invasive Disease in the Era of PCV13 in Catalonia, Spain.

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    Eva Del Amo

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study the serotypes and clonal diversity of pneumococci causing invasive pneumococcal disease in Catalonia, Spain, in the era of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13. In our region, this vaccine is only available in the private market and it is estimated a PCV13 vaccine coverage around 55% in children. A total of 1551 pneumococcal invasive isolates received between 2010 and 2013 in the Molecular Microbiology Department at Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, were included. Fifty-two serotypes and 249 clonal types-defined by MLST-were identified. The most common serotypes were serotype 1 (n = 182; 11.7%, 3 (n = 145; 9.3%, 19A (n = 137; 8.8% and 7F (n = 122; 7.9%. Serotype 14 was the third most frequent serotype in children < 2 years (15 of 159 isolates. PCV7 serotypes maintained their proportion along the period of study, 16.6% in 2010 to 13.4% in 2013, whereas there was a significant proportional decrease in PCV13 serotypes, 65.3% in 2010 to 48.9% in 2013 (p<0.01. This decrease was mainly attributable to serotypes 19A and 7F. Serotype 12F achieved the third position in 2013 (n = 22, 6.4%. The most frequent clonal types found were ST306 (n = 154, 9.9%, ST191 (n = 111, 7.2%, ST989 (n = 85, 5.5% and ST180 (n = 80, 5.2%. Despite their decrease, PCV13 serotypes continue to be a major cause of disease in Spain. These results emphasize the need for complete PCV13 vaccination.

  16. Direct and indirect costs of Multiple Sclerosis in Baix Llobregat (Catalonia, Spain, according to disability

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    Gubieras Laura

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is an incurable chronic disease that predominantly affects young adults. It has a high socio-economic impact which increases as disability progresses. An assessment of the real costs of MS may contribute to our knowledge of the disease and to treat it more efficiently. Our objective is to assess the direct and indirect costs of MS from a societal perspective, in patients monitored in our MS Unit (Baix Llobregat, Catalonia and grouped according to their disability (EDSS. Methods We analysed data from 200 MS patients, who answered a questionnaire on resource consumption, employment and economical status. Mean age was 41.6 years, mean EDSS 2.7, 65.5% of patients were female, 79.5% had a relapsing-remitting course, and 67.5% of them were receiving immunomodulatory treatment (IT. Patients were grouped into five EDSS stages. Data from the questionnaires, hospital charts, Catalan Health Service tariffs, and figures from Catalan Institute of Statistics were used to calculate the direct and indirect costs. The cost-of-illness method, and the human capital approach for indirect costs, were applied. Sensitivity analyses were performed to strengthen results. Results The mean total annual cost of MS per patient results 24272 euros. This cost varied according to EDSS: 14327 euros (EDSS = 0, 18837 euros (EDSS = 1–3, 27870 euros (EDSS = 3.5–5.5, 41198 euros (EDSS = 6–7 and 52841 euros (EDSS>7.5. When the mean total annual costs was adjusted by the mean % of patients on IT in our Unit (31% the result was 19589 euros. The key-drivers for direct costs were IT in low EDSS stages, and caregiver costs in high stages. Indirect costs were assessed in terms of the loss of productivity when patients stop working. Direct costs accounted for around 60% of total costs in all EDSS groups. IT accounts from 78% to 11% of direct costs, and decreased as disability progressed. Conclusion The total mean social costs of MS in a

  17. The Grape Phylloxera Plague as a Natural Experiment: the Upkeep of Vineyards in Catalonia (Spain), 1858-1935

    OpenAIRE

    Badia-Miró, Marc; Tello, Enric; Valls Junyent, Francesc, 1966-; Garrabou, Ramon,

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact in Catalonia of the grape Phylloxera plague in Europe (1865-90). A statistical model is used to analyse the economic resilience of 35 districts in Catalonia to this external ecological and economic shock, and to explain why districts in the provinces of Barcelona and Tarragona resumed growing wine grapes after the plague, in contrast to districts in Girona and Lleida provinces. The opportunity cost of labour, the demand pull of Barcelona's commercial growth, and...

  18. Archeological glass from the Ciutadella de Roses site (Empordà, Girona, NE Spain): chemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valles, M.; Puig, A. M.; Gimeno, D.; Aulinas, M.

    2012-04-01

    The town of Roses is placed in the homonymous bay some 15 km north of the greek-roman city of Emporium, in the Empordà Country (Catalonia, NE Spain). The north sector of the Empordà constitutes a fertile river plain located within the Pyrenees Range and the Montgrí calcareous block that has been extensively occupied at least since Neolitic times. The Roses fortress is a space of more than 130.000 m2 of renaissance style built in 1543 that constitutes one of the rare fort places preserved in Catalonia after the Succession War (1701-1714). The archaeological excavations conducted in the area of the Ciutadella have shown the rests of the Greek city of Rhode, founded at 776 B.C. by Rhodian people; the Hellenistic quartier (especially important at IV-III centuries B.C.; a roman villa (occupied between centuries II B.C. and VI D.C.); a romain-lombard monastery (Santa Maria, century XI), and a series of rests till century XIX. The excavations conducted in the period 1993-1996 provided glass remnants of several ages in a number of strata at several places within the Ciutadella walls. A number of 25 samples were chosen and cleaned in order to characterize its main chemistry by EMPA. Samples were mounted on a epoxy resin, cut and polished, and external sectors with surface alteration were avoided during analysis. The major constituents Si, Al, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Ti and P were analysed, as well as a number of trace elements (metals) that give indication on the colour of glass: Co, Cu, Cr, Sb and Pb. The archaeological data allow dating the concerned strata in several periods: end of VI century-beginning of VII (3 samples) and from middle XVI century to XVIII century. The scope of this work is to provide a first characterization of the glass chemical composition variation along time since late roman times in a near to permanent occupied site. All the studied glass fragments show a sodic-lime composition, being the ones corresponding to VI-VII of low magnesia and

  19. Radionuclides in biota collected near a dicalcium phosphate plant, southern Catalonia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial waste containing radioactive U-decay series isotopes was released into the Ebro River, Spain, over a period of >20 years from a dicalcium phosphate (DCP) plant. This release raised activities of several natural radionuclides (e.g. 238U, 234U, 230Th, 232Th and 226Ra) in biota taken from the area near the DCP plant. Plants and animals selected for this study included the green algae (Cladophora glomerata), the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the scavenger catfish (Silurus glanis) because they are all common in the area. Multiple sampling points were chosen for this study: (1) a site in the Riba-Roja Reservoir, above the DCP plant's area of influence, (2) four sites in the area surrounding the DCP plant, close to the town of Flix, and (3) a location in the Ebro Delta Estuary in Fangar Bay. Significant differences in the activities (in Bq kg-1 of dry weight) for the radioisotopes included in this study among samples were attributed to sample location and the species evaluated. For instance, relatively high activities for uranium and radium were obtained in algae collected around the DCP plant, compared to results obtained for algae samples taken from the unimpacted Riba-Roja Reservoir. In contrast, for zebra mussels, enhanced activities were observed for all radionuclides and, in particular, for thorium and radium isotopes within the area of influence. Among catfish samples, activity values from different locations were not significantly different, though slightly higher activities were observed at the sampling point just downstream of the DCP factory. (author)

  20. From total institution to extitution? Discussions on the future of monastic life in the Benedictine women's monasteries of Catalonia (Spain

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    Collet-Sabé, Jordi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On the 50th anniversary of the creation of the Federation of Benedictine Women’s Monasteries of Catalonia (Spain, the five monasteries represented are discussing the following question: what will monastic life be like in the future? This question is added to the debate about “new forms of monasticism”, “urban monastic life” and, in a more general sense, to the modernisations and “the opening up” of the precepts and practices of monastic life at this time. Faced with the ambitious monastic questioning, the author “responds” with five deliberately provocative debates developed out of a consideration of various chapters of the Rule of St. Benedict that raise profound questions when it comes to responding to the question presented here. Having described these five debates, by way of a summary, the article presents three ideal types of monastery in relation to the current processes of deinstitutionalisation that represent, in an overall way, three provisional responses and serve as a focus for the question discussed here.En motivo del 50 aniversario de la creación de la Federación de Monasterios Benedictinos de Cataluña, los cinco monasterios miembros se plantean la siguiente pregunta: ¿cómo será la vida monacal en el futuro? Esta cuestión se enmarca en los debates sobre las “nuevas formas de monaquismo”, “monaquismo urbano”, y, de forma más general en la puesta al día de los preceptos y las practicas de la vida monástica hoy. Ante la ambiciosa pregunta de los monasterios, el autor responde con cinco debates que se desarrollan partiendo de la Regla de San Benito. Estos cinco debates propuestos a las comunidades monásticas en una metodología cercana a la investigación —acción, desembocan a modo de resumen, en la propuesta de tres modelos ideales de vida monástica en relación con los procesos de desinstitucionalización y extitucionalización que viven los mismos. Estos tres modelos ideales representan la

  1. Plant diversity across five vegetation belts in the Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain

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    Ferré, A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the size and habitat partitioning of the vascular floras of five areas of the NE Iberian Peninsula, representing five distinct vegetation belts and three floristic regions: Mediterranean (basal belt, medio-European (submontane and montane belts and Boreo-Alpine (subalpine and alpine belts. Each area covered over 1000 ha, and was fairly uniform in terms of potential vegetation, bedrock and bioclimate. They excluded large villages and field areas, the landscape being mainly natural or moderately anthropized.
    The size of the local floras showed a unimodal function with respect to altitude, with the highest number of species (568 in the submontane belt. The decrease in species richness was moderate toward the neighbouring belts (basal and montane but more marked from the montane to the subalpine belt and then to the alpine belt (the poorest area, with 217 species. However, considering the size of the areas studied, the montane belt showed higher species richness than the submontane belt. The species impoverishment toward higher altitudes followed general tendencies found in other altitude and latitude gradients, and reflects the increasing environmental constraints and the decreasing habitat diversity of colder landscapes. On the contrary, the richer floras of the submontane and montane areas reflect less stressful general conditions, but also the occurrence within them of a number of taxa from the neighbouring regions (Mediterranean and Boreo-Alpine.
    The forest flora in the basal to subalpine landscapes accounted for a small percentage of the local floras (6.5-13.2%. Among the other species, roughly one half (42-46% made up diverse serial communities (forest clearings, scrubs, pastures while the other half (44-51% occurred in particular habitats (water sides, rocky areas or in anthropogenic habitats. In the alpine area almost half of the taxa were found in the pasture mosaic, and a similar amount thrived in rocky

  2. Rockfall hazard assessment by means of the magnitude-frequency curves in the Montserrat Massif (central Catalonia, Spain): first insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeras, Marc; Domènech, Guillem; Pons, Judit; Prat, Elisabet; Buxó, Pere

    2016-04-01

    Montserrat Massif is located about 50 km North-West of Barcelona (Catalonia, North-Eastern Spain). The rock massif is constituted by an intercalation of conglomerate and fine layers of siltstones due to the Montserrat fan-delta sedimentation within the Eocene age. The current relief is consequence of the several depositional episodes and the later tectonic uplift, leading to stepped slopes up to 250 m high, and a total height difference close to 1000 m. Montserrat Mountain has been a pilgrimage place since the settlement of the monastery, around the year 1025, and a spot of touristic interest, mostly within the last 150 years, when the first rack railway was inaugurated to reach the sanctuary. The amount of 2.4 M visitors in 2014 reveals the potential risk derived from rockfalls. To assess and mitigate this risk, a plan funded by the Catalan government is currently under development. Three rockfall mechanisms and magnitude ranges have been identified (Janeras et al. 2011): 1) physicochemical weathering causing the detachment of pebbles and aggregates (0.0001 - 0.1 m3); 2) thermic-induced tensions responsible for the generation of slabs and plates (0.1 - 10 m3); and 3) intersection of structural joints within the rock mass resulting in blocks of 10 - 10,000 m3. In order to quantify the rockfall hazard, a magnitude-frequency analysis has been performed starting from an event-based inventory gathered from field surveillance and historical research. A methodology has been applied to take the maximum profit of only 30 registers with information on volume and date. The massif has been split into several domains with sampling homogeneity. For each one, there have been defined several periods of time during which, all the rockfall events of a given volume have been recorded. Thus, the magnitude-frequency relationship, for each domain, has been calculated. Results show that the curves are well fitted by a power law with exponents ranging from -0.59 to -0.68 for magnitudes

  3. Confirmation of pinnatoxins and spirolides in shellfish and passive samplers from Catalonia (Spain) by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole and high-resolution hybrid tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Altares, María; Casanova, Alexis; Bane, Vaishali; Diogène, Jorge; Furey, Ambrose; de la Iglesia, Pablo

    2014-06-01

    Cyclic imines are lipophilic marine toxins that bioaccumulate in seafood. Their structure comprises a cyclic-imino moiety, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines have not been linked yet to human poisonings and are not regulated in Europe, although the European Food Safety Authority requires more data to perform a conclusive risk assessment for consumers. This work presents the first detection of pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) in Spain and 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX-1) in shellfish from Catalonia (Spain, NW Mediterranean Sea). Cyclic imines were found at low concentrations (2 to 60 µg/kg) in 13 samples of mussels and oysters (22 samples analyzed). Pinnatoxin G has been also detected in 17 seawater samples (out of 34) using solid phase adsorption toxin tracking devices (0.3 to 0.9 µg/kg-resin). Pinnatoxin G and SPX-1 were confirmed with both low and high resolution (<2 ppm) mass spectrometry by comparison of the response with that from reference standards. For other analogs without reference standards, we applied a strategy combining low resolution MS with a triple quadrupole mass analyzer for a fast and reliable screening, and high resolution MS LTQ Orbitrap® for unambiguous confirmation. The advantages and limitations of using high resolution MS without reference standards were discussed.

  4. Was access to health care easy for immigrants in Spain? The perspectives of health personnel in Catalonia and Andalusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, María-Luisa; Vargas, Ingrid; Jaramillo, Daniel López; Porthé, Victoria; López-Fernández, Luis Andrés; Vargas, Hernán; Bosch, Lola; Hernández, Silvia S; Azarola, Ainhoa Ruiz

    2016-04-01

    Until April 2012, all Spanish citizens were entitled to health care and policies had been developed at national and regional level to remove potential barriers of access, however, evidence suggested problems of access for immigrants. In order to identify factors affecting immigrants' access to health care, we conducted a qualitative study based on individual interviews with healthcare managers (n=27) and professionals (n=65) in Catalonia and Andalusia, before the policy change that restricted access for some groups. A thematic analysis was carried out. Health professionals considered access to health care "easy" for immigrants and similar to access for autochthons in both regions. Clear barriers were identified to enter the health system (in obtaining the health card) and in using services, indicating a mismatch between the characteristics of services and those of immigrants. Results did not differ among regions, except for in Catalonia, where access to care was considered harder for users without a health card, due to the fees charged, and in general, because of the distance to primary health care in rural areas. In conclusion, despite the universal coverage granted by the Spanish healthcare system and developed health policies, a number of barriers in access emerged that would require implementing the existing policies. However, the measures taken in the context of the economic crisis are pointing in the opposite direction, towards maintaining or increasing barriers. PMID:26898401

  5. Hydrogeochemical characterization of an evaporite karst area affected by sinkholes (Ebro Valley, NE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Acero, P.; F. Gutiérrez; Galve, J.P.; Auqué, L.F.; Carbonel, D.; Gimeno, M. J.; Gómez, J. B.; Asta, M.P.; Yechieli, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The main processes controlling the hydrochemistry of an alluvium-covered evaporite karst area with high sinkhole risk (Ebro Valley, NE Spain) are examined by means of multivariate analyses (Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis), ion correlations and geochemical speciation-solubility calculations. The hydrogeochemistry of the studied system seems to be governed by the interaction between the groundwater from the salt-bearing evaporitic karst aquifer and from the overl...

  6. Measuring and modelling transpiration of pine and oak forest stands in a Mediterranean mountain area (Vallcebre, NE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Poyatos López, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    [eng] This doctoral dissertation contains five applied reseaches about these subjectes: 1. "Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain." Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) forest located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain). Over...

  7. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Psychotropic Drug Consumption in a Cohort from a Semi-Urban Region in Catalonia, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Barceló

    Full Text Available Evidence of whether the recent economic crisis has or has not had an effect on psychotropic drug consumption is very scarce. Our objective was to determine if there had in fact been an increase in psychotropic drug use as a result of the financial crisis.In our study a retrospective cohort (between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012 was made up of individuals from the general population in a region in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain. We specified a generalized linear mixed model along with combined 'selection on observables' as (propensity scoring matching and 'selection on unobservables' as (random coefficient the panel data model methods, and performed inferences using a Bayesian framework.In the period following the economic crisis (post 2009, there was an increase in the consumption of psychotropic drugs which was significantly higher among those who had already been consuming psychotropic drugs prior to 2009 and those most likely to be unemployed. The increase was of greater significance when consumption was measured by the number of drugs being taken, rather than by the defined daily dose (DDD, with the greatest increase occurring in 2011; the very year in which Spain was most affected by the crisis.Once the financial crisis had ended, there was an increase in the severity, rather than the intensity, of mental health disorders in individuals who had already had disorders before the crisis. This increase occurred in those most likely to be unemployed, and the severity was accentuated in the toughest year of the economic crisis.

  8. [Performance assessment of health services in Catalonia (Spain): evaluation of initial results of the Catalan healthcare service project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Altés, Anna; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Colls, Cristina; Mendivil, Joan; Benet, Josep; Mompart, Anna; Torné, Elvira; Zara, Corinne; Borrell, Carme; Brugulat, Pilar; Guarga, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Performance assessment of healthcare services is receiving greater attention due to increasing health care expenditures, greater expectations among the population, and the need to obtain results from the invested resources. Taking advantage of the existing experience of the Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona and the Consorci Sanitari de Barcelona, which compared the healthcare services of Barcelona and Montreal, a grant from the Agència d'Avaluació de Tecnologia i Recerca Mèdiques, and the health planning interest of the Departament de Salut, the performance assessment of the Catalan healthcare service project was started in Catalonia in 2005. This article aims to present the development of the project, to provide some examples that illustrate the kind of numerical and graphical information that could be obtained and the kind of analysis that could be performed, to provide possible explanations for the results shown, and to discuss some limitations and implications. Currently, the added value of this project is that it identifies the extent to which the healthcare system is achieving its objectives, establishes a set of homogeneous indicators that could be used in the future, and is a key tool in the development of the Central de Resultats del Departament de Salut de la Generalitat de Catalunya.

  9. Home range and habitat use of little owl (Athene noctua in an agricultural landscape in coastal Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Framis, H.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades agricultural landscapes in Catalonia have undergone a profound transformation as in most of Europe. Reforestation and urban development have reduced farmland and therefore the availability of suitable habitat for some bird species such as the little owl (Athene noctua. The outskirts of the city of Mataró by the Mediterranean Sea exemplify this landscape change, but still support a population of little owl where agriculture is carried out. Three resident little owls were monitored with telemetry weekly from November 2007 until the beginning of August 2008 in this suburban agricultural landscape. Mean home range ± SD was 10.9 ± 5.5 ha for minimum convex polygon (MCP100 and 7.4 ± 3.8 ha for Kernel 95% probability function (K95. Home ranges of contiguous neighboring pairs overlapped 18.4% (MCP100 or 6% (K95. Home range varied among seasons reaching a maximum between March and early August but always included the nesting site. Small forested patches were associated with roosting and nesting areas where cavities in Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua were important. When foraging in crop fields, the owls typically fed where crops had recently been harvested and replanted. All three owls bred successfully.

  10. Results of a sector-wide quality improvement initiative for substance-abuse care: an uncontrolled before-after study in Catalonia, Spain

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    Colom Joan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Department of the Regional Government of Catalonia, Spain, issued a quality plan for substance abuse centers. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of a multidimensional quality improvement initiative in the field of substance abuse care and to discuss potentials and limitations for further quality improvement. Methods The study uses an uncontrolled, sector-wide pre-post design. All centers providing services for persons with substance abuse issues in the Autonomous Community of Catalonia participated in this assessment. Measures of compliance were developed based on indicators reported in the literature and by broad stakeholder involvement. We compared pre-post differences in dimension-specific and overall compliance-scores using one-way ANOVA for repeated measures and the Friedman statistic. We described the spread of the data using the inter-quartile range and the Fligner-Killen statistic. Finally, we adjusted compliance scores for location and size using linear and logistic regression models. Results We performed a baseline and follow up assessment in 22 centers for substance abuse care and observed substantial and statistically significant improvements for overall compliance (pre: 60.9%; post: 79.1% and for compliance in the dimensions 'care pathway' (pre: 66.5%; post: 83.5% and 'organization and management' (pre: 50.5%; post: 77.2%. We observed improvements in the dimension 'environment and infrastructure' (pre: 81.8%; post: 95.5% and in the dimension 'relations and user rights' (pre: 66.5%; post: 72.5%; however, these were not statistically significant. The regression analysis suggests that improvements in compliance are positively influenced by being located in the Barcelona region in case of the dimension 'relations and user rights'. Conclusion The positive results of this quality improvement initiative are possibly associated with the successful involvement of stakeholders, the consciously

  11. Exposure assessment to ochratoxin A in Catalonia (Spain) based on the consumption of cereals, nuts, coffee, wine, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, M B; Marín, S; Cano-Sancho, G; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) was analysed in composite samples of cereal-based baby foods, beer, breakfast cereals (corn- and rice and wheat-based), loaf bread, peanuts and pistachios. Foodstuffs were collected in hypermarkets and supermarkets from 12 cities in the Spanish region of Catalonia, and composite samples were prepared for analysis involving liquid-liquid extraction, followed by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC with fluorescence detection. Consumption data for the selected foodstuffs were collected by means of a food-frequency questionnaire. The studied population was grouped by age in infants, children, adolescents and adults; and exposure to OTA through the specified foodstuffs, and through wine and coffee, was assessed. Exposure assessment was done through deterministic and probabilistic modelling of the contamination and consumption data. OTA occurrence and mean of positive samples (ng g(-1) or ng ml(-1), for beer) were the following: 8.7% and 0.233 in baby foods; 88.7% and 0.022 in beer; 2.8% and 0.728 in corn-based breakfast cereals; 25% and 0.293 in wheat-based breakfast cereals; 12.9% and 0.283 in loaf bread; 41.7% and 0.241 in peanuts; and 2.9% and 0.228 in pistachios. The median estimated daily intake of OTA through the foodstuffs by each age group were below the latest provisional tolerable daily intakes (PTDIs) of 17 and 14 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2006 and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 2007, respectively, ranging from 1% and 2% of those values in adolescents and children, to 3% and 11% in adults and infants.

  12. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in individuals with type 2 diabetes who had recorded diabetic retinopathy from retinal photographs in Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Poncelas, Antonio; Miravet-Jiménez, Sònia; Casellas, Aina; Barrot-De La Puente, Joan Francesc; Franch-Nadal, Josep; López-Simarro, Flora; Mata-Cases, Manel; Mundet-Tudurí, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Background/aims Retinal photography with a non-mydriatic camera is the method currently employed for diabetic retinography (DR) screening. We designed this study in order to evaluate the prevalence and severity of DR, and associated risk factors, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) screened in Catalan Primary Health Care. Methods Retrospective, cross-sectional, population based study performed in Catalonia (Spain) with patients with T2DM, aged between 30 years and 90 years (on 31 December 2012) screened with retinal photography and whose DR category was recorded in their medical records. DR was classified as: no apparent retinopathy (no DR), mild non-proliferative DR (mild NPDR), moderate NPDR, severe NPDR, proliferative DR (PDR) and diabetic macular oedema (DMO). Non-vision threatening DR (non-VTDR) included mild and moderate NPDR; VTDR included severe NPDR, PDR and DMO. Clinical data were obtained retrospectively from the SIDIAP database (System for Research and Development in Primary Care). Results 108 723 patients with T2DM had been screened with retinal photography. The prevalence of any kind of DR was 12.3% (95% CI 12.1% to 12.5%). Non-VTDR and VTDR were present in 10.8% (mild 7.5% and moderate NPDR 3.3%) and 1.4% (severe NPDR 0.86%, PDR 0.36% and DMO 0.18%) of the study patients, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of any type of DR in patients with T2DM screened with retinal photography was lower when compared with earlier studies. PMID:26089211

  13. Gender differences in negative mood states in secondary school students: health survey in Catalonia (Spain) Diferencias en los estados de ánimo negativo en estudiantes de secundaria según sexo: encuesta de salud en Cataluña

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Monteagudo; Teresa Rodríguez-Blanco; Mª Jesús Pueyo; Edurne Zabaleta-del-Olmo; Mercè Mercader; José García; Enriqueta Pujol; Bonaventura Bolíbar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of negative mood states in adolescents according to gender, to analyze variability among schools, and to evaluate the associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a cluster design was carried out. We administered the High-school students health survey to a sample of 9,340 students (aged 14-16 years) in the third and fourth year of Compulsory Secondary Education in Catalonia, Spain, during the 2005-6 academic year. The main outcome measure wa...

  14. Sorption and mobility of Sb(V) in calcareous soils of Catalonia (NE Spain): Batch and column experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Lladó, Xavier; Valderrama Angel, César Alberto; Rovira Boixaderas, Miquel; Martí Gregorio, Vicenç; Giménez Izquierdo, Francisco Javier; Pablo Ribas, Joan de

    2011-01-01

    The sorption of Sb(V) onto natural calcareous soils was studied in batch and column experiments as a function of physicochemical properties of the soil, namely: organic matter, the active fraction of Fe and Al and the pH of the soils. Batch experiments were performed in order to determine the sorption capacity and the kinetic rate of the sorption. Freundlich isotherm described properly the equilibrium experimental data and the kinetic results show that the sorption was very slow in all the so...

  15. Innovative reactive layer to enhance soil aquifer treatment: successful installation in the Llobregat aquifer (Catalonia, ne Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M.; Gilbert, O.; Bernat, X.; Valhondo, C.; Kock-Schulmeyer, M.; Huerta-Fontela, M.; Colomer, M. V.

    2014-10-01

    The Life+ ENSAT project has demonstrated the effectiveness of a reactive organic layer on the improvement of recharge water quality in an aquifer recharge system. The vegetal compost layer was installed at the bottom of an existing infiltration pond in the Llobregat Lower Valley (Barcelona region) with the purpose of promoting biodegradation and improving the removal emerging micro-pollutants from Llobregat River water. A comprehensive monitoring of water quality including bulk chemistry, emerging micro-pollutants and priority substances indicated that hydro biochemical changes within the organic layer enhance denitrification processes and reduce the levels of gemfibrozil and carbamazepine TP. This effect is due to the release of dissolved organic carbon which promotes biodegradation processes at local scale in the unsaturated zones, without affecting the furthest piezometers. The reactive layer is still active more than 3 years after its installation. The economic assessment of this innovative reactive layer shows that it is a promising solution for the improvement of aquifer recharge with low quality waters, not only technically but also from the economic sustainability standpoint. (Author)

  16. Innovative reactive layer to enhance soil aquifer treatment: successful installation in the Llobregat aquifer (Catalonia, ne Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Life+ ENSAT project has demonstrated the effectiveness of a reactive organic layer on the improvement of recharge water quality in an aquifer recharge system. The vegetal compost layer was installed at the bottom of an existing infiltration pond in the Llobregat Lower Valley (Barcelona region) with the purpose of promoting biodegradation and improving the removal emerging micro-pollutants from Llobregat River water. A comprehensive monitoring of water quality including bulk chemistry, emerging micro-pollutants and priority substances indicated that hydro biochemical changes within the organic layer enhance denitrification processes and reduce the levels of gemfibrozil and carbamazepine TP. This effect is due to the release of dissolved organic carbon which promotes biodegradation processes at local scale in the unsaturated zones, without affecting the furthest piezometers. The reactive layer is still active more than 3 years after its installation. The economic assessment of this innovative reactive layer shows that it is a promising solution for the improvement of aquifer recharge with low quality waters, not only technically but also from the economic sustainability standpoint. (Author)

  17. Relative effects of educational level and occupational social class on body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in a representative sample of the general population of Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasull, Magda; Pumarega, José; Rovira, Gemma; López, Tomàs; Alguacil, Juan; Porta, Miquel

    2013-10-01

    Scant evidence is available worldwide on the relative influence of occupational social class and educational level on body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the general population. The objective was to analyse such influence in a representative sample of the general population of Catalonia, Spain. Participants in the Catalan Health Interview Survey aged 18-74 were interviewed face-to-face, gave blood, and underwent a physical exam. The role of age, body mass index (BMI), and parity was analysed with General Linear Models, and adjusted geometric means (GMs) were obtained. Crude (unadjusted) concentrations were higher in women and men with lower education, and in women, but not men, in the less affluent social class. After adjusting for age, in women there were no associations between POP levels and social class or education. After adjusting for age and BMI, men in the less affluent class had higher p,p'-DDE concentrations than men in class I (p-value=0.016), while men in class IV had lower HCB than men in the upper class (p-value<0.03). Also in contrast with some expectations, positive associations between education and POP levels were observed after adjusting for age and BMI in men; e.g., men with university studies had higher HCB concentrations than men with first stage of primary schooling (adjusted GM 153.9 and 80.5ng/g, respectively) (p-value<0.001). When education and social class were co-adjusted for, some positive associations with education in men remained statistically significant, whereas class remained associated only with p,p'-DDE. Educational level influenced blood concentrations of POPs more than occupational social class, especially in men. In women, POP concentrations were mainly explained by age/birth cohort, parity and BMI. In men, while concentrations were also mainly explained by age/birth cohort and BMI, both social class and education showed positive associations. Important characteristics of socioeconomic groups as age

  18. Relative effects of educational level and occupational social class on body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in a representative sample of the general population of Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasull, Magda; Pumarega, José; Rovira, Gemma; López, Tomàs; Alguacil, Juan; Porta, Miquel

    2013-10-01

    Scant evidence is available worldwide on the relative influence of occupational social class and educational level on body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the general population. The objective was to analyse such influence in a representative sample of the general population of Catalonia, Spain. Participants in the Catalan Health Interview Survey aged 18-74 were interviewed face-to-face, gave blood, and underwent a physical exam. The role of age, body mass index (BMI), and parity was analysed with General Linear Models, and adjusted geometric means (GMs) were obtained. Crude (unadjusted) concentrations were higher in women and men with lower education, and in women, but not men, in the less affluent social class. After adjusting for age, in women there were no associations between POP levels and social class or education. After adjusting for age and BMI, men in the less affluent class had higher p,p'-DDE concentrations than men in class I (p-value=0.016), while men in class IV had lower HCB than men in the upper class (p-valueeducation and POP levels were observed after adjusting for age and BMI in men; e.g., men with university studies had higher HCB concentrations than men with first stage of primary schooling (adjusted GM 153.9 and 80.5ng/g, respectively) (p-valueeducation and social class were co-adjusted for, some positive associations with education in men remained statistically significant, whereas class remained associated only with p,p'-DDE. Educational level influenced blood concentrations of POPs more than occupational social class, especially in men. In women, POP concentrations were mainly explained by age/birth cohort, parity and BMI. In men, while concentrations were also mainly explained by age/birth cohort and BMI, both social class and education showed positive associations. Important characteristics of socioeconomic groups as age and BMI may largely explain crude differences among such groups in internal contamination by

  19. Evolución temporal y distribución geográfica de la mortalidad por suicidio en Cataluña y España (1986-2002 Geographical distribution and time trends of suicide mortality in Catalonia and Spain (1986-2002

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    María Arán Barés

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estudiar la evolución temporal de la mortalidad por suicidio en Cataluña (1986-2002 y España (1986-2001, y analizar su distribución geográfica en esta comunidad autónoma. Métodos: Se calcularon las tasas anuales estandarizadas por edad para ambos sexos por el método directo y el porcentaje de cambio anual mediante un modelo de regresión de Poisson, por sexo y grupos de edad para Cataluña (1986-2002 y España (1986-2001. Para Cataluña, se calculó la razón de mortalidad estandarizada por el método indirecto (RME por sexo, para los 46 sectores sanitarios y para todo el período, y la razón de mortalidad comparativa (RMC y los intervalos de confianza (IC del 95% agrupando los años en período 1 (1986-1994 y período 2 (1995-2002. Resultados: En Cataluña, la mortalidad en hombres es inferior que en España y se aprecia un incremento (no significativo en el período estudiado en ambos territorios; en mujeres, la evolución y la magnitud de las tasas son similares a las del conjunto del Estado, y en los dos lugares se observa un ligero descenso (significativo de las tasas. La evolución según la edad y el sexo muestra patrones diferenciados, destacando el descenso de las tasas en edades avanzadas en ambos sexos y el aumento en jóvenes en España y Cataluña. Los sectores sanitarios de la zona central, noreste y sur de Cataluña presentan una mortalidad superior a la media. Conclusiones: La evolución temporal de la mortalidad por suicidio en Cataluña y España muestra patrones diferentes según la edad y el sexo. En la distribución territorial en Cataluña se observa una progresiva homogeneización por sectores sanitarios.Objective: To analyze time trends in Catalonia (1986-2002 and Spain (1986-2001 in suicide mortality and its geographical variation by health areas in Catalonia. Methods: Standard annual mortality rates were calculated by the direct method for Catalonia (1986-2002 and Spain (1986-2001 (standard

  20. Benefits and limitations of using the weather radar for the definition of rainfall thresholds for debris flows. Case study from Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abancó, C.; Hürlimann, M.; Sempere, D.; Berenguer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Torrential processes such as debris flows or hyperconcentrated flows are fast movements formed by a mix of water and different amounts of unsorted solid material. They occur in steep torrents and suppose a high risk for the human settlements. Rainfall is the most common triggering factor for debris flows. The rainfall threshold defines the rainfall conditions that, when reached or exceeded, are likely to provoke one or more events. Many different types of empirical rainfall thresholds for landslide triggering have been defined. Direct measurements of rainfall data are normally not available from a point next to or in the surroundings of the initiation area of the landslide. For this reason, most of the thresholds published for debris flows have been established by data measured at the nearest rain gauges (often located several km far from the landslide). Only in very few cases, the rainfall data to analyse the triggering conditions of the debris flows have been obtained by weather (Doppler) radar. Radar devices present certain limitations in mountainous regions due to undesired reboots, but their main advantage is that radar data can be obtained for any point of the territory. The objective of this work was to test the use of the weather radar data for the definition of rainfall thresholds for debris-flow triggering. Thus, rainfall data obtained from 3 to 5 rain gauges and from radar were compared for a dataset of events occurred in Catalonia (Spain). The goal was to determine in which cases the description of the rainfall episode (in particular the maximum intensity) had been more accurate. The analysed dataset consists of: 1) three events occurred in the Rebaixader debris-flow monitoring station (Axial Pyrenees) including two hyperconcentrated flows and one debris flow; 2) one debris-flow event occurred in the Port Ainé ski resort (Axial Pyrenees); 3) one debris-flow event in Montserrat (Mediterranean Coastal range). The comparison of the hyetographs from the

  1. Reconstructing the Santa Tecla flash flood in the Ondara River (Ebro Basin, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasch, J. C.; Tuset, J.; Ramos, M. C.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    The Santa Tecla flood may be considered the most catastrophic rainfall event in the modern history of Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula), and one of the most important in the Western Mediterranean Basin. This event took place during the night between 22nd and 23rd September 1874, in which torrential convective rainfalls generated significant flash floods in most of the small streams in the southern half of Catalonia (i.e. Ondara, Corb, Francolí and Siurana catchments). More than 570 people died, 150 of which in the town of Tàrrega, by the Ondara River. Despite being one of the last huge floods of the pre-instrumental era and, consequently, without any precipitation or flow data, the event was reconstructed both hydraulically and hydrologically for the Ondara River at Tàrrega (150 km2). Thus, the maximum water level and the temporal evolution of the flood were obtained, respectively, from several epigraphic limnimarks found in Tàrrega and from the event description recorded in historical documents. Additionally, the information from local archaeological sites allowed the reconstruction of the fluvial section at Tàrrega at the end of the 19th century. Finally, some old cellars flooded during the event provided information about sediment concentration at the peak flow. The methodology put into practice for the event reconstruction had two stages. The first stage was the hydraulic modelling, which estimated the peak flow. The input data used were the maximum water level given by the limnimetric marks, a digital terrain model of the river bed shape, and the stream and floodplain roughness and channel slope (which were considered similar to the present ones, according to archaeological data). The hydraulic model used was the unidimensional HEC-RAS (USACE), applied in several cross sections of the Ondara River at Tàrrega. The second stage was the hydrological modelling. The objective of this stage was to derive the event hyetograph from the above calculated peak flow

  2. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    OpenAIRE

    R. Poyatos; P. Llorens; Gallart, F.

    2005-01-01

    Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) forests located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain). The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec) and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drough...

  3. Los registros de salud personal: el caso de la Carpeta Personal de Salud de Cataluña Personal health records: the case of the Personal Health Folder of Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Saigí

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo explora las posibilidades de la Carpeta Personal de Salud e identifica la brecha entre el potencial de esta herramienta y las aplicaciones que ofrece a través de Internet. Se presenta la Carpeta Personal de Salud, un proyecto vinculado a la Historia Clínica Compartida de Cataluña, que ofrece un punto de acceso a la información sobre la propia salud que es seguro, personalizado y soportado por las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación. La experiencia, realizada íntegramente por la Consejería de Salud de la Generalitat de Cataluña, escogió una metodología mediante encuesta anónima. Los resultados han sido de gran relevancia para obtener información sobre la idoneidad de los datos publicados y las expectativas de una herramienta dirigida a la población en general.The aims of this study were to explore the possibilities of the Personal Health Folder and to identify the gap between the potential applications of this tool and what it offers through the Internet. The Personal Health Folder is presented, a project linked to the Shared Medical Record of Catalonia (Spain, which provides citizens with an access point to information about their health insurance, customized and supported by information and communication technologies. The project was carried out by the Ministry of Health of the Government of Catalonia (Generalitat de Catalunya and data were gathered through an anonymous survey. The results were critical to obtain information on the suitability of the published data and on the expectations of a tool aimed at the general population.

  4. Managing the impact of climate change on the hydrology of the Gallocanta Basin, NE-Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, N. J.

    2010-12-01

    The endorheic Gallocanta Basin represents an environment highly sensitive to climate change. Over the past 60 years, the Laguna de Gallocanta, an ephemeral lake situated in the centre of the Gallocanta basin, experienced a sequence of wet and dry phases. The lake and its surrounding wetlands are one of only a few bird sanctuaries left in NE-Spain for grey cranes on their annual migration from Scandinavia to northern Africa. Understanding the impact of climate change on basin hydrology is therefore of utmost importance for the appropriate management of the bird sanctuary. Changes in lake level are only weakly linked to annual rainfall, but strongly to individual events, with reaction times from hours to months after rainfall. Individual extreme event intensities as well as magnitudes affect lake level through both groundwater and surface runoff. In this study, the characteristics and frequencies of daily, event, monthly and bi-monthly rainfall over the past 60 years were analysed to assess the role of past, current and future rainfall characteristics for the lake level and its fluctuations. The results revealed a clear link between increased frequencies of high magnitude rainfall and phases of water filling in the Laguna de Gallocanta. In the middle of the 20th century, the rainfall recharge of groundwater appears to have been more important for lake level, while more recently the frequency of high magnitude rainfall and surface runoff has emerged as the dominant variable. In the Gallocanta Basin, climate change and the distinct and continuing land use change since Spain joined the EU in 1986 have created an environment that is in a more or less constant state of transition. This highlights two challenges faced by researchers involved in developing water management tools for the Gallocanta Basin in particular, but also other endorheic basins with sensitive and rapidly changing environments. Hydrologists have to understand the processes and the spatial and temporal

  5. Screening of perfluorinated compounds in water, sediment and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Julian; Perez, Francisca; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia; Andreu, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    PFCs present significant thermal and chemical stability being persistent in the environment, where they can bio-accumulate and adversely affect humans and wildlife (Llorca et al., 2012). Human exposure to PFCs is of concern since PFCs tend to be associated with fatty acid binding proteins in the liver or albumin proteins in blood, and have been detected in human serum, urine, saliva, seminal plasma and breast milk (Sundstrom et al., 2011). This study is aimed at the screening of 21 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmental samples by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The main objective is to identify target compounds at low levels in water, sediments and biota of the Llobregat River (2010), second longest river in Catalonia and one of Barcelona's major drinking water resources. PFCs were extracted from water samples by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE); from sediment by ultrasonication with acidified methanol followed by an off-line SPE procedure (Picó et al., 2012), and from biota (fish) with alkaline digestion, clean-up by TurboFlow™ on line technology coupled to LC-MS/MS (Llorca et al., 2012). The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the method were calculated by analysis of spiked river water, sediment, and biota with minimum concentrations of each individual compound at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and 10, respectively. The LODs and LOQs of the method in river water ranged between 0.004 and 0.8 ng L-1 and between 0.01 and 2 ng L-1, respectively. In sediment LODs were 0.013-2.667 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) and LOQs were 0.04-8 ng g-1 dw, meanwhile in biota these were 0.006-0.7 pg μL-1 and 0.02-2.26 pg μL-1, respectively. Recoveries ranged between 65% and 102% for all target compounds. The method was applied to study the spatial distribution of these compounds in the Llobregat River basin. For this, a total of 40 samples were analysed (14 water, 14 sediments, 12 fishes). Of the 21 target

  6. Factors controlling the sedimentary evolution of the Kimmeridgian ramp in the north Iberian Basin (NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bádenas, B.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the present knowledge reached by the authors on the carbonate ramp which developed in the iberian basin during Kimmeridgian times. Our results were obtained from a combined field analysis and computer modelling carried out in the north Iberian Chain (NE Spain. Extensive field analysis in the Ricia area (Zaragoza, NE Spain, resulted in a detailed mapping of the transition from inner to outerramp facies on this carbonate rampo Three facies belts may be distinguished in this rampo The outer ramp facies consists of marls and mudstones rhythmic facies. The inner ramp facies, located aboye fair-weather wave base, are dominated by coral patch reef growing. The middle ramp facies are represented by marls and micrites bearing skeletal and oolitic tempestite levels which sharply grade into high-amplitude o'olitic sandwave. Factors such as resedimentation by storms, carbonate production and relative variation of sea level acting in the Kimmeridgian ramp are also quantiphied and discussed. Most of the mud accumulated in outer-ramp areas was produced in the coral «carbonate factory» located in inner areas. Off-shore resedimentation by storm was the main agent of basinward transport of this mudo The deduced accommodation curve consists of three elements: a linear rise which satisfactorily matches the normal subsidence figures observed in intracratonic basins; a third-order cycle, that may have a regional cause and higher order cycles in the Milanckovich band, that may be eustatic in origin.La sedimentación en la cuenca ibérica septentrional durante el Kimmeridgiense tuvo lugar en una extensa rampa carbonatada de bajo ángulo. Las facies de rampa externa, acumuladas por debajo del nivel de base del oleaje debido a tormentas (i.e., C. 50 to 80 m de profundidad, están formadas por una ritmita de margas y calizas (i.e., Fm Loriguilla. Las facies de rampa interna, localizadas por encima del nivel de base del oleaje de

  7. Hydrologic and landscape changes in the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain: implications for restoration and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabezas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The changes of landscape (1927–2003, discharge regime and anthropic activities with the river-floodplain of one reach at the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain were investigated with the objective to identify the factors that best explain the natural ecotope succession and propose a realistic restoration option with consideration of the landscape dynamics during the last century and the socio-economic context. Our results indicate that hydrological and landscape patterns have been dramatically changed during the last century as a consequence of human alteration of the fluvial dynamics within the studied reach. The magnitude and variability of river discharge events have decreased at the end of the last century, and flood protection structures have disrupted the river floodplain connectivity. As a result, the succesional pathways of riparian ecotopes have been heavily modified because natural rejuvenation no longer takes place, resulting in decreased landscape diversity. It is apparent from these data that floodplain restoration must be incorporated as a significant factor into river management plans if a more natural functioning wants to be retrieved. The ecotope structure and dynamics of the 1927–1957 period should be adopted as the guiding image, whereas current hydrologic and landscape (dykes, raised surfaces patterns should be considered. Under the current socio-economic context, the more realistic option seems to create a dynamic river corridor reallocating dykes and lowering floodplain heights. The extent of this river corridor should adapt to the restored flow regime, although periodic economic investments could be an option if the desired self-sustained dynamism is not reached.

  8. Management of agricultural soils for greenhouse gas mitigation: Learning from a case study in NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, B; Iglesias, A; McVittie, A; Álvaro-Fuentes, J; Ingram, J; Mills, J; Lesschen, J P; Kuikman, P J

    2016-04-01

    A portfolio of agricultural practices is now available that can contribute to reaching European mitigation targets. Among them, the management of agricultural soils has a large potential for reducing GHG emissions or sequestering carbon. Many of the practices are based on well tested agronomic and technical know-how, with proven benefits for farmers and the environment. A suite of practices has to be used since none of the practices can provide a unique solution. However, there are limitations in the process of policy development: (a) agricultural activities are based on biological processes and thus, these practices are location specific and climate, soils and crops determine their agronomic potential; (b) since agriculture sustains rural communities, the costs and potential for implementation have also to be regionally evaluated and (c) the aggregated regional potential of the combination of practices has to be defined in order to inform abatement targets. We believe that, when implementing mitigation practices, three questions are important: Are they cost-effective for farmers? Do they reduce GHG emissions? What policies favour their implementation? This study addressed these questions in three sequential steps. First, mapping the use of representative soil management practices in the European regions to provide a spatial context to upscale the local results. Second, using a Marginal Abatement Cost Curve (MACC) in a Mediterranean case study (NE Spain) for ranking soil management practices in terms of their cost-effectiveness. Finally, using a wedge approach of the practices as a complementary tool to link science to mitigation policy. A set of soil management practices was found to be financially attractive for Mediterranean farmers, which in turn could achieve significant abatements (e.g., 1.34 MtCO2e in the case study region). The quantitative analysis was completed by a discussion of potential farming and policy choices to shape realistic mitigation policy at

  9. The climate of Zaragoza (NE of Spain) in the context of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Cuadrat, José; Ángel Saz, Miguel; Tejedor, Ernesto; de Luis, Martín; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The IPCC 2013 (AR5) emphasizes that the impact of an increase in temperature will be compounded in large cities by the effect of the urban heat island. Therefore, it suggests the need to study the urban climate in urban planning to anticipate changes and define adaptation strategies. The aim of this work is to analyze recent trends in temperature in the city of Zaragoza (NE of Spain, 750,000 inhabitants) and the extreme values from climate indices defined by the WMO. Daily temperature data recorded at 10 observatories located in Zaragoza was homogenized and quality-controlled using 'HOMER, R-Package', developing a single daily series since 1892 to present. Temperature records show a clear positive trend since the early 80s of 20th century. The first decade of the 21th century is the warmest since the beginning of the instrumental records. There is an increase of +0.07 °C per decade. Furthermore, the temperature rise in this period has been +1.6 ° C. The frequency of tropical nights has also been increased. The number of nights when the minimum temperature was not lower than 20 °C has moved from 89 in the period 1900-1930 to 386 in 1991-2010. Days when the maximum daily exceeds 35°C are also more frequent. Regarding the cold events, there is a decrease in the number of days with temperatures below 0 °C. These results reinforce the idea of the IPCC that the challenges of climate change should be recognized as fundamental elements for urban planning in order to reduce risks and promote the welfare of citizens, as well as an instrument to minimize vulnerability and identify ways to maximize opportunities.

  10. Is convective precipitation increasing? The case of Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, M. C.; Marcos, R.; Turco, M.

    2012-04-01

    A recent work (Turco and Llasat, 2011) has been performed to analyse the trends of the ETCCDI (Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices) precipitation indices in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) from 1951 to 2003, calculated from a interpolated dataset of daily precipitation, namely SPAIN02, regular at 0.2° horizontal resolution. This work has showed that no general trends at a regional scale have been observed, considering the annual and the seasonal regional values, and only the consecutive dry days index (CDD) at annual scale shows a locally coherent spatial trend pattern. Simultaneously, Llasat et al (2009, 2010) have showed an important increase of flash-flood events in the same region. Although aspects related with vulnerability, exposure and changes in uses of soil have been found as the main responsible of this increase, a major knowledge on the evolution of high rainfall events is mandatory. Heavy precipitation is usually associated to convective precipitation and therefore the analysis of the latter is a good indicator of it. Particularly, in Catalonia, funding was raised to define a parameter, designated as β, related with the greater or lesser convective character of the precipitation (Llasat, 2001). This parameter estimates the contribution of convective precipitation to total precipitation using 1-min or 5-min rainfall intensities usually estimated by rain gauges and it can be also analysed by means of the meteorological radar (Llasat et al, 2007). Its monthly distribution shows a maximum in August, followed by September, which are the months with the major number of flash-floods in Catalonia. This parameter also allows distinguishing between different kinds of precipitation events taking into account the degree of convective contribution. The main problem is the lack of long rainfall rate series that allow analysing trends in convective precipitation. The second one is related with its heterogeneous spatial and temporal distribution. To

  11. Trends in adverse weather patterns and large wildland fires in Aragón (NE Spain) from 1978 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    A. Cardil; D. M. Molina; Ramirez, J.; Vega-García, C.

    2013-01-01

    This work analyzes the effects of high temperature days on large wildland fires during 1978–2010 in Aragón (NE Spain). A high temperature day was established when air temperature was higher than 20 °C at 850 hPa. Temperature at 850 hPa was chosen because it properly characterizes the low troposphere state, and some of the problems that affect surface reanalysis do not occur. High temperature days were analyzed from April to October in the study period, and the number of these extreme days...

  12. Looking for a participatory scheme between public administrations and stakeholders: example of the Baix Penedès aquifers (Catalonia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torras, Blanca; Pérez-Paricio, Alfredo

    2010-05-01

    The Catalan Agency of Water (l'Agència) is the institution that has full competences concerning the control, management and planning of water resources in approximately the Eastern half of the Catalan territory, in NE Spain. L'Agència determined the need to further characterise and assess the conceptual model of the aquifers included in the groundwater body (GWD) #21, called "Detrític neogen del Baix Penedès". One of the issues to face was to the fact that piezometric data were were not consistent with the final state of risk defined for GWB 21, because the information used was not updated. GWB 21 includes different layers of detritic and carbonated rocks, although the hydrological relationship between them are not well known. The first step was collecting information about wells, extractions, geology (lithological logs), pumping regimes, and all that can be implemented in a conceptual model. Completing this first step required treating with stakeholders, consisting mostly of local administrations, farmers and industries present within the working area. These contacts served the l'Agència not only to improve the characterisation of GXB 21, but also to explain the goals of the work to the aquifer users and to get them involved. But one of the most remarkable and fruitful experiences took place when the town council of Banyeres del Penedès organised a public meeting about the main aquifer of GWB 21, known as "Sorres de Santa Oliva" in order to close the gap between scientific aspects and social awareness. The meeting gathered together representatives of private enterprises, the university and water administrations, and participating in the sessions was really enriching for the audience, since people could understand technical processes and management problems that usually seem to be hidden. Furthermore, it was an opportunity for the speakers to get to know each other, to discuss and share knowledge of the hydrogeology and management of GWB 21, and of course to

  13. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Julian, E-mail: Julian.Campo@uv.es [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Pérez, Francisca [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Farré, Marinella [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Emili Grahit, 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    The occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in water, sediment, and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, being the most frequently found perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS). In general, mean PFAS concentrations measured in sediments (0.01–3.67 ng g{sup −1}) and biota (0.79–431 μg kg{sup −1}) samples were higher than those found in water (0.01–233 ng L{sup −1}). L-PFOS presented very high levels in biota and water, particularly in the Anoia River where a maximum concentration of 2.71 μg L{sup −1} was related to important industrial activities. However, this pollution does not extend down the Llobregat River according to cumulated values. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). According to Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) proposed by the European Commission (L-PFOS) and to Provisional Health Advisory (PHA) values (PFOA, L-PFOS) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), only two water samples exceeded PHA concentration for L-PFOS. - Highlights: • Distribution of 21 PFASs in water, sediment, biota of Llobregat River is investigated. • High L-PFOS concentration in the Anoia River related to industrial activities • PFAS concentration was sediment ≫ water, suggesting accumulation in river's mouth. • Highest PFAS values in biota observed after the Cardener River's confluence • Barbus graellsii accumulates more PFHxA and Cyprinus carpio more L-PFOS. • None of the calculated HQs indicates potential risk for the

  14. Ecohydrological separation in a Mediterranean mountain environment (Vallcebre research catchments, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Pilar; Cayuela, Carles; Sánchez-Costa, Elisenda; Gallart, Francesc; Latron, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    Until very recently, a general paradigm in hydrology was that water is well mixed in the soil, and therefore groundwater, stream water and plant transpiration are all sourced by this well mixed pool. However, recent works (Brooks et al., 2010; Goldsmith et al., 2012) have shown the existence of different water pools in the soil, where tightly bound water, potentially used by plants, does not mix with mobile water that potentially contributes to groundwater and streamflow. This new "two water worlds hypothesis" of ecohydrological separation of water between streams and trees should however be verified in areas with different climates and land covers (McDonnell, 2014). With this objective, we examine this hypothesis in the Vallcebre Research Catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E) using the dual isotope-based approach combined with meteorological and hydrometric monitoring. Since May 2015, stable water-isotopes have been monitored in rainfall (2 locations), in throughfall and stemflow below Scots pines as well as in stream water at the Can Vila (0.56 km2) catchment outlet. Moreover, three spatially distributed sampling campaigns in different antecedent soil moisture conditions have been performed (May, August and November 2015) within the catchment. During the sampling campaigns soil samples (10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 cm) and xylem samples (3 Scots pines) were collected at 8 locations, with different topographic indices. Water in soil and xylem samples was extracted by cryogenic vacuum distillation. This information was complemented with mobile soil water sampled in 3 lysimetric profiles (20, 50 and 100 cm) and in 13 piezometers (150-300 cm deep) distributed within the catchment. These campaigns were combined with a similar regular sampling, every 15 days (From May to December 2015) at one of the 8 locations. All the isotopic information, obtained by infrared spectroscopy, has been combined with continuous measurement of meteorological, soil moisture and potential

  15. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in water, sediment, and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, being the most frequently found perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS). In general, mean PFAS concentrations measured in sediments (0.01–3.67 ng g−1) and biota (0.79–431 μg kg−1) samples were higher than those found in water (0.01–233 ng L−1). L-PFOS presented very high levels in biota and water, particularly in the Anoia River where a maximum concentration of 2.71 μg L−1 was related to important industrial activities. However, this pollution does not extend down the Llobregat River according to cumulated values. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). According to Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) proposed by the European Commission (L-PFOS) and to Provisional Health Advisory (PHA) values (PFOA, L-PFOS) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), only two water samples exceeded PHA concentration for L-PFOS. - Highlights: • Distribution of 21 PFASs in water, sediment, biota of Llobregat River is investigated. • High L-PFOS concentration in the Anoia River related to industrial activities • PFAS concentration was sediment ≫ water, suggesting accumulation in river's mouth. • Highest PFAS values in biota observed after the Cardener River's confluence • Barbus graellsii accumulates more PFHxA and Cyprinus carpio more L-PFOS. • None of the calculated HQs indicates potential risk for the different tropic levels

  16. Prevalencia del consumo de medicamentos en la población adulta de Cataluña Prevalence of drug utilization in the adult population of Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sans

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir la prevalencia de la utilización de medicamentos según factores sociodemográficos y estado de salud autopercibido en la población adulta. Métodos: Examen de salud transversal del estudio CRONICAT/MONICA-Cataluña realizado en 1994-1996 en una muestra aleatoria de la población general de 25 a 64 años. Se interrogó a 3.421 participantes (tasa de respuesta del 72% con cuestionario abierto sobre los medicamentos consumidos durante las dos semanas previas y otros hábitos de salud. Los medicamentos se codificaron posteriormente según la clasificación ATC (versión 1993. Resultados: Mayor proporción de mujeres (38% que de varones (26% autopercibió peor estado de salud (p Objectives: To describe the prevalence of drug utilization according to sociodemographic factors and self-perceived health in the adult population. Methods: Cross-sectional health survey of the CRONICAT/MONICA-Catalonia study carried out in 1994-96 in a random sample of the general population aged 25-64 years. A total of 3,421 participants (72% response rate were interviewed about drug consumption in the previous two weeks with an open questionnaire. The participants were also asked about other health habits. Drugs were subsequently classified according to the ATC classification (1993 version. Results: A higher proportion of women (38% than men (26% self-perceived poor health status (p < 0.001. Age-adjusted total drug utilization was 57% in men (95%CI: 55-59 and 76% in women (95%CI: 74-78. Excluding contraceptives, regular drug utilization was 35% in men (95%CI: 33-37 and 48% in women (95%CI: 46-51. Twenty-nine percent of men and 48% of women (p < 0.001 took more than one drug. Neither educational level nor marital status influenced drug utilization. Among men, drug consumption was higher in retired individuals and pensioners (68%; 95%CI: 62-74 than in active workers (54%; 95%CI: 52-57. The most frequently used drugs were those for the nervous system

  17. Urban solid wastes management in Montnegre-Corredor (Catalonia, Spain); La gestion de residos solidos urbanos en parques naturales. El Montnegre- Corredor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieradevall i Pons, J.; Boada i Unca, M.; Fresquet, C. M.

    2004-07-01

    With a aim to gaining some knowledge about urban solid waste management in the Montnegre- Corredor Park (Catalonia), the most significant related aspects were analyzed: the different public administrations involved, waste collector type of transport, treatment and, finally, waste disposal and its production from 1999 to 2002. Economical, environmental and social aspects of solid waste management at the Park were also studied. From this analysis we can establish that there is no specific plant for solid waste management in the Park, and action is limited to basic waste collection services. Moreover, there is a multiplicity of managers. In terms of maintenance it must be pointed out that selective collection is non-existent, and critical points have been identified in the most popular areas. The study also put forward a new solid waste management plan for the Park, recommending the unification of managers and the reduction of about 23% of emissions from waste collection. The plan is designed to improve the solid waste management peculiar to the Montnegre- Corredor Natural Park (Catalonian). (Author)

  18. Diferencias en el perfil reproductivo de mujeres autóctonas e inmigrantes residentes en Cataluña Differences in reproductive patterns between autochthonous and immigrant women living in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Gispert Magarolas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir el perfil reproductivo en las mujeres autóctonas e inmigrantes residentes en Cataluña. Métodos: Los abortos proceden del Registro de interrupción voluntaria del embarazo (IVE del Departament de Salut, y los nacimientos y la población del Institut d'Estadística de Catalunya. Se han usado las variables «país de nacimiento» o «nacionalidad», según la fuente, para agrupar. Se analizan las tasas de fecundidad y aborto por edad, y las características sociodemográficas de las mujeres para el año 2005. Resultados: El 20,8% de los 79.504 nacimientos y el 37,8% de las 16.798 IVE fueron de mujeres inmigrantes. El 14,2% de los embarazos de mujeres autóctonas y el 27,7% de los de mujeres inmigrantes terminan en aborto. Las tasa bruta de fecundidad y aborto es 1,4 y 3 veces superior, respectivamente, en las mujeres inmigrantes. Conclusiones: Hay importantes diferencias en las tasas y en las características sociodemográficas entre las mujeres autóctonas y las inmigrantes.Objective: To describe differences in reproductive patterns between autochthonous and immigrant women living in Catalonia (Spain. Methods: Data on legal abortions were obtained from the abortions register in the Regional Ministry of Health, while data on births and the population were drawn from the Institute of Statistics of Catalonia. Depending on the source, the variables «country of birth» or «nationality» were used to compose the groups. Rates of fertility and abortion by age were computed for 2005 and the women's sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed. Results: A total of 20.8% of the 79,504 births and 37.8% of the 16,798 abortions involved immigrant women, while 14.2% of pregnancies in autochthonous women and 27.7% of those in immigrant women terminated in abortion. Crude fertility and abortion rates were 1.4 and 3 times higher, respectively, in immigrant women. Conclusions: There are important differences in abortion and fertility

  19. Analyzing the vegetation response under different treatments after wildfires in NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Javier; Cerdà, Artemi; Badía, David; Echeverría, Maite; Martí, Clara

    2014-05-01

    Fire is a natural factor of landscape evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems. The socio-economic changes that occurred in the last decades have contributed to an increase in forest fires (Shakesby, 2011). There was found a change in the fire regimes in terms of frequency, size, seasonality, recurrence as well as fire intensity and severity (Keeley, 2009), which resulted in severe effects on soils, water and vegetation (Guénon et al., 2013). Fire affects soil properties directly by the heat impact (Aznar et al., 2013), and the ash cover (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008) and the reduction of the plant cover (Neary et al., 1999). The lack of vegetation and the heating promotes changes in the soil organic matter content (González-Pérez et al., 2004), on the structural stability (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011), on the hydrophobic response (Bodí et al., 2012), and on the infiltration capacity (Cerdà, 1998a). This is why the vegetation cover and the litter are key factors on soil erosion after forest fires (Prats et al., 2013). Besides, the ash plays an important paper in the soil protection after the forest fire and after the first storms and winds (León et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013). The objective of this experiment is to asses the vegetation response after a forest fire and the impact of vegetation recovery on soil erosion. The experiment consisted in a sampling of a linear transect of 10 m with samples each 2 m, under different slope position and aspect. To measure the soil erosion rates we used rainfall simulation experiments (León et al., 2013). The experiments were carried in Castejón (UTM 30T, X671106, Y4644584) in a forest burned in 2008, in the Zuera Mountains, both located in the north of Zaragoza province (NE Spain). The soils on limestone parent material are Rendzic Phaeozem (IUSS, 2007) and the texture of Ah horizons of soils developed on limestone is sandy-loam (Badía et al., 2013). The result shows fast and successful vegetation regeneration in the north

  20. Remote sensing observing systems of the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC): application to thunderstorm surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argemí, O.; Bech, J.; Pineda, N.; Rigo, T.

    2009-09-01

    Remote sensing observing systems of the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) have been upgraded during the last years with newer technologies and enhancements. Recent changes on the weather radar network have been motivated to improve precipitation estimates by radar as well as meteorological surveillance in the area of Catalonia. This region has approximately 32,000 square kilometres and is located in the NE of Spain, limited by the Pyrenees to the North (with mountains exceeding 3000 m) and by the Mediterranean Sea to the East and South. In the case of the total lightning (intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning) detection system, the current upgrades will assure a better lightning detection efficiency and location accuracy. Both upgraded systems help to enhance the tracking and the study of thunderstorm events. Initially, the weather radar network was designed to cover the complex topography of Catalonia and surrounding areas to support the regional administration, which includes civil protection and water authorities. The weather radar network was upgraded in 2008 with the addition of a new C-band Doppler radar system, which is located in the top of La Miranda Mountain (Tivissa) in the southern part of Catalonia enhancing the coverage, particularly to the South and South-West. Technically the new radar is very similar to the last one installed in 2003 (Creu del Vent radar), using a 4 m antenna (i.e., 1 degree beam width), a Vaisala-Sigmet RVP-8 digital receiver and processor and a low power transmitter using a Travelling Wave Tube (TWT) amplifier. This design allows using pulse-compression techniques to enhance radial resolution and sensitivity. Currently, the SMC is upgrading its total lightning detection system, operational since 2003. While a fourth sensor (Amposta) was added last year to enlarge the system coverage, all sensors and central processor will be upgraded this year to the new Vaisala’s total lightning location technology. The new LS8000

  1. Factors associated with commencing smoking in 12-year-old students in Catalonia (Spain: a cross-sectional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basora Josep

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade notable progress has been made in developed countries on monitoring smoking although experimenting with cigarettes and smoking in young people remains a serious public health problem. This paper reports a cross-sectional study at the beginning of the 3-year follow-up community study TA_BES. The aim was to study the prevalence of smoking in addition to determining predictive factors for when smoking commences in a representative population of 12-year-old first year compulsory secondary education students. Methods Twenty-nine secondary schools (N = 29 from an area of Catalonia participated in the study. In these schools 2245 students answered a questionnaire to study the attitudes, behaviors, and tobacco consumption in the subject's surrounding circle and family in relation to smoking; carbon monoxide measurements were taken by means of co-oximetry on 2 different occasions. A smoker was defined as a student who had smoked daily or occasionally in the last 30 days. For non-smokers the criteria of not considering was set up for those who answered that in the future they would not be smokers and considering those who answered that they did not rule out becoming a smoker in the future. Results Among the total 2245 students included in the analysis 157(7% were classified as smokers. Among non-smokers we differentiated between those not considering smoking 1757 (78.3% and those considering smoking 288 (12.8%. Age is among the factors related to commencing smoking. The risk of becoming a smoker increases 2.27 times/year. The influence of the group of friends with a very high risk for boys OR 149.5 and lower, albeit high, in girls OR 38.1. Tobacco consumption of parents produces different effects in young people. A smoking father does not produce alterations in the smoking behavior of young people. However having a smoking mother or former smoking is a risk factor for boys and a protective factor for girls. We

  2. The Role of Bullfighting and FC Barcelona in the Emancipation of Catalonia from Spain (El papel de la corrida de toros y FC Barcelona en la emancipación de Cataluña de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TKac, John A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper looks at the role that bullfighting and FC Barcelona have played in the growing independence movement in Catalonia. This article will discuss nations, the importance of bullfighting and soccer to Iberian cultures, Catalan political parties and their role in the nationalist movement, the vote to prohibit bullfighting and FC Barcelona´s increasing political conscious. I conclude that bullfighting and soccer have been used by political parties and those associated with the nationalist movement to foster feelings of difference with Spain. These feelings have been passed from the top down to the Catalan people and risk alienating those who are not in agreement with the nationalist movement. Resumen: Este trabajo examina el papel que la corrida de toros y el equipo de fútbol FC Barcelona han hecho en el movimiento continuo hacia la independencia en Cataluña. Discute el concepto de la nación, la importancia de las corridas y el fútbol en culturas ibéricas, partidos políticos catalanes y su rol en el voto a favor de la prohibición de las corridas en Cataluña y la evolución de la conciencia política cada vez más evidente de FC Barcelona. Concluyo que los partidos políticos y otros asociados con el movimiento hacia la independencia se han aprovechado de las corridas y el fútbol para destacar diferencias culturales con España. Esta actitud de diferencia se ha trasladado de arriba-abajo al pueblo catalán y el movimiento nacionalista corre el riesgo de alienar a los que no comparten sus creencias.

  3. Trends in adverse weather patterns and large wildland fires in Aragón (NE Spain from 1978 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cardil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the effects of high temperature days on large wildland fires during 1978–2010 in Aragón (NE Spain. A high temperature day was established when air temperature was higher than 20 °C at 850 hPa. Temperature at 850 hPa was chosen because it properly characterizes the low troposphere state, and some of the problems that affect surface reanalysis do not occur. High temperature days were analyzed from April to October in the study period, and the number of these extreme days increased significantly. This temporal trend implied more frequent adverse weather conditions in later years that could facilitate extreme fire behavior. The effects of those high temperatures days in large wildland fire patterns have been increasingly important in the last years of the series.

  4. Artroplastias de cadera y rodilla en Cataluña desde 1994 a 2005 Hip and knee arthroplasties in Catalonia (Spain from 1994 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Allepuz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Las artroplastias de cadera y rodilla están entre los procedimientos quirúrgicos más frecuentes en Cataluña. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir su evolución y los cambios en sus características entre 1994 y 2005. Métodos: Estudio transversal de altas por artroplastias totales primarias de cadera (ATC o rodilla (ATR y de revisión seleccionadas del Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos al Alta Hospitalaria: códigos 81.51, 81.53, 81.54 y 81.55 (CIE-9-MC. Se calcularon las tasas de ATC y ATR estandarizadas por edad y sexo, y la carga de revisión, analizando su evolución mediante la regresión de joinpoint. Se definieron 4 períodos y se analizaron las características de los pacientes y de los episodios asistenciales comparando los períodos 4 y 1 a partir de modelos de regresión logística. Resultados: Las tasas por 10.000 habitantes se incrementaron entre 1994 y 2000 en ATC, pasando de 4,1 a 6,6, y entre 1994 y 2005 en ATR, pasando de 2,6 a 15,5. La carga de revisión aumentó en la cadera hasta 2001 y en la rodilla durante todo el período de estudio. El principal motivo de artroplastia primaria fue la artrosis. Los pacientes de 75 años o mayores y la comorbilidad aumentaron en ATC y ATR. Conclusiones: El incremento de las tasas y el cambio del perfil de los pacientes reflejan una posible ampliación de los criterios de indicación. El previsible aumento de la cirugía de revisión se podría reducir mediante sistemas de evaluación de la supervivencia de las prótesis y el desarrollo de guías de práctica clínica.Objective: Hip and knee arthroplasties are the most frequent surgical procedures in Catalonia. The aim of this study was to describe changes in the rates of these procedures and in their characteristics between 1994 and 2005. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of total hip (THR and knee (TKR primary and revision joint replacement discharges using the Minimum Data Set (ICD-9-CM codes 81.51, 81

  5. Nursing workload predictors in Catalonia (Spain: a home care cohort study Variables predictoras de las cargas de trabajo de enfermería en Cataluña: seguimiento de una cohorte de atención domiciliaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Gené Badia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the characteristics of chronic patients and their environment in order to predict the nursing workload required 1 year after their inclusion in a home care program. Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out in 72 primary health care teams in Catalonia (Spain with a 1-year follow-up of 1,068 home care patients over 64 years old. The variables collected from each patient included data on health and social status (Charlson and Barthel indexes and the Pfeiffer, Braden and Gijon scales, carer overburden (Zarit scale, hospital admissions, use of emergency services, self-perceived health (SF-12 and the number of health worker visits. Results: Patients received 7.2 (SD 10.4 visits per year from their nurse-in-charge, out of a total of 8.7 (SD 13.1 nursing visits per year. Risk factors for receiving more nursing visits at home were male gender (IRR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.20-1.67, dependency for daily activities (IRR=1.65, 95%CI: 1.29-2.13, decubitus ulcers (IRR=4.03, 95%CI: 2.27-7.14 and receiving emergency medical care at home (IRR=1.65, 95%CI: 1.31-2.07. In contrast, patients with major cognitive impairment (IRR=0.78, 95%CI: 0.63-0.98 had a lower probability of receiving nursing visits at home. Conclusions: Workload can be predicted by patients' clinical characteristics. The positive correlation of workload with variables related to disease severity and the negative correlation with variables related to cognitive impairment show that home care nursing in Catalonia is basically demand-oriented.Objetivo: Identificar las características basales de los pacientes crónicos y su entorno que predicen la carga de trabajo de enfermería durante el año siguiente a su inclusión en un programa de atención domiciliaria (ATDOM. Métodos: Estudio longitudinal realizado en 72 equipos de atención primaria de salud en Cataluña. Seguimiento durante un año de 1068 pacientes de ATDOM mayores de 64 años de edad. Variables recogidas: nivel de salud

  6. Prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+ using HPV DNA testing after a diagnosis of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASC-US in Catalonia, Spain

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    Ibáñez Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A protocol for cervical cancer screening among sexually active women 25 to 65 years of age was introduced in 2006 in Catalonia, Spain to increase coverage and to recommend a 3-year-interval between screening cytology. In addition, Human Papillomavirus (HPV was offered as a triage test for women with a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US. HPV testing was recommended within 3 months of ASC-US diagnosis. According to protocol, HPV negative women were referred to regular screening including a cytological exam every 3 years while HPV positive women were referred to colposcopy and closer follow-up. We evaluated the implementation of the protocol and the prediction of HPV testing as a triage tool for cervical intraepithelial lesions grade two or worse (CIN2+ in women with a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US. Methods During 2007-08 a total of 611 women from five reference laboratories in Catalonia with a novel diagnosis of ASC-US were referred for high risk HPV (hrHPV triage using high risk Hybrid Capture version 2. Using routine record linkage data, women were followed for 3 years to evaluate hrHPV testing efficacy for predicting CIN2+ cases. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio for CIN2 +. Results Among the 611 women diagnosed with ASC-US, 493 (80.7% had at least one follow-up visit during the study period. hrHPV was detected in 48.3% of the women at study entry (mean age 35.2 years. hrHPV positivity decreased with increasing age from 72.6% among women younger than 25 years to 31.6% in women older than 54 years (p At the end of the 3 years follow-up period, 37 women with a diagnosis of CIN2+ (18 CIN2, 16 CIN3, 2 cancers, and 1 with high squamous intraepithelial lesions -HSIL were identified and all but one had a hrHPV positive test at study entry. Sensitivity to detect CIN2+ of hrHPV was 97.2% (95%confidence interval (CI = 85.5-99.9 and specificity was 68.3% (95%CI

  7. Multi-isotopic and statistical approaches to trace nitrate pollution sources and assess natural attenuation in groundwater: examples from nitrate vulnerable zones in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Caminal, Roger

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen to groundwater have dramatically increased, and they nowadays represent one of the most important water resources concerns as NO3-N has become the most ubiquitous chemical contaminant in the world's aquifers. Agriculture, farming activities and wastewater seepage are the main anthropogenic sources of water contamination in rural areas. Another factor that is known to contribute to the decline of groundwater quality is excessive groundwater...

  8. Situación y perspectivas laborales de los técnicos de salud de atención primaria de Cataluña Working conditions of public health workers in the primary care in Catalonia, Spain

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    Maria Salut Martínez Ferrer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Explorar la situación laboral de los técnicos de salud adscritos a las unidades docentes de medicina de familia y comunitaria de Cataluña. Métodos: Estudio transversal. Resultados: De 53 posibles técnicos de salud, se obtuvieron 40 respuestas, 29 completas. Más de la mitad de los técnicos de salud del Institut Català de la Salut son interinos. Sus principales actividades son la docencia, el apoyo metodológico a la investigación y la evaluación de servicios y personal sanitario. Desean mayor definición de sus funciones y mejorar sus condiciones de trabajo. Aunque una pequeña proporción considera muy difícil la coordinación en la salud pública, la mayoría muestra disposición a colaborar. Conclusiones: La inestabilidad laboral, las mejoras salariales y la definición de funciones son prioritarias para los técnicos de salud. Consideran deseable la coordinación de la atención primaria con los servicios de salud pública.Objective: To describe the working conditions and tasks of health workers in the health training unit of family medicine in Catalonia, Spain. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Results: Fifty-three public health workers were located. Forty responses were obtained, of which 29 were complete. More than half the health technicians in the Catalan Health Service had temporary contracts. Their main tasks were teaching, providing methodological assistance in research, and auditing healthcare services and healthcare workers. Health technicians wanted more precise job definition and better working conditions. Although a small proportion believed coordination of primary care and public health to be very difficult, most would take part in it. Conclusions: The main issues for public health workers were work instability, better salaries, and greater job definition. Coordination between primary care and public health was considered desirable.

  9. Why do workers leave unions? Group differences between workers in CCOO-Catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Jodár, Pere; Alós, Ramón de; Vidal, Sergi

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the characteristics of members leaving trade unions in Spain – specifically the Catalonia branch of Workers' Commissions (CCOO-Catalonia) – alongside their reasons for leaving, using a variety of data sources. Our findings indicate higher union attrition among members in more precarious employment situations (i.e. temporary employment, low seniority). In general, union leavers confirm that their job situation is an important reason for leaving the union. We therefore con...

  10. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    OpenAIRE

    R. Poyatos; P. Llorens; Gallart, F.

    2005-01-01

    Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) forest located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain). The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec) and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drought...

  11. Spatial and temporal variability of PM levels and composition in a complex summer atmospheric scenario in Barcelona (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, M.; Pérez, C.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Nickovic, S.; Baldasano, J. M.

    Summer atmospheric coastal dynamics exert a significant influence on the levels and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the North-Eastern Iberian Peninsula. Summer atmospheric scenarios in this region present a high degree of complexity as they are characterised by the absence of synoptic-scale air mass advections, the development of breeze circulations, enhanced photochemistry, local mineral dust re-suspension and the occurrence of African dust outbreaks. Three sampling sites were selected in Barcelona (NE Spain), an urban coastal site surrounded by complex topography. Regional dust modelling (DREAM) and high resolution meteorological modelling (MM5) were used to interpret PM levels and composition at the three sites. The results outline the effect of breeze dynamics and thermal internal boundary layer formation as the main meteorological drivers of the hourly evolution of PM levels. Levels of crustal components, secondary inorganic and carbon species are higher during the night, and only the marine aerosol content is higher during the day. Nitrate levels are higher during the night due to the thermal stability on NH 4NO 3. Sulphate levels are higher during the night as a consequence of the drainage flows. Lidar measurements and model results signalled the occurrence of two African dust episodes during the study period which mainly affected the free troposphere over Barcelona.

  12. Fault-related fold kinematics recorded by terrestrial growth strata, Sant Llorenç de Morunys, Pyrenees Mountains, NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, James H.; Anastasio, David J.; Kodama, Kenneth P.; Parés, Josep M.

    2016-10-01

    Foreland basin growth strata are ideal recorders of deformation rates and kinematics in tectonically active regions. This study develops a high-resolution chronostratigraphic age model to determine folding rates in the Eocene-Oligocene terrestrial growth strata of the Berga Conglomerate Group, NE Spain. The Berga Conglomerate Group was sampled for rock magnetic, magnetostratigraphic, and magnetic susceptibility (χ) cyclostratigraphy analyses. Analysis of rock magnetic measurements indicate a mixed mineral assemblage with both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic minerals. A new magnetic reversal stratigraphy constrains the time frame of folding and is in agreement with previous interpretations. Time series analysis of χ variations show statistically significant power at expected orbital frequencies and provides precession-scale (20 kyr) temporal resolution. Strain measurements including anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) fabrics and bedding plane strain worm burrow distortion are consistent with fixed hinge, flexural folding kinematics. Fault-related folding was modeled using χ cyclostratigraphy timing and strain measurement kinematic constraints. The onset of folding was at 33.85 Ma and the end of deformation is less constrained but is younger than 31.06 Ma. Deformation and sediment accumulation rates are unsteady at 20 kyr time scales but appear artificially steady at polarity chron time scales.

  13. Seasonal variations in terpene emission factors of dominant species in four ecosystems in NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llusia, Joan; Peñuelas, Josep; Guenther, Alex; Rapparini, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    We studied the daily patterns in the rates of foliar terpene emissions by four typical species from the Mediterranean region in two days of early spring and two days of summer in 4 localities of increasing biomass cover in Northern Spain. The species studied were Thymelaea tinctoria (in Monegros), Quercus coccifera (in Garraf), Quercus ilex (in Prades) and Fagus sylvatica (in Montseny). Of the total 43 VOCs detected, 23 were monoterpenes, 5 sesquiterpenes and 15 were not terpenes. Sesquiterpenes were the main terpenes emitted from T. tinctoria. Total VOC emission rates were on average about 15 times higher in summer than in early spring. The maximum rates of emission were recorded around midday. Emissions nearly stopped in the dark. No significant differences were found for nocturnal total terpene emission rates between places and seasons. The seasonal variations in the rate of terpene emissions and in their chemical composition can be explained mainly by dramatic changes in emission factors (emission capacity) associated in some cases, such as for beech trees, with very different foliar ontogenical characteristics between spring and summer. The results show that temperature and light-standardised emission rates were on average about 15 times higher in summer than in early spring, which, corroborating other works, calls to attention when applying the same emission factor in modelling throughout the different seasons of the year.

  14. Modelling nitrogen and phosphorus loads in a Mediterranean river catchment (La Tordera, NE Spain

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    F. Caille

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have resulted in increased nutrient levels in many rivers all over Europe. Sustainable management of river basins demands an assessment of the causes and consequences of human alteration of nutrient flows, together with an evaluation of management options. In the context of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment (IEA of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the application of the nutrient emission model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions into River Systems to the Catalan river basin, La Tordera (north-east Spain, for the period 1996–2002. After a successful calibration and verification process (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies E=0.85 for phosphorus and E=0.86 for nitrogen, the application of the model MONERIS proved to be useful in estimating nutrient loads. Crucial for model calibration, in-stream retention was estimated to be about 50 % of nutrient emissions on an annual basis. Through this process, we identified the importance of point sources for phosphorus emissions (about 94% for 1996–2002, and diffuse sources, especially inputs via groundwater, for nitrogen emissions (about 31% for 1996–2002. Despite hurdles related to model structure, observed loads, and input data encountered during the modelling process, MONERIS provided a good representation of the major interannual and spatial patterns in nutrient emissions. An analysis of the model uncertainty and sensitivity to input data indicates that the model MONERIS, even in data-starved Mediterranean catchments, may be profitably used by water managers for evaluating quantitative nutrient emission scenarios for the purpose of managing river basins. As an example of scenario modelling, an analysis of the changes in nutrient emissions through two different future scenarios allowed the identification of a set of relevant measures to reduce nutrient loads.

  15. Modelling nitrogen and phosphorus loads in a Mediterranean river catchment (La Tordera, NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Caille

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have resulted in increased nutrient levels in many rivers all over Europe. Sustainable management of river basins demands an assessment of the causes and consequences of human alteration of nutrient flows, together with an evaluation of management options. In the context of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment (IEA of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the application of the nutrient emission model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions into River Systems to the Catalan river basin, La Tordera (North-East of Spain, for the period 1996-2002. After a successful calibration and verification process (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies E = 0.85 for phosphorus, and E = 0.86 for nitrogen, the application of the model MONERIS proved to be useful to estimate nutrient loads. Crucial for model calibration, in-stream retention (mainly affected by variability in precipitation was estimated to be about 50 % of nutrient emissions on an annual basis. Through this process, we identified the importance of point sources for phosphorus emissions (about 94 % for 1996–2002, and diffuse sources, especially inputs via groundwater, for nitrogen emissions (about 31 % for 1996–2002. Despite potential hurdles related to model structure, observed loads, and input data encountered during the modelling process, MONERIS provided a good representation of the major interannual and spatial patterns in nutrient emissions. An analysis of the model uncertainty and sensitivity to input data indicates that the model MONERIS, even in data-starved Mediterranean catchments, may be profitably used for evaluating quantitative nutrient emission scenarios that may help catchment managers and planners to develop effective policy and management measures to reduce nutrient loads.

  16. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on nuclear export activities in Spain, as elsewhere, which occur in a political, economic, and technological context. The factors operating the process are not always explicitly related in the public and the private sectors, nor between these sectors, by the relevant decision makers. A redefinition of Spain's policies in the nuclear sector has been going on since at least 1984, when a new energy plan was legislated by the newly elected Socialist government. It would be accurate to suggest that this process remains dynamic and not fully completed for policy purposes. This condition has resulted from the fact that Spain underwent a crucial political regime change from dictatorship to parliamentary democracy about a decade ago, with the transition to democracy only recently consolidated. Moreover, no policy in regard to nuclear nonproliferation existed during the Franco regime. Instead, Spain's official position was to maintain the right to preserve a nuclear option for national defense. However, this option was not developed into a concerted program to develop a nuclear military capability

  17. Regression Models for Aquifer Vulnerability to Nitrate Pollution in Osona (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy Roura, M.; Nolan, B. T.; Menció Domingo, A.; Mas-Pla, J.

    2012-12-01

    Regression models were developed at a local scale in the Osona region (1,260 square kilometers) to predict nitrate concentrations in groundwater. Osona is a semi-arid region in northeast Spain, where livestock and agricultural activities are very intensive, and therefore, it is vulnerable to nitrate pollution from agricultural sources (European Nitrate Directive (91/676/EEC)). Nitrate concentrations in groundwater are commonly above 50 mg/L as nitrate, reaching up to 500 mg/L in some of the sampled wells. Regression models were based on explanatory variables such as geology, land use, and nitrogen inputs, which control the fate, transport and attenuation of nitrate in groundwater. Regression has been widely used to determine aquifer vulnerability to nitrate in groundwater at large spatial scales. We developed models with and without site-specific groundwater chemistry data to see the extent to which the latter improved the models. Although chemistry data could explain additional variation in groundwater nitrate concentration, such data were available only at the well locations and therefore were less amenable for spatial extrapolation. The data set consisted of nitrate data from 63 sampled wells and the following explanatory variables: 1) soils data consisting of texture and other physical properties; 2) geology indicating presence or absence of aquifers in the region, and their type (unconfined, leaky or confined); 3) land use (agricultural, urban, forested); 4) nitrogen input as manure; 5) occurrence of irrigated crops; 6) estimates of nitrogen uptake developed for 10 different crops; 7) slope; 8) population density, and 9) groundwater chemistry data comprising major ions and trace elements. Variables 1 and 2 were compiled as point data because their polygons were much larger than the well buffers which represented contributing areas to the sampled wells. Variables 3 to 8 were compiled within a 500-meter radius buffer around wells using a GIS-based weighted

  18. Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poyatos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. forests located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain. The first aim of the study was to assess the differences in quantitative estimates of transpiration (Ec and the response to evaporative demand of the two stands. Over the studied period of 2003, characterised by a severe drought episode during the summer, the oak stand (Ec was only 110 mm compared to the 239 mm transpired by the Scots pine stand, although the ratio of transpiration to reference evapotranspiration (Ec/ET0 in the oak stand compares well with the expected values predicted for low leaf area index (LAI oak forests in southern Europe. Scots pine showed a strong reduction in (Ec/ET0 as the drought developed, whereas pubescent oak was less affected by soil moisture deficits in the upper soil. As a second objective, and given the contrasting meteorological conditions between 2003 and 2004 summer periods, the interannual variability of transpiration was studied in the Scots pine plot. Rainfall during the summer months (June-September in 2003 was almost 40% less than in the same interval in 2004. Accordingly, transpiration was also reduced about 25% in 2003. Finally, Scots pine data from 2003 and 2004 was used to calibrate a simple transpiration model using ET0 and soil moisture deficit (SMD as input variables, and implicitly including stomatal responses to high vapour pressure deficits (Dd and soil water status.

  19. Tornadoes and waterspouts in Catalonia (1950–2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Gayà, M.; Llasat, M.-C.; Arús, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary climatology of tornadoes and waterspouts in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula). A database spanning 60 yr (1950–2009) has been developed on the basis of information collected from various sources such as weather reports, insurance companies, newspapers and damage surveys. This database has been subjected to a rigorous validation process, and the climatology describes its main features: timing, spatial pattern, and trends in the tornado and waterspout distributi...

  20. Gender differences in sexual risk behaviour among adolescents in Catalonia, Spain Diferencias de género en conductas sexuales de riesgo en adolescentes en Cataluña

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    Diana Puente

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the factors associated with sexual risk behavior in adolescent girls and boys in order to plan future school health interventions. Methods: A cross-sectional study with two-stage cluster sampling that included 97 schools and 9,340 students aged between 14 and 16 years old was carried out in 2005-2006 in Catalonia (Spain. For the survey, a self-administered paper-based questionnaire was used. The questionnaire contained items on sociodemographic variables, use of addictive substances and mood states, among other items. These variables were tested as risk factors for unsafe sexual behavior. Results: This study included 4,653 boys and 4,687 girls with a mean age of 15 years. A total of 38.7% of students had had sexual relations at least once and 82.3% of boys and 63.0% of girls were engaged in sexual risk behaviors. The prevalence of sexual relations and risk behaviors was generally higher in boys than in girls, independently of the variables analyzed. Boys had more sexual partners (PObjetivos: El objetivo de este estudio es analizar aquellos factores relacionados con conductas sexuales de riesgo en chicos y chicas para poder plantear futuras intervenciones. Métodos: Estudio transversal basado en un muestreo por conglomerados bietápico, que incluía 97 escuelas y 9.340 estudiantes de entre 14 y16 años, llevado a cabo en Cataluña durante 2005-2006. La información se recogió mediante una encuesta autoadministrada que incluía, entre otras, variables sociodemográficas, uso de sustancias adictivas y estado de ánimo de los adolescentes. Estas variables fueron analizadas como factores de riesgo de conducta sexual insegura. Resultados: El estudio incluyó 4.653 chicos y 4.687 chicas con una edad media de 15 años. El 30,7% de los estudiantes habían tenido al menos una relación sexual. El 82,3% de los chicos y el 63% de las chicas tenían un aumento de riesgo de experimentar una relación sexual insegura. La prevalencia de

  1. Gender differences in negative mood states in secondary school students: health survey in Catalonia (Spain Diferencias en los estados de ánimo negativo en estudiantes de secundaria según sexo: encuesta de salud en Cataluña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Monteagudo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of negative mood states in adolescents according to gender, to analyze variability among schools, and to evaluate the associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a cluster design was carried out. We administered the High-school students health survey to a sample of 9,340 students (aged 14-16 years in the third and fourth year of Compulsory Secondary Education in Catalonia, Spain, during the 2005-6 academic year. The main outcome measure was evidence of a negative mood state. A multilevel logistic regression model stratified by gender was used to identify the factors associated with negative mood states and to determine variability among distinct schools. Results: Approximately 19% of adolescents reported evidence of a negative mood state, with a higher prevalence in girls (25%. The most significant factors associated with negative mood states were "use of tranquilizers" and "having eating disorders" in girls and "not exercising" and "poor self-perception of health status" in boys. In both genders, variability was found among schools in the prevalence of negative mood states (girls: variance = 0.078; p Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia del estado de ánimo negativo entre alumnos adolescentes según sexo, analizar la variabilidad entre escuelas y evaluar los factores asociados. Métodos: Estudio transversal basado en un muestreo por conglomerados bietápico. Administramos una encuesta de salud a 9340 estudiantes de tercero y cuarto curso de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria de 14 a 16 años de edad, en Cataluña, durante el curso escolar 2005-06. La variable principal fue el estado de ánimo negativo. Se usó un modelo de regresión logística multinivel estratificado por sexo para identificar los factores asociados al estado de ánimo negativo y determinar la variabilidad entre las diferentes escuelas. Resultados: Aproximadamente el 19% de los adolescentes refirieron un estado de

  2. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in Spain for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  3. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  4. Campylobacter shared between free-ranging cattle and sympatric wild ungulates in a natural environment (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Ugarte-Ruiz, M; Porrero, M C; Zamora, L; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Lavín, S; Domínguez, L

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter infections are a public health concern and an increasingly common cause of food-borne zoonoses in the European Union. However, little is known about their spill-over from free-ranging livestock to sympatric wild ungulates, especially in regards to uncommon Campylobacter species. In this study, we aim to determine the prevalence of C. coli, C. jejuni and other C. spp. in game ungulates (wild boar Sus scrofa and Iberian ibex Capra pyrenaica) and free-ranging sympatric cattle in a National Game Reserve in NE Spain. Furthermore, we explore the extent to which Campylobacter species are shared among these co-habiting hosts. Faecal samples from Iberian ibex (n = 181) were negative for C. spp. By direct plating, two wild boars out of 150 were positive for C. coli (1.3%, 95% CI 0.16-4.73), and one was positive for C. jejuni (0.67%, 95% CI 0.02-3.66). The latter was predominant in cattle: 5.45% (n = 55, 95% CI 1.14-5.12), while C. coli was not isolated from this host. C. lanienae was the most frequent species in wild boar at 10% (95% CI 5.7-15.96), and one cow cohabiting with positive wild boars in the same canyon also carried C. lanienae. Four enrichment protocols (using Bolton or Preston broth combined with either mCCDA or CFA) were added for 172 samples (57 from wild boars, 55 cattle and 60 Iberian ibexes) to increase the number of isolates obtained allowing the detection of statistically significant differences. The prevalence of C. lanienae was statistically significantly higher in wild boar than in cattle (P < 0.01), but the prevalence of C. jejuni was higher in the latter (P = 0.045). These results suggest that wild boar and cattle carry their own predominant Campylobacter species, while Iberian ibex do not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter. However, there is a potential spill-over of C. spp., and thus, further research is needed to elucidate the factors determining inter-species transmission.

  5. Interspecific and geographical differences in anticoagulant rodenticide residues of predatory wildlife from the Mediterranean region of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Perea, Jhon J; Camarero, Pablo R; Molina-López, Rafael A; Parpal, Luis; Obón, Elena; Solá, Jessica; Mateo, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    We studied the prevalence of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) in the liver of 344 individuals representing 11 species of predatory wildlife that were found dead in the Mediterranean region of Spain (Catalonia and Majorca Island). Six different ARs (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, flocoumafen, difethialone, warfarin) were found in the liver of 216 (62.8%) animals and >1 AR co-occurred in 119 individuals (34.6%). The occurrence of ARs was positively correlated with the human population density. Catalonia and Majorca showed similar prevalence of AR detection (64.4 and 60.4%, respectively), but a higher prevalence was found in the resident population of Eurasian scops owl (Otus scops) from Majorca (57.7%) compared to the migratory population from Catalonia (14.3%). Birds of prey had lower levels of bromadiolone than hedgehogs, whereas no difference was found for other ARs. The risk of SGAR poisoning in wild predators in NE Spain is believed to be elevated, because 23.3% of the individuals exhibited hepatic concentration of ARs exceeding 200 ng/g. PMID:25546464

  6. La declaración de los nuevos diagnósticos de VIH en Cataluña: ¿es posible el consenso técnico? Reporting new HIV cases in Catalonia, Spain: Is technical consensus feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Casabona

    2003-02-01

    único, al igual que las enfermedades de declaración obligatoria individualizada. La información derivada de la notificación de infección es imprescindible para la mejor planificación de las intervenciones preventivas y la provisión de servicios sanitarios. Las principales dificultades observadas son el hecho de que la infección por VIH no se haya incluido entre las enfermedades de declaración obligatoria (EDO, así como la baja implantación del CIP en la historia clínica de los centros hospitalarios. Todos los sectores implicados tienen un importante papel para la construcción del entorno necesario que haga que el sistema de información sobre nuevos diagnósticos de infección por VIH sea posible y de utilidad.Objective: To describe the process performed in Catalonia (Spain to design an information system for monitoring new cases of HIV infection. Methods: A survey was used to evaluate perception of the need for notification of HIV infection by health care professionals (n = 106, as well as their opinions of the various possibilities for the implementation of the notification system. As a result of this evaluation, a specific technical report defining the objectives and technical characteristics of the new notification system was produced. The feasibility of the system in health centres was evaluated through discussions with health care professionals, health authorities and Non-Governmental Organizations, and a second survey was designed to evaluate the use of a personal identification code (PIC from the individual health card (IHC. This process took plabe between 1998 and 2000. Results: A total of 84.5% of the health care professionals believed that HIV notification should be mandatory and confidential; 90.4%, were of the opinion that notification would enable identification of the epidemiological characteristics of infected individualos, and 75% believed that these individuals would have to be identified by name. Finally, 66% of the health care

  7. Testing fine sediment connectivity hypotheses using fallout radionuclide tracers in a small catchment with badlands. Vallcebre Research Catchments (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart, Francesc; Latron, Jérôme; Vuolo, Diego; Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Pérez-Gallego, Nuria; Ferrer, Laura; Estrany, Joan

    2016-04-01

    In the Vallcebre Research Catchments (NE Spain), results obtained during over 20 years showed that badlands are the primary sources of sediments to the drainage network. Parent lutitic rocks are weathered during winter producing regoliths, which are eroded from badland surfaces mainly during summer intense rainstorms. Even if the produced sediments are mainly fine, due to the ephemeral nature of summer runoff events most of them are deposited on the stream beds, where they may remain during some time (months to years). Within the MEDhyCON project, a fallout radionuclides (FRNs) tracing experiment (i.e., excess lead 210 (Pbx-210) and beryllium 7 (Be-7)) is being carried out in order to investigate sediment connectivity. A simplified Pbx-210 balance model on badland surfaces suggested a seasonal sawtooth-like activity pattern: FRN being accumulated in regoliths from October to June and depleted in summer. Early summer erosion events would produce the sediments with the highest activity whereas late summer events would produce sediments with the lowest activity coming from the deeper regolith horizons. These findings lead us to launch two sediment transfer connectivity hypotheses analysing respectively the temporal and spatial variability of the Pb-210 activities within the fine sediments at the small catchment scale: (1) The temporal variability of suspended sediment activities at the gauging stations is a measure of sediment transfer immediacy, ergo connectivity. Hence, a high variability in suspended sediment activities, mimicking regolith activity temporal pattern would indicate high connectivity, whereas a low variability, meaning that sediments are mostly pooled in a large and slowly moving stock, would indicate low connectivity. (2) In a drainage system where fine sediments temporarily remain on the dry stream bed, the ratio between fine sediment activities at the sources and fine in-stream sediment activities downstream is a measure of sediment connectivity

  8. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M.; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  9. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castello Lagoon, NE Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ejarque

    Full Text Available We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain, an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1 the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2 fluctuations in salinity; and 3 natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the

  10. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  11. La Serra d'Almos (Tarragona): an example of phenological data rescue and preservation in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busto, Montserrat; Cunillera, Jordi; de Yzaguirre, Xavi; Borrell, Josep

    2016-04-01

    The interruption of important phenological series and the progressive disappearance of phenological observations in Catalonia led the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) to design and impulse a new phenological network promoted by the Climate Change Unit of this Met Service. The "Fenocat" network was born in March 2013, and currently has around fifty observers distributed throughout Catalonia that observe plants, birds and butterflies. We are providing data from different plant phenophases to PEP725 database. Besides this new phenological network (Fenocat), one of the aims of SMC is to rescue and preserve historical data from different observation points in Catalonia. We show in this poster the example of rescue and preservation of phenological data from la Serra d'Almos (in Tivissa, near Tarragona, Catalonia, NE Iberian Peninsula), an observation series that began in 1973. After digitalization process and quality control tasks, we show preliminary results of this phenological series, and we compare them with those of similar European series. We show the evolution trends for different observed species, such as almond tree (Prunus dulcis), hazel (Corylus avellana), plum (Prunus domestica), olive tree (Olea europea), apple tree (Malus domestica) or vineyard (Vitis vinifera).

  12. Mixed Schools versus Single-Sex Schools: Are There Differences in the Academic Results for Boys and Girls in Catalonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gracia, Maribel; Donoso Vázquez, Trinidad

    2016-01-01

    This study carries out a comparative analysis of achievement according to gender between mixed and single-sex schools in the region of Catalonia, Spain, for the subjects of Spanish, Catalan, English and Mathematics. After a brief contextualisation, a review of the main findings from international studies on differences in results for mixed schools…

  13. La atención hospitalaria al paciente con ictus en Cataluña: Resultados del «Primer Audit Clínic de l'Ictus. Catalunya, 2005/2006» In-hospital stroke care in Catalonia [Spain]: Results of the «First Clinical Audit of Stroke. Catalonia, 2005/2006»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sònia Abilleira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar la calidad de la atención hospitalaria al paciente con ictus en los hospitales públicos catalanes antes de la difusión de la Guía de Práctica Clínica (GPC del ictus, estudiando el grado de adhesión a determinadas recomendaciones de la GPC. Métodos: Mediante revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas de pacientes con ictus definidos mediante los códigos CIE-9 431, 433.x1, 434.x1, 436, e ingresados consecutivamente en 48 hospitales públicos catalanes en el primer semestre de 2005, se recogió información sobre distintos indicadores del proceso asistencial al ictus seleccionados según su evidencia científica o su importancia clínica. Los hospitales participantes reclutaron 20, 40 o 60 casos, según el número de ingresos/año. Se llevó a cabo una auditoría externa en el 9,3% de los casos reclutados en cada centro, tras selección aleatoria, para determinar la calidad de los datos recogidos. Los indicadores se agruparon en 6 perfiles relacionados con diferentes aspectos de la práctica clínica. Resultados: Se incluyeron 1.791 casos, un 53,9% hombres, con una media (desviación estándar de edad de 75,6 (12,4 años. La concordancia global entre observadores fue de 0,7. El cumplimiento de los perfiles asistenciales (porcentaje medio [intervalo de confianza del 95%] fue: calidad de la historia clínica, 78,5% (77,5-79,4; estándares de atención básica, 92,4% (91,5-93,2; evaluación neurológica, 38,3% (37,3-39,3; medidas iniciales del tratamiento rehabilitador, 44,9% (43,2-46,7; prevención y manejo de complicaciones, 68,4% (66,9-70, y medidas preventivas iniciales, 78,9% (77,3-80,4. Conclusiones: En 2005 la atención hospitalaria al ictus era mejorable, sobre todo los aspectos relacionados con la evaluación y el seguimiento neurológico del paciente y la rehabilitación.Objective: To determine the quality of in-hospital stroke care in public acute care hospitals in Catalonia before the implementation of a

  14. Climatic implications of correlated upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits on the Cinca and Gallego rivers, NE Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Claudia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcdonald, Eric [NON LANL; Sancho, Carlos [NON LANL; Pena, Jose- Luis [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    We correlate Upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits of the Cinca and Gallego River valleys (south central Pyrenees and Ebro basin, Spain) using geomorphic position, luminescence dates, and time-related trends in soil development. The ages obtained from glacial deposits indicate glacial periods at 85 {+-} 5 ka, 64 {+-} 11 ka, and 36 {+-} 3 ka (from glacial till) and 20 {+-} 3 ka (from loess). The fluvial drainage system, fed by glaciers in the headwaters, developed extensive terrace systems in the Cinca River valley at 178 {+-} 21 ka, 97 {+-} 16 ka, 61 {+-} 4 ka, 47 {+-} 4 ka, and 11 {+-} 1 ka, and in the Gallego River valley at 151 {+-} 11 ka, 68 {+-} 7 ka, and 45 {+-} 3 ka. The times of maximum geomorphic activity related to cold phases coincide with Late Pleistocene marine isotope stages and heinrich events. The maximum extent of glaciers during the last glacial occurred at 64 {+-} 11 ka, and the terraces correlated with this glacial phase are the most extensive in both the Cinca (61 {+-} 4 ka) and Gallego (68 {+-} 7 ka) valleys, indicating a strong increase in fluvial discharge and availability of sediments related to the transition to deglaciation. The global Last Glacial Maximum is scarcely represented in the south central Pyrenees owing to dominantly dry conditions at that time. Precipitation must be controlled by the position of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation system. The glacial systems and the associated fluvial dynamic seem sensitive to (1) global climate changes controlled by insolation, (2) North Atlantic thermohaline circulation influenced by freshwater pulses into the North Atlantic, and (3) anomalies in atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic controlling precipitation on the Iberian peninsula. The model of glacial and fluvial evolution during the Late Pleistocene in northern Spain could be extrapolated to other glaciated mountainous areas in southern Europe.

  15. A combined archeomagnetic and mycrostratographic study of Neolithic anthropogenic burnt sediments from the Can Sadurni cave (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Paccard, Miriam; Beamud, Elisabet; Bergada, Mercè; Martínez, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the variation of the Eart&hacute;s magnetic field in the past is an important topic in Earth Sciences today. New archeomagnetic data are crucial to expand the regional and global geomagnetic field models. However, very few archeomagnetic data are available in Europe before the third millenium BC. Recent archeomagnetic studies demonstrated that burnt anthropogenic cave sediments (fumiers) can provide a unique record of past geomagnetic field directions. In this study we present a combined archeomagnetic and microstratigraphic analysis of Neolithic anthropogenic sediments from the Can Sadurní cave (Begues, Baix Llobregat, northeastern Spain). Can Sadurní archaeological site is a cave located at the Garraf mountains, 450 m above sea level and about 25 km west of Barcelona (northeastern Spain). Excavations started in 1978 and are still in progress. Twenty-eight different levels have been identified, ranging from Epipalaeolithic (10 840-10 410 cal. BCE) to the Roman period. The samples studied here were sampled in a fumier corresponding to the E.XIV level and dated between 5650 and 5700 BP by archeological and radiocarbon results. Alternating field demagnetization experiments allow us to obtain a well-defined archeomagnetic direction for this period. Together with additional rock-magnetic analysis , the results indicate that the magnetisation is carried by low-coercivity ferromagnetic minerals. The new archeomagentic direction is compared with previous archeomagnetic data and models. The microstratigraphic analysis allows us to document some animal stabling practices in which two units can be distingished: a) mineralized residues (ash) with charcoal fragments and, b) charred dung.

  16. Climate controls on rainfall isotopes and their effects on cave drip water and speleothem growth: the case of Molinos cave (Teruel, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana; Sancho, Carlos; Bartolomé, Miguel; Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Estrela, Mª José; Corell, David; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Cacho, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    The interpretation of stable isotopes in speleothems in terms of past temperature variability or precipitation rates requires a comprehensive understanding of the climatic factors and processes that influence the δ18O signal in the way through the atmosphere to the cave, where carbonate precipitates acquiring its final isotopic composition. This study presents for the first time in the Iberia Peninsula an integrated analysis of the isotopic composition of rainfall (δ18Op) during 2010-2012 years and, through a detailed monitoring survey, the transference of the primary isotopic signal throughout the soil and epikarst into the Molinos cave (Teruel, NE Spain). Both air temperature and amount of precipitation have an important effect on δ18Op values, clearly imprinting a seasonal variability modulated by an amount effect when rainfall events are more frequent or intense. Air mass history and atmospheric circulation influences are considered through the study of weather types, synoptic-scale climate patterns and large-scale atmospheric circulation indexes (North Atlantic Oscillation and Western Mediterranean Oscillation) revealing a dominant source effect on δ18Op values in this region where tropical North Atlantic and Western Mediterranean are the two moisture source regions. A delay of 2-3 months occurs between the dripwater oxygen isotopic composition (δ18Od) respect to δ18Op values as a consequence of large residence time in the epikarst. Limited calcite precipitates are found from winter to spring when δ18Od values are less negative and dripwater rates are constant. This study suggests that NE Iberian δ18Ocalcite proxy records are best interpreted as reflecting a combination of parameters, not just paleotemperature or paleorainfall and, if extending present-day situation towards the recent past, a biased signal towards winter values should be expected in Molinos speleothem records.

  17. Final disposition and quality auditing of the rehabilitation process in wild raptors admitted to a Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre in Catalonia, Spain, during a twelve year period (1995-2007.

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    Rafael A Molina-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variability in reporting and classification methods in previous published data of the final dispositions in the rehabilitation of wild raptors makes use of this data limited in trying to audit the quality of the rehabilitation process. Crude as well as stratified disposition rates are needed if quality auditing of the rehabilitation process is to be adequately performed. METHODOLOGY: Final dispositions of 6221 hospitalized wild raptors admitted at a wildlife rehabilitation centre (WRC of Catalonia during 1995-2007 were analyzed. These dispositions were calculated as the euthanasia (Er, unassisted mortality (Mr, release (Rr and captivity rates (Cr., time to death (Td for dead and euthanized raptors, and length of stay for released (Tr raptors was estimated. Stratified analyses by main causes of admission and clinical signs were performed. RESULTS: THE DISPOSITION FOR THE TOTAL POPULATION WERE: Er = 30.6%, Mr = 19.1%, Rr = 47.2%, and Cr = 3%. By main causes of admission, Er was higher in the trauma category (34.2%, whereas Mr was found similar between trauma (37.4% and non-trauma categories (34.8%. The highest Rr was observed for the orphaned group (77.9%. Furthermore, Cr was low in all the categories (<4%. By clinical signs, the highest Er was found in animals suffering musculoskeletal (37.9% or skin (32.3% lesions; Mr was high in infectious/parasitic diseases (66.7% and in case of neurological symptoms (64.5%. The euthanized birds had a median Td = 1 day (P10 = 0-P90 = 59 for both trauma and non-trauma categories, and Td = 36 days for the orphaned young group (P10 = 0; P90 = 596. The median Td in the unassisted dead birds was 2 days for all the categories (P10 = 0-P90 = 31. Finally, the median Tr in the centre was variable among categories. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Reporting of final dispositions in wildlife rehabilitation should include the crude and stratified rates (Er, Mr, Rr, and Cr, by causes and clinical presentation, as well

  18. Final Disposition and Quality Auditing of the Rehabilitation Process in Wild Raptors Admitted to a Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre in Catalonia, Spain, during a Twelve Year Period (1995–2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, Rafael A.; Casal, Jordi; Darwich, Laila

    2013-01-01

    Background Variability in reporting and classification methods in previous published data of the final dispositions in the rehabilitation of wild raptors makes use of this data limited in trying to audit the quality of the rehabilitation process. Crude as well as stratified disposition rates are needed if quality auditing of the rehabilitation process is to be adequately performed. Methodology Final dispositions of 6221 hospitalized wild raptors admitted at a wildlife rehabilitation centre (WRC) of Catalonia during 1995–2007 were analyzed. These dispositions were calculated as the euthanasia (Er), unassisted mortality (Mr), release (Rr) and captivity rates (Cr)., time to death (Td) for dead and euthanized raptors, and length of stay for released (Tr) raptors was estimated. Stratified analyses by main causes of admission and clinical signs were performed. Results The disposition for the total population were: Er  = 30.6%, Mr = 19.1%, Rr  = 47.2%, and Cr  = 3%. By main causes of admission, Er was higher in the trauma category (34.2%), whereas Mr was found similar between trauma (37.4%) and non-trauma categories (34.8%). The highest Rr was observed for the orphaned group (77.9%). Furthermore, Cr was low in all the categories (<4%). By clinical signs, the highest Er was found in animals suffering musculoskeletal (37.9%) or skin (32.3%) lesions; Mr was high in infectious/parasitic diseases (66.7%) and in case of neurological symptoms (64.5%). The euthanized birds had a median Td  = 1 day (P10 = 0-P90 = 59) for both trauma and non-trauma categories, and Td  = 36 days for the orphaned young group (P10 = 0; P90 = 596). The median Td in the unassisted dead birds was 2 days for all the categories (P10 = 0-P90 = 31). Finally, the median Tr in the centre was variable among categories. Conclusions/Significance Reporting of final dispositions in wildlife rehabilitation should include the crude and stratified rates (Er, Mr, Rr

  19. The job satisfaction gender gap among young recent university graduates: Evidence from Catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Toni; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada

    2009-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the gender differences in job satisfaction reported by recent university graduates in Catalonia (Spain). The data allows distinguishing five areas of job satisfaction: work content, promotion possibilities, earnings, applicability of acquired knowledge, and job security. Young and highly educated women in this study report a lower satisfaction with some aspects of their job. For two of the five job satisfaction domains, the lower reported level can be explained by...

  20. Blood biomarkers and contaminant levels in feathers and eggs to assess environmental hazards in heron nestlings from impacted sites in Ebro basin (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barata, C., E-mail: cbmqam@cid.csic.e [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Fabregat, M.C. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Cotin, J.; Huertas, D. [Department de Biologia Animal, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Sole, M. [Institut de Ciencies del Mar (ICM-CSIC), Pg. Maritim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Quiros, L. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Sanpera, C.; Jover, L.; Ruiz, X. [Department de Biologia Animal, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Grimalt, J.O.; Pina, B. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    Blood biomarkers and levels of major pollutants in eggs and feathers were used to determine pollution effects in nestlings of the Purple Heron Ardea purpurea and the Little Egret Egretta garzetta, sampled on three Ebro River (NE Spain) areas: a reference site, a site affected by the effluents of a chlor-alkali industry and the river Delta. The two impacted heron populations showed mutually different pollutant and response patterns, suggesting different sources of contamination. In the population nesting near the chlor-alkali plant, elevated levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in eggs, and mercury in feathers in A. purpurea chicks were related with reduced blood antioxidant defenses and increased levels of micronuclei. In Ebro Delta, high levels of plasmatic lactate dehydrogenase in A. purpurea chicks and high frequency of micronuclei in blood of both species were tentatively associated with intensive agricultural activities taking place in the area. These results provide the first evidence of a biological response in heron chicks to the release of pollutants at a chlor-alkali plant. - High levels of organochlorine and mercury levels in eggs and feathers were related with altered blood biomarkers of heron nesting chicks.

  1. Analysis and Mapping of the Spectral Characteristics of Fractional Green Cover in Saline Wetlands (NE Spain Using Field and Remote Sensing Data

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    Manuela Domínguez-Beisiegel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Inland saline wetlands are complex systems undergoing continuous changes in moisture and salinity and are especially vulnerable to human pressures. Remote sensing is helpful to identify vegetation change in semi-arid wetlands and to assess wetland degradation. Remote sensing-based monitoring requires identification of the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation and their correspondence with the vegetation cover and soil conditions. We studied the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation of saline wetlands in Monegros, NE Spain, through field and satellite images. Radiometric and complementary field measurements in two field surveys in 2007 and 2008 were collected in selected sites deemed as representative of different soil moisture, soil color, type of vegetation, and density. Despite the high local variability, we identified good relationships between field spectral data and Quickbird images. A methodology was established for mapping the fraction of vegetation cover in Monegros and other semi-arid areas. Estimating vegetation cover in arid wetlands is conditioned by the soil background and by the occurrence of dry and senescent vegetation accompanying the green component of perennial salt-tolerant plants. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI was appropriate to map the distribution of the vegetation cover if the green and yellow-green parts of the plants are considered.

  2. La práctica de la mamografía preventiva en Cataluña: Un paso adelante The practice of preventive mammography in Catalonia [Spain]: a step forward

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    Cristina Masuet

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar y comparar la realización de mamografías preventivas periódicas en mujeres de 50 a 69 años de las 8 regiones sanitarias de Cataluña en 1994 y 2002. Métodos: Datos de la Encuesta de Salud de Cataluña de 1994 y 2002. Estudio transversal por entrevista basado en una muestra representativa de la población no institucionalizada de Cataluña. Se incluyó a las mujeres de 20 años o más que respondieron al cuestionario (5.986 mujeres en 1994 y 3.265 mujeres en 2002. Se analizó la influencia de las variables edad, clase social, tipo de cobertura sanitaria y región sanitaria mediante modelos multivariables de regresión logística. Resultados: En 1994, las mujeres de 40-49 años eran las que con mayor frecuencia declaraban la realización de mamografías preventivas periódicas (42,8% de las mujeres en este grupo de edad, mientras que en 2002 lo hiceron en mayor proporción las mujeres de 50-59 años (76,3%. La frecuencia de mamografías periódicas en las mujeres de 50-69 años ha pasado del 26,9% en 1994 al 69,1% en 2002, incremento observado en todas las regiones sanitarias, reduciéndose también las diferencias entre regiones. En 1994 y 2002, las mujeres de clases sociales más favorecidas (I, II y III declaran realizarse una mamografía en mayor proporción que las de la clase V, diferencias que se reducen en el año 2002. Conclusiones: La práctica preventiva de mamografías periódicas en Cataluña ha aumentado significativamente en las mujeres del grupo diana (50-69 años. En los grupos de edad no recomendados disminuye, excepto en el grupo de mujeres de 40-49 años en el que se observa un incremento significativo. En 2002 no se observan diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la práctica de mamografías preventivas entre las regiones sanitarias.Objective: To determine and compare the practice of periodic preventive mammography in women aged 50-69 years in the eight health regions of Catalonia in 1994 and

  3. El marco sanitario y el entorno psicosocial de la población inmigrante magrebí en Cataluña Study of the healthcare background and psychosocial environment of the Maghrebian immigrant population in Catalonia (Spain

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    Rosa Maria Saura

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Este estudio pretende obtener información sobre el marco sanitario y el entorno psicosocial de la población inmigrante magrebí en Cataluña, para orientar las actuaciones en planificación y provisión de servicios sociales y de las organizaciones que apoyan a este colectivo. Método: Se utilizó un cuestionario de creación propia que explora aspectos sanitarios y psicosociales, incluidos los factores estresores y de apoyo social. La recogida de datos se realizó mediante encuestadores y en lengua árabe. Resultados: Se realizaron 403 entrevistas. La mayoría de los encuestados tenían tarjeta sanitaria y sabían a dónde acudir para recibir asistencia. Los servicios más utilizados son los de atención primaria y urgencias hospitalarias. En atención primaria, casi todos los encuestados reciben explicaciones, pero un 30% no las comprende adecuadamente. Se percibe que los profesionales sanitarios no tienen muy en cuenta las diferencias culturales o religiosas. Trabajo, vivienda, alejamiento familiar y legalización son factores estresores para más de la mitad de esta población. El apoyo social es bajo. Tres cuartas partes de los encuestados se sienten solos. Más de la mitad de esta población ve cumplidas total o parcialmente sus expectativas migratorias y un 11% considera estar peor. Conclusiones: Las principales áreas de acción pasan por reforzar la información sobre condiciones de acceso al sistema sanitario, fomentar la interacción social y el asociacionismo entre los inmigrantes, especialmente durante las primeras fases del proceso migratorio, y facilitar las actividades religiosas. Parece importante formar a los profesionales sanitarios sobre las culturas de origen.Introduction: The aim of this study was to gather information on the healthcare background and social environment of the Maghrebian immigrant population in Catalonia in order to guide the management and provision of social services and the work of the

  4. Barreras y facilitadores de la coordinación asistencial en dos organizaciones sanitarias integradas en Cataluña Barriers and facilitators to health care coordination in two integrated health care organizations in Catalonia (Spain

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    Ingrid Vargas Lorenzo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar 2 organizaciones sanitarias integradas (OSI en Cataluña e identificar las áreas de desarrollo futuro que mejoren su eficacia. Métodos: Investigación cualitativa, exploratoria y descriptiva, basada en un estudio de casos, mediante análisis de documentos y entrevista individual semiestructurada. Se seleccionó una muestra teórica de casos y, para cada caso, de documentos e informantes. Los casos de estudio fueron: el Consorci Sanitari del Maresme (CSdM y el Consorci Sanitari de Terrassa/Fundació Hospital Sant Llàtzer (CSdT/FHSLL. Se analizaron 127 documentos y se entrevistaron 29 informantes: directivos de las OSI (n = 10, técnicos de apoyo (n = 5, directivos de las unidades operativas (n = 5 y profesionales asistenciales (n = 9. Se realizó un análisis de contenido, con generación mixta de categorías y segmentación por casos y temas. Resultados: El CSdM y el CSdT/FHSLL son organizaciones sanitarias con integración vertical hacia atrás, producción total de servicios, con propiedad real (CSdM y virtual (CSdT/FHSLL. Reciben la financiación por nivel asistencial. El órgano de gobierno es centralizado en CSdM y descentralizado en CSdT/FHSLL. En ambas, los objetivos globales se orientan a la mejora de la coordinación y la eficiencia, pero sin alinearse con los de las unidades operativas. Su estructura es funcional, con integración de las funciones de apoyo, y utilizan mecanismos de coordinación entre niveles asistenciales basados en la normalización de los procesos de trabajo. Conclusiones: Se identifican los elementos facilitadores y también las barreras a la coordinación, que requieren cambios tanto del entorno (sistema de asignación como internos (papel del gobierno, estructura organizativa y tipos de mecanismos de coordinación entre niveles.Objectives: To analyze 2 integrated delivery systems (IDS in Catalonia and identify areas for future development to improve their effectiveness. Methods: An

  5. Model quantification of the CO2 storage in the Los Páramos site (Duero basin, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Albert; Grandia, Fidel; Abarca, Elena; Motis, Kilian; Molinero, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The Duero basin in NW Spain is one the most promising basin for CO2 storage in the Iberian Peninsula due to the existence of favourable deep aquifers close to large CO2 emission point sources. A number of projects are presently active either for scientific research (e.g., the Hontomín site, OXI-CFB300 EPRR project) or commercial purposes (e.g., Sahagún and Los Páramos projects). The project called Los Páramos intends to assess the injection of CO2 in a group of dome-shaped structures with an estimated total capacity of 200 Mt (ranked 2nd in the Iberian Peninsula, IGME 2010). These domes were studied in the past for hydrocarbon exploration and a large body of information is available from seismic profiles (over 170 km) and 3 deep wells. The Los Páramos site is emplaced in the San Pedro Folded Band (SPFB) that consists mainly of thick-skinned thrusts of Mesozoic rocks (Triassic and Upper Cretaceous) sealed by a thick (1200-1500 m), undeformed cover of Tertiary claystones. Dome-like structures are related to thrusts leading to favourable reservoirs. The target horizon for CO2 storage is the Utrillas Fm sandstone with high porosity (13-20%) and thickness (225-250 m). In three of the domes, the Utrillas Fm is below -800m, allowing thus the storage of CO2(sc). This sandstone hosts an aquifer containing saline water, up to 50 g·L-1, according to the data from drill wells. The presence of saline groundwater is explained by water interaction with Triassic evaporite layers just underlying the Utrillas Fm sandstones. The CO2 storage at Los Paramos site is planned via injection of supercritical CO2 (CO2(sc)) in the Utrillas Fm. In general, the next four trapping mechanisms are expected, which are of increasing importance through time (1) structural, (2) residual saturation, (3) dissolution, and (4) mineral. The prediction of the mass of CO2 stored through time in any storage systems is an essential parameter in the pre-injection assessment of a geological storage. For

  6. Trends analysis of PM source contributions and chemical tracers in NE Spain during 2004-2014: a multi-exponential approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Marco; Alastuey, Andrés; Pérez, Noemi; Reche, Cristina; Castro, Iria; Shatalov, Victor; Querol, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    In this work for the first time data from two twin stations (Barcelona, urban background, and Montseny, regional background), located in the northeast (NE) of Spain, were used to study the trends of the concentrations of different chemical species in PM10 and PM2.5 along with the trends of the PM10 source contributions from the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. Eleven years of chemical data (2004-2014) were used for this study. Trends of both species concentrations and source contributions were studied using the Mann-Kendall test for linear trends and a new approach based on multi-exponential fit of the data. Despite the fact that different PM fractions (PM2.5, PM10) showed linear decreasing trends at both stations, the contributions of specific sources of pollutants and of their chemical tracers showed exponential decreasing trends. The different types of trends observed reflected the different effectiveness and/or time of implementation of the measures taken to reduce the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants. Moreover, the trends of the contributions of specific sources such as those related with industrial activities and with primary energy consumption mirrored the effect of the financial crisis in Spain from 2008. The sources that showed statistically significant downward trends at both Barcelona (BCN) and Montseny (MSY) during 2004-2014 were secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, and V-Ni-bearing source. The contributions from these sources decreased exponentially during the considered period, indicating that the observed reductions were not gradual and consistent over time. Conversely, the trends were less steep at the end of the period compared to the beginning, thus likely indicating the attainment of a lower limit. Moreover, statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for the contributions to PM from the industrial/traffic source at MSY (mixed metallurgy and road traffic) and from the industrial (metallurgy mainly) source at BCN

  7. Perfil de los usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral que mantienen conductas de riesgo relacionadas con la inyección en Cataluña Characteristics of intravenous drug users who share injection equipment in Catalonia (Spain

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    Cinta Folch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de las prácticas de riesgo directas e indirectas relacionadas con la inyección de drogas e identificar los factores asociados en los usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral (UDVP en centros de reducción de daños en Cataluña. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado entre 2008 y 2009 en centros de reducción de daños. La información conductual se recogió mediante un cuestionario anónimo administrado por entrevistadores previamente formados. Resultados: De los 748 entrevistados, el 31,5% compartió jeringas usadas en los últimos 6 meses y el 55,2% compartió la cuchara, el agua o el filtro, o realizó el front/backloading con jeringas usadas. Los UDVP que se inyectan diariamente (odds ratio [OR]=1,5, se inyectan cocaína (OR=1,6, obtienen menos jeringas gratuitas (OR=2,5 menos de la mitad a ninguna, tienen una pareja sexual UDVP (OR=1,8 y comparten indirectamente (OR=4,1 presentaron una mayor probabilidad de haber compartido jeringas. Por otro lado, tener una fuente de ingresos ilegal (OR=1,5, inyectarse diariamente (OR=1, 5, inyectarse cocaína (OR=1,4, haber compartido jeringas (OR=3,9 y haber tenido alguna sobredosis en la vida (OR=1,5 fueron factores asociados a compartir de forma indirecta. Conclusiones: A pesar de la generalización de los programas de reducción de daños, en Cataluña se mantiene un porcentaje de UDVP que realizan conductas de riesgo relacionadas con la inyección. Sería necesario mejorar el acceso a todo el material estéril de inyección, en especial entre los que se inyectan cocaína y los que se inyectan con mayor frecuencia, e incluir también a las parejas sexuales UDVP en estas intervenciones preventivas.Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of direct and indirect syringe sharing among intravenous drug users (IDUs attending a harm reduction center in Catalonia (Spain and to identify factors associated with risk behaviors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted

  8. Environmental isotopes (N, S, C, O, D) to determine natural attenuation processes in nitrate contaminated waters: Example of Osona (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitoria, Laura [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: lvitoria@ub.edu; Soler, Albert; Canals, Angels [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Otero, Neus [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Geologia Ambiental, Institut de Ciencies de la Terra ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    Nitrate-contaminated groundwater from an aquifer in the Osona region (NE Spain) was chemically and isotopically ({delta}{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}},{delta}{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}},{delta}{sup 34}S{sub SO{sub 4}},{delta}{sup 18}O{sub SO{sub 4}}, {delta}D, {delta}{sup 18}O{sub H{sub 2}}{sub O} and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC}) characterized. Diffuse- NO{sub 3}{sup -} contamination reached values of 366 mg/L. Nearly 75% of the 37 sampled sites had higher concentrations than the 50 mg/L in NO{sub 3}{sup -} limit for drinking water. To identify the source of pollution {delta}{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}} and {delta}{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}} were used with results, for most samples, in the range of pig manure NO{sub 3}{sup -}. Nitrification processes were evaluated by means of the {delta}{sup 18}O of NO{sub 3}{sup -} and water. Isotopic data suggested that natural attenuation of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was taking place. This process was confirmed using the {delta}{sup 18}O{sub NO{sub 3}} coupled with the NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -} ratio, avoiding the influence of continuous NO{sub 3}{sup -} inputs. A further insight on denitrification processes was obtained by analyzing the ions involved in denitrification reactions. Although the role of organic matter oxidation could neither be confirmed nor discarded, this approach showed a link between denitrification and pyrite oxidation. Therefore, in areas with no adequate infrastructure (e.g. multipiezometers), such as the one studied, this approach could be useful for implementing better water management.

  9. El dolor de espalda en la población catalana: Prevalencia, características y conducta terapéutica Back pain in the general population of Catalonia (Spain: Prevalence, characteristics and therapeutic behavior

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    A. Bassols

    2003-04-01

    situación clínica de elevada frecuencia en la población catalana y un motivo muy importante de utilización de atención médica y de limitación de la actividad personal y profesional.Background: Back pain is a common symptom of health assistance in Western countries. The goal of the present survey was to establish the prevalence of back pain in the general population in Catalonia, as well as to establish its characteristics, its relationship to sociodemographic variables, the therapeutic behavior followed by those affected and the associated-impairment and disabilities for the sufferers. Methods: The survey was a descriptive study including a sample of 1,964 people, obtained from the census (1991 and representative of the population older than 18 years. The study was done in 1994 and data were obtained by means of a telephone interview. The prevalence of pain in the last six months was determined. Among those suffering back pain, additional information was obtained concerning its characteristics, the relationship with socio-demographic variables, the therapeutic behaviors used by patients, and the personal, social and work impairment and disabilities. Results: Back pain was highly prevalent (50.9%, appeared in all ages (mean age of 47.6 years, was the highest in women (60.7%, in manual workers (54.9% and in those less educated (71.1%. Back pain was long lasting (69.2% more than 3 years, frequent (49.7% more than the half of the days, and highly painful (severe-unbearable in 51.4%. The therapeutic behaviors most commonly used were the visit to the physician (71.9%, the use of alternative medical treatments (24.7%, physical therapy (22.7%, physical exercises and electrotherapy and self-medication (14.6%, being acetylsalicylic acid the most employed. In general, the duration and degree of improvement was variable. Back pain limited the daily activities (36.7% and forced to bed rest (22.7%. It was also a significant reason for time off work (17% and disability pension (6

  10. Coste-efectividad de la vacunación antineumocócica 23-valente en Cataluña Cost-effectiveness of 23-valent antipneumococcical vaccination in Catalonia, Spain

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    P. Plans

    2002-10-01

    vaccination is an effective procedure for preventing pneumococcal pneumonia. In this study we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination strategies (23 serotypes in the population aged 5 years and older in Catalonia. Methods: Cost-effectiveness was evaluated in terms of cost per year of life gained (YLG by comparing the net cost of the vaccination program with its effectiveness. The net cost of the vaccination program was calculated by subtracting 70% of the population from the vaccination costs, representing the reduction in health costs due to pneumococcal pneumonia that can ve achieved with vaccination. Vaccination costs were estimated based on a price of 12.41 euros (1,915 ptas. for pneumococcal vaccine. The costs and benefits of the vaccination program were updated for 1996 by using a discount rate of 5%. Results: A cost-effectiveness ratio of 9,023.27 euros per YLG was achieved for universal vaccination of the population. Cost-effectiveness was 11,3177.12 euros per YLG in individuals aged 5-24 years, 19,482.51 euros per TLG in those aged 25-44 years, 7,122.80 euros per YLG in those aged 45-64 years and less than 0 in those aged 65 years and older. In this group the reduction in cost of the disease was greater than the vaccination costs with a cost-benefit ratio of 1.58. The results of the cost-efecctiveness analysis were sensitive to vaccine costs and efficacy and the percentage of pneumonias caused by pneumococcus but were less sensitive to the costs of pneumococcal pneumonia, the rate of hospital admission among patients with community-acquired pneumonia and vaccine coverage. Conclusion: The results of this study show that pneumococcal vaccination should be a priority in individuals aged 65 years and older and in those aged 45-64 years.

  11. Tornadoes and waterspouts in Catalonia (1950–2009

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    M. Gayà

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary climatology of tornadoes and waterspouts in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula. A database spanning 60 yr (1950–2009 has been developed on the basis of information collected from various sources such as weather reports, insurance companies, newspapers and damage surveys. This database has been subjected to a rigorous validation process, and the climatology describes its main features: timing, spatial pattern, and trends in the tornado and waterspout distribution. Results show the highest concentration of tornadoes from August to October, the highest density in the heavily populated coastal areas and a growing positive trend that is likely more closely linked to an increase in observation and perception rather than a real climatic trend.

  12. Immigration, health and diversity management: Preliminary developments of a project in neighborhoods of Catalonia

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    Dan Rodríguez-García

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an ongoing research project on immigration, health, and socio-cultural diversity, and offers preliminary information on the theoretical and socio-demographic context of this investigation. The objective of the project, funded by the Department of Health of the Autonomous Government of Catalonia, Spain, is to analyse the socioeconomic and cultural factors involved in health and the access to the formal health system of a few major migrant communities and ethnic minorities living in high-priority neighbourhoods in Catalonia. The results of this project, which will come fundamentally from ethnographic research, aim to give suggestions for improving health conditions for the population and to provide to those professionals working in the public health care system with some conceptual and practical tools for improving intercultural communication between themselves and their patients, as well as for detecting, preventing, and resolving problems in everyday practice.

  13. Solar forcing, climate dynamics and human activities in Mediterranean Mountains during the last millennium: the Lake Estanya record (Southern Pyrenees, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellon, Mario; Corella, Pablo; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Engstrom, Daniel R.; González-Sampériz, Penélope; López-Vicente, Manuel; Mata, Pilar; Moreno, Ana; Navas, Ana; Pérez-Sanz, Ana; Rico, Mayte; Rieradevall, Maria; Romero, Óscar; Rubio, Esther; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Vegas-Vilarrúbia, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    The multi-proxy study of short sediment cores recovered in small, karstic Lake Estanya (42°02' N, 0°32' E, 670 m.a.s.l.) in the Southern Pre-Pyrenean Ranges (NE Spain) provides a detailed record of the complex climatic and anthropogenic interactions occurring in Mediterranean areas since medieval times. The integration of sedimentary facies, elemental and isotopic geochemistry (δ18Ocalcite, δ13Ccalcite and δ13Corg) and biological proxies (diatoms, chironomids and pollen), together with a robust chronological control, provided by AMS radiocarbon dating and 210Pb and 137Cs radiometric techniques, enabled precise reconstruction of the main phases of environmental change during the last millennium, associated with the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the Industrial Era. Shallow lake levels and saline conditions with poor development of littoral environments prevailed during medieval times (1150-1300 AD). Generally higher water levels and more dilute waters occurred during the LIA (1300-1850 AD), although this period shows a complex internal palaeohydrological structure and is contemporaneous with a gradual increase of farming activity. Maximum lake levels and flooding of the littoral shelf occurred during the nineteenth century, coinciding with the maximum expansion of agriculture in the area and prior to the last cold phase of the LIA. Finally, declining lake levels during the twentieth century, coinciding with a decrease in human pressure, are associated with warmer climate conditions reconstructed by instrumental records. A strong link with solar irradiance is suggested by the chronology of the main hydrological phases reconstructed in Estanya. Lower lake levels dominated during periods of enhanced solar activity (MCA and post—ca. 1850 AD) and higher lake levels during periods of diminished solar activity (LIA). Changes in winter precipitation, dominance of NAO negative phases and a strengthening of the westerlies would be

  14. Modelling impacts of climate change on water resources in ungauged and data-scarce watersheds. Application to the Siurana catchment (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaining knowledge on potential climate change impacts on water resources is a complex process which depends on numerical models capable of describing these processes in quantitative terms. Under limited data or ungauged basin conditions, which constrain the modelling approach, a physically based coherent methodological approach is required. The traditional approach to assess flow regime and groundwater recharge impacts, based on coupling general atmosphere–ocean circulation models (GCM) and hydrologic models, has been investigated in the Siurana ungauged catchment (NE Spain). The future A2 (medium-high) and B1 (medium-low) greenhouse gas scenarios and time slices 2013–2037 (2025) and 2038–2062 (2050), developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), have been selected. For scenario simulations, coupled GCM ECHAM5 scenarios, stochastically downscaled outputs and surface–subsurface modelling to simulate changes in water resources were applied to the catchment. Flow regime analysis was assessed by HEC-HMS, a physically based hydrologic model to assess rainfall–runoff in a catchment, while recharge was estimated with VisualBALAN, a distributed model for natural recharge estimation. Simulations show that the projected climate change at the catchment will affect the entire hydrological system with a maximum of 56% reduction of water resources. While subtle changes are observed for the 2025 time slice, the temperature and precipitation forecast for 2050 shows a maximum increase of 2.2 °C and a decreased precipitation volume of 11.3% in relation to historical values. Regarding historical values, runoff output shows a maximum 20% decrease, and 18% decrease of natural recharge with a certain delay in relation to runoff and rainfall data. According to the results, the most important parameters conditioning future water resources are changes in climatic parameters, but they are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions. -- Highlights:

  15. Spatial and temporal changes in land cover and its relation to the wildfire risk in Montes de Zuera (NE-Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Remón, E.; Badía-Villas, D.; Ibarra-Benlloch, P.

    2012-04-01

    Land cover changes in a territory can be as result of the diverse human activities, and also, by the dynamic natural ecosystem. The analysis of these changes constitutes a fundamental indicator in improving the knowledge towards a potential sustainable development (OSE, 2006). This paper analyzes the evolution of the land cover at detailed scale 1:5000, along the years 1957, 1984, and 2005, in the Montes de Zuera (UTM: 665000-680000 East /4640000-4650000 North), nearby Zaragoza city (NE-Spain). Despite they are located in the midst of the semiarid Central Ebro Basin, the area have an uncommon, extensive and dense forest cover. For these reasons, Montes de Zuera form part of the "Natura 2000 Network" of Aragon. Because this region has a high incidence of wildfires and, as a measure to prevent them, land cover changes have been analyzed in this study. To get this objective, a methodology is developed based on GIS and Remote Sensing tools, and this makes it possible to establish the relationship between the dynamic land cover and "fire hazard". According to FAO (1986), fire hazard is the measure of risk of wildfire, which is explained by the presence of combustible materials available to burn (Chuvieco et al, 2004). It is understood that the areas with major fire hazard present a high vulnerability to suffer vast wildfires. To develop this work, the type of vegetation, its distribution and the state of maturity of the forest masses are analyzed. Moreover, the wildfires that occurred during the last five decades have been located, and the forest masses and the processes (anthropic and natural) associated to them have been characterized in the regions affected by vast wildfires. Moreover, the cartography of fire hazard is obtained, and this is useful tool to fre prevention and to promote the sustainable management of the forest masses. Two regions with high rate of fire hazards are differentiated (region 1 and region 2). The Aleppo pine cover occupies the majority of

  16. Analysing the role of abandoned agricultural terraces on flood generation in a set of small Mediterranean mountain research catchments (Vallcebre, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart, Francesc; Llorens, Pilar; Pérez-Gallego, Nuria; Latron, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    The Vallcebre research catchments are located in NE Spain, in a middle mountain area with a Mediterranean sub-humid climate. Most of the bedrock consists of continental red lutites that are easily weathered into loamy soils. This area was intensely used for agriculture in the past when most of the sunny gentle hillslopes were terraced. The land was progressively abandoned since the mid-20th Century and most of the fields were converted to meadows or were spontaneously forested. Early studies carried out in the terraced Cal Parisa catchment demonstrated the occurrence of two types of frequently saturated areas, ones situated in downslope locations with high topographic index values, and the others located in the inner parts of many terraces, where the shallow water table usually outcrops due to the topographical modifications linked to terrace construction. Both the increased extent of saturated areas and the role of a man-made elementary drainage system designed for depleting water from the terraces suggested that terraced areas would induce an enhanced hydrological response during rainfall events when compared with non-terraced hillslopes. The response of 3 sub-catchments, of increasing area and decreasing percentage of terraced area, during a set of major events collected during over 15 years has been analysed. The results show that storm runoff depths were roughly proportional to precipitations above 30 mm although the smallest catchment (Cal Parisa), with the highest percentage of terraces, was able to completely buffer rainfall events of 60 mm in one hour without any runoff when antecedent conditions were dry. Runoff coefficients depended on antecedent conditions and peak discharges were weakly linked to rainfall intensities. Peak lag times, peak runoff rates and recession coefficients were similar in the 3 catchments; the first variable values were in the range between Hortonian and saturation overland flow and the two last ones were in the range of

  17. Recent climate trends and multisecular climate variability: temperature and precipitation during the cold season (October-March) in the Ebro Basin (NE of Spain) betrween 1500 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saz-Sanchez, M.-A.; Cuadrat-Prats, J.-M.

    2009-09-01

    One of the goals of Paleoclimatology is to assess the importance and the exceptional nature of recent climate trends related to the anthropogenic climate change. Instrumental data enable the analysis of last century's climate, but do not give any information on previous periods' precipitation and temperature, during which there was no anthropic intervention on the climate system. Dendroclimatology is one of the paleoclimatic reconstruction sources giving best results when it comes to reconstructing the climate of the time before instruments could be used. This work presents the reconstructed series of precipitation and temperature of the cold season (October-March) In the central sector of the Ebro Valley (NE of Spain). The chronologies used for the reconstruction come on the one hand from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) and on the other hand from the dendrochronological information bank created in the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula within the framework of the Spanish Interministerial Commission for Science and Technology (CICYT) CLI96-1862 project. The climate data used for chronology calibration and the reconstruction of the temperature and precipitation values are those of the instrumental observatory number 9910 (Pallaruelo) belonging to the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología or AEMET), located in the central sector of the Ebro Valley. The reconstruction obtained covers the 1500-1990 period. In order to extend the series up to 2008, instrumental information has been used. Thanks to data from a set of AEMET instrumental observatories close to the one used for chronology calibration, a regional series of temperatures as well as a precipitation one were generated. The series reconstructed through dendroclimatic methods and the regional series do not show statistically significant differences in their mean and variance values. R values between both series exceed 0.85. Taking these statistical characteristics

  18. Mobile services in the Rector Gabriel Ferraté Library - Technical University of Catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Codina Vila, Miquel; Pérez Gálvez, Andrés; Clavero Campos, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compile and explain the mobile services developed by the Rector Gabriel Ferraté Library (BRGF) of the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), in Barcelona, Spain. From a larger amount of technological features that distinguish the BRGF, only those with a main mobile component are grouped here. Design/methodology/approach – A case study perspective is used to give a detailed picture of the mobile services and features offered by the library in bot...

  19. Effect of a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain revealed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; González-Pérez, José Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) [1]. It is known that the products generated by Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) pyrolysis of organic matter are related to their origin [2 and references therein]. Therefore this technique can be used to investigate said changes. In this work, Py-GC/MS is used to study changes in SOM quality surrogated to the effect of the centennial replacement of beech by Scots pine. The soils studied were two acid soil profiles developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl from Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three organic layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and the mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, differences in the relative abundance of lipids released by pyrolysis were observed in the O-layers ranging from 3.82-7.20% in pine soils and 0.98-1.25% in beech soils. No differences were observed in mineral horizons with depth except for the C horizons where beech lipid content was much higher (21.25%) than in that under pine (1.07%). Both pine and beech soils show similar nitrogen compounds relative contents along the soil profile, increasing from OL to Ah (3.49-9.11% and 2.75-11.73% in beech and pine respectively) with a conspicuous reduction in the E horizon. It is remarkable the absence of nitrogen compounds in beech Bhs and C horizons. The relative content of aromatic compounds in O-layers show opposite trends for beech and pine; an enrichment in aromatic compounds is observed in beech OL layer (12.39%) decreasing to 4.11% in OH layer in contrast, whereas for pine O-layers the aromatic compounds relative abundance was higher in the OH (5.83%) than in the OL layer (2.8%). Mineral Ah and E horizons show similar values in

  20. Effect on a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain as reflected in soil C and N isotopic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; González-Pérez, José Antonio; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) (Carceller and Vallejo, 1996). Stable isotopic signatures of light elements (d13C, d15N) in soils and plants are valuable proxies for the identification of biogeochemical processes and their rates in the pedosphere (Andreeva et al., 2013 and refs therein). In this work the C and N stable isotopic analysis is used as a proxy to detect changes in SOM surrogated to the effect of centennial replacement of beech by the Scots pinewood. Two acid soil profiles, developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl, have been sampled in Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three O-layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. Content and bulk isotopic signature of light elements (C and N) were analysed in a Flash 2000 elemental micro-analyser coupled via a ConFlo IV interface to a Delta V Advantage isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) (Thermo Scientific, Bremen, Germany). Isotopic ratios are reported as parts per thousand deviations from appropriate standards. The standard deviations of d13C and d15N were typically less than ± 0.05 per thousand, ± 0.2 per thousand, respectively. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, no differences on C content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 30-47% in pine soils and 37-47 % in beech soils. Similarly, no differences on N content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 1.24-1.86 % in pine soils and 1.70-1.71 % in beech soils. C and N contents decrease progressively in depth with the exception of E-horizons where the lowest C and N content values were found. C/N ratio is higher in pine soil (20.7-38.1) than in beech O soil horizons (21.8-27.5), showing similar behavior with soil depth. Pine biomass was slightly

  1. Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in northwestern Yunnan, China as compared to the Mediterranean evergreen Quercus forests in California, USA and northeastern Spain

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    C. Q. Tang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in NW Yunnan (China were studied and compared with the Mediterranean evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in central coastal California (USA and Catalonia (NE Spain. Forests of Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, Q. longispica of NW Yunnan, Q. agrifolia of California and Q. ilex of NE Spain were analyzed as representative communities. The similarities and differences at the community level in the contemporary vegetation of the sclerophyllous Quercus forest found in the three regions are clarified. The general patterns of the evergreen Quercus forest in the three regions were similar, though different assemblages of species were involved. The species diversity in all three regions was rather low. The species richness did not significantly differ among the forests, although in the Q. longispica forest it is somewhat higher than the others. The three representative species of evergreen Quercus in NW Yunnan reached the greatest maximum height, while Q. agrifolia of California had the largest basal area per ha. The Q. ilex forest of Spain had the lowest values for maximum tree height and dbh and the highest density per ha. Frequency of dbh size classes indicated that Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, and Q. agrifolia had potentially good regeneration of the sporadic type with highest values for the intermediate size classes, and the regeneration of Q. longispica and Q. ilex was strong as indicated by a reverse-J pattern. Still, in each area, most regeneration was from sprouting. In all three regions the evergreen Quercus species have adapted to environmental changes, for instance by development of sprouting and rooting abilities to resist drought, cold conditions and various disturbances. The evergreen Quercus forests in NW Yunnan were structurally more similar to the Q. agrifolia forest of central coastal California than to the Q. ilex forest of NE Spain.

  2. Introducción al estudio de los gasterópodos (Mollusca de la laguna de Montcortès (Pallars Sobirà, Cataluña, NE de la península ibérica

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    V. Bros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the study of gastropods (Mollusca on the Montcortés lake (Pallars Sobirà, Catlonia, NE of the Iberian peninsulaThe check-list of 50 species of terrestrial gastro­pod and freshwater molluscs in the Montcortès lake (Catalonia, Spain and its environs, pertaining to 24 different families, is shown. Thirty-three species are cited for the first time in the area of study. The unpublished data on their distribution and ecological requirements are contributed. The preliminary results indicate us that the communities of molluscs that accompany to the helofitic vegetation and the higrofits well are formed with elements of high faunistic and ecological interest. Simultaneously, some recommendations for the protection of the malacological fauna of the lake are commented.

  3. Flash floods in Catalonia: a recurrent situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, M. C.; Llasat-Botija, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Lindbergh, S.

    2010-09-01

    This work focuses on the analysis and characterization of the flash flood events occurring during summer in Catalonia. To this aim, a database with information about the social impact produced by all flood events recorded in Catalonia between 1982 and 2007 has been built. The social impact was obtained systematically on the basis of news press data and, occasionally, on the basis of insurance data. Flood events have been classified into ordinary, extraordinary and catastrophic floods, following the proposal of Llasat et al.~(2005). However, bearing in mind flash flood effects, some new categories concerning casualties and car damage have also been introduced. The spatial and temporal distribution of these flood events has been analyzed and, in an effort to better estimate the social impact and vulnerability, some indicators have been defined and analyzed for a specific region. These indicators allow an analysis of spacial and temporal trends as well as characterization of the events. Results show a flash-flood increase in summer and early autumn, mainly due to inter-annual and intra-annual changes in population density.

  4. Coverage of cervical cancer screening in Catalonia for the period 2008-2011 among immigrants and Spanish-born women.

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    Vanesa eRodriguez-Sales

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Public Health system in Catalonia, Spain provides a free of charge opportunistic cervical cancer screening. In June 2006 a revised recommendations for cervical cancer screening was introduced to increase coverage and to promote a three-year interval between screening tests. Aim: This study examines cervical cancer screening coverage and prevalence of cytology abnormalities in Catalonia by immigration status.Methods: The study analyses the cytologies registered among women aged 25-65 that have been attended at the Primary Health Centers (PHC for any reason (n=1,242,105 during 2008-11. Coverage was estimated from Governmental data base Information System Primary Care (SISAP that includes 77% of PHC. The database is anonymous, and includes information on age, country of birth, diagnostic center and cytology results Results: During the period 2008-2011, 758,690 smears were performed in a total of 595,868 women over 14 years, of whom 18.3% were immigrants. Cytology coverage was higher among immigrant women compared to Spanish born (51.2% and 39% respectively. Immigrant women also had a higher prevalence of abnormal Paps compared to the Spanish population, 4.9% and 3.3% respectively.Conclusion: Immigrant women in Catalonia have a good access to the Public Health Services and to cervical cancer screening facilities. The higher prevalence of abnormal cytologies in immigrant women compared to native women indicates the relevance to prioritize cervical cancer screening activities on a regular base in new comers.

  5. Gangs in Catalonia. The approach from the Catalonia Government Police Troopers

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    Santiago Herrero Blanco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the presence of gangs was detected in Catalonia. The groups had their origins in bands from the American continent, with whom they maintained communication and dependency relationships. Since then, there has been steady increase both in the number of gangs and youth involved in them, as well as the level of criminal activity linked to these groups. The police corps have followed the evolution of these groups closely, although the social context is radically different and the levels of crime and violence are not comparable to the other side of the Atlantic. This article seeks to explain the Catalonia Government Troopers’ approach to this phenomenon during this time.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i2.1360

  6. Chronic and integrated care in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Contel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Chronicity Prevention and Care Programme set up by the Health Plan for Catalonia 2011–2015 has been an outstanding and excellent opportunity to create a new integrated care model in Catalonia. People with chronic conditions require major changes and transformation within the current health and social system. The new and gradual context of ageing, increase in the number of chronic diseases and the current fragmented system requires this transformation to be implemented. Method: The Chronicity Prevention and Care Programme aims to implement actions which drive the current system towards a new scenario where organisations and professionals must work collaboratively. New tools should facilitate this new context- or work-like integrated health information systems, an integrative financing and commissioning scheme and provide a new approach to virtual care by substituting traditional face-to-face care with transfer and shared responsibilities between patients, citizens and health care professionals. Results: It has been observed some impact reducing the rate of emergency admissions and readmission related to chronic conditions and better outcome related to better chronic disease control. Some initiative like the Catalan Expert Patient Program has obtained good results and an appropriate service utilization. Discussion: The implementation of a Chronic Care Program show good results but it is expected that the new integrated health and social care agenda could provoke a real change and transformation. Some of the results related to better health outcomes and a decrease in avoidable hospital admissions related to chronic conditions confirm we are on the right track to make our health and social system more sustainable for the decades to come.

  7. Determinantes de la transmisión vertical del VIH en Cataluña (1997-2001: ¿es posible su eliminación? Determinants of HIV mother-to-child transmission in Catalonia, Spain [1997-2001]: is it possible to eliminate it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ramos

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar y describir los factores que han hecho posible la existencia de nuevas infecciones de VIH por transmisión vertical desde la implementación del tratamiento antirretroviral en la gestante seropositiva (1997-2001 en Cataluña. Métodos: Revisión sistemática de casos identificados en servicios de pediatría de todos los hospitales de Cataluña. Resultados: Se identificaron 28 casos de infección pediátrica por VIH: 9, 9, 8, 2 y 0 por año de nacimiento de 1997 a 2001, respectivamente. De 16 madres con diagnóstico de infección por VIH conocido antes o durante el embarazo, 9 realizaron profilaxis antirretroviral durante éste (5 con buena adhesión, uno desconocido y el resto con mala adhesión y 7 no realizaron profilaxis (6 por rechazo y uno no se conoce. De 12 diagnosticadas después del parto, 5 fueron embarazos no controlados y el resto poco o bien controlados. De estos últimos, en 6 no se practicó serología para VIH y en uno fue negativa en el primer trimestre. Conclusiones: La transmisión vertical del VIH en Cataluña ha disminuido en los últimos años, pero se han producido infecciones por la mala implementación en algún caso de las medidas preventivas conocidas. Debería ofrecerse la prueba diagnóstica para VIH a toda gestante no sólo en el primer trimestre de embarazo sino también al final, si se sospecha exposición al virus, y en caso de gestaciones no controladas hay que usar pruebas diagnósticas de lectura rápida en la sala de partos.Objectives: To identify and describe the factors that have led to new cases of HIV infection through mother-to-child transmission since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-seropositive pregnant women (1997-2001 in Catalonia. Methods: Systematic review of cases identified in the pediatric services of all the hospitals in Catalonia. Results: Twenty-eight cases of pediatric HIV infection were identified: 9, 9, 8, 2 and 0 per year of birth from 1997 to 2001

  8. Long-term effect of no-tillage on soil organic matter fractions in rainfed Aragon (NE Spain Efecto a largo plazo del no laboreo sobre fracciones de materia orgánica del suelo en agrosistemas de secano en Aragón (NE España Efeito a longo prazo do plantio direto em frações de matéria orgânica do solo no sequeiro de Aragon (NE Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Blanco-Moure

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper assesses the long-term effect of no-tillage (NT on soil organic carbon (OC content and its distribution among different organic matter fractions in rainfed agrosystems of Aragón (NE Spain. Adjacent fields of NT, conventional tillage (CT and natural soils (NAT were compared in three different cereal production areas. In the soil surface, the higher OC content found in the NAT soils was due to the particulate organic matter. In the case of agricultural soils, in general, the fractions responsible for the OC increase under NT were the fine particulate organic matter and the mineral-associated organic matter occluded within stable microaggregates.

    En este trabajo se evalúa el efecto a largo plazo del no laboreo (NT en el contenido de carbono orgánico del suelo (OC y su distribución en diferentes fracciones de materia orgánica en agrosistemas de secano en Aragón (NE España. En tres diferentes zonas cerealistas se compararon campos adyacentes de NT, laboreo tradicional (CT y suelo natural (NAT. En la superficie del suelo, el mayor contenido en CO encontrado en los suelos NAT se debió a la materia orgánica particulada. En el caso de los suelos agrícolas las fracciones responsables del incremento de OC en NL fueron, en general, la materia orgánica particulada fina y la fracción organo-mineral de los microagregados estables.

    Este trabalho avalia o efeito a longo prazo do plantio direto (NT no conteúdo de carbono orgânico no solo (OC e a sua distribuição em diferentes frações da matéria orgânica em sistemas agrícolas de sequeiro em Aragon (NE Espanha. Campos adjacentes do NT, plantio convencional (CT e solos naturais (NAT foram comparados em três diferentes áreas de produção de cereais. Na superfície do solo, o maior teor de OC encontrado nos solos NAT deveu-se à matéria orgânica particulada. No caso dos solos agr

  9. Educational Achievement of Immigrant Adolescents in Spain: Do Gender and Region of Origin Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquera, Elizabeth; Kao, Grace

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the educational achievement of immigrant youth in Spain employing data from 3 waves of the Longitudinal Study of Families and Childhood (Panel de Families i Infancia), a representative sample of children in Catalonia first interviewed at ages 13-16 in 2006 (N = 2,710). Results suggest consistent disadvantage in achievement…

  10. A press database on natural risks and its application in the study of floods in Northeastern Spain

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    M. C. Llasat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to introduce a systematic press database on natural hazards and climate change in Catalonia (NE of Spain and to analyze its potential application to social-impact studies. For this reason, a review of the concepts of risk, hazard, vulnerability and social perception is also included. This database has been built for the period 1982–2007 and contains all the news related with those issues published by the oldest still-active newspaper in Catalonia. Some parameters are registered for each article and for each event, including criteria that enable us to determine the importance accorded to it by the newspaper, and a compilation of information about it. This ACCESS data base allows each article to be classified on the basis of the seven defined topics and key words, as well as summary information about the format and structuring of the new itself, the social impact of the event and data about the magnitude or intensity of the event. The coverage given to this type of news has been assessed because of its influence on construction of the social perception of natural risk and climate change, and as a potential source of information about them. The treatment accorded by the press to different risks is also considered. More than 14 000 press articles have been classified. Results show that the largest number of news items for the period 1982–2007 relates to forest fires and droughts, followed by floods and heavy rainfalls, although floods are the major risk in the region of study. Two flood events recorded in 2002 have been analyzed in order to show an example of the role of the press information as indicator of risk perception.

  11. Incremento en la prevalencia del VIH y en las conductas de riesgo asociadas en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres: 12 años de encuestas de vigilancia conductual en Cataluña Increase in the prevalence of HIV and in associated risk behaviors in men who have sex with men: 12 years of behavioral surveillance surveys in Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinta Folch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las tendencias en la prevalencia de la infección por VIH, las conductas de riesgo asociadas a su transmisión y las actitudes respecto a los tratamientos antirretrovirales en el colectivo de hombres que tienen sexo con hombres reclutados en Cataluña entre 1995 y 2006. Métodos: Estudios transversales bianuales en una muestra de conveniencia de hombres que tienen sexo con hombres reclutados en saunas, sex-shops, bares y un parque público, y por correo a los socios de la Coordinadora Gai-Lesbiana, mediante un cuestionario anónimo y autoadministrado. Se recogieron muestras de saliva para determinar la prevalencia de la infección por VIH. La significación de las tendencias lineales en las proporciones se analizó mediante el test de ji² de tendencia lineal, estratificando por edad. Resultados: La prevalencia global del VIH aumentó del 8,5% (1995 al 14,1% (2006 en los menores de 30 años (p=0,162, y del 18,2% (1995 al 21,2% (2006 en los de 30 años y más (p=0,07. El uso consistente del preservativo en la penetración anal con parejas ocasionales descendió del 72,9% al 58,7% en los menores de 30 años (pObjectives: To describe trends in HIV prevalence, in risk behaviors associated with HIV transmission, and in knowledge and attitudes related to antiretroviral therapy (ART among men who have sex with men (MSM recruited in Catalonia between 1995 and 2006. Methods: Biannual cross-sectional surveys were performed. An opportunistic sample of MSM was recruited in saunas, sex shops, bars and a cruising site in a public park. In addition, an anonymous self-administered questionnaire was sent by mail to all members of a gay and lesbian association (Coordinadora Gai-Lesbiana. Oral fluid samples were collected to determine HIV prevalence. Linear trends in proportions were assessed by the chi² test, stratified by age. Results: The overall prevalence of HIV infection increased from 8.5% (1995 to 14.1% (2006 among men aged less than

  12. Structuration and branding of a religious tourism product: catalonia sacra

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    Dolors Vidal Casellas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide an overview of the products Catalonia has to offer in terms of religious tourism. The growing interest in this kind of tourism worldwide, and in Catalonia itself, along with the region’s wealth of religious heritage (particularly connected to the Christian Church contrast with the lack of religion-based tourism products available, which results in its absence from the region’s image as a tourism destination. In view of this, the Faculty of Tourism (University of Girona, the Vic Bishopric’s Albergueria-Centre for Cultural Dissemination and the Tarraconense Episcopal Conference’s Interdiocese Secretariat for the Custody and Promotion of Holy Art (SICPAS decided to address the situation with the help of funding from the Autonomous Government of Catalonia. In order to re-position Christian religious heritage in the image of Catalonia as a tourist destination, the aforementioned parties embarked upon a project to set up a series of routes throughout the region, branded under the name Catalonia Sacra.

  13. Structuration and branding of a religious tourism product: Catalonia sacra

    OpenAIRE

    Dolors Vidal Casellas; Sílvia Aulet Serrallonga; Neus Crous Costa

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to provide an overview of the products Catalonia has to offer in terms of religious tourism. The growing interest in this kind of tourism worldwide, and in Catalonia itself, along with the region’s wealth of religious heritage (particularly connected to the Christian Church) contrast with the lack of religion-based tourism products available, which results in its absence from the region’s image as a tourism destination. In view of this, the Faculty of Tourism (University of ...

  14. Mother Tongue as a Determining Variable in Language Attitudes. The Case of Immigrant Latin American Students in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Angel; Janes, Judit

    2008-01-01

    Bearing in mind the relevance of immigration in Spain, we consider the linguistic idiosyncrasy of the autonomous community of Catalonia in the present study to describe and analyse language attitudes to Catalan and Spanish in a sample of 225 students of immigrant origin living in different parts of the region. We focus on language attitudes in so…

  15. Health-related quality of life assessment in people with multiple sclerosis and their family caregivers. A multicenter study in Catalonia (Southern Europe

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    Marta Aymerich

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Marta Aymerich1, Imma Guillamón2, Albert J Jovell3,41Medical Sciences Department, University of Girona, Catalonia, Spain; 2Catalan Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Research, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 3Fundació Biblioteca Josep Laporte, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 4Autonomous University of Barcelona, Catalonia, SpainObjectives: To measure the health-related quality of life (HRQoL of multiple sclerosis (MS patients and their caregivers, and to assess which factors can best describe HRQoL.Methods: A cross-sectional multicenter study of nine hospitals enrolled MS patients and their caregivers who attended outpatient clinics consecutively. The instruments used were the SF-36 for patients and the SF-12 and GHQ-12 for caregivers. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to analyze the explanatory factors of HRQoL.Results: A total of 705 patients (mean age 40.4 years, median Expanded Disability Status Scale 2.5, 77.8% with relapsing-remitting MS and 551 caregivers (mean age 45.4 years participated in the study. MS patients had significantly lower HRQoL than in the general population (physical SF-36: 39.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 39.1–40.6; mental SF-36: 44.4; 95% CI: 43.5–45.3. Caregivers also presented lower HRQoL than general population, especially in its mental domain (mental SF-12: 46.4; 95% CI: 45.5–47.3. Moreover, according to GHQ-12, 27% of caregivers presented probable psychological distress. Disability and co-morbidity in patients, and co-morbidity and employment status in caregivers, were the most important explanatory factors of their HRQoL.Conclusions: Not only the HRQoL of patients with MS, but also that of their caregivers, is indeed notably affected. Caregivers’ HRQoL is close to population of chronic illness even that the patients sample has a mild clinical severity and that caregiving role is a usual task in the study context.Keywords: health-related quality of life, multiple sclerosis

  16. Trends and patterns in the use of computed tomography in children and young adults in Catalonia - results from the EPI-CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there are undeniable diagnostic benefits of CT scanning, its increasing use in paediatric radiology has become a topic of concern regarding patient radioprotection. To assess the rate of CT scanning in Catalonia, Spain, among patients younger than 21 years old at the scan time. This is a sub-study of a larger international cohort study (EPI-CT, the International pediatric CT scan study). Data were retrieved from the radiological information systems (RIS) of eight hospitals in Catalonia since the implementation of digital registration (between 1991 and 2010) until 2013. The absolute number of CT scans annually increased 4.5% between 1991 and 2013, which was less accentuated when RIS was implemented in most hospitals. Because the population attending the hospitals also increased, however, the rate of scanned patients changed little (8.3 to 9.4 per 1,000 population). The proportions of patients with more than one CT and more than three CTs showed a 1.51- and 2.7-fold increase, respectively, over the 23 years. Gradual increases in numbers of examinations and scanned patients were observed in Catalonia, potentially explained by new CT scanning indications and increases in the availability of scanners, the number of scans per patient and the size of the attended population. (orig.)

  17. Trends and patterns in the use of computed tomography in children and young adults in Catalonia - results from the EPI-CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch de Basea, Magda; Cardis, Elisabeth [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Salotti, Jane A.; Pearce, Mark S. [Royal Victoria Infirmary, Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Sir James Spence Institute of Child Health, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Muchart, Jordi [Hospital Sant Joan de Deu Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Riera, Luis [Corporacio Sanitaria Parc Tauli, Sabadell (Spain); Barber, Ignasi [Hospital Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Pedraza, Salvador [Hospital Universitari de Girona Doctor Josep Trueta, Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge (IDI), Girona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona Dr. Josep Trueta (IDIBGI), Girona (Spain); Universitat de Girona, Girona (Spain); Pardina, Marina [Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida (Spain); Capdevila, Antoni [Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Espinosa, Ana [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Although there are undeniable diagnostic benefits of CT scanning, its increasing use in paediatric radiology has become a topic of concern regarding patient radioprotection. To assess the rate of CT scanning in Catalonia, Spain, among patients younger than 21 years old at the scan time. This is a sub-study of a larger international cohort study (EPI-CT, the International pediatric CT scan study). Data were retrieved from the radiological information systems (RIS) of eight hospitals in Catalonia since the implementation of digital registration (between 1991 and 2010) until 2013. The absolute number of CT scans annually increased 4.5% between 1991 and 2013, which was less accentuated when RIS was implemented in most hospitals. Because the population attending the hospitals also increased, however, the rate of scanned patients changed little (8.3 to 9.4 per 1,000 population). The proportions of patients with more than one CT and more than three CTs showed a 1.51- and 2.7-fold increase, respectively, over the 23 years. Gradual increases in numbers of examinations and scanned patients were observed in Catalonia, potentially explained by new CT scanning indications and increases in the availability of scanners, the number of scans per patient and the size of the attended population. (orig.)

  18. Estudio descriptivo sobre el uso de la anticoncepción de emergencia en Cataluña: Comparación entre una zona rural y una urbana Descriptive study of the use of emergency contraception in Catalonia (Spain: Comparison between a rural and an urban area

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    Clara Ros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: En los últimos años han aumentado los embarazos no deseados, especialmente entre chicas jóvenes. Con la anticoncepción de emergencia (AE, entre otras acciones, el Departament de Salut busca disminuir estos embarazos. El objetivo es analizar el consumo de AE en Cataluña y comparar una área geográfica rural con una urbana (provincia de Lleida y área metropolitana de Barcelona. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, de 17.149 mujeres en edad fértil que han acudido a buscar la pastilla poscoital durante el período de octubre de 2004 a agosto de 2007. Los datos han sido proporcionados por el Programa de Salud Maternoinfantil de la Dirección General de Salud Pública. Resultados: La AE es utilizada mayoritariamente por chicas entre 16 y 24 años, principalmente los fines de semana. La mayoría lo han usado dos veces (78,5% y sólo el 1,8% la ha usado 1 vez. El consumo es más elevado en Lleida, con una razón comparativa de utilización e intervalo de confianza del 95% de 1,42 (1,35-1,50 respecto a Barcelona. Conclusiones: El hecho de que el consumo sea más elevado entre las chicas más jóvenes está a favor del objetivo de la AE. Parece que la AE no se asocia a una disminución de las interrupciones voluntarias del embarazo. Sería interesante dar más información desde todos los agentes implicados con políticas e intervenciones de salud, fomentando las conductas sexuales saludables.Objective: In the last few years, the number of unplanned pregnancies has increased, especially in young women. Among other measures, emergency contraception (EC was introduced by the Health Department to reduce unwanted pregnancies. The aim of this study was to analyze EC use in Catalonia, and to compare a rural with an urban area (Lleida province and the metropolitan area of Barcelona. Methods: We performed a descriptive study that included 17,149 women of fertile age who sought access to the EC pill between October 2004 and August 2007. Data were

  19. Análisis del desempeño de los servicios sanitarios de Cataluña: evaluación de los primeros resultados del proyecto demostrativo Performance assessment of health services in Catalonia (Spain: Evaluation of initial results of the Catalan healthcare service project

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    Anna García-Altés

    2009-10-01

    service project was started in Catalonia in 2005. This article aims to present the development of the project, to provide some examples that illustrate the kind of numerical and graphical information that could be obtained and the kind of analysis that could be performed, to provide possible explanations for the results shown, and to discuss some limitations and implications. Currently, the added value of this project is that it identifies the extent to which the healthcare system is achieving its objectives, establishes a set of homogeneous indicators that could be used in the future, and is a key tool in the development of the Central de Resultats del Departament de Salut de la Generalitat de Catalunya.

  20. Mortality in Catalonia in the context of the third, fourth and future phases of the epidemiological transition theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1960-2000, male and female life expectancy increased by 8,2 and 10,5 years, respectively, in Catalonia, one of Spain's Autonomous Regions, to one of the highest in the world. Initially, most gains were due to lower infant mortality, but as cardiovascular diseases declined this later shifted to advanced ages. Between the mid-1980s and early 1990s life expectancy improvements stagnated as the mortality risk from traffic accidents and HIV/AIDS in young adults increased. Both the age-delay in old-age mortality and the simultaneous influence of behaviour and life style reflect distinct aspects of the fourth stage of the epidemiological transition. This analysis quantifies the age and cause of death contributions to changes and sex-differences in life expectancy in Catalonia. It subsequently compares the most recent life table for women with the Duchene-Wunsch limited life table to estimate the potential gain in life expectancy when all deaths would be ageing-related and on which ages these improvements would fall.

  1. The Strong Wind event of 24th January 2009 in Catalonia: a social impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, J.; Aran, M.; Barberia, L.; Llasat, M. C.

    2009-09-01

    Although strong winds are frequent in Catalonia, one of the events with the strongest impact in recent years was on January 24th 2009. An explosive cyclogenesis process took place in the Atlantic: pressure fell 30 hPa in less than 24 hours. The strong wind storm pounded the northern of Spain and the south of France with some fatalities and important economic losses in these regions. Several automatic weather stations recorded wind gusts higher than 100 km/h in Catalonia. Emergency services received more than 20.000 calls in 24 hours and there were 497 interventions in only 12 hours. As a consequence of fallen and uprooted trees railway and road infrastructures got damages and more than 30.000 customers had no electricity during 24 hours. Unfortunately there were a total of 6 fatalities, two of them because of fallen trees and the other ones when a sports centre collapsed over a group of children. In Spain, insurance policies cover damages due to strong winds when fixed thresholds are overcome and, according to the Royal Decree 300/2004 of 20th February, extraordinary risk are assumed by the Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros. Subsequently, Public Weather Services (PWS) had an increased on the number of requests received from people affected by this event and from insurance companies, for the corresponding indemnity or not. As an example, during the first month after the event, in the Servei Meteorològic de Catalunya (SMC) more than 600 requests were received only related to these damages (as an average PWS of SMC received a total of 400 requests per month). Following the research started by the Social Impact Research Group of MEDEX project, a good vulnerability indicator of a meteorological risk can be the number of requests reported. This study uses the information received in the PWS of the SMC during the six months after the event, according the criteria and methodology established in Gayà et al (2008). The objective is to compare the vulnerability with the

  2. Importancia de los problemas reumáticos en la población de Cataluña: prevalencia y repercusión en la salud percibida, restricción de actividades y utilización de recursos sanitarios Importance of chronic musculoskeletal problems in the population of Catalonia (Spain: prevalence and effect on self-perceived health, activity restriction and use of health services

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    María Jesús Pueyo

    2012-02-01

    population of Catalonia (Spain and their effect on self-perceived health, activity restriction and use of health services. Methods: A population-based survey of 15,926 adults was performed. Multistage stratified sampling was performed. The variables gathered were sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported chronic health problems, self-perceived health, activity restriction and use of health services. Musculoskeletal problems were grouped into four categories: osteoarthritis-arthritis or rheumatism (OA, chronic dorsal or lumbar pain (LBP, chronic cervical pain (UBP, and osteoporosis. Results: Chronic health problems were reported by 77.4% of the adult population. The most frequent health problem was LBP, followed by UBP and OA. After adjustment by age was performed, female sex increased the risk of reporting OA, LBP, UBP and osteoporosis (OR=2.6, 1.5, 2.3, and 5.3, respectively. The prevalence increased with greater age and with lower socioeconomic status. After adjustment was performed by age, sex, social class and obesity, self-perceived health was worse in people with these problems (42.7% vs 11%. The four categories were the main causes of activity restriction in the last year (OR 2.70 and the last 15 days (OR=2.32 and were associated with a higher use of health services. Conclusiones: Los problemas reumáticos son los principales problemas de salud crónicos declarados por la población adulta. La prevalencia es mayor es las mujeres, aumenta con la edad y en las clases desfavorecidas. Hay una asociación significativa entre declarar problemas musculoesqueléticos y salud autopercibida mala o regular, y mayor restricción de actividades y uso de servicios sanitarios.

  3. Evaluación de la gestión de los casos de incapacidad temporal por contingencia común de más de 15 días en Cataluña Evaluation of the management of nonwork-related sick leave lasting more than 15 days in Catalonia (Spain

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    Fernando G. Benavides

    2010-06-01

    care physician in Catalonia, were reported to the Catalonian Institute of Medical Evaluations, and were followed to term. Of the total, 156,676 cases were managed by the NISS. To account for repeat episodes (approximately 25% of the total, the Wang-Chang estimator was used to calculate the median duration and percentiles; comparisons were made using log-logistic regression with shared gamma frailty models, with calculation of time ratios (TR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results: The median duration of sick leave was 43 days for cases managed by the NISS and 39 days for those managed by the insurance company. This difference was statistically significant both for men employed under contract (TR=0.87; 95% CI: 0.85-0.88 and for those who were self-employed (TR=0.78; 95% CI: 0.75-0.80 as well as for women under contract (TR=0.85; 95% CI: 0.84-0.87 and self-employed women (TR=0.84; 95% CI: 0.81-0.88. These differences persisted after adjustment was performed for age and health region. Conclusions: For sick leave lasting more than 15 days, these results confirm that cases managed by an insurance company ended earlier than for those managed by the NISS, both for contract and self-employed workers. Further research is needed to explore the reasons for these differences.

  4. Geosciences Information for Teachers (GIFT) in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlenghi, Angelo; Cacho, Isabel; Calvo, Eva; Demol, Ben; Sureda, Catalina; Artigas, Carme; Vilaplana, Miquel; Porbellini, Danilo; Rubio, Eduard

    2010-05-01

    CATAGIFT is the acronym of the project supported by the Catalan Government (trough the AGAUR agency) to support the activities of the EGU Committee on Education in Catalonia. The objective of this project is two-fold: 1) To establish a coordinated action to support the participation of three Catalan science teachers of primary and secondary schools in the GIFT Symposium, held each year during the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (EGU). 2) To produce a video documentary each year on hot topics in geosciences. The documentary is produced in Catalan, Spanish and English and is distributed to the Catalan science teachers attending the annual meeting organized by the Institute of Education Sciences and the Faculty of Geology of the University together with the CosmoCaixa Museum of Barcelona, to the international teachers attending the EGU GIFT Workshop, and to other schools in the Spanish territory. In the present-day context of science dissemination through documentaries and television programs there is a dominance of products of high technical quality and very high costs sold and broadcasted world wide. The wide spread of such products tends to standardize scientific information, not only in its content, but also in the format used for communicating science to the general public. In the field of geosciences in particular, there is a scarcity of products that combine high scientific quality and accessible costs to illustrate aspects of the natural life of our planet Earth through the results of the work of individual researchers and / or research groups. The scientific documentaries produced by CATAGIFT pursue the objective to support primary and secondary school teachers to critically interpret scientific information coming from the different media (television, newspapers, magazines, audiovisual products), in a way that they can transmit to their students. CataGIFT has created a series of documentaries called MARENOSTRUM TERRANOSTRA designed and

  5. Architecture and the arts in Catalonia during the Renaissance

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim Garriga

    2016-01-01

    This is an overview of the process of transformation of the architecture, sculpture and painting of Catalonia during the Renaissance. It attempts to reconstruct the fundamental era of changes when the late Gothic models were replaced by the new Renaissance paradigm gestated in Italy, thus ushering in the modern cycle of arts in the country. Despite the relative dearth of a Catalan historiographic tradition that studies and explains the cultural heritage from this period – which was decimated ...

  6. Wind Farm Siting and Protected Areas in Catalonia: Planning Alternatives or Reproducing 'One-Dimensional Thinking'?

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    Katharine N. Farrell

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is an emblem of sustainability with the potential to promote a qualitative alternative to current energy systems and nuclear options for CO2 reduction. However, wind farm siting often conflicts with aspirations to conserve traditional landscapes and wildlife habitats. In this paper we adopt a Critical Theory perspective, informed by Herbert Marcuse`s work, to study the discourse concerning wind energy siting in Catalonia, Spain. We give particular attention to how tensions between potentially conflicting sustainability objectives are addressed and by whom. Based on a review of this siting discourse and the application of Marcuse’s theory, we find that the Catalan wind energy siting discourse is both influenced by and reproducing what Marcuse referred to as the ‘one-dimensional thinking’ of technology as ideology: erasing the possibility of critical dialectical thought by subsuming the question of “what should be” under the question of “what is”. This has implications both for how these conflicts are investigated and for the sustainability of decisions taken. We conclude that closer attention to the role of ‘one-dimensional thinking’ in wind energy siting discourses could improve not only the understanding of their logic but might also have the potential to help make them more democratic.

  7. Latin American students and language learning in Catalonia: what does the linguistic interdependence hypothesis show us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    The massive arrival in Spain of students of immigrant origin has visibly altered the traditional configuration of schools, where ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversity is becoming increasingly manifest. This situation is worth being mentioned insofar as it affects all the different autonomous communities in the country, even more clearly Catalonia, where the educational system is organized under the parameters of bilingual education. One of the theoretical constructs supporting this educational model is the Linguistic Interdependence Hypothesis, developed by Jim Cummins at the beginning of the 1980s. According to the author, whenever the instruction in a given language (Lx) takes place under certain conditions, competence acquired in this language can be transferred onto another (Ly). Bearing this theoretical construct in mind, our study focuses on a sample of 237 Spanish-speaking subjects (123 native and 114 immigrant students) who completed a series of parallel tests evaluating their skills in Catalan and Spanish. Drawing on the data analyzed we can conclude that the Hypothesis accounts for the results in both native and immigrant students with the same L1.

  8. Paleoclimatic implications of micromorphic features of a polygenetic soil in the Monegros Desert (NE-Spain Implicaciones paleoclimáticas de los rasgos micromorfológicos de un suelo policíclico en el Desierto de Monegros (NE-España Implicações paleoclimáticas das características micromorfológicas de um solo policíclico no Deserto de Monegros (NE-Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Badía

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pedofeatures can be repositories of information about soil forming factors such as climate. The aim of this work is to provide a model of interpretation of a polygenetic soil in the Monegros desert (Ebro Basin, NE-Spain and its relationship to environmental changes during the Quaternary. To achieve this goal, the physical, chemical, mineralogical and especially the micromorphic pedofeatures of this profile were studied. Carbonate accumulations extend into all of the horizons of the profile. The paleosol has a thick petrocalcic horizon at the top, with a massive-laminar structure comprising layers of micrite and sparite that sometimes form pendants. Towards its base, the petrocalcic horizon contains a spaced framework of orthic micrite nodules packed between relatively pure micritic laminar bands. Below the petrocalcic horizon, coatings and infillings of microcrystalline calcite occur in old channels, and soft concretions (some of them geodic indicate an in situ accumulation process (Bkc, calcic horizon. Another calcic horizon with orthic nodules of calcite, impregnative and diffuse (Ckc, is present at the bottom part of the profile. Between the two nodular calcic horizons, two recarbonated argic horizons are found (Btkc and Btk with coarse orthic nodules of dense micrite superimposed on textural pedofeatures. These textural micromorphic pedofeatures are: (1 interbedded microlaminated clay pockets not associated with current or past pores and (2 microlaminated clay and silt (dusty clay present as weakly oriented coatings on channel walls. Reduction pedofeatures are associated with textural ones: (1 coatings of manganese oxides around pore channels and cracks, and (2 nodules of manganese and iron oxides within the peds. The presence of calcic horizons alternating with argic horizons, all positioned below the petrocalcic horizon, confirm fluctuations in paleohydrological conditions in the Pleistocene. Its presence indicates that the oldest soil

  9. How Do Catalan Students Narrate the History of Catalonia When They Finish Primary Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Edda; González-Monfort, Neus; Fernández, Antoni Santisteban; Blanch, Joan Pagès; Freixa, Montserrat Oller

    2015-01-01

    In this article we analyze how a group of Catalan students (aged 11-13, N = 245) narrate the history of Catalonia and we compare their narratives with the official Catalan narrative. From an interpretative approach, we collect data by requiring the students to write down what they remember about the history of Catalonia. The research is conducted…

  10. Description of industrial pollution in Spain

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    Aragonés Nuria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxic substances released into the environment (to both air and water by many types of industries might be related with the occurrence of some malignant tumours and other diseases. The publication of the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register Spanish data allows to investigate the presence of geographical mortality patterns related to industrial pollution. The aim of this paper is to describe industrial air and water pollution in Spain in 2001, broken down by activity group and specific pollutant, and to plot maps depicting emissions of carcinogenic substances. Methods All information on industrial pollution discharge in 2001 was drawn from EPER-Spain public records provided by the European Commission server. We described the distribution of the number of industries and amounts discharged for each pollutant, as well as emission by pollutant group and the industrial activities associated with each pollutant. Maps of Spain were drawn up, with UTM coordinates being used to plot pollutant foci, and circles with an area proportional to the emission to depict pollution emission values. Results The EPER-Spain contained information on 1,437 industrial installations. The industrial plants that discharge pollutant substances into air and water above the pollutant-specific EPER threshold were mainly situated in the Autonomous Regions of Aragon, Andalusia and Catalonia and in Catalonia, the Basque Country and Andalusia respectively. Pollution released in 2001 into air approached 158 million Mt. Emissions into water were over 8 million Mt. Conclusion A few single industrial plants are responsible for the highest percentage of emissions, thus rendering monitoring of their possible health impact on the surrounding population that much simpler. Among European countries Spain is the leading polluter in almost one third of all EPER-registered pollutant substances released into the air and ranks among the top three leading polluters in two

  11. Sovereignty, robustness and short-term energy security levels. The Catalonia case study

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    Marti eRosas-Casals

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy related impacts and conflicts have been used to account for the emergence, maintenance and collapse of complex societies. On the other hand in the last years, sustainability science has incorporated different frames of reference in order to facilitate the vision of sustainable futures. Most of them suggest that the search for satisfiers of human needs should be rooted on the local (a construction of organic articulations of people with nature and technology and (b generation of growing levels of social, economic and energy self-reliance. This new regional kind of social agreement implies a redefinition of cultural norms and institutions, which at the same time leads toward increased levels of sovereignty for the social group engaged in this process. Sovereignty must not only be understood here in its political sense (as traditionally found in the literature but also in its technological and energy acceptations. In this paper we address this last constituent in terms of energy security levels and hierarchy in energy infrastructures between Spain and Catalonia, the latter being a Spanish autonomous community known for its sovereignty aspirations. We show a remarkable difference in energy security levels between both regions which clearly hinders Catalonia’s capacity to currently achieve a higher level of self-reliance in energetic terms. We suggest that this result is a consequence of the imperfect hierarchy that characterize energy infrastructures at the spatial scale, and that it can be generalized to all regions where infrastructural systems have been historically assessed and developed under a nationwide planning scheme.

  12. Karst in conglomerates in Catalonia (Spain): morphological forms and sedimentary sequence types recorded on archaeological sites

    OpenAIRE

    Bergadà i Zapata, M. Mercè; Cervelló, Josep M.; Serrat, David, 1949-

    1997-01-01

    This article aims to make the karst morphological forms to be found in conglomerate rocks, as well as the sedimentary sequence types recorded in such deposits, more widely known. Particular attention is paid to points where prehistoric occupation has been traced, sites such as: the Font Major Cave (Espluga de Francoli, Tarragona), the Hort de la Boquera, the Filador Rock-shelter and the Colls Rock-shelter (Margalef de Montsant, Tarragona), and the Parco Cave (Alôs de Balaguer, Lleida). By mea...

  13. Analysis of di-calcic phosphate from the Erkimia plant in Flix, Catalonia (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an investigation showed that solid wastes released in the Ebra River between 1978 and 1988 from the Erkimia factory displayed high natural radionuclides contents, this document reports analysis performed on the di-calcic phosphate produced by this factory (from Moroccan phosphorite). It indicates and comments the results obtained by gamma spectrometry for some radionuclides belonging to the U238 and U235 chains (uranium 238, thorium 230 and 234, radium 226, lead 210, Uranium 235). It comments the associated potential radiological risks, and gives some recommendations to limit these risks

  14. Predicting scenic beauty of forest stands in Catalonia (North-east Spain)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elena Blasco; José Ramón González-Olabarria; Pedro Rodriguéz-Veiga; Timo Pukkala; Osmo Kolehmainen; Marc Palahí

    2009-01-01

    Relative preferences of 90 images of forest stands, photos and virtual reality images were investigated by the internet to develop a quantitative model for estimating scenic beauty preferences at the stand level. The relative priority values obtained from the questionnaire of a total of 259 judges were analyzed using regression methods for pairwise comparisons. Two models were developed based on two different groups of stands. Both models indicate that the priority of a forest stand increases with an augment in the number of bushes and trees, and also with the mean diameter of trees. On the other hand, the priority is low with large number of pines and small trees. Stands represented by photos receive better priority values than those represented by virtual reality images. When the background of the judges (gender, country or occupation) was included into the model as additional predictors, no significant improvements are achieved.

  15. Soil Stratigraphy from Three Pleistocene Archaeological Sites of the Middle Ter River Valley, Catalonia, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Sayantani NEOGI

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation summarizes the stratigraphic description of three Pleistocene archaeological sites inthe middle Ter river valley. A long history of archaeological research in this region suggests thepossibility of developing contextual studies. This work is basically an investigation of two soilformation processes from the deep soil horizons of the Mediterranean region: clay illuviation andcarbonatation. This approach has been developed by soil micromorphology, a technique well suitedfor th...

  16. School meals in Catalonia: surveillance and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roset, M A; Gonzalvo, B

    2001-12-01

    The Education Council of the Catalonian government drew up a programme to improve the quality control of school canteens in Catalonia. The objectives of this programme were to contribute to developing healthier eating habits in school children through school canteens and to improve school canteen services considering other aspects such as service, operation, management, end-users, frontline staff and supervisors of menu planning. This paper deals with two programme components aiming at introducing Nutrition in the school syllabus and school menu assessment. Various departments, organisations and associations were involved in programme development and implementation. Initial analysis was based on information collected from formal administrative reports completed by a survey on 100 primary schools. From this preliminary analysis it was concluded that problem identification needs to be completed by an understanding of underlying reasons in order to design adequate solutions and guarantee implementation. PMID:11918476

  17. Social media and tourism: case study in Catalonia

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    Joan-Francesc Fondevila-Gascón

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the social media use by business tourists coming to Barcelona (Catalonia. The methodology used is a quantitative method that converts the object of study into numerical data, with emphasis on the measurable objective. We devise a quantitative questionnaire. The multiple choices are an instrument for obtaining data and it is used to gather the information needed: facts, opinions, trends. Data collection was carried out for 4 months in 2015 with a final sample of 494 participants. We conclude that Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Foursquare are the social media more used by young people and gender does not influence their use. However, the degree of use of Google+, Linkedin, TripAdvisor and Booking have no significant relationship, taking into account such variables as age and gender.

  18. The furniture trade in Catalonia during the 18th century

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    Piera Miquel, Mónica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Through various types of documentation it is possible to determine the different methods of sale and consumption used in the internal furniture trade in Catalonia during the 18th century. The author offers information concerning the construction and commerce of pieces —new as well as second-hand ones— from the workshops of carpenters, and their prices. She also studies the major business of rentals offered by carpenters and secondhand dealers.

    A partir de documentación de distinta índole conocemos los diferentes sistemas de venta y consumo utilizados en el comercio interno de muebles en Cataluña durante el siglo XVIII. Ofrecemos informaciones sobre la construcción de piezas y sobre su comercio desde los talleres de carpinteros, tanto de obras nuevas como de segunda mano y sus precios. Igualmente, estudiamos el importante negocio de muebles de alquiler ofrecido por carpinteros y por ropavejeros.

  19. Plain Language in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cassany, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the communicative style Spain inherited from the dictatorship, Spain???s conception of plain language, the goals it set for the four most widely used languages, and the results achieved.

  20. The 1448 earthquake in Catalonia. Some effects and local reactions

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    R. Salicrù i Lluch

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The May 1448 earthquake. the last destructive one that took place in Catalonia in the Middle Ages, was known chiefly from several chronistic and narrative medieval sources. To these sources I add new previously unknown data proceeding Eroin documentary archival sources in Barcelona, and other data that up to now have been wrongly considered as a consequence of the weak quake recorded in September 1450. They allow us to locate the epicentre in the Vall&s Oriental, around Llinars, to deny the existence of two almost simultaneous earthquakes, and to extend the range of the earthquake damage. to pinpoint them better and to suppose that the effects of the 1448 earthquake were more important than we had previously thought. All this information leads to several reflections on compulsory critical analysis of historical seismic documentary sources in order for them to be useful to historical seismicity. Finally. by the opposition of the three lands of documentary sources that refer to the damage caused by the earthquake in the township of Mataro. I show how natural catastrophes could be manipulated, and the skill of a society in exploiting them to deal with an adverse situation.

  1. Radon in spring waters in the south of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonollosa, E; Peñalver, A; Borrull, F; Aguilar, C

    2016-01-01

    Spring waters in the south of Catalonia were analysed to determine the (222)Rn activity in order to be able to establish a correlation between the obtained values with the geology of the area of origin of these samples, and also estimate the potential health risks associated with (222)Rn. Most of the analysed samples (90%) show (222)Rn activities lower than 100Bq/L (exposure limit in water recommended by the World Health Organisation and EU directive 2013/51/EURATOM). However, in some cases, the activity values found for this isotope exceeded those levels and this can be attributed to the geology of the area where the spring waters are located, which is predominantly of granitic characteristics. To verify the origin of the radon present in the analysed samples, the obtained activity values were compared with the activities of its parents ((226)Ra, (238)U and (234)U). Finally, we have calculated the annual effective dose from all the radionuclides measured in spring water samples. The results showed that the higher contribution due to spring water ingestion come from (222)Rn and (226)Ra. The resulting contribution to the annual effective dose due to radon ingestion varies between 10.2 and 765.8 μSv/y, and the total annual effective dose due to his parents, (226)Ra, (234)U and (238)U varies between 0.8 and 21.2 μSv/y so the consumption of these waters does not involve any risks to population due to its natural radioactivity content. PMID:26551586

  2. MiniBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, Kendall Brianna Mcconnel; /Columbia U.

    2007-03-01

    MiniBooNE is a short baseline neutrino experiment designed to confirm or refute the LSND observed excess of electron anti neutrinos in a muon anti neutrino beam. The experimental setup, data samples, and oscillation fit method are discussed. Although the result was not public at the time of the talk, MiniBooNE has since published results, which are discussed briefly as well.

  3. Crossing the Line in Quebec and Catalonia: The Consequences of the Linguistically "Mixed" Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Paul E.

    2000-01-01

    The linguistically mixed marriage stands at he crossroads of important factors in the future of French in North American and Catalan in Europe: reversing language shift. While Quebec and Catalonia appear strikingly similar, strong evidence indicates that demographic, linguistic, socioeconomic, and even lifestyle factors may make linguistic exogamy…

  4. Changes in the Linguistic Confidence of Primary and Secondary Students in Catalonia: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretxa, Vanessa; Comajoan, Llorenç; Ubalde, Josep; Vila, F. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in first (L1) and second language (L2) acquisition has provided evidence that linguistic confidence is a key construct that can explain linguistic behaviour. In this paper, we apply previous research in the socio-contextual model of L2 learning to data from Catalonia. More specifically, the paper investigates linguistic…

  5. "Living to the Rhythm of the City": Internationalisation of Universities and Tourism Discourse in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Balsà, Lídia; Cots, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the tourism discourse on the self-representation strategies that a university in Catalonia adopts towards international students, and the extent to which these strategies connect with the stance of international students towards their study-abroad experience. The data were ethnographically collected during the…

  6. The Catalonia WHO Demonstration Project of Palliative Care: Results at 25 Years (1990-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Batiste, Xavier; Blay, Carles; Martínez-Muñoz, Marisa; Lasmarías, Cristina; Vila, Laura; Espinosa, José; Costa, Xavier; Sánchez-Ferrin, Pau; Bullich, Ingrid; Constante, Carles; Kelley, Ed

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) Demonstration Project on Palliative Care in Catalonia (Spain) celebrated its 25th anniversary. The present report describes the achievements and progress made through this project. Numerous innovations have been made with regard to the palliative care (PC) model, organization, and policy. As the concept of PC has expanded to include individuals with advanced chronic conditions, new needs in diverse domains have been identified. The WHO resolution on "Strengthening of palliative care as a component of comprehensive care throughout the life course," together with other related WHO initiatives, support the development of a person-centered integrated care PC model with universal coverage. The Catalan Department of Health, together with key institutions, developed a new program in the year 2011 to promote comprehensive and integrated PC approach strategies for individuals with advanced chronic conditions. The program included epidemiologic research to describe the population with progressive and life-limiting illnesses. One key outcome was the development of a specific tool (NECPAL CCOMS-ICO(©)) to identify individuals in the community in need of PC. Other innovations to emerge from this project to improve PC provision include the development of the essential needs approach and integrated models across care settings. Several educational and research programs have been undertaken to complement the process. These results illustrate how a PC program can respond and adapt to emerging needs and demands. The success of the PC approach described here supports more widespread adoption by other key care programs, particularly chronic care programs. PMID:27233146

  7. Mapping urban geology of the city of Girona, Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Miquel; Torrades, Pau; Pi, Roser; Monleon, Ona

    2016-04-01

    A detailed and systematic geological characterization of the urban area of Girona has been conducted under the project '1:5000 scale Urban geological map of Catalonia' of the Catalan Geological Survey (Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya). The results of this characterization are organized into: i) a geological information system that includes all the information acquired; ii) a stratigraphic model focused on identification, characterization and correlation of the geological materials and structures present in the area and; iii) a detailed geological map that represents a synthesis of all the collected information. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment pre-existing cartographic documentation (geological and topographical), core data from compiled boreholes, descriptions of geological outcrops within the urban network and neighbouring areas, physico-chemical characterisation of representative samples of geological materials, detailed geological mapping of Quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits and, 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces. The stratigraphic model is structured in a system of geological units that from a chronostratigrafic point of view are structured in Palaeozoic, Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary and Anthropocene. The description of the geological units is guided by a systematic procedure. It includes the main lithological and structural features of the units that constitute the geological substratum and represents the conceptual base of the 1:5000 urban geological map of the Girona metropolitan area, which is organized into 6 map sheets. These map sheets are composed by a principal map, geological cross sections and, several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also represents the main artificial deposits, features related to geohistorical processes, contours of outcrop areas, information obtained in stations, borehole data, and contour

  8. Models of political public relations: Testing the situation in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Jordi Xifra Triadú

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea that political communication strategies are an application of marketing strategies to political field is today commonly shared by specialists. For them public relations is viewed like a set of techniques that serves political parties and other actors of the political scene, concentrated on media relations. This instrumental perspective is not in keeping with structural dimension of public relations in political activity and communication of his actors: political parties, pressure groups and political leaders. In this point of view, during managing periods of governance or opposition and during electoral campaigns, the most applied communication form by political parties is structured in accordance with the major public relations models: press agent model, public information model, two way asymmetrical model, and two way symmetrical model. This research prove hypothesis in Catalonia according the results of a quantitative survey focused on inside professionals who provide services for the seven main political parties in this Spanish Autonomous Community.RESUMEN:La idea de que las estrategias de comunicación política constituyen una aplicación de las estrategias del marketing al ámbito político es hoy comúnmente compartida por los analistas. Para éstos, las relaciones públicas son percibidas como un conjunto de técnicas al servicio de los partidos políticos y de otros actores de la escena política concentradas en las relaciones con la prensa. Esta perspectiva instrumental no concuerda con la dimensión estructural de las relaciones públicas en la actividad política y comunicativa de sus actores: partidos políticos, grupos de presión y líderes. Desde este punto de vista, tanto en los periodos de gestión u oposición como en los electorales, la forma comunicativa más aplicada por los partidos políticos se estructura de acuerdo con los modelos tradicionales de las relaciones públicas: agente de prensa, información p

  9. The environmental radiation monitoring system in Spain

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    Rosario Salas Collantes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of environmental radiation monitoring established in Spain is composed of several networks with different objectives, a monitoring network in the vicinity of the facilities and several national networks financed and managed by public agencies. The operators of the facilities are responsible for the conduct of its Environmental Radiological Surveillance Program as directed by the CSN. Moreover, the Directorate General of Civil Defense and Emergencies has a Radioactivity Warning Network (RAR consisting of over 900 automatic stations measuring dose rate distributed nationwide. The Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Network (Revira, managed by the CSN, is a nationwide network, consists of a Network of Sampling Stations (REM and a Network of Automatic Stations for continuous monitoring (REA. The autonomous communities of Valencia, Catalonia, Extremadura and the Basque Country have their own automated networks similar to that of the CSN. Revira provides information on the radioactivity in the air, soil, water (drinking, inland and sea and of food. The sampling and analysis programs are tailored to radiological recommendations laid down in the European Union Commission. The REM has the collaboration of laboratories in universities and the Centre for Energy, Environmental and Technological Research (CIEMAT for execution. The monitoring of inland and coastal waters is undertaken by the Centre for Studies and Experimentation of Public Works, Ministry of Public Works (CEDEX.

  10. Updated distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in Spain: new findings in the mainland Spanish Levante, 2013

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    Pedro María Alarcón-Elbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, 1894 was observed for the first time in Catalonia, northeastern Spain. A decade later, it has spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean region of the country and the Balearic Islands. Framed within a national surveillance project, we present the results of monitoring in 2013 in the autonomous communities of the mainland Levante. The current study reveals a remarkable increase in the spread of the invasive mosquito in relation to results from 2012; the species was present and well-established in 48 municipalities, most of which were along the Mediterranean coastline from the Valencian Community to the Region of Murcia.

  11. Eugenics without the state: anarchism in Catalonia, 1900-1937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleminson, Richard

    2008-06-01

    Current historiography has considered eugenics to be an emanation from state structures or a movement which sought to appeal to the state in order to implement eugenic reform. This paper examines the limitations of that view and argues that it is necessary to expand our horizons to consider particularly working-class eugenics movements that were based on the dissemination of knowledge about sex and which did not aspire to positions of political power. The paper argues that anarchism, with its contradictory practice afforded by the convulsive social situation of the Civil War in Spain, allows us to assess critically the parameters of the social action of eugenics, its many alliances, and its struggle for existence in changing political circumstances not of its own making. PMID:18534354

  12. Migrant Women and Labour Integration in Catalonia: The Impact of New Information and Communication Technologies

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    Mihaela Vancea

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article uses data from 35 semi-structured interviews of migrant women from three different ethnic backgrounds living in Catalonia to explore the use of ICTs in their economic integration. The results show that the three groups of migrant women studied perceive ICTs as important instruments of economic integration, though they tend to use them rather marginally for this purpose. The mediating role of network capital is not forthcoming, bridging social networks being rather a consequence than a determinant of migrant women’s economic integration. Digital connectivity does not seem to cancel out the relevance of traditional variables of social inequality such as education, age, or origin. Young educated women, and particularly of Romanian and Ecuadorian origins, tend to make a better use of ICTs for their economic integration in Catalonia.

  13. The Philosophy of education in Catalonia in the 20th century : dialectics, synthetics and vitalists

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier LAUDO CASTILLO; Conrad VILANOU TORRANO

    2013-01-01

    This text is a contribution to the history of philosophy of contemporary education, which presents three major currents in educational philosophy in Catalonia in the 20th century. In the beginning it deals with the line of thinkers represented by Eugenid’Ors and OctaviFullat, who understood education as a dialectic between two poles or opposites in constant conflict.Then it will analyze the synthetic view following Jaume Balmes and the constantly modernizing pedagogy from Cardenal Mercier in ...

  14. The first Homo sapiens in Catalonia, hunters and gatherers from the old Upper Palaeolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcís Soler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the Middle Palaeolithic around 40,000 years ago, a population of archaic humans, Neanderthal men descended from the earliest settlers, lived in Europe. They were perfectly adapted to the land and its resources. They and their ancestors had survived all the climate and environmental changes that had occurred throughout the Pleistocene for hundreds of millennia, but they mysteriously disappeared upon the arrival of anatomically modern men, who originated in Africa. The latter were the humans from our own species, Homo sapiens, also called Cro-Magnon men in Europe, and they would gradually replace the archaic populations of the Old World. In Catalonia, archaeology shows how the old civilisation of the Neanderthal men, the Mousterian, which remained in place for many millennia with few changes, was swiftly replaced by another new civilisation which was very different and more dynamic, the Aurignacian, which was a civilisation of modern men. Over time, the Aurignacian evolved to give way to other civilisations of largegame hunters of the European Upper Palaeolithic. In Catalonia, the sites in Serinyà, among others, allow us to study the civilisation of the Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon men near the time of their replacement and to precisely date when this took place. They also provide us with the oldest remains of modern men found in Catalonia.

  15. The five wonders of Spain (Catalonia), Italy, France, the UK (Wales), Hungary, Poland and Estonia / Maarika Ruuse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruuse, Maarika

    2014-01-01

    Melliste Algkool-Lasteaia osalemisest rahvusvahelises projektis Friends around Europe (Sõbrad Euroopas), mida rahastab Sihtasutus Archimedes. Erinevate koolide koostöö eesmärkideks on õpilaste teadmiste arendamine kultuuride ja keelte mitmekesisusest, teiste riikide rahvakommete ja traditsioonide õppimine ning oma maa rahvakultuuri jagamine

  16. Exploring the surveillance potential of mortality data: nine years of bovine fallen stock data collected in Catalonia (Spain.

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    Anna Alba

    Full Text Available The potential of fallen stock data to monitor the health status of animal populations has been noted in previous studies. However, further research is required to implement these systems for surveillance. This work presents a novel approach to determining the baselines associated with bovine fallen stock, comparing patterns between subpopulations and identifying subpopulations in which an abnormal event may occur. This study was based on data from 193,873 disposal visits carried out between 2004 and 2012 across a total of 2,991 bovine farms. Proxy measurements such as the number of collections carried out and the weight of carcasses collected were used. Both outcomes were aggregated weekly at different geographical scales for three production types (beef cattle, dairy cattle and heifer fattening. The analysis of these data combined autoregressive integrated moving average modelling and hierarchical time series methods.The three production types exhibited historical baselines that differed notably from one another. Based on the 757 beef cattle farms monitored, the mean number of collections registered per week at the regional level was 37 (range: 10-83. This series was relatively constant over time and showed a marked yearly seasonality. In contrast, for the 426 dairy cattle farms the mean number of disposal visits registered weekly was 121 (range: 71-180, showing half-yearly and yearly seasonality and a marked increase over the period monitored. From the 1,808 heifer fattening farms the mean number of disposal visits was 248 (range: 166-357 and the pattern presented a marked alternating trend over time. These patterns were assessed and compared at regional, provincial, county and municipal levels. The use of hierarchical time series approaches appeared to be a useful tool for comparing the patterns within different subpopulations over time as well as for assessing the spatial extent to which various abnormal events could be detected.

  17. [Validation of the structure and resources of nosocomial infection control team in hospitals ascribed to VINCat program in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limón, Enrique; Pujol, Miquel; Gudiol, Francesc

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to validate the structure of the infection control team (ICT) in the hospitals adhered to VINCat program and secondary objective was to establish the consistency of resources of each center with the requirements established by the program. Qualitative research consisting of an ethnographic study using participant observation during the years 2008-2010. The centers were stratified in three groups by complexity and beds. The instrument was a semistructured interview to members of the ICT. The transcription of the interview was sent to informants for validation. In November 2010 a questionnaire regarding human resources and number hours dedicated to the ICT was sent. During 2008-2010, 65 centers had been adhered to VINCat program. In 2010, the ICT of Group I hospitals had a mean of two physician, one in full-time and one nurse for every 230 beds. In Group II, one physician part-time and one nurse per 180 beds and in Group III a physician and a nurse for every 98 beds, both part-time. In 2010, all hospitals had a structured ICT, an operative infection committee, and a hospital member representing the center at the program as well as enough electronic resources. The hospitals participating in the program have now VINCat an adequate surveillance structure and meet the minimum technical and human resources required to provide high-quality data. However human resources are not guaranteed.

  18. Impact of industries in the accumulation of radionuclides in the lower part of Ebro river (Catalonia, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebro River extends over almost 930 km and is the main Spanish river entering the Mediterranean Sea. There are several industries located along this river course including a di-calcium phosphate factory (DCP) and two nuclear power reactors. These installations, together with other factors such as the geology, can contribute to the radiological content of the river. Therefore, this study was performed to determine some natural and also some anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in the Ebro River ecosystem. We analysed water samples, solid samples (rice field sludge and surface marine sediment samples), and also biota samples (Cladophora glomerata and Cynodon dactylon). For water samples, gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, uranium, thorium and also a group of gamma-emitting isotopes' activities were determined. The main contribution to radioactivity for these samples was due to some isotopes from the uranium and thorium chain. For the solid samples, we quantified some natural and artificial gamma radioisotopes, which may be related to the geological and/or industrial activities located in this zone. In the case of biota, the results indicate that the presence of the DCP has a significant influence, since the highest activity was observed in the surroundings of this industry (Flix), where isotopes such as 214Bi and 214Pb presented activity values of 105 ± 43 Bq/kg and 100 ± 58 Bq/kg, respectively. (authors)

  19. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactive materials in sediments from the Ebro river reservoir in Flix (Southern Catalonia, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola, M.; Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria (URAIS), Consorci d' Aiguees de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra Nacional 340, km 1094, 43895 L' Ampolla (Spain); Borrull, F., E-mail: francesc.borrull@urv.cat [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria (URAIS), Consorci d' Aiguees de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra Nacional 340, km 1094, 43895 L' Ampolla (Spain)

    2011-12-30

    Industrial waste containing radioactive isotopes (from U-decay series) was released into Ebro river basin due to the activity of a dicalcium phosphate (DCP) plant for a period of more than two decades. Gross alpha, gross beta, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb activities were determined in several sludge samples taken at different depths from different points in the area of influence of the DCP plant located in Flix. Samples were collected from two different zones: one in front of the DCP plant and the second in front of a wastewater treatment plant installed several years after the DCP plant. The data obtained verify the influence of industrial DCP production on radioactivity levels present in the area.

  20. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogsten, Ingrid Ericson; Perelló, Gemma; Llebaria, Xavier; Bigas, Esther; Martí-Cid, Roser; Kärrman, Anna; Domingo, José L

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the role that some food processing and packaging might play as a source of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) through the diet was assessed. The levels of PFCs were determined in composite samples of veal steak (raw, grilled, and fried), pork loin (raw, grilled, and fried), chicken breast (raw, grilled, and fried), black pudding (uncooked), liver lamb (raw), marinated salmon (home-made and packaged), lettuce (fresh and packaged), pate of pork liver, foie gras of duck, frankfurt, sausages, chicken nuggets (fried), and common salt. Among the 11 PFCs analyzed, only PFHxS, PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA were detected in at least one composite sample, while the levels of the remaining PFCs (PFBuS, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA) were under their respective detection limits. PFOS was the compound most frequently detected, being found in 8 of the 20 food items analyzed, while PFHxA was detected in samples of raw veal, chicken nuggets, frankfurt, sausages, and packaged lettuce. According to the results of the present study, it is not sufficiently clear if cooking with non-stick cookware, or packaging some foods, could contribute to a higher human exposure to PFCs.

  1. Twenty years trends and socio-demographic characteristics of HIV prevalence in women giving birth in Catalonia (Spain

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    Dolors Carnicer-Pont

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: To ensure early identification and treatment of HIV-infected mothers, it is essential to maintain HIV surveillance programs and pre- and post-natal screening programs, both in Barcelona and in cities with 200,000 inhabitants or less, especially in immigrant women.

  2. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sperlich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L. during a period of mild winter conditions and their responses to a sudden cold period. The state of the photosynthetic machinery in both periods was thus tested by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials similar to those under spring conditions. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max, the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax, and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm. This change persisted for several weeks after the cold period despite the recovery of the temperature to the conditions previous to the frost event. The responses of Vc, max and Jmax were highly species-specific, where Q. ilex exhibited the highest and P. halepensis the lowest reductions. In contrast, the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm was significantly lower in A. unedo after the cold period. The leaf position played an important role in Q. ilex showing a comparatively stronger winter effect on sunlit leaves. Our results generally agreed with the previous classifications of photoinhibition-avoiding (P. halepensis and photoinhibition-tolerant (Q. ilex species on the basis of their susceptibility to dynamic photoinhibition, whereas A. unedo was the least tolerant to photoinhibition, which was chronic in this species. Q. ilex and P. halepensis seem to follow contrasting photoprotective strategies which are, however, equally successful under the prevailing conditions exhibiting an adaptive advantage over A. unedo in our study site. These results show that our understanding of the dynamics of interspecific competition in Mediterranean ecosystems requires consideration of the physiological behaviour during winter which may have important implications for long-term carbon budgets and growth trends.

  3. Causes of admission of little owl (Athene noctua at a wildlife rehabilitation centre in Catalonia (Spain from 1995 to 2010

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    Molina–López, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study analyzes the causes of morbidity of little owl (Athene noctua admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre of Torreferrussa from 1995 to 2010. A total of 1,427 little owls were included in the study, with an average of 89 cases per year (range: 73–116. As regards the sex category, 80.7% animals (1,152/1,427 were classified as undetermined gender, 9.1% (130/1,427 were sexed as females and 10.2% (145/1,427 as males. The overall age distribution according to the calendar year showed that 66.6% (951/1,427 of birds were ’1st calendar year and 16.6% (237/1,427 were ‘> 1 calendar year’. Age could not be determined in 16.7% of birds. Primary causes of admission were orphaned young (53.2%, unknown trauma (24.7%, impact with motor vehicles (5.6%, other cause (5.5%, undetermined (3.7%, illegally captive (2.1%, natural diseases (2.1%, and gunshot (1.1%. Within the breeding season the frequency of admissions due to traumas –unknown trauma (X2 = 147.108; p < 0.001– and impact with motor vehicles (X2 = 28.528; p < 0.001 and other cause (X2 = 11.420; p = 0.003 were the most important causes. In winter, admissions were mainly related to unknown trauma and gunshot. Over the fifteen years we observed a significant increase in the orphaned young category.

  4. The Impact of Training-Intensive Labour Market Policies on Labour and Educational Prospects of NEETS: Evidence from Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Casado, David; Sanz, Jordi; Todeschini, Federico A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature has shown that the way active labour market policies (ALMP) aimed at youth are designed and implemented can influence the labour and educational prospects of youngsters. The evaluation of the Catalan PQPIs (initial vocational qualification programmes) presented here seeks to provide new evidence on the effectiveness of…

  5. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactive materials in sediments from the Ebro river reservoir in Flix (Southern Catalonia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, M; Palomo, M; Peñalver, A; Aguilar, C; Borrull, F

    2011-12-30

    Industrial waste containing radioactive isotopes (from U-decay series) was released into Ebro river basin due to the activity of a dicalcium phosphate (DCP) plant for a period of more than two decades. Gross alpha, gross beta, (40)K, (226)Ra and (210)Pb activities were determined in several sludge samples taken at different depths from different points in the area of influence of the DCP plant located in Flix. Samples were collected from two different zones: one in front of the DCP plant and the second in front of a wastewater treatment plant installed several years after the DCP plant. The data obtained verify the influence of industrial DCP production on radioactivity levels present in the area.

  6. Sludge dewatering and stabilization in drying reed beds: characterization of three full-scale systems in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggetti, Enrica; Llorens, Esther; Pedescoll, Anna; Ferrer, Ivet; Castellnou, Roger; García, Joan

    2009-09-01

    Optimization of sludge management can help reducing sludge handling costs in wastewater treatment plants. Sludge drying reed beds appear as a new and alternative technology which has low energy requirements, reduced operating and maintenance costs, and causes little environmental impact. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three full-scale drying reed beds in terms of sludge dewatering, stabilization and hygienisation. Samples of influent sludge and sludge accumulated in the reed beds were analysed for pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Solids (TS), Volatile Solids (VS), Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, nutrients (Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) and Total Phosphorus (TP)), heavy metals and faecal bacteria indicators (Escherichiacoli and Salmonella spp.). Lixiviate samples were also collected. There was a systematic increase in the TS concentration from 1-3% in the influent to 20-30% in the beds, which fits in the range obtained with conventional dewatering technologies. Progressive organic matter removal and sludge stabilization in the beds was also observed (VS concentration decreased from 52-67% TS in the influent to 31-49% TS in the beds). Concentration of nutrients of the sludge accumulated in the beds was quite low (TKN 2-7% TS and TP 0.04-0.7% TS), and heavy metals remained below law threshold concentrations. Salmonella spp. was not detected in any of the samples, while E. coli concentration was generally lower than 460MPN/g in the sludge accumulated in the beds. The studied systems demonstrated a good efficiency for sludge dewatering and stabilization in the context of small remote wastewater treatment plants. PMID:19369066

  7. Nutritional status of iodine in pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain: study on hygiene-dietetic habits and iodine in urine

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    Torrent Anna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a priority to achieve an adequate nutritional status of iodine during pregnancy since iodine deficiency in this population may have repercussions on the mother during both gestation and post partum as well as on the foetus, the neonate and the child at different ages. According to the WHO, iodine deficiency is the most frequent cause of mental retardation and irrreversible cerebral lesions around the world. However, few studies have been published on the nutritional status of iodine in the pregnant population within the Primary Care setting, a health care level which plays an essential role in the education and control of pregnant women. Therefore, the aim of the present study is: 1.- To know the hygiene-dietetic habits related to the intake of foods rich in iodine and smoking during pregnancy. 2.- To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency and the factors associated with its appearance during pregnancy. Methods/design We will perform a cluster randomised, controlled, multicentre trial. Randomisation unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 898 pregnant women over the age of 17 years attending consultation to a midwife during the first trimester of pregnancy in the participating primary care centres. Outcome measures: consumption of iodine-rich foods and iodine deficiency. Points of assessment: each trimester of the gestation. Intervention: group education during the first trimester of gestation on healthy hygiene-dietetic habits and the importance of an adequate iodine nutritional status. Statistical analysis: descriptive analysis of all variables will be performed as well as multilevel logistic regression. All analyses will be done carried out on an intention to treat basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Discussion Evidence of generalised iodine deficiency during pregnancy could lead to the promotion of interventions of prevention such as how to improve and intensify health care educational programmes for pregnant women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01301768

  8. Polycentricity, Performance and Planning: Concepts, Evidence and Policy in Barcelona, Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Masip-Tresserra

    2016-04-01

    objectives.It is necessary to conduct a further exploration of the three aforementioned major issues related to (1 the conceptualization of polycentricity, (2 the empirical analysis of the dis(advantages of polycentricity, and (3 how to interpret the relationship between polycentricity in research and polycentricity in policy. That is the key motivation for this thesis: to link the knowledge of polycentric constellations and their economic, social, and environmental effects to planning practice and policy in metropolitan areas.General aims and questionsThe overarching research goal of this dissertation is to contribute to the debate on polycentricity in the three interrelated issues mentioned above. First, it aims to renew the conceptualization of polycentricity by bringing together two distinct literatures, namely, the literature on intra-urban polycentricity and the literature on inter-urban polycentricity. Second, it aims to empirically substantiate the relationship between polycentricity and performance in metropolitan areas. Third, it aims to understand how the makers of spatial plans have addressed polycentric development and how the assumed benefits of polycentricity can be realized in planning practice. To accomplish these goals, this thesis addresses three general research questions:How has the conceptualization of polycentric development in spatial plans evolved over time, and what can be learned from this evolution?How has polycentricity been conceptualized in research, and how can it inform planning practice?To what extent does polycentricity foster better performance in a metropolitan area, and how can its effects be realized in planning practice?Single case study: the Barcelona metropolitan regionThe case study of this thesis is the Barcelona metropolitan region. With approximately 5 million people, the Barcelona metropolitan region is the primary urban agglomeration of Catalonia, an autonomous region of 7.5 million inhabitants that is located in Spain. The

  9. Cross-National comparison of antiepileptic drug use: Catalonia, Denmark and Norway, 2007-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pili Ferrer-Argeles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antiepileptic drug  (AEDconsumption has increased in recent years mainly from those AEDs marketed since 1990. The purpose is to describe and compare AED consumption in Catalonia, Denmark and Norway.Methods: Population-based descriptive study set in the outpatient healthcare sector. Data were retrieved from the Norwegian Prescription Register, Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics and DATAMART® in Catalonia, for 2007-2011.We calculated defined daily doses/1000 inhabitants/day (DID, by age and gender. AEDs were defined according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification (N03A. We reviewed the population covered by the databases, the drug data source and the definition of outpatient healthcare sector to compare the results across the three settings.Results: Total AED use steadily increased over the study period in the three settings. In 2011, consumption was highest in Catalonia (15.20 DID, followed by Denmark (15.06 DID and Norway (14.24 DID. The “other AEDs” (N03AX subgroup represented 60% of all AED use. The N03A pattern by gender did not differ across the three settings. Marked differences by age and gender appeared when studying lamotrigine, topiramate, gabapentin, pregabalin and levetiracetam.  Differences among the databases were mainly in the definition of outpatient healthcare setting.Conclusions: There was a rapid increase in “other AEDs” in all three settings. Although we did not have information on the indication for the use of AEDs, the drug data source, population coverage of the database and definition of the healthcare setting helped us interpret the results.

  10. Catalan farmhouses and farming families in Catalonia between the 16th and early 20th centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Assumpta Serra

    2016-01-01

    The masia (translated here as the Catalan farmhouse), or the building where people reside on a farming estate, is the outcome of the landscape where it is located. It underwent major changes from its origins in the 11th century until the 16th century, when its evolution peaked and a prototype was reached for Catalonia as a whole. For this reason, in the subsequent centuries the model did not change, but building elements were added to it in order to adapt the home to the times. Catalan far...

  11. Andalucian (Spain, sw)

    OpenAIRE

    Orihuela, Antonio

    1997-01-01

    We present the main types of vernacular architecture in Andalucia (Spain): city houses, mountain village houses and those of the villages on the plains. Also the flat roof houses in the Alpujarras and the caves are studied.

  12. Municipal distribution of breast cancer mortality among women in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Pérez Javier

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spain has one of the lowest rates of breast cancer in Europe, though estimated incidence has risen substantially in recent decades. Some years ago, the Spanish Cancer Mortality Atlas showed Spain as having a heterogeneous distribution of breast cancer mortality at a provincial level. This paper describes the municipal distribution of breast cancer mortality in Spain and its relationship with socio-economic indicators. Methods Breast cancer mortality was modelled using the Besag-York-Molliè autoregressive spatial model, including socio-economic level, rurality and percentage of population over 64 years of age as surrogates of reproductive and lifestyle risk factors. Municipal relative risks (RRs were independently estimated for women aged under 50 years and for those aged 50 years and over. Maps were plotted depicting smoothed RR estimates and the distribution of the posterior probability of RR>1. Results In women aged 50 years and over, mortality increased with socio-economic level, and was lower in rural areas and municipalities with higher proportion of old persons. Among women aged under 50 years, rurality was the only statistically significant explanatory variable. For women older than 49 years, the highest relative risks were mainly registered for municipalities located in the Canary Islands, Balearic Islands, the Mediterranean coast of Catalonia and Valencia, plus others around the Ebro River. In premenopausal women, the pattern was similar but tended to be more homogeneous. In mainland Spain, a group of municipalities with high RRs were located in Andalusia, near the left bank of the Guadalquivir River. Conclusion As previously observed in other contexts, mortality rates are positively related with socio-economic status and negatively associated with rurality and the presence of a higher proportion of people over age 64 years. Taken together, these variables represent the influence of lifestyle factors which have

  13. [The Health Plan for Catalonia: an instrument to transform the health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constante i Beitia, Carles

    2015-11-01

    The Department of Health of the Generalitat in Catalonia periodically draws up the Health Plan, which is the strategic document that brings together the reference framework for initiatives concerning public health in terms of the Catalan health administration. The 2011-2015 version of the Health Plan incorporates key care and system governance-related elements, which, in conjunction with health goals, make up the complete picture of what the health system in Catalonia should look like until 2015. The Plan was drawn up at a time when the environmental conditions were extremely particular, given the major economic crisis that began in 2007. This has meant that the system has been forced to address public health problems using a significant reduction in the economic resources available, while aiming to maintain the level of care provided, both quantitatively and qualitatively, and preserve the sustainability of the system whose defining traits are its universality, equity and the wide range of services on offer. The Health Plan focuses on three areas of action, 9 major courses of action and 32 strategic projects designed to respond to new social needs: addressing the most common health issues, comprehensive care for chronic patients and organizational modernization.

  14. Modelling silviculture alternatives for managing Pinus pinea L. forest in North-East Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piqu-Nicalau, M.; Rio, M. del; Calama, R.; Montero, G.

    2011-07-01

    A yield model was developed to simulate silviculture alternatives for Pinus pinea L. in north-east Spain (Catalonia). The model uses several functions to estimate the main silvicultural parameters at stand level and a disaggregation system to predict diameter distributions. From a network of 75 temporary plots a system of equations to predict stand variables was simultaneously fitted for two stand density types, namely low and high density stands, using the three stage least-squares method (3SLS). The diameter distributions were estimated by the Weibull distribution function using the parameter recovery method (PRM) and the method of moments. Based on this yield model, two silviculture alternatives were simulated for each stand density type and site class, resulting in 16 silviculture scenarios. The yield model and silviculture alternatives offer a management tool and a guide for the sustainable forest management of even aged Pinus pinea forests in this region. (Author) 56 refs.

  15. Septicemic salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Hessarek in wintering and migrating Song Thrushes (Turdus philomelos) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Roser; Porrero, M Concepción; Serrano, Emmanuel; Marco, Ignasi; García, María; Téllez, Sonia; Domínguez, Lucas; Aymí, Raül; Lavín, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    We investigated two mortality events in wintering and migrating Song Thrushes (Turdus philomelos) in Catalonia, northeastern Spain in 2009 and 2010. Both episodes occurred in late February to mid-March during the spring migration. Salmonellosis produced by the serotype Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Hessarek (S. Hessarek) was identified as the cause of death in both episodes. Poor body condition, marked splenomegaly, and microscopic disseminated intravascular coagulation with numerous intravascular and tissular bacteria were the most consistent findings. Macro-restriction profiling by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using XbaI was performed for epidemiologic typing of the S. Hessarek isolates. Two clusters were discernible, that are possibly related, with a similarity of 82.8%. Analysis comparing pectoral muscle and subcutaneous fat scores from the Song Thrushes that died from S. Hessarek with those from healthy Song Thrushes from nearby areas during 2009 and 2010 suggest that poor body condition was associated with the S. Hessarek infection.

  16. Continuité ou discontinuité de sémentation marine mio-pliocène en Méditerranée occidentale. L'example du bassin de vera (Espagne méridionale Continuity Or Discontinuity of Io-Pliocene Marine Sedimentation in the Western Mediterranean. Example of the Vera Basin (Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montenat C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude du bassin néogène de Vera apporte des données fort instructives pour l'interprétation du a phénomène Mio-Pliocène » en Méditerranée occidentale. a Au point de vue biostratigraphique La coupe de Cuevas del Almanzora permet d'observer, pour la première fois en Méditerranée, une succession continue de foraminifères planctoniques du Messinien au Pliocène inférieur. Les biozones à G. acostaensis, G. humerosa-G. duterérei, G. mediterranea-G. conomiozea et G. margaritae se succèdent sans hiatus évolutif. b Au point de vue géodynamique Le bassin de Vera montre une grande variété dans les modalités du passage Miocène-Pliocène, depuis des discordances à la périphérie du bassin jusqu'à une sédimentation vaseuse continue en son centre. L'étude des profils sismiques offshore montre de nombreux exemples comparables, en relation avec le comportement structural du substratum fragmenté en horst et graben mobiles. Des mouvements tectoniques distensifs ont eu lieu à la limite Miocène-Pliocène. Ils ont eu pour résultat un approfondissement relatif des bassins méditerranéens mais ceci ne représente qu'un épisode parmi d'autres d'un processus de distension inauguré au Miocène supérieur et qui s'est prolongé jusqu'au début du Quaternaire. II semble prudent en tous cas, de ne pas exagérer cet approfondissement de la mer au Pliocène. c Au point de vue paléogéographique L'exemple du bassin de Vera prouve la pérennité des conditions marines durant le Messinien du moins dans certaines parties de la Méditerranée. Ceci implique naturellement des liaisons continues avec l'Atlantique, et exclut un dessèchement général du bassin méditerranéen durant les temps messiniens. La paléogéographie de la zone bétique durant le Miocène supérieur est caractérisée par une extrême compartimentation du domaine marin constitué de bassins subsidents, communiquant par des seuils. Cette compartimentation s

  17. Language Learning Actions in Two 1x1 Secondary Schools in Catalonia: The Case of Online Language Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Boris Vázquez; Cassany, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes current attitudes towards classroom digitization and digital language learning practices under the umbrella of EduCAT 1x1, the One-Laptop-Per-Child (OLPC or 1x1) initiative in place in Catalonia. We thoroughly analyze practices worked out by six language teachers and twelve Compulsory Secondary Education (CSE)…

  18. Penarroya a strike-slip controlled basin of early Westphalian age in Southwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.H. (Jardin Botanico de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain))

    1999-01-01

    The sedimentary and tectonic history is discussed of the Penarroya-Belmez-Espiel Coalfield in the province of Cordoba, Sierra Morena, SW Spain. This is an elongate, narrow intramontane basin, the Penarroya Basin, which formed as a result of strike-slip movements on a possible transform fault immediately NE of the Badajoz-Cordoba shear zone. 35 refs., 15 figs.

  19. Penarroya a strike-slip controlled basin of early Westphalian age in Southwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.H. [Jardin Botanico de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    The sedimentary and tectonic history is discussed of the Penarroya-Belmez-Espiel Coalfield in the province of Cordoba, Sierra Morena, SW Spain. This is an elongate, narrow intramontane basin, the Penarroya Basin, which formed as a result of strike-slip movements on a possible transform fault immediately NE of the Badajoz-Cordoba shear zone. 35 refs., 15 figs.

  20. 13C-contents of bacterial lipids in a shallow sulfidic monomictic lake (Lake Ciso, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hartgers, W.A.; Sliekers, O.; Grimalt, J.O.

    2000-01-01

    Stable carbon isotopic analysis was performed on sedimentary biomarkers of a shallow sulfide-rich monomictic lake, Lake Cisó (NE Spain). Specific biomarkers derived from phototrophic sulfur bacteria in Lake Cisó were considerably depleted in 13C, most likely due to the depleted 13C-content of the di

  1. Change in cognitive performance is associated with functional recovery during post-acute stroke rehabilitation: a multi-centric study from intermediate care geriatric rehabilitation units of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Laura Mónica; Inzitari, Marco; Roqué, Marta; Duarte, Esther; Vallés, Elisabeth; Rodó, Montserrat; Gallofré, Miquel

    2015-10-01

    Recovery after a stroke is determined by a broad range of neurological, functional and psychosocial factors. Evidence regarding these factors is not well established, in particular influence of cognition changes during rehabilitation. We aimed to investigate whether selective characteristics, including cognitive performance and its change over time, modulate functional recovery with home discharge in stroke survivors admitted to post-acute rehabilitation units. We undertook a multicenter cohort study, including all patients discharged from acute wards to any geriatric rehabilitation unit in Catalonia-Spain during 2008. Patients were assessed for demographics, clinical and functional variables using Conjunt Mínim Bàsic de Dades dels Recursos Sociosanitaris (CMBD-RSS), which adapts the Minimum Data Set tool used in America's nursing homes. Baseline-to-discharge change in cognition was calculated on repeated assessments using the Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS, range 0-6, best-worst cognition). The multivariable effect of these factors was analyzed in relation to the outcome. 879 post-stroke patients were included (mean age 77.48 ± 10.18 years, 52.6% women). A worse initial CPS [OR (95% CI) = 0.851 (0.774-0.935)] and prevalent fecal incontinence [OR (95% CI) = 0.560 (0.454-0.691)] reduced the likelihood of returning home with functional improvement; whereas improvement of CPS, baseline to discharge, [OR (95% CI) = 1.348 (1.144-1.588)], more rehabilitation days within the first 2 weeks [OR (95% CI) = 1.011 (1.006-1.015)] and a longer hospital stay [OR (95% CI) = 1.011 (1.006-1.015)] were associated with the outcome. In our sample, different clinical characteristics, including cognitive function and its improvement over time, are associated with functional improvement in stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation. Our results might provide information to further studies aimed at exploring the influence of cognition changes during rehabilitation.

  2. Worst in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotarelo, P. [Ecologistas en Accion (Spain)

    2004-09-01

    The As Pontes coal-fired power plant in northwest Spain is the largest single emitter of sulphur dioxide in the 'old' EU15. The plant is also among the largest emitters of nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the region, according to the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register). But Spain has also several other large emitters of air pollutants. The Andorra which is located in the province of Teruel is one of them. The Andorra power plant emitted 209,148 tones of SO{sub 2} in 2002 which makes it the second largest single emitter of SO{sub 2} in the EU15. It also emitts large quantities of NOx. Also in the northwest of Spain, the Composilla and La Robla power plants are the SO{sub 2} and NOx emitters.

  3. Spain to Join ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Today, during a ceremony in Madrid, an agreement was signed by the Spanish Minister of Education and Science, Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, affirming their commitment to securing Spanish membership of ESO. ESO PR Photo 05a/06 ESO PR Photo 05a/06 Signature Event in Madrid Following approval by the Spanish Council of Ministers and the ratification by the Spanish Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols, Spain intends to become ESO's 12th member state on 1 July 2006. "Since long Spain was aware that entering ESO was a logical decision and it was even necessary for a country like Spain because Spain is ranked 8th in astrophysical research", said Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo. "The large scientific installations are not only necessary for research in different fields but are also partners and customers for hi-tech companies, helping to increase the funding of R&D." "Spanish Astronomy has made tremendous strides forward and we are delighted to welcome Spain as a new member of ESO. We very much look forward to working together with our excellent Spanish colleagues," said Dr. Cesarsky. "For ESO, the Spanish accession means that we can draw on the scientific and technological competences, some of them unique in Europe, that have been developed in Spain and, of course, for Europe the Spanish membership of ESO is an important milestone in the construction of the European Research Area." ESO PR Photo 05b/06 ESO PR Photo 05b/06 Signature Event in Madrid Indeed, Spain is an important member of the European astronomical community and has developed impressively over the last three decades, reaching maturity with major contributions in virtually all subjects of astronomy. In addition, Spain hosts, operates or owns a number of competitive facilities dedicated to foster astronomical research, among which the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at La Palma, certainly the premier optical

  4. The demosponge Leptomitus cf. L. lineatus, first occurence from the Middle Cambrian of Spain (Murero Formation, Western Iberian Chain)

    OpenAIRE

    García-Bellido, Diego

    2003-01-01

    The Middle Cambrian Murero Formation in the Iberian Chain (NE Spain) has yielded a small collection of softbodied fossils (palaeoscolecid worms, onychophorans, algae), a host of fossils from organisms with mineralized skeletons such as trilobites and brachiopods, and some trace fossils. This paper deals with the description of the only specimen of the demosponge Leptomitus known so far from Spain and its association with the brachiopod Micromitra, showing a probable case of commensalism by th...

  5. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  6. Networking in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Miguel .; Keefer, Alice C.

    1993-01-01

    Spain is a country whose development level falls in the middle ränge within the European Community; in fact, when measured for certain industry and infrastructure indicators, it resembles the industrialized countries of the north more than other southern-tier countries. All analyses coincide in showing that Spain has experienced strong growth in the last decade and this also holds true in the area of library Services. However, libraries are not at a comparative level with the rest of Europe i...

  7. Financing Mental Health Care in Spain: Context and critical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Salvador-Carulla

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Financing and the way in which funds are then allocated are key issues in health policy. They can act as an incentive or barrier to system reform , can prioritise certain types or sectors of care and have long term consequences for the planning and delivery of services. The way in which these issues can impact on the funding of mental health services across Europe has been a key task of the Mental Health Economics European Network. (MHEEN This paper draws on information prepared for MHEEN and provides an analysis of the context and the main issues related to mental health financing in Spain. METHODS: A structured questionnaire developed by the MHEEN group was used to assess the pattern of financing, eligibility and coverage for mental healthcare. In Spain contacts were made with the Mental Health agencies of the 17 Autonomous Communities (ACs, and available mental health plans and annual reports were reviewed. A direct collaboration was set up with four ACs (Madrid, Navarre, Andalusia, Catalonia. RESULTS: In Spain, like many other European countries mental healthcare is an integral part of the general healthcare with universal coverage funded by taxation. Total health expenditure accounted for 7.7% of GDP in 2003 (public health expenditure was 5.6% of GDP. Although the actual percentage expended in mental care is not known and estimates are unreliable, approximately 5% of total health expenditure can be attributed to mental health. Moreover what is often overlooked is that many services have been shifted from the health to the social care sector as part of the reform process. Social care is discretionary, and provides only limited coverage. This level of expenditure also appears low by European standards, accounting for just 0.6% of GDP. COMMENTS: In spite of its policy implications, little is known about mental healthcare financing in Spain. Comparisons of expenditure for mental health across the ACs are problematic, making it

  8. Management of natural resources through automatic cartographic inventory. [Spanish Catalonia and Landes of Gascony (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, P. A.; Gourinard, Y.; Cambou, F. (Principal Investigator); Guyader, J. C.; Gouaux, P.; Letoan, T.; Monchant, M.; Donville, B.; Loubet, D.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results of the ARNICA program (February - December 1973) were: (1) The quantitative processing of ERTS-1 data was developed along two lines: the study of geological structures and lineaments of Spanish Catalonia, and the phytogeographical study of the forest region of the Landes of Gascony (France). In both cases it is shown that the ERTS-1 imagery can be used in establishing zonings of equal quantitative interpretation value. (2) In keeping with the operational transfer program proposed in previous reports between exploration of the imagery and charting of the object, a precise data processing method was developed, concerning more particularly the selection of digital equidensity samples computer display and rigorous referencing.

  9. The productive efficiency of organic farming: the case of grape sector in Catalonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guesmi, B.; Serra, T.; Kallas, Z.; Gil Roig, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    Knowledge about productivity and efficiency differences between conventional and organic farms has important implications for the evaluation of the economic viability of these two agricultural practices. The main purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency ratings of organic and conventional grape farms in Catalonia. To do so, we fit a stochastic production frontier to cross sectional, farm-level data collected from a sample of 141 Catalan farms that specialize in grape growing. Results show that organic farmers, on average, are more efficient than their conventional counterparts (efficiency ratings are on the order of 0.80 and 0.64, respectively). Apart from adoption of organic practices, experience is also found to improve technical efficiency. Conversely, technical efficiency tends to decrease with the relevance of unpaid family labor, farm location in less favored areas, and farmers strong environmental preservation preferences. (Author) 41 refs.

  10. [Social capital and quality of healthcare: the experiences of Brazil and Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Selma Cristina; Hernaez, Angel Martinez

    2013-07-01

    Distinct models of health management reflect the core principles upon which they were founded and their institutional arrangement can lead to the improvement of health policy. This paper seeks to reflect on the potential benefits and limitations of the organizational structure and the social capital to lead to changes in the performance of public health organizations in the quest for enhanced quality of care. The description and analysis of two experiences of universal public health systems, in Catalonia and in Brazil, reveal similarities in the legal basis of both health systems. However, the mode of deployment differed greatly, which gave rise to divergent management experiences. One prioritized managerial organization, while the other concentrated on the importance of the social actors promoting the institutionalization of social capital. It is suggested that models of management with dialogue between an efficient organizational design and citizen participation capable of constructing social capital may lead to change in the organizational culture and enhance the quality of care.

  11. Considerations about gust wind thresholds related to social impact: study of different regions in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberia, Laura; Amaro, Jéssica; Aran, Montserrat; Llasat, Maria del Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Severe weather events can cause several damages on a territory and its population, affecting urban infrastructure and housing, among others. In particular, wind is one of the most important phenomena which cause remarkable economic losses. Since 2008, different studies conducted by the Social Impact Research Group, in the frame of HYMEX project, determined that requests related to damage claims which are received in Meteorological Services are a good proxy indicator of social impact. However, the strong wind studies took into account a unique threshold, which proved to be insufficient. It was found that it was necessary to define a threshold for each area, according to its vulnerability and exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study is to define, for each county in Catalonia, thresholds of gust wind speed for which a remarkable social impact is observed. To accomplish this, the database of requests received in the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) between 2011 and 2015 has been used. For each request, the most representative automatic weather stations are associated. Statistical treatments of the gust wind data recorded by these stations have been carried out in order to determine which values are related to social impact. As an example, one of the first results shows that in a populated area like Barcelona, the average gust is approximately 70 km/h. On the contrary, in other less populated counties and usually more exposed to strong winds, the mean is over 85 km/h. Besides, the relation between gusts and requests has been analyzed to detect significant slope changes. In general, it has been detected an increase of requests at certain gust wind values. These results, which vary depending on the region's vulnerability and exposure, could be used to establish new thresholds for Civil Protection alarms. Therefore, a higher accuracy by region will be reached.

  12. Supported Employment in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Borja, F.; de Urries, Jordan; Bellver, Fernando; Martinez, Salvador

    1998-01-01

    Supported employment is growing in Spain, assisted by models from other countries and national legislation. The Spanish Association of Supported Employment is providing a framework for program development. The field must deal with the lack of systematic evaluation and with funding problems. (SK)

  13. Test Reviewing in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Jose; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose R.; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela; Pena-Suarez, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    The proper use of psychological tests requires that the measurement instruments have adequate psychometric properties, such as reliability and validity, and that the professionals who use the instruments have the necessary expertise. In this article, we present the first review of tests published in Spain, carried out with an assessment model…

  14. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.;

    2014-01-01

    in the culinary area. Nowadays, this is a well-established discipline in Spain, with a number of research groups covering related topics, several companies commercializing appliances and additives worldwide, and renowned international chefs and many restaurants and companies committed to the collaboration...

  15. The Acquisition of English by Immigrant School Learners in Catalonia: Affective Variables and Cross-linguistic Influence

    OpenAIRE

    Ciruela Castillo, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Research on the acquisition of English by immigrants is abundant when it takes place in second language (SL) contexts. However, few studies deal with immigrant learners’ acquisition of English as a foreign language (EFL). In the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia, with a very high rate of immigration, research on language acquisition by immigrant learners has focused on the two official languages, Catalan and Spanish. In contrast to this, the study hereby reported tackles EFL among imm...

  16. From the projected to the transmitted image: the 2.0 construction of tourist destination image and identity in Catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mariné Roig, Estela

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims to explore online projected and perceived images of a tourist destination, to assess their mutual correspondence, and to shed light on the role of online user-generated images in destination image formation. It also seeks to analyse the spatial distribution of image by tourists and the complex image identity issues concerning a destination. To achieve this, online image sources regarding the case study of Catalonia were analysed through massive computerized quantitative conte...

  17. ETIČNE DILEME PODJETNIKA

    OpenAIRE

    Cvek, Tadej

    2010-01-01

    Etika in morala se skozi čas nenehno spreminjata in nekatere stvari, ki so danes nedovoljene, so bile še pred kratkim dovoljene in obratno. Razlog za to so predvsem družbene in kulturne spremembe, ki vodijo do drugačnih pogledov na stvari in okolico. Skladno z razvojem etike in morale, se razvijajo tudi nove etične teorije, ki še ne dosegajo starejših teorij a vendarle pridobivajo na pomembnosti in kdo ve, mogoče jih bodo kdaj v prihodnosti tudi presegle. Za MNP je pomembno, da razlikuje...

  18. Restructuring in SMEs: Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Durán, Jessica; Isusi, Iñigo

    2013-01-01

    Based on information derived from 85 case studies across all EU Member States and other sources, the project outlines the features peculiar to SMEs in their anticipation and management of restructuring, explores the main drivers of change and analyses the factors influencing successful restructuring. It offers some insight into how restructuring impacts on workers and the company itself and sets out several policy pointers for future action. This is the country report for Spain.

  19. Information and education as a basis of risk mitigation for the citizens of Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guamis, J.; Burckhart, K.; Grau, A.

    2009-09-01

    The General Directorate for Civil Protection of the Catalan Government is in charge of the drawing up and validation of plans that identify risk and establish a joint system of response actions to minimize the consequences of damages caused by emergencies. The risks covered are natural (fire, snow, flooding, heat,...) and human (chemical industry, transport of dangerous goods,...) ones. In the special case of flooding, an Emergency Flood Plan for Catalonia (INUNCAT) exists. Its aim is to minimize the effects and damages to people, property or the environment due to floods within the region of Catalonia. In the following, the actions on active prevention currently realized by Civil Protection in this Mediterranean region regarding risk mitigation of flooding are described. Special emphasis is laid on the prevention of risk situations through advanced information and education which aim at diminishing the vulnerability of the population. The preparedness of the population to face a serious flooding depends highly on the level of the citizens’ self-protection. Therefore the collection and dissemination of recommendations on adequate behaviour is crucial. The Catalan Government realizes different activities to foster the understanding and the correct behaviour of the citizens in case of flooding. Informative sessions to target groups, opinion studies, mass media communication and itinerant exhibitions are some of the elements applied to increase social consciousness and mitigate the vulnerability of the population. Among these, sensitization campaigns play a crucial role. A coherent system of information and education is adhered to these campaigns. Informative material (posters, leaflets, web sites) and sessions are part of the activities which are addressed to different social group and aim at rising the population’s awareness on the risk of flooding. Multidisciplinary presentations and expert speeches on adequate behaviour are given to stakeholders in those areas

  20. Kinetic model of a Penning Ne-laser with He-Ne-Ar and Ne-H2 beam plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derzhiev, V.I.; Zhidkov, A.G.; Koval' , A.V.; Iakovlenko, S.I. (Institut Obshchei Fiziki, Moscow (USSR))

    1989-08-01

    A kinetic model of a Penning Ne-laser laser with Ne-He-Ar and Ne-H2 mixtures pumped by an electron beam is developed. Plasma parameters and characteristics of the Ne yellow line emission (585.3 nm) are calculated for both quasi-steady-state and nonsteady-state pumping. Theoretical results agree well with experimental data on lasing for a wide range of durations and densities of the pump current, and mixture pressures and compositions. 13 refs.

  1. The social impact of the snowfall of 8 March 2010 in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, J.; Llasat, M. C.; Aran, M.

    2010-09-01

    The snowfall of 8 March 2010 affected almost all Catalonia, but especially the northeast where snow thickness was between 20 and 30 cm, locally with higher values up to 60 cm. Strong winds followed the event, exceeding 90 km/h in some places. As a result, infrastructures and public services, also private properties were damaged. Thousands of people were left stranded by the circulatory collapse, suspensions of railway service and by falling branches or trees on road infrastructures blocking accesses to residential areas. The regional government approved funds of 21.4 millions of Euros to mitigate the damage caused by this event, mainly invested in forest cleanup operations and in repairing road damage. The social impact of this event has been so high that 210 news have been published in a newspaper until 23 April, 190 of them during the month of March. From the study of the characteristics of this episode it can be stated that in the coast and pre-costal area, temperature at the same moment of precipitation was between 0ºC and 2ºC and humidity was high. In these zones, the type of precipitation was wet snow. It has to be considered that the combination of wet snow and wind can be a risk because of the ice-weight accumulated on objects (trees, electricity pylons...). As a consequence important damage happened in power network with significant collateral effects and more than 450,000 customers were affected by a power outage during some days. In this study we will compare the consequences of this event with others by means of information published in press. As a result, some set of consequences that are repeated regardless of the magnitude of the phenomenon will be identified. Finally, this event is also an example of the incision of social networks. This snowfall has been classified by mass media as the first "snowfall 2.0": 81600 entrances in Google, 132 Facebook groups and 750 videos made by amateurs in internet. From this study, we will present some reflexions

  2. Laboratory-based surveillance of hospital-acquired catheter-related bloodstream infections in Catalonia. Results of the VINCat Program (2007-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirante, Benito; Limón, Enric; Freixas, Núria; Gudiol, F

    2012-06-01

    The VINCat Program is an institutional surveillance program for hospital-acquired infections developed in the healthcare institutions of Catalonia, Spain. The program includes the monitoring of various components of hospital-acquired infection, among which is catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of CRBSI in hospitals participating in the VINCat Program over a period of 4 years (2007-2010). The monitoring of the CRBSI component is carried out continuously in all inpatient units by performing a daily assessment of all blood culture results issued by the Microbiology Laboratories. Precise definitions are used for CRBSI, and adjusted rates are expressed per 1,000 days of hospitalization, hospital size and type of catheter. The rates of CRBSI in catheters used for parenteral nutrition are adjusted and expressed per 1,000 days of device use. The aggregate data of the total period are shown in percentiles (10%, 25%, 50% or median, 75%, and 90%). From 2007 to 2010, a total of 2977 episodes of CRBSI were reported in 40 hospitals participating in the VINCat Program. The cumulative incidence of CRBSI has been 0.26 episodes per 1,000 days of hospitalization (CI95% 0.2 to 0.3). The overall incidence varied depending on hospital size: 0.36 ‰ for hospitals in Group I (>500 beds), 0.17 ‰ for Group II (200-500 beds), and 0.09 ‰ for Group III (catheters (CVC), 19% of the episodes with peripheral venous catheters (PVC), and the remaining 5% with peripherally inserted CVCs (PICC). The most common organisms causing CRBSI were staphylococci, the group Klebsiella, Serratia and Enterobacter, Candida spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There are important differences in the etiology of CRBSI in relation to these variables. During the reporting period, a significant reduction (38.1%, CI95%, 29.0-46.0%) of CRBSI rates have been observed in Group I hospitals. CRBSI surveillance is an important element of the VINCat Program

  3. Liver transplantation in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, Gloria; Fondevila, Constantino; Navasa, Miquel

    2016-09-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) activity started in Spain in 1984 and has exceeded 23,700 interventions, with more than 1000 transplants performed yearly. Every hospital needs official authorization to perform a LT, which implies the obligation to register all patients on the national waiting list. The Spanish National Transplant Organization (ONT) provides essential support for organ procurement, allocation, and management of the waiting list at a national level. Liver allocation is center-oriented as all available organs are referred to the ONT for the whole country. The allocation rules for LT are made according to disease severity after consensus among professionals from every transplant center and ratified by representatives of the regional health authorities. Authorization and location/distribution of transplant centers are regulated by the country (Spain) and by the different regions according to the Real Decreto 1723/2012. For a total population of 47,850,795 inhabitants, there are 24 centers for LT for adults (1 team/2 million people) and 5 for LT for children (1 team/9.5 million people). Nonbiliary cirrhosis, particularly alcohol- and hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis (60%), and tumors, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma (19%), are the most common indications for LT in Spain. Unusual causes of LT include metabolic diseases like Wilson's disease, familial amyloid polyneuropathy and hyperoxaluria type I, polycystic kidney and liver disease, and some tumors (epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and neuroendocrine tumors). Important efforts are now being undertaken to improve the quality and transplantability of extended criteria livers, in particular those arising from DCD, which represent the greatest opportunity to expand the donor pool. These efforts have to be addressed to adapt the organ preservation procedures, be it through the application of regional perfusion in situ or the use of machine perfusion preservation ex situ. Liver Transplantation 22 1259-1264 2016

  4. Measuring deprivation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Mayo, Jesus

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the deprivation in Spain based on ECHP data for 1996. Usually, an indirect approach for measuring deprivation or poverty is used with poverty lines. That is, income is used as a proxy for analysing living conditions. However, some studies have used a direct approach to measure deprivation or poverty (Townsend 1988, Mayer and Jencks 1988, Muffels 1993, Callan et al 1993, Dirven and Fouarge 1995, Layte et al 1999, Whelan et al 2000). The aim of this paper is improving the id...

  5. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.)

  6. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  7. OBLIKOVANJE TURISTIČNE DESTINACIJE

    OpenAIRE

    Debevec, Iztok

    2009-01-01

    Diplomska naloga obravnava oblikovanje turistične destinacije »Kamnik«. Razdeljena je na pet poglavij. V uvodu opredeljujemo problem, namen, cilje in osnovne trditve ter predpostavke in omejitve pri raziskavi in uporabljene raziskovalne metode. V drugem poglavju smo predstavili osnovne pojme v turizmu, katerih poznavanje je pomembno za pripravo in obravnavo teme diplomske naloge. Večjo pozornost pri predstavitvi osnovnih pojmov smo namenili turistični destinaciji, integralni turistični st...

  8. KRONIČNE RANE KAO JAVNOZDRAVSTVENI PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Šitum, Mirna; KOLIĆ, MAJA; REDŽEPI, GZIM; Antolić, Slavko

    2014-01-01

    Kronične rane su ogroman teret bolesnicima, medicinskom osoblju ali i cjelokupnom zdravstvenom sustavu. Kronične rane su rane koje ne zarastaju unutar predviđenog razdoblja u korelaciji s etiologijom i lokalizacijom rane, a u najkraćem razdoblju od 6 tjedana. U 95 % slučajeva javljaju se ishemijske rane, neuropatski ulkus, venski ulkus te dekubitus i dijabetičko stopalo. Kronične rane na potkoljenicama u oko 80 % slučajeva posljedica su kronične venske insuficijencije, u 5-10 % su arterijske ...

  9. The NeXT Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, T; Mitsuda, K; Kunieda, H; Petre, R; White, N; Dotani, T; Fujimoto, R; Fukazawa, Y; Hayashida, K; Ishida, M; Ishisaki, Y; Kokubun, M; Makishima, K; Koyama, K; Madejski, G M; Mori, K; Mushotzky, R; Nakazawa, K; Ogasaka, Y; Ohashi, T; Ozaki, M; Tajima, H; Tashiro, M; Terada, Y; Tsunemi, H; Tsuru, T G; Ueda, Y; Yamasaki, N; Watanabe, S

    2008-01-01

    The NeXT (New exploration X-ray Telescope), the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission which is currently planed for launch in 2013. NeXT is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by multi-layer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector. With these instruments, NeXT covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. The micro-calorimeter system will be developed by international collaboration lead by ISAS/JAXA and NASA. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral resolution of Delta E ~ 7 eV by the micro-calorimeter will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued.

  10. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  11. Adoption of web databases for document management in SMEs of the construction sector in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Forcada Matheu, Núria; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Roca Ramon, Xavier; Gangolells Solanellas, Marta

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a web-based tool designed to improve internal and external document management for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) sector. For each specific project, the system creates an organisational document structure to be downloaded to the stakeholders’ PCs or servers and also to the web-based project management system (WPMS) that is being used to manage the entire project. A survey was conducted in Spain to define ne...

  12. The striking geographical pattern of gastric cancer mortality in Spain: environmental hypotheses revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramis Rebeca

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric cancer is decreasing in most countries. While socioeconomic development is the main factor to which this decline has been attributed, enormous differences among countries and within regions are still observed, with the main contributing factors remaining elusive. This study describes the geographic distribution of gastric cancer mortality at a municipal level in Spain, from 1994-2003. Methods Smoothed relative risks of stomach cancer mortality were obtained, using the Besag-York-Molliè autoregressive spatial model. Maps depicting relative risk (RR estimates and posterior probabilities of RR being greater than 1 were plotted. Results From 1994-2003, 62184 gastric cancer deaths were registered in Spain (7 percent of all deaths due to malignant tumors. The geographic pattern was similar for both sexes. RRs displayed a south-north and coast-inland gradient, with lower risks being observed in Andalusia, the Mediterranean coastline, the Balearic and Canary Islands and the Cantabrian seaboard. The highest risk was concentrated along the west coast of Galicia, broad areas of the Castile & Leon Autonomous community, the province of Cáceres in Extremadura, Lleida and other areas of Catalonia. Conclusion In Spain, risk of gastric cancer mortality displays a striking geographic distribution. With some differences, this persistent and unique pattern is similar across the sexes, suggesting the implication of environmental exposures from sources, such as diet or ground water, which could affect both sexes and delimited geographic areas. Also, the higher sex-ratios found in some areas with high risk of smoking-related cancer mortality in males support the role of tobacco in gastric cancer etiology.

  13. Analysing surface runoff and erosion responses to different land uses from the NE of Iberian Peninsula through rainfall simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regüés, David; Arnáez, José; Badía, David; Cerdà, Artemi; Echeverría, María Teresa; Gispert, María; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Lasanta, Teodoro; León, Javier; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Pardini, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall simulation experiments are being used by soil scientists, geomorphologists, and hydrologist to study runoff generation and erosion processes. The use of different apparatus with different rainfall intensities and size of the wetted area contribute to determine the most vulnerable soils and land uses (Cerdá, 1998; Cerdà et al., 2009; Nadal-Romero et al., 2011; Martínez-Murillo et al., 2013; León et al., 2014). This research aims to determine the land uses that yield more sediments and water and to know the factors that control the differences. The information from 152 experiments of rainfall simulation was jointly analysed. Experiments were done in 17 land uses (natural forest, tree plantation, burned forest, scrub, meadows, crops and badlands), with contrasted exposition (north-south), and vegetation cover variety and/or density. These situations were selected from four geographic contexts (NE of Catalonia, high and medium lands from the Ebro valley and Southern range of central Pyrenees) with significant altitude variations, between 90 and 1000 meters above sea level, which represent the heterogeneity of the Mediterranean climate. The use of similar rainfall simulation apparatus, with the same spray nozzle, spraying components and plot size, favours the comparison of the results. A wide spectrum of precipitation intensities was applied, in order to reach surface runoff generation in all cases. Results showed significant differences in runoff amounts and erosion rates, which were mainly associated with land uses, even more than precipitation differences. Runoff coefficient shows an inversed exponential relationship with rainfall intensity, which is the opposite what could be previously expected (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013). This may be only justified by land use characteristics because a direct effect between runoff generation intensity and soil degradation conditions, with respect vegetation covers features and density, was observed. In fact, even though

  14. [The transformation of the healthcare model in Catalonia to improve the quality of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrosa, Josep Maria; Guarga, Àlex; Brosa, Francesc; Jiménez, Josep; Robert, Roger

    2015-11-01

    The changes taking place in western countries require health systems to adapt to the public's evolving needs and expectations. The healthcare model in Catalonia is undergoing significant transformation in order to provide an adequate response to this new situation while ensuring the system's sustainability in the current climate of economic crisis. This transformation is based on converting the current disease-centred model which is fragmented into different levels, to a more patient-centred integrated and territorial care model that promotes the use of a shared network of the different specialities, the professionals, resources and levels of care, entering into territorial agreements and pacts which stipulate joint goals or objectives. The changes the Catalan Health Service (CatSalut) has undergone are principally focused on increasing resolution capacity of the primary level of care, eliminating differences in clinical practice, evolving towards more surgery-centred hospitals, promoting alternatives to conventional hospitalization, developing remote care models, concentrating and organizing highly complex care into different sectors at a territorial level and designing specific health codes in response to health emergencies. The purpose of these initiatives is to improve the effectiveness, quality, safety and efficiency of the system, ensuring equal access for the public to these services and ensuring a territorial balance. These changes should be facilitated and promoted using several different approaches, including implementing shared access to clinical history case files, the new model of results-based contracting and payment, territorial agreements, alliances between centres, harnessing the potential of information and communications technology and evaluation of results. PMID:26711056

  15. [The transformation of the healthcare model in Catalonia to improve the quality of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrosa, Josep Maria; Guarga, Àlex; Brosa, Francesc; Jiménez, Josep; Robert, Roger

    2015-11-01

    The changes taking place in western countries require health systems to adapt to the public's evolving needs and expectations. The healthcare model in Catalonia is undergoing significant transformation in order to provide an adequate response to this new situation while ensuring the system's sustainability in the current climate of economic crisis. This transformation is based on converting the current disease-centred model which is fragmented into different levels, to a more patient-centred integrated and territorial care model that promotes the use of a shared network of the different specialities, the professionals, resources and levels of care, entering into territorial agreements and pacts which stipulate joint goals or objectives. The changes the Catalan Health Service (CatSalut) has undergone are principally focused on increasing resolution capacity of the primary level of care, eliminating differences in clinical practice, evolving towards more surgery-centred hospitals, promoting alternatives to conventional hospitalization, developing remote care models, concentrating and organizing highly complex care into different sectors at a territorial level and designing specific health codes in response to health emergencies. The purpose of these initiatives is to improve the effectiveness, quality, safety and efficiency of the system, ensuring equal access for the public to these services and ensuring a territorial balance. These changes should be facilitated and promoted using several different approaches, including implementing shared access to clinical history case files, the new model of results-based contracting and payment, territorial agreements, alliances between centres, harnessing the potential of information and communications technology and evaluation of results.

  16. [Physicians and continuing medical education. The results of a survey carried out in Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardell Alenta, H; Ramos Torre, A; Salto Cerezuela, E; Tresserras Gaju, R

    1995-04-01

    In order to learn about opinions, behaviours and needs of continuing medical education (CME), a telephone survey was carried out with a random sample of 1,001 physicians of Catalonia. Books and journals (67.7%; IC: 64.8-70.6) are the most frequent training methods used, much more than the courses and seminars (11.5%; IC: 9.5-13.5)--which are used more often by generalists than specialists--and clinical sessions (9.2%; IC 6.6-12.4). A high proportion (59.2%; IC: 56.1-62.2) do CME out of their workplace, specially general practitioners (66%; IC: 61.5-70.5). Most participants (74.7%; IC: 72.0-77.4) consider that the main objective of CME is to increase their level of knowledge. Those who argue that CME should not be mandatory are mainly general practitioners (58.9%; IC: 54.2-63.6) of which a significant number work in private practice (63.5%; IC: 60.5-66.5). 64.7% (IC: 61.8-67.7) are in favour of cost-free CME. The majority, 80% (IC: 77.4-82.4) believe that CME has to be included in the work timetable: of the physicians who support this point, the majority work in hospitals while only a few work in private practice. Some of the achieved findings could be explained by generational, training and work place differences; as well as the increasing bureaucratic elements in the profession. PMID:7620061

  17. Information and education as a basis of risk mitigation for the citizens of Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guamis, J.; Burckhart, K.; Grau, A.

    2009-09-01

    The General Directorate for Civil Protection of the Catalan Government is in charge of the drawing up and validation of plans that identify risk and establish a joint system of response actions to minimize the consequences of damages caused by emergencies. The risks covered are natural (fire, snow, flooding, heat,...) and human (chemical industry, transport of dangerous goods,...) ones. In the special case of flooding, an Emergency Flood Plan for Catalonia (INUNCAT) exists. Its aim is to minimize the effects and damages to people, property or the environment due to floods within the region of Catalonia. In the following, the actions on active prevention currently realized by Civil Protection in this Mediterranean region regarding risk mitigation of flooding are described. Special emphasis is laid on the prevention of risk situations through advanced information and education which aim at diminishing the vulnerability of the population. The preparedness of the population to face a serious flooding depends highly on the level of the citizens’ self-protection. Therefore the collection and dissemination of recommendations on adequate behaviour is crucial. The Catalan Government realizes different activities to foster the understanding and the correct behaviour of the citizens in case of flooding. Informative sessions to target groups, opinion studies, mass media communication and itinerant exhibitions are some of the elements applied to increase social consciousness and mitigate the vulnerability of the population. Among these, sensitization campaigns play a crucial role. A coherent system of information and education is adhered to these campaigns. Informative material (posters, leaflets, web sites) and sessions are part of the activities which are addressed to different social group and aim at rising the population’s awareness on the risk of flooding. Multidisciplinary presentations and expert speeches on adequate behaviour are given to stakeholders in those areas

  18. OBLIKOVANJE ETAŽNE LASTNINE

    OpenAIRE

    Štampalija, Nuša

    2014-01-01

    Etažna lastnina je najpomembnejša in najmnožičnejša lastninska oblika. Opredeljena je kot lastninska pravica na posameznem delu zgradbe in solastninska pravica na skupnih delih. Kot lastnina na posameznem delu zgradbe predstavlja izjemo od načela "superficies solo cedit" in načela specialnosti. Da se na zgradbi lahko oblikuje etažna lastnina, mora biti mogoče oblikovati posamezne dele zgradbe kot samostojne funkcionalne celote, primerne za samostojno uporabo. Oblikovanje etažne lastnine k...

  19. SPAIN: FROM IMMIGRATION TO EMIGRATION?

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Izquierdo; Juan F. Jimeno; Aitor Lacuesta

    2015-01-01

    Since the start of the Great Recession the unemployment rate in Spain has risen by almost 18 percentage points. The unemployment crisis is affecting all population groups, including the more highly educated; but it is even more acute for the foreign population, whose unemployment rate is close to 40%. This situation follows a period of very high immigration flows (1995-2007) that set the number of foreigners living in Spain at 11% of the population. This paper documents the characteristics of...

  20. First China-Spain Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The first China-Spain Forum was held in Beijing from December 18 to 19, 2003. President HuJintao expressed his congratulations on the successful convening of the Forum.Opening Session of First China-Spain ForumThe theme of the first Forum was: 30 years of Sino-Spanish diplomatic ties from lack of understanding to cooperation for a common future-

  1. Multifactorial control and treatment intensity of type-2 diabetes in primary care settings in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montasell Montserrat

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies on diabetes have demonstrated that an intensive control of glycaemia and the main associated risk factors (hypertension, dislipidaemia, obesity and smoking reduce cardiovascular morbi-mortality. Different scientific societies have proposed a multifactorial approach to type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify the degree of control of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c and of cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients, using the GedapS 2004 guidelines, and to analyse the type and intensity of drug treatment. Methods This cross-sectional, multicentre, epidemiological study was conducted in a primary care setting in Vallès Occidental South, Catalonia. Data were collected of 393 patients aged 18 and above who were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2. Biodemographic and clinical data, cardiovascular risk factors, associated cardiovascular disease, and treatment were assessed. Descriptive and multivariable analysis with logistic regression was realized. Results A total of 392 patients with a mean age of 66.8 years (SD = 10.6 (45.4% male patients were analyzed. The duration of diabetes was 8.4 years (SD = 7.6. The degree of multifactorial control of risk factors was only 2.6%, although in more than 50% individual cardiovascular risk factor was controlled, except for LDL cholesterol (40.6% and systolic blood pressure (29.6%. Furthermore, only 13.0% of subjects had an optimal BMI, 27.5% an optimal waist circumference. Treatment for diabetes was prescribed in 82.7% of patients, for hypertension 70.7%, for dyslipidaemia 47.2% and 40.1% were taking antiplatelets. Conclusion Over 50% of type 2 diabetic patients presented optimal control of the majority of individual cardiovascular risk factors, although the degree of multifactorial control of diabetes was insufficient (2.6% and should be improved. Drug treatment can be intensified using a larger number of combinations, particularly in

  2. The Rodent assemblages from the late Aragonian and the Vallesian (middle to late Miocene) of the Vallès-Penedès basin (Catalonia, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Casanovas i Vilar, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada La conca del Vallès-Penedès es una àrea clau per a l'estudi de les successions de mamífers del Miocè europeu, donat que el seu abundant registre cobreix gairebé la totalitat d'aquest període. Recentment, degut a les obres d'ampliació de l'Abocador de Can Mata (ACM), al terme municipal de Els Hostalets de Pierola (l'Anoia, Barcelona), el nombre de jaciments coneguts de micro- i macromamífers s'ha duplicat. L'estudi de les...

  3. The puzzling distribution of Heteromurus (Verhoeffiella) absoloni Kseneman, 1938 (Collembola: Entomobryidae: Heteromurinae) resolved: detailed redescription of the nominal species and description of a new species from Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Marko; Porco, David; Bedos, Anne; Deharveng, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The species Heteromurus (Verhoeffiella) absoloni Kseneman, 1938 is redescribed in detail and characterized by its barcode, based on specimens from its type locality in Montenegro. A neotype is designated. Dorsal S-chaetotaxy is given for the first time in the subgenus Verhoeffiella. Chaeta morphology and distribution are thoroughly analyzed, in particular on antennae where 12 chaetal types are recognized. Several morphological features are newly described for the genus and for Heteromurinae. The widely disjunct distribution of the species is approached through morphological and molecular comparison of specimens from the type locality in Montenegro and from the Catalan population. We established that this last record is a new species described here as  Heteromurus (Verhoeffiella) gamae sp. nov. New combination is proposed Heteromurus (Verhoeffiella) constantinellus (Ćurčić & Lučić in Lučić, Ćurčić & Mitić 2007) comb. nov. A table of all species of the subgenus is provided. The taxonomic status of Verhoeffiella and the problems of species discriminations in the subgenus are discussed. PMID:26624478

  4. Diet composition of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in the Natural Park of the Garrotxa volcanic zone (Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé, J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work outlines the results of a study on the food consumed by roe deer carried out in the Natural Park of the Garrotxa Volcanic Zone, where 49 roe deer were reintroduced from 1995 to 1998. This is a protected area of about 12,000 ha, in which oak and beech forests predominate. Faecal analysis was chosen as the most appropriate method for sampling diet composition despite the scarcity of faecal samples encountered from 1998 to 2001 (n=30. A total of 7,500 epidermal fragments were identified from these samples. Results showed that ivy (Hedera helix and bramble (Rubus sp. formed the bulk of the diet (23% and 21%, respectively. Woody species also formed an important part, reaching 33% of total fragments. Herbs and grasses were only notable in the spring-summer period. Some major vegetation components such as beech (Fagus sylvatica were rarely consumed by deer.

    [fr]
    Voici le résultat d'une étude sur l'alimentation du chevreuil dans le Parc Naturel de la Zone Volcanique de la Garrotxa, où 49 individus furent introduits entre 1995 et 1998. Il s'agit d'un espace protégé de 12 000 ha environ, dominé par les forêts de chênes et de hêtres. Malgré le nombre très bas d'excréments rencontrés entre 1998 et 2001 (n=30, leur analyse nous a paru la meilleure méthode pour tester la composition de l'alimentation. À partir de ces échantillons, nous avons identifié 7 500 fragments d'épiderme. Les résultats nous montrent que le lierre (Hedera helix et la ronce (Rubus sp. sont l'alimentation principale (23 et 21% respectivement. Toutefois, les espèces ligneuses sont également à considérer, puisqu'elles forment 33% des fragments totaux. Les herbes et les graminées s'avèrent importantes au cours du printemps-été. Il est à noter que les principaux composants de la végétation tel le hêtre (Fagus sylvatica étaient très rarement consommés.
    [es]
    Se exponen los resultados de un estudio de la alimentación del corzo llevado a cabo en el Parque Natural de la Zona Volcánica de la Garrotxa, donde 49 corzos fueron reintroducidos desde 1995 hasta 1998. Este área protegida comprende unas 12.000 ha con predominio de bosques de roble y haya. El análisis de heces fue considerado como el método más apropiado para determinar la composición de la dieta, a pesar de la escasez de muestras fecales halladas desde 1998 a 2001 (n=30. A partir de dichas muestras fueron identificados un total de 7.500 fragmentos epidérmicos. Los resultados muestran que la hiedra (Hedera helix y la zarza (Rubus sp. forman el grueso de la dieta (23% y 21%, respectivamente. Las especies leñosas forman también una parte importante, alcanzando el 33% del total de los fragmentos epidérmicos. Las herbáceas sólo fueron importantes en el periodo primavera-verano. Algunos componentes mayoritarios de la vegetación, como el haya (Fagus sylvatica, fueron raramente consumidos.

  5. Diet composition of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in the Natural Park of the Garrotxa volcanic zone (Catalonia, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolomé, J.; Rosell, C. (Carlos); Bassols, E.

    2002-01-01

    The present work outlines the results of a study on the food consumed by roe deer carried out in the Natural Park of the Garrotxa Volcanic Zone, where 49 roe deer were reintroduced from 1995 to 1998. This is a protected area of about 12,000 ha, in which oak and beech forests predominate. Faecal analysis was chosen as the most appropriate method for sampling diet composition despite the scarcity of faecal samples encountered from 1998 to 2001 (n=30). A total of 7,500 epidermal fragments were i...

  6. Analyzing Beach Recreationists’ Preferences for the Reduction of Jellyfish Blooms: Economic Results from a Stated-Choice Experiment in Catalonia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Loureiro, Maria L.; Piñol, Laia; Sastre, Sergio; Voltaire, Louinord; Canepa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish outbreaks and their consequences appear to be on the increase around the world, and are becoming particularly relevant in the Mediterranean. No previous studies have quantified tourism losses caused by jellyfish outbreaks. We used a stated-choice questionnaire and a Random Utility Model to estimate the amount of time respondents would be willing to add to their journey, in terms of reported extra travel time, in order to reduce the risk of encountering jellyfish blooms in the Catalan coast. The estimation results indicated that the respondents were willing to spend on average an additional 23.8% of their travel time to enjoy beach recreation in areas with a lower risk of jellyfish blooms. Using as a reference the opportunity cost of time, we found that the subsample of individuals who made a trade-off between the disutility generated by travelling longer in order to lower the risk of jellyfish blooms, and the utility gained from reducing this risk, are willing to pay on average €3.20 per beach visit. This estimate, combined with the respondents’ mean income, yielded annual economic gains associated with reduction of jellyfish blooms on the Catalan coast around €422.57 million, or about 11.95% of the tourism expenditures in 2012. From a policy-making perspective, this study confirms the importance of the economic impacts of jellyfish blooms and the need for mitigation strategies. In particular, providing daily information using social media applications or other technical devices may reduce these social costs. The current lack of knowledge about jellyfish suggests that providing this information to beach recreationists may be a substantially effective policy instrument for minimising the impact of jellyfish blooms. PMID:26053674

  7. Analyzing Beach Recreationists' Preferences for the Reduction of Jellyfish Blooms: Economic Results from a Stated-Choice Experiment in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paulo A L D; Loureiro, Maria L; Piñol, Laia; Sastre, Sergio; Voltaire, Louinord; Canepa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish outbreaks and their consequences appear to be on the increase around the world, and are becoming particularly relevant in the Mediterranean. No previous studies have quantified tourism losses caused by jellyfish outbreaks. We used a stated-choice questionnaire and a Random Utility Model to estimate the amount of time respondents would be willing to add to their journey, in terms of reported extra travel time, in order to reduce the risk of encountering jellyfish blooms in the Catalan coast. The estimation results indicated that the respondents were willing to spend on average an additional 23.8% of their travel time to enjoy beach recreation in areas with a lower risk of jellyfish blooms. Using as a reference the opportunity cost of time, we found that the subsample of individuals who made a trade-off between the disutility generated by travelling longer in order to lower the risk of jellyfish blooms, and the utility gained from reducing this risk, are willing to pay on average €3.20 per beach visit. This estimate, combined with the respondents' mean income, yielded annual economic gains associated with reduction of jellyfish blooms on the Catalan coast around €422.57 million, or about 11.95% of the tourism expenditures in 2012. From a policy-making perspective, this study confirms the importance of the economic impacts of jellyfish blooms and the need for mitigation strategies. In particular, providing daily information using social media applications or other technical devices may reduce these social costs. The current lack of knowledge about jellyfish suggests that providing this information to beach recreationists may be a substantially effective policy instrument for minimising the impact of jellyfish blooms. PMID:26053674

  8. Notion de gène candidat

    OpenAIRE

    Milan, Denis

    2000-01-01

    Lorsque l’analyse de performances permet de montrer qu’un gène gouverne une part importante de la variabilité d’un caractère, diverses approches sont possibles pour l’identifier : l’étude de candidats physiologiques afin d’identifier le gène recherché parmi les gènes connus intervenant dans ce caractère ; la cartographie fine de la région pour déterminer très précisément la position du gène recherché, jusqu’à ne plus trouver qu’un seul gène à cet endroit (démarche de clonage positionnel). Le ...

  9. Language & authoritarianism in the 20th century: The cases of Estonia and Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaney Michael Skerrett

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century saw the Soviet and Francoist regimes enforce their respective ideologies in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking territories in Spain. In both cases, the autochthonous language suffered under the stringent control of the mechanisms of censorship and repression. In fact, Soviet and Spanish leaders—representing both extremes of the political spectrum—tried to replace the use of the autochthonous language in many sociolinguistic domains with their own—Russian and (Castilian Spanish—as these languages embodied the ideologies and the new orders that they wished to establish. This paper compares and contrasts the diverse methods of control over language carried out in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking areas of Spain in order to demonstrate that highly centralised multilingual states—whatever their political ideology—can make use of surprisingly similar means of control, ultimately depriving local linguistic communities of the ability to use and develop their own language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.16

  10. The Effects of Training on the Competitive Economic Advantage of Companies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz Marin-Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for factors that lead to competitive advantage in a company in relation to its competitors is a widely debated subject; a wide range of issues have been examined to determine which factors are the most influential. The aim of this paper is to study training effect on business results (particularly on firm’s financial turnover. For the present research, the classical model of Industrial Economy as a frame of reference has been used. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire sent to 381 large organizations in Catalonia (Spain during 2009 and 2010. The empirical section of the present article was developed using structural equation modeling (SEM. Results relate training to company’s financial turnover in a positive way. The General Expenditure and Costs is the variable that most contributes to the explanation of firms’ financial turnover. The Organization of Training variable is the second most important construct to account for financial turnover However, training is required to be well organized as well as properly financed.

  11. Issues in System Boundary Definition for Substance Flow Analysis: The Case of Nitrogen Cycle Management in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Bartrola

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The great complexity of the nitrogen cycle, including anthropogenic contributions, makes it necessary to carry out local studies, which allow us to identify the specific cause-effect links in a particular society. Models of local societies that are based on methods such as Substance Flow Analysis (SFA, which study and characterise the performance of metabolic exchanges between human society and the environment, are a useful tools for directing local policy towards sustainable management of the nitrogen cycle. In this paper, the selection of geographical boundaries for SFA application is discussed. Data availability and accuracy, and the possibility of linking the results with instructions for decision making, are critical aspects for proper scale selection. The experience obtained in the construction of the model for Catalonia is used to draw attention to the difficulties found in regional studies.

  12. Groundwater crustaceans of Spain, 13 (Copepoda Calanoida)

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Two calanoid copepods were collected from groundwaters in Spain by the University of Amsterdam Expeditions in 1983—84 and 1985. Copidodiaptomus numidicus was found in southwestern Spain, in provincias Huelva and Sevilla. Mixodiaptomus laciniatus, previously known in Spain only from the Pyrenees, was collected in the Cantabrian Mountains.

  13. An analysis of the evolution of hydrometeorological extremes in newspapers: the case of Catalonia, 1982–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Altava-Ortiz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution analyzes the evolution of perception of certain natural hazards over the past 25 years in a Mediterranean region. Articles from newspapers have been used as indicator. To this end a specific Spanish journal has been considered and an ACCESS database has been created with the summarized information from each news item. The database includes data such as the location of each specific article in the newspaper, its length, the number of pictures and figures, the headlines and a summary of the published information, including all the instrumental data. The study focused on hydrometeorological extremes, mainly floods and droughts, in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula. The number of headlines per event, trends and other data have been analyzed and compared with "measured" information, in order to identify any bias that could lead to an erroneous perception of the phenomenon. The SPI index (a drought index based on standardized accumulated precipitation has been calculated for the entire region, and has been used for the drought analysis, while a geodatabase implemented on a GIS built for all the floods recorded in Catalonia since 1900 (INUNGAMA has been used to analyze flood evolution. Results from a questionnaire about the impact of natural hazards in two specific places have been also used to discuss the various perceptions between rural and urban settings. Results show a better correlation between the news about drought or water scarcity and SPI than between news on floods in Catalonia and the INUNGAMA database. A positive trend has been found for non-catastrophic floods, which is explained by decrease of the perception thresholds, the increase of population density in the most flood-prone areas and changes in land use.

  14. Proces oblikovanja električne kitare

    OpenAIRE

    Zorič, Anton

    2016-01-01

    V magistrskem delu je podan pristop oziroma proces inženirskega oblikovanja električne kitare: izbira oziroma zasnova telesa kitare, izbira materiala za telo kitare, odločitev, ali bo telo trdno ali votlo, izbira stila telesa kitare, izbira materiala za vrat kitare, izbira elektronike za kitaro, določitev načina končne izdelave kitare, določitev skale kitare, določitev vratu kitare, določitev oblike glave vratu kitare, določitev mehanskih delov kitare, določitev končne obdelave ter barvanje i...

  15. Railway deformation detected by DInSAR over active sinkholes in the Ebro Valley evaporite karst, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    J. P. Galve; Castañeda, C.; Gutiérrez, F.

    2015-01-01

    Previously not measured subsidence on railway tracks was detected using DInSAR displacement maps produced for the central sector of Ebro Valley (NE Spain). This area is affected by evaporite karst and the analyzed railway corridors traverse active sinkholes that produce deformations in these infrastructures. One of the railway tracks affected by slight settlements corresponds to the Madrid–Barcelona high-speed line, a transport infrastruc...

  16. Railway deformation detected by DInSAR over active sinkholes in the Ebro Valley evaporite karst, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    J. P. Galve; Castañeda, C.; Gutiérrez, F.

    2015-01-01

    Subsidence was measured for the first time on railway tracks in the central sector of Ebro Valley (NE Spain) using Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques. This area is affected by evaporite karst and the analysed railway corridors traverse active sinkholes that produce deformations in these infrastructures. One of the railway tracks affected by slight settlements is the Madrid–Barcelona high-speed line, a form of transport infrastructure hig...

  17. Intrinsic Factors Influencing the Infection by Helminth Parasites in Horses under an Oceanic Climate Area (NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    I. Francisco; Arias, M.; Cortiñas, F. J.; R. Francisco; E. Mochales; Dacal, V.; J. L. Suárez; Uriarte, J.; Morrondo, P.; Sánchez-Andrade, R.; P. Díez-Baños; Paz-Silva, A.

    2009-01-01

    A coprological survey to determine the influence of some intrinsic factors (breed, age, and sex) on the infection by helminth parasites in equine livestock (n = 418) under an oceanic climate area (NW Spain) was conducted. Faecal samples were individually collected and analyzed by the coprological techniques. The main strongylid genera identified were Trichonema and Cyalocephalus spp (small strongyles) and Strongylus and Triodontophorus (large strongyles). The prevalence of gastrointestinal ne...

  18. Assessment of PM10 and heavy metals concentration in a Ceramic Cluster (NE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Fortea, Ana Belén; Pardo Fabregat, Francisco; Sanfeliu Montolio, Teófilo; Bech, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution control is one of the most important goals in pollution risk assessment today. The aim of this study is conducting a retrospective view of the evolution of particulate matter (PM10) and heavy metals (As, Cd, Ni and Pb) at different localities in the Spanish cluster ceramic in the period between January 2007 and December 2011. The study area is in the province of Castellón. This province is a strategical area in the framework of European Union Pollution cont...

  19. A combined quality-control methodology in Ebro Delta (NE Spain) high frequency radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, P.; Piedracoba, S.; Soto-Navarro, J.; Alvarez-Fanjul, E.

    2015-08-01

    Ebro River Delta is a relevant marine protected area in the western Mediterranean. In order to promote the conservation of its ecosystem and support operational decision making in this sensitive area, a three site standard-range (13.5 MHz) CODAR SeaSonde High Frequency (HF) radar was deployed in 2013. Since there is a growing demand for reliable HF radar surface current measurements, the main goal of this work is to present a combined quality control methodology. Firstly, one year-long (2014) real-time web monitoring of nonvelocity-based diagnostic parameters is conducted in order to infer both radar site status and HF radar system performance. Signal-to-noise ratio at the monopole exhibited a consistent monthly evolution although some abrupt decreases (below 10 dB), occasionally detected in June for one of the radar sites, impacted negatively on the spatiotemporal coverage of total current vectors. It seemed to be a sporadic episode since radar site overall performance was found to be robust during 2014. Secondly, a validation of HF radar data with independent in situ observations from a moored current meter was attempted for May-October 2014. The accuracy assessment of radial and total vectors revealed a consistently high agreement. The directional accuracy of the HF radar was rated at better than 8°. The correlation coefficient and RMSE values emerged in the ranges 0.58-0.83 and 4.02-18.31 cm s-1, respectively. The analysis of the monthly averaged current maps for 2014 showed that the HF radar properly represented basic oceanographic features previously reported, namely: the predominant southwestward flow, the coastal clockwise eddy confined south of Ebro Delta mouth or the Ebro River impulsive-type freshwater discharge. Future works should include the use of verified HF radar data for the rigorous skill assessment of operational ocean circulation systems currently running in Ebro estuarine region like MyOcean IBI.

  20. Establishing a tracer-based sediment budget to preserve wetlands in Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, Ana, E-mail: anavas@eead.csic.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); López-Vicente, Manuel, E-mail: mvicente@eead.csic.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); Gaspar, Leticia, E-mail: leticia.gaspar@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Science, Plymouth University, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Palazón, Leticia, E-mail: lpalazon@eead.csic.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); Quijano, Laura, E-mail: lquijano@eead.cisc.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Mountain wetlands in Mediterranean regions are particularly threatened in agricultural environments due to anthropogenic activity. An integrated study of source-to-sink sediment fluxes was carried out in an agricultural catchment that holds a small permanent lake included in the European NATURA 2000 Network. More than 1000 yrs of human intervention and the variety of land uses pose a substantial challenge when attempting to estimate sediment fluxes which is the first requirement to protect fragile wetlands. To date, there have been few similar studies and those that have been carried out have not addressed such complex terrain. Geostatistical interpolation and GIS tools were used to derive the soil spatial redistribution from point {sup 137}Cs inventories, and to establish the sediment budget in a catchment located in the Southern Pyrenees. The soil redistribution was intense and soil erosion predominated over soil deposition. On the areas that maintained natural vegetation the median soil erosion and deposition rates were moderate, ranging from 2.6 to 6 Mg ha yr{sup −1} and 1.5 to 2.1 Mg ha yr{sup −1}, respectively. However, in cultivated fields both erosion and deposition were significantly higher (ca. 20 Mg ha yr{sup −1}), and the maximum rates were always associated with tillage practices. Farming activities in the last part of the 20th century intensified soil erosion, as evidenced by the 1963 {sup 137}Cs peaks in the lake cores and estimates from the sediment budget indicated a net deposition of 671 Mg yr{sup −1}. Results confirm a siltation risk for the lake and provide a foundation for designing management plans to preserve this threatened wetland. This comprehensive approach provides information useful for understanding processes that influence the patterns and rates of soil transfer and deposition within fragile Mediterranean mountain wetlands subjected to climate and anthropogenic stresses. - Highlights: • Soil erosion threatens long-term sustainability of mountain wetlands and agriculture. • {sup 137}Cs was applied for estimation of soil redistribution in a complex catchment. • A tracer derived sediment budget identified main sources causing lake siltation. • Fallout tracer and GIS provided information useful for wetland preservation. • Vegetation strips around fields would reduce siltation from tillage erosion.

  1. A combined quality-control methodology in Ebro Delta (NE Spain high frequency radar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lorente

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ebro River Delta is a relevant marine protected area in the western Mediterranean. In order to promote the conservation of its ecosystem and support operational decision making in this sensitive area, a three site standard-range (13.5 MHz CODAR SeaSonde High Frequency (HF radar was deployed in 2013. Since there is a growing demand for reliable HF radar surface current measurements, the main goal of this work is to present a combined quality control methodology. Firstly, one year-long (2014 real-time web monitoring of nonvelocity-based diagnostic parameters is conducted in order to infer both radar site status and HF radar system performance. Signal-to-noise ratio at the monopole exhibited a consistent monthly evolution although some abrupt decreases (below 10 dB, occasionally detected in June for one of the radar sites, impacted negatively on the spatiotemporal coverage of total current vectors. It seemed to be a sporadic episode since radar site overall performance was found to be robust during 2014. Secondly, a validation of HF radar data with independent in situ observations from a moored current meter was attempted for May–October 2014. The accuracy assessment of radial and total vectors revealed a consistently high agreement. The directional accuracy of the HF radar was rated at better than 8°. The correlation coefficient and RMSE values emerged in the ranges 0.58–0.83 and 4.02–18.31 cm s−1, respectively. The analysis of the monthly averaged current maps for 2014 showed that the HF radar properly represented basic oceanographic features previously reported, namely: the predominant southwestward flow, the coastal clockwise eddy confined south of Ebro Delta mouth or the Ebro River impulsive-type freshwater discharge. Future works should include the use of verified HF radar data for the rigorous skill assessment of operational ocean circulation systems currently running in Ebro estuarine region like MyOcean IBI.

  2. Novel lyssavirus in bat, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, N.A.; Morón, S.V.; Berciano, José M.; Nicolas, O.; López, C.A.; Nevado, C.R.; Juste, Javier; Setién, A.A.; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  3. Cross section analyses in MiniBooNE and SciBooNE experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Katori, Teppei

    2013-01-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment (2002-2012) and the SciBooNE experiment (2007-2008) are modern high statistics neutrino experiments, and they developed many new ideas in neutrino cross section analyses. In this note, I discuss selected topics of these analyses.

  4. Geological assessing of urban environments with a systematic mapping survey: The 1:5000 urban geological map of Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Miquel; Pi, Roser; Cirés, Jordi; de Paz, Ana; Berástegui, Xavier

    2010-05-01

    The ground features of urban areas and the geologic processes that operate on them are, in general, strongly altered from their natural original condition as a result of anthropogenic activities. Assessing the stability of the ground, the flooding areas, and, the health risk as a consequence of soil pollution, are, among others, fundamental topics of urban areas that require a better understanding. The development of systematic urban geological mapping projects provides valuable resources to address these issues. Since 2007, the Institut Geologic de Catalunya (IGC) runs an urban geological mapping project, to provide accurate geologic information of county capitals and towns of more than 10000 inhabitants of Catalonia. The urban zones of 131 towns will be surveyed for this project, totalizing an area of about 2200 km2 to be mapped in 15 years. According to the 2008 census, the 82 % of the population of Catalonia (7.242.458 inhabitants) lives in the areas to be mapped in this project. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment the following subjects: - Data from pre-existing geotechnical reports, historical geological and topographical maps and, from historical aerial photographs. - Data from available borehole databases. - Geological characterization of outcrops inside the urban network and neighbouring areas. - Geological, chemical and physical characterisation of representative rocks, sediments and soils. - Ortophotographs (0.5 m pixel size) and digital elevation models (5 meter grid size) made from historical aerial photographs, to depict land use changes, artificial deposits and geomorphological elements that are either hidden or destroyed by urban sprawl. - Detailed geological mapping of quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits. - Data from subsurface prospection in areas with insufficient or confuse data. - 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces such as the top of the pre-quaternary basement. All the gathered data is

  5. National Identities and Cinema: a critical recension of the book Directory of World Cinema: Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Macedo

    2012-01-01

    This critical review concerns the book Directory of World Cinema: Spain. This book is part of a series of volumes published in the Directory of World Cinema, by Intellect Books. The first part consists of a critique of the film "Biutiful", an interview with the director Jaime Rosales, followed by a reflection on the Spanish film industry. This part is also composed of a chapter in which are discussed the aspects that the authors consider to define the Spanish culture, concluding with a reflection o...

  6. Understanding poverty persistence in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Aylloón, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the mechanisms behind poverty persistence in Spain. We examine the importance of past poverty experiences for explaining current poverty as opposed to observed and unobserved individual heterogeneity. Our results are based on the model proposed by Cappellari and Jenkins (J Appl Econometr 19:593-610, 2004a) that estimates poverty transitions while simultaneously controlling for attrition and initial conditions. We find that about 50% of aggregate state depende...

  7. [History of microscopy in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Galiano, D

    1994-12-01

    Nowadays, many Spanish research centers have excellent electronic microscopy services. The current situation, however, should not allow us to forget that the initial steps of microscopy in Spain were very difficult. The construction of excellent optical microscopies in the late XIX century, and their almost immediate introduction in Spain, coincides with a period of thriving scientific activity in our country. Both micrography and histology saw the highlights of their development in Spain, with scientists such as Ramón y Cajal, Río Hortega, Ferrán, Simarro, among others, all of them widely known at present. This article evokes briefly the vicissitudes of Spanish microscopy, from its very beginning in 1843, when the Allgemeine Anatomie by Jacob Henle was translated into Spanish, to present. Scientific historical facts in this article are often accompanied with anecdotes, which show the human aspect of those great scientists. The persevering task carried out by researchers whose names have been recorded in the history of Spanish science and technology, have established the grounds in which our current development is based.

  8. Does immigration cause crime? : evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Borrego, César; Garoupa, Nuno; Vázquez, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between crime and immigration has been a matter of controversy in the US and around the world. This paper investigates empirically the case of Spain. From 1999 to 2009, Spain has had a large wave of immigration from different areas of the globe. At the same time, crime rates have increased. However, by comparison with other European countries that have received similar massive immigration waves during the same period, crime rates in Spain have increased less considerably. We ...

  9. Nuclear power introduction experiences in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In terms of its electrical system, Spain is an island weakly linked with its neighboring countries. Spain currently connects to the European market through a line with a capacity of 2000 MW. Moreover, Spain has few natural energy resources of its own and thus imports 82% of its domestic energy needs. This leaves Spain highly vulnerable to movements in market prices as well as to potential supply interruptions triggered by events occurring in the Spanish supplier countries, which are themselves not always stable. As a result, securing supply has become an important issue in the Spanish energy system

  10. Distribution of Amblydromalus limonicus in northeastern Spain and diversity of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in tomato and other vegetable crops after its introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorąży, Alicja; Kropczyńska-Linkiewicz, Danuta; Sas, Daniel; Escudero-Colomar, Lucia-Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Amblydromalus limonicus (Garman and McGregor) was detected for the first time in 2011 on tomatoes of several locations of the northeastern Spain. During 2012 and 2013 samplings on tomato crop cultivars in the two provinces of Catalonia where the species was found were carried out. The goals of the study were to know the range of spread of the species in these two provinces, its abundance in tomato cultivars, non-crop vegetation among them, in the different parts of the tomato plant and in some other vegetable crops. Results showed that A. limonicus was present at both regions sampled, although there were significant differences in the abundance of the species between sampling points. It is the second in abundance in tomato and the cultivars that most frequently host A. limonicus were Anaidis, Hybrid and Marmande. No significant differences were found in the abundance of A. limonicus among tomato plant canopy strata. On average, it accounted for 31.6 % of all sampled phytoseiids. It was present in four crops (tomato, bean, cucumber and strawberry) and in Amaranthus cruentus, Chenopodium polyspermum, Cynodon dactylon, Mentha sp., Parietaria officinalis and Phleum pratense. Amblydromalus limonicus is well established in the extreme northeast of Spain all year round in crops and non-crops. PMID:27193216

  11. Dark Forces at DAΦNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curciarello F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The DAΦNE Φ-factory is an ideal place to search for forces beyond the Standard Model. By using the KLOE detector, limits on U-boson coupling ε2 of the order of 10−5 ÷ 10−7 and on the αD × ε2 product have been set through the study of the Φ Dalitz decay, Uγ events and the Higgsstrahlung process. An improvement of these limits is expected thanks to the KLOE detector and DAΦNE upgrades of KLOE-2.

  12. Dynamics of gas phase Ne$^*$ + NH$_3$ and Ne$^*$ + ND$_3$ Penning ionization at low temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Jankunas, Justin; Jachymski, Krzysztof; Hapka, Michal; Osterwalder, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Two isotopic chemical reactions, $\\mathrm{Ne}^*$ + NH$_3$, and $\\mathrm{Ne}^*$ + ND$_3$, have been studied at low collision energies by means of a merged beams technique. Partial cross sections have been recorded for the two reactive channels, namely $\\mathrm{Ne}^*$ + NH$_3$ $\\rightarrow$ Ne + NH$_3^+$ + $e^-$, and $\\mathrm{Ne}^*$ + NH$_3$ $\\rightarrow$ Ne + NH$_2^+$ + H + $e^-$, by detecting the NH$_3^+$ and NH$_2^+$ product ions, respectively. The cross sections for both reactions were found to increase with decreasing collision energy, $E_{coll}$, in the range 8 $\\mu$eV$Ne}^*$ + NH$_3$ reaction in the entire range of collision energies covered here. Calculations based on multichannel quantum defect theory were performed to reproduce and interpret the experimental results. Good agreement was obtained by i...

  13. Impetus and Resistance to Changing Work-Related Mobility Patterns in Catalonia: The Role of the Social Actors and Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Àngel Cebollada Frontera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport accounting and accountability, in addition to traditional infrastructure costs (i.e. vehicle and service operation, now include sustainability considerations: costs in terms of the environment, society and time spent in transit. This new perspective has highlighted the elevated expense of current daily mobility models in Western society, which are based on massive use of the car. We can see a willingness in present political agendas to change this mobility model for one which would reduce these high costs. These are primarily based on positive discrimination policies towards non-motorised and collective transport models which are reinforced by territorial management policies that promote proximity to the work place and services, as well as the use of high-capacity public transport means. Mobility model studies have generally tended to approach this topic from the perspective of actions taken by public administrations (i.e. providing more public transport vehicles or alternative criteria for managing parking spaces, overlooking the many and varied contributions by representatives of non-public administration organisations that play an active role in generating daily mobility. Therefore, in this paper we look at the contributions of these organisations to this changing model. The particular focus of our analysis is the largest trade union in Catalonia, Comissions Obreres, and its role in shaping a new scenario for work-related mobility, seen as an organisation that not only makes claims and negotiates with public administrations and employers’ associations, but also propagates new mobility models among its own members.

  14. Lower Energy α Elastic Scattering on 20Ne and Anomaly of α+20Ne Scattering System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong-Xu; TAN Hai-Lan; LI Qing-Run

    2011-01-01

    The α+20 Ne elastic scattering angular distributions at lower incident energies of Eα = 12.7-31.1 MeV have been analyzed by using the a-folding potential based on the α+16O structure model of the 20Ne nucleus. The α-folding potential with a standard Woods-Saxon type imaginary part, can reasonably describe experimental cross sections and the anomalous large angle scattering (ALAS) features. The anomaly of the α+20Ne scattering system is further confirmed in the lower incident energy region.PACS numbers: 25.70.Bc, 24.10.Ht, 21.60.Gx

  15. 75 FR 67162 - Nebraska Disaster #NE-00040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster NE-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Straight-line Winds. Incident Period: 09/13/2010 through 09/14/2010. DATES: Effective Date:...

  16. 78 FR 73581 - Nebraska Disaster #NE-00055

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster NE-00055 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY.../26/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  17. Mini Networked Screens (MiNeS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.A.; Maris, M.; Breen, P.C.; Versteeg, N.; Terwisga, P.F. van; Ort, C.M.; Blok, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The forward areas for an LPD in littoral waters can be full of surprises. A novel concept is presented for a networked screen consisting of elements of increasing capability to provide a progressive response to the threat. This MiNeS concept substantially improves the capability of the LPD as an aut

  18. Ne Implantation Induced Transformation in Stainless Steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuis, J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a microstructural investigation of the changes induced by Ne implantation in stainless steel of the austenitic type. At a critical dose of 2.3 · 10^17/cm^2 a martensitic phase transformation was observed. In particular, attention has been paid to the effect of the stress held of n

  19. Greenhouse gas mitigation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Castellví Ballesté, Aleix

    2008-01-01

    This document would like to be clear information about the present and the future of the CO2 emissions in Spain. First of all greenhouse effect and the greenhouse gases contribution are explained to know what is happening with the atmosphere. Secondly, Spain’s emissions are detailed by sectors and origin. These details are going to show in which sectors there are more work to do and which origins are more important. Evolution is being studied to know the trend and the possible future. F...

  20. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  1. The Dance of Spain: Classical Folkloric Flamenco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Clifford J.

    A text on the classical and folk dance of Spain includes a pretest, provided in both English and Spanish; text about the dance in general and the dance of Spain, both classical and folkloric; tests on the text, in both English and Spanish; more specific readings about the traditions of flamenco, castanets, and "el jaleo"; a glossary of flamenco…

  2. China-Spain Urban Transport Seminar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The China-Spain Seminar on Urban Transport jointly sponsored by the Chinese Committee of the China-Spain Forum and the Agency of International Cooperation of the Spanish Foreign Ministry was held in Beijing from May 10 to 14, 2004. The Seminar was

  3. Electron impact excitation of the Ne II and Ne III fine structure levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Loch, S. D.; Pindzola, M. S.; Cumbee, R.; Stancil, P. C.; Ballance, C. P.; McLaughlin, B. M.

    2016-05-01

    Electron impact excitation cross sections and rate coefficients of the low lying levels of the Ne II and Ne III ions are of great interest in cool molecular environments including young stellar objects, photodissociation regions, active galactic nuclei, and X-ray dominated regions. We have carried out details computations for cross sections and rate coefficients using the Dirac R-matrix codes (DARC), the Breit-Pauli R-matrix codes (BP) and the Intermediate Coupling Frame Transformation (ICFT) codes, for both Ne II and Ne III. We also compare our results with previous calculations. We are primarily interested in rate coefficients in the temperature range below 1000 K, and the focus is on obtaining the most accurate rate coefficients for those temperatures. We present both a recommended set of effective collision strengths and an indication of the uncertainties on these values. Work at Auburn University and UGA partly supported by NASA Grant NNX15AE47G.

  4. Nivation forms and processes in unconsolidated sediments, NE Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland......Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland...

  5. Spain's marketing sector seeing more changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Spain's petroleum marketing sector continues to restructure. Partly state owned Repsol SA and Royal Dutch/Shell Group are discussing supplying each other's retail outlets in the UK and Spain. And Portugal's state owned Petroleos de Portugal (Petrogal), seeking to sharply expand retail operations in Spain, complains of government interference with foreign investment in Spanish marketing. Meantime, Conoco Inc. Has agreed with Saras SpA Raffinerie Sarde, Milan, to set up a network of service stations in northern Spain and Portugal at a cost of 100 billion pesetas (%972 million). The two are considering building an oil terminal at the port city of Gijon in Asturias, Spain, and the Exxon Corp., Total, and Shell are interested in participating in the project

  6. [The internationalization of scientific production in the fields of radiology and neuroimaging in Spain (1996-2003)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordons, M; Morillo, F; Fernández, M T; Gómez, I

    2006-01-01

    The situation of Research in radiology in Spain is analysed by examining the number of publications by Spanish authors in main stream international journals. The scientific production of Spanish researchers in journals included in the Science Citation Index (SCI) under the headings "Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, and Medical Imaging" and "Neuroimaging" during the years 1996-2003. During this period the scientific production in these fields comprised 1,562 documents (3.5% of the total production for Spanish clinical medicine); scientific production in these fields increased by 40% in this period in comparison to 24% for all clinical medicine. The bulk of the production was concentrated in the autonomous communities of Catalonia (35%), Madrid (28%), and Valencia (10%). The autonomous communities of Navarra and Cantabria had a high relative production after the results were adjusted for population. The healthcare sector is the most active, with the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, the Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, and the Hospital Vall d'Hebron being outstanding in that they not only lead the country in the number of publications but also publish more in journals with high impact factors. Among centers other than hospitals, the Center for Research in Energy, the Environment, and Technologies (CIEMAT) and the Medical School of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid are the most important. A high degree of collaboration is evident: 68% of the documents were produced by more than one institution, foreign centers were involved in 20%, and the documents were signed by an average of six authors. Conclusions. In summary, the data show that Spanish radiological research is becomin increasingly international, although this process is still in the initial stage, with the percentage of documents published in the most prestigious journals for this specialty being lower than in other disciplines. The relative activity and production of Spain is slightly below the average of the

  7. PCDD/Fs and PCBs in food samples from Germany, France and Spain - data and proposals for EU legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malisch, R.; Wambold, C. [CVUA, Freiburg (Germany); Fraisse, D.; Durgeil, A.; Defour, S. [CARSO, Lyon (France); Abad, E.; Abalos, M.; Rivera, J. [CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Fuerst, P. [CVUA, Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    The Community Strategy to reduce the presence of dioxins and PCBs in feed and food comprises legislative measures which consist of three pillars: the establishment of maximum levels at a strict but feasible level in food and feed, the establishment of action levels acting as a tool for ''early warning'' of higher than desirable levels of dioxin in food or feed and the establishment of target levels, over time, to bring exposure of a large part of the European population within the limits recommended by the SCF. Council Regulation (EC) No. 2375/2001 sets maximum levels for food of animal origin and oils and fats. Council Directive 2001/102/EC and Directive 2002/32/EC set maximum levels for animal feed. Action levels for food and animal feed were recommended by the Commission in March 2002. So far, these regulations and recommendations do not include dioxin-like PCBs. According to Council Regulation 2375/2001 the inclusion of dioxin-like PCBs should be reviewed by 31 December 2004. According to Council Directive 2001/102/EC, target levels should be set by 31 December 2004. A recent communication to the Council by the European Commission on the implementation of the Community Strategy summarizes the main progress over the first two years (end of 2001 to end of 2003). As part of a cooperation between selected regions in Europe, Baden-Wuerttemberg (south-western Germany), France and Catalonia (north-eastern Spain) support a joint programme to determine the levels of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and marker PCBs in different categories of food and animal feed and to estimate their contribution to the daily intake. The CVUA Muenster (in Northrhine- Westfalia in western Germany) joined this cooperation to broaden the database. This paper summarizes results of food analyses in different regions of Germany, France and Spain and gives an orientation for further developments of the three pillars of legislative measures.

  8. [Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesmilo, Gemma

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain does not differ from that reported in other published series. Prevalence rate is approximately 60 cases per million, peak incidence occurs in middle age, more women are affected (61%), and there is a substantial delay between occurrence of the first symptoms and diagnosis. Studies REA (Spanish Acromegaly Registry) and OASIS analyzed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of the disease in Spain. Surgery, performed in more than 80% of patients, has been (and continues to be) the main treatment for the past four decades. In the past decade, however, more patients have received somatostatin analogs (SSAs) as first-line treatment. Use of radiation therapy has significantly decreased in recent decades. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are the most commonly used drugs, administered to 85% of patients; however, only 12%-15% continue on drug treatment alone. The surgical remission rate was 38.4% in the last decade, with a significant improvement over decades. Preoperative treatment with SSAs has no influence on surgical cure rates. Second-line therapies used after surgical failure in the past decade included SSAs in 49% of patients, repeat surgery in 27%, radiotherapy in 11%, pegvisomant in 15%, and dopamine agonists in 5%. Mean cost of acromegaly treatment was 9.668€ (data estimated in 2009 and adjusted in 2010), of which 71% was due to the cost of SSAs. Patients treated with pegvisomant have a more aggressive form of the disease and higher comorbidity rates.

  9. Lääne-Virumaa TOP 100 aastal 2000

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Lääne-Virumaa edukamad ettevõtted; Lääne-Virumaa käibe TOP 100; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Käibe languse TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentabluse TOP 20; ROA TOP 20; Kasumi languse TOP 10; Kahjumi TOP 10; Lääne-Virumaa käibelt suuremate ettevõtete finantsandmed. Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete üldandmed

  10. Calculation of electron wave functions and refractive index of Ne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The radial wave functions of inner electron shell and outer electron shell of a Ne atom were obtained by the approximate analytical method and tested by calculating the ground state energy of the Ne atom. The equivalent volume of electron cloud and the refractive index of Ne were calculated. The calculated refractive index agrees well with the experimental result. Relationship between the refractive index and the wave function of Ne was discovered.

  11. Collision-induced intramultiplet mixing for the Ne**[(2p)5(3p)] + He or Ne system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the Ne**-He case, experimental data are confronted with quantum mechanical calculations. Quantum mechanical coupled-channel calculations using model potentials as input are presented, followed by a semiclassical approach which provides more physical insight. Experimental results are presented for the Ne**-Ne system with a discussion of the general principles involved in symmetrization. 184 refs.; 93 figs.; 19 tabs

  12. Anatomy of molecular structures in $^{20}$Ne

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, E F; Li, Z P; Meng, J; Ring, P

    2015-01-01

    We present a beyond mean-field study of clusters and molecular structures in low-spin states of $^{20}$Ne with a multireference relativistic energy density functional, where the dynamical correlation effects of symmetry restoration and quadrupole-octupole shapes fluctuation are taken into account with projections on parity, particle number and angular momentum in the framework of the generator coordinate method. Both the energy spectrum and the electric multipole transition strengths for low-lying parity-doublet bands are better reproduced after taking into account the dynamical octupole vibration effect. Consistent with the finding in previous antisymmetrized molecular dynamics studies, a rotation-induced dissolution of the $\\alpha+^{16}$O molecular structure in $^{20}$Ne is predicted and this peculiar phenomenon is partially attributed to the special deformation-dependent moment of inertia.

  13. The photoneutron cross section of 20Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoneutron cross section of 20Ne has been measured over a photon energy range 16 to 29 MeV in steps of 100 keV. The giant dipole resonance is resolved into three strong peaks below 21 MeV and at least two broader resonances at higher excitations. This structure is consistent with earlier measurements of poorer resolution and shows a correlation with the recent calculations of Schmid and Do Dang. Comparisons with high resolution neutron time-of-flight and electron scattering data indicate that there appear to exist in the giant resonance of 20Ne, regions of structure roughly 2-3 MeV wide which exhibit localised characteristics related to the excitation mechanisms. The role of deformation and configuration splitting effects in the cross section are discussed and possible directions of further study are noted which might clarify the situation more fully

  14. The Finuda Experiment at DAΦNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucherini, V.

    2010-10-01

    The FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DAΦNE) experiment was built in order to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on Hypernuclear spectroscopy and Hypernuclei decays. Due to the nice performances of the spectrometer, it proved also suited to study, more generally, final states with several particles and able to recostruct secondary vertices, hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

  15. Status of KM3NeT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccobene, G.

    2016-07-01

    The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  16. Status of KM3NeT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccobene G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  17. The Finuda Experiment on DAΦNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucherini, Vincenzo

    FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DAΦne) is a spectrometer built to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on spectroscopy and decay of Λ-hypernuclei. Due to the nice performances of the apparatus and its ability to reconstruct secondary vertices, it proved suited to study also final states with several particles (including neutron), hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

  18. Drought Management Strategies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Paneque

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing debate on water policies in Spain is characterised by a traditional paradigm, dominated by the intervention on hydrological systems through the construction and management of infrastructure, which is progressively being abandoned but is currently still strong while the emergence of new management approaches. Climate change and the Water Framework Directive (WFD are, in addition, the background to increasing challenges to traditional perspectives on drought, and important steps have been taken towards their replacement. This work analyzes the evolution of the normative structure and management models to identify recent shifts. The analysis is based on a fundamental conceptual change that places drought in the framework of risk, rather than that of crisis. I argue for the need to advance new prevention policies that can finally overcome productivist inertia and undertake essential tasks such as reallocating water flows, revising and controlling the water-concession system, and reinforcing and guaranteeing public participation.

  19. [Viper bite treatment in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estefanía Díez, M; Alonso Peña, D; García Cano, P; López Gamo, A

    2016-01-01

    Viper snake bite is, by far, the most common ophidian accident in Spain. It is responsible for between 100 and 150 hospitalizations per year in this country, although it is difficult to determine the frequency of emergency admissions due to this cause. The cornerstone to their approach rests on the correct evaluation of the possible effects derived from envenomation and the use of anti-venoms. In spite of all the controversies surrounding the use of anti-venoms, they have become a powerful therapeutic weapon ever since the serum has been highly purified and the great decrease of related anaphylactic reactions. The aim of this article is to update the emergency room procedures when viper bites are suspected, and to clarify the main therapeutic recommendations. PMID:25440968

  20. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignarra, Christina M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis first presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a different energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fits which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  1. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldes, N.; Lechon, Y.; Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Rua, C. de la; Saez, R.; Varela, M.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project (http://www.needs-project.org). (Author) 56 refs.

  2. Oil sector in Spain: Final adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes organizational and marketing changes occurring in Spain's oil industry as a result of its conversion from a state run monopoly system to a free market system. The analysis uses statistical data to indicate national oil production, import and consumption trends and compares these with overall trends in the European Communities. An explanation of the way in which oil is marketed in Spain makes reference to data on Spain's refining capacity and pipeline network, deemed to be amongst the most complete and modern in Europe. Comments are also made on the efficacy of Spain's national energy policies which stress energy source diversification to lessen this country's heavy dependence on foreign supplied oil

  3. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Larach

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to ...

  4. The evolution of obesity in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García-Goñi, Manuel; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Considered the epidemic of the 21st century, obesity is a worldwide problem, affecting 260 million adults and 12 million children in the European Union (EU) alone. In Spain, adult and child obesity rates are increasing, in particular for women. Income-related inequalities in adult obesity in Spain also have increased over time, especially for women aged over 45. Although some regulatory initiatives have been approved to tackle child obesity, an evaluation of the effective...

  5. Building a New Water Culture in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Mora Zapata, Nuria; Roca, Francesc

    2012-01-01

    For over 100 years, water policy and man­ agement in Spain have been instruments of economic and social transformation. Sig­ nificant public and private investments in water supply infrastructures have equipped Spain with over 1,200 major dams, 20 major desalination plants ? with more under construction ? and several inter­basin water transfers. The system has been apparently very successful, with an increase in overall water availability, strong associated eco­ nomic development and few urba...

  6. NE V and NE VI lines in the ultraviolet spectrum of the symbiotic star RR telescopii

    OpenAIRE

    ESPEY, BRIAN RUSSELL

    1996-01-01

    New theoretical Ne vi] electron density-sensitive ratios are presented for the intercombination transitions R1 = 1(1006.1 A)/I(999.6 A) and R2 = 1(1010.6 A)/I(999.6 A). Temperature-sensitive ratios are also given for the Ne v] ratio R = 1(1137.0 A)/I(1574.8 A). We discuss the potential usefulness of these line ratios for studying hot gas and apply them to the case of the symbiotic system RR Telescopii. Using far-UV data that has recently been acquired with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope, w...

  7. SPECIE-SPECIFIC OUTCOMES OF WILD RAPTORS ATTENDED AT A WILDLIFE REHABILITATION CENTRE IN CATALONIA (1997-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Molina-Lopez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Outcome research of rehabilitation of wild birds of prey and owls are scarcely reported. The aim of this study is to investigate specie-specific outcomes of the rehabilitation practice in wild raptor attended in a wildlife center. A total of 6221 hospitalized wild raptors (3241 Strigiformes; 2980 Falconiformes admitted at a Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre (WRC of Catalonia from 1995 to 2007 were analysed. The outcomes indicators were based on ratios of Euthanasia (Er, Mortality (Mr, Release (Rr and Captivity (Cr. Stratified analyses by main causes of admission were performed for the different raptor species. Species from the Falconiformes order presented higher rates of euthanasia (33.9% compared to the Strigiformes (18.6%. Species like B. buteo (45.7% and M. migrans (47.6% in the Falconiformes and B. bubo (33.6% in the Strigiformes, presented the highest Er. Despite no differences between orders could be observed in the row mortality rates, data analysed by the causes of admission showed that the Mr of owls was significant higher than the Falconiformes for the trauma (13.2%; χ2 = 49.97; p<0.001, non trauma (12.7%; χ2 = 17.41; p<0.001 and orphaned young categories (4.9%; χ2 = 5.4; p = 0.02. The release rate was similar between orders. Based on species, G. fulvus (69.2%, C. aeruginosus (56.3% and A. gentillis (43.1% in the Falconiformes and O. scops (48.5% in the Strigiformes showed the highest Rr. In the orphaned young category owls had better Rr than the diurnal raptors, being S. aluco the specie with the best rates of release (84%, whereas B. bubo had the worst values (50%. Specie-specific differences were found in the rehabilitation outcomes according to the different causes of admission. The stratified analysis of outcomes can be useful in order to to

  8. Čelične tunelske oplate

    OpenAIRE

    Andrić, Ante; Tešović, Snježana

    2008-01-01

    Opisano je postrojenje za betoniranje sekundarne tunelske obloge. Postrojenje ima tri dijela: plašt, transporter s vlastitim pogonom i sustav opskrbe betonom. Uz tehničke karakteristike i funkcije postrojenja opisana je i tehnologija rada te problematika konstruiranja, projektiranja i prenamjene za trotračnu i četverotračnu oplatu. Opisana je i prikazana konstrukcija oplate portala, čelne oplate i tunelske niše te montaža dvotračne oplate po fazama kao i distribucija betona.

  9. [Reform of psychiatry in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Luderer, H J

    2000-11-01

    Since the 1980's psychiatric care in Spain changed considerably (Reforma psiquiátrica española). In the course of this reform, many positive results were achieved. An extensive community network of mental health centres was build up which resulted in the majority of psychiatric patients being integrated in the Spanish general health care system and making a better organized mental health care structure possible. New legislation also improved the care and civil rights of patients. An analysis of the experiences of the Spanish psychiatric reform shows that the tendency to retain the old mental hospitals, alongside the other institutions still exists. The process of deinstitutionalization and the original aims of the psychiatric reform cannot only be satisfied by the closure of large psychiatric hospitals as during the reform new aspects and problems as well the great complexity of the task have become apparent. This article together with the details of the Spanish sources gives the German public a good overview of the developments in Spanish psychiatry.

  10. 18Ne Excited States Two-Proton Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Napoli, M.; Rapisarda, E.; Raciti, G.; Cardella, G.; Amorini, F.; Giacoppo, F.; Sfienti, C.

    2008-04-01

    Two-proton radioactivity studies have been performed on excited states of 18Ne produced by 20Ne fragmentation at the FRS of the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and excited via Coulomb excitation on a 209Pb target. The 18Ne levels decay has been studied by complete kinematical reconstruction. In spite of the low statistic, the energy and angular correlations of the emitted proton pairs indicate the presence of 2He emission toghether with the democratic decay.

  11. "Ne opravilsja jeshtsho posle grippa..." : [luuletused] / Aleksei Koroljov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koroljov, Aleksei

    2001-01-01

    Autor endast lk. 44. Sisu: "Ne opravilsja jeshtsho posle grippa..." ; "Tak plohho mne, kak ne bõlo davno..." ; "Vokrug tebja, kak satellit..." ; "Hotja i ne ossobenno ona..." ; Iz dnevnika ; Zdravõi smõsl ; "V ushko igolnoje prodenu..." ; "Zhenshtshine prostitelnõ nedostatki..." ; "Balagurja, taratorja..." "Kogda bõ sprava - rai..." ; 23-i skorõi ; "Velmozhi v rogozhe iz blazhi i drozhi..."

  12. L'hydrogène Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaceanu J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La crise pétrolière et le bouleversement du classement économique des énergies primaires qu'elle entraîne conjuguent leurs effets avec ceux d'une sensibilisation de l'opinion au respect de l'environnement pour favoriser l'avènement industriel d'innovations scientifiques et techniques dont l'intervention n'était prévisible que dans un avenir de plusieurs décennies. Le développement de l'énergie électrique nucléaire, qui actuellement s'impose économiquement, implique, pour élargir la pénétration de cette forme d'énergie à toutes les utilisations, une énergie chimique relais permettant un stockage et une régulation de la production; l'hydro- gène obtenu par électrolyse de l'eau semble pouvoir constituer ce combustible relais dans un délai raisonnable en tenant compte des contraintes de pollution. La chaleur nucléaire soulève a fortiori des problèmes identiques, elle peut théoriquement par dissociation thermique étagée de l'eau liquide fournir de l'hydrogène avec des rendements très satisfaisants, mais les problèmes de principe et de technologie posés par la mise en opération d'une suite de transformations chimiques et de séparations impliquant des composés particulièrement réactifs sont ardus et leur inventaire même n'est pas achevé. L'hydrogène, nouveau combustible polyvalent d'une industrie gazière perpétuelle, semble pouvoir bénéficier également, au niveau de son utilisation disséminée, de techniques nouvelles : stockages solides, turbines à hauts rendements, piles à combustible, qui ouvrent le marché de la traction et le marché électrique des installations isolées. Agent de réduction réactif et puissant, l'hydrogène peut également se substituer aux réducteurs conventionnels en métallurgie et donner une dimension nouvelle à l'hydrogénométallurgie par voie sèche ou par voie humide. Mais plus encore la mise en valeur économique des combustibles fossiles abondants . charbon, schistes

  13. Irène Jacob visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    French actress Irène Jacob, the daughter of physicist Maurice Jacob, visited the ATLAS and CMS control rooms on Monday 17 May together with Italian theatre actor-director Pippo Delbono, in search of inspiration for a short film. The film will be screened at the “nuit des particules” event accompanying this year’s ICHEP.   Pippo Delbono et Irène Jacob discussing their project. “La nuit des particules” (night of the particles) is an event open to the general public that is being organised for the evening of Tuesday, 27 July, to accompany the 35th International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP). ICHEP is a major highlight in every physicist’s calendar, and this year’s edition is being held in Paris from 22 to 28 July. The short film will be screened during the evening, which will include a lecture and a show at the legendary Parisian cinema Le Grand Rex, with a colossal seating capacity of 2 700 spe...

  14. Microscopic cluster study of the sup 3 sup 1 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 Ne nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Descouvemont, P

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the sup 3 sup 1 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 Ne neutron-rich nuclei by using the Generator Coordinate Method. The wave functions are defined by a sup 3 sup 0 Ne + n and sup 3 sup 0 Ne + n + n cluster structure, respectively. The binding energies of both systems are studied with different parameters of the nucleon-nucleon interaction, and are shown to be similar. Assuming the particle stability of sup 3 sup 2 Ne, the sup 3 sup 1 Ne nucleus is therefore predicted to be stable with respect to neutron decay. Spectroscopic properties (r.m.s. radii and E2 transition probabilities) are presented for both nuclei.

  15. Nuevos taxones vegetales alóctonos de jardinería en el área continental de NE de España: comportamiento e historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLOT, D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information about two topics rarely found in literature on invasions: 1-the record of succulent species naturalised within a continental-type climate area (Teruel, NE Spain, 2-the distinction between taxonomical varieties of invasive taxa. Besides, historical information on introduction, area of origin and taxonomical consideration is provided for each taxa. A. americana var. marginata Trel, Agave ingens Berger, Malephora purpureo-crocea (Haw. Schwantes and Sedum dendroideum DC. subsp. praealtum (A. DC. R. T. Clausen are recorded for the first time in the area.

  16. Evaluating the impact of the administrative procedure and the landscape policy on grid connected PV systems (GCPVS) on-floor in Spain in the period 2004–2008: To which extent a limiting factor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of the Spanish photovoltaic (PV) sector in the period 2004–2008 rendered Spain a prominent place among top worldwide countries. Yet, this growth was rather uneven across the different Spanish regions which raised the interest on the drivers ultimately effecting these disparities. Especially controversial were the arguments about the influence of the administrative procedure and the landscape policy on the development of GCPVS on-floor. This study therefore discloses both two elements and evaluates their impact in a group of PV prominent Spanish regions and Catalonia, the latter used as a benchmark because of its comprehensive and stringent regulation on landscape protection, which was accused by the PV industry of thwarting the development of the GCPVS on-floor. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out. In particular two indexes were elaborated to determine the consistency of the arguments pointing to the landscape protection policy as a decisive barrier to GCPVS growth. First, when the analysis is made in relative terms, the ranking of PV prominent regions changes and many of the differences vanish. Second, rather than the preeminence of a landscape protection policy what really matters for GCPVS on-floor growth is the administrative procedure and the processing enabling its implementation. - Highlights: • The study of PV evolution relative to land availability bends regional differences. • Regions with lower administrative complexity are likely to have better PV ratios. • Landscape protection policy is not per se a barrier to GCPVS on-floor growth. • The administrative procedure was not proven a tool of energy planning in Catalonia. • Pointing the drivers of PV regional differences demands a keen analysis of data

  17. Uses of plasma in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algora, M; Barbolla, L

    2007-12-01

    In Spain, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) currently recovered either by whole blood centrifugation or by apheresis is mainly considered as a source of plasma derivates rather than a product to be transfused. Upon this consideration, the amount of plasma transfused in the last two decades has remained stable, while the production of FFP has grown steadily during all these years. Thus, much more plasma has been derived to industry for manufacturing. Although, since 1993 a consensus conference established the clinical situation where plasma has demonstrated its efficacy, the true situation is that many indications seem not to be supported on a scientific evidence basis. Only a few studies have been performed in the last years to assess the appropriateness of these indications. We present the initial result of an ongoing survey addressed by the Madrid Blood Transfusion Centre. Based on the criteria of total amount of RBC transfused per year, large hospitals (more than 10,000 units of RBC) transfused an average of 23.87% of FFP, while medium hospitals (5000-10,000 units of RBC) used 19.5% and small ones (less than 5000) about 12.5%. It is important to point out that inside each group there were some important differences in ratio values for similar hospitals. This could indicate that much more is necessary to cope with indications. Although national figures of uses of FFP, whether in ratio or absolute terms, show a moderate consumption in comparison with published figures of other European countries, there can be no doubt that plasma overuses still seem to be present.

  18. Stark Broadening of several Ne II, Ne III and O III Spectral Lines for the Stark-B Database

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrijevic, Milan S; Simic, Zoran; Sahal-Brechot, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    In order to complete Stark broadening data for Ne II, and O III lines, needed for analysis of stellar atmospheres, we determined, within the semiclassical perturbation method, the missing Stark broadening parameters for the broadening by collisions with protons and ionized helium, for 15 Ne II and 5 O III multiplets. Also, electron, proton, and ionized helium impact broadening parameters for an important Ne II multiplet in the visible part of the spectrum, and for three Ne III multiplets, were calculated. The obtained data will be included in the STARK-B database, which is a part of Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center.

  19. Ten years of demographic and genetic monitoring of Stachys maritima in Catalonia (2001-2010. Implications for a recovery plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massó, S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Stachys maritima is a species typical of the coastal dunes, with a wide distribution within the Mediterranean Basin. In spite of this, the species shows a clear regression. In Catalonia, it has been observed an important reduction of its populations since early 20th century, where it has disappeared from several localities in which it was relatively common (Tarragonès, Barcelonès. Herein we present the results of the demographic monitoring of the species during the last 10 years (2001-2010 in the known localities in Catalonia. Besides corroborating the disappearance (northern Sant Martí d’Empúries, the re-discovering (Llobregat Delta beach and the detection of new populations (inner dunes of the Montgrí, a large year-to-year fluctuation of the monitored populations is stated; the possible reasons are discussed. In addition, the present work also includes the results of the allozyme diversity analysis of the new detected populations as well as the rediscoveries of the period 2004-2008, which were not included in a former study of genetic diversity carried out in 2002-2003. It is necessary to emphasize that the contribution of the new populations to the genetic diversity of Stachys maritima is very small, which can be attributed to their limited population size and /or to founder effects. Despite that the species is included in the Annex 2 (“En Perill d’Extinció” within the Catàleg de Flora Amenaçada de Catalunya (Catalogue of Endangered Flora of Catalonia, and some “soft” conservation measures have been applied at local level (signposting of the beach accesses, environmental education, etc. coupled with other more significant measures (e.g. translocation of individuals discovered in an artificial sandbank, it would be necessary the coordinated action and the scientific support of any initiative of conservation that could be carried out. The general frame to initiate actions of conservation should be the recovery plan of

  20. China-Spain Economic and Trade Forum Held in Madrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On June 29, Chi na-Spain Eco nomic and Trade Forum, sponsored jointly by CCPIT, Federation of Spanish Entrepreneur Orga nizations and Spanish Trade and Investment Agency, was held in Madrid, capital of Spain.

  1. Epidemiology of Acute Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Caused by Human Calicivirus (Norovirus and Sapovirus in Catalonia: A Two Year Prospective Study, 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Torner

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of cases of acute gastroenteritis (AGE of viral etiology is a relevant public health issue. Due to underreporting, the study of outbreaks is an accepted approach to investigate their epidemiology. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of AGE outbreaks due to norovirus (NoV and sapovirus (SV in Catalonia.Prospective study of AGE outbreaks of possible viral etiology notified during two years in Catalonia. NoV and SV were detected by real time reverse transcription polymerase (RT-PCR.A total of 101 outbreaks were registered affecting a total of 2756 persons and 12 hospitalizations (hospitalization rate: 0.8x1,000,000 persons-year; 49.5% of outbreaks were foodborne, 45.5% person to person and 5% waterborne. The distribution of outbreaks according to the setting showed a predominance of catering services (39.6%, nursing homes and long term care facilities (26.8% and schools (11.9%. The median number of cases per outbreak was 17 (range 2-191. The total Incidence rate (IR was 18.3 per 100,000 persons-years (95%CI: 17.6-19.0. The highest IR was in persons aged ≥65 years (43.6x100,000 (95% CI: 41.0-46.2 (p<0.001. A total of 1065 samples were analyzed with a positivity rate of 60.8%. 98% of positive samples were NoV (GII 56.3%; GI 4.2%; GII+GI 4.2%; non- typable 33.0%. SV was identified in two person-to-person transmission outbreaks in children.These results confirm the relevance of viral AGE outbreaks, both foodborne and person-to-person, especially in institutionalized persons. SV should be taken into account when investigating viral AGE outbreaks.

  2. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  3. Mathematics education and learning disabilities in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ana Miranda; Castellar, Rosa García

    2004-01-01

    In the first part of this article, we describe the basic objectives of the math curriculum in Spain as well as the basic contents, teacher resources, and obstacles perceived in mathematics instruction. Second, we briefly describe the concept of learning disabilities (LD) as they are currently defined in Spain. As stated in the recent educational reform, a student with LD is any student with special educational needs. The emphasis is placed on the educational resources that these students need in order to achieve the curricular objectives that correspond to their age group or grade. Third, we comment specifically on the educational services model and the evaluation and instructional procedures for students with math learning disabilities. Finally, we describe some lines of research that have appeared in the last few years in Spain that have led to the development of new evaluation and intervention procedures for students with LD in computation and problem solving. PMID:15493468

  4. L'hydrogène Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Balaceanu J. C.

    2006-01-01

    La crise pétrolière et le bouleversement du classement économique des énergies primaires qu'elle entraîne conjuguent leurs effets avec ceux d'une sensibilisation de l'opinion au respect de l'environnement pour favoriser l'avènement industriel d'innovations scientifiques et techniques dont l'intervention n'était prévisible que dans un avenir de plusieurs décennies. Le développement de l'énergie électrique nucléaire, qui actuellement s'impose économiquement, implique, pour élargir la pénétratio...

  5. He-Ne laser extravascular irradiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Chen, Huifang; Xie, Shusen; Chen, Yanjiao; Zhang, Yanrong

    2000-10-01

    Based on the study of tissue optics related with the laser irradiation blood therapy, a new treatment method, extravascular low-level laser irradiation therapy (ELLLI) is developed. The veins of 30 patients with cerebrovascular disease combined with diabetes, asthma were treated by He-Ne laser (632.8nm, 25mW) which was delivered by an optics fiber. The fiber was outside the patient's skin and the laser irradiated on the blood vessel perpendicularly. The therapy time was 60 minutes each time and about 7-10 times a course of the treatment. The values of blood sugar, blood- fat and hemorrheology were measured as the effective indexes. After the treatment the effective indexes and the symptoms of the patients were all improved. With the advantages of simplicity and safety (no medical infection), laser extravascular irradiation therapy is likely to be a new medical method for heart brain and other diseases.

  6. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH 20 yrs the PMEL-Vents and NSF RIDGE programs have sought to observe

  7. On the Accession of Spain to the European Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel N. Biriukov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the enlargement of the European Communities (hereinafter EC. Author outlines key questions of the accession of Spain to the EC. Main attention is paid to the characteristics of the conditions of the accession of Spain to the EC. The article explores the role of public authorities of Spain in the implementation of EC documents in Spain. Author investigates the doctrine of relationship between EC norms and Spanish national law.

  8. Double ionization of Ne5+ and Ne6+ ions by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical studies of electron impact double ionization cross sections of Ne5+ and Ne6+ ions have been performed in the binary encounter approximation (BEA). Direct double ionization (DDI) has been investigated in the modified double binary encounter model. The K-shell ionization cross sections have been also calculated in the BEA to take into account the contributions to double ionization from the ionization-autoionization (IA) process. The effect of the Coulombic field of the target ion on the incident electron has been considered in the present work. Accurate expression of σΔE (cross section for energy transfer ΔE) and the Hartree-Fock (HF) velocity distributions for the target electrons have been used throughout the calculations. The present results are in overall moderate agreement with the experimental observations. Possible reasons behind the discrepancies between the theory and the experiment have been discussed. (authors)

  9. The Practice of Fiscal Federalism in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Julio López Laborda; Jorge Martinez-Vazquez; Carlos Monasterio Escudero

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 25 years when the rapid decentralization was taking place, Spain enjoyed high rates of economic growth and prosperity, spotted with unusually high rates of unemployment associated with rigidities in labour market institutions. In 2005, GDP per capita was $ 25,500. Over the same period of 25 years, Spain underwent a considerable increase in tax effort. In 1975 total tax revenues as a percent of GDP stood at less than 20 percent. By comparison, at that time, the OECD average count...

  10. Taxation of nuclear waste in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rozas Valdés, José Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Law 15/2012 established in Spain four new environmental taxes and extended the scope objective excise duties on mineral oils to tax the use of natural gas and coal as sources of electricity. One of the newly created taxes falls on all electric power producers, and has as tax base the turnover. The second one tax hydropower production, and the other two fall on the nuclear industry. So, there are two new taxes in Spain on the production of electricity from nuclear sources. The first one is a t...

  11. Studies of archaeoastronomy in Spain: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdeño, Mª Luisa; Rodríguez-Caderot, Gracia; Moya, Pedro R.; Ibarra, Ana; Herrero, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    Studies of Arqueoastronomy have a long tradition in Europe and, to a lesser extent, in Spain. This research is mainly done by astronomers. The recognition of this studies is still lacking in archaeology. This paper reviews current research projects in Spain and the main problems raised by Archaeoastronomy.

    Los estudios de Arqueoastronomía tienen una larga trayectoria en algunos países europeos y, en menor medida, en España. Mayoritariamente se llevan a cabo desde el campo d...

  12. Analyze Culture Difference between China and Spain from Architectural Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单梦宸

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the world, the communication between china and spain become more and more frequently. and the building style between china and spain is very diferent. in this essay, we mainly learn the diferent culture of china and spain from its builing style.

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31 Peppers from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain...

  14. Runoff generation in SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, E. N.; Kirkby, M. J.; Chapman, P. J.; Bracken, L. J.

    2007-12-01

    We are working to improve a hydrological model for prediction of runoff in medium-scale semi-arid catchments in SE Spain. The aim is to develop and improve understandings of runoff generation in semi-arid areas and to improve modelling of runoff. Objectives are to investigate the influence of geology, landuse and seasonality on infiltration rates and use remonte sensing (RS) and GIS to classify an area into Hydrologically Similar Surfaces (HYSS) categories. The research includes investigating the impact of different landscape elements on runoff within two 150 km2 catchments, the Rambla Nogalte and the Rambla de Torrealvilla. Most storms within these catchments are of short duration. HYSS are defined as areas with similar1-D (vertical) partitioning of net rainfall between infiltration and overland flow. HYSS are identified from field measurements of soils, micro and macro- topography and infiltration rates; then combined with analysis of multi-spectral airborne RS images. HYSS are selected to minimise internal variability in the relationship between rainfall and local runoff generation and are scaled up to cover larger areas. The overall sampling strategy for measurements has been to undertake constant intensity rainfall simulator measurements within provisional HYSS categories, and to augment this with a large number of minidisk infiltrometer measurements. This strategy captures as much of the variability in the landscape as possible. The wide variability within even small areas has led to the final adoption of only a few large classes that can be effectively distinguished. The final part of the research is to link the spatial partitioning of the two catchments into HYSS with the detailed rainfall records for the areas, and combine these two sets of data into a grid-based model for runoff generation across the area. The applied Green-Ampt modelling approach gave 63 possible combinations of surface properties (9 HYSS) and areas in the Rambla Nogalte each represented

  15. Trauma care systems in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queipo de Llano, E; Mantero Ruiz, A; Sanchez Vicioso, P; Bosca Crespo, A; Carpintero Avellaneda, J L; de la Torre Prado, M V

    2003-09-01

    Trauma care systems in Spain are provided by the Nacional Health Service in a decentralized way by the seventeen autonomous communities whose process of decentralization was completed in January 2002. Its organisation is similar in all of them. Public sector companies of sanitary emergencies look after the health of citizens in relation to medical and trauma emergencies with a wide range of up to date resources both technical and human. In the following piece there is a description of the emergency response teams divided into ground and air that are responsible for the on site care of the patients in coordination with other public services. They also elaborate the prehospital clinical history that is going to be a valuable piece of information for the teams that receive the patient in the Emergency Hospital Unit (EHU). From 1980 to 1996 the mortality rate per 10.000 vehicles and the deaths per 1.000 accidents dropped significantly: in 1980 6.4 and 96.19% and in 1996, 2.8 and 64.06% respectively. In the intrahospital organisation there are two differentiated areas to receive trauma patients the casualty department and the EHU. In the EHU the severe and multiple injured patients are treated by the emergency hospital doctors; first in the triage or resuscitation areas and after when stabilised they are passed too the observation area or to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and from there the EHU or ICU doctors call the appropriate specialists. There is a close collaboration and coordination between the orthopaedic surgeon the EHU doctors and the other specialists surgeons in order to comply with treatment prioritization protocols. Once the patient has been transferred an entire process of assistance continuity is developed based on interdisciplinary teams formed in the hospital from the services areas involved in trauma assistance and usually coordinated by the ICU doctors. There is also mentioned the assistance registry of trauma patients, the ICU professional training

  16. One-neutron knockout from Ne24-28 isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Tajes, C; Caamano, M; Faestermann, T; Cortina-Gil, D; Zhukov, M; Simon, H; Nilsson, T; Borge, M J G; Alvarez-Pol, H; Winkler, M; Prochazka, A; Nociforo, C; Weick, H; Kanungo, R; Perez-Loureiro, D; Kurtukian, T; Suemmerer, K; Eppinger, K; Perea, A; Chatillon, A; Maierbeck, P; Benlliure, J; Pascual-Izarra, C; Gernhaeuser, R; Geissel, H; Aumann, T; Kruecken, R; Larsson, K; Tengblad, O; Benjamim, E; Jonson, B; Casarejos, E

    2010-01-01

    One-neutron knockout reactions of Ne24-28 in a beryllium target have been studied in the Fragment Separator (FRS), at GSI. The results include inclusive one-neutron knockout cross-sections as well as longitudinal-momentum distributions of the knockout fragments. The ground-state structure of the neutron-rich neon isotopes was obtained from an analysis of the measured momentum distributions. The results indicate that the two heaviest isotopes, Ne-27 and Ne-28, are dominated by a configuration in which a s(1/2) neutron is coupled to an excited state of the Ne-26 and Ne-27 core, respectively. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Transfer reaction cross sections from the interactions of 20Ne and 22Ne with 232Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A target of 232Th has been bombarded with 114 MeV 22Ne and with 114 MeV and 129 MeV 20Ne beams. Recoiling reaction products were chemically isolated and the cross sections for protactinium, uranium, and neptunium isotopes were determined. The width of the cross section distributions for a given Z and their neutron-richness are the same as those for similar transfers in Ne+ 248Cm reactions. Population of low spin isomeric states is favored in these reactions over population of high spin states. As was seen in reactions with heavier targets, an increase in reaction energy does little to shift the evaporation residues toward neutron deficiency. The implications are that only primary products with little or no excitation energy and angular momentum survive the fission process to become evaporation residues in these systems, and that the production of these nuclides is more controlled by the change in the identity of the projectile than by the corresponding change in the target

  18. Feasibility of a Vietnamese café in Spain : Case: Café Hanoi, Barcelona, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tra My

    2016-01-01

    This study covers the feasibility of a business idea – a Vietnamese café in the city of Barcelona, Spain. The study is the preliminary of a business plan. Therefore, it aims to discover the environment surrounding the café in Barcelona, Spain. The study employs descriptive approach, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The data collection includes both primary and secondary data. The primary data is collected through focus group, interviews and questionnaire. The secondary dat...

  19. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  20. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through t

  1. Related variety and regional growth in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Minondo, A.; Navarro, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates whether related variety, among other types of spatial externalities, affected regional growth in Spain at the NUTS 3 level during the period 1995–2007. We found evidence that related variety matters for growth across regions, especially when using two new methods that measure

  2. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  3. Scattering study of the Ne + NeH{sup +}(v{sub 0} = 0, j{sub 0} = 0) → NeH{sup +} + Ne reaction on an ab initio based analytical potential energy surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koner, Debasish; Panda, Aditya N., E-mail: adi07@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás, E-mail: t.gonzalez.lezana@csic.es [IFF-CSIC, Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)

    2016-01-21

    Initial state selected dynamics of the Ne + NeH{sup +}(v{sub 0} = 0, j{sub 0} = 0) → NeH{sup +} + Ne reaction is investigated by quantum and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods on the ground electronic state. The three-body ab initio energies on a set of suitably chosen grid points have been computed at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-PVQZ level and analytically fitted. The fitting of the diatomic potentials, computed at the same level of theory, is performed by spline interpolation. A collinear [NeHNe]{sup +} structure lying 0.72 eV below the Ne + NeH{sup +} asymptote is found to be the most stable geometry for this system. Energies of low lying vibrational states have been computed for this stable complex. Reaction probabilities obtained from quantum calculations exhibit dense oscillatory structures, particularly in the low energy region and these get partially washed out in the integral cross section results. SQM predictions are devoid of oscillatory structures and remain close to 0.5 after the rise at the threshold thus giving a crude average description of the quantum probabilities. Statistical cross sections and rate constants are nevertheless in sufficiently good agreement with the quantum results to suggest an important role of a complex-forming dynamics for the title reaction.

  4. Scattering study of the Ne + NeH(+)(v0 = 0, j0 = 0) → NeH(+) + Ne reaction on an ab initio based analytical potential energy surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koner, Debasish; Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás; Panda, Aditya N

    2016-01-21

    Initial state selected dynamics of the Ne + NeH(+)(v0 = 0, j0 = 0) → NeH(+) + Ne reaction is investigated by quantum and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods on the ground electronic state. The three-body ab initio energies on a set of suitably chosen grid points have been computed at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-PVQZ level and analytically fitted. The fitting of the diatomic potentials, computed at the same level of theory, is performed by spline interpolation. A collinear [NeHNe](+) structure lying 0.72 eV below the Ne + NeH(+) asymptote is found to be the most stable geometry for this system. Energies of low lying vibrational states have been computed for this stable complex. Reaction probabilities obtained from quantum calculations exhibit dense oscillatory structures, particularly in the low energy region and these get partially washed out in the integral cross section results. SQM predictions are devoid of oscillatory structures and remain close to 0.5 after the rise at the threshold thus giving a crude average description of the quantum probabilities. Statistical cross sections and rate constants are nevertheless in sufficiently good agreement with the quantum results to suggest an important role of a complex-forming dynamics for the title reaction. PMID:26801030

  5. Scattering study of the Ne + NeH+(v0 = 0, j0 = 0) → NeH+ + Ne reaction on an ab initio based analytical potential energy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koner, Debasish; Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás; Panda, Aditya N.

    2016-01-01

    Initial state selected dynamics of the Ne + NeH+(v0 = 0, j0 = 0) → NeH+ + Ne reaction is investigated by quantum and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods on the ground electronic state. The three-body ab initio energies on a set of suitably chosen grid points have been computed at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-PVQZ level and analytically fitted. The fitting of the diatomic potentials, computed at the same level of theory, is performed by spline interpolation. A collinear [NeHNe]+ structure lying 0.72 eV below the Ne + NeH+ asymptote is found to be the most stable geometry for this system. Energies of low lying vibrational states have been computed for this stable complex. Reaction probabilities obtained from quantum calculations exhibit dense oscillatory structures, particularly in the low energy region and these get partially washed out in the integral cross section results. SQM predictions are devoid of oscillatory structures and remain close to 0.5 after the rise at the threshold thus giving a crude average description of the quantum probabilities. Statistical cross sections and rate constants are nevertheless in sufficiently good agreement with the quantum results to suggest an important role of a complex-forming dynamics for the title reaction.

  6. Relocation and seismotectonic interpretation of the 2015 Ossa de Montiel (Albacete, Spain) seismic series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantavella, Juan V.; Gaite, Beatriz; Ruiz, Mario; Romero, Paula; Gómez-García, Clara; Cerdeño, Roberto; Villaseñor, Antonio; Díaz, Jordi; Lozano, Lucía

    2016-04-01

    A moderate earthquake with magnitude Mw 4.7 occurred on February 23, 2015 to the NE of Ossa de Montiel (SE central Spain), in a region with very low seismic activity and poorly monitored by permanent seismic stations. Two days after the event a dense temporary seismic network consisting of 13 stations was deployed in this area until April 6, 2015, allowing to detect more than 500 events inside the network limits. The data gathered from this network along with the data from more distant seismic stations has allowed us to perform a precise hypocentral location of the Ossa de Montiel seismic series. For this location we have manually read the arrival times for all the stations and used relative location techniques based on waveform cross-correlations and a double-difference algorithm. In addition, we have studied the focal mechanism of the main shock and the largest aftershocks using first motion polarities and full waveform inversion. We have found that the mechanism and aftershock distribution is consistent with a NW-SE normal fault with a dip of 40 degrees to the NE at a depth of about 12 km. With these results we analyze the temporal evolution of the seismic sequence and propose a seismotectonic interpretation of a series developed in an area with scarce seismic information to this date.

  7. Linking spatial patterns of soil redistribution traced with 137Cs and soil nutrients in a Mediterranean mountain agroecosystem (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Laura; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems are prone to soil loss mainly due to the accelerated erosion as a consequence of human induced changes from agriculture and grazing practices over the last centuries and the climatic conditions (i.e. irregular and scarce precipitations and drought periods). Soil erosion leads to soil degradation inducing the loss of soil functions. The progressive decline of soil functions thereof soil quality is associated to a decrease of soil productivity and can threat the sustainability of cultivated soils. The use of fallout 137Cs as a soil movement tracer provides useful data to identify areas where loss and gain of 137Cs occurs and that of soil. This study aims to address soil movement and soil nutrient dynamics closely related to the status of soil degradation. A rain-fed cereal field (1.6 ha) representative of Mediterranean mountain agricultural landscapes (42°25'41''N 1°13'8''W) was selected to examine the effects of soil redistribution processes on the spatial variability of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON) and their relationships with soil properties and topographic characteristics. From the hydrological point of view, the field is isolated due to the effect of landscape features and man-made structures. Climate is continental Mediterranean with an average annual rainfall of 500 mm and soils are Calcisols. The reference inventories of 137Cs and soil nutrients were established from 21 soil samples collected in nearby undisturbed areas under typical Mediterranean vegetation cover. A total of 156 bulk soil samples (30-50 cm depth) and 156 topsoil samples (5 cm) were collected on a 10 m grid. 137Cs and soil nutrients loss and gain areas were identified by comparing the reference inventories with the values of inventories at the sampling points. A new approach to characterize and measure active (ACF) and stable (SCF) carbon fraction contents by using a dry combustion method based on the oxidation temperature of carbon fractions to analyze the SOC pool dynamics is presented in this study. A detailed field topographic survey and mapping of the spatial variability of soil properties and nutrient contents from soil analyses displayed similar spatial patterns of 137Cs and soil nutrients that also were directly and significantly correlated (p≤0.01). As much as 70% of the surface of the study field had lower values of 137Cs inventory indicating a predominance of soil loss linked to a generalized loss of soil nutrients. SOC gain was found in less than 1% of the study field and there was a large loss of SON compared to the undisturbed reference site. Higher and significant (p≤0.01) contents of soil nutrients were found in topsoil samples than in the bulk ones. Furthermore, there was an enrichment of the relative contribution of ACF to total SOC in sampling points where there was a 137Cs gain in both bulk and topsoil samples. Understanding patterns of soil nutrients can be useful for developing and implementing land management strategies to preserve soil quality in Mediterranean agricultural areas.

  8. Assessing the effect of soil use changes on soil moisture regimes in mountain regions. (Catalan Pre-Pyrenees NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil moisture regimes under different land uses were observed and modeled in a representative forest basin in the Catalonian Pre-Pyrenees, more specifically in the Ribera Salada catchment (222.5 km2). The vegetation cover in the catchment consists of pasture, tillage and forest. A number of representative plots for each of these land cover types were intensely monitored during the study period. The annual precipitation fluctuates between 516 and 753 mm, while the soil moisture content oscillates between 14 and 26% in the middle and low lying areas of the basin, and between 21 and 48% in shady zones near the river bed, and in the higher parts of the basin. Soil moisture and rainfall are controlled firstly by altitude, with the existence of two climatic types in the basin (sub-Mediterranean and sub-alpine), and further, by land use. Two models were applied to the estimated water moisture regimes: the Jarauta Simulation Newhall model (JSM) and the Newhall simulation model (NSM) were found to be able to predict the soil moisture regimes in the basin in the different combinations of local abiotic and biotic factors. The JSM results are more precise than the results obtained using another frequently used method, more specifically the Newhall Simulation Model (NSM), which has been developed to simulate soil moisture regimes. NSM was found to overestimate wet soil moisture regimes. The results show the importance of the moisture control section size and Available Water Capacity (AWC) of the profile, in the moisture section control state and variability. The mountain soils are dominated by rustic and occasionally xeric regimes. Land use changes leading to an increase in forest areas would imply drier soil conditions and therefore drier soil water regimes. These effects are most evident in degraded shallow and stony soils with low AWC.

  9. Palaeoflood response to climate and landuse changes in a Mediterranean river (Castellón, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Gerardo; Machado, Maria; Rico, MarÍa Teresa; Sánchez-Moya, Yolanda; Sopeña, Alfonso

    2014-05-01

    The Rambla de la Viuda (drainage area of 1500 km2) is a Mediterranean ephemeral river, dry most of the year. The fluvial geomorphology of the rambla is dominated by transversal bars typical of short-lived flows. The short-lived and occasionally large floods, are produced by mesoscale convective systems fed by humidity from the Mediterranean sea during autumn months. For the past 120 years the largest floods recorded took place in: 1920, 1962 y 2000. The study rambla has recorded an excellent palaeoflood archive from which hydrological and environmental history (landuse and landcover) can be reconstructed. The methodology used in the study of the palaeohydrological and palaeolandscape changes during the last 500 yrs (sedimentary records timespan) involved: 1) Reconstruction of palaeoflood records ( Stratigraphic description of slack-water flood deposits, Geochronology of individual floods with Radiocarbon and Optically Stimulated Luminescence, and the estimation of discharges associated with the different flood units/features by computing the water surface profiles using one-dimensional hydraulic modeling (HEC-RAS); and 2) Reconstruction of palaeoenvironmental conditions (Edaphological characterization of the soil horizons developed on flood units as well as the textural, geochemical and biomineralogical analysis of all sedimentary units). Four hydro/environmental phases were identified during the last 500 years, corresponding to different flood magnitud and frequency periods, associated to climate and/or land-use conditions. A high frequency and high magnitude palaeoflood period took place during the 15th-middle 16th century (Phase I) which seems to correlate in time with general wetter conditions and three main soil development episodes. Another important hydrological period took place until early 18th century (Phase III), though with a low frequency/ high magnitude floods, correlating in time with geochemical evidences of important changes on land use (deforestation and grazing). Poorer developed soils can be found at upper stratigraphic sequences (19th century), culminating sequences (sets) of slackwater flood units.

  10. Soil quality assessment through a multi-approach analysis in soils of abandoned terraced land in NE Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pardini, Giovanni; Gispert i Negrell, Maria Assumpta

    2012-01-01

    The abandonment of agricultural land in mountainous areas has been an outstanding problem along the last century and has captured the attention of scientists, technicians and administrations, for the dramatic consequences sometimes occurred due to soil instability, steep slopes, rainfall regimes and wildfires. Hidromorfological and pedological alterations causing exceptional floods and accelerated erosion processes has therefore been studied, identifying the cause in the loss of landscape het...

  11. Astronomical forcing in continental sediments. An integrated stratigraphic study of Miocene deposits from the Calatayud and Teruel basins, NE Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    During the last decades, there is an increasing concern about global climate change as a consequence of anthropogenic influences. Recently, a report presented by the working group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that there is convincing evidence that most of the war

  12. The influence of subaquatic springs in lacustrine sedimentation: Origin and paleoenvironmental significance of homogenites in karstic Lake Banyoles (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellón, Mario; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Giralt, Santiago; Ariztegui, Daniel; Sáez, Alberto; Mata, M. Pilar; Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Rico, Mayte; Moreno, Ana

    2014-08-01

    Banyoles (42°08‧N, 2°45‧E) is the largest and deepest lake of karstic-tectonic origin in the Iberian Peninsula. The lake comprises two basins and six sub-circularly shaped sub-basins fed by subaquatic springs. Periods of intense groundwater inflow in the deepest sub-basins lead to the fluidization and re-suspension of previously deposited sediments and subsequent settling forming homogenite deposits on the southern basin intermediate platforms. The multiproxy analysis of sediment cores combined with high resolution seismic stratigraphy (3.5 kHz pinger and multi-frequency Chirp surveys) allows a precise reconstruction of depositional environments and related hydrological variability and groundwater inflow during the last ca. 7.6 cal kyr BP. According to the age model based on 137Cs, 210Pb and AMS 14C dating, homogenite deposition occurred between 7.2 and 5.5 cal kyr BP, stopped during the middle Holocene (5.5-2.8 cal kyr BP) and greatly increased during the last two millennia with a total of 17 homogenite layers individually up to 75 cm-thick. The onset of this unique sedimentation mode at ca. 3 cal kyr BP coincides with an increase in lake level, evidenced by the onlapping of fine-grained, distal sediments over coarser massive, carbonate-rich, littoral deposits. A detailed, multidisciplinary study of the homogenites (sedimentology, physical properties, high-resolution elemental geochemistry, mineral composition, grain-size, organic matter content and SEM) combined with seismic stratigraphy demonstrates that the fluidization events triggering the formation of the homogenites were caused by higher and more intense local groundwater inflow, related to increased rainfall during the Late Holocene and likely intensified by land use changes during the last millennium.

  13. The influence of subaquatic springs in lacustrine sedimentation: Origin and paleoenvironmental significance of homogenites in karstic Lake Banyoles (NE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Morellón, Mario; Anselmetti, Flavio; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago; Ariztegui, Daniel; Sáez, Alberto; Mata, M. Pilar; Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Rico Herrero, Maria Teresa; Moreno Caballud, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Banyoles (42°08'N, 2°45'E) is the largest and deepest lake of karstic-tectonic origin in the Iberian Peninsula. The lake comprises two basins and six sub-circularly shaped sub-basins fed by subaquatic springs. Periods of intense groundwater inflow in the deepest sub-basins lead to the fluidization and re-suspension of previously deposited sediments and subsequent settling forming homogenite deposits on the southern basin intermediate platforms. The multiproxy analysis of sediment cores combin...

  14. Reconstructing the cosmogenic 21Ne inventory of Neogene sedimentary sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Finlay; Sinclair, Hugh; McCann, Louise

    2016-04-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclides, in particular 10Be, have found use in modern sediments as a way of determining the erosion rate of river catchments. Cosmogenic 21Ne in quartz is easier and faster to measure than 10Be and has the potential to record erosion rates back 10s million years. However the routine use of cosmogenic 21Ne in quartz sand is hampered by ubiquitous nucleogenic 21Ne. When the eroding lithology can be identified it is possible to measure the nucleogenic in samples that are shielded from cosmic rays and correct for it in exposed bedrock [1]. However, identifying the lithologies that contributes quartz sand in large river catchments, and determining precise nucleogenic contributions is more problematic. The North and South Platte rivers drain early Prototerozoic lithologies of the Laramie and Front Ranges in the high Rockies of Wyoming. They have deposited several km of coarse clastic fluvial deposits on the Great Plains of Nebraska and Colorado up to 200 km from the mountain front. Quartz from shielded samples of granite and gneiss - the dominant quartz-bearing rocks - has high concentrations of nucleogenic 21Ne (60-140 e6 atoms/g). The 21Ne concentration in modern sand from the river (n=10) overlaps that measured in the shielded granite and gneiss. The sand data rarely lie on the air-spallation mixing line in the Ne three isotope plot indicating that it is dominantly derived from the granite and gneiss and has no resolvable cosmogenic 21Ne. Building on previous studies of cosmogenic 21Ne in pebbles [2] we have started a programme of analysis of pebbles derived from the Medicine Bow quartzite that are abundant throughout the Cenozoic alluvial sequence. Nucleogenic 21Ne in shielded quartzite is lower than granites (3-7 e6 atoms/g, n=4) and the data tend to lie on the air-spallation mixing line. All pebbles (n=14) from modern sediments analysed so far contain 2-80 times more excess 21Ne than the highest shielded quartzite suggesting that cosmogenic 21

  15. Exclusive measurements of nuclear breakup reactions of 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wamers F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied one-proton-removal reactions of about 500MeV/u 17Ne beams on a carbon target at the R3B/LAND setup at GSI by detecting beam-like 15O-p and determining their relative-energy distribution. We exclusively selected the removal of a 17Ne halo proton, and the Glauber-model analysis of the 16F momentum distribution resulted in an s2 contribution in the 17Ne ground state of about 40%.

  16. X-ray Fluorescence in Member States: Spain. Activities at the Laboratory of X ray Analytical Applications (LARX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the phytoremediation of an abandoned Pb/Zn mining area located at the North East of Spain. 3. Compositional Characterization of Ancient Coins by Means of XRF Instrumentation. During the last years, amongst other activities, the Laboratory of X ray Analytical Applications (LARX) has been involved in the analytical applications of XRF spectrometry in the field of Cultural Heritage objects. In the last two years, within the framework of a joined project between LARX and the Catalonian Numismatic Department (GNC) at the National Museum of Fine Arts of Catalonia (MNAC, Barcelona) were undertaken

  17. Towards a detailed knowledge about Mediterranean flash floods and extreme floods in the catchments of Spain, France and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duband, D.

    2009-09-01

    It is important to remember that scientific research programs of the European Commission and contributors had implemented a multidisciplinary (geography, history, meteorology, climatology, hydrology, geomorphology, geology, paleohydrology, sociology, economy......) better knowledge and more understanding of the physical risk assessment of disastrous floods (particularly flash floods) with rising factors of vulnerability and perhaps climate change at the end of the XX1 century, in the triangular geographical area Zaragosa (Spain)-Orléans (France)-Firenze (Italy). With reference to historical floods events observed from last two centuries in Spain (Catalonia), France (Languedoc Roussillon - Provence Alpes Cote d’Azur-Corse-Rhone Alpes -Auvergne- Bourgogne) and in Italy (Ligurie - Piemont - Lombardie) we lay particular stress on a detailed understanding of the spatial and temporal scales of the physical dynamic process being at the origin of locals or extensive flash floods. This study requires to be based on the meteorology (atmospheric circulation patterns ,on west Europe- Atlantic and Mediterranean sea) responsible, with relief and sea surface temperature, of high precipitations (amounts, intensities), air temperature, discharges of high floods, observed in the past ,on large and coastal rivers. We will take example of the Rhone river catchments, in connexion with Po-Ebre-Loire-Seine rivers, based on the studies of thirty high historical floods occurred from 1840 to 2005, and characteristics of Oceanic and Mediterranean weather situations, sometime alternated. Since recent years we have the daily mean sea level pressure dataset (EMSLP) reconstructions for European-North Atlantic Region for the period 1850-2006. So it is now possible to allow us the selection in the complete meteorological dataset during 1950- 2009 period by an analog method (like operational daily applications from 1969, at Electricity of France) to select weather situations similar to

  18. La influència del krausisme a Catalunya The influence of Krausism in Catalonia La influencia del krausismo en Cataluña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Vilafranca i Manguán

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Molta és la recerca historicopedagògica contemporània que s’ha ocupat d’estudiar el moviment ideològic que emmarcà l’evolució educativa del segle XIX i primer terç del segle XX. Cada cop es fan més evidents els lligams establerts entre Madrid i Catalunya al llarg d’aquest període. Diverses publicacions i recerques posen de relleu la influència de l’idealisme krausista a Catalunya. Així, en aquest article, s’afaiçona que a Catalunya hi hagué un nucli d’intel·lectuals krausistes mentre que es constata a Madrid la presència de catalans institucionistes. _____________________________________________ La recherche historico-pédagogique contemporaine qui s’est occupée d’étudier le mouvement idéologique qui encadre l’évolution éducative du XIXe siècle et du premier tiers du XXe est nombreuse. Les liens qui ont été tissés entre Madrid et la Catalogne au fil de cette période sont de plus en plus évidents. Diverses publications et recherches mettent en relief l’influence de l’idéalisme krausiste en Catalogne. Ainsi, cet article montre la présence en Catalogne d’un noyau d’intellectuels krausistes alors que l’on constate à Madrid celle de Catalans institutionnalistes.There is a considerable amount of contemporary historical-pedagogical research on the ideological movement that affected the development of education during the 19th century and the first part of the 20th century. The links that were established between Madrid and Catalonia throughout this period are increasingly evident. Various publications and studies have highlighted the influence of Krausist idealism in Catalonia. In this paper, we show that there was a core of Krausist intellectuals in Catalonia, whilst there is evidence of Catalan institutionalists in Madrid.Mucha es la investigación historicopedagógica que se ha ocupado de estudiar el movimiento ideológico que enmarcó la evolución educativa del siglo XIX y del primer

  19. Comparative performance of carbon isotope discrimination and canopy temperature depression as predictors of genotype differences in durum wheat yield in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationships between carbon isotope discrimination (Δ ) in mature kernels, canopy temperature depression (CTD) during anthesis and grain filling, 1000-kernel weight (TKW), total carbon content of mature kernels, and yield were studied in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) grown in Spain (western Mediterranean basin). Twenty-five durum wheat genotypes were grown in 2 regions (NE and SE Spain) and under 2 water regimes (rainfed versus support irrigation) from 1997 to 1999, in a total of 12 trials. Principal component analysis placed yield and Δ on the same axis. Pearson's correlation and stepwise analysis confirmed that Δ was the trait that best assessed genotype differences in yield within trials, and was followed, at a considerable distance, by TKW. Our results also demonstrated the extremely poor performance of CTD throughout the wide range of growing conditions in this study. Copyright (2002) CSIRO Publishing

  20. La atención hospitalaria al paciente con ictus en Cataluña: Resultados del «Primer Audit Clínic de l'Ictus. Catalunya, 2005/2006» In-hospital stroke care in Catalonia [Spain]: Results of the «First Clinical Audit of Stroke. Catalonia, 2005/2006»

    OpenAIRE

    Sònia Abilleira; Aida Ribera; Emília Sánchez; Jaume Roquer; Esther Duarte; Ricard Tresserras; Miquel Gallofré

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar la calidad de la atención hospitalaria al paciente con ictus en los hospitales públicos catalanes antes de la difusión de la Guía de Práctica Clínica (GPC) del ictus, estudiando el grado de adhesión a determinadas recomendaciones de la GPC. Métodos: Mediante revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas de pacientes con ictus definidos mediante los códigos CIE-9 431, 433.x1, 434.x1, 436, e ingresados consecutivamente en 48 hospitales públicos catalanes en el primer semestre ...

  1. Two Protons Emissions From 17Ne Excited States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The experiment 17Ne+197Au has been finished in Heavy Ion Research Facility Radioactive Ion Beam Line at Lanzhou (RIBLL). Through the total kinematic method of silicon strip detectors and CsI(Tl)+PIN

  2. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marganiec

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the O15+p+p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  3. High energy neutrino detection with KM3NeT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliozzi, Pasquale; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a next generation high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: the largest and most sensitive neutrino research infrastructure. The full KM3NeT detector will be a several cubic kilometres distributed, networked infrastructure. In Italy, off the coast of Capo Passero, and in France, off the coast of Toulon. Thanks to its location in the Northern hemisphere and to its large instrumented volume, KM3NeT will be the optimal instrument to search for neutrinos from the Southern sky and in particular from the Galactic plane, thus making it complementary to IceCube. In this work the technologically innovative component of the detector, the status of construction and the first results from prototypes of the KM3NeT detector will be described as well as its capability to discover neutrino sources are reported.

  4. WE FRIENDS, Lääne-Eesti arengupartnerlus / Ingrit Kera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kera, Ingrit

    2006-01-01

    Naised saavad osa hiidlaste kirjutatud europrojektist "We Friends", mille eesmärk on Lääne-Eesti madala konkurentsivõimega naiste ja lapsi üksi kasvatavate noorte emade tööhõivele kaasaaitamine

  5. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganiec, J.; Wamers, F.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Yu.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Emling, H.; Ershova, O.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Hoffmann, J.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Kurz, N.; Langer, C.; Lantz, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahata, K.; Müntz, C.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Nyman, G.; Ott, W.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Richter, A.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Riisager, K.; Savran, D.; Schrieder, G.; Simon, H.; Stroth, J.; Sümmerer, K.; Tengblad, O.; Typel, S.; Weick, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wimmer, C.

    2016-08-01

    New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the 15O + p + p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  6. 76 FR 76337 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission Barbara A. Kreisman,...

  7. Discharge modulation noise in He---Ne laser radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolwijn, P.T.

    1967-01-01

    Discharge modulation noise in He---Ne laser radiation is considered theoretically, including explicitly the laser oscillator properties. Experiments reported previously by us and other authors are in agreement with our analysis.

  8. On the New Puzzling Results from MiniBooNE

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Syed Afsar

    2011-01-01

    We look into the recent puzzlng results from MiniBooNE and contrast their results with that from NOMAD. A pictuire which provides consistent decscriptiobn of both is discussed here. This also points to future directions in neutrino studies.

  9. Noćne more Carlosa Fuentesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Una Krizmanić Ožegović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available U Iraku se zvao Salim Abdul Husain i radio je za općinu kao čistač, u skupini kojoj je upravitelj dodijelio zadatak čišćenja nakon eksplozija. Umro je 2009. u Nizozemskoj pod drugim imenom: Carlos Fuentes. Salim i njegovi kolege, puni dosade i gnušanja, kao i svakoga drugog jadnog dana, čistili su tržnicu nakon što je eksplodirao tegljač s gorivom, zapalivši piliće, voće, povrće i pokojeg čovjeka. Meli su pažljivo i polako od straha da ne pokupe neki zaostali komad ljudskoga tijela. Uvijek su tražili netaknutu lisnicu ili možda zlatni lanac, prsten ili sat koji je još pokazivao vrijeme. U potrazi za posmrtnim dragocjenostima Salim nije imao sreće kao njegovi kolege. Trebao mu je novac za vizu kako bi otišao u Nizozemsku i pobjegao iz ovog vatrenoga užasa prepunoga smrti. Samo mu se jedanput posrećilo pa je našao prst s dragocjenim srebrnim prstenom, vrlo lijepim. Salim je poklopio prst stopalom, pažljivo se sagnuo i skinuo prsten s gađenjem. Prsten je završio na Salimovoj ruci, zadivljeno je promatrao dragi kamen i na kraju odustao od pomisli da ga proda. Može li se reći da je osjetio duboku duhovnu povezanost s prstenom?

  10. Sinking of Ne-22 in Liquid White Dwarf Interiors

    OpenAIRE

    Deloye, Christopher J.; Bildsten, Lars

    2002-01-01

    We assess the impact of the trace element Ne-22 on the cooling and seismology of a liquid C/O white dwarf (WD). Due to this element's neutron excess, it sinks towards the interior as the liquid WD cools. The gravitational energy released slows the WD's cooling by 0.5-1.6 Gyr. In addition the Ne-22 abundance gradient changes the periods of the high radial order g-modes at the 1% level.

  11. Low energy positron-induced ionization of He and Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the preliminary results of SzIuinska and Laricchia [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 221 (2004) 100], further investigations of ionization have been carried out below the positronium formation threshold of He and Ne. Within the present experimental sensitivity, no significant signal is observed for He. Additionally, the residual signal previously observed in Ne is found to be due principally to contaminants rather than annihilation from this atom

  12. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    OpenAIRE

    Marganiec, J.; Wamers, F.; Aksouh, F.; Yu. Aksyutina; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Emling, H.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the O15+p+p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data ...

  13. Training in breast surgery in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguelena, José M; Domínguez Cunchillos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is a key part of training and competency in general surgery in Spain and is a "frontier area" that can be efficiently managed by general surgeons and gynecologists. The main objective of the training process consists of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, including conservative surgery, oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques. This article analyses the current status of breast surgery training in Spain and schematically proposes potential targets of the different training programs, to improve access and training for surgeons and residents in this area, taking into account the RD 639/2014 and European regulation. The priority is to specify the level of training that should be achieved, in relation to the group of professionals involved, considering their area of competency: surgery resident, educational programs, and surgeons with special dedication to this area.

  14. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship. PMID:26054209

  15. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  16. Social risk perception: recent findings in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to present our main results from a survey carried out in Spain in the context of social risk perception. This survey is included in a broad project (PRISP) sponsored by the UE and the national Civil Protection Service, and carried out simultaneously in three countries: Spain, Italy and UK. The project combined qualitative and quantitative assessment methods, although only survey results are presented here. A random sample of 600 subjects from two different Spanish communities close to a COMAH chemical site was selected for the research. Main findings regarding, differential perception between both community populations, sex differences, and 'bias perception' of risks among others have been achieved. Main dimensions were obtained by multidimensional scaling and Factor Analysis. Dimensions reported here are similar to the usual findings from the psychometric paradigm. (authors)

  17. Studies of archaeoastronomy in Spain: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerdeño, Mª Luisa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of Arqueoastronomy have a long tradition in Europe and, to a lesser extent, in Spain. This research is mainly done by astronomers. The recognition of this studies is still lacking in archaeology. This paper reviews current research projects in Spain and the main problems raised by Archaeoastronomy.

    Los estudios de Arqueoastronomía tienen una larga trayectoria en algunos países europeos y, en menor medida, en España. Mayoritariamente se llevan a cabo desde el campo de los astrónomos y todavía no han alcanzado un definitivo reconocimiento en el ámbito arqueológico. En este trabajo se revisan las líneas de trabajo existentes en España, con la inevitable referencia al marco europeo, y se analizan los principales problemas que tiene planteados esta disciplina académica.

  18. Phenolic Profile of Asturian (Spain) Natural Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Roberto; Picinelli, A.M. (Anna); Suárez, Belén

    2011-01-01

    The polyphenolic composition of natural ciders from the Asturian community (Spain), during 2 consecutive years, was analyzed by RP-HPLC and the photodiode-array detection system, without previous extraction (direct injection). A total of 16 phenolic compounds (catechol, tyrosol, protocatechuic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hydrocoumaric acid, ferulic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidins B2 and B5, phloretin-2¢-xyloglucoside, phloridzin, hyperin, aviculari...

  19. Generational Differences at Work in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lasierra, Jose Manuel; Molina, Jose Alberto; Ortega, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore differentials in the job satisfaction and the organizational commitment of Baby Boomers and Generation X. In light of multiple age segments in the workforce, and the ageing population, human resource management strategies aimed at attracting, engaging, and retaining employees of all ages are of strategic importance. Through the use of the large-scale Quality of Life at Work, 2006-2010 survey (Spain), we have carried out an empirical approach that points...

  20. Immigration and Housing Booms: Evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz??lez Luna, Libertad; Ortega, Francesc

    2009-01-01

    We estimate empirically the effect of immigration on house prices and residential construction activity in Spain over the period 1998-2008. This decade is characterized by both a spectacular housing market boom and a stunning immigration wave. We exploit the variation in immigration across Spanish provinces and construct an instrument based on the historical location patterns of immigrants by country of origin. The evidence points to a sizeable causal effect of immigration on b...

  1. Media and Informational Literacy Policies in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Grandío, María del Mar; Vicente, Miguel; Matilla, Agustín; Guitierrez Martín, Alfonso; Marta Lazo, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Media education in Spain has never received a public acknowledgment according to its importance within our time’s society. While the presence of media education in the curricula of European countries was growing during the 1970’s, Spanish scholars refused to grant this topic a priority attention. Alternatively, they let the task of raising awareness about the need to develop a critical and creative media education system in hands of other professional groups, like journalists or teachers.

  2. Residential mobile phone users complaints' in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Amaral, Teodosio; Gijón, Covadonga; Garín-Muñoz, Teresa; López, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Consumer satisfaction is a key determinant of customer retention, profitability of operators, consumer welfare and a strategic variable for competition and international comparisons. Spain's mobile customer satisfaction is the lowest in the European Union according to recent EU studies (SMREC, 2013). Consumer complaints are numerous according to official statistics. In turn, consumer complaints (and how well they are dealt with) influence customer satisfaction and retention. This paper analyz...

  3. Occupational segregation of immigrant women in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Coral del Río; Olga Alonso-Villar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze occupational segregation in the Spanish labor market from a gender and an immigration perspective. In doing so, several local and overall segregation measures are used. Our results suggest that immigrant women in Spain suffer a double segregation since segregation affects them to a greater extent than it does either native women or immigrant men. There are, however, remarkable discrepancies among the segregation of immigrant women depending on their region ...

  4. Seismic hazard in Andalucia region (Southern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Oterino, Belen; Navarro Bernal, Manuel; Gaspar Escribano, Jorge M.; Vidal Sánchez, Francisco; Góngora, Ana; García Rodríguez, María José; Martínez Solares, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The global objective of the SISMOSAN Project has been to provide a general seismic risk assessment of Andalusian region (Southern Spain) associated with the ground motions expected for a return period of 475 years. The project was financed by Civil Defence of Andalusia and its results will be applied to the definition of regional emergency plans. We present here the study and main results of the first phase of the project, aimed at evaluating seismic hazard. In contrast to most of the previou...

  5. A population density grid for Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cantarino Martí, Isidro; Goerlich, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    This is an author's accepted manuscript of an article published in "International Journal of Geographical Information Science"; Volume 27, Issue 12, 2013; copyright Taylor & Francis; available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13658816.2013.799283 This article describes a high-resolution land cover data set for Spain and its application to dasymetric population mapping (at census tract level). Eventually, this vector layer is transformed into a grid format. The wo...

  6. Community nutrition in Spain: advances and drawbacks

    OpenAIRE

    Aranceta, Javier; Lobo, Félix; Viedma, Pilar; Salvador-Castell, Gemma; Martínez de Victoria, Emilio; Ortega, Rosa M.; Bello, Luis; Tur-Marí, Josep A

    2009-01-01

    Scientific evidence has placed community nutrition among the front-line strategies in health promotion. Community nutrition in different regions of Spain has developed at an unequal pace. Early initiatives in the mid 1980s provided good-quality population data and established a basis for nutrition surveillance including individual body measurements, dietary intake data, information on physical activity, and biomarkers. The Nutrition and Physical Activity for Obesity Preventi...

  7. Description of industrial pollution in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonés Nuria; Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; Pollán Marina; Ramis Rebeca; Boldo Elena; García-Pérez Javier; López-Abente Gonzalo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Toxic substances released into the environment (to both air and water) by many types of industries might be related with the occurrence of some malignant tumours and other diseases. The publication of the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register) Spanish data allows to investigate the presence of geographical mortality patterns related to industrial pollution. The aim of this paper is to describe industrial air and water pollution in Spain in 2001, broken down by activit...

  8. Factors affecting quits and layoffs in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Caparrós Ruiz; Mª Lucía Navarro Gómez

    2002-01-01

    During the last decade, unemployment rates in the European Union have been higher than in other regions, e.g., the United States, and these are even higher in Spain. It has been argued that the different degrees of labour mobility between the European and the American labour markets can account for the differences in the pattern observed. This paper follows the McLaughlin's model (1991) and provides empirical evidence regarding the factors determining quits and layoffs due to contract termina...

  9. Technological spillovers and industrial location in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo, Jose G.

    1998-01-01

    While different studies have supported the existence of knowledge spillovers and shown their importance for economic growth, very few have focused on analysing their relation with the propensity for industrial activity to cluster spatially. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the geographic concentration of industrial activity in Spain, specially of innovative activity, and to link it with the existence of knowledge externalities. This analysis will be based in the marshallian concep...

  10. Aids in Spain and Immigration: Epidemiological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    ualberto Buela-Casal****; Ángel Castro; María Paz-Bermúdez**

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the current HIV/AIDS situation in Spain according to Spanish regions. Epidemiological HIV and AIDS Spanish data are analyzed and adjusted by population rates. Prevalence indexes and distribution by gender, age and way of transmission in the Spanish regions are compared. In addition, it is paid special attention to immigrant population as people who can take HIV/AIDS risk behaviors. Results revealed that the Spanish regions with the highest prevalence rates ...

  11. Wage Assimilation of Immigrants in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Zenón Jiménez-Ridruejo; Carlos Borondo Arribas

    2011-01-01

    In this study we quantify the effect of the years of residence in Spain on the earnings of immigrants. We take sex, origin, education and age into account. The results are clearly positive, the longer the length of residence the more earnings, confirming the hypothesis of wage assimilation of immigrants as their human capital is adapted to the Spanish labor market. The information used comes from the Social Security’s Continuous Sample of Working Lives 2007. Additionally, we merge the earning...

  12. Estimation of the extraterrestrial 3He and 20Ne fluxes on Earth from He and Ne systematics in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavrit, Déborah; Moreira, Manuel; Moynier, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Sediments contain interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) carrying extraterrestrial noble gases, such as 3He, which have previously been used to estimate the IDP accretion flux over time and the duration of past environmental events. However, due to its high diffusivity, He can be lost by diffusion either due to frictional heating during entry in the atmosphere, or once it has been incorporated in the sediments. Therefore the absolute values of 3He IDP fluxes cannot be known. Due to its lower diffusivity, Ne is less likely to be lost by diffusion than He and can potentially provide an absolute IDP flux value. Here, we studied the Ne and He isotopic composition of 21 sediments of different ages (3 to 38 Myr, 56 Myr and 183 Myr) in order to better constrain the retention of 3He in such deposits. The samples are carbonates from 2 sites of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), which previously showed evidence of detectable extraterrestrial 3He, and from the Sancerre core in the Paris basin. The 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and 21Ne/22Ne ratios of decarbonated residues vary respectively from 0.09×10-6 to 76.5×10-6, 9.54±0.08 to 11.30±0.60 and from 0.0295±0.0001 to 0.0344±0.0003. These isotopic compositions can be explained by a mixing between two terrestrial components (atmosphere and radiogenic He and nucleogenic Ne present in the terrigenous fractions) and an extraterrestrial component. The linear relationship between 20Ne/22Ne and 3He/22Ne ratios shows that the extraterrestrial component has a unique composition and is similar to the He and Ne composition of implanted solar wind. This composition is different from the individual stratospheric IDPs for which the Ne and He isotopic compositions have been measured. We suggest that this difference is due to a bias in the sampling of the individual IDPs previously analyzed toward the largest ones that are more likely to lose He during entry in the atmosphere. Our data further constrains the size of the majority of the

  13. Water Markets in Spain: Performance and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Palomo-Hierro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Law 46/1999 incorporated formal water markets into the Spanish legal and regulatory framework, allowing spot water markets and the creation of water banks. The implementation of water markets in Spain aimed at improving the efficiency of water use by reallocating water towards uses with higher added value. However, the performance of water markets in Spain has been rather disappointing, since they have been operative only during drought periods, and even under these extreme scarcity situations, trading activity counted for less than 5.0% of total water use. The narrowness of the market suggests that there are some barriers hampering their effective functioning. This paper examines the evolution and performance of water markets in Spain, relying on a transaction costs analysis framework. This analysis allows the identification of the main factors impeding water markets from operating effectively as a water reallocation tool. This analysis also provides some guidelines on how to overcome these obstacles and, thus, how to improve the efficiency of water use.

  14. Monitoring of perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Maria; Campo, Julian; Andreu, Vicente; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia

    2015-04-01

    -29703-C02-01 and CGL2011-29703-C02-02 References Campo, J., Pérez, F., Masiá, A., Picó, Y., Farré, M., Barceló, D., 2014. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain). Science of the Total Environment DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.05.094. Masiá, A., Campo J., Vázquez-Roig, P., Blasco, C., Picó Y., 2013. Screening of currently used pesticides in water, sediments and biota of the Guadalquivir River Basin (Spain). J. Hazard. Mater. 263P, 95-104.

  15. Population structure and effective/census population size ratio in threatened three-spined stickleback populations from an isolated river basin in northwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Figueroa, A; Fernández, C; Amaro, R; Hermida, M; San Miguel, E

    2015-08-01

    Variability at 20 microsatellite loci was examined to assess the population genetic structure, gene flow, and effective population size (N(e)) in three populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from the upper basin of the Miño River in Galicia, NW Spain, where this species is threatened. The three populations showed similar levels of genetic diversity. There is a significant genetic differentiation between the three populations, but also significant gene flow. N(e) estimates based on linkage disequilibrium yielded values of 355 for the Miño River population and 241 and 311 for the Rato and Guisande Rivers, respectively, although we expect that these are overestimates. N(e) estimates based on temporal methods, considering gene flow or not, for the tributaries yielded values of 30-56 and 47-56 for the Rato and Guisande Rivers, respectively. Estimated census size (N(c)) for the Rato River was 880 individuals. This yielded a N(e)/N(c) estimate of 3-6 % for temporal estimation of N(e), which is within the empirical range observed in freshwater fishes. We suggest that the three populations analyzed have a sufficient level of genetic diversity with some genetic structure. Additionally, the absence of physical barriers suggests that conservation efforts and monitoring should focus in the whole basin as a unit.

  16. Design of adaptation actions to compensate the hydrological impact of the river regulation by dams on the Ebro Delta (Spain): combining modeling and field work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Darío; Jurado, Alicia; Carpintero, Miriam; Rovira, Albert; Polo, María J.

    2016-04-01

    River regulation by dams for both flood control and water storage has allowed to decrease both uncertainty and risks associated to extreme hydrological events. However, the alteration of the natural river flow regime and the detraction of high water volumes usually lead to significant effects downstream on the morphology, water quality, ecological status of water… and this is particularly relevant in the transitional waters since the sea level rise poses an additional threat on such conditions. The Ebro River, in northeastern Spain, is one of the highly regulated rivers in Spain with the dams located in the mainstream. Besides an estimated decrease of a 30% of the freshwater inputs, the sediment delivery to the final delta in the Mediterranean has dramatically been decreased up to a 99%, with environmental risks associated to the reduction of the emerged areas from the loss of sediment supply, the impact on the subsidence dynamics, and the sea level rise. The Ebro Delta suffers a mean regression of 10 m per year, and the persistence of macrophyte development in the final reach of the river due to the low water mean flow regime. The project LIFE EBRO-ADMICLIM (ENV/ES/001182), coordinated by the IRTA in Catalonia (Spain), puts forwards pilot actions for adaptation to and mitigation of climate change in the Ebro Delta. An integrated approach is proposed for managing water, sediment and habitats (rice fields and wetlands), with the multiple aim of optimizing ground elevation, reducing coastal erosion, increasing the accumulation (sequestration) of carbon in the soil, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and improving water quality. This work presents the pilot actions included in the project to mitigate the loss of water flow and sediment supply to the delta. Sediment injections at different points upstream have been designed to calibrate and validate a sediment transport model coupled to a 2D-hydrodinamic model of the river. The combination of an a

  17. Mid-Infrared [NeII] and [NeIII] Emission Line Profiles in Starbursts and AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonyan, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    Line profiles and velocities of the [CII] 157μm line observed with the Herschel PACS instrument are compared to high resolution [NeII] 12.81μm and [NeIII] 15.55μm emission lines observed with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). We are analysing spectra of at least 400 galaxies having both IRS high resolution and Herschel PACS [CII] line profiles that are available from the public archives. The goal of the work is the comparison of emission line velocity profiles and fluxes to locate and understand differences in the origins of [CII] compared to the mid-infrared Neon lines. Line velocities and widths are carefully measured, and errors are analyzed to determine if there is any kinematic evidence for [CII] arising from clouds not visible in the mid-infrared emission lines. This will give an answer to two questions: 1. Is there evidence that [CII] is more diffuse, distributed throughout galaxies, than the mid infrared starburst indicators [NeII] and [NeIII]?; 2. Is there evidence for specific, very dusty clouds of [CII] with so much extinction that the [CII] can be seen but the [NeII] and [NeIII] is not seen?

  18. Quaternary fauna of bats in Spain: Paleoecologic and biogeographic interest

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla, Paloma

    1989-01-01

    The study of fossil bat material collected in Quaternary localities in Spain has yielded interesting information on the characteristics of this fauna during the Pleistocene and Holocene in Spain. Out of the 25 species of Chiroptera actually living in Spain, 15 have been detected from the Middle Pleistocene onwards: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. euryale, R. mehelyi, R. hipposideros, Myotis myotis, M. bechsteini, M. nattereri, M. emarginatus, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus ser...

  19. Transsexualism in Spain: a Cultural and Legal Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Soley-Beltran

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I will present an overview of the current legal, social and political situation of transsexual and transgendered people in Spain. The study is based on qualitative data gathered from in-depth interviews with transsexual people, transgendered activists and legal experts in Spain, including some aspects of a cross-cultural comparison between Spain and the UK. The empirical study accounts for the development of social policies related to sex-reassignment and their evolution in the ...

  20. Situación y perspectivas laborales de los técnicos de salud de atención primaria de Cataluña Working conditions of public health workers in the primary care in Catalonia, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Salut Martínez Ferrer; Andreu Segura Benedicto

    2007-01-01

    Objetivos: Explorar la situación laboral de los técnicos de salud adscritos a las unidades docentes de medicina de familia y comunitaria de Cataluña. Métodos: Estudio transversal. Resultados: De 53 posibles técnicos de salud, se obtuvieron 40 respuestas, 29 completas. Más de la mitad de los técnicos de salud del Institut Català de la Salut son interinos. Sus principales actividades son la docencia, el apoyo metodológico a la investigación y la evaluación de servicios y personal sanitario. Des...

  1. Encuesta sobre la realización de las pruebas de detección de los anticuerpos anti-VIH en los laboratorios de Cataluña Survey of HIV testing in laboratories in Catalonia [Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Casado

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Para poder interpretar correctamente la epidemia de infección por el VIH, es indispensable garantizar la calidad en la realización del test anti-VIH. Con el objetivo de describir las características durante el proceso analítico e identificar aspectos susceptibles de mejora, en 1998 se realizó una encuesta sobre la garantía de calidad en los laboratorios de Cataluña que realizaban pruebas de detección de anticuerpos anti-VIH. Los resultados de la encuesta muestran la variabilidad de los procesos analíticos llevados a cabo por los diferentes laboratorios para la determinación diagnóstica de anticuerpos anti-VIH. Hay laboratorios que todavía realizan prácticas incorrectas, como identificar especialmente las muestras biológicas VIH, realizar segundas extracciones para pruebas de confirmación y no garantizar la confidencialidad en la entrega de resultados. Sería aconsejable unificar criterios según sea el objetivo de la prueba y la prevalencia de infección en la población analizada. Ello mejoraría la calidad del resultado analítico, ya que el concepto global de calidad incluye todo el proceso (preanalítico, analítico y postanalítico.Quality assurance of HIV testing is essential to correctly assess the HIV epidemic. To describe the characteristics of HIV testing and identify features that could be improved, a questionnaire on the quality of HIV tests was sent to Catalan laboratories in 1998. The survey revealed variability in the procedures used by the participating laboratories when performing HIV tests. Some of the laboratories were still performing incorrect activities such as identifying HIV specimens with specific labels, extracting new specimens for a second test to confirm diagnosis, or failing to guarantee the confidentiality of the results. The criteria for HIV testing should be standardized according to the purpose of the test and the prevalence of the infection in the population analyzed. This approach would improve the quality of the results of diagnostic tests, since the overall concept of quality includes the entire process (pre-test, test and post-test.

  2. Comparison of groundwater recharge evaluated by soil water balance and atmospheric chloride deposition in a carbonate system in the semi-arid area of the Lower Ebre area, Catalonia, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Espinosa-Martínez; Emilio Custodio; Carlos Loaso-Vierbücher

    2015-01-01

    Se realiza la estimación de la recarga media multianual con el método de balance de la deposición atmosférica de cloruro (BCl) y con el balance de agua en el suelo (BaS) en el área del Baix Ebre (Sur de Cataluña). Es un sistema acuífero complejo formado por una cordillera carbonatada moderadamente lluviosa (los Ports) que transfiere agua a un llano semiárido (Plana de La Galera), según un modelo hidrogeológico conceptual de funcionamiento apoyado en técnicas hidrogeoquímicas e isotópicas ambi...

  3. Lifetime cycle of waste management from paper and card board in Catalonia (Spain); Analisis del ciclo de vida aplicado a la gestion de residuos de papel y carton en Cataluna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, I.; Ramirez, A.; Bala, A.; Gazulla, C.; Rieradevall, J.; Mila, L.; Domenech, X.

    2001-07-01

    The environmental impacts of different waste management strategies for paper and cardboard wastes have been analysed in this study Life cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used in the analysis. The goal of the study was to determine which option-amongst incineration, landfilling and recycling-is the best one from an environmental point of view. Also, some recommendations for the design briefing were made in order to reduce the environmental impacts in the final stages of the life cycle. (Author) 8 refs.

  4. Indicadores de salud reproductiva y perinatal en mujeres inmigrantes y autóctonas residentes en Cataluña y en la Comunitat Valenciana (2005-2006 Reproductive and perinatal health indicators in immigrant and Spanish-born women in Catalonia and Valencia (2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Río

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de nacimientos de madres adolescentes, de prematuridad y de bajo peso al nacer en mujeres españolas e inmigrantes originarias de Latinoamérica, Europa del Este, Magreb y África Subsahariana, residentes en Cataluña y en la Comunitat Valenciana, durante los años 2005 y 2006. Métodos: A partir de los datos proporcionados por los registros de metabolopatías de ambas comunidades autónomas, se obtuvieron las proporciones y sus respectivos intervalos de confianza al 95% de: 1 madres menores de 20 años, 2 neonatos prematuros (Objectives: To determine the prevalence of teenage maternity, preterm birth and low birth weight in Spanish and immigrant mothers from Latin America, eastern Europe, Maghreb and sub-Saharan Africa resident in Catalonia and Valencia from 2005 and 2006. Methods: Using data from congenital metabolic disorders registers in both regions, proportions and 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the following: 1 mothers aged less than 20 years; 2 preterm (<37 weeks and very preterm (<32 weeks births; and 3 low birth weight (<2500g and very low birth weight (<1500g neonates. The calculations were performed for mothers from each of the geographical areas of origin (Spain, Latin America, Eastern Europe, Maghreb and Sub-Sahara. These proportions were compared in Spanish-born and immigrant women and the significance of differences was assessed using chi-squared tests. Results: The prevalence of teenage mothers was between three and five times higher in immigrants than in Spanish women, the highest rate being found in women from eastern Europe. Preterm births, very preterm births and very low birth weight were more frequent in eastern European women than in Spanish women. The prevalence of prematurity and very low birth weight was higher in sub-Saharan mothers than in Spanish women. Conclusions: The number of births in teenage mothers was higher in immigrant mothers from all origins than in

  5. [Moroccan migration to Spain. Data, opinions, and predictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla, J

    1995-01-01

    "In this article, the author analyzes the migration flows between Spain and [Morocco] within the most general context of relations between European Union (EU) and the Maghrebian countries. Since the beginning of the eighties the migration flows toward and from Spain changed [dramatically], so... Spanish society has shifted toward an inmigration country. [The author analyzes] where such inmigrants come from and their motivations to choose Spain [as a] destination. The results of a survey financed partly by the EU...[for] institutions related directly with the migration problem from [Morocco] to Spain are the base of the information included in this article." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  6. Shape evolution of Ne isotopes and Ne hypernuclei: The interplay of pairing and tensor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We study tensor and pairing effects on the quadruple deformation of neon isotopes based on a deformed Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model with BCS approximation for the pairing channel. We extend the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock formalism for the description of hypernuclei adopting the recently-proposed ESC08b hyperon-nucleon interaction. It is found that the interplay of pairing and tensor interactions is crucial to derive the deformations in several neon isotopes. Especially, the shapes of 26,30Ne are studied in details in comparisons with experimentally observed shapes. Furthermore the deformations of the hypernuclei are compared with the corresponding neon isotopic cores in the presence of tensor force. We find the same shapes with somewhat smaller deformations for single Λ-hypernuclei compared with their core deformations.

  7. A Letter of Intent to Build a MiniBooNE Near Detector: BooNE

    CERN Document Server

    Stancu, I; Smith, D; Ford, R; Kobilarcik, T; Marsh, W; Moore, C D; Grange, J; Osmanov, B; Ray, H; Garvey, G T; Green, J A; Louis, W C; Mauger, C; Mills, G B; Pavlovic, Z; van de Water, R; White, D H; Zeller, G P; Metcalf, W; Roe, B P; Aguilar-Arevalo, A A

    2009-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence for a difference between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations at the $\\sim 1$ eV$^2$ scale. The MiniBooNE experiment observes an unexplained excess of electron-like events at low energies in neutrino mode, which may be due, for example, to either a neutral current radiative interaction, sterile neutrino decay, or to neutrino oscillations involving sterile neutrinos and which may be related to the LSND signal. No excess of electron-like events ($-0.5 \\pm 7.8 \\pm 8.7$), however, is observed so far at low energies in antineutrino mode. Furthermore, global 3+1 and 3+2 sterile neutrino fits to the world neutrino and antineutrino data suggest a difference between neutrinos and antineutrinos with significant ($\\sin^22\\theta_{\\mu \\mu} \\sim 35%$) $\\bar \

  8. Climate change adaptation & mitigation strategies for Water-Energy-Land Nexus management in Mediterranean region: Case study of Catalunya (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Water-Energy-Land (WEL) Nexus management is one of those complex decision problems where holistic approach to supply-demand management considering different criteria would be valuable. However, multi-criteria decision making with diverse indicators measured on different scales and uncertainty levels is difficult to solve. On the other hand, climate adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated, and resource sensitive regions like Mediterranean provide ample opportunities towards that end. While the water sector plays a key role in climate adaptation, mitigation focuses on the energy and agriculture sector. Recent studies on the so-called WEL nexus confirm the potential synergies to be derived from mainstreaming climate adaptation in the water sector, while simultaneously addressing opportunities for co-management with energy (and also land use). Objective of this paper is to develop scenarios for the future imbalances in water & energy supply and demand for a water stressed Mediterranean area of Northern Spain (Catalonia) and to test the scenario based climate adaptation & mitigation strategy for WEL management policies. Resource sensitive area of Catalonia presents an interesting nexus problem to study highly stressed water demand scenario (representing all major demand sectors), very heterogeneous land use including intensive agriculture to diversified urban and industrial uses, and mixed energy supply including hydro, wind, gas turbine to nuclear energy. Different energy sectors have different water and land requirements. Inter-river basin water transfer is another factor which is considered for this area. The water-energy link is multifaceted. Energy production can affect water quality, while energy is used in water treatment and to reduce pollution. Similarly, hydropower - producing energy from water - and desalination - producing freshwater using energy - both play important role in economic growth by supplying large and secure amounts of 'green' energy or

  9. Monitoring Sea Level At L'Estartit, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J.; Ortiz Castellon, M.; Martinez-Garcia, M.; Talaya, J.; Rodriguez Velasco, G.; Perez, B.

    2007-12-01

    Sea level is an environmental variable which is widely recognised as being important in many scientific disciplines as a control parameter for coastal dynamical processes or climate processes in the coupled atmosphere-ocean systems, as well as engineering applications. A major source of sea-level data are the national networks of coastal tide gauges, in Spain belonging to different institutions as the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), Puertos del Estado (PE), Instituto Hidrográfico de la Marina (IHM), Ports de la Generalitat, etc. Three Begur Cape experiences on radar altimeter calibration and marine geoid mapping made on 1999, 2000 and 2002 are overviewed. The marine geoid has been used to relate the coastal tide gauge data from l'Estartit harbour to off-shore altimetric data. The necessity to validate and calibrate the satellite's altimeter due to increasing needs in accuracy and long term integrity implies establishing calibration sites with enhanced ground based methods for sea level monitoring. A technical Spanish contribution to the calibration experience has been the design of GPS buoys and GPS catamaran taking in account the University of Colorado at Boulder and Senetosa/Capraia designs. Altimeter calibration is essential to obtain an absolute measure of sea level, as are knowing the instrument's drifts and bias. Specially designed tidegauges are necessary to improve the quality of altimetric data, preferably near the satellite track. Further, due to systematic differences a month instruments onboard different satellites, several in-situ calibrations are essentials to tie their systematic differences. L'Estartit tide gauge is a classical floating tide gauge set up in l'Estartit harbour (NE Spain) in 1990. It provides good quality information about the changes in the sea heights at centimetre level, that is the magnitude of the common tides in theMediterranean. In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, ref:ESP2001- 4534-PE, the instrumentation of sea

  10. A quality improvement plan for hypertension control: the INCOTECA Project (INterventions for COntrol of hyperTEnsion in CAtalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallès-Fernandez Roser

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different studies have shown insufficient blood pressure (BP control in hypertensive patients. Multiple factors influence hypertension management, and the quality of primary care is one of them. We decided therefore to evaluate the effectiveness of a quality improvement plan directed at professionals of Primary Health Care Teams (PHCT with the aim to achieve a better control of hypertension. The hypothesis of the study is that the implementation of a quality improvement plan will improve the control of hypertension. The primary aim of this study will be to evaluate the effectiveness of this plan. Methods and design Design: multicentric study quasi-experimental before – after with control group. The non-randomised allocation of the intervention will be done at PHCT level. Setting: 18 PHCT in the Barcelona province (Spain. Sample: all patients with a diagnosis of hypertension (population based study. Exclusion criteria: patients with a diagnosis of hypertension made later than 01/01/2006 and patients younger than 18 years. Intervention: a quality improvement plan, which targets primary health care professionals and includes educational sessions, feedback to health professionals, audit and implementation of recommended clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypertensive patients. Measurements: age, sex, associated co-morbidity (diabetes mellitus type I and II, heart failure and renal failure. The following variables will be recorded: BP measurement, cardiovascular risk and antihypertensive drugs used. Results will be measured before the start of the intervention and twelve months after the start of the study. Dependent variable: prevalence of hypertensive patients with poor BP control. Analysis: Chi-square test and Student's t-test will be used to measure the association between independent qualitative and quantitative variables, respectively. Non-parametric tests will be used for the analysis of non

  11. Status of the KM3NeT project

    CERN Document Server

    Margiotta, A

    2014-01-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will be installed at three sites: KM3NeT-Fr, offshore Toulon, France, KM3NeT-It, offshore Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily (Italy) and KM3NeT-Gr, offshore Pylos, Peloponnese, Greece. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will search for Galactic and extra-Galactic sources of neutrinos, complementing IceCube in its field of view. The detector will have a modular structure and consists of six building blocks, each including about one hundred Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared in France near Toulon and in Italy, near Capo Passero in Sicily....

  12. A personal view of nutrition in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Salvador

    2014-04-01

    This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain), following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS), in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first hand, is described. The contribution covers an extensive period in the history of this science, and highlights the advances made in our knowledge of nutrition and several of the misunderstandings that existed and still exist in this science: 1) The Anglo-Saxon dietary pattern and the high incidence of death from myocardial infarction, and the subsequent recognition of the Mediterranean diet as a model of a varied and balanced and healthy eating. 2) The relationship between cardiovascular disease and the consumption of oily fish. Since the discovery of the syn - thesis of prostaglandins makes it clear that fish fat is heart-healthy. 3) The epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity and the appearance of miracle diets. However, there are not miracles, the only solution being a healthy lifestyle and a balanced hypocaloric diet. 4) In the field of nutrition, diet and health, the harmful effect of: "In my opinion", a single allusion that undermines all science. The author also acknowledges all the researchers whose efforts, tenacity and enthusiasm have contributed to the advances made in nutrition science in Spain.

  13. Status of the nuclear sector in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio González Jiménez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spain began to show interest in nuclear energy in the late 1940’s. In 1964 the Nuclear Energy Law was approved, and in 1972 the Nuclear and Radioactive Sites Regulation was developed. Safety and regulation activities were entrusted to the Nuclear Safety Council (Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear created in 1980, and the research and management of radioactive waste to the National Radioactive Waste Company (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, created in 1985. The structure of Spain’s nuclear industry began to be created in the 1960’s, as a consequence of the decision to build the nuclear power plants of José Cabrera, Santa María de Garoña and Vandellós I. In the next stage, during the 1970’s, the Almaraz, Ascó and Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants were built. During the third stage, in the 1980’s, the Vandellós II and Trillo I Nuclear Power Plants were built. Nowadays, the expert and efficient Spanish nuclear industry is a guarantee that nuclear technology is maintained in Spain, and not only to support the operating plants but also a reactivated international nuclear market. Spain has the necessary infrastructure, the technical capacity, the financial resources and the companies’ willpower in a common effort to provide Spaniards with reliable, cheap and sustainable electric energy that respects the environment and guarantees security for citizens. Nuclear energy is, definitively, a key component today and in the future.

  14. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  15. A personal view of nutrition in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Zamora

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain, following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS, in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first hand, is described. The contribution covers an extensive period in the history of this science, and highlights the advances made in our knowledge of nutrition and several of the misunderstandings that existed and still exist in this science: 1 The Anglo-Saxon dietary pattern and the high incidence of death from myocardial infarction, and the subsequent recognition of the Mediterranean diet as a model of a varied and balanced and healthy eating. 2 The relationship between cardiovascular disease and the consumption of oily fish. Since the discovery of the synthesis of prostaglandins makes it clear that fish fat is heart-healthy. 3 The epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity and the appearance of miracle diets. However, there are not miracles, the only solution being a healthy lifestyle and a balanced hypocaloric diet. 4 In the field of nutrition, diet and health, the harmful effect of: "In my opinion", a single allusion that undermines all science. The author also acknowledges all the researchers whose efforts, tenacity and enthusiasm have contributed to the advances made in nutrition science in Spain.

  16. [Medicine and enlightenment in New Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, A

    1998-01-01

    Fundamental ideas of the cultural movement of Enlightenment were drawn up and encouraged in England by John Locke and introduced into continental Europe by Voltaire. The essence of this movement was defined by I. Kant in 1784. These new ideas were projected into the field of medicine initially with the systematization of anatomical studies by Winslow, Vicq d' Azyr and Sénac in France, by S. Th. Sömmerring and von Haller in Germany, and by Paolo Mascagni and other anatomists in Italy. This movement settled in Spain toward the middle of the XVIII century, due to Father Feijóo and his pupils such as Piquer and Casal. In New Spain, which maintained cultural and scientific relationship with the Old World, the leaders of the movement were José Antonio Alzate in the field of biology and José Ignacio Bartolache in that of medicine. These were the founders of the first scientific journals: the "Diario Literario" (Literary Journal) by Alzate (1768) and the "Mercurio Volante" (Flying Mercury) by Bartolache (1772). Latter this physician had to face the great epidemic outbreak of smallpox in 1779. Due to that, he attributed great importance to the psychological aspect of the problem and supported the variolization proceeding introduced into Mexico by Doctor Henri Morel. Moreover, two scientific expeditions, which reached New Spain at the end of the XVIII century, allowed to systematize the study of the American vegetables and to acknowledge the usefulness of botany and chemistry as auxiliary sciences of medicine. PMID:9780494

  17. Gender, Family Negotiations and Academic Success of Young Moroccan Women in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrés, Marta Bertran; Ponferrada-Arteaga, Maribel; Rovira, Jordi Pàmies

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the lives of pioneering young women from Morocco, the first to enjoy educational and social success in Catalonia, by analyzing the family negotiations entered into during this process. The study is based on the life stories of these young Moroccan women and on ideas that emerge from discussion groups involving the women…

  18. A possible proton pygmy resonance in 17Ne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The low-lying electric dipole strengths in proton-rich nuclei 17F and 17Ne, which can be produced at HIRFL-CSR in Lanzhou, are investigated. In the framework of the covariant density functional theory the self-consistent relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov model and the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation with the NL3 parameter set and Gogny pairing interaction are adopted in the calculations. A pronounced dipole peak appears below 10 MeV in17Ne, but does not occur in 17F. The prop erties of this low-lying E1 excitation in 17Ne are studied, which may correspond to a proton pygmy resonance with different characteristics from those of giant dipole resonance.

  19. VPLIV SVETOVNE GOSPODARSKE IN FINANČNE KRIZE NA SLOVENIJO

    OpenAIRE

    Planinc, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    POVZETEK Svetovno gospodarstvo trenutno trpi zaradi svetovne gospodarske in finančne krize. Slednja ima svoj izvor na najrazvitejšem finančnem trgu na svetu. V drugi polovici leta 2008 je povzročila pravo eksplozijo globalnih finančnih trgov. Po celem svetu so borzni indeksi beležili precejšnja znižanja, velike finančne institucije so propadle, kreditna aktivnost se je drastično zmanjšala. Do finančne in gospodarske krize je prišlo zaradi poka nepremičninskega mehurčka v ZDA, ker pa s...

  20. Anthropocène, apocalypse et parousie ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bourg, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Que doit-on entendre par « anthropocène » ? Ce texte s’attache en premier lieu à préciser le sens de cette expression et à montrer en quoi elle inscrit l’humanité dans le temps long, à la différence des analyses et des constats antérieurs sur la fragilité de la planète. Et pourtant l’anthropocène n’exclut nullement la possibilité d’un horizon apocalyptique. Au contraire, deux scénarios semblent en effet se disputer l’avenir de l’anthropocène, avec une charge dramatique croisée. Selon le premi...

  1. Optical Feedback Characteristics in He-Ne Dual Frequency Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Wei; ZHANG Shu-Lian; ZHANG Lian-Qing; ZHU Jun; LI Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Optical feedback characteristics in He-Ne dual frequency lasers are studied systematically in different feedback power ratios with a variable attenuator. Feedback power ratios vary from 0.010 up to 0.998. Five distinct regimes of self-interference effects are found and defined as regimes Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ,Ⅳ and V. Accordingly, five optical feedback levels have been put forward in He-Ne dual frequency lasers. Strong mode competitions are observed in regimes Ⅲ and Ⅳ. In regime Ⅴ, multiple feedback effects are investigated. The basic theoretical analysis is also presented.Our reults can advance the research ofself-mixing interferometer and displacement sensor of He-Ne orthogonally polarized dual frequency lasers.

  2. La scène punk montréalaise

    OpenAIRE

    Lussier, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Cet article est consacré à l’un des moments clés de la scène punk, le concert, et à ce qui se déroule à l’intérieur des murs des salles de spectacle la peuplant. Une attention toute particulière est portée à la façon dont les concerts installent le punk en tant que scène, avec ses lignes de fractures et ses forces métissantes. Le punk, installé en tant que scène, nous apparaît comme un lieu où se croisent à la fois des tendances à diviser des ensembles, à circonscrire certains mondes d’acteur...

  3. Import of fruits from Spain to Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Hardi

    2012-01-01

    The research is made for company named Karamelo Citrus S.L.L. It has already business links to many countries and they are working on the link to Finland when my help was needed to finish this project. As the project is huge it was divided in two parts. My part is registering company and start import fruits/vegetables to Finland. This is part number two and it will show how to import fruits/vegetables from Spain to Finland and what techniques are needed to provide fruits for the Finnish ma...

  4. Databases on disability and employment in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Rodríguez Álvarez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the different databases that allow us to obtain information about disability and employment in Spain. In general, each of them uses different variables to measure disability, giving rise to different rates of prevalence. From their different definitions, the strengths and weaknesses of each of them are shown to study the involvement of people with disabilities in the labour market. Furthermore, it is also suggested to use the Working Lives Longitudinal Sample as a source of information, since it allows examining various aspects of the employment of people with disabilities, especially those related to working conditions and career paths.

  5. Saint Benedict of Palermo in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Among the devotions to the black Saints, the one of which Benedict of Palermo was the object in Spain in the 17th and 18th centuries was the most remarkable. Born near Palermo to African slaves, this lay brother of a Sicilian franciscan convent, died in the odor of sanctity in 1589. His immediate popularity, encouraged both by the Church and by the Hispanic monarchy, was considerable within the communities of slaves and free blacks. Benedict was beatified in 1743, event which was followed by ...

  6. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pension system in Spain. The introduction is followed by such a topic paragraphs as: the general information about the country, the historical development of its pension system, the present situation and challenges, and foreseen changes. There, the authors goal was to present both past and present solutions employed by the Spanishs pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular Spanish approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of existing in the Spanish reality the special old age pension system for domestic servants.

  7. Criminality among Romanian Emigrants in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Ilie

    2014-01-01

    The current community of Romanians in Spain is a very active and integrated one at all levels in the host society. There is a mass media developed by Romanians, a large number of churches and associations of our countrymen and, also, there are a high number of cultural and artistic events in the community. Unfortunately, the Spanish public perception on Romanian immigrants is not very good one, as they are seen as the most disagreeable group of emigrants. This is due to the high degree of ant...

  8. Employment transitions of young workers in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Alba, Alfonso

    1996-01-01

    In this article, we study the youth labour market in Spain. We focus on the transition from unemployment to employment and out of the labour force among two groups of workers: those who are looking for the first job, and workers who have already acquired sorne work experience. According to the Spanísh labour force survey (EPA), fírst job seekers represent more than fífty per cent of youth unemployment. By using matched files from the same data source we find that the employment transition rat...

  9. [Imported dengue: an emerging arbovirosis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Geldres, T T; García López-Hortelano, M; Baquero-Artigao, F; Montero Vega, D; López Quintana, B; Mellado Peña, M J

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is caused by one of 4 serotypes of dengue virus. Only imported cases have been reported in Spain. The main clinical findings are fever and exanthema, although there may be severe forms, particularly in secondary infections. Five children with a primary, non severe dengue infection are presented. The diagnosis was based on clinical suspicion and epidemiological history, and confirmed by immunochromatography and ELISA tests. The outcome was favourable in all cases. It is important to consider this diagnosis in international travellers that present with fever within the 14 days of returning from an endemic area, in order to get an early diagnosis, adequate treatment and a good prognosis. PMID:24880817

  10. Nuptiality patterns in Spain in the eighties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret-gamundi, P

    1997-01-01

    "The marriage patterns in Spain are analysed, highlighting some associated socio-economic, political and cultural factors.... It seems there is a quite clear match between economic and nuptiality trends; as accompanying the rise of unemployment and the general economic crisis, there was undoubtedly a decrease in the levels of adult nuptiality. But this is not enough to fully explain the nuptiality age patterns, and we need to refer to other possible reasons for the trends in nuptiality, as we do here with the evolution of the housing market." (EXCERPT)

  11. Involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Viadel, M; Cañete-Nicolás, C; Bellido-Rodriguez, C; Asensio-Pascual, P; Lera-Calatayud, G; Calabuig-Crespo, R; Leal-Cercós, C

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there have been significant legislative changes in Spain. Society develops faster than laws, however, and new challenges have emerged. In 2004, the Spanish Association of Relatives of the Mentally Ill (FEAFES) proposed amending the existing legislation to allow for the implementation of involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) for patients with severe mental illness. Currently, and after having made several attempts at change, there is no specific legislation governing the application of this measure. Although IOT may be implemented in local programmes, we consider legal regulation to be needed in this matter.

  12. Sixth Meeting of China-Spain Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The sixth meeting of the China- Spain Forum (CSF) was held in the World Trade Center in Barcelona from July 5 to 6, 2011. Uyunqimg, Vice Chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and Chairperson of the CSF Chinese Committee, headed the Chinese delegation; Trinidad Jimenez, Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation; Miguel Sebastian Gascon, Spanish Minister of Industry, Trade and Tourism; and Pedro Solbes, Chairman of the CSF Spanish Committee, were among the 350 participants.

  13. Wage determinants in Spain (1980-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aixalá

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence about the nominal wage determinants in Spain during the period 1980-2000. We estimate a wage equation, using time series analysis applying an error correction mechanism. Our aim is to analyse the extent to which the evolution of wages is influenced by the unemployment, prices and productivity. The results reveal that the unemployment rate has no effect on the evolution of nominal wages. The variable that explains the evolution of nominal wages in the long term is prices, showing slightly inflationary behaviour. In the short term, wages are explained by their past values, reflecting a nominal inertia.

  14. Level-resolved R-matrix calculations for the electron-impact excitation of Ne3+ and Ne6+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, J. A.; Lee, T. G.; Ballance, C. P.; Loch, S. D.; Pindzola, M. S.

    2011-08-01

    Large-scale R-matrix calculations are carried out for the electron-impact excitation of Ne3+ and Ne6+. For Ne3+, a 581-LSJ-level R-matrix intermediate coupling frame transformation calculation is made for excitations up to the n=4 shell. For some transitions, large effective collision strength differences are found with current 23-jKJ-level Breit-Pauli R-matrix and earlier 22-LSJ-level R-matrix jj omega (JAJOM) calculations. For Ne6+, a 171-jKJ-level Breit-Pauli R-matrix calculation is made for excitations up to the n=5 shell. For some transitions, large effective collision strength differences are found with current 46-jKJ-level Breit-Pauli R-matrix and earlier 46-LSJ-level R-matrix JAJOM calculations. Together with existing R-matrix calculations for other ion stages, high-quality excitation data are now available for astrophysical and laboratory plasma modeling along the entire Ne isonuclear sequence.

  15. Study of the 20,22Ne+20,22Ne and 10,12,13,14,15C+12C Fusion Reactions with MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly efficient MUlti-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC detector has been developed for measurements of fusion reactions. A study of fusion cross sections in the 10,12,13,14,15C+12C and 20,22Ne+20,22Ne systems has been performed at ATLAS. Experimental results and comparison with theoretical predictions are presented. Furthermore, results of direct measurements of the 17O(α, n20Ne, 23Ne(α, p26Mg and 23Ne(α, n26Al reactions will be discussed.

  16. Study of the 20,22Ne+20,22Ne and 10,12,13,14,15C+12C Fusion Reactions with MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, M. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; DiGiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Hoffman, C. R.; Jiang, C. L.; Kay, B. P.; Lai, J.; Nusair, O.; Pardo, R. C.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Talwar, R.; Ugalde, C.

    2016-05-01

    A highly efficient MUlti-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) detector has been developed for measurements of fusion reactions. A study of fusion cross sections in the 10,12,13,14,15C+12C and 20,22Ne+20,22Ne systems has been performed at ATLAS. Experimental results and comparison with theoretical predictions are presented. Furthermore, results of direct measurements of the 17O(α, n)20Ne, 23Ne(α, p)26Mg and 23Ne(α, n)26Al reactions will be discussed.

  17. China-Spain Investment & Trade Seminar Held in Barcelona

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On April 24,the China-Spain Investment & Trade Seminar was jointly held in Barcelona,Spain.As the first event of the Chinese Products Promotion Week (Europe),the seminar aims to help the Chinese export enterprises and local governments learn about relevant laws and regulations and product quality standards of the EU.

  18. 78 FR 6222 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... described in a notice we published on May 10, 2006, in the Federal Register (71 FR 27221-27224, Docket No... of Avocados From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balaeric Islands and Canary Islands) into...

  19. Autochthonous Nocardia cerradoensis Infection in Humans, Spain, 2011 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercibengoa, Maria; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Marimón, José Maria

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia cerradoensis was first isolated in 2003 in the El Cerrado region of Brazil; since then, only 2 human infections, in France and Spain, have been reported. We describe 3 autochthonous cases in residents of Spain during 2011 and 2014. Together these cases support the idea of an emerging global pathogenic microorganism. PMID:26691545

  20. The History of the Democratic Adult Education Movement in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; Yuste, Montserrat; Larena-Fernández, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Traditional adult education in Spain treated the learner as a mere object that could be shaped by the educator. Although current practices of the democratic adult education movement in Spain reveals a completely opposite standpoint on adult education, there has been little analysis of the several influences converging and…

  1. Teaching Digital Libraries in Spain: Context and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marco, Francisco-Javier

    2009-01-01

    The situation of digital libraries teaching and learning in Spain up to 2008 is examined. A detailed analysis of the different curricula and subjects is provided both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. Digital libraries have been mostly a postgraduate topic in Spain, but they should become mainstream, with special subjects devoted to them,…

  2. The Queen's Two Bodies: Sor Juana and New Spain's Vicereines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The work of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz contains many examples of positive representations of the Queens of Spain and the Vicereines of New Spain. These poetic portraits serve to counter the primarily misogynistic portrayals of ruling women of the seventeenth century. Most importantly, Sor Juana increased the visibility of the vicereine in colonial…

  3. Muridae (Rodentia) from the lower Turolian of Crevillente (Alicante, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín Suárez, E.; Freudenthal, M.

    1993-01-01

    The fauna of Muridae (Rodentia) from the Lower Turolian of Crevillente (Alicante, SE Spain) contains species attributed to the genera Huerzelerimys, Parapodemus, and Occitanomys. The material described allows a detailed biostratigraphy of Upper Miocene deposits of SE Spain. En este trabajo se estudi

  4. Sex Education in Spain: Teachers' Views of Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jose L.; Carcedo, Rodrigo J.; Fuertes, Antonio; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Orgaz, Begona

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the current state, difficulties, limitations and future possibilities for sex education in Spain. On the basis of a study involving 3760 teachers from all provinces in Spain, a detailed analysis of the obstacles at legislative, school and teacher levels was developed. Significant weaknesses were found at each of…

  5. Cascade sensitivity studies for KM3NeT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Luigi Antonio

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the deep seas of the Mediterranean housing a large scale neutrino telescope. The first phase of construction of the telescope has started. Next step is an intermediate phase realising a detector volume of about one-third of the final detector volume. We report on calculations of the sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to showering neutrino events, the strategy to optimise the detector to a cosmic neutrino flux analogous to the one reported by the IceCube Collaboration and the results of this strategy applied to the intermediate phase detector.

  6. Evaluation of triggering schemes for KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, T., E-mail: Thomas.Seitz@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Herold, B., E-mail: Bjoern.Herold@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Shanidze, R., E-mail: shanidze@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-10-11

    The future neutrino telescope KM3NeT, to be built in the Mediterranean Sea, will be the largest of its kind. It will include nearly two hundred thousand photomultiplier tubes (PMT) mounted in multi-PMT digital optical modules (DOM). The dominant source of the PMT signals is decays of {sup 40}K and marine fauna bioluminescence. Selection of neutrino and muon events from this continuous optical background signals requires the implementation of fast and efficient triggers. Various schemes for the filtering of background data and the selection of neutrino and muon events were evaluated for the KM3NeT telescope using Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. Transfer ionization in isocharge sequence ion and Ne collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAIXiao-hong; YUDe-yang; LURong-chun; CAOZhu-rong; YANGWei; SHAOCao-jie

    2004-01-01

    The dependence of the ratio RI for transfer ionization to single capture for Cq+ , Nq+ , Oq+ , Neq+ ions on Ne target upon the electronic structure of the projectile is studied. For Aq+ -Ne collisions the ratio R1 decreases as the atomic number Z of the projectile increases for q= 4,5,6,7 sequences which provides strong evidence for the increase of the binding energy of the target valence electron after single electron capture. The in crease inbinding energy depends both upon the atomic number of the projectile and the target atom.

  8. Transfer ionization in isocharge sequence ion and Ne collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xiao-hong; YU De-yang; LU Rong-chun; CAO Zhu-rong; YANG Wei; SHAO Cao-jie

    2004-01-01

    The dependence of the ratio R1 for transfer ionization to single capture for Cq+, Nq+, Oq+, Neq+ ions on Ne target upon the electronic structure of the projectile is studied. For Aq+-Ne collisions the ratio R1 decreases as the atomic number Z of the projectile increases for q=4,5,6,7 sequences which provides strong evidence for the increase of the binding energy of the target valence electron after single electron capture. The increase in binding energy depends both upon the atomic number of the projectile and the target atom.

  9. POSLUŠANJE KLASIČNE GLASBE V VRTCU

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetko, Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Poslušanje glasbe je sestavni del različnih glasbenih dejavnosti. Je pomembno področje za otrokov glasbeni, estetski, moralni, telesni in duševni razvoj. Zato je zelo pomembno, da otrok posluša kakovostno glasbo, kar je v veliki meri odvisno od vzgojitelja. V diplomski nalogi z naslovom Poslušanje klasične glasbe v vrtcu je bila v empiričnem delu opravljena raziskava, katere namen je bil izvedeti, ali se pri otrocih poveča interes za poslušanje klasične glasbe ob sistematičnem poslušanju...

  10. Multiphoton Double Ionization of Ar and Ne Close to Threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In kinematically complete studies we explore double ionization (DI) of Ne and Ar in the threshold regime (I>3x1013 W/cm2) for 800 nm, 45 fs pulses. The basic differences are found in the two-electron momentum distributions - 'correlation' (CO) for Ne and 'anticorrelation' (ACO) for Ar - that can be partially explained theoretically within a 3D classical model including tunneling. Transverse electron momentum spectra provide insight into 'Coulomb focusing' and point to correlated nonclassical dynamics. Finally, DI threshold intensities, CO as well as ACO regimes are predicted for both targets.

  11. Izraba alternativnih energij: etično ali ne?

    OpenAIRE

    Brodnjak, Tadeja

    2014-01-01

    Diplomska naloga predstavlja različne načine izrabe alternativnih virov nekoč in danes. Drugo poglavje opredeljuje alternativne vire in njihove možnosti uporabe na praktičnih primerih. Sledimo v opredeljevanje celotne skupine alternativnih obnovljivih virov, kot so sončna energija, vodna energija, raba biomase in geotermalne energije. V tretjem poglavju se lotimo vprašanja, ali je ravnanje ljudi z energetskimi viri etično ali ne, saj se moramo zavedati, da smo ljudje največji sovražniki na...

  12. ZASNOVA IN DIMENZIONIRANJE HELIOSTATA SONČNE ELEKTRARNE

    OpenAIRE

    Belak, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Sonce v eni uri obseva Zemljo s takšno močjo , kot je potreba celotnega sveta po elektriki za eno leto. Diplomsko delo opisuje delovanje sonca, zgodovino, razvoj in solarne energije ter dimenzioniranje heliostata sončne elektrarne. Heliostat je računalniško vodena naprava, ki je sestavljena iz jeklene konstrukcije in ogledal, ki sledi soncu in odseva sončne žarke na sprejemno točko, ponavadi v obliki stolpa. Heliostati se uporabljajo pri koncentrirani sončni energiji pri sistemu sončnega st...

  13. NE-SPEC, Ne-213 Liquid Scintillation Detector Fast Neutron Spectra Unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: The NE-SPEC system is composed of three types of programs: - The code to convert the pulse height distributions from counts per channel to counts per light unit. - The code to generate the response matrix. - The unfolding code(s). 2 - Method of solution: Considering the three code types in turn: As the unit of the pulse height distribution must be matched to that of the response matrix, it is necessary to convert from counts per channel to counts per light unit. In this system the light unit used is the Na light unit. Also a new calibration method is used to determine the coefficients of the linear expression that defines the relationship between the channel number and the light unit. This method utilizes the relations between the values of the light unit for the energy of the Compton peak and the corresponding channel number of the gamma ray sources. The response matrix of the NE213 is obtained using Monte Carlo. 47 neutron groups are used in the test run, with cross sections from ENDF/B-IV. The light output data is that evaluated by Verbinski et al. The response matrix is reduced to 34 groups for the unfolding. The pulse height meshes are arranged at equal log spaces from 0.001 to 10.0 Na light units with 60 mesh points per decade. For unfolding, two codes, FERDOS and ITEM-II, which are based on different principles are available, so as to check their results. FERDOS employs a constrained least squares unfolding procedure whilst ITEM-II uses an iterative unfolding method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Number of data points per unit decade of pulse height intervals - max. 60. Number of decades in the pulse height region: max. 4. Pulse height of initial mesh in Na units: min. 0.001. Number of channels in the measured pulse height distribution: max. 1024. Number of data points of the pulse height distribution: max. 150. Maximum size of response matrix is 55 (neutron energy mesh)*165 (light output mesh)

  14. Urban sewage plant investment costs in the Water Treatment Plan for Catalonia; Costes de inversion en las depuradoras de aguas residuales urbanas en el Plan de Saneamiento de Catalunya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queralt Torrell, R. [Perito Industrial, miembro de ADECAGUA, Junta de Sanejament, Dpto. Medi Ambient, Generalitat de Catalunya (Spain)

    1997-06-01

    A brief historical overview is provided of the waste water treatment plants built in Catalonia, with special reference to those included in the Water Treatment Plan. The 96 plants constructed between 1991 and 1996 are listed in a table showing the year they came into service, their location, the number of inhabitants served, inhabitant equivalents, daily volume of water, pollution charge and investments. The correlations between different parameters are examined and the causes of the most extreme figures pointed out. A graph and a function showing the relationship between the daily volume of water to be treated and the capital investment cost of building the plant is also provided. (Author)

  15. Ecological status in Catalonia rivers Evaluation of risk to not achieve the Water Framework Directive objectives; Estado ecologico de los rios en Cataluna. Diagnosis del riesgo de incumplimiento de los objetivos de la Directiva Marco del Agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munne, A.; Sola, C.; Prat, N.

    2006-07-01

    The Water Framework Directive needs to establish a methodology to analyze the ecological status according to the water bodies characteristics. This paper describe the steps followed in Catalonia to determine the ecological status in rivers, and to evaluate the risk to not achieve the Water Framework Directive objectives. This procedure includes the river typification, the establishment of reference water bodies, and reference conditions, the definition of biological, hydro morphological and physico-chemical quality indices,and finally, the evaluation of the ecological status combining several indices and metrics. (Author) 75 refs.

  16. Migration of nuclear shell gaps studied in the d(24Ne,p gamma)25Ne reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Catford, W N; Lemmon, R C; Labiche, M; Orr, N A; Fernandez-Dominguez, B; Chapman, R; Freer, M; Chartier, M; Savajols, H; Rejmund, M; Achouri, N L; Amzal, N; Ashwood, N I; Baldwin, T D; Burns, M; Caballero, L; Casadjian, J M; Curtis, N; de France, G; Gelletly, W; Liang, X; Pain, S D; Pucknell, V P E; Rubio, B; Sorlin, O; Spohr, K; Theisen, Ch; Warner, D D

    2010-01-01

    The transfer of neutrons onto 24Ne has been measured using a reaccelerated radioactive beam of 24Ne to study the (d,p) reaction in inverse kinematics. The unusual raising of the first 3/2+ level in 25Ne and its significance in terms of the migration of the neutron magic number from N=20 to N=16 is put on a firm footing by confirmation of this state's identity. The raised 3/2+ level is observed simultaneously with the intruder negative parity 7/2- and 3/2- levels, providing evidence for the reduction in the N=20 gap. The coincident gamma-ray decays allowed the assignment of spins as well as the transferred orbital angular momentum. The excitation energy of the 3/2+ state shows that the established USD shell model breaks down well within the sd model space and requires a revised treatment of the proton-neutron monopole interaction.

  17. The state of psychiatry in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, Julio; Garcia-Portilla, Maria Paz; Bobes-Bascaran, Maria-Teresa; Parellada, Mara; Bascaran, Maria-Teresa; Saiz, Pilar Alejandra; Bousoño, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2012-08-01

    The 1986 General Health Act and the so-called 'psychiatric reform' were key issues in the development of the mental healthcare system (MHCS) in Spain. The World Health Organization Declaration and Action Plan on Mental Health in 2005 gave it a revitalizing impetus and resulted in the first National Health System (NHS) Mental Health Strategy in 2006. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Spanish journals, reference lists, national databases, and European and Spanish official documents to describe the current state of the MHCS in Spain. The main results were: (1) existence of great variability among the autonomous communities with respect to mental health resources and provision of care; (2) lack of national epidemiological information on mental disorders with the exception of substance use disorders and suicide, which comprise powerful longitudinal national data, (3) training in psychiatry is well established, although there is no specialism of child and adolescent psychiatry, and (4) a dramatic increase in scientific productivity in the last decade among research groups, in part due to the creation of the Spanish Mental Health Network, the Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM). Quantifiable and reliable indicators are needed to provide efficient monitoring and analysis of epidemiological events and subsequently to understand the status of the Spanish MHCS.

  18. Nuclear power training programmes in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of nuclear power in Spain is developing very rapidly. At present 1.1GW(e) are installed in Spain and this is expected to increase to 8GW(e) in 1980 and to 28GW(e) in 1990. Spanish industry and technology are also rapidly increasing their participation in building nuclear stations, in manufacturing the necessary components and in the activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle. All of this requires properly trained personnel, which is estimated to become approximately 1200 high-level technicians, 1100 medium-level technicians and 1500 technical assistants by 1980. This personnel is trained: (a) in engineering schools; (b) in the Nuclear Studies Institute; (c) in the electric companies with nuclear programmes. The majority of the high-level engineering schools in the country include physics and basic nuclear technology courses in their programmes. Some of them have an experimental low-power nuclear reactor. The Nuclear Studies Institute is an official organism dependent on the Nuclear Energy Commission and responsible, among other subjects, for training personnel for the peaceful use and development of nuclear energy in the country. The electric companies also participate in training personnel for future nuclear stations and they plan to have advanced simulators of PWR and BWR type stations for operator training. The report deals with the personnel requirement forecasts and describes the training programmes. (author)

  19. Radon and lung cancer in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that the incidence of lung cancer is related to inhalation of radon and radon daughters. However, the magnitude of the risk and its dependence upon physiological and environmental factors are still not well defined either experimentally or epidemiologically. Occupational studies of underground miners are the only available human epidemiological information to estimate the risk of exposure to radon daughters in the indoor environment. The results are shown of a study carried out to determine whether lung cancer mortality rates in Spain are significantly correlated with the average indoor radon levels. For this purpose, we have used indoor radon data generated from the national survey carried out in 1989. Lung cancer distribution by cities and deaths, by year of death and sex, were retrieved for each of the different provinces of Spain for the period 1960-1985, showing the evolution and changes in the incidence of lung cancer in the population. Data referring to the evolution of lung cancer for males and females from 1940 until 1985 are also shown. Since cigarette smoking has been linked to lung cancer the effect of smoking habits in the Spanish population was also considered in this analysis. The first results of this study establish no clear evidence of any substantial association between lung cancer mortality rates and indoor radon for males. However, a relationship was evident for females. (author)

  20. Desorption of cluster ions from solid Ne by low-energy ion impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, T; Fukai, K; Koizumi, T; Hirayama, T

    2010-12-01

    We investigated Ne(+) ions and Ne(n)(+) (n = 2-20) cluster ions desorbed from the surface of solid Ne by 1.0 keV Ar(+) ion impact. Kinetic energy analysis shows a considerably narrower energy distribution for Ne(n)(+) (n ≥ 3) ions than for Ne(n)(+) (n = 1, 2) ions. The dependence of ion yields on Ne film thickness indicates that cluster ions (n ≥ 3) are desorbed only from relatively thick films. We conclude that desorbed ions grow into large cluster ions during the outflow of deep bulk atoms to the vacuum.

  1. He-, Ne-, and Ar-phosgene intermolecular potential energy surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munteanu, Cristian R.; Henriksen, Christian; Felker, Peter M.;

    2013-01-01

    Using the CCSD(T) model, we evaluated the intermolecular potential energy surfaces of the He-, Ne-, and Ar-phosgene complexes. We considered a representative number of intermolecular geometries for which we calculated the corresponding interaction energies with the augmented (He complex) and doub...

  2. 76 FR 55153 - Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00044

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1..., Straight-line Winds, and Flooding. Incident Period: 06/19/2011 through 06/21/2011. Effective Date:...

  3. Status of conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One major goal of the Nuclear Standards Program is to convert existing NE standards into national consensus standards (where possible). This means that an NE standard in the same subject area using the national consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in an NE standard will not be incorporated into the published national consensus standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by the nuclear industry. If these requirements are considered necessary for nuclear reactor program applications, the program standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the national consensus standard. The supplemental program standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the national consensus standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of program standards may not always be realized, the standards policy has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the national consensus standard. 1 tab

  4. The KM3NeT Digital Optical Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivolo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a European deep-sea multidisciplinary research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host a km3-scale neutrino telescope and dedicated instruments for long-term and continuous measurements for Earth and Sea sciences. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope is a 3-dimensional array of Digital Optical Modules, suspended in the sea by means of vertical string structures, called Detection Units, supported by two pre-stretched Dyneema ropes, anchored to the seabed and kept taut with a system of buoys. The Digital Optical Module represents the active part of the neutrino telescope. It is composed by a 17-inch, 14 mm thick borosilicate glass (Vitrovex) spheric vessel housing 31 photomultiplier tubes with 3-inch photocathode diameter and the associated front-end and readout electronics. The technical solution adopted for the KM3NeT optical modules is characterized by an innovative design, considering that existing neutrino telescopes, Baikal, IceCube and ANTARES, all use large photomultipliers, typically with a diameter of 8″ or 10″. It offers several advantages: higher sensitive surface (1260 cm2), weaker sensitivity to Earth's magnetic field, better distinction between single-photon and multi-photon events (photon counting) and directional information with an almost isotropic field of view. In this contribution the design and the performance of the KM3NeT Digital Optical Modules are discussed, with a particular focus on enabling technologies and integration procedure.

  5. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.;

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  6. 77 FR 6481 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications... on the acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in... review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television....

  7. Complete fusion of 12C with 20Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total fusion cross sections sigma/sub F/ have been measured for 12C+20Ne in the energy range 2416O+16O system. The saturation value of the measured fusion cross section agrees with that obtained for other systems with nucleons in the s-d shell

  8. Ceux-ci ne sont pas : [luuletused] / Kalju Kruusa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruusa, Kalju, pseud., 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Ceux-ci ne sont pas ; Köögivahet ; "Taara..." ; "Pakane pistab pisikesi ..." ; "Meri on kaet mattklaasiga ; Pydemise päivil ; "Toas muusika mängib ..." ; "Jäin juustu imetlema ; "Mu elu on mustikas ..." ; Hingepidetus ; ŁNo me gusta la cocina

  9. Elliptic flow at RHIC with NeXSPheRIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliptic flow at RHIC is computed event-by-event with NeXSPheRIO. Reasonable agreement with experimental results on ν2(η) is obtained. Various effects are studied as well: reconstruction of impact parameter direction, freeze-out temperature, equation of state (with or without crossover), emission mechanism. (author)

  10. A study of 2> with NeXSPheRIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliptic flow at RHIC is computed event by event with NeXSPheRIO. Reasonable agreement with experimental data on nu2(eta) and v2(pt) is obtained. Various effects are studied as well: equation of state (with or without critical point), emission mechanism (Cooper-Frye prescription or continuous emission), type of the initial conditions (average or fluctuating initial conditions). (author)

  11. "Dlja menja ne sushtshestvujut kraski..." : [luuletused] / Georgi Kirillov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kirillov, Georgi

    2002-01-01

    Autorist lk. 187. Sisu: "Dlja menja ne sushtshestvujut kraski..." ; "Za molitvoi molitva..." ; "Zaklannõi prezhde veka Agnets..." ; "Ja zhdal tebja i tõ voshol..." ; "Nepodrazhajemoje solntse..." ; "Tshto obshtshego mezh mnoju i toboi..." ; "Pogruzhenije v odinotshestvo..." ; "Shag za shagom - k stupenjam svjatõm..." ; "Nedvizhnõ dveri sozertsanja..." ; "Vessenni vozduh..." ; "Jesli mozhno - bud miloserdnõm..."

  12. ReNE: a cytoscape plugin for regulatory network enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politano, Gianfranco; Benso, Alfredo; Savino, Alessandro; Di Carlo, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in the study of biological regulatory mechanisms is the integration, americanmodeling, and analysis of the complex interactions which take place in biological networks. Despite post transcriptional regulatory elements (i.e., miRNAs) are widely investigated in current research, their usage and visualization in biological networks is very limited. Regulatory networks are commonly limited to gene entities. To integrate networks with post transcriptional regulatory data, researchers are therefore forced to manually resort to specific third party databases. In this context, we introduce ReNE, a Cytoscape 3.x plugin designed to automatically enrich a standard gene-based regulatory network with more detailed transcriptional, post transcriptional, and translational data, resulting in an enhanced network that more precisely models the actual biological regulatory mechanisms. ReNE can automatically import a network layout from the Reactome or KEGG repositories, or work with custom pathways described using a standard OWL/XML data format that the Cytoscape import procedure accepts. Moreover, ReNE allows researchers to merge multiple pathways coming from different sources. The merged network structure is normalized to guarantee a consistent and uniform description of the network nodes and edges and to enrich all integrated data with additional annotations retrieved from genome-wide databases like NCBI, thus producing a pathway fully manageable through the Cytoscape environment. The normalized network is then analyzed to include missing transcription factors, miRNAs, and proteins. The resulting enhanced network is still a fully functional Cytoscape network where each regulatory element (transcription factor, miRNA, gene, protein) and regulatory mechanism (up-regulation/down-regulation) is clearly visually identifiable, thus enabling a better visual understanding of its role and the effect in the network behavior. The enhanced network produced by ReNE

  13. ReNE: a cytoscape plugin for regulatory network enhancement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Politano

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges in the study of biological regulatory mechanisms is the integration, americanmodeling, and analysis of the complex interactions which take place in biological networks. Despite post transcriptional regulatory elements (i.e., miRNAs are widely investigated in current research, their usage and visualization in biological networks is very limited. Regulatory networks are commonly limited to gene entities. To integrate networks with post transcriptional regulatory data, researchers are therefore forced to manually resort to specific third party databases. In this context, we introduce ReNE, a Cytoscape 3.x plugin designed to automatically enrich a standard gene-based regulatory network with more detailed transcriptional, post transcriptional, and translational data, resulting in an enhanced network that more precisely models the actual biological regulatory mechanisms. ReNE can automatically import a network layout from the Reactome or KEGG repositories, or work with custom pathways described using a standard OWL/XML data format that the Cytoscape import procedure accepts. Moreover, ReNE allows researchers to merge multiple pathways coming from different sources. The merged network structure is normalized to guarantee a consistent and uniform description of the network nodes and edges and to enrich all integrated data with additional annotations retrieved from genome-wide databases like NCBI, thus producing a pathway fully manageable through the Cytoscape environment. The normalized network is then analyzed to include missing transcription factors, miRNAs, and proteins. The resulting enhanced network is still a fully functional Cytoscape network where each regulatory element (transcription factor, miRNA, gene, protein and regulatory mechanism (up-regulation/down-regulation is clearly visually identifiable, thus enabling a better visual understanding of its role and the effect in the network behavior. The enhanced

  14. Precision angle-resolved autoionization resonances in Ar and Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrah, N.; Langer, B.; Gorczyca, T.W. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Theoretical work has shown that the electron angular distribution and the shape of the autoionization resonances are crucial to the understanding of certain types of electron-electron correlation. Autoionization resonances in Ne (Ar) result from the decay of the excited discrete state Ne{sup *} 2s2p{sup 6} np (Ar{sup *} 3s3p{sup 6} np) into the continuum state Ne{sup +} 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5} + e{sup {minus}} (ks,kd) (Ar{sup +} 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5} + e{sup {minus}} (ks,kd)). Since the continuum can also be reached by direct photoionization, both paths add coherently, giving rise to interferences that produce the characteristic Beutler-Fano line shape. In this work, the authors report on quantitative angle-resolved electron spectrometry studies of (a) the Ne 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 2s2p{sup 6} np (n=3-5) autoionizing resonances and the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 2p{sup 4}3s3p doubly excited resonance, (b) the Ar 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 3s3p{sup 6} np (n=4-9) autoionization resonances and extended R-matrix calculations of the angular-distribution parameters for both Ne and Ar measurements. Their results are compared with previous theoretical work by Taylor.

  15. Effects of free leucine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and functional status in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Trabal J; Forga M; Leyes P; Torres F; Rubio J; Prieto E; Farran-Codina A

    2015-01-01

    Joan Trabal,1 Maria Forga,1 Pere Leyes,1 Ferran Torres,2,3 Jordi Rubio,4 Esther Prieto,5 Andreu Farran-Codina6 1Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Clínic Universitari de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 2Biostatistics and Data Management Core Facility, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic Universitari de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 3Biostatistics Unit, School of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 4Residencia...

  16. [Books published in Spain on smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, E; Sánchez-Carbonell, J

    1996-12-01

    Tobacco dependence, considered for a long time as a habit and, more recently, as an addiction, has many bad effects in health. The objective of this study was to analyse books published in this field in Spain. Books indexed in the ISBN Spanish database in CD-ROM (updated to 1993) dealing with addiction to tobacco, that included one of the following words: tabac*, tabak*, tabaq*, fuma*, fumad*, nicotine*, alquitran*, antitabac*, antitabaq*, cigarro*, cigarri*, exfumad*, pipa*, puro*, picadura* or filtro, were included in the study. Authors, ISBN classification, year of publication, language (of publication and original) and publishers were descriptively analysed. One hundred and four books were analysed. The highest number was published during the period 1990-1993 (42%); being 1993 (n = 15) and 1991 (n = 14) the most productive years. A big increase was observed from 1985. A great number (76% of books, n = 79) was written by personal authors and the 14% (n = 14) by public organizations. Most of the books (n = 88; 85%); were published in Spanish, followed by Catalan (n = 13; 13%); 21 books (20%) were translations: most of them from English (n = 12; 60%) or from French (n = 3; 14%). Forty six per cent of books was published by trade publishers and 31% by public organizations. According to the ISBN classification, these books were grouped in 20 different topics; but, most of them (70%) were included in three of these topics: hygiene (n = 42, 40%), pharmacology-toxicology-drugs (n = 18, 17%) and pathology-diseases and medical/therapeutical clinical practice (n = 14; 13%). The number of books published in Spain dealing with tobacco dependence has increased very much from 1985; it suggests that interest in this area in SPain has also increased. Most of the books are published in Spanish, and the most frequently translated language is English. These books are basically published by trade publishers and public organizations. These results have to be considered taking into

  17. [Books published in Spain on smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, E; Sánchez-Carbonell, J

    1996-12-01

    Tobacco dependence, considered for a long time as a habit and, more recently, as an addiction, has many bad effects in health. The objective of this study was to analyse books published in this field in Spain. Books indexed in the ISBN Spanish database in CD-ROM (updated to 1993) dealing with addiction to tobacco, that included one of the following words: tabac*, tabak*, tabaq*, fuma*, fumad*, nicotine*, alquitran*, antitabac*, antitabaq*, cigarro*, cigarri*, exfumad*, pipa*, puro*, picadura* or filtro, were included in the study. Authors, ISBN classification, year of publication, language (of publication and original) and publishers were descriptively analysed. One hundred and four books were analysed. The highest number was published during the period 1990-1993 (42%); being 1993 (n = 15) and 1991 (n = 14) the most productive years. A big increase was observed from 1985. A great number (76% of books, n = 79) was written by personal authors and the 14% (n = 14) by public organizations. Most of the books (n = 88; 85%); were published in Spanish, followed by Catalan (n = 13; 13%); 21 books (20%) were translations: most of them from English (n = 12; 60%) or from French (n = 3; 14%). Forty six per cent of books was published by trade publishers and 31% by public organizations. According to the ISBN classification, these books were grouped in 20 different topics; but, most of them (70%) were included in three of these topics: hygiene (n = 42, 40%), pharmacology-toxicology-drugs (n = 18, 17%) and pathology-diseases and medical/therapeutical clinical practice (n = 14; 13%). The number of books published in Spain dealing with tobacco dependence has increased very much from 1985; it suggests that interest in this area in SPain has also increased. Most of the books are published in Spanish, and the most frequently translated language is English. These books are basically published by trade publishers and public organizations. These results have to be considered taking into

  18. The WELSONS experiment: overview and presentation of first results on the surface atmospheric boundary-layer in semiarid Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Frangi

    Full Text Available This study presents the preliminary results of the local energy budget and dynamic characteristics of the surface atmospheric boundary-layer (SBL during the WELSONS (wind erosion and losses of soil nutrients in semiarid Spain experiment. Some Mediterranean regions suffer land degradation by wind erosion as a consequence of their particular soil and climate conditions and inappropriate agricultural practice. In Spain, where land degradation by water erosion is well known, the lack of field studies to quantify soils losses by wind erosion resulted in the European Community organizing a scientific program for this specific issue. The European programme known as WELSONS was devoted to study the wind erosion process in central Aragon (NE Spain. This multidisciplinary experiment, which began in 1996 and finished in 1998, was carried out over an agricultural soil which was left fallow. Within the experimental field, two plots were delimited where two tillage treatments were applied, a mould-board ploughing (or conventional tillage denoted CT and chisel ploughing (reduced tillage denoted RT. This was to study on bare soil the influence of tillage method on surface conditions, saltation flux, vertical dust flux, erosion rates, dynamics characteristics such as friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget. The partitioning of the available energy, resulting from the dynamics of the SBL, are quite different over the two plots because of their own peculiar soil and surface properties. The first results show that the RT treatment seems to provide a wind erosion protection. Because of the long data recording time and particular phenomena (formation of a crust at the soil surface, very dry conditions, high wind speed for instance, these microclimatological data acquired during the WELSONS programmes may be helpful to test atmospheric boundary-layer models coupled with soil models.

    Key words: Hydrology (desertification - Meterology and

  19. Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amengual

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood – known as the "Montserrat" event – which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5 is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields. For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been

  20. Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amengual

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood – known as the "Montserrat" event – which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5 is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields. For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been