WorldWideScience

Sample records for cataloging neuronal circuitry

  1. NeuronBank: a tool for cataloging neuronal circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Katz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic unit of any nervous system is the neuron. Therefore, understanding the operation of nervous systems ultimately requires an inventory of their constituent neurons and synaptic connectivity, which form neural circuits. The presence of uniquely identifiable neurons or classes of neurons in many invertebrates has facilitated the construction of cellular-level connectivity diagrams that can be generalized across individuals within a species. Homologous neurons can also be recognized across species. Here we describe NeuronBank.org, a web-based tool that we are developing for cataloging, searching, and analyzing neuronal circuitry within and across species. Information from a single species is represented in an individual branch of NeuronBank. Users can search within a branch or perform queries across branches to look for similarities in neuronal circuits across species. The branches allow for an extensible ontology so that additional characteristics can be added as knowledge grows. Each entry in NeuronBank generates a unique accession ID, allowing it to be easily cited. There is also an automatic link to a Wiki page allowing an encyclopedic explanation of the entry. All of the 44 previously published neurons plus one previously unpublished neuron from the mollusc, Tritonia diomedea, have been entered into a branch of NeuronBank as have 4 previously published neurons from the mollusc, Melibe leonina. The ability to organize information about neuronal circuits will make this information more accessible, ultimately aiding research on these important models.

  2. Statins Promote Long-Term Recovery after Ischemic Stroke by Reconnecting Noradrenergic Neuronal Circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Joo Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase (statins, widely used to lower cholesterol in coronary heart and vascular disease, are effective drugs in reducing the risk of stroke and improving its outcome in the long term. After ischemic stroke, cardiac autonomic dysfunction and psychological problems are common complications related to deficits in the noradrenergic (NA system. This study investigated the effects of statins on the recovery of NA neuron circuitry and its function after transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI. Using the wheat germ agglutinin (WGA transgene technique combined with the recombinant adenoviral vector system, NA-specific neuronal pathways were labeled, and were identified in the locus coeruleus (LC, where NA neurons originate. NA circuitry in the atorvastatin-treated group recovered faster than in the vehicle-treated group. The damaged NA circuitry was partly reorganized with the gradual recovery of autonomic dysfunction and neurobehavioral deficit. Newly proliferated cells might contribute to reorganizing NA neurons and lead anatomic and functional recovery of NA neurons. Statins may be implicated to play facilitating roles in the recovery of the NA neuron and its function.

  3. Illuminating the multifaceted roles of neurotransmission in shaping neuronal circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Haruhisa; Hoon, Mrinalini; Yoshimatsu, Takeshi; Della Santina, Luca; Wong, Rachel O L

    2014-09-17

    Across the nervous system, neurons form highly stereotypic patterns of synaptic connections that are designed to serve specific functions. Mature wiring patterns are often attained upon the refinement of early, less precise connectivity. Much work has led to the prevailing view that many developing circuits are sculpted by activity-dependent competition among converging afferents, which results in the elimination of unwanted synapses and the maintenance and strengthening of desired connections. Studies of the vertebrate retina, however, have recently revealed that activity can play a role in shaping developing circuits without engaging competition among converging inputs that differ in their activity levels. Such neurotransmission-mediated processes can produce stereotypic wiring patterns by promoting selective synapse formation rather than elimination. We discuss how the influence of transmission may also be limited by circuit design and further highlight the importance of transmission beyond development in maintaining wiring specificity and synaptic organization of neural circuits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lessons from sleeping flies: insights from Drosophila melanogaster on the neuronal circuitry and importance of sleep.

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    Potdar, Sheetal; Sheeba, Vasu

    2013-06-01

    Sleep is a highly conserved behavior whose role is as yet unknown, although it is widely acknowledged as being important. Here we provide an overview of many vital questions regarding this behavior, that have been addressed in recent years using the genetically tractable model organism Drosophila melanogaster in several laboratories around the world. Rest in D. melanogaster has been compared to mammalian sleep and its homeostatic and circadian regulation have been shown to be controlled by intricate neuronal circuitry involving circadian clock neurons, mushroom bodies, and pars intercerebralis, although their exact roles are not entirely clear. We draw attention to the yet unanswered questions and contradictions regarding the nature of the interactions between the brain regions implicated in the control of sleep. Dopamine, octopamine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and serotonin are the chief neurotransmitters identified as functioning in different limbs of this circuit, either promoting arousal or sleep by modulating membrane excitability of underlying neurons. Some studies have suggested that certain brain areas may contribute towards both sleep and arousal depending on activation of specific subsets of neurons. Signaling pathways implicated in the sleep circuit include cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and epidermal growth factor receptor-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (EGFR-ERK) signaling pathways that operate on different neural substrates. Thus, this field of research appears to be on the cusp of many new and exciting findings that may eventually help in understanding how this complex physiological phenomenon is modulated by various neuronal circuits in the brain. Finally, some efforts to approach the "Holy Grail" of why we sleep have been summarized.

  5. Interactions between entorhinal axons and target hippocampal neurons: a role for glutamate in the development of hippocampal circuitry.

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    Mattson, M P; Lee, R E; Adams, M E; Guthrie, P B; Kater, S B

    1988-11-01

    A coculture system consisting of input axons from entorhinal cortex explants and target hippocampal pyramidal neurons was used to demonstrate that glutamate, released spontaneously from afferent axons, can influence both dendritic geometry of target neurons and formation of presumptive synaptic sites. Dendritic outgrowth was reduced in hippocampal neurons growing on entorhinal axons when compared with neurons growing off the axons. Presumptive presynaptic sites were observed in association with hippocampal neuron dendrites and somas. HPLC analysis showed that glutamate was released from the explants in an activity- and Ca2(+)-dependent manner. The general glutamate receptor antagonist D-glutamylglycine significantly increased dendritic outgrowth in pyramidal neurons associated with entorhinal axons and reduced presumptive presynaptic sites. Tetrodotoxin and reduction of extracellular Ca2+ also promoted dendritic outgrowth and reduced the formation of presumptive synaptic sites. The results suggest that the neurotransmitter glutamate may play important roles in the development of hippocampal circuitry.

  6. Morphological evidence for novel enteric neuronal circuitry in guinea pig distal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolilo, D J; Costa, M; Hibberd, T J; Wattchow, D A; Spencer, Nick J

    2018-07-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is unique compared to all other internal organs; it is the only organ with its own nervous system and its own population of intrinsic sensory neurons, known as intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs). How these IPANs form neuronal circuits with other functional classes of neurons in the enteric nervous system (ENS) is incompletely understood. We used a combination of light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy to examine the topographical distribution of specific classes of neurons in the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig colon, including putative IPANs, with other classes of enteric neurons. These findings were based on immunoreactivity to the neuronal markers, calbindin, calretinin and nitric oxide synthase. We then correlated the varicose outputs formed by putative IPANs with subclasses of excitatory interneurons and motor neurons. We revealed that calbindin-immunoreactive varicosities form specialized structures resembling 'baskets' within the majority of myenteric ganglia, which were arranged in clusters around calretinin-immunoreactive neurons. These calbindin baskets directly arose from projections of putative IPANs and represent morphological evidence of preferential input from sensory neurons directly to a select group of calretinin neurons. Our findings uncovered that these neurons are likely to be ascending excitatory interneurons and excitatory motor neurons. Our study reveals for the first time in the colon, a novel enteric neural circuit, whereby calbindin-immunoreactive putative sensory neurons form specialized varicose structures that likely direct synaptic outputs to excitatory interneurons and motor neurons. This circuit likely forms the basis of polarized neuronal pathways underlying motility. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Corazonin neurons function in sexually dimorphic circuitry that shape behavioral responses to stress in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available All organisms are confronted with dynamic environmental changes that challenge homeostasis, which is the operational definition of stress. Stress produces adaptive behavioral and physiological responses, which, in the Metazoa, are mediated through the actions of various hormones. Based on its associated phenotypes and its expression profiles, a candidate stress hormone in Drosophila is the corazonin neuropeptide. We evaluated the potential roles of corazonin in mediating stress-related changes in target behaviors and physiologies through genetic alteration of corazonin neuronal excitability. Ablation of corazonin neurons confers resistance to metabolic, osmotic, and oxidative stress, as measured by survival. Silencing and activation of corazonin neurons lead to differential lifespan under stress, and these effects showed a strong dependence on sex. Additionally, altered corazonin neuron physiology leads to fundamental differences in locomotor activity, and these effects were also sex-dependent. The dynamics of altered locomotor behavior accompanying stress was likewise altered in flies with altered corazonin neuronal function. We report that corazonin transcript expression is altered under starvation and osmotic stress, and that triglyceride and dopamine levels are equally impacted in corazonin neuronal alterations and these phenotypes similarly show significant sexual dimorphisms. Notably, these sexual dimorphisms map to corazonin neurons. These results underscore the importance of central peptidergic processing within the context of stress and place corazonin signaling as a critical feature of neuroendocrine events that shape stress responses and may underlie the inherent sexual dimorphic differences in stress responses.

  8. A New Tool for Local Manipulation of Neuronal Micro-Circuitry with Ions and Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-07

    unmyelinated axons. This was confirmed when we manipulated factors known to affect axonal action potential propagation. Co- detection of eAPs by...the activity of neurons can propagate in a network and affect other neurons. We did this by first fitting a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) to spike...Unbiased data exploration requires the use of tools that minimize data transforms, enabling the development of a heuristic perspective from unprocessed

  9. The circuitry of olfactory projection neurons in the brain of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Zwaka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the honeybee brain, two prominent tracts - the medial and the lateral antennal lobe tract - project from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobes, to the central brain, the mushroom bodies, and the protocerebral lobe. Intracellularly stained uniglomerular projection neurons (uPN were reconstructed, registered to the 3D honeybee standard brain atlas, and then used to derive the spatial properties and quantitative morphology of the neurons of both tracts. We evaluated putative synaptic contacts of projection neurons using confocal microscopy. Analysis of the patterns of axon terminals revealed a domain-like innervation within the mushroom body lip neuropil. Projection neurons of the lateral tract arborized more sparsely within the lips and exhibited fewer synaptic boutons, while medial tract neurons occupied broader regions in the mushroom body calyces and the protocerebral lobe. Our data show that uPNs from the medial and lateral tract innervate both the core and the cortex of the ipsilateral mushroom body lip but differ in their innervation patterns in these regions. In the mushroombody neuropil collar we found evidence for ALT boutons suggesting the collar as a multi modal input site including olfactory input similar to lip and basal ring. In addition, our data support the conclusion drawn in previous studies that reciprocal synapses exist between projection neurons, octopaminergic-, and GABAergic cells in the mushroom body calyces. For the first time, we found evidence for connections between both tracts within the antennal lobe.

  10. rCBF activation studies and neuronal circuitry related to vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deJong, BM

    Three principles of neuronal interaction within cortically distributed networks are discussed PET-rCBF activation methods provide an opportunity to acquire insight in the distribution of functionally related areas of the human brain in vivo. The distinction of visual areas, activated by either

  11. Serotonergic versus Nonserotonergic Dorsal Raphe Projection Neurons: Differential Participation in Reward Circuitry

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    Ross A. McDevitt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN contains the largest group of serotonin-producing neurons in the brain and projects to regions controlling reward. Although pharmacological studies suggest that serotonin inhibits reward seeking, electrical stimulation of the DRN strongly reinforces instrumental behavior. Here, we provide a targeted assessment of the behavioral, anatomical, and electrophysiological contributions of serotonergic and nonserotonergic DRN neurons to reward processes. To explore DRN heterogeneity, we used a simultaneous two-vector knockout/optogenetic stimulation strategy, as well as cre-induced and cre-silenced vectors in several cre-expressing transgenic mouse lines. We found that the DRN is capable of reinforcing behavior primarily via nonserotonergic neurons, for which the main projection target is the ventral tegmental area (VTA. Furthermore, these nonserotonergic projections provide glutamatergic excitation of VTA dopamine neurons and account for a large majority of the DRN-VTA pathway. These findings help to resolve apparent discrepancies between the roles of serotonin versus the DRN in behavioral reinforcement.

  12. Cataloging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    Time management is one of the biggest problems which we face in our industry today. At every turn we are faced with the need to become more effective and efficient in the things which we do. The largest single factor precluding good time management for Engineers and Geoscientists today is data management. The truth is we simply spend too much time, and money searching for, collecting and pre-processing data before we can even begin the analysis phase of our work. Recent studies indicate as much as 80% of our Engineers and Geoscientists' time can be spent in these efforts. This paper reports that correct data management practices can be a tremendous help by doing the following things: Making a complete catalog or index of all data available to all users. Providing data management support staff to perform appropriate functions at much lower salary rates than those of technical professionals. Minimizing cost and access time through standard procedures

  13. Neuron class-specific requirements for Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in critical period development of calcium signaling in learning and memory circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Caleb A; Broadie, Kendal

    2016-05-01

    Neural circuit optimization occurs through sensory activity-dependent mechanisms that refine synaptic connectivity and information processing during early-use developmental critical periods. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), the gene product lost in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), acts as an activity sensor during critical period development, both as an RNA-binding translation regulator and channel-binding excitability regulator. Here, we employ a Drosophila FXS disease model to assay calcium signaling dynamics with a targeted transgenic GCaMP reporter during critical period development of the mushroom body (MB) learning/memory circuit. We find FMRP regulates depolarization-induced calcium signaling in a neuron-specific manner within this circuit, suppressing activity-dependent calcium transients in excitatory cholinergic MB input projection neurons and enhancing calcium signals in inhibitory GABAergic MB output neurons. Both changes are restricted to the developmental critical period and rectified at maturity. Importantly, conditional genetic (dfmr1) rescue of null mutants during the critical period corrects calcium signaling defects in both neuron classes, indicating a temporally restricted FMRP requirement. Likewise, conditional dfmr1 knockdown (RNAi) during the critical period replicates constitutive null mutant defects in both neuron classes, confirming cell-autonomous requirements for FMRP in developmental regulation of calcium signaling dynamics. Optogenetic stimulation during the critical period enhances depolarization-induced calcium signaling in both neuron classes, but this developmental change is eliminated in dfmr1 null mutants, indicating the activity-dependent regulation requires FMRP. These results show FMRP shapes neuron class-specific calcium signaling in excitatory vs. inhibitory neurons in developing learning/memory circuitry, and that FMRP mediates activity-dependent regulation of calcium signaling specifically during the early

  14. In search of a periodic table of the neurons: Axonal-dendritic circuitry as the organizing principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Wheeler, Diek W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary No one knows yet how to organize, in a simple yet predictive form, the knowledge concerning the anatomical, biophysical, and molecular properties of neurons that are accumulating in thousands of publications every year. The situation is not dissimilar to the state of Chemistry prior to Mendeleev’s tabulation of the elements. We propose that the patterns of presence or absence of axons and dendrites within known anatomical parcels may serve as the key principle to define neuron types. Just as the positions of the elements in the Periodic Table indicate their potential to combine into molecules, axonal and dendritic distributions provide the blueprint for network connectivity. Furthermore, among the features commonly employed to describe neurons, morphology is considerably robust to experimental conditions. At the same time, this core classification scheme is suitable for aggregating biochemical, physiological, and synaptic information. PMID:27516119

  15. Diversity in the Neural Circuitry of Cold Sensing Revealed by Genetic Axonal Labeling of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Takashima, Yoshio; Daniels, Richard L.; Knowlton, Wendy; Teng, James; Liman, Emily R.; McKemy, David D.

    2007-01-01

    Sensory nerves detect an extensive array of somatosensory stimuli, including environmental temperatures. Despite activating only a small cohort of sensory neurons, cold temperatures generate a variety of distinct sensations that range from pleasantly cool to painfully aching, prickling, and burning. Psychophysical and functional data show that cold responses are mediated by both C- and Aδ-fibers with separate peripheral receptive zones, each of which likely provides one or more of these disti...

  16. Reward Circuitry in Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sarah; Robison, A J; Mazei-Robison, Michelle S

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the brain circuitry that underlies reward is critical to improve treatment for many common health issues, including obesity, depression, and addiction. Here we focus on insights into the organization and function of reward circuitry and its synaptic and structural adaptations in response to cocaine exposure. While the importance of certain circuits, such as the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway, are well established in drug reward, recent studies using genetics-based tools have revealed functional changes throughout the reward circuitry that contribute to different facets of addiction, such as relapse and craving. The ability to observe and manipulate neuronal activity within specific cell types and circuits has led to new insight into not only the basic connections between brain regions, but also the molecular changes within these specific microcircuits, such as neurotrophic factor and GTPase signaling or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor function, that underlie synaptic and structural plasticity evoked by drugs of abuse. Excitingly, these insights from preclinical rodent work are now being translated into the clinic, where transcranial magnetic simulation and deep brain stimulation therapies are being piloted in human cocaine dependence. Thus, this review seeks to summarize current understanding of the major brain regions implicated in drug-related behaviors and the molecular mechanisms that contribute to altered connectivity between these regions, with the postulation that increased knowledge of the plasticity within the drug reward circuit will lead to new and improved treatments for addiction.

  17. Neural circuitry and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Research during the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the interface between the nervous system and the immune system. Insight into bidirectional neuroimmune communication has characterized the nervous system as an important partner of the immune system in the regulation of inflammation. Neuronal pathways, including the vagus nerve-based inflammatory reflex are physiological regulators of immune function and inflammation. In parallel, neuronal function is altered in conditions characterized by immune dysregulation and inflammation. Here, we review these regulatory mechanisms and describe the neural circuitry modulating immunity. Understanding these mechanisms reveals possibilities to use targeted neuromodulation as a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. These findings and current clinical exploration of neuromodulation in the treatment of inflammatory diseases defines the emerging field of Bioelectronic Medicine. PMID:26512000

  18. Lighting up the brain's reward circuitry.

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    Lobo, Mary Kay

    2012-07-01

    The brain's reward circuit is critical for mediating natural reward behaviors including food, sex, and social interaction. Drugs of abuse take over this circuit and produce persistent molecular and cellular alterations in the brain regions and their neural circuitry that make up the reward pathway. Recent use of optogenetic technologies has provided novel insights into the functional and molecular role of the circuitry and cell subtypes within these circuits that constitute this pathway. This perspective will address the current and future use of light-activated proteins, including those involved in modulating neuronal activity, cellular signaling, and molecular properties in the neural circuitry mediating rewarding stimuli and maladaptive responses to drugs of abuse. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Control of energy balance by hypothalamic gene circuitry involving two nuclear receptors, neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 and glucocorticoid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Gyun; Lee, Bora; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Juhee; Lee, Seunghee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Jae W

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) regulate diverse physiological processes, including the central nervous system control of energy balance. However, the molecular mechanisms for the central actions of NRs in energy balance remain relatively poorly defined. Here we report a hypothalamic gene network involving two NRs, neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NOR1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which directs the regulated expression of orexigenic neuropeptides agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in response to peripheral signals. Our results suggest that the anorexigenic signal leptin induces NOR1 expression likely via the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), while the orexigenic signal glucocorticoid mobilizes GR to inhibit NOR1 expression by antagonizing the action of CREB. Also, NOR1 suppresses glucocorticoid-dependent expression of AgRP and NPY. Consistently, relative to wild-type mice, NOR1-null mice showed significantly higher levels of AgRP and NPY and were less responsive to leptin in decreasing the expression of AgRP and NPY. These results identify mutual antagonism between NOR1 and GR to be a key rheostat for peripheral metabolic signals to centrally control energy balance.

  20. In search of a periodic table of the neurons: Axonal-dendritic circuitry as the organizing principle: Patterns of axons and dendrites within distinct anatomical parcels provide the blueprint for circuit-based neuronal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, Giorgio A; Wheeler, Diek W

    2016-10-01

    No one knows yet how to organize, in a simple yet predictive form, the knowledge concerning the anatomical, biophysical, and molecular properties of neurons that are accumulating in thousands of publications every year. The situation is not dissimilar to the state of Chemistry prior to Mendeleev's tabulation of the elements. We propose that the patterns of presence or absence of axons and dendrites within known anatomical parcels may serve as the key principle to define neuron types. Just as the positions of the elements in the periodic table indicate their potential to combine into molecules, axonal and dendritic distributions provide the blueprint for network connectivity. Furthermore, among the features commonly employed to describe neurons, morphology is considerably robust to experimental conditions. At the same time, this core classification scheme is suitable for aggregating biochemical, physiological, and synaptic information. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Functional Maps of Neocortical Local Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Alex M.; Lamy, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    This review aims to summarize data obtained with different techniques to provide a functional map of the local circuit connections made by neocortical neurones, a reference for those interested in cortical circuitry and the numerical information required by those wishing to model the circuit. A brief description of the main techniques used to study circuitry is followed by outline descriptions of the major classes of neocortical excitatory and inhibitory neurones and the connections that each layer makes with other cortical and subcortical regions. Maps summarizing the projection patterns of each class of neurone within the local circuit and tables of the properties of these local circuit connections are provided. This review relies primarily on anatomical studies that have identified the classes of neurones and their local and long distance connections and on paired intracellular and whole-cell recordings which have documented the properties of the connections between them. A large number of different types of synaptic connections have been described, but for some there are only a few published examples and for others the details that can only be obtained with paired recordings and dye-filling are lacking. A further complication is provided by the range of species, technical approaches and age groups used in these studies. Wherever possible the range of available data are summarised and compared. To fill some of the more obvious gaps for the less well-documented cases, data obtained with other methods are also summarized. PMID:18982117

  2. United in Diversity : A Physiological and Molecular Characterization of Subpopulations in the Basal Ganglia Circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Viereckel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The Basal Ganglia consist of a number of different nuclei that form a diverse circuitry of GABAergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurons. This complex network is further organized in subcircuits that govern limbic and motor functions in humans and other vertebrates. Due to the interconnection of the individual structures, dysfunction in one area or cell population can affect the entire network, leading to synaptic and molecular alterations in the circuitry as a whole. The studies in this ...

  3. Progress toward the maintenance and repair of degenerating retinal circuitry.

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    Vugler, Anthony A

    2010-01-01

    Retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa remain major causes of severe vision loss in humans. Clinical trials for treatment of retinal degenerations are underway and advancements in our understanding of retinal biology in health/disease have implications for novel therapies. A review of retinal biology is used to inform a discussion of current strategies to maintain/repair neural circuitry in age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and Type 2 Leber congenital amaurosis. In age-related macular degeneration/retinitis pigmentosa, a progressive loss of rods/cones results in corruption of bipolar cell circuitry, although retinal output neurons/photoreceptive melanopsin cells survive. Visual function can be stabilized/enhanced after treatment in age-related macular degeneration, but in advanced degenerations, reorganization of retinal circuitry may preclude attempts to restore cone function. In Type 2 Leber congenital amaurosis, useful vision can be restored by gene therapy where central cones survive. Remarkable progress has been made in restoring vision to rodents using light-responsive ion channels inserted into bipolar cells/retinal ganglion cells. Advances in genetic, cellular, and prosthetic therapies show varying degrees of promise for treating retinal degenerations. While functional benefits can be obtained after early therapeutic interventions, efforts should be made to minimize circuitry changes as soon as possible after rod/cone loss. Advances in retinal anatomy/physiology and genetic technologies should allow refinement of future reparative strategies.

  4. Implementing size-optimal discrete neural networks require analog circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.

    1998-12-01

    This paper starts by overviewing results dealing with the approximation capabilities of neural networks, as well as bounds on the size of threshold gate circuits. Based on a constructive solution for Kolmogorov`s superpositions the authors show that implementing Boolean functions can be done using neurons having an identity transfer function. Because in this case the size of the network is minimized, it follows that size-optimal solutions for implementing Boolean functions can be obtained using analog circuitry. Conclusions and several comments on the required precision are ending the paper.

  5. Singing modulates parvalbumin interneurons throughout songbird forebrain vocal control circuitry

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    Zengin-Toktas, Yildiz

    2017-01-01

    Across species, the performance of vocal signals can be modulated by the social environment. Zebra finches, for example, adjust their song performance when singing to females (‘female-directed’ or FD song) compared to when singing in isolation (‘undirected’ or UD song). These changes are salient, as females prefer the FD song over the UD song. Despite the importance of these performance changes, the neural mechanisms underlying this social modulation remain poorly understood. Previous work in finches has established that expression of the immediate early gene EGR1 is increased during singing and modulated by social context within the vocal control circuitry. Here, we examined whether particular neural subpopulations within those vocal control regions exhibit similar modulations of EGR1 expression. We compared EGR1 expression in neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), a calcium buffer that modulates network plasticity and homeostasis, among males that performed FD song, males that produced UD song, or males that did not sing. We found that, overall, singing but not social context significantly affected EGR1 expression in PV neurons throughout the vocal control nuclei. We observed differences in EGR1 expression between two classes of PV interneurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X. Additionally, we found that singing altered the amount of PV expression in neurons in HVC and Area X and that distinct PV interneuron types in Area X exhibited different patterns of modulation by singing. These data indicate that throughout the vocal control circuitry the singing-related regulation of EGR1 expression in PV neurons may be less influenced by social context than in other neuron types and raise the possibility of cell-type specific differences in plasticity and calcium buffering. PMID:28235074

  6. Stimulation of entorhinal cortex-dentate gyrus circuitry is antidepressive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sanghee; Reynolds, Ryan P; Petrof, Iraklis; White, Alicia; Rivera, Phillip D; Segev, Amir; Gibson, Adam D; Suarez, Maiko; DeSalle, Matthew J; Ito, Naoki; Mukherjee, Shibani; Richardson, Devon R; Kang, Catherine E; Ahrens-Nicklas, Rebecca C; Soler, Ivan; Chetkovich, Dane M; Kourrich, Saïd; Coulter, Douglas A; Eisch, Amelia J

    2018-04-16

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is considered a 'circuitopathy', and brain stimulation therapies hold promise for ameliorating MDD symptoms, including hippocampal dysfunction. It is unknown whether stimulation of upstream hippocampal circuitry, such as the entorhinal cortex (Ent), is antidepressive, although Ent stimulation improves learning and memory in mice and humans. Here we show that molecular targeting (Ent-specific knockdown of a psychosocial stress-induced protein) and chemogenetic stimulation of Ent neurons induce antidepressive-like effects in mice. Mechanistically, we show that Ent-stimulation-induced antidepressive-like behavior relies on the generation of new hippocampal neurons. Thus, controlled stimulation of Ent hippocampal afferents is antidepressive via increased hippocampal neurogenesis. These findings emphasize the power and potential of Ent glutamatergic afferent stimulation-previously well-known for its ability to influence learning and memory-for MDD treatment.

  7. Food cues and ghrelin recruit the same neuronal circuitry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plasse, G.; Merkestein, M.; Luijendijk, M.C.M.; van der Roest, M.; Westenberg, H.G.M.; Mulder, A.B.; Adan, R.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cues that are associated with the availability of food are known to trigger food anticipatory activity (FAA). This activity is expressed as increased locomotor activity and enables an animal to prepare for maximal utilization of nutritional resources. Although the exact neural network

  8. Sleep and metabolism: role of hypothalamic neuronal circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Asya; Schaich Borg, Jana; de Lecea, Luis

    2010-10-01

    Sleep and metabolism are intertwined physiologically and behaviorally, but the neural systems underlying their coordination are still poorly understood. The hypothalamus is likely to play a major role in the regulation sleep, metabolism, and their interaction. And increasing evidence suggests that hypocretin cells in the lateral hypothalamus may provide particularly important contributions. Here we review: 1) direct interactions between biological arousal and metabolic systems in the hypothalamus, and 2) indirect interactions between these two systems mediated by stress or reward, emphasizing the role of hypocretins. An increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying these interactions may provide novel approaches for the treatment of patients with sleep disorders and obesity, as well as suggest new therapeutic strategies for symptoms of aging, stress, or addiction. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Signal conditioning circuitry design for instrumentation systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Cory A.

    2012-01-01

    This report details the current progress in the design, implementation, and validation of the signal conditioning circuitry used in a measurement instrumentation system. The purpose of this text is to document the current progress of a particular design in signal conditioning circuitry in an instrumentation system. The input of the signal conditioning circuitry comes from a piezoresistive transducer and the output will be fed to a 250 ksps, 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an input range of 0-5 V. It is assumed that the maximum differential voltage amplitude input from the sensor is 20 mV with an unknown, but presumably high, sensor bandwidth. This text focuses on a specific design; however, the theory is presented in such a way that this text can be used as a basis for future designs.

  10. Packaging and interconnection for superconductive circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacker, W.

    1976-01-01

    A three dimensional microelectronic module packaged for reduced signal propagation delay times including a plurality of circuit carrying means, which may comprise unbacked chips, with integrated superconductive circuitry thereon is described. The circuit carrying means are supported on their edges and have contact lands in the vicinity of, or at, the edges to provide for interconnecting circuitry. The circuit carrying means are supported by supporting means which include slots to provide a path for interconnection wiring to contact the lands of the circuit carrying means. Further interconnecting wiring may take the form of integrated circuit wiring on the reverse side of the supporting means. The low heat dissipation of the superconductive circuitry allows the circuit carrying means to be spaced approximately no less than 30 mils apart. The three dimensional arrangement provides lower random propagation delays than would a planar array of circuits

  11. The Online Catalog Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Frederick G.

    1984-01-01

    A review of library technological development and card catalog innovations of the past century and a half precedes a discussion of online public access catalog development. Design requirements and purpose of the online catalog, access techniques and provisions, costs, and future integration are highlighted. Twenty-two references are listed. (EJS)

  12. Focusing on optic tectum circuitry through the lens of genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Linda M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The visual pathway is tasked with processing incoming signals from the retina and converting this information into adaptive behavior. Recent studies of the larval zebrafish tectum have begun to clarify how the 'micro-circuitry' of this highly organized midbrain structure filters visual input, which arrives in the superficial layers and directs motor output through efferent projections from its deep layers. The new emphasis has been on the specific function of neuronal cell types, which can now be reproducibly labeled, imaged and manipulated using genetic and optical techniques. Here, we discuss recent advances and emerging experimental approaches for studying tectal circuits as models for visual processing and sensorimotor transformation by the vertebrate brain.

  13. A computational framework for ultrastructural mapping of neural circuitry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Anderson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Circuitry mapping of metazoan neural systems is difficult because canonical neural regions (regions containing one or more copies of all components are large, regional borders are uncertain, neuronal diversity is high, and potential network topologies so numerous that only anatomical ground truth can resolve them. Complete mapping of a specific network requires synaptic resolution, canonical region coverage, and robust neuronal classification. Though transmission electron microscopy (TEM remains the optimal tool for network mapping, the process of building large serial section TEM (ssTEM image volumes is rendered difficult by the need to precisely mosaic distorted image tiles and register distorted mosaics. Moreover, most molecular neuronal class markers are poorly compatible with optimal TEM imaging. Our objective was to build a complete framework for ultrastructural circuitry mapping. This framework combines strong TEM-compliant small molecule profiling with automated image tile mosaicking, automated slice-to-slice image registration, and gigabyte-scale image browsing for volume annotation. Specifically we show how ultrathin molecular profiling datasets and their resultant classification maps can be embedded into ssTEM datasets and how scripted acquisition tools (SerialEM, mosaicking and registration (ir-tools, and large slice viewers (MosaicBuilder, Viking can be used to manage terabyte-scale volumes. These methods enable large-scale connectivity analyses of new and legacy data. In well-posed tasks (e.g., complete network mapping in retina, terabyte-scale image volumes that previously would require decades of assembly can now be completed in months. Perhaps more importantly, the fusion of molecular profiling, image acquisition by SerialEM, ir-tools volume assembly, and data viewers/annotators also allow ssTEM to be used as a prospective tool for discovery in nonneural systems and a practical screening methodology for neurogenetics. Finally

  14. Neuronal replacement therapy: previous achievements and challenges ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grade, Sofia; Götz, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    Lifelong neurogenesis and incorporation of newborn neurons into mature neuronal circuits operates in specialized niches of the mammalian brain and serves as role model for neuronal replacement strategies. However, to which extent can the remaining brain parenchyma, which never incorporates new neurons during the adulthood, be as plastic and readily accommodate neurons in networks that suffered neuronal loss due to injury or neurological disease? Which microenvironment is permissive for neuronal replacement and synaptic integration and which cells perform best? Can lost function be restored and how adequate is the participation in the pre-existing circuitry? Could aberrant connections cause malfunction especially in networks dominated by excitatory neurons, such as the cerebral cortex? These questions show how important connectivity and circuitry aspects are for regenerative medicine, which is the focus of this review. We will discuss the impressive advances in neuronal replacement strategies and success from exogenous as well as endogenous cell sources. Both have seen key novel technologies, like the groundbreaking discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells and direct neuronal reprogramming, offering alternatives to the transplantation of fetal neurons, and both herald great expectations. For these to become reality, neuronal circuitry analysis is key now. As our understanding of neuronal circuits increases, neuronal replacement therapy should fulfill those prerequisites in network structure and function, in brain-wide input and output. Now is the time to incorporate neural circuitry research into regenerative medicine if we ever want to truly repair brain injury.

  15. AgRP neurons regulate development of dopamine neuronal plasticity and nonfood-associated behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Marcelo O; Bober, Jeremy; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Tellez, Luis A; Mineur, Yann S; Souza, Diogo O; Gao, Xiao-Bing; Picciotto, Marina R; Araújo, Ivan; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Horvath, Tamas L

    2012-01-01

    It is not known whether behaviors unrelated to feeding are affected by hypothalamic regulators of hunger. We found that impairment of Agouti-related protein (AgRP) circuitry by either Sirt1 knockdown in AgRP-expressing neurons or early postnatal ablation of these neurons increased exploratory behavior and enhanced responses to cocaine. In AgRP circuit–impaired mice, ventral tegmental dopamine neurons exhibited enhanced spike timing–dependent long-term potentiation, altered amplitude of miniature postsynaptic currents and elevated dopamine in basal forebrain. Thus, AgRP neurons determine the set point of the reward circuitry and associated behaviors. PMID:22729177

  16. Synaptic defects in the spinal and neuromuscular circuitry in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen K Y Ling

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a major genetic cause of death in childhood characterized by marked muscle weakness. To investigate mechanisms underlying motor impairment in SMA, we examined the spinal and neuromuscular circuitry governing hindlimb ambulatory behavior in SMA model mice (SMNΔ7. In the neuromuscular circuitry, we found that nearly all neuromuscular junctions (NMJs in hindlimb muscles of SMNΔ7 mice remained fully innervated at the disease end stage and were capable of eliciting muscle contraction, despite a modest reduction in quantal content. In the spinal circuitry, we observed a ∼28% loss of synapses onto spinal motoneurons in the lateral column of lumbar segments 3-5, and a significant reduction in proprioceptive sensory neurons, which may contribute to the 50% reduction in vesicular glutamate transporter 1(VGLUT1-positive synapses onto SMNΔ7 motoneurons. In addition, there was an increase in the association of activated microglia with SMNΔ7 motoneurons. Together, our results present a novel concept that synaptic defects occur at multiple levels of the spinal and neuromuscular circuitry in SMNΔ7 mice, and that proprioceptive spinal synapses could be a potential target for SMA therapy.

  17. National Archives Catalog and API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The National Archives Catalog is the online catalog of NARA's nationwide holdings in the Washington, DC area, Regional Archives, and Presidential Libraries.

  18. The Development of Micromachined Gyroscope Structure and Circuitry Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunzhu Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review surveys micromachined gyroscope structure and circuitry technology. The principle of micromachined gyroscopes is first introduced. Then, different kinds of MEMS gyroscope structures, materials and fabrication technologies are illustrated. Micromachined gyroscopes are mainly categorized into micromachined vibrating gyroscopes (MVGs, piezoelectric vibrating gyroscopes (PVGs, surface acoustic wave (SAW gyroscopes, bulk acoustic wave (BAW gyroscopes, micromachined electrostatically suspended gyroscopes (MESGs, magnetically suspended gyroscopes (MSGs, micro fiber optic gyroscopes (MFOGs, micro fluid gyroscopes (MFGs, micro atom gyroscopes (MAGs, and special micromachined gyroscopes. Next, the control electronics of micromachined gyroscopes are analyzed. The control circuits are categorized into typical circuitry and special circuitry technologies. The typical circuitry technologies include typical analog circuitry and digital circuitry, while the special circuitry consists of sigma delta, mode matching, temperature/quadrature compensation and novel special technologies. Finally, the characteristics of various typical gyroscopes and their development tendency are discussed and investigated in detail.

  19. ECOL Book Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Library, Minn. Environmental Conservation Library.

    This catalog represents the collection of the Environmental Conservation Library oF Minnesota (ECOL) as of September 1973, when it contained over 2,800 titles of books and government documents, augmented by periodicals and substantial numbers of pamphlets, papers, brochures, and related materials. The catalog includes an author and main entry…

  20. Enriching the Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    After decades of costly and time-consuming effort, nearly all libraries have completed the retrospective conversion of their card catalogs to electronic form. However, bibliographic systems still are really not much more than card catalogs on wheels. Enriched content that Amazon.com takes for granted--such as digitized tables of contents, cover…

  1. MDS MIC Catalog Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Vowell, C. W.; Smith, Byron; Darcy, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the inputs to the MDS Medical Information Communique (MIC) catalog. The purpose of the group is to provide input for updating the MDS MIC Catalog and to request that MMOP assign Action Item to other working groups and FSs to support the MITWG Process for developing MIC-DDs.

  2. Catalogers and Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Norman

    1987-01-01

    Reports the results of a literature review and a survey of catalogers which were conducted to study the problem of the decline in quantity and quality of applications for entry-level cataloging jobs. Factors studied included: competition between types of library professionals, automation, library education, the women's movement, and library…

  3. Dentate Gyrus circuitry features improve performance of sparse approximation algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis C Petrantonakis

    Full Text Available Memory-related activity in the Dentate Gyrus (DG is characterized by sparsity. Memory representations are seen as activated neuronal populations of granule cells, the main encoding cells in DG, which are estimated to engage 2-4% of the total population. This sparsity is assumed to enhance the ability of DG to perform pattern separation, one of the most valuable contributions of DG during memory formation. In this work, we investigate how features of the DG such as its excitatory and inhibitory connectivity diagram can be used to develop theoretical algorithms performing Sparse Approximation, a widely used strategy in the Signal Processing field. Sparse approximation stands for the algorithmic identification of few components from a dictionary that approximate a certain signal. The ability of DG to achieve pattern separation by sparsifing its representations is exploited here to improve the performance of the state of the art sparse approximation algorithm "Iterative Soft Thresholding" (IST by adding new algorithmic features inspired by the DG circuitry. Lateral inhibition of granule cells, either direct or indirect, via mossy cells, is shown to enhance the performance of the IST. Apart from revealing the potential of DG-inspired theoretical algorithms, this work presents new insights regarding the function of particular cell types in the pattern separation task of the DG.

  4. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  5. Global Landslide Catalog Export

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) was developed with the goal of identifying rainfall-triggered landslide events around the world, regardless of size, impacts or...

  6. Building OLAP Catalog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela MUNTEAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Oracle OLAP option of Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition provides advanced analytic features to help us to summarize, analyze and calculate data faster than standard SQL. In this article I discussed about the CWM2, a set of PL/SQL packages which are using to create the OLAP Catalog metadata for an analytic workspace. BI Beans applications query OLAP Catalog metadata.

  7. Synaptic plasticity in drug reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Danny G; Egli, Regula E; Schramm, Nicole L; Matthews, Robert T

    2002-11-01

    Drug addiction is a major public health issue worldwide. The persistence of drug craving coupled with the known recruitment of learning and memory centers in the brain has led investigators to hypothesize that the alterations in glutamatergic synaptic efficacy brought on by synaptic plasticity may play key roles in the addiction process. Here we review the present literature, examining the properties of synaptic plasticity within drug reward circuitry, and the effects that drugs of abuse have on these forms of plasticity. Interestingly, multiple forms of synaptic plasticity can be induced at glutamatergic synapses within the dorsal striatum, its ventral extension the nucleus accumbens, and the ventral tegmental area, and at least some of these forms of plasticity are regulated by behaviorally meaningful administration of cocaine and/or amphetamine. Thus, the present data suggest that regulation of synaptic plasticity in reward circuits is a tractable candidate mechanism underlying aspects of addiction.

  8. Caenorhabditis elegans Male Copulation Circuitry Incorporates Sex-Shared Defecation Components To Promote Intromission and Sperm Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Garcia, L. Rene

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism can be achieved using a variety of mechanisms, including sex-specific circuits and sex-specific function of shared circuits, though how these work together to produce sexually dimorphic behaviors requires further investigation. Here, we explore how components of the sex-shared defecation circuitry are incorporated into the sex-specific male mating circuitry in Caenorhabditis elegans to produce successful copulation. Using behavioral studies, calcium imaging, and genetic manipulation, we show that aspects of the defecation system are coopted by the male copulatory circuitry to facilitate intromission and ejaculation. Similar to hermaphrodites, male defecation is initiated by an intestinal calcium wave, but circuit activity is coordinated differently during mating. In hermaphrodites, the tail neuron DVB promotes expulsion of gut contents through the release of the neurotransmitter GABA onto the anal depressor muscle. However, in the male, both neuron and muscle take on modified functions to promote successful copulation. Males require calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS)/unc-31, a dense core vesicle exocytosis activator protein, in the DVB to regulate copulatory spicule insertion, while the anal depressor is remodeled to promote release of sperm into the hermaphrodite. This work shows how sex-shared circuitry is modified in multiple ways to contribute to sex-specific mating. PMID:28031243

  9. Hubble Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubow, S.; Budavári, T.

    2013-10-01

    We have created an initial catalog of objects observed by the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The catalog is based on observations taken on more than 6000 visits (telescope pointings) of ACS/WFC and more than 25000 visits of WFPC2. The catalog is obtained by cross matching by position in the sky all Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) Source Extractor source lists for these instruments. The source lists describe properties of source detections within a visit. The calculations are performed on a SQL Server database system. First we collect overlapping images into groups, e.g., Eta Car, and determine nearby (approximately matching) pairs of sources from different images within each group. We then apply a novel algorithm for improving the cross matching of pairs of sources by adjusting the astrometry of the images. Next, we combine pairwise matches into maximal sets of possible multi-source matches. We apply a greedy Bayesian method to split the maximal matches into more reliable matches. We test the accuracy of the matches by comparing the fluxes of the matched sources. The result is a set of information that ties together multiple observations of the same object. A byproduct of the catalog is greatly improved relative astrometry for many of the HST images. We also provide information on nondetections that can be used to determine dropouts. With the catalog, for the first time, one can carry out time domain, multi-wavelength studies across a large set of HST data. The catalog is publicly available. Much more can be done to expand the catalog capabilities.

  10. How plastic are human spinal cord motor circuitries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Perez, Monica A

    2017-01-01

    Human and animal studies have documented that neural circuitries in the spinal cord show adaptive changes caused by altered supraspinal and/or afferent input to the spinal circuitry in relation to learning, immobilization, injury and neurorehabilitation. Reversible adaptations following, e.g. the...

  11. Direction-selective circuitry in rat retina develops independently of GABAergic, cholinergic and action potential activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Sun

    Full Text Available The ON-OFF direction selective ganglion cells (DSGCs in the mammalian retina code image motion by responding much more strongly to movement in one direction. They do so by receiving inhibitory inputs selectively from a particular sector of processes of the overlapping starburst amacrine cells, a type of retinal interneuron. The mechanisms of establishment and regulation of this selective connection are unknown. Here, we report that in the rat retina, the morphology, physiology of the ON-OFF DSGCs and the circuitry for coding motion directions develop normally with pharmacological blockade of GABAergic, cholinergic activity and/or action potentials for over two weeks from birth. With recent results demonstrating light independent formation of the retinal DS circuitry, our results strongly suggest the formation of the circuitry, i.e., the connections between the second and third order neurons in the visual system, can be genetically programmed, although emergence of direction selectivity in the visual cortex appears to require visual experience.

  12. Boo! Outsourcing from the Cataloging Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janet Swan

    1998-01-01

    Examines long-accepted ways library cataloging departments have used outsourcing (cataloging records, card production, authority control, card filling, and retrospective conversion) and potential outsourcing activities (original cataloging, and copy cataloging). Discusses reasons why outsourcing is controversial. (PEN)

  13. FRBRization of a catalog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Passini Moreno

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The FRBR model (Functional Requirements it Bibliographic Records (IFLA, 1998 is changing the way we work with the library catalog. One of the main contributions of this model is the representation of the bibliographic information through relationships between conceptual entities. In this case study we report the experience of converting 83,257 catalog records of the Network Virtual Library - National Congress (RVBI, encoded in the MARC (MAchine Readable Cataloging to a format that organizes the bibliographic information using the FRBR concepts. As a result, information is presented more concisely literature and consequently generates time savings for the user at the time of the query. Moreover, results obtained were not initially expected, for example, identifying inconsistencies in MARC records. The tool "FRBR Display Tool", developed by the U.S. Library of Congress, was instrumental in the experiment reported here.

  14. Instructing the Online Catalog User.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William

    1986-01-01

    This essay offers suggestions to make online public access catalogs (OPACs) less idiosyncratic and more usable. Discussion covers qualitative difference between online catalog and predecessors, challenge of debunking assumptions, skills for success, maintaining an instructional perspective, catalog development for the people by the people, and the…

  15. Online Catalogs and Their Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadus, Robert N.

    1983-01-01

    Review of research on online public access catalogs sponsored by Council on Library Resources notes the scope and method (questionnaires administered to catalog users and nonusers in 29 participating institutions) and findings and applications (including organizational setting and computer system, catalog use and satisfaction, and implications).…

  16. Synaptic reorganization of inhibitory hilar interneuron circuitry after traumatic brain injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Robert F.; Scheff, Stephen W.; Smith, Bret N.

    2011-01-01

    Functional plasticity of synaptic networks in the dentate gyrus has been implicated in the development of posttraumatic epilepsy and in cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury, but little is known about potentially pathogenic changes in inhibitory circuits. We examined synaptic inhibition of dentate granule cells and excitability of surviving GABAergic hilar interneurons 8–13 weeks after cortical contusion brain injury in transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein in a subpopulation of inhibitory neurons. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in granule cells revealed a reduction in spontaneous and miniature IPSC frequency after head injury; no concurrent change in paired-pulse ratio was found in granule cells after paired electrical stimulation of the hilus. Despite reduced inhibitory input to granule cells, action potential and EPSC frequencies were increased in hilar GABA neurons from slices ipsilateral to the injury, versus those from control or contralateral slices. Further, increased excitatory synaptic activity was detected in hilar GABA neurons ipsilateral to the injury after glutamate photostimulation of either the granule cell or CA3 pyramidal cell layers. Together, these findings suggest that excitatory drive to surviving hilar GABA neurons is enhanced by convergent input from both pyramidal and granule cells, but synaptic inhibition of granule cells is not fully restored after injury. This rewiring of circuitry regulating hilar inhibitory neurons may reflect an important compensatory mechanism, but it may also contribute to network destabilization by increasing the relative impact of surviving individual interneurons in controlling granule cell excitability in the posttraumatic dentate gyrus. PMID:21543618

  17. Kepler's Final Survey Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Kepler mission was designed to detect transiting exoplanets and has succeeded in finding over 4000 candidates. These candidates include approximately 50 terrestrial-sized worlds near to the habitable zone of their GKM dwarf stars (shown in figure against the stellar temperature). However not all transit detections are created equal. False positives, such as background eclipsing binaries, can mimic the signal of a transiting planet. Additionally, at Kepler's detection limit noise, either from the star or from the detector, can create signals that also mimic a transiting planet. For the data release 25 Kepler catalog we simulated these false alarms and determined how often known false alarms are called candidates. When this reliability information is combined with our studies of catalog completeness, this catalog can be used to understand the occurrence rate of exoplanets, even for the small, temperate planet candidates found by Kepler. I will discuss the automated methods we used to create and characterize this latest catalog, highlighting how we balanced the completeness and reliability of the long period candidates. While Kepler has been very successful at detecting transiting terrestrial-sized exoplanets, many of these detections are around stars that are too dim for successful follow-up work. Future missions will pick up where Kepler left off and find small planets around some of the brightest and smallest stars.

  18. Book Catalogs; Selected References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Wesley T.

    The 116 citations on book catalogs are divided into the following two main sections: (1) Selected References, in alphabetic sequence by personal or institutional author and (2) Anonymous Entries, in alphabetic sequence by title. One hundred and seven of the citations cover the years 1960 through March 1969. There are five scattered citations in…

  19. FAA Film Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Some 75 films from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration are listed in this catalog. Topics dealt with include aerodynamics, airports, aviation history and careers, flying clubs, navigation and weather. Most of the films are 16mm sound and color productions. Filmstrips requiring a 35mm projector and phonograph or…

  20. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CATALOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Vocational Agriculture Instructional Materials Service, Columbus.

    THE TITLE, IDENTIFICATION NUMBER, DATE OF PUBLICATION, PAGINATION, A BRIEF DESCRIPTION, AND PRICE ARE GIVEN FOR EACH OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND AUDIOVISUAL AIDS INCLUDED IN THIS CATALOG. TOPICS COVERED ARE FIELD CORPS, HORTICULTURE, ANIMAL SCIENCE, SOILS, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, AND FARMING PROGRAMS. AN ORDER FORM IS INCLUDED. (JM)

  1. Cataloging Efficiency and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Cheryl; Shorten, Jay

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a survey of academic libraries that was conducted to supplement findings of cost studies by providing measures of efficiency and effectiveness for cataloging departments based on reported productivity, number of staff, task distribution, and quality measures including backlogs, authority control, and database maintenance. Identifies…

  2. Disrupted Working Memory Circuitry in Adolescent Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Eckfeld

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ consistently show deficits in spatial working memory (WM and associated atypical patterns of neural activity within key WM regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC and parietal cortices. However, little research has focused on adolescent psychosis (AP and potential age-associated disruptions of WM circuitry that may occur in youth with this severe form of illness. Here we utilized each subject’s individual spatial WM capacity to investigate task-based neural dysfunction in 17 patients with AP (16.58 ± 2.60 years old as compared to 17 typically developing, demographically comparable adolescents (18.07 ± 3.26 years old. AP patients showed lower behavioral performance at higher WM loads and lower overall WM capacity compared to healthy controls. Whole-brain activation analyses revealed greater bilateral precentral and right postcentral activity in controls relative to AP patients, when controlling for individual WM capacity. Seed-based psychophysiological interaction (PPI analyses revealed significantly greater co-activation between the left dlPFC and left frontal pole in controls relative to AP patients. Significant group-by-age interactions were observed in both whole-brain and PPI analyses, with AP patients showing atypically greater neural activity and stronger coupling between WM task activated brain regions as a function of increasing age. Additionally, AP patients demonstrated positive relationships between right dlPFC neural activity and task performance, but unlike healthy controls, failed to show associations between neural activity and out-of-scanner neurocognitive performance. Collectively, these findings are consistent with atypical WM-related functioning and disrupted developmental processes in youth with AP.

  3. THE CHANDRA SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He Xiangqun; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Davis, John E.; Houck, John C.; Hall, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents ∼<30''. The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports scientific analysis using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1σ uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of ∼<1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation in which a

  4. The Chandra Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiangqun Helen; Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; Van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2010-07-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents lsim30''. The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports scientific analysis using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1σ uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of lsim1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation in which a

  5. Nanocantilever based mass sensor integrated with cmos circuitry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Zachary James; Abadal, G.; Campabadal, F.

    2003-01-01

    We have demonstrated the successful integration of a cantilever based mass detector with standard CMOS circuitry. The purpose of the circuitry is to facilitate the readout of the cantilever's deflection in order to measure resonant frequency shifts of the cantilever. The principle and design...... of the mass detector are presented showing that miniaturization of such cantilever based resonant devices leads to highly sensitive mass sensors, which have the potential to detect single molecules. The design of the readout circuitry used for the first electrical characterization of an integrated cantilever...... with CMOS circuitry is demonstrated. The electrical characterization of the device shows that the resonant behavior of the cantilever depends on the applied voltages, which corresponds to theory....

  6. Transitional circuitry for studying the properties of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubochkina, N.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to a new view of the structure of DNA as an intellectual scheme possessing the properties of logic and memory. The theory of transient circuitry, developed by the author for optimal computer circuits, revealed an amazing structural similarity between mathematical models of transition silicon elements and logic and memory circuits of solid state transient circuitry and atomic models of parts of DNA.

  7. Education programs catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    Since its formation in 1977, US DOE has been authorized to support education programs that help ensure an adequate supply of scientists, engineers, and technicians for energy-related research, production activities, and technology transfer. A national conference in 1989 produced a clear vision of the important role that DOE, its facilities, and its 169,000 Federal and contract employees can play in the educational life of their communities and the Nation. Many of the programs listed in this catalog are the result of this new vision; others have existed for many years. Purpose of this catalog is to make all DOE education efforts more widely known so that more teachers, students, and others can benefit. Supporting the hundreds of education programs (precollege, undergraduate, graduate, public) is the network of DOE national laboratories, technology centers, and other research facilities. Brief descriptions of each facility, its programs, and contact information for its education personnel are included.

  8. Chandra Source Catalog: User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Nina; Evans, Ian N.; Rots, Arnold H.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Zografou, Panagoula; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Helen; Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is intended to be the definitive catalog of all X-ray sources detected by Chandra. For each source, the CSC provides positions and multi-band fluxes, as well as derived spatial, spectral, and temporal source properties. Full-field and source region data products are also available, including images, photon event lists, light curves, and spectra. The Chandra X-ray Center CSC website (http://cxc.harvard.edu/csc/) is the place to visit for high-level descriptions of each source property and data product included in the catalog, along with other useful information, such as step-by-step catalog tutorials, answers to FAQs, and a thorough summary of the catalog statistical characterization. Eight categories of detailed catalog documents may be accessed from the navigation bar on most of the 50+ CSC pages; these categories are: About the Catalog, Creating the Catalog, Using the Catalog, Catalog Columns, Column Descriptions, Documents, Conferences, and Useful Links. There are also prominent links to CSCview, the CSC data access GUI, and related help documentation, as well as a tutorial for using the new CSC/Google Earth interface. Catalog source properties are presented in seven scientific categories, within two table views: the Master Source and Source Observations tables. Each X-ray source has one ``master source'' entry and one or more ``source observation'' entries, the details of which are documented on the CSC ``Catalog Columns'' pages. The master source properties represent the best estimates of the properties of a source; these are extensively described on the following pages of the website: Position and Position Errors, Source Flags, Source Extent and Errors, Source Fluxes, Source Significance, Spectral Properties, and Source Variability. The eight tutorials (``threads'') available on the website serve as a collective guide for accessing, understanding, and manipulating the source properties and data products provided by the catalog.

  9. Distributed Computerized Catalog System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, Richard L.; Wagner, David A.

    1995-01-01

    DarkStar Distributed Catalog System describes arbitrary data objects in unified manner, providing end users with versatile, yet simple search mechanism for locating and identifying objects. Provides built-in generic and dynamic graphical user interfaces. Design of system avoids some of problems of standard DBMS, and system provides more flexibility than do conventional relational data bases, or object-oriented data bases. Data-collection lattice partly hierarchical representation of relationships among collections, subcollections, and data objects.

  10. NASA Space Science Resource Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teays, T.

    2000-05-01

    The NASA Office of Space Science Resource Catalog provides a convenient online interface for finding space science products for use in classrooms, science museums, planetariums, and many other venues. Goals in developing this catalog are: (1) create a cataloging system for all NASA OSS education products, (2) develop a system for characterizing education products which is meaningful to a large clientele, (3) develop a mechanism for evaluating products, (4) provide a user-friendly interface to search and access the data, and (5) provide standardized metadata and interfaces to other cataloging and library systems. The first version of the catalog is being tested at the spring 2000 conventions of the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and will be released in summer 2000. The catalog may be viewed at the Origins Education Forum booth.

  11. Cataloging Expert Systems: Optimism and Frustrated Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstadt, William J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses artificial intelligence and attempts to catalog expert systems. Topics include the nature of expertise; examples of cataloging expert systems; barriers to implementation; and problems, including total automation, cataloging expertise, priorities, and system design. (LRW)

  12. Circuitry and plasticity of the dorsal horn--toward a better understanding of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, S J; Bannister, K; Dickenson, A H; Bennett, D L

    2015-08-06

    Maladaptive plasticity within the dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord is a key substrate for development of neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury. Advances in genetic engineering, tracing techniques and opto-genetics are leading to a much better understanding of the complex circuitry of the spinal DH and the radical changes evoked in such circuitry by nerve injury. These changes can be viewed at multiple levels including: synaptic remodeling including enhanced excitatory and reduced inhibitory drive, morphological and electrophysiological changes which are observed both to primary afferent inputs as well as DH neurons, and ultimately circuit-level rewiring which leads to altered connectivity and aberrant processing of sensory inputs in the DH. The DH should not be seen in isolation but is subject to important descending modulation from the brainstem, which is further dysregulated by nerve injury. Understanding which changes relate to specific disease-states is essential, and recent work has aimed to stratify patient populations in a mechanistic fashion. In this review we will discuss how such pathophysiological mechanisms may lead to the distressing sensory phenomena experienced by patients suffering neuropathic pain, and the relationship of such mechanisms to current and potential future treatment modalities. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Open Astronomy Catalogs API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillochon, James; Cowperthwaite, Philip S.

    2018-05-01

    We announce the public release of the application program interface (API) for the Open Astronomy Catalogs (OACs), the OACAPI. The OACs serve near-complete collections of supernova, tidal disruption, kilonova, and fast stars data (including photometry, spectra, radio, and X-ray observations) via a user-friendly web interface that displays the data interactively and offers full data downloads. The OACAPI, by contrast, enables users to specifically download particular pieces of the OAC dataset via a flexible programmatic syntax, either via URL GET requests, or via a module within the astroquery Python package.

  14. A catalog of stellar spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, S. J.; Pyper, D. M.; Shore, S. N.; White, R. E.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A machine-readable catalog of stellar spectrophotometric measurements made with rotating grating scanner is introduced. Consideration is given to the processes by which the stellar data were collected and calibrated with the fluxes of Vega (Hayes and Latham, 1975). A sample page from the spectrophotometric catalog is presented.

  15. The Weakest Link: Library Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Terrence E., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Describes methods of correcting MARC records in online public access catalogs in school libraries. Highlights include in-house methods; professional resources; conforming to library cataloging standards; vendor services, including Web-based services; software specifically developed for record cleanup; and outsourcing. (LRW)

  16. Development and aging of human spinal cord circuitries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lorentzen, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    development and to what extent they are shaped according to the demands of the body that they control and the environment that the body has to interact with. We also discuss how ageing processes and physiological changes in our body are reflected in adaptations of activity in the spinal cord motor circuitries....... The complex, multi-facetted connectivity of the spinal cord motor circuitries allow that they can be used to generate vastly different movements and that their activity can be adapted to meet new challenges imposed by bodily changes or a changing environment. There are thus plenty of possibilities...

  17. Dynamic neural network models of the premotoneuronal circuitry controlling wrist movements in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, M A; Shupe, L E; Fetz, E E

    2005-10-01

    Dynamic recurrent neural networks were derived to simulate neuronal populations generating bidirectional wrist movements in the monkey. The models incorporate anatomical connections of cortical and rubral neurons, muscle afferents, segmental interneurons and motoneurons; they also incorporate the response profiles of four populations of neurons observed in behaving monkeys. The networks were derived by gradient descent algorithms to generate the eight characteristic patterns of motor unit activations observed during alternating flexion-extension wrist movements. The resulting model generated the appropriate input-output transforms and developed connection strengths resembling those in physiological pathways. We found that this network could be further trained to simulate additional tasks, such as experimentally observed reflex responses to limb perturbations that stretched or shortened the active muscles, and scaling of response amplitudes in proportion to inputs. In the final comprehensive network, motor units are driven by the combined activity of cortical, rubral, spinal and afferent units during step tracking and perturbations. The model displayed many emergent properties corresponding to physiological characteristics. The resulting neural network provides a working model of premotoneuronal circuitry and elucidates the neural mechanisms controlling motoneuron activity. It also predicts several features to be experimentally tested, for example the consequences of eliminating inhibitory connections in cortex and red nucleus. It also reveals that co-contraction can be achieved by simultaneous activation of the flexor and extensor circuits without invoking features specific to co-contraction.

  18. Placebo neural systems: nitric oxide, morphine and the dopamine brain reward and motivation circuitries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricchione, Gregory; Stefano, George B

    2005-05-01

    Evidence suggests that the placebo response is related to the tonic effects of constitutive nitric oxide in neural, vascular and immune tissues. Constitutive nitric oxide levels play a role in the modulation of dopamine outflow in the nigrostriatal movement and the mesolimbic and mesocortical reward and motivation circuitries. Endogenous morphine, which stimulates constitutive nitric oxide, may be an important signal molecule working at mu receptors on gamma aminobutyric acid B interneurons to disinhibit nigral and tegmental dopamine output. We surmise that placebo induced belief will activate the prefrontal cortex with downstream stimulatory effects on these dopamine systems as well as on periaqueductal grey opioid output neurons. Placebo responses in Parkinson's disease, depression and pain disorder may result. In addition, mesolimbic/mesocortical control of the stress response systems may provide a way for the placebo response to benefit other medical conditions.

  19. Zebrafish transgenic constructs label specific neurons in Xenopus laevis spinal cord and identify frog V0v spinal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Morales, José L; Martinez-De Luna, Reyna I; Zuber, Michael E; Roberts, Alan; Lewis, Katharine E

    2017-09-01

    A correctly functioning spinal cord is crucial for locomotion and communication between body and brain but there are fundamental gaps in our knowledge of how spinal neuronal circuitry is established and functions. To understand the genetic program that regulates specification and functions of this circuitry, we need to connect neuronal molecular phenotypes with physiological analyses. Studies using Xenopus laevis tadpoles have increased our understanding of spinal cord neuronal physiology and function, particularly in locomotor circuitry. However, the X. laevis tetraploid genome and long generation time make it difficult to investigate how neurons are specified. The opacity of X. laevis embryos also makes it hard to connect functional classes of neurons and the genes that they express. We demonstrate here that Tol2 transgenic constructs using zebrafish enhancers that drive expression in specific zebrafish spinal neurons label equivalent neurons in X. laevis and that the incorporation of a Gal4:UAS amplification cassette enables cells to be observed in live X. laevis tadpoles. This technique should enable the molecular phenotypes, morphologies and physiologies of distinct X. laevis spinal neurons to be examined together in vivo. We have used an islet1 enhancer to label Rohon-Beard sensory neurons and evx enhancers to identify V0v neurons, for the first time, in X. laevis spinal cord. Our work demonstrates the homology of spinal cord circuitry in zebrafish and X. laevis, suggesting that future work could combine their relative strengths to elucidate a more complete picture of how vertebrate spinal cord neurons are specified, and function to generate behavior. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1007-1020, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Reward Circuitry Function in Autism during Face Anticipation and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichter, Gabriel S.; Richey, J. Anthony; Rittenberg, Alison M.; Sabatino, Antoinette; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate reward circuitry responses in autism during reward anticipation and outcomes for monetary and social rewards. During monetary anticipation, participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) showed hypoactivation in right nucleus accumbens and hyperactivation in right hippocampus, whereas during monetary…

  1. The origin of behavioral bursts in decision-making circuitry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Sorribes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available From ants to humans, the timing of many animal behaviors comes in bursts of activity separated by long periods of inactivity. Recently, mathematical modeling has shown that simple algorithms of priority-driven behavioral choice can result in bursty behavior. To experimentally test this link between decision-making circuitry and bursty dynamics, we have turned to Drosophila melanogaster. We have found that the statistics of intervals between activity periods in endogenous activity-rest switches of wild-type Drosophila are very well described by the Weibull distribution, a common distribution of bursty dynamics in complex systems. The bursty dynamics of wild-type Drosophila walking activity are shown to be determined by this inter-event distribution alone and not by memory effects, thus resembling human dynamics. Further, using mutant flies that disrupt dopaminergic signaling or the mushroom body, circuitry implicated in decision-making, we show that the degree of behavioral burstiness can be modified. These results are thus consistent with the proposed link between decision-making circuitry and bursty dynamics, and highlight the importance of using simple experimental systems to test general theoretical models of behavior. The findings further suggest that analysis of bursts could prove useful for the study and evaluation of decision-making circuitry.

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM REDUCES PARVALBUMIN EXPRESSION IN GABAERGIC NEURONS OF CORTEX AND HIPPOCAMPUS: IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL FINDINGS AND FUNCTIONAL CORRELATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GABAergic interneurons comprise the bulk of local inhibitory neuronal circuitry in cortex and hippocampus and a subpopulation of these interneurons contain the calcium binding protein, parvalbumin (PV). A previous report indicated that severe hypothyroidism reduced PV immunoreact...

  3. MC and A instrumentation catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neymotin, L.; Sviridova, V.

    1998-01-01

    In 1981 and 1985, two editions of a catalog of non-destructive nuclear measurement instrumentation, and material control and surveillance equipment, were published by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The last edition of the catalog included one hundred and twenty-five entries covering a wide range of devices developed in the US and abroad. More than ten years have elapsed since the publication of the more recent Catalog. Devices described in it have undergone significant modifications, and new devices have been developed. Therefore, in order to assist specialists in the field of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A), a new catalog has been created. Work on this instrumentation catalog started in 1997 as a cooperative effort of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), operated by Brookhaven Science Associates under contract to the US Department of Energy, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (VNIIA), subordinate institute of the Atomic Energy Ministry of the Russian Federation, within the collaborative US-Russia Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program. Most of the equipment included in the Catalog are non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement devices employed for purposes of accounting, confirmation, and verification of nuclear materials. Other devices also included in the Catalog are employed in the detection and deterrence of unauthorized access to or removal of nuclear materials (material control: containment and surveillance). Equipment found in the Catalog comprises either: (1) complete devices or systems that can be used for MC and A applications; or (2) parts or components of complete systems, such as multi-channel analyzers, detectors, neutron generators, and software. All devices are categorized by their status of development--from prototype to serial production

  4. MC and A instrumentation catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymotin, L. [ed.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sviridova, V. [ed.] [All-Russian Research Inst. of Automatics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-06-01

    In 1981 and 1985, two editions of a catalog of non-destructive nuclear measurement instrumentation, and material control and surveillance equipment, were published by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The last edition of the catalog included one hundred and twenty-five entries covering a wide range of devices developed in the US and abroad. More than ten years have elapsed since the publication of the more recent Catalog. Devices described in it have undergone significant modifications, and new devices have been developed. Therefore, in order to assist specialists in the field of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A), a new catalog has been created. Work on this instrumentation catalog started in 1997 as a cooperative effort of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), operated by Brookhaven Science Associates under contract to the US Department of Energy, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (VNIIA), subordinate institute of the Atomic Energy Ministry of the Russian Federation, within the collaborative US-Russia Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program. Most of the equipment included in the Catalog are non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement devices employed for purposes of accounting, confirmation, and verification of nuclear materials. Other devices also included in the Catalog are employed in the detection and deterrence of unauthorized access to or removal of nuclear materials (material control: containment and surveillance). Equipment found in the Catalog comprises either: (1) complete devices or systems that can be used for MC and A applications; or (2) parts or components of complete systems, such as multi-channel analyzers, detectors, neutron generators, and software. All devices are categorized by their status of development--from prototype to serial production.

  5. Low Power/Low Voltage Interface Circuitry for Capacitive Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furst, Claus Efdmann

    This thesis focuses mainly on low power/low voltage interface circuits, implemented in CMOS, for capacitive sensors. A brief discussion of demands and possibilities for analog signal processing in the future is presented. Techniques for low power design is presented. This is done by analyzing power...... power consumption. It is shown that the Sigma-Delta modulator is advantageous when embedded in a feedback loop with a mechanical sensor. Here a micro mechanical capacitive microphone. Feedback and detection circuitry for a capacitive microphone is presented. Practical implementations of low power....../low voltage interface circuitry is presented. It is demonstrated that an amplifier optimized for a capacitive microphone implemented in a standard 0.7 micron CMOS technology competes well with a traditional JFET amplifier. Furthermore a low power/low voltage 3rd order Sigma-Delta modulator is presented...

  6. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Kalivas, Benjamin C.; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumben...

  7. PirB regulates asymmetries in hippocampal circuitry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikari Ukai

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain structure; however, the molecular basis of brain asymmetry remains unclear. We recently identified structural and functional asymmetries in mouse hippocampal circuitry that result from the asymmetrical distribution of two distinct populations of pyramidal cell synapses that differ in the density of the NMDA receptor subunit GluRε2 (also known as NR2B, GRIN2B or GluN2B. By examining the synaptic distribution of ε2 subunits, we previously found that β2-microglobulin-deficient mice, which lack cell surface expression of the vast majority of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI proteins, do not exhibit circuit asymmetry. In the present study, we conducted electrophysiological and anatomical analyses on the hippocampal circuitry of mice with a knockout of the paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB, an MHCI receptor. As in β2-microglobulin-deficient mice, the PirB-deficient hippocampus lacked circuit asymmetries. This finding that MHCI loss-of-function mice and PirB knockout mice have identical phenotypes suggests that MHCI signals that produce hippocampal asymmetries are transduced through PirB. Our results provide evidence for a critical role of the MHCI/PirB signaling system in the generation of asymmetries in hippocampal circuitry.

  8. Trigeminal-Rostral Ventromedial Medulla circuitry is involved in orofacial hyperalgesia contralateral to tissue injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Bryan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous studies have shown that complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced masseter inflammation and microinjection of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β into the subnucleus interpolaris/subnucleus caudalis transition zone of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vi/Vc can induce contralateral orofacial hyperalgesia in rat models. We have also shown that contralateral hyperalgesia is attenuated with a lesion of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM, a critical site of descending pain modulation. Here we investigated the involvement of the RVM-Vi/Vc circuitry in mediating contralateral orofacial hyperalgesia after an injection of CFA into the masseter muscle. Results Microinjection of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (5 nmol, n=6 into the ipsilateral Vi/Vc attenuated the CFA-induced contralateral hyperalgesia but not the ipsilateral hyperalgesia. Intra-RVM post-treatment injection of the NK1 receptor antagonists, RP67580 (0.5-11.4 nmol and L-733,060 (0.5-11.4 nmol, attenuated CFA-induced bilateral hyperalgesia and IL-1β induced bilateral hyperalgesia. Serotonin depletion in RVM neurons prior to intra-masseter CFA injection prevented the development of contralateral hyperalgesia 1–3 days after CFA injection. Inhibition of 5-HT3 receptors in the contralateral Vi/Vc with direct microinjection of the select 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, Y-25130 (2.6-12.9 nmol, attenuated CFA-induced contralateral hyperalgesia. Lesions to the ipsilateral Vc prevented the development of ipsilateral hyperalgesia but did not prevent the development of contralateral hyperalgesia. Conclusions These results suggest that the development of CFA-induced contralateral orofacial hyperalgesia is mediated through descending facilitatory mechanisms of the RVM-Vi/Vc circuitry.

  9. Associative learning is necessary but not sufficient for mirror neuron development

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaiuto, James

    2014-01-01

    Existing computational models of the mirror system demonstrate the additional circuitry needed for mirror neurons to display the range of properties that they exhibit. Such models emphasize the need for existing connectivity to form visuomotor associations, processing to reduce the space of possible inputs, and demonstrate the role neurons with mirror properties might play in monitoring one's own actions.

  10. Associative learning is necessary but not sufficient for mirror neuron development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaiuto, James

    2014-04-01

    Existing computational models of the mirror system demonstrate the additional circuitry needed for mirror neurons to display the range of properties that they exhibit. Such models emphasize the need for existing connectivity to form visuomotor associations, processing to reduce the space of possible inputs, and demonstrate the role neurons with mirror properties might play in monitoring one's own actions.

  11. Acute activation of GLP-1-expressing neurons promotes glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Shi

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: We conclude that acute activation of PPG neurons in the brainstem reduces basal glucose production, enhances intraperitoneal glucose tolerance, and augments hepatic insulin sensitivity, suggesting an important physiological role of PPG neurons-mediated circuitry in promoting glycemic control and insulin sensitivity.

  12. The RBV metadata catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Francois; Fleury, Laurence; Gaillardet, Jerome; Nord, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    RBV (Réseau des Bassins Versants) is a French initiative to consolidate the national efforts made by more than 15 elementary observatories funded by various research institutions (CNRS, INRA, IRD, IRSTEA, Universities) that study river and drainage basins. The RBV Metadata Catalogue aims at giving an unified vision of the work produced by every observatory to both the members of the RBV network and any external person interested by this domain of research. Another goal is to share this information with other existing metadata portals. Metadata management is heterogeneous among observatories ranging from absence to mature harvestable catalogues. Here, we would like to explain the strategy used to design a state of the art catalogue facing this situation. Main features are as follows : - Multiple input methods: Metadata records in the catalog can either be entered with the graphical user interface, harvested from an existing catalogue or imported from information system through simplified web services. - Hierarchical levels: Metadata records may describe either an observatory, one of its experimental site or a single dataset produced by one instrument. - Multilingualism: Metadata can be easily entered in several configurable languages. - Compliance to standards : the backoffice part of the catalogue is based on a CSW metadata server (Geosource) which ensures ISO19115 compatibility and the ability of being harvested (globally or partially). On going tasks focus on the use of SKOS thesaurus and SensorML description of the sensors. - Ergonomy : The user interface is built with the GWT Framework to offer a rich client application with a fully ajaxified navigation. - Source code sharing : The work has led to the development of reusable components which can be used to quickly create new metadata forms in other GWT applications You can visit the catalogue (http://portailrbv.sedoo.fr/) or contact us by email rbv@sedoo.fr.

  13. Hindbrain Catecholamine Neurons Activate Orexin Neurons During Systemic Glucoprivation in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Jun; Wang, Qing; Elsarelli, Megan M; Brown, R Lane; Ritter, Sue

    2015-08-01

    Hindbrain catecholamine neurons are required for elicitation of feeding responses to glucose deficit, but the forebrain circuitry required for these responses is incompletely understood. Here we examined interactions of catecholamine and orexin neurons in eliciting glucoprivic feeding. Orexin neurons, located in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH), are heavily innervated by hindbrain catecholamine neurons, stimulate food intake, and increase arousal and behavioral activation. Orexin neurons may therefore contribute importantly to appetitive responses, such as food seeking, during glucoprivation. Retrograde tracing results showed that nearly all innervation of the PeFLH from the hindbrain originated from catecholamine neurons and some raphe nuclei. Results also suggested that many catecholamine neurons project collaterally to the PeFLH and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Systemic administration of the antiglycolytic agent, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, increased food intake and c-Fos expression in orexin neurons. Both responses were eliminated by a lesion of catecholamine neurons innervating orexin neurons using the retrogradely transported immunotoxin, anti-dopamine-β-hydroxylase saporin, which is specifically internalized by dopamine-β-hydroxylase-expressing catecholamine neurons. Using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs in transgenic rats expressing Cre recombinase under the control of tyrosine hydroxylase promoter, catecholamine neurons in cell groups A1 and C1 of the ventrolateral medulla were activated selectively by peripheral injection of clozapine-N-oxide. Clozapine-N-oxide injection increased food intake and c-Fos expression in PeFLH orexin neurons as well as in paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus neurons. In summary, catecholamine neurons are required for the activation of orexin neurons during glucoprivation. Activation of orexin neurons may contribute to appetitive responses required for glucoprivic feeding.

  14. Neuroanatomical circuitry between kidney and rostral elements of brain: a virally mediated transsynaptic tracing study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye-Ting; He, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Tao-Tao; Feng, Mao-Hui; Zhang, Ding-Yu; Xiang, Hong-Bing

    2017-02-01

    The identity of higher-order neurons and circuits playing an associative role to control renal function is not well understood. We identified specific neural populations of rostral elements of brain regions that project multisynaptically to the kidneys in 3-6 days after injecting a retrograde tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV)-614 into kidney of 13 adult male C57BL/6J strain mice. PRV-614 infected neurons were detected in a number of mesencephalic (e.g. central amygdala nucleus), telencephalic regions and motor cortex. These divisions included the preoptic area (POA), dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), lateral hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus (Arc), suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), periventricular hypothalamus (PeH), and rostral and caudal subdivision of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). PRV-614/Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) double-labeled cells were found within DMH, Arc, SCN, PeH, PVN, the anterodorsal and medial POA. A subset of neurons in PVN that participated in regulating sympathetic outflow to kidney was catecholaminergic or serotonergic. PRV-614 infected neurons within the PVN also contained arginine vasopressin or oxytocin. These data demonstrate the rostral elements of brain innervate the kidney by the neuroanatomical circuitry.

  15. A Highly Available Grid Metadata Catalog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Thostrup; Kleist, Joshva

    2009-01-01

    for the system to function. The data model used in the catalog is RDF, which allows users to create theirown name spaces and schemas. Querying is performed using SPARQL. Additionally the catalog can be used as a synchronization mechanism, by utilizing a compare and swap operation. The catalog is accessed using...

  16. Online Public Access Catalogs. ERIC Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Pauline A.

    A listing is presented of 17 documents in the ERIC database concerning the Online Catalog (sometimes referred to as OPAC or Online Public Access Catalog), a computer-based and supported library catalog designed for patron use. The database usually represents recent acquisitions and often contains information about books on order and items in…

  17. The Online Catalog: Exceeding Our Grasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipow, Anne Grodzins

    1989-01-01

    Discusses two problems related to the use of online catalogs: (1) staff training has not kept pace with new catalogs, resulting in a lack of search expertise in staff and patrons; and (2) users expect instant access to materials found in the catalog. It is argued that these problems must be addressed to adequately serve library patrons. (CLB)

  18. Retrograde Neuroanatomical Tracing of Phrenic Motor Neurons in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel; Hontoir, Fanny; De Knoop, Alexis; De Swert, Kathleen; Nicaise, Charles

    2018-02-22

    Phrenic motor neurons are cervical motor neurons originating from C3 to C6 levels in most mammalian species. Axonal projections converge into phrenic nerves innervating the respiratory diaphragm. In spinal cord slices, phrenic motor neurons cannot be identified from other motor neurons on morphological or biochemical criteria. We provide the description of procedures for visualizing phrenic motor neuron cell bodies in mice, following intrapleural injections of cholera toxin subunit beta (CTB) conjugated to a fluorophore. This fluorescent neuroanatomical tracer has the ability to be caught up at the diaphragm neuromuscular junction, be carried retrogradely along the phrenic axons and reach the phrenic cell bodies. Two methodological approaches of intrapleural CTB delivery are compared: transdiaphragmatic versus transthoracic injections. Both approaches are successful and result in similar number of CTB-labeled phrenic motor neurons. In conclusion, these techniques can be applied to visualize or quantify the phrenic motor neurons in various experimental studies such as those focused on the diaphragm-phrenic circuitry.

  19. ADC Catalog Services: an Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, J. E.; Roman, N. G.; Schneider, G. L.; Blackwell, J. H.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Larkin, M. C.; Lyu, C.-C. J.; Cheung, C. Y.

    1996-12-01

    The Astronomical Data Center (ADC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is a major archive and distribution center for computer-readable versions of astronomical catalogs and journal data tables. The ADC's archives contain more than 1600 catalogs and tables of astrometry, photometry, spectroscopy, radio, high energy, and other miscellaneous data for stellar and non-stellar objects. These data files are documented in a standardized manner, developed in cooperation with the Centre de Donnees astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS). The ADC's data collection is available via anonymous FTP from node adc.gsfc.nasa.gov in the /pub/adc/archives directory. The holdings can also be accessed from the ADC's WWW site, http://adc.gsfc.nasa.gov/. This site permits users to search the text of the documentation files to locate catalogs and tables of interest or to browse the archives. Hypertext author and keyword indices, and other browsing tools have recently been developed as additional aids to navigating the ADC's large collection of data sets. The ADC is currently developing services to allow researchers to easily locate data fields of interest within files in its archives. The ADC has also prepared three volumes of CD-ROMs that contain several hundred of the largest and most requested catalogs in both ASCII and FITS table formats.

  20. Role of the Brain's Reward Circuitry in Depression: Transcriptional Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports an important role for the brain's reward circuitry in controlling mood under normal conditions and contributing importantly to the pathophysiology and symptomatology of a range of mood disorders, such as depression. Here we focus on the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a critical component of the brain's reward circuitry, in depression and other stress-related disorders. The prominence of anhedonia, reduced motivation, and decreased energy level in most individuals with depression supports the involvement of the NAc in these conditions. We concentrate on several transcription factors (CREB, ΔFosB, SRF, NFκB, and β-catenin), which are altered in the NAc in rodent depression models--and in some cases in the NAc of depressed humans, and which produce robust depression- or antidepressant-like effects when manipulated in the NAc in animal models. These studies of the NAc have established novel approaches toward modeling key symptoms of depression in animals and could enable the development of antidepressant medications with fundamentally new mechanisms of action. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DNA-based random number generation in security circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearheart, Christy M; Arazi, Benjamin; Rouchka, Eric C

    2010-06-01

    DNA-based circuit design is an area of research in which traditional silicon-based technologies are replaced by naturally occurring phenomena taken from biochemistry and molecular biology. This research focuses on further developing DNA-based methodologies to mimic digital data manipulation. While exhibiting fundamental principles, this work was done in conjunction with the vision that DNA-based circuitry, when the technology matures, will form the basis for a tamper-proof security module, revolutionizing the meaning and concept of tamper-proofing and possibly preventing it altogether based on accurate scientific observations. A paramount part of such a solution would be self-generation of random numbers. A novel prototype schema employs solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides for random construction of DNA sequences; temporary storage and retrieval is achieved through plasmid vectors. A discussion of how to evaluate sequence randomness is included, as well as how these techniques are applied to a simulation of the random number generation circuitry. Simulation results show generated sequences successfully pass three selected NIST random number generation tests specified for security applications.

  2. Second Line of Defense Master Spares Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Dale L.; Muller, George; Mercier, Theresa M.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Perkins, Casey J.; Cooley, Scott K.

    2012-11-20

    This catalog is intended to be a comprehensive listing of repair parts, components, kits, and consumable items used on the equipment deployed at SLD sites worldwide. The catalog covers detection, CAS, network, ancillary equipment, and tools. The catalog is backed by a Master Parts Database which is used to generate the standard report views of the catalog. The master parts database is a relational database containing a record for every part in the master parts catalog along with supporting tables for normalizing fields in the records. The database also includes supporting queries, database maintenance forms, and reports.

  3. XML for catalogers and metadata librarians

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Timothy W

    2013-01-01

    How are today's librarians to manage and describe the everexpanding volumes of resources, in both digital and print formats? The use of XML in cataloging and metadata workflows can improve metadata quality, the consistency of cataloging workflows, and adherence to standards. This book is intended to enable current and future catalogers and metadata librarians to progress beyond a bare surfacelevel acquaintance with XML, thereby enabling them to integrate XML technologies more fully into their cataloging workflows. Building on the wealth of work on library descriptive practices, cataloging, and metadata, XML for Catalogers and Metadata Librarians explores the use of XML to serialize, process, share, and manage library catalog and metadata records. The authors' expert treatment of the topic is written to be accessible to those with little or no prior practical knowledge of or experience with how XML is used. Readers will gain an educated appreciation of the nuances of XML and grasp the benefit of more advanced ...

  4. Corticospinal tract insult alters GABAergic circuitry in the mammalian spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Russ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During perinatal development, corticospinal tract (CST projections into the spinal cord help refine spinal circuitry. Although the normal developmental processes that are controlled by the arrival of corticospinal input are becoming clear, little is known about how perinatal cortical damage impacts specific aspects of spinal circuit development, particularly the inhibitory microcircuitry that regulates spinal reflex circuits. In this study, we sought to determine how ischemic cortical damage impacts the synaptic attributes of a well-characterized population of inhibitory, GABAergic interneurons, called GABApre neurons, which modulates the efficiency of proprioceptive sensory terminals in the sensorimotor reflex circuit. We found that putative GABApre interneurons receive CST input and, using an established mouse model of perinatal stroke, that cortical ischemic injury results in a reduction of CST density within the intermediate region of the spinal cord, where these interneurons reside. Importantly, CST alterations were restricted to the side contralateral to the injury. Within the synaptic terminals of the GABApre interneurons, we observed a dramatic upregulation of the 65-isoform of the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65. In accordance with the CST density reduction, GAD65 was elevated on the side of the spinal cord contralateral to cortical injury. This effect was not seen for other GABApre synaptic markers or in animals that received sham surgery. Our data reveal a novel effect of perinatal stroke that involves severe deficits in the architecture of descending spinal pathways, which in turn appear to promote molecular alterations in a specific spinal GABAergic circuit.

  5. Hyperleptinemia in Neonatally Overfed Female Rats Does Not Dysregulate Feeding Circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilvana Ziko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal overfeeding during the first weeks of life in male rats is associated with a disruption in the peripheral and central leptin systems. Neonatally overfed male rats have increased circulating leptin in the first 2 weeks of life, which corresponds to an increase in body weight compared to normally fed counterparts. These effects are associated with a short-term disruption in the connectivity of neuropeptide Y (NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP, and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC neurons within the regions of the hypothalamus responsible for control of energy balance and food intake. Female rats that are overfed during the first weeks of their life experience similar changes in circulating leptin levels as well as in their body weight. However, it has not yet been studied whether these metabolic changes are associated with the same central effects as observed in males. Here, we hypothesized that hyperleptinemia associated with neonatal overfeeding would lead to changes in central feeding circuitry in females as it does in males. We assessed hypothalamic NPY, AgRP, and POMC gene expression and immunoreactivity at 7, 12, or 14 days of age, as well as neuronal activation in response to exogenous leptin in neonatally overfed and control female rats. Neonatally overfed female rats were hyperleptinemic and were heavier than controls. However, these metabolic changes were not mirrored centrally by changes in hypothalamic NPY, AGRP, and POMC fiber density. These findings are suggestive of sex differences in the effects of neonatal overfeeding and of differences in the ability of the female and male central systems to respond to changes in the early life nutritional environment.

  6. The banana code – Natural blend processing in the olfactory circuitry of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eSchubert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Odor information is predominantly perceived as complex odor blends. For Drosophila melanogaster one of the most attractive blends is emitted by an over-ripe banana. To analyze how the fly’s olfactory system processes natural blends we combined the experimental advantages of gas chromatography and functional imaging (GC-I. In this way, natural banana compounds were presented successively to the fly antenna in close to natural occurring concentrations. This technique allowed us to identify the active odor components, use these compounds as stimuli and measure odor-induced Ca2+ signals in input and output neurons of the Drosophila antennal lobe (AL, the first olfactory neuropil. We demonstrate that mixture interactions of a natural blend are very rare and occur only at the AL output level resulting in a surprisingly linear blend representation. However, the information regarding single components is strongly modulated by the olfactory circuitry within the AL leading to a higher similarity between the representation of individual components and the banana blend. This observed modulation might tune the olfactory system in a way to distinctively categorize odor components and improve the detection of suitable food sources. Functional GC-I thus enables analysis of virtually any unknown natural odorant blend and its components in their relative occurring concentrations and allows characterization of neuronal responses of complete neural assemblies. This technique can be seen as a valuable complementary method to classical GC/electrophysiology techniques, and will be a highly useful tool in future investigations of insect-insect and insect-plant chemical interactions.

  7. Signal processing circuitry for CMOS-based SAW gas sensors with low power and area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd-Yasin, F.; Tye, K.F.; Reaz, M.B.I.

    2009-06-01

    The design and development of interface circuitries for CMOS-based SAW gas sensor is presented in this paper. The SAW gas sensor devices typically run at RF, requiring most designs to have complex signal conditioning circuitry. The proposed approach attempts to design a simple architecture with reduced power consumption. The SAW gas sensors operate at 354MHz. Simulation data show that the interface circuitries are ten times smaller with lower power supply, comparing to existing work. (author)

  8. Anatomical Recruitment of Spinal V2a Interneurons into Phrenic Motor Circuitry after High Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zholudeva, Lyandysha V; Karliner, Jordyn S; Dougherty, Kimberly J; Lane, Michael A

    2017-11-01

    More than half of all spinal cord injuries (SCIs) occur at the cervical level, often resulting in impaired respiration. Despite this devastating outcome, there is substantial evidence for endogenous neuroplasticity after cervical SCI. Spinal interneurons are widely recognized as being an essential anatomical component of this plasticity by contributing to novel neuronal pathways that can result in functional improvement. The identity of spinal interneurons involved with respiratory plasticity post-SCI, however, has remained largely unknown. Using a transgenic Chx10-eGFP mouse line (Strain 011391-UCD), the present study is the first to demonstrate the recruitment of excitatory interneurons into injured phrenic circuitry after a high cervical SCI. Diaphragm electromyography and anatomical analysis were used to confirm lesion-induced functional deficits and document extent of the lesion, respectively. Transneuronal tracing with pseudorabies virus (PRV) was used to identify interneurons within the phrenic circuitry. There was a robust increase in the number of PRV-labeled V2a interneurons ipsilateral to the C2 hemisection, demonstrating that significant numbers of these excitatory spinal interneurons were anatomically recruited into the phrenic motor pathway two weeks after injury, a time known to correspond with functional phrenic plasticity. Understanding this anatomical spinal plasticity and the neural substrates associated with functional compensation or recovery post-SCI in a controlled, experimental setting may help shed light onto possible cellular therapeutic candidates that can be targeted to enhance spontaneous recovery.

  9. The Chandra Source Catalog 2.0: Building The Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, John D.; Plummer, David A.; Allen, Christopher E.; Anderson, Craig S.; Budynkiewicz, Jamie A.; Burke, Douglas; Chen, Judy C.; Civano, Francesca Maria; D'Abrusco, Raffaele; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Ian N.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Graessle, Dale E.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; Houck, John C.; Lauer, Jennifer L.; Laurino, Omar; Lee, Nicholas P.; Martínez-Galarza, Juan Rafael; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph; McLaughlin, Warren; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nguyen, Dan T.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Paxson, Charles; Primini, Francis Anthony; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael; Van Stone, David W.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2018-01-01

    To build release 2.0 of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC2), we require scientific software tools and processing pipelines to evaluate and analyze the data. Additionally, software and hardware infrastructure is needed to coordinate and distribute pipeline execution, manage data i/o, and handle data for Quality Assurance (QA) intervention. We also provide data product staging for archive ingestion.Release 2 utilizes a database driven system used for integration and production. Included are four distinct instances of the Automatic Processing (AP) system (Source Detection, Master Match, Source Properties and Convex Hulls) and a high performance computing (HPC) cluster that is managed to provide efficient catalog processing. In this poster we highlight the internal systems developed to meet the CSC2 challenge.This work has been supported by NASA under contract NAS 8-03060 to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for operation of the Chandra X-ray Center.

  10. Mirror neurons: functions, mechanisms and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztop, Erhan; Kawato, Mitsuo; Arbib, Michael A

    2013-04-12

    Mirror neurons for manipulation fire both when the animal manipulates an object in a specific way and when it sees another animal (or the experimenter) perform an action that is more or less similar. Such neurons were originally found in macaque monkeys, in the ventral premotor cortex, area F5 and later also in the inferior parietal lobule. Recent neuroimaging data indicate that the adult human brain is endowed with a "mirror neuron system," putatively containing mirror neurons and other neurons, for matching the observation and execution of actions. Mirror neurons may serve action recognition in monkeys as well as humans, whereas their putative role in imitation and language may be realized in human but not in monkey. This article shows the important role of computational models in providing sufficient and causal explanations for the observed phenomena involving mirror systems and the learning processes which form them, and underlines the need for additional circuitry to lift up the monkey mirror neuron circuit to sustain the posited cognitive functions attributed to the human mirror neuron system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. E-serials cataloging access to continuing and integrating resources via the catalog and the web

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Jim

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive guide examines the state of electronic serials cataloging with special attention paid to online capacities. E-Serials Cataloging: Access to Continuing and Integrating Resources via the Catalog and the Web presents a review of the e-serials cataloging methods of the 1990s and discusses the international standards (ISSN, ISBD[ER], AACR2) that are applicable. It puts the concept of online accessibility into historical perspective and offers a look at current applications to consider. Practicing librarians, catalogers and administrators of technical services, cataloging and serv

  12. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Benjamin C; Kalivas, Peter W

    2016-03-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumbens during a relapse episode. We delineate an accumbens microcircuit that mediates cue-induced drug seeking becoming an intrusive event. This microcircuit harbors many potential therapeutic targets. We focus on preclinical and clinical studies, showing that administering N-acetylcysteine restores uptake of synaptic glutamate by astroglial glutamate transporters and thereby inhibits intrusive thinking. We posit that because intrusive thinking is a shared endophenotype in many disorders, N-acetylcysteine has positive effects in clinical trials for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, gambling, trichotillomania, and depression.

  13. Silent Synapse-Based Circuitry Remodeling in Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to cocaine, and likely other drugs of abuse, generates α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor-silent glutamatergic synapses in the nucleus accumbens. These immature synaptic contacts evolve after drug withdrawal to redefine the neurocircuital properties. These results raise at least three critical questions: (1) what are the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate drug-induced generation of silent synapses; (2) how are neurocircuits remodeled upon generation and evolution of drug-generated silent synapses; and (3) what behavioral consequences are produced by silent synapse-based circuitry remodeling? This short review analyzes related experimental results, and extends them to some speculations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  14. Neural Circuitry of Impaired Emotion Regulation in Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Claire E; Pommy, Jessica M; Adinoff, Bryon

    2016-04-01

    Impaired emotion regulation contributes to the development and severity of substance use disorders (substance disorders). This review summarizes the literature on alterations in emotion regulation neural circuitry in substance disorders, particularly in relation to disorders of negative affect (without substance disorder), and it presents promising areas of future research. Emotion regulation paradigms during functional magnetic resonance imaging are conceptualized into four dimensions: affect intensity and reactivity, affective modulation, cognitive modulation, and behavioral control. The neural circuitry associated with impaired emotion regulation is compared in individuals with and without substance disorders, with a focus on amygdala, insula, and prefrontal cortex activation and their functional and structural connectivity. Hypoactivation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (rACC/vmPFC) is the most consistent finding across studies, dimensions, and clinical populations (individuals with and without substance disorders). The same pattern is evident for regions in the cognitive control network (anterior cingulate and dorsal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices) during cognitive modulation and behavioral control. These congruent findings are possibly related to attenuated functional and/or structural connectivity between the amygdala and insula and between the rACC/vmPFC and cognitive control network. Although increased amygdala and insula activation is associated with impaired emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders, it is not consistently observed in substance disorders. Emotion regulation disturbances in substance disorders may therefore stem from impairments in prefrontal functioning, rather than excessive reactivity to emotional stimuli. Treatments for emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders that normalize prefrontal functioning may offer greater efficacy for substance disorders

  15. The Chandra Source Catalog: Processing and Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Janet; Evans, Ian N.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Miller, Joseph B.; Plummer, David A.; Zografou, Panagoula; Primini, Francis A.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiang Qun (Helen); Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2009-09-01

    Chandra Source Catalog processing recalibrates each observation using the latest available calibration data, and employs a wavelet-based source detection algorithm to identify all the X-ray sources in the field of view. Source properties are then extracted from each detected source that is a candidate for inclusion in the catalog. Catalog processing is completed by matching sources across multiple observations, merging common detections, and applying quality assurance checks. The Chandra Source Catalog processing system shares a common processing infrastructure and utilizes much of the functionality that is built into the Standard Data Processing (SDP) pipeline system that provides calibrated Chandra data to end-users. Other key components of the catalog processing system have been assembled from the portable CIAO data analysis package. Minimal new software tool development has been required to support the science algorithms needed for catalog production. Since processing pipelines must be instantiated for each detected source, the number of pipelines that are run during catalog construction is a factor of order 100 times larger than for SDP. The increased computational load, and inherent parallel nature of the processing, is handled by distributing the workload across a multi-node Beowulf cluster. Modifications to the SDP automated processing application to support catalog processing, and extensions to Chandra Data Archive software to ingest and retrieve catalog products, complete the upgrades to the infrastructure to support catalog processing.

  16. Cometography a catalog of comets

    CERN Document Server

    Kronk, Gary W; Seargent, David A J

    2017-01-01

    Cometography is a multi-volume catalog of every comet observed from ancient times up to the 1990s, when the internet took off as a medium of scientific record. It uses the most reliable orbits known to determine the distances from the Earth and Sun at the time of discovery and last observation, as well as the largest and smallest angular distance to the Sun, most northerly and southerly declination, closest distance to the Earth, and other details, to enable the reader to understand each comet's physical appearance. Volume 6, the final volume in the catalog, covers the observations and pertinent calculations for every comet seen between 1983 and 1993. The comets are listed in chronological order, with complete references to publications relating to each comet and physical descriptions of each comet's development throughout its apparition. Cometography is the definitive reference on comets through the ages, for astronomers and historians of science.

  17. Catalog of databases and reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtis, M.D.

    1997-04-01

    This catalog provides information about the many reports and materials made available by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Global Change Research Program (GCRP) and the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The catalog is divided into nine sections plus the author and title indexes: Section A--US Department of Energy Global Change Research Program Research Plans and Summaries; Section B--US Department of Energy Global Change Research Program Technical Reports; Section C--US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Reports; Section D--Other US Department of Energy Reports; Section E--CDIAC Reports; Section F--CDIAC Numeric Data and Computer Model Distribution; Section G--Other Databases Distributed by CDIAC; Section H--US Department of Agriculture Reports on Response of Vegetation to Carbon Dioxide; and Section I--Other Publications

  18. Catalog of databases and reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.

    1997-04-01

    This catalog provides information about the many reports and materials made available by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Global Change Research Program (GCRP) and the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The catalog is divided into nine sections plus the author and title indexes: Section A--US Department of Energy Global Change Research Program Research Plans and Summaries; Section B--US Department of Energy Global Change Research Program Technical Reports; Section C--US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Reports; Section D--Other US Department of Energy Reports; Section E--CDIAC Reports; Section F--CDIAC Numeric Data and Computer Model Distribution; Section G--Other Databases Distributed by CDIAC; Section H--US Department of Agriculture Reports on Response of Vegetation to Carbon Dioxide; and Section I--Other Publications.

  19. Sensitive Periods of Emotion Regulation: Influences of Parental Care on Frontoamygdala Circuitry and Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Dylan G.

    2016-01-01

    Early caregiving experiences play a central role in shaping emotional development, stress physiology, and refinement of limbic circuitry. Converging evidence across species delineates a sensitive period of heightened neuroplasticity when frontoamygdala circuitry is especially amenable to caregiver inputs early in life. During this period, parental…

  20. Mapping the Brain’s Metaphor Circuitry:Is Abstract Thought Metaphorical Thought?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eLakoff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the basics of metaphorical thought and language from the perspective of Neurocognition, the integrated interdisciplinary study of how conceptual thought and language work in the brain. The paper outlines a theory of metaphor circuitry and discusses how everyday reason makes use of embodied metaphor circuitry.

  1. Shawnee Mission's On-Line Cataloging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wasby Miller

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available An on-line cataloging pilot project for two elementary schools is discussed. The system components are 2740 terminals, upper-lower-case input, IBM's FASTER generalized software package, and usual cards/labels output. Reasons for choosing FASTER, software and hardware features, operating procedures, system performance and costs are detailed. Future expansion to cataloging 100,000 annual K-12 acquisitions, on-line circulation, retrospective conversion, and union book catalogs is set forth.

  2. Glucose-monitoring neurons in the mediodorsal prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Bernadett; Szabó, István; Papp, Szilárd; Takács, Gábor; Szalay, Csaba; Karádi, Zoltán

    2012-03-20

    The mediodorsal prefrontal cortex (mdPFC), a key structure of the limbic neural circuitry, plays important roles in the central regulation of feeding. As an integrant part of the forebrain dopamine (DA) system, it performs complex roles via interconnections with various brain areas where glucose-monitoring (GM) neurons have been identified. The main goal of the present experiments was to examine whether similar GM neurons exist in the mediodorsal prefrontal cortex. To search for such chemosensory cells here, and to estimate their involvement in the DA circuitry, extracellular single neuron activity of the mediodorsal prefrontal cortex of anesthetized Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats was recorded by means of tungsten wire multibarreled glass microelectrodes during microelectrophoretic administration of d-glucose and DA. One fourth of the neurons tested changed in firing rate in response to glucose, thus, proved to be elements of the forebrain GM neural network. DA responsive neurons in the mdPFC were found to represent similar proportion of all cells; the glucose-excited units were shown to display excitatory whereas the glucose-inhibited neurons were demonstrated to exert mainly inhibitory responses to dopamine. The glucose-monitoring neurons of the mdPFC and their distinct DA sensitivity are suggested to be of particular significance in adaptive processes of the central feeding control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

    1998-02-01

    The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

  4. In Vitro Restoration of an Amyloid-Beta Altered Network Circuitry in a 'Mutated Biomimetic Acetylcholinesterase' Memristor/Memcapacitor Neural Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John THORNTON

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases involve the ysregulation of acetylcholinesterase (ACHE causing inappropriate production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACH. Study of how the ACH actually restores a life threatening neural circuitry damage will provide valuable information for study Alzhermer’s disease. An artificial neuronal device was developed with nanostructured biomimetic mutated ACHE gorge membrane on gold chips having memristor/memcapacitor’s characteristics, served as a model for damaged brain circuitry prosthesis, compared before and after ACH treatments, for in vitro evaluation of the memory restoration in the presence of Amyloid-beta (Ab under the conditions of free from tracers and antibodies in NIST human serum. The results are presented in three categories in “Energy-Sensory” images. Before ACH treatments, images showed four stages of circuitry damages from non symptomatic to life threatening. After a 15 nM ACH treatment, the circuitry was restored due to the ACH removed Pathological High Frequency Oscillation (pHFO center during Slow- Waving Sleeping (SWS. After the prosthesis increased hydrophobicity, the High Frequency Oscillation (HFO was created. Results were compared between the recovered and the “normal brain”: 0.14 vs. 0.47 pJ/bit/µm3 for long-term and 14.0 vs.7.0 aJ/bit/µm3 for short-term memory restoration, respectively. The ratio of Rmax/Rmin value is 6.3-fold higher after the treatment of ACH compared without the treatment in the presence of Ab and the reentry sensitivity increased by 613.8- fold.

  5. THE EXTENDED VIRGO CLUSTER CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Chung, Jiwon; Pak, Mina; Yi, Wonhyeong; Lee, Woong [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jerjen, Helmut [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Lisker, Thorsten [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sung, Eon-Chang [Korea Astronomy and Space Science institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    We present a new catalog of galaxies in the wider region of the Virgo cluster, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) covers an area of 725 deg{sup 2} or 60.1 Mpc{sup 2}. It is 5.2 times larger than the footprint of the classical Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC) and reaches out to 3.5 times the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We selected 1324 spectroscopically targeted galaxies with radial velocities less than 3000 km s{sup –1}. In addition, 265 galaxies that have been overlooked in the SDSS spectroscopic survey but have available redshifts in the NASA Extragalactic Database are also included. Our selection process secured a total of 1589 galaxies, 676 of which are not included in the VCC. The certain and possible cluster members are defined by means of redshift comparison with a cluster infall model. We employed two independent and complementary galaxy classification schemes: the traditional morphological classification based on the visual inspection of optical images and a characterization of galaxies from their spectroscopic features. SDSS u, g, r, i, and z passband photometry of all EVCC galaxies was performed using Source Extractor. We compare the EVCC galaxies with the VCC in terms of morphology, spatial distribution, and luminosity function. The EVCC defines a comprehensive galaxy sample covering a wider range in galaxy density that is significantly different from the inner region of the Virgo cluster. It will be the foundation for forthcoming galaxy evolution studies in the extended Virgo cluster region, complementing ongoing and planned Virgo cluster surveys at various wavelengths.

  6. Chandra Source Catalog: User Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Nina; Evans, I. N.; Harbo, P. N.; Rots, A. H.; Tibbetts, M. S.; Van Stone, D. W.; Zografou, P.; Anderson, C. S.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E.; Gibbs, D. G.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Primini, F. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Winkelman, S. L.

    2010-03-01

    The CSCview data mining interface is available for browsing the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) and downloading tables of quality-assured source properties and data products. Once the desired source properties and search criteria are entered into the CSCview query form, the resulting source matches are returned in a table along with the values of the requested source properties for each source. (The catalog can be searched on any source property, not just position.) At this point, the table of search results may be saved to a text file, and the available data products for each source may be downloaded. CSCview save files are output in RDB-like and VOTable format. The available CSC data products include event files, spectra, lightcurves, and images, all of which are processed with the CIAO software. CSC data may also be accessed non-interactively with Unix command-line tools such as cURL and Wget, using ADQL 2.0 query syntax. In fact, CSCview features a separate ADQL query form for those who wish to specify this type of query within the GUI. Several interfaces are available for learning if a source is included in the catalog (in addition to CSCview): 1) the CSC interface to Sky in Google Earth shows the footprint of each Chandra observation on the sky, along with the CSC footprint for comparison (CSC source properties are also accessible when a source within a Chandra field-of-view is clicked); 2) the CSC Limiting Sensitivity online tool indicates if a source at an input celestial location was too faint for detection; 3) an IVOA Simple Cone Search interface locates all CSC sources within a specified radius of an R.A. and Dec.; and 4) the CSC-SDSS cross-match service returns the list of sources common to the CSC and SDSS, either all such sources or a subset based on search criteria.

  7. Circuitry for use with an ionizing-radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.H. III; Harrington, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    An improved system of circuitry for use in combination with an ionizing-radiation detector over a wide range of radiation levels includes a current-to-frequency converter together with a digital data processor for respectively producing and measuring a pulse repetition frequency which is proportional to the output current of the ionizing-radiation detector, a dc-to-dc converter for providing closely regulated operating voltages from a rechargeable battery and a bias supply for providing high voltage to the ionization chamber. The ionizing-radiation detector operating as a part of this system produces a signal responsive to the level of ionizing radiation in the vicinity of the detector, and this signal is converted into a pulse frequency which will vary in direct proportion to such level of ionizing-radiation. The data processor, by counting the number of pulses from the converter over a selected integration interval, provides a digital indication of radiation dose rate, and by accumulating the total of all such pulses provides a digital indication of total integrated dose. Ordinary frequency-to-voltage conversion devices or digital display techniques can be used as a means for providing audible and visible indications of dose and dose-rate levels

  8. Cost-benefit decision circuitry: proposed modulatory role for acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobbs, Wambura C; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2014-01-01

    In order to select which action should be taken, an animal must weigh the costs and benefits of possible outcomes associate with each action. Such decisions, called cost-benefit decisions, likely involve several cognitive processes (including memory) and a vast neural circuitry. Rodent models have allowed research to begin to probe the neural basis of three forms of cost-benefit decision making: effort-, delay-, and risk-based decision making. In this review, we detail the current understanding of the functional circuits that subserve each form of decision making. We highlight the extensive literature by detailing the ability of dopamine to influence decisions by modulating structures within these circuits. Since acetylcholine projects to all of the same important structures, we propose several ways in which the cholinergic system may play a local modulatory role that will allow it to shape these behaviors. A greater understanding of the contribution of the cholinergic system to cost-benefit decisions will permit us to better link the decision and memory processes, and this will help us to better understand and/or treat individuals with deficits in a number of higher cognitive functions including decision making, learning, memory, and language. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genomic Circuitry Underlying Immunological Response to Pediatric Acute Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Sarah E; Manne, Sasikanth; Dolfi, Douglas V; Mansfield, Kathleen D; Parkhouse, Kaela; Mistry, Rakesh D; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Hensley, Scott E; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Coffin, Susan E; Wherry, E John

    2018-01-09

    Acute respiratory tract viral infections (ARTIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. CD8 T cells are fundamental to host responses, but transcriptional alterations underlying anti-viral mechanisms and links to clinical characteristics remain unclear. CD8 T cell transcriptional circuitry in acutely ill pediatric patients with influenza-like illness was distinct for different viral pathogens. Although changes included expected upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), transcriptional downregulation was prominent upon exposure to innate immune signals in early IFV infection. Network analysis linked changes to severity of infection, asthma, sex, and age. An influenza pediatric signature (IPS) distinguished acute influenza from other ARTIs and outperformed other influenza prediction gene lists. The IPS allowed a deeper investigation of the connection between transcriptional alterations and clinical characteristics of acute illness, including age-based differences in circuits connecting the STAT1/2 pathway to ISGs. A CD8 T cell-focused systems immunology approach in pediatrics identified age-based alterations in ARTI host response pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Heterogeneity of neuroblastoma cell identity defined by transcriptional circuitries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeva, Valentina; Louis-Brennetot, Caroline; Peltier, Agathe; Durand, Simon; Pierre-Eugène, Cécile; Raynal, Virginie; Etchevers, Heather C; Thomas, Sophie; Lermine, Alban; Daudigeos-Dubus, Estelle; Geoerger, Birgit; Orth, Martin F; Grünewald, Thomas G P; Diaz, Elise; Ducos, Bertrand; Surdez, Didier; Carcaboso, Angel M; Medvedeva, Irina; Deller, Thomas; Combaret, Valérie; Lapouble, Eve; Pierron, Gaelle; Grossetête-Lalami, Sandrine; Baulande, Sylvain; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Barillot, Emmanuel; Rohrer, Hermann; Delattre, Olivier; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Neuroblastoma is a tumor of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, derived from multipotent neural crest cells (NCCs). To define core regulatory circuitries (CRCs) controlling the gene expression program of neuroblastoma, we established and analyzed the neuroblastoma super-enhancer landscape. We discovered three types of identity in neuroblastoma cell lines: a sympathetic noradrenergic identity, defined by a CRC module including the PHOX2B, HAND2 and GATA3 transcription factors (TFs); an NCC-like identity, driven by a CRC module containing AP-1 TFs; and a mixed type, further deconvoluted at the single-cell level. Treatment of the mixed type with chemotherapeutic agents resulted in enrichment of NCC-like cells. The noradrenergic module was validated by ChIP-seq. Functional studies demonstrated dependency of neuroblastoma with noradrenergic identity on PHOX2B, evocative of lineage addiction. Most neuroblastoma primary tumors express TFs from the noradrenergic and NCC-like modules. Our data demonstrate a previously unknown aspect of tumor heterogeneity relevant for neuroblastoma treatment strategies.

  11. HIV-1 proteins dysregulate motivational processes and dopamine circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Sarah J; Mactutus, Charles F; Harrod, Steven B; Moran, Landhing M; Booze, Rosemarie M

    2018-05-18

    Motivational alterations, such as apathy, in HIV-1+ individuals are associated with decreased performance on tasks involving frontal-subcortical circuitry. We used the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat to assess effect of long-term HIV-1 protein exposure on motivated behavior using sucrose (1-30%, w/v) and cocaine (0.01-1.0 mg/kg/infusion) maintained responding with fixed-ratio (FR) and progressive-ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. For sucrose-reinforced responding, HIV-1 Tg rats displayed no change in EC 50 relative to controls, suggesting no change in sucrose reinforcement but had a downward shifted concentration-response curves, suggesting a decrease in response vigor. Cocaine-maintained responding was attenuated in HIV-1 Tg rats (FR1 0.33 mg/kg/infusion and PR 1.0 mg/kg/infusion). Dose-response tests (PR) revealed that HIV-1 Tg animals responded significantly less than F344 control rats and failed to earn significantly more infusions of cocaine as the unit dose increased. When choosing between cocaine and sucrose, control rats initially chose sucrose but with time shifted to a cocaine preference. In contrast, HIV-1 disrupted choice behaviors. DAT function was altered in the striatum of HIV-1 Tg rats; however, prior cocaine self-administration produced a unique effect on dopamine homeostasis in the HIV-1 Tg striatum. These findings of altered goal directed behaviors may determine neurobiological mechanisms of apathy in HIV-1+ patients.

  12. Thin Film Transistor Control Circuitry for MEMS Acoustic Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Robin

    This work seeks to develop a practical solution for short range ultrasonic communications and produce an integrated array of acoustic transmitters on a flexible substrate. This is done using flexible thin film transistor (TFT) and micro electromechanical systems (MEMS). The goal is to develop a flexible system capable of communicating in the ultrasonic frequency range at a distance of 10-100 meters. This requires a great deal of innovation on the part of the FDC team developing the TFT driving circuitry and the MEMS team adapting the technology for fabrication on a flexible substrate. The technologies required for this research are independently developed. The TFT development is driven primarily by research into flexible displays. The MEMS development is driving by research in biosensors and micro actuators. This project involves the integration of TFT flexible circuit capabilities with MEMS micro actuators in the novel area of flexible acoustic transmitter arrays. This thesis focuses on the design, testing and analysis of the circuit components required for this project.

  13. DESCQA: Synthetic Sky Catalog Validation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yao-Yuan; Uram, Thomas D.; Zhou, Rongpu; Kovacs, Eve; Ricker, Paul M.; Kalmbach, J. Bryce; Padilla, Nelson; Lanusse, François; Zu, Ying; Tenneti, Ananth; Vikraman, Vinu; DeRose, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    The DESCQA framework provides rigorous validation protocols for assessing the quality of high-quality simulated sky catalogs in a straightforward and comprehensive way. DESCQA enables the inspection, validation, and comparison of an inhomogeneous set of synthetic catalogs via the provision of a common interface within an automated framework. An interactive web interface is also available at portal.nersc.gov/project/lsst/descqa.

  14. Mathematical Problems in Creating Large Astronomical Catalogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The next stage after performing observations and their primary reduction is to transform the set of observations into a catalog. To this end, objects that are irrelevant to the catalog should be excluded from observations and gross errors should be discarded. To transform such a prepared data set into a high-precision catalog, we need to identify and correct systematic errors. Therefore, each object of the survey should be observed several, preferably many, times. The problem formally reduces to solving an overdetermined set of equations. However, in the case of catalogs this system of equations has a very specific form: it is extremely sparse, and its sparseness increases rapidly with the number of objects in the catalog. Such equation systems require special methods for storing data on disks and in RAM, and for the choice of the techniques for their solving. Another specific feature of such systems is their high “stiffiness”, which also increases with the volume of a catalog. Special stable mathematical methods should be used in order not to lose precision when solving such systems of equations. We illustrate the problem by the example of photometric star catalogs, although similar problems arise in the case of positional, radial-velocity, and parallax catalogs.

  15. OLAP Cube Visualization of Hydrologic Data Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Rodriguez, M.; Beran, B.; Valentine, D.; van Ingen, C.; Wallis, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    As part of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project, we assemble comprehensive observations data catalogs that support CUAHSI data discovery services (WaterOneFlow services) and online mapping interfaces (e.g. the Data Access System for Hydrology, DASH). These catalogs describe several nation-wide data repositories that are important for hydrologists, including USGS NWIS and EPA STORET data collections. The catalogs contain a wealth of information reflecting the entire history and geography of hydrologic observations in the US. Managing such catalogs requires high performance analysis and visualization technologies. OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) cube, often called data cubes, is an approach to organizing and querying large multi-dimensional data collections. We have applied the OLAP techniques, as implemented in Microsoft SQL Server 2005, to the analysis of the catalogs from several agencies. In this initial report, we focus on the OLAP technology as applied to catalogs, and preliminary results of the analysis. Specifically, we describe the challenges of generating OLAP cube dimensions, and defining aggregations and views for data catalogs as opposed to observations data themselves. The initial results are related to hydrologic data availability from the observations data catalogs. The results reflect geography and history of available data totals from USGS NWIS and EPA STORET repositories, and spatial and temporal dynamics of available measurements for several key nutrient-related parameters.

  16. Functional circuits of new neurons in the dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eVivar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is crucial for memory formation. New neurons are added throughout life to the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG, a brain area considered important for differential storage of similar experiences and contexts. To better understand the functional contribution of adult neurogenesis to pattern separation processes, we recently used a novel synapse specific trans-neuronal tracing approach to identify the (sub cortical inputs to new dentate granule cells. It was observed that newly born neurons receive sequential innervation from structures important for memory function. Initially, septal-hippocampal cells provide input to new neurons, followed after about one month by perirhinal and lateral entorhinal cortex. These cortical areas are deemed relevant to encoding of novel environmental information and may enable pattern separation. Here, we review the developmental time-course and proposed functional relevance of new neurons, within the context of their unique neural circuitry.  

  17. The Updated Multiple Star Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2018-03-01

    The catalog of hierarchical stellar systems with three or more components is an update of the original 1997 version. For 2000 hierarchies, the new Multiple Star Catalog (MSC) provides distances, component masses and periods, and supplementary information (astrometry, photometry, identifiers, orbits, notes). The MSC content and format are explained, and its incompleteness and strong observational selection are stressed. Nevertheless, the MSC can be used for statistical studies and is a valuable source for planning observations of multiple stars. Rare classes of stellar hierarchies found in the MSC (with six or seven components, extremely eccentric orbits, planar and possibly resonant orbits, hosting planets) are briefly presented. High-order hierarchies have smaller velocity dispersion compared to triples and are often associated with moving groups. The paper concludes with an analysis of the ratio of periods and separations between inner and outer subsystems. In wide hierarchies, the ratio of semimajor axes, estimated statistically, is distributed between 3 and 300, with no evidence of dynamically unstable systems.

  18. Analysis of 'Coma strip' galaxy redshift catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klypin, A.A.; Karachentsev, I.D.; Lebedev, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    We present results of the analysis of a galaxy redshift catalog made at the 6-m telescope by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1990. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 243, 390). The catalog covers a long narrow strip on the sky (10 arcmin by 63 0 ) and lists 283 galaxies up to limiting blue magnitude m B = 17.6. The strip goes through the core of Coma cluster and this is called the 'Coma strip' catalog. The catalog is almost two times deeper than the CfA redshift survey and creates the possibility of studying the galaxy distribution on scales of 100-250 Mpc. Due to the small number of galaxies in the catalog, we were able to estimate only very general and stable parameters of the distribution. (author)

  19. The Chandra Source Catalog: Storage and Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stone, David; Harbo, Peter N.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; Zografou, Panagoula; Evans, Ian N.; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; He, Xiang Qun (Helen); Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is part of the Chandra Data Archive (CDA) at the Chandra X-ray Center. The catalog contains source properties and associated data objects such as images, spectra, and lightcurves. The source properties are stored in relational databases and the data objects are stored in files with their metadata stored in databases. The CDA supports different versions of the catalog: multiple fixed release versions and a live database version. There are several interfaces to the catalog: CSCview, a graphical interface for building and submitting queries and for retrieving data objects; a command-line interface for property and source searches using ADQL; and VO-compliant services discoverable though the VO registry. This poster describes the structure of the catalog and provides an overview of the interfaces.

  20. Modulation of orientation-selective neurons by motion: when additive, when multiplicative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten eLüdge

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The recurrent interaction among orientation-selective neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1 is suited to enhance contours in a noisy visual scene. Motion is known to have a strong pop-up effect in perceiving contours, but how motion-sensitive neurons in V1 support contour detection remains vastly elusive. Here we suggest how the various types of motion-sensitive neurons observed in V1 should be wired together in a micro-circuitry to optimally extract contours in the visual scene. Motion-sensitive neurons can be selective about the direction of motion occurring at some spot or respond equally to all directions (pandirectional. We show that, in the light of figure-ground segregation, direction-selective motion neurons should additively modulate the corresponding orientation-selective neurons with preferred orientation orthogonal to the motion direction. In turn, to maximally enhance contours, pandirectional motion neurons should multiplicatively modulate all orientation-selective neurons with co-localized receptive fields. This multiplicative modulation amplifies the local V1-circuitry among co-aligned orientation-selective neurons for detecting elongated contours. We suggest that the additive modulation by direction- specific motion neurons is achieved through synaptic projections to the somatic region, and the multiplicative modulation by pandirectional motion neurons through projections to the apical region of orientation-specific pyramidal neurons. For the purpose of contour detection, the V1- intrinsic integration of motion information is advantageous over a downstream integration as it exploits the recurrent V1-circuitry designed for that task.

  1. Differential regulation of microtubule severing by APC underlies distinct patterns of projection neuron and interneuron migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae-Yeon; Stanco, Amelia; Guo, Jiami; Wilkins, Gary; Deslauriers, Danielle; Yan, Jessica; Monckton, Chase; Blair, Josh; Oon, Eesim; Perez, Abby; Salas, Eduardo; Oh, Adrianna; Ghukasyan, Vladimir; Snider, William D.; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Anton, E. S.

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated migration of distinct classes of neurons to appropriate positions leads to the formation of functional neuronal circuitry in the cerebral cortex. Two major classes of cortical neurons, interneurons and projection neurons, utilize distinctly different modes (radial vs. tangential) and routes of migration to arrive at their final positions in the cerebral cortex. Here, we show that adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) modulates microtubule (MT) severing in interneurons to facilitate tangential mode of interneuron migration, but not the glial-guided, radial migration of projection neurons. APC regulates the stability and activity of the MT severing protein p60-katanin in interneurons to promote the rapid remodeling of neuronal processes necessary for interneuron migration. These findings reveal how severing and restructuring of MTs facilitate distinct modes of neuronal migration necessary for laminar organization of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex. PMID:25535916

  2. The Neural Circuitry of Expertise: Perceptual Learning and Social Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eHarre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is likely a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviourally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations. Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and

  3. Intensity of anxiety is modified via complex integrative stress circuitries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin P; Prince, Melissa A; Achua, Justin K; Robertson, James M; Anderson, Raymond T; Ronan, Patrick J; Summers, Cliff H

    2016-01-01

    Escalation of anxious behavior while environmentally and socially relevant contextual events amplify the intensity of emotional response produces a testable gradient of anxiety shaped by integrative circuitries. Apprehension of the Stress-Alternatives Model apparatus (SAM) oval open field (OF) is measured by the active latency to escape, and is delayed by unfamiliarity with the passageway. Familiar OF escape is the least anxious behavior along the continuum, which can be reduced by anxiolytics such as icv neuropeptide S (NPS). Social aggression increases anxiousness in the SAM, reducing the number of mice willing to escape by 50%. The apprehension accompanying escape during social aggression is diminished by anxiolytics, such as exercise and corticotropin releasing-factor receptor 1 (CRF1) antagonism, but exacerbated by anxiogenic treatment, like antagonism of α2-adrenoreceptors. What is more, the anxiolytic CRF1 and anxiogenic α2-adrenoreceptor antagonists also modify behavioral phenotypes, with CRF1 antagonism allowing escape by previously submissive animals, and α2-adrenoreceptor antagonism hindering escape in mice that previously engaged in it. Gene expression of NPS and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as corticosterone secretion, increased concomitantly with the escalating anxious content of the mouse-specific anxiety continuum. The general trend of CeA NPS and BDNF expression suggested that NPS production was promoted by increasing anxiousness, and that BDNF synthesis was associated with learning about ever-more anxious conditions. The intensity gradient for anxious behavior resulting from varying contextual conditions may yield an improved conceptualization of the complexity of mechanisms producing the natural continuum of human anxious conditions, and potential therapies that arise therefrom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Circuitry linking the Csr and stringent response global regulatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Adrianne N; Patterson-Fortin, Laura M; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Potrykus, Katarzyna; Vinella, Daniel; Camacho, Martha I; Fields, Joshua A; Thompson, Stuart A; Georgellis, Dimitris; Cashel, Michael; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2011-06-01

    CsrA protein regulates important cellular processes by binding to target mRNAs and altering their translation and/or stability. In Escherichia coli, CsrA binds to sRNAs, CsrB and CsrC, which sequester CsrA and antagonize its activity. Here, mRNAs for relA, spoT and dksA of the stringent response system were found among 721 different transcripts that copurified with CsrA. Many of the transcripts that copurified with CsrA were previously determined to respond to ppGpp and/or DksA. We examined multiple regulatory interactions between the Csr and stringent response systems. Most importantly, DksA and ppGpp robustly activated csrB/C transcription (10-fold), while they modestly activated csrA expression. We propose that CsrA-mediated regulation is relieved during the stringent response. Gel shift assays confirmed high affinity binding of CsrA to relA mRNA leader and weaker interactions with dksA and spoT. Reporter fusions, qRT-PCR and immunoblotting showed that CsrA repressed relA expression, and (p)ppGpp accumulation during stringent response was enhanced in a csrA mutant. CsrA had modest to negligible effects on dksA and spoT expression. Transcription of dksA was negatively autoregulated via a feedback loop that tended to mask CsrA effects. We propose that the Csr system fine-tunes the stringent response and discuss biological implications of the composite circuitry. © Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. PPL2ab neurons restore sexual responses in aged Drosophila males through dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shu-Yun; Wu, Chia-Lin; Hsieh, Min-Yen; Lin, Chen-Ta; Wen, Rong-Kun; Chen, Lien-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Hui; Yu, Yhu-Wei; Wang, Horng-Dar; Su, Yi-Ju; Lin, Chun-Ju; Yang, Cian-Yi; Guan, Hsien-Yu; Wang, Pei-Yu; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Fu, Tsai-Feng

    2015-06-30

    Male sexual desire typically declines with ageing. However, our understanding of the neurobiological basis for this phenomenon is limited by our knowledge of the brain circuitry and neuronal pathways controlling male sexual desire. A number of studies across species suggest that dopamine (DA) affects sexual desire. Here we use genetic tools and behavioural assays to identify a novel subset of DA neurons that regulate age-associated male courtship activity in Drosophila. We find that increasing DA levels in a subset of cells in the PPL2ab neuronal cluster is necessary and sufficient for increased sustained courtship in both young and aged male flies. Our results indicate that preventing the age-related decline in DA levels in PPL2ab neurons alleviates diminished courtship behaviours in male Drosophila. These results may provide the foundation for deciphering the circuitry involved in sexual motivation in the male Drosophila brain.

  6. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  7. Diversity in Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity at Inhibitory Synapses of Striatal Spiny Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Mendoza, Ernesto; Hernandez, Ricardo; Aceves, Jose J.; Ibanez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Procedural memories and habits are posited to be stored in the basal ganglia, whose intrinsic circuitries possess important inhibitory connections arising from striatal spiny neurons. However, no information about long-term plasticity at these synapses is available. Therefore, this work describes a novel postsynaptically dependent long-term…

  8. Knowledge Representation and Data Mining of Neuronal Morphologies Using Neuroinformatics Tools and Formal Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polavaram, Sridevi

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience can greatly benefit from using novel methods in computer science and informatics, which enable knowledge discovery in unexpected ways. Currently one of the biggest challenges in Neuroscience is to map the functional circuitry of the brain. The applications of this goal range from understanding structural reorganization of neurons to…

  9. The Online Catalog: Issues in Planning and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Timothy F.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses key issues to be addressed in planning for introduction of online public access catalog in academic research library environment. Purpose of catalog, reasons to adopt catalog, user behavior, use of catalog records, authority control, shared or unique systems, and impact on staff are highlighted. Seventy-three sources are cited. (EJS)

  10. The updated Vrancea seismoactive region catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldoveanu, C.L.; Novicova, O.V.; Vorobieva, I.A.; Popa, M.

    1995-06-01

    Vrancea seismoactive region is placed between 45.0N-46.0N and 26.0E-27.0E, Romania, and is characterized by a relatively small size for the focal volume and a high level of the intermediate-depth seismic activity. In order to apply the intermediate-term earthquake prediction CN algorithm a catalog was compiled from three Romanian catalogs and a Russian catalog. It covers the period 1932.01.01-1995.04.01. 5 refs, 2 figs

  11. GRBOX: A New Online Catalog of GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perley, Daniel; Kemper, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    With Swift detecting close to 100 new gamma-ray bursts each year, cataloging past bursts is more important than ever. To this end, we present a new online database (GRBOX: Gamma Ray Burst Online IndeX) indexing properties of every well-localized GRB since 1997. Unlike existing resources, the information in the catalog is presented to the user in the form of a sortable, filterable table and derives information for each burst from published catalogs as well as the GCN circulars and refereed publications. Short text summaries and links to other resources are also provided for every event

  12. Spiking Neurons for Analysis of Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2008-01-01

    Artificial neural networks comprising spiking neurons of a novel type have been conceived as improved pattern-analysis and pattern-recognition computational systems. These neurons are represented by a mathematical model denoted the state-variable model (SVM), which among other things, exploits a computational parallelism inherent in spiking-neuron geometry. Networks of SVM neurons offer advantages of speed and computational efficiency, relative to traditional artificial neural networks. The SVM also overcomes some of the limitations of prior spiking-neuron models. There are numerous potential pattern-recognition, tracking, and data-reduction (data preprocessing) applications for these SVM neural networks on Earth and in exploration of remote planets. Spiking neurons imitate biological neurons more closely than do the neurons of traditional artificial neural networks. A spiking neuron includes a central cell body (soma) surrounded by a tree-like interconnection network (dendrites). Spiking neurons are so named because they generate trains of output pulses (spikes) in response to inputs received from sensors or from other neurons. They gain their speed advantage over traditional neural networks by using the timing of individual spikes for computation, whereas traditional artificial neurons use averages of activity levels over time. Moreover, spiking neurons use the delays inherent in dendritic processing in order to efficiently encode the information content of incoming signals. Because traditional artificial neurons fail to capture this encoding, they have less processing capability, and so it is necessary to use more gates when implementing traditional artificial neurons in electronic circuitry. Such higher-order functions as dynamic tasking are effected by use of pools (collections) of spiking neurons interconnected by spike-transmitting fibers. The SVM includes adaptive thresholds and submodels of transport of ions (in imitation of such transport in biological

  13. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Nishida

    Full Text Available The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  14. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Kazuhiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Taniguchi, Wataru; Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  15. GALEX-SDSS CATALOGS FOR STATISTICAL STUDIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budavari, Tamas; Heinis, Sebastien; Szalay, Alexander S.; Nieto-Santisteban, Maria; Bianchi, Luciana; Gupchup, Jayant; Shiao, Bernie; Smith, Myron; Chang Ruixiang; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Morrissey, Patrick; Wyder, Ted K.; Martin, D. Christopher; Barlow, Tom A.; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Schiminovich, David; Milliard, Bruno; Donas, Jose; Seibert, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer's (GALEX) photometric catalogs with special focus on the statistical properties of the All-sky and Medium Imaging Surveys. We introduce the concept of primaries to resolve the issue of multiple detections and follow a geometric approach to define clean catalogs with well understood selection functions. We cross-identify the GALEX sources (GR2+3) with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS; DR6) observations, which indirectly provides an invaluable insight into the astrometric model of the UV sources and allows us to revise the band merging strategy. We derive the formal description of the GALEX footprints as well as their intersections with the SDSS coverage along with analytic calculations of their areal coverage. The crossmatch catalogs are made available for the public. We conclude by illustrating the implementation of typical selection criteria in SQL for catalog subsets geared toward statistical analyses, e.g., correlation and luminosity function studies.

  16. The Value of Information in Library Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joe

    2000-01-01

    Considers the value of information contained within a library's online public access catalog. Assesses the value of MARC records; authority records; indexes; location and status information; and value for an individual. (LRW)

  17. Archival Descriptions from the National Archives Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — Archival Descriptions from the National Archives Catalog data set provides archival descriptions of the permanent holdings of the federal government in the custody...

  18. ASTEROID PHOTOMETRIC CATALOG V1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Asteroid Photometric Catalog (3rd update), Lagerkvist, et.al., 1993 [LAGERKVISTETAL1993], is a compilation of all asteroid lightcurve photometry published up to...

  19. Efficient Algorithms for Creating Product Catalogs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinbach, Michael; Karypis, George; Kumar, Vipin

    2000-01-01

    ... (items) presented to a customer with the hope of encouraging a purchase. The single mailing problem addresses how to build a collection of catalogs and distribute them to customers (one per customer...

  20. Imaging the neural circuitry and chemical control of aggressive motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchard D Caroline

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in awake animals it is possible to resolve patterns of neuronal activity across the entire brain with high spatial and temporal resolution. Synchronized changes in neuronal activity across multiple brain areas can be viewed as functional neuroanatomical circuits coordinating the thoughts, memories and emotions for particular behaviors. To this end, fMRI in conscious rats combined with 3D computational analysis was used to identifying the putative distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation and how this circuit is affected by drugs that block aggressive behavior. Results To trigger aggressive motivation, male rats were presented with their female cage mate plus a novel male intruder in the bore of the magnet during image acquisition. As expected, brain areas previously identified as critical in the organization and expression of aggressive behavior were activated, e.g., lateral hypothalamus, medial basal amygdala. Unexpected was the intense activation of the forebrain cortex and anterior thalamic nuclei. Oral administration of a selective vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist SRX251 or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, drugs that block aggressive behavior, both caused a general suppression of the distributed neural circuit involved in aggressive motivation. However, the effect of SRX251, but not fluoxetine, was specific to aggression as brain activation in response to a novel sexually receptive female was unaffected. Conclusion The putative neural circuit of aggressive motivation identified with fMRI includes neural substrates contributing to emotional expression (i.e. cortical and medial amygdala, BNST, lateral hypothalamus, emotional experience (i.e. hippocampus, forebrain cortex, anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex and the anterior thalamic nuclei that bridge the motor and cognitive components of aggressive responding

  1. Synchronous behavior of two coupled electronic neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, R. D.; Varona, P.; Volkovskii, A. R.; Szuecs, A.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.; Rabinovich, M. I.

    2000-01-01

    We report on experimental studies of synchronization phenomena in a pair of analog electronic neurons (ENs). The ENs were designed to reproduce the observed membrane voltage oscillations of isolated biological neurons from the stomatogastric ganglion of the California spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus. The ENs are simple analog circuits which integrate four-dimensional differential equations representing fast and slow subcellular mechanisms that produce the characteristic regular/chaotic spiking-bursting behavior of these cells. In this paper we study their dynamical behavior as we couple them in the same configurations as we have done for their counterpart biological neurons. The interconnections we use for these neural oscillators are both direct electrical connections and excitatory and inhibitory chemical connections: each realized by analog circuitry and suggested by biological examples. We provide here quantitative evidence that the ENs and the biological neurons behave similarly when coupled in the same manner. They each display well defined bifurcations in their mutual synchronization and regularization. We report briefly on an experiment on coupled biological neurons and four-dimensional ENs, which provides further ground for testing the validity of our numerical and electronic models of individual neural behavior. Our experiments as a whole present interesting new examples of regularization and synchronization in coupled nonlinear oscillators. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  2. KVK - a Meta Catalog of Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Mönnich

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the majority of libraries worldwide implemented interfaces to allow users to access to their bibliographic databases through the WWW. Usually these interfaces consist of HTML-pages with an embedded FORMS template where the search terms are entered. Thus for the first time it was made possible for the user to access almost every library using only one software: the WWW browser. However, if the user has to search more than one library catalog, e.g. when searching literature for a PhD thesis, he has to access a multitude of catalogs deal with different search forms, different search syntaxes, wildcards etc. This is the case especially for users in Germany. Faced with this situation in 1996, our team at the university library of Karlsruhe came up with the idea to create a virtual catalog enabling our library patrons to search several catalogs simultaneously. The idea was inspired by the successful introduction of meta search engines like metacrawler which perform the same function with internet search engines. So why not try to do it with library catalogs? The idea was discussed, and with support from the faculty of computer science, a prototype was built in July 1996. It proved surprisingly easy to do, so we included not only union catalogs but also bookshops. The meta catalog showed so much potential that we decided not to limit access to our local library patrons but to offer it as a service to the internet community as Karlsruher Virtueller Katalog (KVK, Karlsruhe Virtual Catalog. Once the KVK was announced in several mailing list, the usage peaked within a few weeks and has continued to do so.

  3. Mexican Earthquakes and Tsunamis Catalog Reviewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Castillo-Aja, R.

    2015-12-01

    Today the availability of information on the internet makes online catalogs very easy to access by both scholars and the public in general. The catalog in the "Significant Earthquake Database", managed by the National Center for Environmental Information (NCEI formerly NCDC), NOAA, allows access by deploying tabular and cartographic data related to earthquakes and tsunamis contained in the database. The NCEI catalog is the product of compiling previously existing catalogs, historical sources, newspapers, and scientific articles. Because NCEI catalog has a global coverage the information is not homogeneous. Existence of historical information depends on the presence of people in places where the disaster occurred, and that the permanence of the description is preserved in documents and oral tradition. In the case of instrumental data, their availability depends on the distribution and quality of seismic stations. Therefore, the availability of information for the first half of 20th century can be improved by careful analysis of the available information and by searching and resolving inconsistencies. This study shows the advances we made in upgrading and refining data for the earthquake and tsunami catalog of Mexico since 1500 CE until today, presented in the format of table and map. Data analysis allowed us to identify the following sources of error in the location of the epicenters in existing catalogs: • Incorrect coordinate entry • Place name erroneous or mistaken • Too general data that makes difficult to locate the epicenter, mainly for older earthquakes • Inconsistency of earthquakes and the tsunami occurrence: earthquake's epicenter located too far inland reported as tsunamigenic. The process of completing the catalogs directly depends on the availability of information; as new archives are opened for inspection, there are more opportunities to complete the history of large earthquakes and tsunamis in Mexico. Here, we also present new earthquake and

  4. CMR Catalog Service for the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Doug; Mitchell, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    With the impending retirement of Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) the Common Metadata Repository (CMR) was charged with providing a collection-level Catalog Service for the Web (CSW) that provided the same level of functionality as GCMD. This talk describes the capabilities of the CMR CSW API with particular reference to the support of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) Integrated Catalog (CWIC).

  5. [Mirror neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons were recently discovered in frontal brain areas of the monkey. They are activated when the animal makes a specific movement, but also when the animal observes the same movement in another animal. Some of them also respond to the emotional expression of other animals of the same species. These mirror neurons have also been found in humans. They respond to or "reflect" actions of other individuals in the brain and are thought to represent the basis for imitation and empathy and hence the neurobiological substrate for "theory of mind", the potential origin of language and the so-called moral instinct.

  6. A Role for the Lateral Dorsal Tegmentum in Memory and Decision Neural Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redila, Van; Kinzel, Chantelle; Jo, Yong Sang; Puryear, Corey B.; Mizumori, Sheri J.Y.

    2017-01-01

    A role for the hippocampus in memory is clear, although the mechanism for its contribution remains a matter of debate. Converging evidence suggests that hippocampus evaluates the extent to which context-defining features of events occur as expected. The consequence of mismatches, or prediction error, signals from hippocampus is discussed in terms of its impact on neural circuitry that evaluates the significance of prediction errors: Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine cells burst fire to rewards or cues that predict rewards (Schultz et al., 1997). Although the lateral dorsal tegmentum (LDTg) importantly controls dopamine cell burst firing (Lodge & Grace, 2006) the behavioral significance of the LDTg control is not known. Therefore, we evaluated LDTg functional activity as rats performed a spatial memory task that generates task-dependent reward codes in VTA (Jo et al., 2013; Puryear et al., 2010) and another VTA afferent, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPTg, Norton et al., 2011). Reversible inactivation of the LDTg significantly impaired choice accuracy. LDTg neurons coded primarily egocentric information in the form of movement velocity, turning behaviors, and behaviors leading up to expected reward locations. A subset of the velocity-tuned LDTg cells also showed high frequency bursts shortly before or after reward encounters, after which they showed tonic elevated firing during consumption of small, but not large, rewards. Cells that fired before reward encounters showed stronger correlations with velocity as rats moved toward, rather than away from, rewarded sites. LDTg neural activity was more strongly regulated by egocentric behaviors than that observed for PPTg or VTA cells that were recorded by Puryear et al. and Norton et al. While PPTg activity was uniquely sensitive to ongoing sensory input, all three regions encoded reward magnitude (although in different ways), reward expectation, and reward encounters. Only VTA encoded reward prediction errors. LDTg

  7. The Chandra Source Catalog: Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Jonathan; Evans, I. N.; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, K. J.; McCollough, M. L.; Houck, J. C.; Nowak, M. A.; Karovska, M.; Davis, J. E.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Hain, R.; Evans, J. D.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Doe, S. M.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E. C.; Gibbs, D. G., II; Grier, J. D.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Lauer, J.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2009-09-01

    Creation of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) required adjustment of existing pipeline processing, adaptation of existing interactive analysis software for automated use, and development of entirely new algorithms. Data calibration was based on the existing pipeline, but more rigorous data cleaning was applied and the latest calibration data products were used. For source detection, a local background map was created including the effects of ACIS source readout streaks. The existing wavelet source detection algorithm was modified and a set of post-processing scripts used to correct the results. To analyse the source properties we ran the SAO Traceray trace code for each source to generate a model point spread function, allowing us to find encircled energy correction factors and estimate source extent. Further algorithms were developed to characterize the spectral, spatial and temporal properties of the sources and to estimate the confidence intervals on count rates and fluxes. Finally, sources detected in multiple observations were matched, and best estimates of their merged properties derived. In this paper we present an overview of the algorithms used, with more detailed treatment of some of the newly developed algorithms presented in companion papers.

  8. Meteor showers an annotated catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Kronk, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Meteor showers are among the most spectacular celestial events that may be observed by the naked eye, and have been the object of fascination throughout human history. In “Meteor Showers: An Annotated Catalog,” the interested observer can access detailed research on over 100 annual and periodic meteor streams in order to capitalize on these majestic spectacles. Each meteor shower entry includes details of their discovery, important observations and orbits, and gives a full picture of duration, location in the sky, and expected hourly rates. Armed with a fuller understanding, the amateur observer can better view and appreciate the shower of their choice. The original book, published in 1988, has been updated with over 25 years of research in this new and improved edition. Almost every meteor shower study is expanded, with some original minor showers being dropped while new ones are added. The book also includes breakthroughs in the study of meteor showers, such as accurate predictions of outbursts as well ...

  9. Open Access Metadata, Catalogers, and Vendors: The Future of Cataloging Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Emily Alinder

    2013-01-01

    The open access (OA) movement is working to transform scholarly communication around the world, but this philosophy can also apply to metadata and cataloging records. While some notable, large academic libraries, such as Harvard University, the University of Michigan, and the University of Cambridge, released their cataloging records under OA…

  10. System Design and Cataloging Meet the User: User Interfaces to Online Public Access Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Martha M.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses features of online public access catalogs: (1) demonstration of relationships between records; (2) provision of entry vocabularies; (3) arrangement of multiple entries on the screen; (4) provision of access points; (5) display of single records; and (6) division of catalogs into separate files or indexes. User studies and other research…

  11. The Medial Ventrothalamic Circuitry: Cells Implicated in a Bimodal Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Vega-Zuniga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous avian thalamic studies have shown that the medial ventral thalamus is composed of several nuclei located close to the lateral wall of the third ventricle. Although the general connectivity is known, detailed morphology and connectivity pattern in some regions are still elusive. Here, using the intracellular filling technique in the chicken, we focused on two neural structures, namely, the retinorecipient neuropil of the n. geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis (GLv, and the adjacent n. intercalatus thalami (ICT. We found that the GLv-ne cells showed two different neuronal types: projection cells and horizontal interneurons. The projection cells showed variable morphologies and dendritic arborizations with axons that targeted the n. lentiformis mesencephali (LM, griseum tectale (GT, ICT, n. principalis precommissuralis (PPC, and optic tectum (TeO. The horizontal cells showed a widespread mediolateral neural process throughout the retinorecipient GLv-ne. The ICT cells, on the other hand, had multipolar somata with wide dendritic fields that extended toward the lamina interna of the GLv, and a projection pattern that targeted the n. laminaris precommissuralis (LPC. Together, these results elucidate the rich complexity of the connectivity pattern so far described between the GLv, ICT, pretectum, and tectum. Interestingly, the implication of some of these neural structures in visuomotor and somatosensory roles strongly suggests that the GLv and ICT are part of a bimodal circuit that may be involved in the generation/modulation of saccades, gaze control, and space perception.

  12. Modeling Brain Circuitry over a Wide Range of Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eFua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available If we are ever to unravel the mysteries of brain function at its most fundamental level, we will need a precise understanding of how its component neurons connect to each other. Electron Microscopes (EM can now provide the nanometer resolution that is needed to image synapses, and therefore connections, while Light Microscopes (LM see at the micrometer resolution required to model the 3D structure of the dendritic network. Since both the topology and the connection strength are integral parts of the brain's wiring diagram, being able to combine these two modalities is critically important.In fact, these microscopes now routinely produce high-resolution imagery in such large quantities that the bottleneck becomes automated processing and interpretation, which is needed for such data to be exploited to its full potential. In this paper, we briefly review the Computer Vision techniques we have developed at EPFL to address this need. They include delineating dendritic arbors from LM imagery, segmenting organelles from EM, and combining the two into a consistent representation.

  13. Modeling brain circuitry over a wide range of scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fua, Pascal; Knott, Graham W

    2015-01-01

    If we are ever to unravel the mysteries of brain function at its most fundamental level, we will need a precise understanding of how its component neurons connect to each other. Electron Microscopes (EM) can now provide the nanometer resolution that is needed to image synapses, and therefore connections, while Light Microscopes (LM) see at the micrometer resolution required to model the 3D structure of the dendritic network. Since both the topology and the connection strength are integral parts of the brain's wiring diagram, being able to combine these two modalities is critically important. In fact, these microscopes now routinely produce high-resolution imagery in such large quantities that the bottleneck becomes automated processing and interpretation, which is needed for such data to be exploited to its full potential. In this paper, we briefly review the Computer Vision techniques we have developed at EPFL to address this need. They include delineating dendritic arbors from LM imagery, segmenting organelles from EM, and combining the two into a consistent representation.

  14. An Open Catalog for Supernova Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillochon, James; Parrent, Jerod; Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Margutti, Raffaella

    2017-01-01

    We present the Open Supernova Catalog , an online collection of observations and metadata for presently 36,000+ supernovae and related candidates. The catalog is freely available on the web (https://sne.space), with its main interface having been designed to be a user-friendly, rapidly searchable table accessible on desktop and mobile devices. In addition to the primary catalog table containing supernova metadata, an individual page is generated for each supernova, which displays its available metadata, light curves, and spectra spanning X-ray to radio frequencies. The data presented in the catalog is automatically rebuilt on a daily basis and is constructed by parsing several dozen sources, including the data presented in the supernova literature and from secondary sources such as other web-based catalogs. Individual supernova data is stored in the hierarchical, human- and machine-readable JSON format, with the entirety of each supernova’s data being contained within a single JSON file bearing its name. The setup we present here, which is based on open-source software maintained via git repositories hosted on github, enables anyone to download the entirety of the supernova data set to their home computer in minutes, and to make contributions of their own data back to the catalog via git. As the supernova data set continues to grow, especially in the upcoming era of all-sky synoptic telescopes, which will increase the total number of events by orders of magnitude, we hope that the catalog we have designed will be a valuable tool for the community to analyze both historical and contemporary supernovae.

  15. Version 1 of the Hubble Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Bradley C.; Allam, Sahar S.; Budavári, Tamás; Casertano, Stefano; Downes, Ronald A.; Donaldson, Thomas; Fall, S. Michael; Lubow, Stephen H.; Quick, Lee; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Wallace, Geoff; White, Richard L.

    2016-06-01

    The Hubble Source Catalog is designed to help optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by combining the tens of thousands of visit-based source lists in the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) into a single master catalog. Version 1 of the Hubble Source Catalog includes WFPC2, ACS/WFC, WFC3/UVIS, and WFC3/IR photometric data generated using SExtractor software to produce the individual source lists. The catalog includes roughly 80 million detections of 30 million objects involving 112 different detector/filter combinations, and about 160,000 HST exposures. Source lists from Data Release 8 of the HLA are matched using an algorithm developed by Budavári & Lubow. The mean photometric accuracy for the catalog as a whole is better than 0.10 mag, with relative accuracy as good as 0.02 mag in certain circumstances (e.g., bright isolated stars). The relative astrometric residuals are typically within 10 mas, with a value for the mode (I.e., most common value) of 2.3 mas. The absolute astrometric accuracy is better than 0''\\hspace{-0.5em}. 1 for most sources, but can be much larger for a fraction of fields that could not be matched to the PanSTARRS, SDSS, or 2MASS reference systems. In this paper we describe the database design with emphasis on those aspects that enable the users to fully exploit the catalog while avoiding common misunderstandings and potential pitfalls. We provide usage examples to illustrate some of the science capabilities and data quality characteristics, and briefly discuss plans for future improvements to the Hubble Source Catalog.

  16. An Open Catalog for Supernova Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillochon, James; Parrent, Jerod; Kelley, Luke Zoltan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Margutti, Raffaella, E-mail: jguillochon@cfa.harvard.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    We present the Open Supernova Catalog , an online collection of observations and metadata for presently 36,000+ supernovae and related candidates. The catalog is freely available on the web (https://sne.space), with its main interface having been designed to be a user-friendly, rapidly searchable table accessible on desktop and mobile devices. In addition to the primary catalog table containing supernova metadata, an individual page is generated for each supernova, which displays its available metadata, light curves, and spectra spanning X-ray to radio frequencies. The data presented in the catalog is automatically rebuilt on a daily basis and is constructed by parsing several dozen sources, including the data presented in the supernova literature and from secondary sources such as other web-based catalogs. Individual supernova data is stored in the hierarchical, human- and machine-readable JSON format, with the entirety of each supernova’s data being contained within a single JSON file bearing its name. The setup we present here, which is based on open-source software maintained via git repositories hosted on github, enables anyone to download the entirety of the supernova data set to their home computer in minutes, and to make contributions of their own data back to the catalog via git. As the supernova data set continues to grow, especially in the upcoming era of all-sky synoptic telescopes, which will increase the total number of events by orders of magnitude, we hope that the catalog we have designed will be a valuable tool for the community to analyze both historical and contemporary supernovae.

  17. Cellular and Circuitry Bases of Autism: Lessons Learned from the Temporospatial Manipulation of Autism Genes in the Brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel W.Hulbert; Yong-hui Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic mice carrying mutations that cause Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) continue to be valuable for determining the molecular underpinnings of the disorders.Recently,researchers have taken advantage of such models combined with Cre-loxP and similar systems to manipulate gene expression over space and time.Thus,a clearer picture is starting to emerge of the cell types,circuits,brain regions,and developmental time periods underlying ASDs.ASD-causing mutations have been restricted to or rescued specifically in excitatory or inhibitory neurons,different neurotransmitter systems,and cells specific to the forebrain or cerebellum.In addition,mutations have been induced or corrected in adult mice,providing some evidence for the plasticity and reversibility of core ASD symptoms.The limited availability of Cre lines that are highly specific to certain cell types or time periods provides a challenge to determining the cellular and circuitry bases of autism,but other technological advances may eventually overcome this obstacle.

  18. Signals and Circuits in the Purkinje Neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze'ev R Abrams

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum have over 100,000 inputs organized in an orthogonal geometry, and a single output channel. As the sole output of the cerebellar cortex layer, their complex firing pattern has been associated with motor control and learning. As such they have been extensively modeled and measured using tools ranging from electrophysiology and neuroanatomy, to dynamic systems and artificial intelligence methods. However, there is an alternative approach to analyze and describe the neuronal output of these cells using concepts from Electrical Engineering, particularly signal processing and digital/analog circuits. By viewing the Purkinje neuron as an unknown circuit to be reverse-engineered, we can use the tools that provide the foundations of today’s integrated circuits and communication systems to analyze the Purkinje system at the circuit level. We use Fourier transforms to analyze and isolate the inherent frequency modes in the Purkinje neuron and define 3 unique frequency ranges associated with the cells’ output. Comparing the Purkinje neuron to a signal generator that can be externally modulated adds an entire level of complexity to the functional role of these neurons both in terms of data analysis and information processing, relying on Fourier analysis methods in place of statistical ones. We also re-describe some of the recent literature in the field, using the nomenclature of signal processing. Furthermore, by comparing the experimental data of the past decade with basic electronic circuitry, we can resolve the outstanding controversy in the field, by recognizing that the Purkinje neuron can act as a multivibrator circuit.

  19. DNA-decorated carbon-nanotube-based chemical sensors on complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Yang, Chih-Feng; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Agarwal, Vinay; Sonkusale, Sameer; Kim, Taehoon; Busnaina, Ahmed; Chen, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    We present integration of single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA)-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) onto complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry as nanoscale chemical sensors. SWNTs were assembled onto CMOS circuitry via a low voltage dielectrophoretic (DEP) process. Besides, bare SWNTs are reported to be sensitive to various chemicals, and functionalization of SWNTs with biomolecular complexes further enhances the sensing specificity and sensitivity. After decorating ss-DNA on SWNTs, we have found that the sensing response of the gas sensor was enhanced (up to ∼ 300% and ∼ 250% for methanol vapor and isopropanol alcohol vapor, respectively) compared with bare SWNTs. The SWNTs coupled with ss-DNA and their integration on CMOS circuitry demonstrates a step towards realizing ultra-sensitive electronic nose applications.

  20. Longitudinal Changes in Depressive Circuitry in Response to Neuromodulation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagna Pathak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD is a public health problem worldwide. There is increasing interest in using non-invasive therapies such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to treat MDD. However, the changes induced by rTMS on neural circuits remain poorly characterized. The present study aims to test whether the brain regions previously targeted by deep brain stimulation (DBS in the treatment of MDD respond to rTMS, and whether functional connectivity measures can predict clinical response.Methods: rTMS (20 sessions was administered to five MDD patients at the left-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC over 4 weeks. Magnetoencephalography (MEG recordings and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS assessments were acquired before, during and after treatment. Our primary measures, obtained with MEG source imaging, were changes in power spectral density (PSD and changes in functional connectivity as measured using coherence.Results: Of the five patients, four met the clinical response criterion (40% or greater decrease in MADRS after four weeks of treatment. An increase in gamma power at the L-DLPFC was correlated with improvement in symptoms. We also found that increases in delta band connectivity between L-DLPFC/amygdala and L-DLPFC/pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC, and decreases in gamma band connectivity between L-DLPFC/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC, were correlated with improvements in depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Our results suggest that non-invasive intervention techniques, such as rTMS, modulate the ongoing activity of depressive circuits targeted for DBS, and that MEG can capture these changes. Gamma oscillations may originate from GABA-mediated inhibition, which increases synchronization of large neuronal populations, possibly leading to increased long-range functional connectivity. We postulate that responses to rTMS could provide valuable insights into early evaluation

  1. Event Discrimination Using Seismoacoustic Catalog Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, S.; Arrowsmith, S.; Bowman, D.; Downey, N.; Koch, C.

    2017-12-01

    Presented here are three seismoacoustic catalogs from various years and locations throughout Utah and New Mexico. To create these catalogs, we combine seismic and acoustic events detected and located using different algorithms. Seismoacoustic events are formed based on similarity of origin time and location. Following seismoacoustic fusion, the data is compared against ground truth events. Each catalog contains events originating from both natural and anthropogenic sources. By creating these seismoacoustic catalogs, we show that the fusion of seismic and acoustic data leads to a better understanding of the nature of individual events. The probability of an event being a surface blast given its presence in each seismoacoustic catalog is quantified. We use these probabilities to discriminate between events from natural and anthropogenic sources. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA-0003525.

  2. SDSS DR7 WHITE DWARF CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A. [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kepler, S. O.; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Pecanha, Viviane; Costa, J. E. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Koester, D. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Krzesinski, J. [Mt. Suhora Observatory, Pedagogical University of Cracow, ul. Podchorazych 2, 30-084 Cracow (Poland); Dufour, P.; Lachapelle, F.-R.; Bergeron, P. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C. P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Yip, Ching-Wa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3701 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Harris, Hugh C. [United States Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Althaus, L.; Corsico, A., E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Paseo del Bosque S/N, (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

    2013-01-15

    We present a new catalog of spectroscopically confirmed white dwarf stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 spectroscopic catalog. We find 20,407 white dwarf spectra, representing 19,712 stars, and provide atmospheric model fits to 14,120 DA and 1011 DB white dwarf spectra from 12,843 and 923 stars, respectively. These numbers represent more than a factor of two increase in the total number of white dwarf stars from the previous SDSS white dwarf catalogs based on DR4 data. Our distribution of subtypes varies from previous catalogs due to our more conservative, manual classifications of each star in our catalog, supplementing our automatic fits. In particular, we find a large number of magnetic white dwarf stars whose small Zeeman splittings mimic increased Stark broadening that would otherwise result in an overestimated log g if fit as a non-magnetic white dwarf. We calculate mean DA and DB masses for our clean, non-magnetic sample and find the DB mean mass is statistically larger than that for the DAs.

  3. STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CHANDRA SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primini, Francis A.; Evans, Ian N.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He Xiangqun; Karovska, Margarita; Houck, John C.; Davis, John E.; Nowak, Michael A.; Hall, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    The first release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains ∼95,000 X-ray sources in a total area of 0.75% of the entire sky, using data from ∼3900 separate ACIS observations of a multitude of different types of X-ray sources. In order to maximize the scientific benefit of such a large, heterogeneous data set, careful characterization of the statistical properties of the catalog, i.e., completeness, sensitivity, false source rate, and accuracy of source properties, is required. Characterization efforts of other large Chandra catalogs, such as the ChaMP Point Source Catalog or the 2 Mega-second Deep Field Surveys, while informative, cannot serve this purpose, since the CSC analysis procedures are significantly different and the range of allowable data is much less restrictive. We describe here the characterization process for the CSC. This process includes both a comparison of real CSC results with those of other, deeper Chandra catalogs of the same targets and extensive simulations of blank-sky and point-source populations.

  4. Statistical Characterization of the Chandra Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primini, Francis A.; Houck, John C.; Davis, John E.; Nowak, Michael A.; Evans, Ian N.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiangqun Helen; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; Van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2011-06-01

    The first release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains ~95,000 X-ray sources in a total area of 0.75% of the entire sky, using data from ~3900 separate ACIS observations of a multitude of different types of X-ray sources. In order to maximize the scientific benefit of such a large, heterogeneous data set, careful characterization of the statistical properties of the catalog, i.e., completeness, sensitivity, false source rate, and accuracy of source properties, is required. Characterization efforts of other large Chandra catalogs, such as the ChaMP Point Source Catalog or the 2 Mega-second Deep Field Surveys, while informative, cannot serve this purpose, since the CSC analysis procedures are significantly different and the range of allowable data is much less restrictive. We describe here the characterization process for the CSC. This process includes both a comparison of real CSC results with those of other, deeper Chandra catalogs of the same targets and extensive simulations of blank-sky and point-source populations.

  5. Afferent neuronal control of type-I gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH neurons in the human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eHrabovszky

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the regulation of the human menstrual cycle represents an important ultimate challenge of reproductive neuroendocrine research. However, direct translation of information from laboratory animal experiments to the human is often complicated by strikingly different and unique reproductive strategies and central regulatory mechanisms that can be present in even closely related animal species. In all mammals studied so far, type-I gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH synthesizing neurons form the final common output way from the hypothalamus in the neuroendocrine control of the adenohypophysis. Under various physiological and pathological conditions, hormonal and metabolic signals either regulate GnRH neurons directly or act on upstream neuronal circuitries to influence the pattern of pulsatile GnRH secretion into the hypophysial portal circulation. Neuronal afferents to GnRH cells convey important metabolic-, stress-, sex steroid-, lactational- and circadian signals to the reproductive axis, among other effects. This article gives an overview of the available neuroanatomical literature that described the afferent regulation of human GnRH neurons by peptidergic, monoaminergic and amino acidergic neuronal systems. Recent studies of human genetics provided evidence that central peptidergic signaling by kisspeptins and neurokinin B play particularly important roles in puberty onset and later, in the sex steroid-dependent feedback regulation of GnRH neurons. This review article places special emphasis on the topographic distribution, sexual dimorphism, aging-dependent neuroanatomical changes and plastic connectivity to GnRH neurons of the critically important human hypothalamic kisspeptin and neurokinin B systems.

  6. Design and implementation of high-precision and low-jitter programmable delay circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuan; Cui Ke; Zhang Hongfei; Luo Chunli; Yang Dongxu; Liang Hao; Wang Jian

    2011-01-01

    A programmable delay circuit design which has characteristics of high-precision, low-jitter, wide-programmable-range and low power is introduced. The delay circuitry uses the scheme which has two parts: the coarse delay and the fine delay that could be controlled separately. Using different coarse delay chip can reach different maximum programmable range. And the fine delay programmable chip has the minimum step which is down to 10 ps. The whole circuitry jitter will be less than 100 ps. The design has been successfully applied in Quantum Key Distribution experiment. (authors)

  7. Phase-flip bifurcation in a coupled Josephson junction neuron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segall, Kenneth, E-mail: ksegall@colgate.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States); Guo, Siyang; Crotty, Patrick [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States); Schult, Dan [Department of Mathematics, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States); Miller, Max [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Aiming to understand group behaviors and dynamics of neural networks, we have previously proposed the Josephson junction neuron (JJ neuron) as a fast analog model that mimics a biological neuron using superconducting Josephson junctions. In this study, we further analyze the dynamics of the JJ neuron numerically by coupling one JJ neuron to another. In this coupled system we observe a phase-flip bifurcation, where the neurons synchronize out-of-phase at weak coupling and in-phase at strong coupling. We verify this by simulation of the circuit equations and construct a bifurcation diagram for varying coupling strength using the phase response curve and spike phase difference map. The phase-flip bifurcation could be observed experimentally using standard digital superconducting circuitry.

  8. Walk like me, talk like me. The connection between mirror neurons and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffin, Jillian M; Tohid, Hassaan

    2016-04-01

    Understanding social cognition has become a hallmark in deciphering autism spectrum disorder. Neurobiological theories are taking precedence in causation studies as researchers look to abnormalities in brain development as the cause of deficits in social behavior, cognitive processes, and language. Following their discovery in the 1990s, mirror neurons have become a dominant theory for that the mirror neuron system may play a critical role in the pathophysiology of various symptoms of autism. Over the decades, the theory has evolved from the suggestion of a broken mirror neuron system to impairments in mirror neuron circuitry. The mirror neuron system has not gained total support due to inconsistent findings; a comprehensive analysis of the growing body of research could shed light on the benefits, or the disadvantage of continuing to study mirror neurons and their connection to autism.

  9. Phase-flip bifurcation in a coupled Josephson junction neuron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segall, Kenneth; Guo, Siyang; Crotty, Patrick; Schult, Dan; Miller, Max

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to understand group behaviors and dynamics of neural networks, we have previously proposed the Josephson junction neuron (JJ neuron) as a fast analog model that mimics a biological neuron using superconducting Josephson junctions. In this study, we further analyze the dynamics of the JJ neuron numerically by coupling one JJ neuron to another. In this coupled system we observe a phase-flip bifurcation, where the neurons synchronize out-of-phase at weak coupling and in-phase at strong coupling. We verify this by simulation of the circuit equations and construct a bifurcation diagram for varying coupling strength using the phase response curve and spike phase difference map. The phase-flip bifurcation could be observed experimentally using standard digital superconducting circuitry

  10. Disturbance in the neural circuitry underlying positive emotional processing in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatzko, Alexander; Schmitt, Andrea; Demirakca, Traute; Weimer, Erik; Braus, Dieter F

    2006-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the circuitry underlying movie-induced positive emotional processing in subjects with chronic PTSD. Ten male subjects with chronic PTSD and ten matched controls were studied. In an fMRI-paradigm a sequence of a wellknown Walt Disney cartoon with positive emotional valence was shown. PTSD subjects showed an increased activation in the right posterior temporal, precentral and superior frontal cortex. Controls recruited more emotion-related regions bilateral in the temporal pole and areas of the left fusiform and parahippocampal gyrus. This pilot study is the first to reveal alterations in the processing of positive emotions in PTSD possibly reflecting a neuronal correlate of the symptom of emotional numbness in PTSD.

  11. The Chandra Source Catalog: Statistical Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primini, Francis A.; Nowak, M. A.; Houck, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Karovska, M.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, I. N.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E. C.; Gibbs, D. G., II; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) will ultimately contain more than ˜250000 x-ray sources in a total area of ˜1% of the entire sky, using data from ˜10000 separate ACIS and HRC observations of a multitude of different types of x-ray sources (see Evans et al. this conference). In order to maximize the scientific benefit of such a large, heterogeneous dataset, careful characterization of the statistical properties of the catalog, i.e., completeness, sensitivity, false source rate, and accuracy of source properties, is required. Our Characterization efforts include both extensive simulations of blank-sky and point source datasets, and detailed comparisons of CSC results with those of other x-ray and optical catalogs. We present here a summary of our characterization results for CSC Release 1 and preliminary plans for future releases. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

  12. A catalog of the mouse gut metagenome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Liang; Feng, Qiang; Liang, Suisha

    2015-01-01

    laboratories and fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Similar to the human gut microbiome, >99% of the cataloged genes are bacterial. We identified 541 metagenomic species and defined a core set of 26 metagenomic species found in 95% of the mice. The mouse gut microbiome is functionally similar to its human......We established a catalog of the mouse gut metagenome comprising ∼2.6 million nonredundant genes by sequencing DNA from fecal samples of 184 mice. To secure high microbiome diversity, we used mouse strains of diverse genetic backgrounds, from different providers, kept in different housing...... counterpart, with 95.2% of its Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologous groups in common. However, only 4.0% of the mouse gut microbial genes were shared (95% identity, 90% coverage) with those of the human gut microbiome. This catalog provides a useful reference for future studies....

  13. Neurons other than motor neurons in motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffoli, Riccardo; Biagioni, Francesca; Busceti, Carla L; Gaglione, Anderson; Ryskalin, Larisa; Gambardella, Stefano; Frati, Alessandro; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically defined by a loss of motor neurons in the central nervous system. Accordingly, morphological analysis for decades considered motor neurons (in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord) as the neuronal population selectively involved in ALS. Similarly, this was considered the pathological marker to score disease severity ex vivo both in patients and experimental models. However, the concept of non-autonomous motor neuron death was used recently to indicate the need for additional cell types to produce motor neuron death in ALS. This means that motor neuron loss occurs only when they are connected with other cell types. This concept originally emphasized the need for resident glia as well as non-resident inflammatory cells. Nowadays, the additional role of neurons other than motor neurons emerged in the scenario to induce non-autonomous motor neuron death. In fact, in ALS neurons diverse from motor neurons are involved. These cells play multiple roles in ALS: (i) they participate in the chain of events to produce motor neuron loss; (ii) they may even degenerate more than and before motor neurons. In the present manuscript evidence about multi-neuronal involvement in ALS patients and experimental models is discussed. Specific sub-classes of neurons in the whole spinal cord are reported either to degenerate or to trigger neuronal degeneration, thus portraying ALS as a whole spinal cord disorder rather than a disease affecting motor neurons solely. This is associated with a novel concept in motor neuron disease which recruits abnormal mechanisms of cell to cell communication.

  14. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FIRST SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bisello, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Belli, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), during the first 11 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. The First Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) contains 1451 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. Source detection was based on the average flux over the 11 month period, and the threshold likelihood Test Statistic is 25, corresponding to a significance of just over 4σ. The 1FGL catalog includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and power-law spectral fits as well as flux measurements in five energy bands for each source. In addition, monthly light curves are provided. Using a protocol defined before launch we have tested for several populations of gamma-ray sources among the sources in the catalog. For individual LAT-detected sources we provide firm identifications or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. Identifications are based on correlated variability with counterparts at other wavelengths, or on spin or orbital periodicity. For the catalogs and association criteria that we have selected, 630 of the sources are unassociated. Care was taken to characterize the sensitivity of the results to the model of interstellar diffuse gamma-ray emission used to model the bright foreground, with the result that 161 sources at low Galactic latitudes and toward bright local interstellar clouds are flagged as having properties that are strongly dependent on the model or as potentially being due to incorrectly modeled structure in the Galactic diffuse emission.

  15. Safeguards instrumentation: a computer-based catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Keisch, B.

    1981-08-01

    The information contained in this catalog is needed to provide a data base for safeguards studies and to help establish criteria and procedures for international safeguards for nuclear materials and facilities. The catalog primarily presents information on new safeguards equipment. It also describes entire safeguards systems for certain facilities, but it does not describe the inspection procedures. Because IAEA safeguards do not include physical security, devices for physical protection (as opposed to containment and surveillance) are not included. An attempt has been made to list capital costs, annual maintenance costs, replacement costs, and useful lifetime for the equipment. For equipment which is commercially available, representative sources have been listed whenever available

  16. Catalog of Investment Projects in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    This catalog includes information about 129 potential investment projects in Bulgaria and was developed by a team of experts from InvestBulgaria Agency in cooperation with municipalities and private companies. The document presents in brief general facts about the regions in Bulgaria. Projects are divided into the following categories: Tourism, Manufacturing, Urban Planning, Real Estate, Environment and renewable energy sources, Commerce, and Innovative and creative projects. The catalog provides detailed information about each project such as: status of the project, location, ownership, infrastructure, estimated value, contact information, etc.

  17. Safeguards instrumentation: a computer-based catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Keisch, B.

    1981-08-01

    The information contained in this catalog is needed to provide a data base for safeguards studies and to help establish criteria and procedures for international safeguards for nuclear materials and facilities. The catalog primarily presents information on new safeguards equipment. It also describes entire safeguards systems for certain facilities, but it does not describe the inspection procedures. Because IAEA safeguards do not include physical security, devices for physical protection (as opposed to containment and surveillance) are not included. An attempt has been made to list capital costs, annual maintenance costs, replacement costs, and useful lifetime for the equipment. For equipment which is commercially available, representative sources have been listed whenever available.

  18. The Closing of the Classified Catalog at Boston University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Margaret Hindle

    1974-01-01

    Although the classified catalog at Boston University libraries has been a useful research tool, it has proven too expensive to keep current. The library has converted to a traditional alphabetic subject catalog and will recieve catalog cards from the Ohio College Library Center through the New England Library Network. (Author/LS)

  19. Enhanced statistical damage identification using frequency-shift information with tunable piezoelectric transducer circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J; Tang, J; Wang, K W

    2008-01-01

    The frequency-shift-based damage detection method entertains advantages such as global detection capability and easy implementation, but also suffers from drawbacks that include low detection accuracy and sensitivity and the difficulty in identifying damage using a small number of measurable frequencies. Moreover, the damage detection/identification performance is inevitably affected by the uncertainty/variations in the baseline model. In this research, we investigate an enhanced statistical damage identification method using the tunable piezoelectric transducer circuitry. The tunable piezoelectric transducer circuitry can lead to much enriched information on frequency shift (before and after damage occurrence). The circuitry elements, meanwhile, can be directly and accurately measured and thus can be considered uncertainty-free. A statistical damage identification algorithm is formulated which can identify both the mean and variance of the elemental property change. Our analysis indicates that the integration of the tunable piezoelectric transducer circuitry can significantly enhance the robustness of the frequency-shift-based damage identification approach under uncertainty and noise

  20. Oxytocin reduces neural activity in the pain circuitry when seeing pain in others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, P.A.; Montoya, E.R.; Hermans, E.; Keysers, C.; Honk, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Our empathetic abilities allow us to feel the pain of others. This phenomenon of vicarious feeling arises because the neural circuitry of feeling pain and seeing pain in others is shared. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is considered a robust facilitator of empathy, as intranasal OXT studies have

  1. Oxytocin reduces neural activity in the pain circuitry when seeing pain in others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Hermans, Erno J; Keysers, C.; van Honk, Jack

    Our empathetic abilities allow us to feel the pain of others. This phenomenon of vicarious feeling arises because the neural circuitry of feeling pain and seeing pain in others is shared. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is considered a robust facilitator of empathy, as intranasal OXT studies have

  2. Analysis and simulation of the SLD WIC [Warm Iron Calorimeter] PADS hybrid preamplifier circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Horelick, D.

    1990-10-01

    The SLD PADS electronics consist of over 9000 channels of charge-sensitive preamplifiers followed by integrated sample/hold data storage, digitizing, and readout circuitry. This paper uses computer simulation techniques to analyze critical performance parameters of the preamplifier hybrid including its interactions with the detector system. Simulation results are presented and verified with measured performance. 6 refs., 9 figs

  3. Artificial spatiotemporal touch inputs reveal complementary decoding in neocortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Calogero M; Mazzoni, Alberto; Spanne, Anton; Enander, Jonas M D; Mogensen, Hannes; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Camboni, Domenico; Micera, Silvestro; Jörntell, Henrik

    2017-04-04

    Investigations of the mechanisms of touch perception and decoding has been hampered by difficulties in achieving invariant patterns of skin sensor activation. To obtain reproducible spatiotemporal patterns of activation of sensory afferents, we used an artificial fingertip equipped with an array of neuromorphic sensors. The artificial fingertip was used to transduce real-world haptic stimuli into spatiotemporal patterns of spikes. These spike patterns were delivered to the skin afferents of the second digit of rats via an array of stimulation electrodes. Combined with low-noise intra- and extracellular recordings from neocortical neurons in vivo, this approach provided a previously inaccessible high resolution analysis of the representation of tactile information in the neocortical neuronal circuitry. The results indicate high information content in individual neurons and reveal multiple novel neuronal tactile coding features such as heterogeneous and complementary spatiotemporal input selectivity also between neighboring neurons. Such neuronal heterogeneity and complementariness can potentially support a very high decoding capacity in a limited population of neurons. Our results also indicate a potential neuroprosthetic approach to communicate with the brain at a very high resolution and provide a potential novel solution for evaluating the degree or state of neurological disease in animal models.

  4. A Subset of Serotonergic Neurons Evokes Hunger in Adult Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Stephanie D; Kaun, Karla R; Knapp, Jon-Michael; Chung, Phuong; Heberlein, Ulrike; Simpson, Julie H

    2015-09-21

    Hunger is a complex motivational state that drives multiple behaviors. The sensation of hunger is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. One immediate response to hunger is increased food consumption. Hunger also modulates behaviors related to food seeking such as increased locomotion and enhanced sensory sensitivity in both insects and vertebrates. In addition, hunger can promote the expression of food-associated memory. Although progress is being made, how hunger is represented in the brain and how it coordinates these behavioral responses is not fully understood in any system. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to identify neurons encoding hunger. We found a small group of neurons that, when activated, induced a fed fly to eat as though it were starved, suggesting that these neurons are downstream of the metabolic regulation of hunger. Artificially activating these neurons also promotes appetitive memory performance in sated flies, indicating that these neurons are not simply feeding command neurons but likely play a more general role in encoding hunger. We determined that the neurons relevant for the feeding effect are serotonergic and project broadly within the brain, suggesting a possible mechanism for how various responses to hunger are coordinated. These findings extend our understanding of the neural circuitry that drives feeding and enable future exploration of how state influences neural activity within this circuit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inherently stochastic spiking neurons for probabilistic neural computation

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2015-04-01

    Neuromorphic engineering aims to design hardware that efficiently mimics neural circuitry and provides the means for emulating and studying neural systems. In this paper, we propose a new memristor-based neuron circuit that uniquely complements the scope of neuron implementations and follows the stochastic spike response model (SRM), which plays a cornerstone role in spike-based probabilistic algorithms. We demonstrate that the switching of the memristor is akin to the stochastic firing of the SRM. Our analysis and simulations show that the proposed neuron circuit satisfies a neural computability condition that enables probabilistic neural sampling and spike-based Bayesian learning and inference. Our findings constitute an important step towards memristive, scalable and efficient stochastic neuromorphic platforms. © 2015 IEEE.

  6. Catalog Use Studies--Since the Introduction of Online Interactive Catalogs: Impact on Design for Subject Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Pauline A.; Markey, Karen

    1983-01-01

    This review of the transition from library card catalogs to online public access catalogs (OPAC) (1981-1982) discusses methods employed by online catalog use studies (self-administered questionnaires, OPAC transaction logs, focused-group interviews, feature analysis, online search and retrieval experiments) and new directions for OPAC research…

  7. The Fermi GBM catalog (Paciesas+, 2012) [Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paciesas, W.S.; Meegan, C.A.; von Kienlin, A.; Bhat, P.N.; Bissaldi, E.; Briggs, M.S.; Burgess, J.M.; Chaplin, V.; Connaughton, V.; Diehl, R.; Fishman, G.J.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; H. Gibby, M.; Giles, M.; Goldstein, A.; Greiner, J.; Gruber, D.; Guiriec, S.; van der Horst, A.J.; Kippen, R.M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Lichti, G.; Lin, L.; McBreen, S.; Preece, R.D.; Rau, A.; Tierney, D.; Wilson-Hodge, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was launched on 2008 June 11 on a mission to study the universe at high energies. The onboard Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) trigger system for detecting GRBs was first enabled on 2008 July 12. In this paper, we provide a catalog of GRBs that triggered the GBM

  8. Managing Returns in a Catalog Distribution Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Joyce; Stuart, Julie Ann; Bonawi-tan, Winston; Loehr, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    The research team of the Purdue University in the United States developed an algorithm that considers several different factors, in addition to cost, to help catalog distribution centers process their returns more efficiently. A case study to teach the students important concepts involved in developing a solution to the returns disposition problem…

  9. Last of the Monumental Book Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, William J.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history of the National Union Catalog and the publication of the Pre-1956 Imprints. The roles of the ALA and Mansell Publishing in the completion of what is probably the last large-scale nonautomated bibliographic project, editorial problems, and the role of automation in future projects are discussed. (JL)

  10. Language and Cultural Minorities Resource Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine State Dept. of Educational and Cultural Services, Augusta.

    The revised edition of the resource catalog lists nearly 1,000 print and non-print materials for use in Maine schools where close to 7,000 children of linguistic minorities are enrolled. There are 19 sections on these groups or topics: Afghan, Asian and refugee, bilingual education, Chinese, civil rights, Eastern Europe, English as a Second…

  11. Integrating Subject Pathfinders into Online Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, William E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the integration of subject pathfinders into online public access catalogs (OPAC) through following features: within the OPAC, offline user guide manuals, remotely printed upon user request, or online as saved searches displayed in help screen format. Excerpts of a pathfinder display for biotechnology are presented. Four sources are…

  12. The first AGILE low-energy (catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Pittori, Carlotta; Verrecchia, Francesco; Giommi, Paolo; Tavani, Marco; Dietrich, Stefano; Price, Colin; Argan, Andrea; Labanti, Claudio; Galli, Marcello; Longo, Francesco; Del Monte, Ettore; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo; Trois, Alessio

    2014-05-01

    We present the first catalog of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) detected by the Minicalorimeter (MCAL) instrument on-board the AGILE satellite. The catalog includes 308 TGFs detected during the period March 2009 - July 2012 in the +/- 2.5° latitude band and selected to have the maximum photon energy up to 30 MeV. The characteristics of the AGILE events are analysed and compared to the observational framework established by the two other currently active missions capable of detecting TGFs from space, RHESSI and Fermi. A detailed model of the MCAL dead time is presented, which is fundamental to properly interpret our observations, particularly concerning duration, intensity and correlation with lightning sferics detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network. The TGFs cumulative spectrum supports a low production altitude, in agreement with previous measurements. The AGILE TGF catalog below 30 MeV is publicly accessible online at the website of the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC) http://www.asdc.asi.it/mcaltgfcat/ In addition to the TGF sample properties we also present the catalog website functionalities available to users.

  13. GAIA Service Catalog: A Framework for the Construction of IT Service Catalogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TACONI, L. H.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The high amount of IT services offered to organizations for boosting and maintaining their business goals makes it difficult to determine the quantity, description and the attributes of these services. This paper presents a framework to support the construction of IT Service Catalogs. The framework consists of a diagnostic assessment questionnaire, a maturity model and a set of services that guide the organization in the construction of an IT Service Catalog.

  14. THE CHANDRA VARIABLE GUIDE STAR CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Joy S.; Lauer, Jennifer L.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Henden, Arne A.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Martin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Variable stars have been identified among the optical-wavelength light curves of guide stars used for pointing control of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We present a catalog of these variable stars along with their light curves and ancillary data. Variability was detected to a lower limit of 0.02 mag amplitude in the 4000-10000 A range using the photometrically stable Aspect Camera on board the Chandra spacecraft. The Chandra Variable Guide Star Catalog (VGUIDE) contains 827 stars, of which 586 are classified as definitely variable and 241 are identified as possibly variable. Of the 586 definite variable stars, we believe 319 are new variable star identifications. Types of variables in the catalog include eclipsing binaries, pulsating stars, and rotating stars. The variability was detected during the course of normal verification of each Chandra pointing and results from analysis of over 75,000 guide star light curves from the Chandra mission. The VGUIDE catalog represents data from only about 9 years of the Chandra mission. Future releases of VGUIDE will include newly identified variable guide stars as the mission proceeds. An important advantage of the use of space data to identify and analyze variable stars is the relatively long observations that are available. The Chandra orbit allows for observations up to 2 days in length. Also, guide stars were often used multiple times for Chandra observations, so many of the stars in the VGUIDE catalog have multiple light curves available from various times in the mission. The catalog is presented as both online data associated with this paper and as a public Web interface. Light curves with data at the instrumental time resolution of about 2 s, overplotted with the data binned at 1 ks, can be viewed on the public Web interface and downloaded for further analysis. VGUIDE is a unique project using data collected during the mission that would otherwise be ignored. The stars available for use as Chandra guide stars are

  15. Treatment of Star Catalog Biases in Asteroid Astrometric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    and 2MASS , have smal- ler estimated position errors; but these catalogs each have limita- tions relative to B1.0. The UCAC2 catalog, introduced in 2004...this limitation.) The all-sky 2MASS catalog, introduced in 2003, contains 470,992,970 objects, with positions accurate to within 0.07 arcsec (Skrutskie...the 2MASS star catalog (Skr- utskie et al., 2006) was chosen as the catalog to which all others were compared. According to its documentation, the

  16. New Catalog of Resources Enables Paleogeosciences Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingo, R. C.; Horlick, K. A.; Anderson, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The 21st century promises a new era for scientists of all disciplines, the age where cyber infrastructure enables research and education and fuels discovery. EarthCube is a working community of over 2,500 scientists and students of many Earth Science disciplines who are looking to build bridges between disciplines. The EarthCube initiative will create a digital infrastructure that connects databases, software, and repositories. A catalog of resources (databases, software, repositories) has been produced by the Research Coordination Network for Paleogeosciences to improve the discoverability of resources. The Catalog is currently made available within the larger-scope CINERGI geosciences portal (http://hydro10.sdsc.edu/geoportal/catalog/main/home.page). Other distribution points and web services are planned, using linked data, content services for the web, and XML descriptions that can be harvested using metadata protocols. The databases provide searchable interfaces to find data sets that would otherwise remain dark data, hidden in drawers and on personal computers. The software will be described in catalog entries so just one click will lead users to methods and analytical tools that many geoscientists were unaware of. The repositories listed in the Paleogeosciences Catalog contain physical samples found all across the globe, from natural history museums to the basements of university buildings. EarthCube has over 250 databases, 300 software systems, and 200 repositories which will grow in the coming year. When completed, geoscientists across the world will be connected into a productive workflow for managing, sharing, and exploring geoscience data and information that expedites collaboration and innovation within the paleogeosciences, potentially bringing about new interdisciplinary discoveries.

  17. THE SIMPLE SURVEY: OBSERVATIONS, REDUCTION, AND CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damen, M.; Franx, M.; Taylor, E. N.; Labbe, I.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Muzzin, A.; Brandt, W. N.; Dickinson, M.; Gawiser, E.; Illingworth, G. D.; Kriek, M.; Marchesini, D.; Papovich, C.; Rix, H.-W.

    2011-01-01

    We present the Spitzer IRAC/MUSYC Public Legacy Survey in the Extended CDF-South (SIMPLE), which consists of deep IRAC observations covering the ∼1600 arcmin 2 area surrounding GOODS-S. The limiting magnitudes of the SIMPLE IRAC mosaics typically are 23.8, 23.6, 21.9, and 21.7, at 3.6 μm, 4.5 μm, 5.8 μm, and 8.0 μm, respectively (5σ total point source magnitudes in AB). The SIMPLE IRAC images are combined with the 10' x 15' GOODS IRAC mosaics in the center. We give detailed descriptions of the observations, data reduction, and properties of the final images, as well as the detection and photometry methods used to build a catalog. Using published optical and near-infrared data from the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC), we construct an IRAC-selected catalog, containing photometry in UBVRIz'JHK, [3.6 μm], [4.5 μm], [5.8 μm], and [8.0 μm]. The catalog contains 43,782 sources with S/N >5 at 3.6 μm, 19,993 of which have 13-band photometry. We compare this catalog to the publicly available MUSYC and FIREWORKS catalogs and discuss the differences. Using a high signal-to-noise sub-sample of 3391 sources with ([3.6] + [4.5])/2 * >10 11 M sun ) are passively evolving, in agreement with earlier results from surveys covering less area.

  18. Regulatory Mechanisms Controlling Maturation of Serotonin Neuron Identity and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, William C; Deneris, Evan S

    2017-01-01

    The brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system has been extensively studied for its role in normal physiology and behavior, as well as, neuropsychiatric disorders. The broad influence of 5-HT on brain function, is in part due to the vast connectivity pattern of 5-HT-producing neurons throughout the CNS. 5-HT neurons are born and terminally specified midway through embryogenesis, then enter a protracted period of maturation, where they functionally integrate into CNS circuitry and then are maintained throughout life. The transcriptional regulatory networks controlling progenitor cell generation and terminal specification of 5-HT neurons are relatively well-understood, yet the factors controlling 5-HT neuron maturation are only recently coming to light. In this review, we first provide an update on the regulatory network controlling 5-HT neuron development, then delve deeper into the properties and regulatory strategies governing 5-HT neuron maturation. In particular, we discuss the role of the 5-HT neuron terminal selector transcription factor (TF) Pet-1 as a key regulator of 5-HT neuron maturation. Pet-1 was originally shown to positively regulate genes needed for 5-HT synthesis, reuptake and vesicular transport, hence 5-HT neuron-type transmitter identity. It has now been shown to regulate, both positively and negatively, many other categories of genes in 5-HT neurons including ion channels, GPCRs, transporters, neuropeptides, and other transcription factors. Its function as a terminal selector results in the maturation of 5-HT neuron excitability, firing characteristics, and synaptic modulation by several neurotransmitters. Furthermore, there is a temporal requirement for Pet-1 in the control of postmitotic gene expression trajectories thus indicating a direct role in 5-HT neuron maturation. Proper regulation of the maturation of cellular identity is critical for normal neuronal functioning and perturbations in the gene regulatory networks controlling

  19. Artificial neuron operations and spike-timing-dependent plasticity using memristive devices for brain-inspired computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marukame, Takao; Nishi, Yoshifumi; Yasuda, Shin-ichi; Tanamoto, Tetsufumi

    2018-04-01

    The use of memristive devices for creating artificial neurons is promising for brain-inspired computing from the viewpoints of computation architecture and learning protocol. We present an energy-efficient multiplier accumulator based on a memristive array architecture incorporating both analog and digital circuitries. The analog circuitry is used to full advantage for neural networks, as demonstrated by the spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) in fabricated AlO x /TiO x -based metal-oxide memristive devices. STDP protocols for controlling periodic analog resistance with long-range stability were experimentally verified using a variety of voltage amplitudes and spike timings.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SKY2000 Master Catalog, Version 5 (Myers+ 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. R.; Sande, C. B.; Miller, A. C.; Warren, W. H., Jr.; Tracewell, D. A.

    2015-02-01

    The SKYMAP Star Catalog System consists of a Master Catalog stellar database and a collection of utility software designed to create and maintain the database and to generate derivative mission star catalogs (run catalogs). It contains an extensive compilation of information on almost 300000 stars brighter than 8.0mag. The original SKYMAP Master Catalog was generated in the early 1970's. Incremental updates and corrections were made over the following years but the first complete revision of the source data occurred with Version 4.0. This revision also produced a unique, consolidated source of astrometric information which can be used by the astronomical community. The derived quantities were removed and wideband and photometric data in the R (red) and I (infrared) systems were added. Version 4 of the SKY2000 Master Catalog was completed in April 2002; it marks the global replacement of the variability identifier and variability data fields. More details can be found in the description file sky2kv4.pdf. The SKY2000 Version 5 Revision 4 Master Catalog differs from Revision 3 in that MK and HD spectral types have been added from the Catalogue of Stellar Spectral Classifications (B. A. Skiff of Lowell Observatory, 2005), which has been assigned source code 50 in this process. 9622 entries now have MK types from this source, while 3976 entries have HD types from this source. SKY2000 V5 R4 also differs globally from preceding MC versions in that the Galactic coordinate computations performed by UPDATE have been increased in accuracy, so that differences from the same quantities from other sources are now typically in the last decimal places carried in the MC. This version supersedes the previous versions 1(V/95), 2(V/102), 3(V/105) and 4(V/109). (6 data files).

  1. Neuron-Based Heredity and Human Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Marshall Gash

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Abstract: It is widely recognized that human evolution has been driven by two systems of heredity: one DNA-based and the other based on the transmission of behaviorally acquired information via nervous system functions. The genetic system is ancient, going back to the appearance of life on Earth. It is responsible for the evolutionary processes described by Darwin. By comparison, the nervous system is relatively newly minted and in its highest form, responsible for ideation and mind-to-mind transmission of information. Here the informational capabilities and functions of the two systems are compared. While employing quite different mechanisms for encoding, storing and transmission of information, both systems perform these generic hereditary functions. Three additional features of neuron-based heredity in humans are identified: the ability to transfer hereditary information to other members of their population, not just progeny; a selection process for the information being transferred; and a profoundly shorter time span for creation and dissemination of survival-enhancing information in a population. The mechanisms underlying neuron-based heredity involve hippocampal neurogenesis and memory and learning processes modifying and creating new neural assemblages changing brain structure and functions. A fundamental process in rewiring brain circuitry is through increased neural activity (use strengthening and increasing the number of synaptic connections. Decreased activity in circuitry (disuse leads to loss of synapses. Use and disuse modifying an organ to bring about new modes of living, habits and functions are processes are in line with Neolamarckian concepts of evolution (Packard, 1901. Evidence is presented of bipartite evolutionary processes – Darwinian and Neolamarckian – driving human descent from a common ancestor shared with the great apes.

  2. Stitching Codeable Circuits: High School Students' Learning About Circuitry and Coding with Electronic Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litts, Breanne K.; Kafai, Yasmin B.; Lui, Debora A.; Walker, Justice T.; Widman, Sari A.

    2017-10-01

    Learning about circuitry by connecting a battery, light bulb, and wires is a common activity in many science classrooms. In this paper, we expand students' learning about circuitry with electronic textiles, which use conductive thread instead of wires and sewable LEDs instead of lightbulbs, by integrating programming sensor inputs and light outputs and examining how the two domains interact. We implemented an electronic textiles unit with 23 high school students ages 16-17 years who learned how to craft and code circuits with the LilyPad Arduino, an electronic textile construction kit. Our analyses not only confirm significant increases in students' understanding of functional circuits but also showcase students' ability in designing and remixing program code for controlling circuits. In our discussion, we address opportunities and challenges of introducing codeable circuit design for integrating maker activities that include engineering and computing into classrooms.

  3. Sex Differences in Stress Response Circuitry Activation Dependent on Female Hormonal Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M.; Jerram, Matthew; Abbs, Brandon; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nikos

    2010-01-01

    Understanding sex differences in stress regulation has important implications for understanding basic physiological differences in the male and female brain and their impact on vulnerability to sex differences in chronic medical disorders associated with stress response circuitry. In this fMRI study, we demonstrated that significant sex differences in brain activity in stress response circuitry were dependent on women's menstrual cycle phase. Twelve healthy Caucasian premenopausal women were compared to a group of healthy men from the same population, based on age, ethnicity, education, and right-handedness. Subjects were scanned using negative valence/high arousal versus neutral visual stimuli that we demonstrated activated stress response circuitry (amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem, orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices (OFC and mPFC), and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). Women were scanned twice based on normal variation in menstrual cycle hormones (i.e., early follicular (EF) compared with late follicular-midcycle menstrual phases (LF/MC)). Using SPM8b, there were few significant differences in BOLD signal changes in men compared to EF women, except ventromedial (VMN) and lateral (LHA) hypothalamus, left amygdala, and ACG. In contrast, men exhibited significantly greater BOLD signal changes compared to LF/MC women on bilateral ACG and OFC, mPFC, LHA, VMN, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray, with largest effect sizes in mPFC and OFC. Findings suggest that sex differences in stress response circuitry are hormonally regulated via the impact of subcortical brain activity on the cortical control of arousal, and demonstrate that females have been endowed with a natural hormonal capacity to regulate the stress response that differs from males. PMID:20071507

  4. Targeting Lumbar Spinal Neural Circuitry by Epidural Stimulation to Restore Motor Function After Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Minassian, Karen; McKay, W. Barry; Binder, Heinrich; Hofstoetter, Ursula S.

    2016-01-01

    Epidural spinal cord stimulation has a long history of application for improving motor control in spinal cord injury. This review focuses on its resurgence following the progress made in understanding the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms and on recent reports of its augmentative effects upon otherwise subfunctional volitional motor control. Early work revealed that the spinal circuitry involved in lower-limb motor control can be accessed by stimulating through electrodes placed epidur...

  5. Adaptive Supply Voltage Management for Low Power Logic Circuitry Operating at Subthreshold

    OpenAIRE

    Rehan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    With the rise in demand of portable hand held devices and with the rise in application of wireless sensor networks and RFID reduction of total power consumption has become a necessity. To save power we operate the logic circuitry of our devices at sub-threshold. In sub-threshold the drain current is exponentially dependent on the threshold voltage hence the threshold variation causes profound variation of ION and IOFF the ratio of which affect the speed of a circuit drastically. S...

  6. Catalog of Hawaiian earthquakes, 1823-1959

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Fred W.; Wright, Thomas L.

    2000-01-01

    This catalog of more than 17,000 Hawaiian earthquakes (of magnitude greater than or equal to 5), principally located on the Island of Hawaii, from 1823 through the third quarter of 1959 is designed to expand our ability to evaluate seismic hazard in Hawaii, as well as our knowledge of Hawaiian seismic rhythms as they relate to eruption cycles at Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes and to subcrustal earthquake patterns related to the tectonic evolution of the Hawaiian chain.

  7. Catalog of data bases and reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. (comp.)

    1992-04-01

    The Catalog of Data Bases and Reports provides information about the many reports and other materials made available by the US Department of Energy's Global Change Research Program (GCRP). It is divided into six sections plus an author and a title index: (1) Research plans and budget summaries (2) technical reports; (3) workshops, proceedings, and reports; (4) other reports; (5) USDA reports on response of vegetation to carbon dioxide; and, (6) numeric data packages and computer model packages.

  8. Catalog of data bases and reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.

    1992-04-01

    The Catalog of Data Bases and Reports provides information about the many reports and other materials made available by the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program (GCRP). It is divided into six sections plus an author and a title index: (1) Research plans and budget summaries (2) technical reports; (3) workshops, proceedings, and reports; (4) other reports; (5) USDA reports on response of vegetation to carbon dioxide; and, (6) numeric data packages and computer model packages.

  9. Regulating Critical Period Plasticity: Insight from the Visual System to Fear Circuitry for Therapeutic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa M. Nabel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Early temporary windows of heightened brain plasticity called critical periods developmentally sculpt neural circuits and contribute to adult behavior. Regulatory mechanisms of visual cortex development –the preeminent model of experience-dependent critical period plasticity- actively limit adult plasticity and have proved fruitful therapeutic targets to reopen plasticity and rewire faulty visual system connections later in life. Interestingly, these molecular mechanisms have been implicated in the regulation of plasticity in other functions beyond vision. Applying mechanistic understandings of critical period plasticity in the visual cortex to fear circuitry may provide a conceptual framework for developing novel therapeutic tools to mitigate aberrant fear responses in post traumatic stress disorder. In this review, we turn to the model of experience-dependent visual plasticity to provide novel insights for the mechanisms regulating plasticity in the fear system. Fear circuitry, particularly fear memory erasure, also undergoes age-related changes in experience-dependent plasticity. We consider the contributions of molecular brakes that halt visual critical period plasticity to circuitry underlying fear memory erasure. A major molecular brake in the visual cortex, perineuronal net formation, recently has been identified in the development of fear systems that are resilient to fear memory erasure. The roles of other molecular brakes, myelin-related Nogo receptor signaling and Lynx family proteins– endogenous inhibitors for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, are explored in the context of fear memory plasticity. Such fear plasticity regulators, including epigenetic effects, provide promising targets for therapeutic interventions.

  10. Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichter, Gabriel S; Damiano, Cara A; Allen, John A

    2012-07-06

    This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders), neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette's syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder), and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome). We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies.

  11. Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dichter Gabriel S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette’s syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder, and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome. We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies.

  12. Stress, trauma and PTSD: translational insights into the core synaptic circuitry and its modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Maxwell R; Hatton, Sean N; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2016-06-01

    Evidence is considered as to whether behavioral criteria for diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are applicable to that of traumatized animals and whether the phenomena of acquisition, extinction and reactivation of fear behavior in animals are also successfully applicable to humans. This evidence suggests an affirmative answer in both cases. Furthermore, the deficits in gray matter found in PTSD, determined with magnetic resonance imaging, are also observed in traumatized animals, lending neuropsychological support to the use of animals to probe what has gone awry in PTSD. Such animal experiments indicate that the core synaptic circuitry mediating behavior following trauma consists of the amygdala, ventral-medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, all of which are modulated by the basal ganglia. It is not clear if this is the case in PTSD as the observations using fMRI are equivocal and open to technical objections. Nevertheless, the effects of the basal ganglia in controlling glutamatergic synaptic transmission through dopaminergic and serotonergic synaptic mechanisms in the core synaptic circuitry provides a ready explanation for why modifying these mechanisms delays extinction in animal models and predisposes towards PTSD. In addition, changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the core synaptic circuitry have significant effects on acquisition and extinction in animal experiments with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the BDNF gene predisposing to PTSD.

  13. A Developmental Shift from Positive to Negative Connectivity in Human Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Dylan G.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Flannery, Jessica; Goff, Bonnie; Telzer, Eva H.; Shapiro, Mor; Hare, Todd A.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Recent human imaging and animal studies highlight the importance of frontoamygdala circuitry in the regulation of emotional behavior and its disruption in anxiety-related disorders. While tracing studies have suggested changes in amygdala-cortical connectivity through the adolescent period in rodents, less is known about the reciprocal connections within this circuitry across human development, when these circuits are being fine-tuned and substantial changes in emotional control are observed. The present study examined developmental changes in amygdala-prefrontal circuitry across the ages of 4 to 22 years using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results suggest positive amygdala-prefrontal connectivity in early childhood that switches to negative functional connectivity during the transition to adolescence. Amygdala-mPFC functional connectivity was significantly positive (greater than zero) among participants younger than ten, whereas functional connectivity was significantly negative (less than zero) among participants ten years and older, over and above the effect of amygdala reactivity. The developmental switch in functional connectivity was paralleled by a steady decline in amygdala reactivity. Moreover, the valence switch might explain age-related improvement in task performance and a developmentally normative decline in anxiety. Initial positive connectivity followed by a valence shift to negative connectivity provides a neurobiological basis for regulatory development and may present novel insight into a more general process of developing regulatory connections. PMID:23467374

  14. Single-Cell Gene Expression Analysis of Cholinergic Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Jeong

    Full Text Available The cholinoceptive system in the hypothalamus, in particular in the arcuate nucleus (ARC, plays a role in regulating food intake. Neurons in the ARC contain multiple neuropeptides, amines, and neurotransmitters. To study molecular and neurochemical heterogeneity of ARC neurons, we combine single-cell qRT-PCR and single-cell whole transcriptome amplification methods to analyze expression patterns of our hand-picked 60 genes in individual neurons in the ARC. Immunohistochemical and single-cell qRT-PCR analyses show choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-expressing neurons in the ARC. Gene expression patterns are remarkably distinct in each individual cholinergic neuron. Two-thirds of cholinergic neurons express tyrosine hydroxylase (Th mRNA. A large subset of these Th-positive cholinergic neurons is GABAergic as they express the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase and vesicular GABA transporter transcripts. Some cholinergic neurons also express the vesicular glutamate transporter transcript gene. POMC and POMC-processing enzyme transcripts are found in a subpopulation of cholinergic neurons. Despite this heterogeneity, gene expression patterns in individual cholinergic cells appear to be highly regulated in a cell-specific manner. In fact, membrane receptor transcripts are clustered with their respective intracellular signaling and downstream targets. This novel population of cholinergic neurons may be part of the neural circuitries that detect homeostatic need for food and control the drive to eat.

  15. Estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta immunoreactive neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord of male and female mice : Relationships to monoaminergic, cholinergic, and spinal projection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderHorst, VGJM; Gustafsson, JA; Ulfhake, B

    2005-01-01

    For many populations of estrogen-sensitive neurons it remains unknown how they are associated with central nervous system circuitries that mediate estrogen-induced modulation of behavioral components. With the use of double-labeling immunohistochemistry and tracing techniques, the relationships of

  16. Tricky Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Teaching children about circuits and the way electricity works is a "tricky business" because it is invisible. Just imagine all eyes are on the teacher as he or she produces for the class what looks like a ping-pong ball and then, with a wave of their hand, the incredible happens! This wonderful white sphere begins to glow red and a…

  17. Active and passive sexual roles that arise in Drosophila male-male courtship are modulated by dopamine levels in PPL2ab neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Shiu-Ling Chen; Yu-Hui Chen; Chuan-Chan Wang; Yhu-Wei Yu; Yu-Chen Tsai; Hsiao-Wen Hsu; Chia-Lin Wu; Pei-Yu Wang; Lien-Cheng Chen; Tsuo-Hung Lan; Tsai-Feng Fu

    2017-01-01

    The neurology of male sexuality has been poorly studied owing to difficulties in studying brain circuitry in humans. Dopamine (DA) is essential for both physiological and behavioural responses, including the regulation of sexuality. Previous studies have revealed that alterations in DA synthesis in dopaminergic neurons can induce male-male courtship behaviour, while increasing DA levels in the protocerebral posteriolateral dopaminergic cluster neuron 2ab (PPL2ab) may enhance the intensity of ...

  18. Divergent circuitry underlying food reward and intake effects of ghrelin: dopaminergic VTA-accumbens projection mediates ghrelin's effect on food reward but not food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibicka, Karolina P; Shirazi, Rozita H; Rabasa-Papio, Cristina; Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Neuber, Corinna; Vogel, Heike; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2013-10-01

    Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions and creating an urgent need to understand mechanisms underlying excessive and uncontrolled food intake. Ghrelin, the only known circulating orexigenic hormone, potently increases food reward behavior. The neurochemical circuitry that links ghrelin to the mesolimbic reward system and to the increased food reward behavior remains unclear. Here we examine whether VTA-NAc dopaminergic signaling is required for the effects of ghrelin on food reward and intake. In addition, we examine the possibility of endogenous ghrelin acting on the VTA-NAc dopamine neurons. A D1-like or a D2 receptor antagonist was injected into the NAc in combination with ghrelin microinjection into the VTA to investigate whether this blockade attenuates ghrelin-induced food reward behavior. VTA injections of ghrelin produced a significant increase in food motivation/reward behavior, as measured by sucrose-induced progressive ratio operant conditioning, and chow intake. Pretreatment with either a D1-like or D2 receptor antagonist into the NAc, completely blocked the reward effect of ghrelin, leaving chow intake intact. We also found that this circuit is potentially relevant for the effects of endogenously released ghrelin as both antagonists reduced fasting (a state of high circulating levels of ghrelin) elevated sucrose-motivated behavior but not chow hyperphagia. Taken together our data identify the VTA to NAc dopaminergic projections, along with D1-like and D2 receptors in the NAc, as essential elements of the ghrelin responsive circuits controlling food reward behavior. Interestingly results also suggest that food reward behavior and simple intake of chow are controlled by divergent circuitry, where NAc dopamine plays an important role in food reward but not in food intake. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. OCRWM [Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management] publications catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is publishing this catalog to provide citations of selected technical and public information on the subject of high-level radioactive waste management. The catalog is a resource and reference tool that is updated and printed periodically. The online catalog is available for review through OCRWM's Product Record System (PRS) and is available to the public. The printed catalog version is suitable for libraries and those individuals needing either a broad base of information or a particular source; the computerized catalog version provides the most current information resources available, since updates to citations are made as they are received. The number of documents suitable for listing in this catalog is expected to grow significantly each year

  20. Dopamine suppresses neuronal activity of Helisoma B5 neurons via a D2-like receptor, activating PLC and K channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L R; Artinian, L; Rehder, V

    2013-01-03

    Dopamine (DA) plays fundamental roles as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the central nervous system. How DA modulates the electrical excitability of individual neurons to elicit various behaviors is of great interest in many systems. The buccal ganglion of the freshwater pond snail Helisoma trivolvis contains the neuronal circuitry for feeding and DA is known to modulate the feeding motor program in Helisoma. The buccal neuron B5 participates in the control of gut contractile activity and is surrounded by dopaminergic processes, which are expected to release DA. In order to study whether DA modulates the electrical activity of individual B5 neurons, we performed experiments on physically isolated B5 neurons in culture and on B5 neurons within the buccal ganglion in situ. We report that DA application elicited a strong hyperpolarization in both conditions and turned the electrical activity from a spontaneously firing state to an electrically silent state. Using the cell culture system, we demonstrated that the strong hyperpolarization was inhibited by the D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride and the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, indicating that DA affected the membrane potential of B5 neurons through the activation of a D2-like receptor and PLC. Further studies revealed that the DA-induced hyperpolarization was inhibited by the K channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium, suggesting that K channels might serve as the ultimate target of DA signaling. Through its modulatory effect on the electrical activity of B5 neurons, the release of DA in vivo may contribute to a neuronal output that results in a variable feeding motor program. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: URAT Parallax Catalog (UPC) (Finch+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C. T.; Zacharias, N.

    2016-04-01

    The URAT Parallax Catalog (UPC) consists of 112177 parallaxes. The catalog utilizes all Northern Hemisphere epoch data from the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT). This data includes all individual exposures from April 2012 to June 2015 giving a larger epoch baseline for determining parallaxes over the 2-year span of the First USNO Robotic Astrometric Telescope Catalog (URAT1) (Zacharias et al., 2015, Cat. I/329) published data. The URAT parallax pipeline is custom code that utilizes routines from (Jao, C.-W., 2004, PhD thesis Georgia Stat), the JPL DE405 ephemeris and Green's parallax factor (Green, R.M., 1985, Spherical Astronomy) for determining parallaxes from a weighted least-squares reduction. The relative parallaxes have been corrected to absolute by using the distance color relation described in (Finch et. al, 2014, Cat. J/AJ/148/119) to determine a mean distance of all UCAC4 reference stars (R=8-16 mag) used in the astrometric reductions. Presented here are all significant parallaxes from the URAT Northern Hemisphere epoch data comprising of 2 groups: a) URAT parallax results for stars with prior published parallax, and b) first time trigonometric parallaxes as obtained from URAT data of stars without prior published parallax. Note, more stringent selection criteria have been applied to the second group than the first in order to keep the rate of false detections low. For specific information about the astrometric reductions please see 'The First U.S. Naval Observatory Robotic Astrometric Telescope Catalog' published paper (Zacharias et al., 2015AJ....150..101Z, Cat. I/329). For complete details regarding the parallax pipeline please see 'Parallax Results From URAT Epoch Data' (Finch and Zacharias, 2016, AJ, in press). This catalog gives all positions on the ICRS at Epoch J2014.0; it covers the magnitude range 6.56 to 16.93 in the URAT band-pass, with an average parallax precision of 4.3mas for stars having no known

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The FIRST Survey Catalog, Version 2014Dec17 (Helfand+ 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, D. J.; White, R. L.; Becker, R. H.

    2015-05-01

    The Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters (FIRST) began in 1993. It uses the VLA (Very Large Array, a facility of the National Radio Observatory (NRAO)) at a frequency of 1.4GHz, and it is slated to 10,000 deg2 of the North and South Galactic Caps, to a sensitivity of about 1mJy with an angular resolution of about 5''. The images produced by an automated mapping pipeline have pixels of 1.8'', a typical rms of 0.15mJy, and a resolution of 5''; the images are available on the Internet (see the FIRST home page at http://sundog.stsci.edu/ for details). The source catalogue is derived from the images. This catalog from the 1993 through 2011 observations contains 946,432 sources from the north and south Galactic caps. It covers a total of 10,575 square degrees of the sky (8444 square degrees in the north and 2131 square degrees in the south). In this version of the catalog, images taken in the the new EVLA configuration have been re-reduced using shallower CLEAN thresholds in order to reduce the "CLEAN bias" in those images. Also, the EVLA images are not co-added with older VLA images to avoid problems resulting from the different frequencies and noise properties of the configurations. That leads to small gaps in the sky coverage at boundaries between the EVLA and VLA regions. As a result, the area covered by this release of the catalog is about 60 square degrees smaller than the earlier release of the catalog (13Jun05, also available here as the "first13.dat" file), and the total number of sources is reduced by nearly 25,000. The previous version of the catalog does have sources in the overlap regions, but their flux densities are considered unreliable due to calibration errors. The flux densities should be more accurate in this catalog, biases are smaller, and the incidence of spurious sources is also reduced. Over most of the survey area, the detection limit is 1 mJy. A region along the equatorial strip (RA=21.3 to 3.3hr, Dec=-1 to 1deg) has a deeper

  3. A JEM-X Catalog of X-ray Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    2009-01-01

    . A search for weaker, persistent, sources has been done in deep mosaic images that have been produced with all available observations for a large number of sky regions. The two resulting catalogs hold 158 and 179 sources respectively, but the combined catalog consists of 209 sources. This catalog can...... be downloaded as a FITS binary table file with source information such as names, positions, and fluxes at the PoS web page for the conference....

  4. THYROID HORMONE TREATED ASTROCYTES INDUCE MATURATION OF CEREBRAL CORTICAL NEURONS THROUGH MODULATION OF PROTEOGLYCAN LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulo Sperduto Dezonne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Proper brain neuronal circuitry formation and synapse development is dependent on specific cues, either genetic or epigenetic, provided by the surrounding neural environment. Within these signals, thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 play crucial role in several steps of brain morphogenesis including proliferation of progenitor cells, neuronal differentiation, maturation, migration, and synapse formation. The lack of thyroid hormones during childhood is associated with several impair neuronal connections, cognitive deficits, and mental disorders. Many of the thyroid hormones effects are mediated by astrocytes, although the mechanisms underlying these events are still unknown. In this work, we investigated the effect of 3, 5, 3’-triiodothyronine-treated (T3-treated astrocytes on cerebral cortex neuronal differentiation. Culture of neural progenitors from embryonic cerebral cortex mice onto T3-treated astrocyte monolayers yielded an increment in neuronal population, followed by enhancement of neuronal maturation, arborization and neurite outgrowth. In addition, real time PCR assays revealed an increase in the levels of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans, Glypican 1 (GPC-1 and Syndecans 3 e 4 (SDC-3 e SDC-4, followed by a decrease in the levels of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, Versican. Disruption of glycosaminoglycan chains by chondroitinase AC or heparanase III completely abolished the effects of T3-treated astrocytes on neuronal morphogenesis. Our work provides evidence that astrocytes are key mediators of T3 actions on cerebral cortex neuronal development and identified potential molecules and pathways involved in neurite extension; which might eventually contribute to a better understanding of axonal regeneration, synapse formation and neuronal circuitry recover.

  5. IfA Catalogs of Solar Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbal, Shadia R.; Scholl, I.; Morgan, H.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a new set of online catalogs of solar data products. The IfA Catalogs of Solar Data Products were developed to enhance the scientific output of coronal images acquired from ground and space, starting with the SoHO era. Image processing tools have played a significant role in the production of these catalogs [Morgan et al. 2006, 2008, Scholl and Habbal 2008]. Two catalogs are currently available at http://alshamess.ifa.hawaii.edu/ : 1) Catalog of daily coronal images: One coronal image per day from EIT, MLSO and LASCO/C2 and C3 have been processed using the Normalizing Radial-Graded-Filter (NRGF) image processing tool. These images are available individually or as composite images. 2) Catalog of LASCO data: The whole LASCO dataset has been re-processed using the same method. The user can search files by dates and instruments, and images can be retrieved as JPEG or FITS files. An option to make on-line GIF movies from selected images is also available. In addition, the LASCO data set can be searched from existing CME catalogs (CDAW and Cactus). By browsing one of the two CME catalogs, the user can refine the query and access LASCO data covering the time frame of a CME. The catalogs will be continually updated as more data become publicly available.

  6. Brain-wide neuronal dynamics during motor adaptation in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Misha B; Li, Jennifer M; Orger, Michael B; Robson, Drew N; Schier, Alexander F; Engert, Florian; Portugues, Ruben

    2012-05-09

    A fundamental question in neuroscience is how entire neural circuits generate behaviour and adapt it to changes in sensory feedback. Here we use two-photon calcium imaging to record the activity of large populations of neurons at the cellular level, throughout the brain of larval zebrafish expressing a genetically encoded calcium sensor, while the paralysed animals interact fictively with a virtual environment and rapidly adapt their motor output to changes in visual feedback. We decompose the network dynamics involved in adaptive locomotion into four types of neuronal response properties, and provide anatomical maps of the corresponding sites. A subset of these signals occurred during behavioural adjustments and are candidates for the functional elements that drive motor learning. Lesions to the inferior olive indicate a specific functional role for olivocerebellar circuitry in adaptive locomotion. This study enables the analysis of brain-wide dynamics at single-cell resolution during behaviour.

  7. GABA regulates synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shaoyu; Goh, Eyleen L. K.; Sailor, Kurt A.; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

    2006-02-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the birth and integration of new neurons from adult neural stem cells, is a striking form of structural plasticity and highlights the regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal activity regulates adult neurogenesis and that new neurons contribute to specific brain functions. The mechanism that regulates the integration of newly generated neurons into the pre-existing functional circuitry in the adult brain is unknown. Here we show that newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus are tonically activated by ambient GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) before being sequentially innervated by GABA- and glutamate-mediated synaptic inputs. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, initially exerts an excitatory action on newborn neurons owing to their high cytoplasmic chloride ion content. Conversion of GABA-induced depolarization (excitation) into hyperpolarization (inhibition) in newborn neurons leads to marked defects in their synapse formation and dendritic development in vivo. Our study identifies an essential role for GABA in the synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain, and suggests an unexpected mechanism for activity-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis, in which newborn neurons may sense neuronal network activity through tonic and phasic GABA activation.

  8. Memory formation orchestrates the wiring of adult-born hippocampal neurons into brain circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsophonsakul, Petnoi; Richetin, Kevin; Andraini, Trinovita; Roybon, Laurent; Rampon, Claire

    2017-08-01

    During memory formation, structural rearrangements of dendritic spines provide a mean to durably modulate synaptic connectivity within neuronal networks. New neurons generated throughout the adult life in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus contribute to learning and memory. As these neurons become incorporated into the network, they generate huge numbers of new connections that modify hippocampal circuitry and functioning. However, it is yet unclear as to how the dynamic process of memory formation influences their synaptic integration into neuronal circuits. New memories are established according to a multistep process during which new information is first acquired and then consolidated to form a stable memory trace. Upon recall, memory is transiently destabilized and vulnerable to modification. Using contextual fear conditioning, we found that learning was associated with an acceleration of dendritic spines formation of adult-born neurons, and that spine connectivity becomes strengthened after memory consolidation. Moreover, we observed that afferent connectivity onto adult-born neurons is enhanced after memory retrieval, while extinction training induces a change of spine shapes. Together, these findings reveal that the neuronal activity supporting memory processes strongly influences the structural dendritic integration of adult-born neurons into pre-existing neuronal circuits. Such change of afferent connectivity is likely to impact the overall wiring of hippocampal network, and consequently, to regulate hippocampal function.

  9. Optogenetically enhanced axon regeneration: motor versus sensory neuron-specific stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patricia J; Clanton, Scott L; English, Arthur W

    2018-02-01

    Brief neuronal activation in injured peripheral nerves is both necessary and sufficient to enhance motor axon regeneration, and this effect is specific to the activated motoneurons. It is less clear whether sensory neurons respond in a similar manner to neuronal activation following peripheral axotomy. Further, it is unknown to what extent enhancement of axon regeneration with increased neuronal activity relies on a reflexive interaction within the spinal circuitry. We used mouse genetics and optical tools to evaluate the precision and selectivity of system-specific neuronal activation to enhance axon regeneration in a mixed nerve. We evaluated sensory and motor axon regeneration in two different mouse models expressing the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin (ChR2). We selectively activated either sensory or motor axons using light stimulation combined with transection and repair of the sciatic nerve. Regardless of genotype, the number of ChR2-positive neurons whose axons had regenerated successfully was greater following system-specific optical treatment, with no effect on the number of ChR2-negative neurons (whether motor or sensory neurons). We conclude that acute system-specific neuronal activation is sufficient to enhance both motor and sensory axon regeneration. This regeneration-enhancing effect is likely cell autonomous. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The AraGWAS Catalog: a curated and standardized Arabidopsis thaliana GWAS catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togninalli, Matteo; Seren, Ümit; Meng, Dazhe; Fitz, Joffrey; Nordborg, Magnus; Weigel, Detlef

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The abundance of high-quality genotype and phenotype data for the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana enables scientists to study the genetic architecture of many complex traits at an unprecedented level of detail using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). GWAS have been a great success in A. thaliana and many SNP-trait associations have been published. With the AraGWAS Catalog (https://aragwas.1001genomes.org) we provide a publicly available, manually curated and standardized GWAS catalog for all publicly available phenotypes from the central A. thaliana phenotype repository, AraPheno. All GWAS have been recomputed on the latest imputed genotype release of the 1001 Genomes Consortium using a standardized GWAS pipeline to ensure comparability between results. The catalog includes currently 167 phenotypes and more than 222 000 SNP-trait associations with P < 10−4, of which 3887 are significantly associated using permutation-based thresholds. The AraGWAS Catalog can be accessed via a modern web-interface and provides various features to easily access, download and visualize the results and summary statistics across GWAS. PMID:29059333

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Chandra Source Catalog, Release 1.1 (Evans+ 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, I. N.; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, C. S.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E. C.; Gibbs, D. G.; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R. M.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Kashyap, V. L.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Mossman, A. E.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2014-01-01

    This version of the catalog is release 1.1. It includes the information contained in release 1.0.1, plus point and compact source data extracted from HRC imaging observations, and catch-up ACIS observations released publicly prior to the end of 2009. (1 data file).

  12. Functional properties and synaptic integration of genetically labelled dopaminergic neurons in intrastriatal grafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Andreas Toft; Thompson, Lachlan; Kirik, Deniz

    2005-01-01

    in the dopamine-depleted striatum than of those in the intact striatum. Our findings define specific electrophysiological characteristics of transplanted fetal dopaminergic neurons, and we provide the first direct evidence of functional synaptic integration of these neurons into host neural circuitries......., the electrophysiological properties grafted cells need to have in order to induce substantial functional recovery are poorly defined. It has not been possible to prospectively identify and record from dopaminergic neurons in fetal transplants. Here we used transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein under control...... of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase promoter for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of endogenous and grafted dopaminergic neurons. We transplanted ventral mesencephalic tissue from E12.5 transgenic mice into striatum of neonatal rats with or without lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine system. The transplanted...

  13. Selective elimination of intracortically projecting neurons of the rat neocortex by prenatal x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    The development of new racing methods has suggested that there are species differences in the extent of the contribution of the different layers of the neocortex to the callosal projection. The present investigation has utilized prenatal x-irradiation to selectively eliminate the late forming neurons of the supragranular layers of the rat neocortex. The reduction in the neuronal population of the supragranular layers closely parallels the reduction in the corpus callosum. These results indicate that the primary source of neurons of the callosal projection, are the late forming neurons of the supragranular layers. Thus, the current results suggest that low dose prenatal x-irradiation may be used to evaluate important developmental events in the formation of neocortical circuitry

  14. Evaluation and cataloging of Korean historical earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kew Hwa; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Jun Hui; Park, Ji Eok; Na, Kwang Wooing; Shin, Byung Ju

    1999-03-01

    Historical earthquake data of the Korean Peninsula which are very important is evaluating seismicity and seismic hazard of the peninsula were collected and analyzed by seismologist and historian. A preliminary catalog of Korean historical earthquake data translated in English was made. Felt places of 528 events felt at more than 2 places were indicated on maps and MMI III isoseismal were drawn for 52 events of MMI≥VII. Epicenters and intensities of these MMI≥VII events were estimated from these isoseismal maps

  15. Catalog of risks extended and updated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    A large variety of risks are quantified in terms of the loss of life expectancy they cause in the United States. Risks considered include the following: diseases; accidents of various types at home, at work, in public, and in motor vehicles; unemployment; poor social connections; use of small cars; smoking; air pollution; other environmental pollutants leading to cancer and non-cancer effects; purposely ingested substances; sports participation; geography; medical care; epidemics; natural hazards; socioeconomic factors; Rn and other radiation; and energy conservation. A few suggestions for applications of this catalog of risks are offered

  16. A catalog of Acroceridae (Diptera) from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GonzÁlez, Christian R; Elgueta, Mario; Ramirez, Francisco

    2018-01-18

    A catalog of the Acroceridae from Chile is provided. All valid names and synonyms are presented, totaling 33 species and nine genera for the country. All references known to us from the taxonomic and biological literature, including information about name, author, year of publication, page number, type species, type locality and references are given. Type material of different authors was revised. The species Lasia cuprea is revalidated. The geographical distribution of the different species is recorded from the revised collections and bibliographic data. Holops cyaneus Philippi, 1865 is designated as type species of Holops Philippi, 1865.

  17. Environment, safety and health training catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, L.; Brittenham, P.

    1991-12-01

    The ES ampersand H Training Catalog is a tool to assist managers in determining which training courses they require their employees to complete. The narrative description under ''Who Shall Attend'' describes the characteristics of the employees and contractors under the direction of Sandia who are required by law, regulation, DOE Order, or SNL Directive to complete the training in order to be in compliance. The narrative is ''Who Should Attend'' describes the individuals for which the course is 'highly recommended,'' although they are not mandated to attend

  18. Evaluation and cataloging of Korean historical earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kew Hwa; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Jun Hui; Park, Ji Eok; Na, Kwang Wooing; Shin, Byung Ju [The Reaearch Institute of Basic Sciences, Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    Historical earthquake data of the Korean Peninsula which are very important is evaluating seismicity and seismic hazard of the peninsula were collected and analyzed by seismologist and historian. A preliminary catalog of Korean historical earthquake data translated in English was made. Felt places of 528 events felt at more than 2 places were indicated on maps and MMI III isoseismal were drawn for 52 events of MMI{>=}VII. Epicenters and intensities of these MMI{>=}VII events were estimated from these isoseismal maps.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (Mason+ 2001-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B. D.; Wycoff, G. L.; Hartkopf, W. I.; Douglass, G. G.; Worley, C. E.

    2018-05-01

    The Washington Visual Double Star Catalog (WDS) is the successor to the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars, 1961.0 (IDS; Jeffers and van den Bos, Publ. Lick Obs. 21). Three earlier double star catalogs in XXth century, those by Burnham (BDS, 1906, "General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), Innes (SDS, 1927, "Southern Double Star Catalogue -19 to -90 degrees", Union Observatory, Johannesburg, South Africa), and Aitken (ADS, 1932 "New General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121 degrees of the North Pole", Carnegie Institution of Washington), each covered only a portion of the sky. Both the IDS and the WDS cover the entire sky, and the WDS is intended to contain all known visual double stars for which at least one differential measure has been published. The WDS is continually updated as published data become available. Prior to this, three major updates have been published (Worley and Douglass 1984, "Washington Visual Double Star Catalog, 1984.0", U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington; Worley and Douglass 1997A&AS..125..523W, Cat. I/237; Mason, Wycoff, Hartkopf, Douglass and Worley 2001AJ....122.3466M; and Mason et al. 2006.5). The Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) has seen numerous changes since the last major release of the catalog. The application of many techniques and considerable industry over the past few years has yielded significant gains in both the number of systems and the number of measures. Is is maintained by the US Naval Observatory, and represents the world's principal database of astrometric double and multiple star information. The WDS contains positions (J2000), discoverer designations, epochs, position angles, separations, magnitudes, spectral types, proper motions, and, when available, Durchmusterung numbers and notes for the components of the systems. (3 data files).

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hubble Source Catalog (V1 and V2) (Whitmore+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, B. C.; Allam, S. S.; Budavari, T.; Casertano, S.; Downes, R. A.; Donaldson, T.; Fall, S. M.; Lubow, S. H.; Quick, L.; Strolger, L.-G.; Wallace, G.; White, R. L.

    2016-10-01

    The HSC v1 contains members of the WFPC2, ACS/WFC, WFC3/UVIS and WFC3/IR Source Extractor source lists from HLA version DR8 (data release 8). The crossmatching process involves adjusting the relative astrometry of overlapping images so as to minimize positional offsets between closely aligned sources in different images. After correction, the astrometric residuals of crossmatched sources are significantly reduced, to typically less than 10mas. The relative astrometry is supported by using Pan-STARRS, SDSS, and 2MASS as the astrometric backbone for initial corrections. In addition, the catalog includes source nondetections. The crossmatching algorithms and the properties of the initial (Beta 0.1) catalog are described in Budavari & Lubow (2012ApJ...761..188B). The HSC v2 contains members of the WFPC2, ACS/WFC, WFC3/UVIS and WFC3/IR Source Extractor source lists from HLA version DR9.1 (data release 9.1). The crossmatching process involves adjusting the relative astrometry of overlapping images so as to minimize positional offsets between closely aligned sources in different images. After correction, the astrometric residuals of crossmatched sources are significantly reduced, to typically less than 10mas. The relative astrometry is supported by using Pan-STARRS, SDSS, and 2MASS as the astrometric backbone for initial corrections. In addition, the catalog includes source nondetections. The crossmatching algorithms and the properties of the initial (Beta 0.1) catalog are described in Budavari & Lubow (2012ApJ...761..188B). Hubble Source Catalog Acknowledgement: Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, and obtained from the Hubble Legacy Archive, which is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI/NASA), the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF/ESAC/ESA) and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC/NRC/CSA). (2 data files).

  1. Microwave Technology for Waste Management Applications Including Disposition of Electronic Circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of waste management and environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of hazardous components into leach resistant forms. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from the undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. One application of special interest is the treatment of discarded electronic circuitry using a new hybrid microwave treatment process and subsequent reclamation of the precious metals within

  2. Microwave technology for waste management applications including disposition of electronic circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.; Folz, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of selected components. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. Applications of microwave energy for environmental remediation will be discussed. Emphasized will be a newly developed microwave process designed to treat discarded electronic circuitry and reclaim the precious metals within for reuse

  3. SpiCAD: Integrated environment for circuitry simulation with SPICE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amore, D; Padovini, G; Santomauro, M [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dip. di Elettronica

    1991-11-01

    SPICE is one of the most commonly used programs for the simulation of the behaviour of electronic circuits. This article describes in detail the key design characteristics and capabilities of a computer environment called SpiCAD which integrates all the different phases of SPICE based circuitry simulation on a personal computer, i.e., the tracing of the electronics scheme, simulation and visualization of the results so as to help define semiconductor device models, determine input signals, construct macro-models and convert design sketches into formats acceptable to graphic systems.

  4. Circuitry for monitoring a high direct current voltage supply for an ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An arrangement to measure the voltage of the supply and a switching means controlled by this is described. The voltage measurer consists of first and second signal coupling means, the input of the second (connected to the voltage supply) is connected in series with the output of the first. An ionization chamber with this circuitry may be used to monitor the radiation output of a particle accelerator more accurately. Faulty measurements of the dose output, caused by voltages in the earth circuit, are avoided. (U.K.)

  5. GABAA receptor drugs and neuronal plasticity in reward and aversion: focus on the ventral tegmental area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eVashchinkina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available GABAA receptors are the main fast inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain, and targets for many clinically important drugs widely used in the treatment of anxiety disorders, insomnia and in anesthesia. Nonetheless, there are significant risks associated with the long-term use of these drugs particularly related to development of tolerance and addiction. Addictive mechanisms of GABAA receptor drugs are poorly known, but recent findings suggest that those drugs may induce aberrant neuroadaptations in the brain reward circuitry. Recently, benzodiazepines, acting on synaptic GABAA receptors, and modulators of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (THIP and neurosteroids have been found to induce plasticity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA dopamine neurons and their main target projections. Furthermore, depending whether synaptic or extrasynaptic GABAA receptor populations are activated, the behavioral outcome of repeated administration seems to correlate with rewarding or aversive behavioral responses, respectively. The VTA dopamine neurons project to forebrain centers such as the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, and receive afferent projections from these brain regions and especially from the extended amygdala and lateral habenula, forming the major part of the reward and aversion circuitry. Both synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA drugs inhibit the VTA GABAergic interneurons, thus activating the VTA DA neurons by disinhibition and this way inducing glutamatergic synaptic plasticity. However, the GABAA drugs failed to alter synaptic spine numbers as studied from Golgi-Cox-stained VTA dendrites. Since the GABAergic drugs are known to depress the brain metabolism and gene expression, their likely way of inducing neuroplasticity in mature neurons is by disinhibiting the principal neurons, which remains to be rigorously tested for a number of clinically important anxiolytics, sedatives and anesthetics in different parts of

  6. Bibliographic Instruction and the Development of Online Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, David R.; Searing, Susan E.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the definition of an online library catalog; five factors to be considered by the online catalog designer; user-computer communication (error messages, help screens, prompts, unnatural language); online tutorials and offline instruction offered by bibliographic instruction librarians; and the current situation. Nine references are…

  7. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2001 Information Resources Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-03-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) eighth annual Information Resources Catalog can help keep you up-to-date on the research, development, opportunities, and available technologies in energy efficiency and renewable energy. The catalog includes five main sections with entries grouped according to subject area.

  8. Catalog of the George Alan Connor Esperanto Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karin, Comp.; Haake, Susan, Comp.

    This catalog inventories the collection of books, monographs, serials and periodicals, dictionaries, pamphlets, ephemera, and correspondence concerning Esperanto in the collection of George Alan Connor housed at the University of Oregon Library. Overall, the catalog contains approximately 475 serial entries and 3,000 author entries. Connor was a…

  9. Design and Implementation of an Experimental Cataloging Advisor--Mapper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercegovac, Zorana; Borko, Harold

    1992-01-01

    Describes the design of an experimental computer-aided cataloging advisor, Mapper, that was developed to help novice users with the descriptive cataloging of single-sheet maps from U.S. publishers. The human-computer interface is considered, the use of HyperCard is discussed, the knowledge base is explained, and assistance screens are described.…

  10. Cataloging, Processing, Administering AV Materials. A Model for Wisconsin Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Robert D., Ed.

    The objective of this cataloging manual is to recommend specific methods for cataloging audiovisual materials for use in individual school media centers. The following types of audiovisual aids are included: educational games, filmstrips, flat graphics, kits, models, motion pictures, realia, records, slides, sound filmstrips, tapes,…

  11. Print and Internet Catalog Shopping: Assessing Attitudes and Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarathy, Leo R.; Jones, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Findings of an empirical study that compared individuals' attitudes and intentions to shop using print and Internet catalogs suggest that individuals perceived differences between the two catalog media on the shopping factors of reliability, tangibility, and consumer risk. Product value, pre-order information, post-selection information, shopping…

  12. Telecommuting for Original Cataloging at the Michigan State University Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Leah; Hyslop, Colleen

    1995-01-01

    Working conditions in library technical services departments can be a problem for catalogers in need of a quiet work environment. Based on a successful program for indexers at the National Agriculture Library, a proposal for an experimental telecommuting program for original cataloging at the Michigan State University Libraries was developed and…

  13. The Catalog: A Flexible Data Structure for Magnetic Tape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Martin; Ziehe, Theodore

    This report outlines a generalized storage scheme for large files of highly structured data, or catalogs, and describes their realization on magnetic tape. Each datum, large or small, is assigned to one of a number of data classes of which a user may define any number. The over-all organization of a catalog is given by a map that imposes a tree…

  14. InfoQUEST: An Online Catalog for Small Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bonnie

    1984-01-01

    InfoQUEST is a microcomputer-based online public access catalog, designed for the small library handling file sizes up to 25,000 records. Based on the IBM-PC, or compatible machines, the system will accept downloading, in batch mode, of records from the library's file on the UTLAS Catalog Support System. (Author/EJS)

  15. Kid's Catalog: An Information Retrieval System for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, Paula; Doerr, Tom

    1993-01-01

    Describes an online public access catalog for children, called the Kid's Catalog. Design objectives include eliminating the barriers to information retrieval outlined in the research literature; being fun, interactive, and respectful of children's intelligence and creativity; motivating children with an expansive range of subjects and search…

  16. An Expert System Approach to Online Catalog Subject Searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Christopher S. G.; Poo, Danny C. C.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews methods to improve online catalogs for subject searching and describes the design of an expert system front-end to improve subject access in online public access catalogs that focuses on search strategies. Implementation of a prototype system at the National University of Singapore is described, and reformulation strategies are discussed.…

  17. CATALOG OF LIBRARY ACCESSIONS. SPEECH DEFECTS AND RELATED READINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FEARON, ROSS E.

    PUBLICATIONS RELATED TO SPEECH PATHOLOGY AND AUDIOLOGY ARE LISTED SEQUENTIALLY BY DEWEY DECIMAL SYSTEM NUMBER OR VERTICAL FILE NUMBER. THE 266 BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, AND JOURNAL REPRINTS RANGE IN PUBLICATION DATE FROM 1892 TO 1966 AND ARE FROM THE MANTOR LIBRARY AT FARMINGTON STATE COLLEGE. THIS CATALOG IS PART OF A SERIES OF SUBJECT CATALOGS LISTING…

  18. A JEM-X catalog of X-ray sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Chenevez, Jerome; Lund, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The JEM-X catalog of X-ray sources presented here is based on detections in individual science windows with a sensitivity limit of about 10 mCrab (5-15 keV). It contains 127 sources and only those that can be identified from the existing reference catalog. The input data are taken from the, up...

  19. 16 CFR 305.20 - Paper catalogs and websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paper catalogs and websites. 305.20 Section 305.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Disclosures § 305.20 Paper catalogs and websites. (a) Any manufacturer, distributor, retailer, or private...

  20. Creation of defined single cell resolution neuronal circuits on microelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirlo, Russell Kirk

    2009-12-01

    The way cell-cell organization of neuronal networks influences activity and facilitates function is not well understood. Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) and advancing cell patterning technologies have enabled access to and control of in vitro neuronal networks spawning much new research in neuroscience and neuroengineering. We propose that small, simple networks of neurons with defined circuitry may serve as valuable research models where every connection can be analyzed, controlled and manipulated. Towards the goal of creating such neuronal networks we have applied microfabricated elastomeric membranes, surface modification and our unique laser cell patterning system to create defined neuronal circuits with single-cell precision on MEAs. Definition of synaptic connectivity was imposed by the 3D physical constraints of polydimethylsiloxane elastomeric membranes. The membranes had 20mum clear-through holes and 2-3mum deep channels which when applied to the surface of the MEA formed microwells to confine neurons to electrodes connected via shallow tunnels to direct neurite outgrowth. Tapering and turning of channels was used to influence neurite polarity. Biocompatibility of the membranes was increased by vacuum baking, oligomer extraction, and autoclaving. Membranes were bound to the MEA by oxygen plasma treatment and heated pressure. The MEA/membrane surface was treated with oxygen plasma, poly-D-lysine and laminin to improve neuron attachment, survival and neurite outgrowth. Prior to cell patterning the outer edge of culture area was seeded with 5x10 5 cells per cm and incubated for 2 days. Single embryonic day 7 chick forebrain neurons were then patterned into the microwells and onto the electrodes using our laser cell patterning system. Patterned neurons successfully attached to and were confined to the electrodes. Neurites extended through the interconnecting channels and connected with adjacent neurons. These results demonstrate that neuronal circuits can be

  1. Neuronal Migration Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understanding Sleep The Life and Death of a Neuron Genes At Work In The Brain Order Publications ... birth defects caused by the abnormal migration of neurons in the developing brain and nervous system. In ...

  2. Motor Neuron Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other neurodegenerative diseases to better understand the function of neurons and other support cells and identify candidate therapeutic ... and other neurodegenerative diseases to better understand the function of neurons and other support cells and identify candidate therapeutic ...

  3. Technical books and monographs: 1978 catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This publication is a bibliography of books and monographs sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by the earlier organizations that were brought together to form DOE. In general, information for each published book, and for each book in press when known, includes title; author and author affiliation; publisher and publication date; page count; size of book; price; availability information if the book is not available from the publisher; Library of Congress card number (LC), with CIP to indicate books that have cataloging information in the publication; International Standard Book Number (ISBN); a brief descriptive statement concerning the book; and for the more recent books a list or a description of the contents. The books and monographs are grouped under thirteen subject categories. At the end of each subject category are separate sections listing recent published symposiums and bibliographies that received support from DOE or one of the earlier organizations. Also, at the end of the catalog are described the following DOE publications: Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, Energy Conservation Update, Fossil Energy Update, F usion Energy Update, Geothermal Energy Update, Solar Energy Update, Nuclear Safety, and Power Reactor Docket Information

  4. Technical books and monographs. 1979 catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This publication is a bibliography of books and monographs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by the earlier organizations that were brought together to form DOE. In general, information for each published book, and for each book in press when known, includes title, author, and author affiliation, publisher and publication date, page count, size of book, price, availability information if the book is not available from the publisher, Library of Congress card number (LC) (with CIP to indicate books that have cataloging information in the publication), International Standard Book Number (ISBN), a brief descriptive statement concerning the book, and (for the more recent books) a list or a description of the contents. The books and monographs are grouped under thirteen subject categories. At the end of each subject category are separate sections listing recently published symposium proceedings and bibliographies that received support from DOE or one of the earlier organizations. Also, at the end of the catalog are described the following DOE publications: Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, Energy Conservation Update, Fossil Energy Update, Fusion Energy Update, Geothermal Energy Update, Solar Energy Update, and Nuclear Safety

  5. The Chandra Source Catalog: Spectral Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Stephen; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Evans, Ian N.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiang Qun (Helen); Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Primini, Francis A.; Rots, Arnold H.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2009-09-01

    The first release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains all sources identified from eight years' worth of publicly accessible observations. The vast majority of these sources have been observed with the ACIS detector and have spectral information in 0.5-7 keV energy range. Here we describe the methods used to automatically derive spectral properties for each source detected by the standard processing pipeline and included in the final CSC. Hardness ratios were calculated for each source between pairs of energy bands (soft, medium and hard) using the Bayesian algorithm (BEHR, Park et al. 2006). The sources with high signal to noise ratio (exceeding 150 net counts) were fit in Sherpa (the modeling and fitting application from the Chandra Interactive Analysis of Observations package, developed by the Chandra X-ray Center; see Freeman et al. 2001). Two models were fit to each source: an absorbed power law and a blackbody emission. The fitted parameter values for the power-law and blackbody models were included in the catalog with the calculated flux for each model. The CSC also provides the source energy flux computed from the normalizations of predefined power-law and black-body models needed to match the observed net X-ray counts. In addition, we provide access to data products for each source: a file with source spectrum, the background spectrum, and the spectral response of the detector. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

  6. The Chandra Source Catalog : Automated Source Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Roger; Evans, I. N.; Evans, J. D.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E.; Gibbs, D. G.; Grier, J. D.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Primini, F. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; Van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2009-01-01

    Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) master source pipeline processing seeks to automatically detect sources and compute their properties. Since Chandra is a pointed mission and not a sky survey, different sky regions are observed for a different number of times at varying orientations, resolutions, and other heterogeneous conditions. While this provides an opportunity to collect data from a potentially large number of observing passes, it also creates challenges in determining the best way to combine different detection results for the most accurate characterization of the detected sources. The CSC master source pipeline correlates data from multiple observations by updating existing cataloged source information with new data from the same sky region as they become available. This process sometimes leads to relatively straightforward conclusions, such as when single sources from two observations are similar in size and position. Other observation results require more logic to combine, such as one observation finding a single, large source and another identifying multiple, smaller sources at the same position. We present examples of different overlapping source detections processed in the current version of the CSC master source pipeline. We explain how they are resolved into entries in the master source database, and examine the challenges of computing source properties for the same source detected multiple times. Future enhancements are also discussed. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

  7. The Chandra Source Catalog : Google Earth Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotfelty, Kenny; McLaughlin, W.; Evans, I.; Evans, J.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E. C.; Gibbs, D. G., II; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, H.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Kashyap, V. L.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Mossman, A. E.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Primini, F. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. R.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains multi-resolution, exposure corrected, background subtracted, full-field images that are stored as individual FITS files and as three-color JPEG files. In this poster we discuss how we took these data and were able to, with relatively minimal effort, convert them for use with the Google Earth application in its ``Sky'' mode. We will highlight some of the challenges which include converting the data to the required Mercator projection, reworking the 3-color algorithm for pipeline processing, and ways to reduce the data volume through re-binning, using color-maps, and special Keyhole Markup Language (kml) tags to only load images on-demand. The result is a collection of some 11,000 3-color images that are available for all the individual observation in the CSC Release 1. We also have made available all ˜4000 Field-of-View outlines (with per-chip regions), which turns out are trivial to produce starting with a simple dmlist command. In the first week of release, approximately 40% of the images have been accessed at least once through some 50,000 individual web hits which have served over 4Gb of data to roughly 750 users in 60+ countries. We will also highlight some future directions we are exploring, including real-time catalog access to individual source properties and eventual access to file based products such as FITS images, spectra, and light-curves.

  8. A catalog of information systems outsourcing risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Sá-Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information systems outsourcing risks are a vital component in the decision and management process associated to the provision of information systems and technology services by a provider to a customer. Although there is a rich literature on information systems outsourcing risks, the accumulated knowledge on this area is fragmented. In view of this situation, an argument is put forward on the usefulness of having a theory that integrates the various constructs related to information systems outsourcing risks. This study aims to contribute towards the synthesis of that theory, by proposing a conceptual framework for interpreting the literature and presenting a catalog of information systems outsourcing risks. The conceptual framework articulates together six key risk elements, namely dangers, negative outcomes, undesirable consequences, factors and mitigation actions. The catalog condenses and categorizes the information systems outsourcing risk elements found on the literature reviewed, both from the perspective of the outsourcing customer and from the perspective of the outsourcing provider. Proposals for subsequent work towards the generation of the theory of information systems outsourcing risk are suggested.

  9. A Catalog of Coronal "EIT Wave" Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. J.; Myers, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) data have been visually searched for coronal "EIT wave" transients over the period beginning from 1997 March 24 and extending through 1998 June 24. The dates covered start at the beginning of regular high-cadence (more than one image every 20 minutes) observations, ending at the four-month interruption of SOHO observations in mid-1998. One hundred and seventy six events are included in this catalog. The observations range from "candidate" events, which were either weak or had insufficient data coverage, to events which were well defined and were clearly distinguishable in the data. Included in the catalog are times of the EIT images in which the events are observed, diagrams indicating the observed locations of the wave fronts and associated active regions, and the speeds of the wave fronts. The measured speeds of the wave fronts varied from less than 50 to over 700 km s(exp -1) with "typical" speeds of 200-400 km s(exp -1).

  10. A CATALOG OF CORONAL 'EIT WAVE' TRANSIENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, B. J.; Myers, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) data have been visually searched for coronal 'EIT wave' transients over the period beginning from 1997 March 24 and extending through 1998 June 24. The dates covered start at the beginning of regular high-cadence (more than 1 image every 20 minutes) observations, ending at the four-month interruption of SOHO observations in mid-1998. One hundred and seventy six events are included in this catalog. The observations range from 'candidate' events, which were either weak or had insufficient data coverage, to events which were well defined and were clearly distinguishable in the data. Included in the catalog are times of the EIT images in which the events are observed, diagrams indicating the observed locations of the wave fronts and associated active regions, and the speeds of the wave fronts. The measured speeds of the wave fronts varied from less than 50 to over 700 km s -1 with 'typical' speeds of 200-400 km s -1 .

  11. DES Science Portal: II- Creating Science-Ready Catalogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausti Neto, Angelo; et al.

    2017-08-18

    We present a novel approach for creating science-ready catalogs through a software infrastructure developed for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We integrate the data products released by the DES Data Management and additional products created by the DES collaboration in an environment known as DES Science Portal. Each step involved in the creation of a science-ready catalog is recorded in a relational database and can be recovered at any time. We describe how the DES Science Portal automates the creation and characterization of lightweight catalogs for DES Year 1 Annual Release, and show its flexibility in creating multiple catalogs with different inputs and configurations. Finally, we discuss the advantages of this infrastructure for large surveys such as DES and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. The capability of creating science-ready catalogs efficiently and with full control of the inputs and configurations used is an important asset for supporting science analysis using data from large astronomical surveys.

  12. AUTOMATIC CLASSIFICATION OF VARIABLE STARS IN CATALOGS WITH MISSING DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichara, Karim; Protopapas, Pavlos

    2013-01-01

    We present an automatic classification method for astronomical catalogs with missing data. We use Bayesian networks and a probabilistic graphical model that allows us to perform inference to predict missing values given observed data and dependency relationships between variables. To learn a Bayesian network from incomplete data, we use an iterative algorithm that utilizes sampling methods and expectation maximization to estimate the distributions and probabilistic dependencies of variables from data with missing values. To test our model, we use three catalogs with missing data (SAGE, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and UBVI) and one complete catalog (MACHO). We examine how classification accuracy changes when information from missing data catalogs is included, how our method compares to traditional missing data approaches, and at what computational cost. Integrating these catalogs with missing data, we find that classification of variable objects improves by a few percent and by 15% for quasar detection while keeping the computational cost the same

  13. AUTOMATIC CLASSIFICATION OF VARIABLE STARS IN CATALOGS WITH MISSING DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichara, Karim [Computer Science Department, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Protopapas, Pavlos [Institute for Applied Computational Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We present an automatic classification method for astronomical catalogs with missing data. We use Bayesian networks and a probabilistic graphical model that allows us to perform inference to predict missing values given observed data and dependency relationships between variables. To learn a Bayesian network from incomplete data, we use an iterative algorithm that utilizes sampling methods and expectation maximization to estimate the distributions and probabilistic dependencies of variables from data with missing values. To test our model, we use three catalogs with missing data (SAGE, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and UBVI) and one complete catalog (MACHO). We examine how classification accuracy changes when information from missing data catalogs is included, how our method compares to traditional missing data approaches, and at what computational cost. Integrating these catalogs with missing data, we find that classification of variable objects improves by a few percent and by 15% for quasar detection while keeping the computational cost the same.

  14. The 5-HT1A serotonin receptor is located on calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing neurons in the rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Qian, Zhaoxia; Shah, Reshma

    2003-01-01

    distributed in the rat brain, with a particularly high density in the limbic system. The receptor's localization in the different neuronal subtypes, which may be of importance for understanding its role in neuronal circuitries, is, however, unknown. In this study we show by immunocytochemical double......-labeling techniques, that the 5-HT(1A) receptor is present on both pyramidal and principal cells, and calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing neurons, which generally define two different subtypes of interneurons. Moreover, semiquantitative analysis showed that the receptor's distribution in the different neuronal...... types varies between brain areas. In cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdala the receptor was located on both principal cells and calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing neurons. In septum and thalamus, the receptor was mostly present on calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing cells. Especially...

  15. Testing the connections within face processing circuitry in Capgras delusion with diffusion imaging tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bobes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Capgras delusion (CD patients are capable of recognizing familiar faces, they present a delusional belief that some relatives have been replaced by impostors. CD has been explained as a selective disruption of a pathway processing affective values of familiar faces. To test the integrity of connections within face processing circuitry, diffusion tensor imaging was performed in a CD patient and 10 age-matched controls. Voxel-based morphometry indicated gray matter damage in right frontal areas. Tractography was used to examine two important tracts of the face processing circuitry: the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF and the inferior longitudinal (ILF. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF and commissural tracts were also assessed. CD patient did not differ from controls in the commissural fibers, or the SLF. Right and left ILF, and right IFOF were also equivalent to those of controls. However, the left IFOF was significantly reduced respect to controls, also showing a significant dissociation with the ILF, which represents a selective impairment in the fiber-tract connecting occipital and frontal areas. This suggests a possible involvement of the IFOF in affective processing of faces in typical observers and in covert recognition in some cases with prosopagnosia.

  16. Targeting Lumbar Spinal Neural Circuitry by Epidural Stimulation to Restore Motor Function After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minassian, Karen; McKay, W Barry; Binder, Heinrich; Hofstoetter, Ursula S

    2016-04-01

    Epidural spinal cord stimulation has a long history of application for improving motor control in spinal cord injury. This review focuses on its resurgence following the progress made in understanding the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms and on recent reports of its augmentative effects upon otherwise subfunctional volitional motor control. Early work revealed that the spinal circuitry involved in lower-limb motor control can be accessed by stimulating through electrodes placed epidurally over the posterior aspect of the lumbar spinal cord below a paralyzing injury. Current understanding is that such stimulation activates large-to-medium-diameter sensory fibers within the posterior roots. Those fibers then trans-synaptically activate various spinal reflex circuits and plurisegmentally organized interneuronal networks that control more complex contraction and relaxation patterns involving multiple muscles. The induced change in responsiveness of this spinal motor circuitry to any residual supraspinal input via clinically silent translesional neural connections that have survived the injury may be a likely explanation for rudimentary volitional control enabled by epidural stimulation in otherwise paralyzed muscles. Technological developments that allow dynamic control of stimulation parameters and the potential for activity-dependent beneficial plasticity may further unveil the remarkable capacity of spinal motor processing that remains even after severe spinal cord injuries.

  17. The Bernese atmospheric multiple catalog access tool (BEAMCAT): a tool for users of popular spectral line catalogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feist, D.G.Dietrich G.

    2004-01-01

    Users of spectroscopic data bases in the microwave region quickly realize that each existing spectral line catalog provide only part of the information that they would like to have. As a workaround for this problem, several merged spectral line data bases have been created by different groups. However, these merged data bases are usually very specific for a certain application and are difficult to maintain. The BEAMCAT data base takes a totally new approach that makes it possible to generate merged spectral line catalogs from any number of source catalogs in multiple user-defined formats. The current version of BEAMCAT contains the complete JPL and HITRAN catalog. Other catalogs like GEISA will soon be included, too. As a first application of the BEAMCAT data base, the author conducted a thorough intercomparison of spectral parameters for all the transitions that the JPL catalog and HITRAN have in common. The intercomparison shows that the spectral parameters in the catalogs are by no means identical. While the difference in center frequency is usually small, the differences in line intensity reach from almost exact match to discrepancies of several orders of magnitude. While it cannot be ruled out that some of the lines were matched incorrectly, this intercomparison might be helpful to identify problems with the original catalogs

  18. Trim9 Deletion Alters the Morphogenesis of Developing and Adult-Born Hippocampal Neurons and Impairs Spatial Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkle, Cortney C; Olsen, Reid H J; Kim, Hyojin; Moy, Sheryl S; Song, Juan; Gupton, Stephanie L

    2016-05-04

    During hippocampal development, newly born neurons migrate to appropriate destinations, extend axons, and ramify dendritic arbors to establish functional circuitry. These developmental stages are recapitulated in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus, where neurons are continuously generated and subsequently incorporate into existing, local circuitry. Here we demonstrate that the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM9 regulates these developmental stages in embryonic and adult-born mouse hippocampal neurons in vitro and in vivo Embryonic hippocampal and adult-born dentate granule neurons lacking Trim9 exhibit several morphological defects, including excessive dendritic arborization. Although gross anatomy of the hippocampus was not detectably altered by Trim9 deletion, a significant number of Trim9(-/-) adult-born dentate neurons localized inappropriately. These morphological and localization defects of hippocampal neurons in Trim9(-/-) mice were associated with extreme deficits in spatial learning and memory, suggesting that TRIM9-directed neuronal morphogenesis may be involved in hippocampal-dependent behaviors. Appropriate generation and incorporation of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus are critical for spatial learning and memory and other hippocampal functions. Here we identify the brain-enriched E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM9 as a novel regulator of embryonic and adult hippocampal neuron shape acquisition and hippocampal-dependent behaviors. Genetic deletion of Trim9 elevated dendritic arborization of hippocampal neurons in vitro and in vivo Adult-born dentate granule cells lacking Trim9 similarly exhibited excessive dendritic arborization and mislocalization of cell bodies in vivo These cellular defects were associated with severe deficits in spatial learning and memory. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/364940-19$15.00/0.

  19. Neuronal Entropy-Rate Feature of Entopeduncular Nucleus in Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbin, Olivier; Jin, Xingxing; Von Wrangel, Christof; Schwabe, Kerstin; Nambu, Atsushi; Naritoku, Dean K; Krauss, Joachim K; Alam, Mesbah

    2016-03-01

    The function of the nigro-striatal pathway on neuronal entropy in the basal ganglia (BG) output nucleus, i.e. the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) was investigated in the unilaterally 6-hyroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In both control subjects and subjects with 6-OHDA lesion of dopamine (DA) the nigro-striatal pathway, a histological hallmark for parkinsonism, neuronal entropy in EPN was maximal in neurons with firing rates ranging between 15 and 25 Hz. In 6-OHDA lesioned rats, neuronal entropy in the EPN was specifically higher in neurons with firing rates above 25 Hz. Our data establishes that the nigro-striatal pathway controls neuronal entropy in motor circuitry and that the parkinsonian condition is associated with abnormal relationship between firing rate and neuronal entropy in BG output nuclei. The neuronal firing rates and entropy relationship provide putative relevant electrophysiological information to investigate the sensory-motor processing in normal condition and conditions such as movement disorders.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Intermediate-luminosity X-ray objects catalog (Colbert+, 2002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Ptak, A. F.

    2002-11-01

    ROSAT, and now Chandra, X-ray images allow studies of extranuclear X-ray point sources in galaxies other than our own. X-ray observations of normal galaxies with ROSAT and Chandra have revealed that off-nuclear, compact, intermediate-luminosity (LX[2-10keV]>=1039erg/s) X-ray objects (IXOs, a.k.a. ULXs [ultraluminous X-ray sources]) are quite common. Here we present a catalog and finding charts for 87 IXOs in 54 galaxies, derived from all of the ROSAT HRI imaging data for galaxies with cz<=5000km/s from the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies. (2 data files).

  1. Cholera Toxin Induces Sustained Hyperexcitability in Myenteric, but Not Submucosal, AH Neurons in Guinea Pig Jejunum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C. Bornstein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cholera toxin (CT-induced hypersecretion requires activation of secretomotor pathways in the enteric nervous system (ENS. AH neurons, which have been identified as a population of intrinsic sensory neurons (ISNs, are a source of excitatory input to the secretomotor pathways. We therefore examined effects of CT in the intestinal lumen on myenteric and submucosal AH neurons.Methods: Isolated segments of guinea pig jejunum were incubated for 90 min with saline plus CT (12.5 μg/ml or CT + neurotransmitter antagonist, or CT + tetrodotoxin (TTX in their lumen. After washing CT away, submucosal or myenteric plexus preparations were dissected keeping circumferentially adjacent mucosa intact. Submucosal AH neurons were impaled adjacent to intact mucosa and myenteric AH neurons were impaled adjacent to, more than 5 mm from, and in the absence of intact mucosa. Neuronal excitability was monitored by injecting 500 ms current pulses through the recording electrode.Results: After CT pre-treatment, excitability of myenteric AH neurons adjacent to intact mucosa (n = 29 was greater than that of control neurons (n = 24, but submucosal AH neurons (n = 33, control n = 27 were unaffected. CT also induced excitability increases in myenteric AH neurons impaled distant from the mucosa (n = 6 or in its absence (n = 5. Coincubation with tetrodotoxin or SR142801 (NK3 receptor antagonist, but not SR140333 (NK1 antagonist or granisetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist prevented the increased excitability induced by CT. Increased excitability was associated with a reduction in the characteristic AHP and an increase in the ADP of these neurons, but not a change in the hyperpolarization-activated inward current, Ih.Conclusions: CT increases excitability of myenteric, but not submucosal, AH neurons. This is neurally mediated and depends on NK3, but not 5-HT3 receptors. Therefore, CT may act to amplify the secretomotor response to CT via an increase in the

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Fermi LAT second source catalog (2FGL) (Nolan+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, P. L.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bignami, G. F.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Campana, R.; Canadas, B.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Ceccanti, M.; Cecchi, C.; Celik, O.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chipaux, R.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Corbet, R.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; Davis, D. S.; de Angelis, A.; Decesar, M. E.; Deklotz, M.; de Luca A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Do Couto, E. Silva E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Enoto, T.; Escande, L.; Fabiani, D.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Iafrate, G.; Itoh, R.; Johannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, T. E.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Katsuta, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knodlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Landriu, D.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lionetto, A. M.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, E.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Minuti, M.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mongelli, M.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-God, O. M.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Nymark, T.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Pinchera, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Racusin, J. L.; Raino, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Salvetti, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sbarra, C.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Sgro, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Shrader, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stephens, T. E.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinebra, F.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Etten, A.; van Klaveren, B.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wallace, E.; Wang, P.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a catalog of high-energy γ-ray sources detected, in the 100MeV-100GeV energy range, in the first two years of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), during the period 2008 August 4 (15:43 UTC)-2010 August 1 (01:17 UTC). (4 data files).

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GOODS-MUSIC sample: multicolour catalog (Grazian+, 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazian, A.; Fontana, A.; de Santis, C.; Nonino, M.; Salimbeni, S.; Giallongo, E.; Cristiani, S.; Gallozzi, S.; Vanzella, E.

    2006-02-01

    The GOODS-MUSIC multi-wavelength catalog provides photometric and spectroscopic information for galaxies in the GOODS Southern field. It includes two U images obtained with the ESO 2.2m telescope and one U band image from VLT-VIMOS, the ACS-HST images in four optical (B,V,i,z) bands, the VLT-ISAAC J, H, and Ks bands as well as the Spitzer images in at 3.5, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 micron. Most of these images have been made publicly available in the coadded version by the GOODS team, while the U band data were retrieved in raw format and reduced by our team. We also collected all the available spectroscopic information from public spectroscopic surveys and cross-correlated the spectroscopic redshifts with our photometric catalog. For the unobserved fraction of the objects, we applied our photometric redshift code to obtain well-calibrated photometric redshifts. The final catalog is made up of 14847 objects, with at least 72 known stars, 68 AGNs, and 928 galaxies with spectroscopic redshift (668 galaxies with reliable redshift determination). (3 data files).

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CANDELS multiwavelength catalog (Galametz+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galametz, A.; Grazian, A.; Fontana, A.; Ferguson, H. C.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Barro, G.; Castellano, M.; Dahlen, T.; Donley, J. L.; Faber, S. M.; Grogin, N.; Guo, Y.; Huang, K.-H.; Kocevski, D. D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lee, K.-S.; McGrath, E. J.; Peth, M.; Willner, S. P.; Almaini, O.; Cooper, M.; Cooray, A.; Conselice, C. J.; Dickinson, M.; Dunlop, J. S.; Fazio, G. G.; Foucaud, S.; Gardner, J. P.; Giavalisco, M.; Hathi, N. P.; Hartley, W. G.; Koo, D. C.; Lai, K.; de Mello, D. F.; McLure, R. J.; Lucas, R. A.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.; Santini, P.; Simpson, C.; Sommariva, V.; Targett, T.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; CANDELS Team

    2013-06-01

    The present multiwavelength catalog is based on public data in the CANDELS UDS field (J2000 position: 02:17:37.5-05:12:00) located within the original UDS field. It includes: * CANDELS HST/ACS (F606W, F814W) and HST/WFC3 (F125W, F160W); Grogin et al. 2011ApJS..197...35G, Koekemoer et al. 2011ApJS..197...36K. * CFHT U-band (UKIDSS; Almaini et al. in prep.), * SUBARU B, V, Rc, i', z' (SXDS; Furusawa et al. 2008, Cat. J/ApJS/176/1) * VLT/HAWK-I Y and Ks bands (HUGS; Fontana et al. in prep.) * UKIRT/WFCam J, H, K (UKIDSS DR8; Almaini et al. in prep.) * Spitzer/IRAC SEDS 3.6 and 4.5um (SEDS; Ashby et al. 2013ApJ...769...80A) * Spitzer/IRAC SpUDS 5.8, 8.0um (PI: J. Dunlop). The catalog is F160W-selected and contains 35932 sources over an area of 201.7 square arcmin and includes radio and X-ray detected sources and spectroscopic redshifts available for 210 sources. The full official CANDELS UDS catalog (which contains some extra columns including additional SExtractor parameters derived from the F160W image) can be found on the CANDELS website at: http://candels.ucolick.org/data_access/UDS.html (1 data file).

  5. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project: Technical Data Catalog quarterly supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-31

    The March 21, 1993, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the Catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1993, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1994.

  6. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Technical Data Catalog (quarterly supplement)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The June 1, 1985, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the Catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated December 31, 1992, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1993

  7. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project technical data catalog: Quarterly supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where the data may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed-in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and distributed in the month following the end of each quarter. A complete revision to the catalog is published at the end of each fiscal year. Supplements to the end-of-year edition are published each quarter. These supplements provide information related to new data items not included in previous quarterly updates and data items affected by changes to previously published reference information. The Technical Data Catalog, dated September 30, 1994, should be retained as the baseline document for the supplements until the end-of-year revision is published and distributed in October 1995.

  8. Iranian earthquakes, a uniform catalog with moment magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimiparidari, Sepideh; Zaré, Mehdi; Memarian, Hossein; Kijko, Andrzej

    2013-07-01

    A uniform earthquake catalog is an essential tool in any seismic hazard analysis. In this study, an earthquake catalog of Iran and adjacent areas was compiled, using international and national databanks. The following priorities were applied in selecting magnitude and earthquake location: (a) local catalogs were given higher priority for establishing the location of an earthquake and (b) global catalogs were preferred for determining earthquake magnitudes. Earthquakes that have occurred within the bounds between 23-42° N and 42-65° E, with a magnitude range of M W 3.5-7.9, from the third millennium BC until April 2010 were included. In an effort to avoid the "boundary effect," since the newly compiled catalog will be mainly used for seismic hazard assessment, the study area includes the areas adjacent to Iran. The standardization of the catalog in terms of magnitude was achieved by the conversion of all types of magnitude into moment magnitude, M W, by using the orthogonal regression technique. In the newly compiled catalog, all aftershocks were detected, based on the procedure described by Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974). The seismicity parameters were calculated for the six main tectonic seismic zones of Iran, i.e., the Zagros Mountain Range, the Alborz Mountain Range, Central Iran, Kope Dagh, Azerbaijan, and Makran.

  9. Electro-active sensor, method for constructing the same; apparatus and circuitry for detection of electro-active species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Martin (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electro-active sensor includes a nonconductive platform with a first electrode set attached with a first side of a nonconductive platform. The first electrode set serves as an electrochemical cell that may be utilized to detect electro-active species in solution. A plurality of electrode sets and a variety of additional electrochemical cells and sensors may be attached with the nonconductive platform. The present invention also includes a method for constructing the aforementioned electro-active sensor. Additionally, an apparatus for detection and observation is disclosed, where the apparatus includes a sealable chamber for insertion of a portion of an electro-active sensor. The apparatus allows for monitoring and detection activities. Allowing for control of attached cells and sensors, a dual-mode circuitry is also disclosed. The dual-mode circuitry includes a switch, allowing the circuitry to be switched from a potentiostat to a galvanostat mode.

  10. Transneuronal retrograde dual viral labelling of central autonomic circuitry : possibilities and pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Horst, GJ

    2000-01-01

    Viral retrograde transneuronal labelling has become an important neuroanatomical tract-tracing tool for characterization of Limbic neuronal networks. Recently, dual viral retrograde transneuronal labelling has been introduced; a method employing differential transgene expression of two genetically

  11. Visualization of Sensory Neurons and Their Projections in an Upper Motor Neuron Reporter Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Barış; Lagrimas, Amiko Krisa Bunag; Kuru, Pınar; Hess, Robert; Tu, Michael William; Menichella, Daniela Maria; Miller, Richard J; Paller, Amy S; Özdinler, P Hande

    2015-01-01

    Visualization of peripheral nervous system axons and cell bodies is important to understand their development, target recognition, and integration into complex circuitries. Numerous studies have used protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 [a.k.a. ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1)] expression as a marker to label sensory neurons and their axons. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) expression, under the control of UCHL1 promoter, is stable and long lasting in the UCHL1-eGFP reporter line. In addition to the genetic labeling of corticospinal motor neurons in the motor cortex and degeneration-resistant spinal motor neurons in the spinal cord, here we report that neurons of the peripheral nervous system are also fluorescently labeled in the UCHL1-eGFP reporter line. eGFP expression is turned on at embryonic ages and lasts through adulthood, allowing detailed studies of cell bodies, axons and target innervation patterns of all sensory neurons in vivo. In addition, visualization of both the sensory and the motor neurons in the same animal offers many advantages. In this report, we used UCHL1-eGFP reporter line in two different disease paradigms: diabetes and motor neuron disease. eGFP expression in sensory axons helped determine changes in epidermal nerve fiber density in a high-fat diet induced diabetes model. Our findings corroborate previous studies, and suggest that more than five months is required for significant skin denervation. Crossing UCHL1-eGFP with hSOD1G93A mice generated hSOD1G93A-UeGFP reporter line of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and revealed sensory nervous system defects, especially towards disease end-stage. Our studies not only emphasize the complexity of the disease in ALS, but also reveal that UCHL1-eGFP reporter line would be a valuable tool to visualize and study various aspects of sensory nervous system development and degeneration in the context of numerous diseases.

  12. Machine cataloging of impact craters on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, Tomasz F.; Mendenhall, Michael P.; Bue, Brian D.

    2009-09-01

    This study presents an automated system for cataloging impact craters using the MOLA 128 pixels/degree digital elevation model of Mars. Craters are detected by a two-step algorithm that first identifies round and symmetric topographic depressions as crater candidates and then selects craters using a machine-learning technique. The system is robust with respect to surface types; craters are identified with similar accuracy from all different types of martian surfaces without adjusting input parameters. By using a large training set in its final selection step, the system produces virtually no false detections. Finally, the system provides a seamless integration of crater detection with its characterization. Of particular interest is the ability of our algorithm to calculate crater depths. The system is described and its application is demonstrated on eight large sites representing all major types of martian surfaces. An evaluation of its performance and prospects for its utilization for global surveys are given by means of detailed comparison of obtained results to the manually-derived Catalog of Large Martian Impact Craters. We use the results from the test sites to construct local depth-diameter relationships based on a large number of craters. In general, obtained relationships are in agreement with what was inferred on the basis of manual measurements. However, we have found that, in Terra Cimmeria, the depth/diameter ratio has an abrupt decrease at ˜38°S regardless of crater size. If shallowing of craters is attributed to presence of sub-surface ice, a sudden change in its spatial distribution is suggested by our findings.

  13. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Catalog: Fourteenth data release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; Aubourg, Éric; Myers, Adam D.; Streblyanska, Alina; Lyke, Brad W.; Anderson, Scott F.; Armengaud, Éric; Bautista, Julian; Blanton, Michael R.; Blomqvist, Michael; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Brandt, William Nielsen; Burtin, Étienne; Dawson, Kyle; de la Torre, Sylvain; Georgakakis, Antonis; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Green, Paul J.; Hall, Patrick B.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; MacLeod, Chelsea; Mariappan, Vivek; McGreer, Ian D.; Merloni, Andrea; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.; Rossi, Graziano; Schneider, Donald P.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Tojeiro, Rita; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Yèche, Christophe; Zarrouk, Pauline; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2018-05-01

    We present the data release 14 Quasar catalog (DR14Q) from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV). This catalog includes all SDSS-IV/eBOSS objects that were spectroscopically targeted as quasar candidates and that are confirmed as quasars via a new automated procedure combined with a partial visual inspection of spectra, have luminosities Mi [z = 2] < -20.5 (in a Λ CDM cosmology with H0 = 70 km s-1 Mpc-1, Ω M =0.3, and Ω Λ = 0.7), and either display at least one emission line with a full width at half maximum larger than 500 km s-1 or, if not, have interesting/complex absorption features. The catalog also includes previously spectroscopically-confirmed quasars from SDSS-I, II, and III. The catalog contains 526 356 quasars (144 046 are new discoveries since the beginning of SDSS-IV) detected over 9376 deg2 (2044 deg2 having new spectroscopic data available) with robust identification and redshift measured by a combination of principal component eigenspectra. The catalog is estimated to have about 0.5% contamination. Redshifts are provided for the Mg II emission line. The catalog identifies 21 877 broad absorption line quasars and lists their characteristics. For each object, the catalog presents five-band (u, g, r, i, z) CCD-based photometry with typical accuracy of 0.03 mag. The catalog also contains X-ray, ultraviolet, near-infrared, and radio emission properties of the quasars, when available, from other large-area surveys. The calibrated digital spectra, covering the wavelength region 3610-10 140 Å at a spectral resolution in the range 1300 < R < 2500, can be retrieved from the SDSS Science Archiver Server. http://www.sdss.org/dr14/algorithms/qso_catalog

  14. Engine Of Innovation: Building the High Performance Catalog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Owen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have indicated the sophisticated web-based search engines have eclipsed the primary importance of the library catalog as the premier tool for researchers in Higher education.  We submit that the catalog remains central to the research process.  Through a series of strategic enhancements, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, in partnership with the other members of the Triangle Research Libraries Network, has made the catalog a carrier of services in addition to bibliographic data, facilitating not simply discovery but also delivery of the information researchers seek.

  15. The New York Public Library Automated Book Catalog Subsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Michael Malinconico

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive automated bibliographic control system has been developed by the New York Public Library. This system is unique in its use of an automated authority system and highly sophisticated machine filing algorithms. The primary aim was the rigorous control of established forms and their cross-reference structure. The original impetus for creation of the system, and its most highly visible product, is a photocomposed book catalog. The book catalog subsystem supplies automatic punctuation of condensed entries and contains the ability to pmduce cumulation/ supplement book catalogs in installments without loss of control of the crossreferencing structure.

  16. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gezari, D.Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J.M.

    1988-08-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: Catalog of Infrared Observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths (5 to 1000 microns) published in the scientific literature from 1965 through 1986. The Supplement list contain 25 percent of the observations in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is thus more compact than the main catalog, and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations. The Far Infrared Supplement (2nd Edition) includes the Index of Infrared Source Positions and the Bibliography of Infrared Astronomy for the subset of far infrared observations listed

  17. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog: FY16 Improvements and Additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barela, Amanda Crystal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walkow, Walter M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Program sponsors nuclear fuel cycle research and development. As part of its Fuel Cycle Options campaign, the DOE has established the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog. The catalog is intended for use by the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program in planning its research and development activities and disseminating information regarding nuclear energy to interested parties. The purpose of this report is to document the improvements and additions that have been made to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog in the 2016 fiscal year.

  18. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog FY15 Improvements and Additions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barela, Amanda Crystal [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walkow, Walter M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Program sponsors nuclear fuel cycle research and development. As part of its Fuel Cycle Options campaign, the DOE has established the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog. The catalog is intended for use by the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program in planning its research and development activities and disseminating information regarding nuclear energy to interested parties. The purpose of this report is to document the improvements and additions that have been made to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog in the 2015 fiscal year.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Uranometria Argentina catalog of bright southern stars (Gould, 1879)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    In 1879 Benjamin Apthorp Gould published in Buenos Aires, Argentina, the Uranometria Argentina catalog of 7756 stars south of declination +10 degrees. This included all those stars he considered magnitude 7 or brighter and some fainter stars which are close companions to brighter stars or to each other and have combined magnitude 7 or brighter. Star positions are in 1875 coordinates, and constellation boundaries also in 1875 coordinates were defined within the aforementioned declination range. With only a few small changes these were incorporated into the boundaries adopted by the IAU in 1930 and subsequently universally accepted. In terms of accurate photoelectric magnitude measurements the Uranometria Argentina is nearly complete to magnitude 6.5 in its declination range. In each constellation the individual stars considered to be magnitude 7 and brighter were numbered in sequence of increasing right ascension in 1875 coordinates, except that in a few cases this sequence was somewhat adjusted so that stars close together could be listed on adjacent lines of text. The numbering system is analogous to that in the Flamsteed Catalogus Brittanicus and now widely used. Star numbers from the Uranometria Argentina rarely appear in the 21st century despite the potential utility of their use. They were included in the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac until 1978, and in the FK5 catalog until 1999, always with the letter G following the number in the Uranometria Argentina catalog. This serves to distinguish Flamsteed numbers with no following letters from Gould numbers, and is utilized in this presentation and recommended for general use. The file catalog.dat includes every star in the original Uranometria Argentina. In the original the constellations were presented in sequence of increasing distance from the south pole and numbered accordingly. For the convenience of 21st century astronomers the constellations are presented here by alphabetical sequence in

  20. Understanding overbidding: using the neural circuitry of reward to design economic auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Mauricio R; Schotter, Andrew; Ozbay, Erkut Y; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2008-09-26

    We take advantage of our knowledge of the neural circuitry of reward to investigate a puzzling economic phenomenon: Why do people overbid in auctions? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we observed that the social competition inherent in an auction results in a more pronounced blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to loss in the striatum, with greater overbidding correlated with the magnitude of this response. Leveraging these neuroimaging results, we design a behavioral experiment that demonstrates that framing an experimental auction to emphasize loss increases overbidding. These results highlight a role for the contemplation of loss in understanding the tendency to bid "too high." Current economic theories suggest overbidding may result from either "joy of winning" or risk aversion. By combining neuroeconomic and behavioral economic techniques, we find that another factor, namely loss contemplation in a social context, may mediate overbidding in auctions.

  1. Engineering nucleic acid structures for programmable molecular circuitry and intracellular biocomputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Green, Alexander A.; Yan, Hao; Fan, Chunhai

    2017-11-01

    Nucleic acids have attracted widespread attention due to the simplicity with which they can be designed to form discrete structures and programmed to perform specific functions at the nanoscale. The advantages of DNA/RNA nanotechnology offer numerous opportunities for in-cell and in-vivo applications, and the technology holds great promise to advance the growing field of synthetic biology. Many elegant examples have revealed the potential in integrating nucleic acid nanostructures in cells and in vivo where they can perform important physiological functions. In this Review, we summarize the current abilities of DNA/RNA nanotechnology to realize applications in live cells and then discuss the key problems that must be solved to fully exploit the useful properties of nanostructures. Finally, we provide viewpoints on how to integrate the tools provided by DNA/RNA nanotechnology and related new technologies to construct nucleic acid nanostructure-based molecular circuitry for synthetic biology.

  2. Role of basal ganglia in sleep-wake regulation: neural circuitry and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Vetrivelan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Researchers over the last decade have made substantial progress towards understanding the roles of dopamine and the basal ganglia in the control of sleep-wake behavior. In this review, we outline recent advancements regarding dopaminergic modulation of sleep through the basal ganglia (BG and extra-BG sites. Our main hypothesis is that dopamine promotes sleep by its action on the D2 receptors in the BG and promotes wakefulness by its action on D1 and D2 receptors in the extra-BG sites. This hypothesis implicates dopamine depletion in the BG (such as in Parkinson’s disease in causing frequent nighttime arousal and overall insomnia. Furthermore, the arousal effects of psychostimulants (methamphetamine, cocaine and modafinil may be linked to the ventral periaquductal grey (vPAG dopaminergic circuitry targeting the extra-BG sleep-wake network.

  3. Modeling disease risk through analysis of physical interactions between genetic variants within chromatin regulatory circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradin, Olivia; Cohen, Andrea J; Luppino, Jennifer M; Bayles, Ian M; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Scacheri, Peter C

    2016-11-01

    SNPs associated with disease susceptibility often reside in enhancer clusters, or super-enhancers. Constituents of these enhancer clusters cooperate to regulate target genes and often extend beyond the linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks containing risk SNPs identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We identified 'outside variants', defined as SNPs in weak LD with GWAS risk SNPs that physically interact with risk SNPs as part of a target gene's regulatory circuitry. These outside variants further explain variation in target gene expression beyond that explained by GWAS-associated SNPs. Additionally, the clinical risk associated with GWAS SNPs is considerably modified by the genotype of outside variants. Collectively, these findings suggest a potential model in which outside variants and GWAS SNPs that physically interact in 3D chromatin collude to influence target transcript levels as well as clinical risk. This model offers an additional hypothesis for the source of missing heritability for complex traits.

  4. The role of BDNF in depression on the basis of its location in the neural circuitry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui YU; Zhe-yu CHEN

    2011-01-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and life-threatening forms of mental illnesses and the neural circuitry underlying depression remains incompletely understood. Most attention in the field has focused on hippocampal and frontal cortical regions for their roles in depression and antidepressant action. While these regions no doubt play important roles in the mental illness, there is compelling evi-dence that other brain regions are also involved. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is broadly expressed in the developing and adult mammalian brain and has been implicated in development, neural regeneration, synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Recently BDNF has been shown to play an important role in the pathophysiology of depression, however there are con-troversial reports about the effects of BDNF on depression. Here, we present an overview of the current knowledge concerning BDNF actions and associated intracellular signaling in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens (NAc) and amygdala as their rela-tion to depression.

  5. Radiation-Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Jr., Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ericson, Milton Nance [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bobrek, Miljko [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blalock, Benjamin [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    As the recent accident at Fukushima Daiichi so vividly demonstrated, telerobotic technologies capable of withstanding high radiation environments need to be readily available to enable operations, repair, and recovery under severe accident scenarios where human entry is extremely dangerous or not possible. Telerobotic technologies that enable remote operation in high dose rate environments have undergone revolutionary improvement over the past few decades. However, much of this technology cannot be employed in nuclear power environments due the radiation sensitivity of the electronics and the organic insulator materials currently in use. This is the final report of the activities involving the NEET 2 project Radiation Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays. We present a detailed functional block diagram of the proposed data acquisition system, the thought process leading to technical decisions, the implemented system, and the tested results from the systems. This system will be capable of monitoring at least three parameters of importance to nuclear reactor monitoring: temperature, radiation level, and pressure.

  6. "Liking" and "wanting" linked to Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): hypothesizing differential responsivity in brain reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Gardner, Eliot; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Gold, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to resolve controversy regarding the causal contributions of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems to reward, we evaluate the three main competing explanatory categories: "liking,"learning," and "wanting" [1]. That is, DA may mediate (a) the hedonic impact of reward (liking), (b) learned predictions about rewarding effects (learning), or (c) the pursuit of rewards by attributing incentive salience to reward-related stimuli (wanting). We evaluate these hypotheses, especially as they relate to the Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), and we find that the incentive salience or "wanting" hypothesis of DA function is supported by a majority of the evidence. Neuroimaging studies have shown that drugs of abuse, palatable foods, and anticipated behaviors such as sex and gaming affect brain regions involving reward circuitry, and may not be unidirectional. Drugs of abuse enhance DA signaling and sensitize mesolimbic mechanisms that evolved to attribute incentive salience to rewards. Addictive drugs have in common that they are voluntarily selfadministered, they enhance (directly or indirectly) dopaminergic synaptic function in the nucleus accumbens (NAC), and they stimulate the functioning of brain reward circuitry (producing the "high" that drug users seek). Although originally believed simply to encode the set point of hedonic tone, these circuits now are believed to be functionally more complex, also encoding attention, reward expectancy, disconfirmation of reward expectancy, and incentive motivation. Elevated stress levels, together with polymorphisms of dopaminergic genes and other neurotransmitter genetic variants, may have a cumulative effect on vulnerability to addiction. The RDS model of etiology holds very well for a variety of chemical and behavioral addictions.

  7. Neural alterations of fronto-striatal circuitry during reward anticipation in euthymic bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiter, S; Spengler, S; Willert, A; Mohnke, S; Herold, D; Erk, S; Romanczuk-Seiferth, N; Quinlivan, E; Hindi-Attar, C; Banzhaf, C; Wackerhagen, C; Romund, L; Garbusow, M; Stamm, T; Heinz, A; Walter, H; Bermpohl, F

    2016-11-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD), with the hallmark symptoms of elevated and depressed mood, is thought to be characterized by underlying alterations in reward-processing networks. However, to date the neural circuitry underlying abnormal responses during reward processing in BD remains largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether euthymic BD is characterized by aberrant ventral striatal (VS) activation patterns and altered connectivity with the prefrontal cortex in response to monetary gains and losses. During functional magnetic resonance imaging 20 euthymic BD patients and 20 age-, gender- and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls completed a monetary incentive delay paradigm, to examine neural processing of reward and loss anticipation. A priori defined regions of interest (ROIs) included the VS and the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC). Psychophysiological interactions (PPIs) between these ROIs were estimated and tested for group differences for reward and loss anticipation separately. BD participants, relative to healthy controls, displayed decreased activation selectively in the left and right VS during anticipation of reward, but not during loss anticipation. PPI analyses showed decreased functional connectivity between the left VS and aPFC in BD patients compared with healthy controls during reward anticipation. This is the first study showing decreased VS activity and aberrant connectivity in the reward-processing circuitry in euthymic, medicated BD patients during reward anticipation. Our findings contrast with research supporting a reward hypersensitivity model of BD, and add to the body of literature suggesting that blunted activation of reward processing circuits may be a vulnerability factor for mood disorders.

  8. Neuroanatomical circuitry associated with exploratory eye movement in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Qiu

    Full Text Available Schizophrenic patients present abnormalities in a variety of eye movement tasks. Exploratory eye movement (EEM dysfunction appears to be particularly specific to schizophrenia. However, the underlying mechanisms of EEM dysfunction in schizophrenia are not clearly understood. To assess the potential neuroanatomical substrates of EEM, we recorded EEM performance and conducted a voxel-based morphometric analysis of gray matter in 33 schizophrenic patients and 29 well matched healthy controls. In schizophrenic patients, decreased responsive search score (RSS and widespread gray matter density (GMD reductions were observed. Moreover, the RSS was positively correlated with GMD in distributed brain regions in schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, in schizophrenic patients, some brain regions with neuroanatomical deficits overlapped with some ones associated with RSS. These brain regions constituted an occipito-tempro-frontal circuitry involved in visual information processing and eye movement control, including the left calcarine cortex [Brodmann area (BA 17], the left cuneus (BA 18, the left superior occipital cortex (BA 18/19, the left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6, the left cerebellum, the right lingual cortex (BA 17/18, the right middle occipital cortex (BA19, the right inferior temporal cortex (BA 37, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46 and bilateral precentral gyri (BA 6 extending to the frontal eye fields (FEF, BA 8. To our knowledge, we firstly reported empirical evidence that gray matter loss in the occipito-tempro-frontal neuroanatomical circuitry of visual processing system was associated with EEM performance in schizophrenia, which may be helpful for the future effort to reveal the underlying neural mechanisms for EEM disturbances in schizophrenia.

  9. Metal Chelation as a Powerful Strategy to Probe Cellular Circuitry Governing Fungal Drug Resistance and Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Polvi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to sense host-relevant cues and coordinate cellular responses, which enable virulence and drug resistance. Defining circuitry controlling these traits opens new opportunities for chemical diversity in therapeutics, as the cognate inhibitors are rarely explored by conventional screening approaches. This has great potential to address the pressing need for new therapeutic strategies for invasive fungal infections, which have a staggering impact on human health. To explore this approach, we focused on a leading human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, and screened 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds to identify those that potentiate the activity of echinocandins, which are front-line therapeutics that target fungal cell wall synthesis. We identified 19 compounds that enhance activity of the echinocandin caspofungin against an echinocandin-resistant clinical isolate, with the broad-spectrum chelator DTPA demonstrating the greatest synergistic activity. We found that DTPA increases susceptibility to echinocandins via chelation of magnesium. Whole genome sequencing of mutants resistant to the combination of DTPA and caspofungin identified mutations in the histidine kinase gene NIK1 that confer resistance to the combination. Functional analyses demonstrated that DTPA activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase Hog1, and that NIK1 mutations block Hog1 activation in response to both caspofungin and DTPA. The combination has therapeutic relevance as DTPA enhanced the efficacy of caspofungin in a mouse model of echinocandin-resistant candidiasis. We found that DTPA not only reduces drug resistance but also modulates morphogenesis, a key virulence trait that is normally regulated by environmental cues. DTPA induced filamentation via depletion of zinc, in a manner that is contingent upon Ras1-PKA signaling, as well as the transcription factors Brg1 and Rob1. Thus, we establish a new mechanism by which

  10. Regulation of the neural circuitry of emotion by compassion meditation: effects of meditative expertise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Lutz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent brain imaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI have implicated insula and anterior cingulate cortices in the empathic response to another's pain. However, virtually nothing is known about the impact of the voluntary generation of compassion on this network. To investigate these questions we assessed brain activity using fMRI while novice and expert meditation practitioners generated a loving-kindness-compassion meditation state. To probe affective reactivity, we presented emotional and neutral sounds during the meditation and comparison periods. Our main hypothesis was that the concern for others cultivated during this form of meditation enhances affective processing, in particular in response to sounds of distress, and that this response to emotional sounds is modulated by the degree of meditation training. The presentation of the emotional sounds was associated with increased pupil diameter and activation of limbic regions (insula and cingulate cortices during meditation (versus rest. During meditation, activation in insula was greater during presentation of negative sounds than positive or neutral sounds in expert than it was in novice meditators. The strength of activation in insula was also associated with self-reported intensity of the meditation for both groups. These results support the role of the limbic circuitry in emotion sharing. The comparison between meditation vs. rest states between experts and novices also showed increased activation in amygdala, right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS in response to all sounds, suggesting, greater detection of the emotional sounds, and enhanced mentation in response to emotional human vocalizations for experts than novices during meditation. Together these data indicate that the mental expertise to cultivate positive emotion alters the activation of circuitries previously linked to empathy and theory of mind in

  11. Early Forming a Hummingbird-like Hovering Neural Network Circuitry Pattern with Reentrant Spatiotemporal Energy-Sensory Orientation Privileged to Avoid “Epilepsy” Based on a Biomimetic Acetylcholinesterase Memcapacitor Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen T. Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hummingbird’s significant asymmetry hovering flight with energy conservation pattern is remarkable among all vertebrates. However, little is known to human’s neuronal network circuitry current flow pattern for whether or not has this privilege during slow wave sleeping (SWS. What is the advantage in order to avoid diseases if we have this network pattern ? A memory device was developed with nanostructured biomimetic acetylcholinesterase (ACHE gorge membrane on gold chips as memcapacitor 1, served as a normal brain network prosthesis, compared with a mutated ACHE prosthesis as device 2, for evaluation of neuronal network circuitry integrity in the presence of Amyloid- beta (Ab under the conditions of free from tracers and antibodies in spiked NIST SRM 965A human serum. Three categories of Reentrant Energy-Sensory images are presented based on infused brain pulse energies in a matrix of “Sensory Biomarkers” having frequencies over 0.25-333 Hz at free and fixed Ab levels, respectively. Early non-symptomatic epilepsy was indentified and predicted by device 2 due to Pathological High Frequency Oscillation (pHFO and large areas of 38 µM Ab re-depositions. Device 1 sensitively “feels” Ab damage because of its Frequency Oscillation (HFO enhanced the hummingbird- like hovering pattern with higher reentrant energy sensitivity of 0.12 pj/bit/s/µm3 without Ab compared with Ab, 13 aj/bit/s/µm3/nM over 3.8-471 nM range over 0.003-4s. Device 1 reliably detected early CR dysfunction privileged to avoid epilepsy.

  12. The first ICRANet catalog of binary-driven hypernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisani G. B.

    2018-01-01

    Thanks to this novel theoretical and observational understanding, it was possible for ICRANet scientists to build the firstst BdHNe catalog, composed by the 345 BdHNe identified up to the end of 2016.

  13. Seismicity Catalog Collection, 2150 BC to 1996 AD

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Seismicity Catalog Collection is a compilation data on over four million earthquakes dating from 2150 BC to 1996 AD from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center...

  14. Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for Watershed Protection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for Watershed Protection Web site is a searchable database of financial assistance sources (grants, loans) available to fund a...

  15. Toward standardization of slow earthquake catalog -Development of database website-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, M.; Aso, N.; Annoura, S.; Arai, R.; Ito, Y.; Kamaya, N.; Maury, J.; Nakamura, M.; Nishimura, T.; Obana, K.; Sugioka, H.; Takagi, R.; Takahashi, T.; Takeo, A.; Yamashita, Y.; Matsuzawa, T.; Ide, S.; Obara, K.

    2017-12-01

    Slow earthquakes have now been widely discovered in the world based on the recent development of geodetic and seismic observations. Many researchers detect a wide frequency range of slow earthquakes including low frequency tremors, low frequency earthquakes, very low frequency earthquakes and slow slip events by using various methods. Catalogs of the detected slow earthquakes are open to us in different formats by each referring paper or through a website (e.g., Wech 2010; Idehara et al. 2014). However, we need to download catalogs from different sources, to deal with unformatted catalogs and to understand the characteristics of different catalogs, which may be somewhat complex especially for those who are not familiar with slow earthquakes. In order to standardize slow earthquake catalogs and to make such a complicated work easier, Scientific Research on Innovative Areas "Science of Slow Earthquakes" has been developing a slow earthquake catalog website. In the website, we can plot locations of various slow earthquakes via the Google Maps by compiling a variety of slow earthquake catalogs including slow slip events. This enables us to clearly visualize spatial relations among slow earthquakes at a glance and to compare the regional activities of slow earthquakes or the locations of different catalogs. In addition, we can download catalogs in the unified format and refer the information on each catalog on the single website. Such standardization will make it more convenient for users to utilize the previous achievements and to promote research on slow earthquakes, which eventually leads to collaborations with researchers in various fields and further understanding of the mechanisms, environmental conditions, and underlying physics of slow earthquakes. Furthermore, we expect that the website has a leading role in the international standardization of slow earthquake catalogs. We report the overview of the website and the progress of construction. Acknowledgment: This

  16. Nigral dopaminergic neuron replenishment in adult mice through VE-cadherin-expressing neural progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir A Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra is of central importance to the coordination of movement by the brain's basal ganglia circuitry. This is evidenced by the loss of these neurons, resulting in the cardinal motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease. In order to fully understand the physiology of these key neurons and develop potential therapies for their loss, it is essential to determine if and how dopaminergic neurons are replenished in the adult brain. Recent work has presented evidence for adult neurogenesis of these neurons by Nestin+/Sox2– neural progenitor cells. We sought to further validate this finding and explore a potential atypical origin for these progenitor cells. Since neural progenitor cells have a proximal association with the vasculature of the brain and subsets of endothelial cells are Nestin+, we hypothesized that dopaminergic neural progenitors might share a common cell lineage. Therefore, we employed a VE-cadherin promoter-driven CREERT2:THlox/THlox transgenic mouse line to ablate the tyrosine hydroxylase gene from endothelial cells in adult animals. After 26 weeks, but not 13 weeks, following the genetic blockade of tyrosine hydroxylase expression in VE-cadherin+ cells, we observed a significant reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase+ neurons in the substantia nigra. The results from this genetic lineage tracing study suggest that dopaminergic neurons are replenished in adult mice by a VE-cadherin+ progenitor cell population potentially arising from an endothelial lineage.

  17. GHRELIN ACTIVATES HYPOPHYSIOTROPIC CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING FACTOR NEURONS INDEPENDENTLY OF THE ARCUATE NUCLEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Agustina; Portiansky, Enrique; Sánchez-Jaramillo, Edith; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Perello, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has established that the hormone ghrelin engages the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine axis via activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The neuronal circuitry that mediates this effect of ghrelin is currently unknown. Here, we show that ghrelin-induced activation of PVN CRF neurons involved inhibition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inputs, likely via ghrelin binding sites that were localized at GABAergic terminals within the PVN. While ghrelin activated PVN CRF neurons in the presence of neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor antagonists or in arcuate nucleus (ARC)-ablated mice, it failed to do it so in mice with ghrelin receptor expression limited to ARC agouti gene related protein (AgRP)/NPY neurons. These data support the notion that ghrelin activates PVN CRF neurons via inhibition of local GABAergic tone, in an ARC-independent manner. Furthermore, these data suggest that the neuronal circuits mediating ghrelin’s orexigenic action vs. its role as a stress signal are anatomically dissociated. PMID:26874559

  18. The functional significance of newly born neurons integrated into olfactory bulb circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Masayuki; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Imayoshi, Itaru

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) is the first central processing center for olfactory information connecting with higher areas in the brain, and this neuronal circuitry mediates a variety of odor-evoked behavioral responses. In the adult mammalian brain, continuous neurogenesis occurs in two restricted regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. New neurons born in the SVZ migrate through the rostral migratory stream and are integrated into the neuronal circuits of the OB throughout life. The significance of this continuous supply of new neurons in the OB has been implicated in plasticity and memory regulation. Two decades of huge investigation in adult neurogenesis revealed the biological importance of integration of new neurons into the olfactory circuits. In this review, we highlight the recent findings about the physiological functions of newly generated neurons in rodent OB circuits and then discuss the contribution of neurogenesis in the brain function. Finally, we introduce cutting edge technologies to monitor and manipulate the activity of new neurons.

  19. Spinal sensory projection neuron responses to spinal cord stimulation are mediated by circuits beyond gate control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhe C; Janik, John J; Peters, Ryan V; Chen, Gang; Ji, Ru-Rong; Grill, Warren M

    2015-07-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a therapy used to treat intractable pain with a putative mechanism of action based on the Gate Control Theory. We hypothesized that sensory projection neuron responses to SCS would follow a single stereotyped response curve as a function of SCS frequency, as predicted by the Gate Control circuit. We recorded the responses of antidromically identified sensory projection neurons in the lumbar spinal cord during 1- to 150-Hz SCS in both healthy rats and neuropathic rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI). The relationship between SCS frequency and projection neuron activity predicted by the Gate Control circuit accounted for a subset of neuronal responses to SCS but could not account for the full range of observed responses. Heterogeneous responses were classifiable into three additional groups and were reproduced using computational models of spinal microcircuits representing other interactions between nociceptive and nonnociceptive sensory inputs. Intrathecal administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, increased spontaneous and evoked activity in projection neurons, enhanced excitatory responses to SCS, and reduced inhibitory responses to SCS, suggesting that GABAA neurotransmission plays a broad role in regulating projection neuron activity. These in vivo and computational results challenge the Gate Control Theory as the only mechanism underlying SCS and refine our understanding of the effects of SCS on spinal sensory neurons within the framework of contemporary understanding of dorsal horn circuitry. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. The functional significance of newly born neurons integrated into olfactory bulb circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eSakamoto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory bulb (OB is the first central processing center for olfactory information connecting with higher areas in the brain, and this neuronal circuitry mediates a variety of odor-evoked behavioral responses. In the adult mammalian brain, continuous neurogenesis occurs in two restricted regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricle and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. New neurons born in the SVZ migrate through the rostral migratory stream and are integrated into the neuronal circuits of the OB throughout life. The significance of this continuous supply of new neurons in the OB has been implicated in plasticity and memory regulation. Two decades of huge investigation in adult neurogenesis revealed the biological importance of integration of new neurons into the olfactory circuits. In this review, we highlight the recent findings about the physiological functions of newly generated neurons in rodent OB circuits and then discuss the contribution of neurogenesis in the brain function. Finally, we introduce cutting edge technologies to monitor and manipulate the activity of new neurons.

  1. AgRP Neurons Control Systemic Insulin Sensitivity via Myostatin Expression in Brown Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steculorum, Sophie M; Ruud, Johan; Karakasilioti, Ismene; Backes, Heiko; Engström Ruud, Linda; Timper, Katharina; Hess, Martin E; Tsaousidou, Eva; Mauer, Jan; Vogt, Merly C; Paeger, Lars; Bremser, Stephan; Klein, Andreas C; Morgan, Donald A; Frommolt, Peter; Brinkkötter, Paul T; Hammerschmidt, Philipp; Benzing, Thomas; Rahmouni, Kamal; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Kloppenburg, Peter; Brüning, Jens C

    2016-03-24

    Activation of Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons potently promotes feeding, and chronically altering their activity also affects peripheral glucose homeostasis. We demonstrate that acute activation of AgRP neurons causes insulin resistance through impairment of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into brown adipose tissue (BAT). AgRP neuron activation acutely reprograms gene expression in BAT toward a myogenic signature, including increased expression of myostatin. Interference with myostatin activity improves insulin sensitivity that was impaired by AgRP neurons activation. Optogenetic circuitry mapping reveals that feeding and insulin sensitivity are controlled by both distinct and overlapping projections. Stimulation of AgRP → LHA projections impairs insulin sensitivity and promotes feeding while activation of AgRP → anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (aBNST)vl projections, distinct from AgRP → aBNSTdm projections controlling feeding, mediate the effect of AgRP neuron activation on BAT-myostatin expression and insulin sensitivity. Collectively, our results suggest that AgRP neurons in mice induce not only eating, but also insulin resistance by stimulating expression of muscle-related genes in BAT, revealing a mechanism by which these neurons rapidly coordinate hunger states with glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved Point-source Detection in Crowded Fields Using Probabilistic Cataloging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Stephen K. N.; Lee, Benjamin C. G.; Daylan, Tansu; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.

    2017-10-01

    Cataloging is challenging in crowded fields because sources are extremely covariant with their neighbors and blending makes even the number of sources ambiguous. We present the first optical probabilistic catalog, cataloging a crowded (˜0.1 sources per pixel brighter than 22nd mag in F606W) Sloan Digital Sky Survey r-band image from M2. Probabilistic cataloging returns an ensemble of catalogs inferred from the image and thus can capture source-source covariance and deblending ambiguities. By comparing to a traditional catalog of the same image and a Hubble Space Telescope catalog of the same region, we show that our catalog ensemble better recovers sources from the image. It goes more than a magnitude deeper than the traditional catalog while having a lower false-discovery rate brighter than 20th mag. We also present an algorithm for reducing this catalog ensemble to a condensed catalog that is similar to a traditional catalog, except that it explicitly marginalizes over source-source covariances and nuisance parameters. We show that this condensed catalog has a similar completeness and false-discovery rate to the catalog ensemble. Future telescopes will be more sensitive, and thus more of their images will be crowded. Probabilistic cataloging performs better than existing software in crowded fields and so should be considered when creating photometric pipelines in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope era.

  3. Lactate release from astrocytes to neurons contributes to cocaine memory formation

    KAUST Repository

    Boury-Jamot, Benjamin; Halfon, Olivier; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Boutrel, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The identification of neural substrates underlying the long lasting debilitating impact of drug cues is critical for developing novel therapeutic tools. Metabolic coupling has long been considered a key mechanism through which astrocytes and neurons actively interact in response of neuronal activity, but recent findings suggested that disrupting metabolic coupling may represent an innovative approach to prevent memory formation, in particular drug-related memories. Here, we review converging evidence illustrating how memory and addiction share neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms implicating lactate-mediated metabolic coupling between astrocytes and neurons. With several aspects of addiction depending on mnemonic processes elicited by drug experience, disrupting lactate transport involved in the formation of a pathological learning, linking the incentive, and motivational effects of drugs with drug-conditioned stimuli represent a promising approach to encourage abstinence.

  4. Lactate release from astrocytes to neurons contributes to cocaine memory formation

    KAUST Repository

    Boury-Jamot, Benjamin

    2016-10-12

    The identification of neural substrates underlying the long lasting debilitating impact of drug cues is critical for developing novel therapeutic tools. Metabolic coupling has long been considered a key mechanism through which astrocytes and neurons actively interact in response of neuronal activity, but recent findings suggested that disrupting metabolic coupling may represent an innovative approach to prevent memory formation, in particular drug-related memories. Here, we review converging evidence illustrating how memory and addiction share neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms implicating lactate-mediated metabolic coupling between astrocytes and neurons. With several aspects of addiction depending on mnemonic processes elicited by drug experience, disrupting lactate transport involved in the formation of a pathological learning, linking the incentive, and motivational effects of drugs with drug-conditioned stimuli represent a promising approach to encourage abstinence.

  5. Somatosensory neuron types identified by high-coverage single-cell RNA-sequencing and functional heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Lin; Li, Kai-Cheng; Wu, Dan; Chen, Yan; Luo, Hao; Zhao, Jing-Rong; Wang, Sa-Shuang; Sun, Ming-Ming; Lu, Ying-Jin; Zhong, Yan-Qing; Hu, Xu-Ye; Hou, Rui; Zhou, Bei-Bei; Bao, Lan; Xiao, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Sensory neurons are distinguished by distinct signaling networks and receptive characteristics. Thus, sensory neuron types can be defined by linking transcriptome-based neuron typing with the sensory phenotypes. Here we classify somatosensory neurons of the mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) by high-coverage single-cell RNA-sequencing (10 950 ± 1 218 genes per neuron) and neuron size-based hierarchical clustering. Moreover, single DRG neurons responding to cutaneous stimuli are recorded using an in vivo whole-cell patch clamp technique and classified by neuron-type genetic markers. Small diameter DRG neurons are classified into one type of low-threshold mechanoreceptor and five types of mechanoheat nociceptors (MHNs). Each of the MHN types is further categorized into two subtypes. Large DRG neurons are categorized into four types, including neurexophilin 1-expressing MHNs and mechanical nociceptors (MNs) expressing BAI1-associated protein 2-like 1 (Baiap2l1). Mechanoreceptors expressing trafficking protein particle complex 3-like and Baiap2l1-marked MNs are subdivided into two subtypes each. These results provide a new system for cataloging somatosensory neurons and their transcriptome databases. PMID:26691752

  6. The WFCAM multiwavelength Variable Star Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Lopes, C. E.; Dékány, I.; Catelan, M.; Cross, N. J. G.; Angeloni, R.; Leão, I. C.; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Stellar variability in the near-infrared (NIR) remains largely unexplored. The exploitation of public science archives with data-mining methods offers a perspective for a time-domain exploration of the NIR sky. Aims: We perform a comprehensive search for stellar variability using the optical-NIR multiband photometric data in the public Calibration Database of the WFCAM Science Archive (WSA), with the aim of contributing to the general census of variable stars and of extending the current scarce inventory of accurate NIR light curves for a number of variable star classes. Methods: Standard data-mining methods were applied to extract and fine-tune time-series data from the WSA. We introduced new variability indices designed for multiband data with correlated sampling, and applied them for preselecting variable star candidates, i.e., light curves that are dominated by correlated variations, from noise-dominated ones. Preselection criteria were established by robust numerical tests for evaluating the response of variability indices to the colored noise characteristic of the data. We performed a period search using the string-length minimization method on an initial catalog of 6551 variable star candidates preselected by variability indices. Further frequency analysis was performed on positive candidates using three additional methods in combination, in order to cope with aliasing. Results: We find 275 periodic variable stars and an additional 44 objects with suspected variability with uncertain periods or apparently aperiodic variation. Only 44 of these objects had been previously known, including 11 RR Lyrae stars on the outskirts of the globular cluster M 3 (NGC 5272). We provide a preliminary classification of the new variable stars that have well-measured light curves, but the variability types of a large number of objects remain ambiguous. We classify most of the new variables as contact binary stars, but we also find several pulsating stars, among which

  7. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Technical Data Catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The June 1, 1985, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear, Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. Each new publication of the Technical Data Catalog supersedes the previous edition

  8. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project technical data catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The June 1, 1985, Department of Energy (DOE)/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Site-Specific Procedural Agreement for Geologic Repository Site Investigation and Characterization Program requires the DOE to develop and maintain a catalog of data which will be updated and provided to the NRC at least quarterly. This catalog is to include a description of the data; the time (date), place, and method of acquisition; and where it may be examined. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Technical Data Catalog is published and distributed in accordance with the requirements of the Site-Specific Agreement. The YMP Technical Data Catalog is a report based on reference information contained in the YMP Automated Technical Data Tracking System (ATDT). The reference information is provided by Participants for data acquired or developed in support of the YMP. The Technical Data Catalog is updated quarterly and published in the month following the end of each quarter. Each new publication of the Technical Data Catalog supersedes the previous edition

  9. 2MASS Catalog Server Kit Version 2.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, C.

    2013-10-01

    The 2MASS Catalog Server Kit is open source software for use in easily constructing a high performance search server for important astronomical catalogs. This software utilizes the open source RDBMS PostgreSQL, therefore, any users can setup the database on their local computers by following step-by-step installation guide. The kit provides highly optimized stored functions for positional searchs similar to SDSS SkyServer. Together with these, the powerful SQL environment of PostgreSQL will meet various user's demands. We released 2MASS Catalog Server Kit version 2.1 in 2012 May, which supports the latest WISE All-Sky catalog (563,921,584 rows) and 9 major all-sky catalogs. Local databases are often indispensable for observatories with unstable or narrow-band networks or severe use, such as retrieving large numbers of records within a small period of time. This software is the best for such purposes, and increasing supported catalogs and improvements of version 2.1 can cover a wider range of applications including advanced calibration system, scientific studies using complicated SQL queries, etc. Official page: http://www.ir.isas.jaxa.jp/~cyamauch/2masskit/

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  11. Cholinergic Neurons in the Basal Forebrain Promote Wakefulness by Actions on Neighboring Non-Cholinergic Neurons: An Opto-Dialysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zant, Janneke C; Kim, Tae; Prokai, Laszlo; Szarka, Szabolcs; McNally, James; McKenna, James T; Shukla, Charu; Yang, Chun; Kalinchuk, Anna V; McCarley, Robert W; Brown, Ritchie E; Basheer, Radhika

    2016-02-10

    functions, such as control of sleep and wakefulness. However, the interpretation of optogenetic experiments requires knowledge of the effects of stimulation on local neurotransmitter levels and effects on neighboring neurons. Here, using a novel "opto-dialysis" probe to couple optogenetics and in vivo microdialysis, we report that optical stimulation of basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons in mice increases local acetylcholine levels and wakefulness. Reverse microdialysis of cholinergic antagonists within BF prevents the wake-promoting effect. This important result challenges the prevailing dictum that BF cholinergic projections to cortex directly control wakefulness and illustrates the utility of "opto-dialysis" for dissecting the complex brain circuitry underlying behavior. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362058-11$15.00/0.

  12. Dopamine prediction errors in reward learning and addiction: from theory to neural circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiflin, Ronald; Janak, Patricia H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are proposed to signal reward prediction error (RPE), a fundamental parameter in associative learning models. This RPE hypothesis provides a compelling theoretical framework for understanding DA function in reward learning and addiction. New studies support a causal role for DA-mediated RPE activity in promoting learning about natural reward; however, this question has not been explicitly tested in the context of drug addiction. In this review, we integrate theoretical models with experimental findings on the activity of DA systems, and on the causal role of specific neuronal projections and cell types, to provide a circuit-based framework for probing DA-RPE function in addiction. By examining error-encoding DA neurons in the neural network in which they are embedded, hypotheses regarding circuit-level adaptations that possibly contribute to pathological error-signaling and addiction can be formulated and tested. PMID:26494275

  13. Dopamine Prediction Errors in Reward Learning and Addiction: From Theory to Neural Circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiflin, Ronald; Janak, Patricia H

    2015-10-21

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are proposed to signal reward prediction error (RPE), a fundamental parameter in associative learning models. This RPE hypothesis provides a compelling theoretical framework for understanding DA function in reward learning and addiction. New studies support a causal role for DA-mediated RPE activity in promoting learning about natural reward; however, this question has not been explicitly tested in the context of drug addiction. In this review, we integrate theoretical models with experimental findings on the activity of DA systems, and on the causal role of specific neuronal projections and cell types, to provide a circuit-based framework for probing DA-RPE function in addiction. By examining error-encoding DA neurons in the neural network in which they are embedded, hypotheses regarding circuit-level adaptations that possibly contribute to pathological error signaling and addiction can be formulated and tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GOODS-MUSIC catalog updated version (Santini+, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, P.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.; Salimbeni, S.; Fiore, F.; Fontanot, F.; Boutsia, K.; Castelllano, M.; Cristiani, S.; de Santis, C.; Gallozzi, S.; Giallongo, E.; Nonino, M.; Menci, N.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.; Vanzella, E.

    2009-06-01

    The GOODS-MUSIC multiwavelength catalog provides photometric and spectroscopic information for galaxies in the GOODS Southern field. It includes two U images obtained with the ESO 2.2m telescope and one U band image from VLT-VIMOS, the ACS-HST images in four optical (B,V,i,z) bands, the VLT-ISAAC J, H, and Ks bands as well as the Spitzer images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 micron (IRAC) and 24 micron (MIPS). Most of these images have been made publicly available in the coadded version by the GOODS team, while the U band data were retrieved in raw format and reduced by our team. We also collected all the available spectroscopic information from public spectroscopic surveys and cross-correlated the spectroscopic redshifts with our photometric catalog. For the unobserved fraction of the objects, we applied our photometric redshift code to obtain well-calibrated photometric redshifts. The final catalog is made up of 15208 objects, with 209 known stars and 61 AGNs. The major new feature of this updated release is the inclusion of 24 micron photometry. Further improvements concern a revised photometry in the four IRAC bands (mainly based on the use of new PSF-matching kernerls and on a revised procedure for estimating the background), the enlargement of the sample of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts, the addition of objects selected on the IRAC 4.5 micron image and a more careful selection of AGN sources. (1 data file).

  15. Functional integration of grafted neural stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons monitored by optogenetics in an in vitro Parkinson model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Jan; Parish, Clare L; Sørensen, Andreas T

    2011-01-01

    Intrastriatal grafts of stem cell-derived dopamine (DA) neurons induce behavioral recovery in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), but how they functionally integrate in host neural circuitries is poorly understood. Here, Wnt5a-overexpressing neural stem cells derived from embryonic ventral...... of post-synaptic currents, and functional expression of DA D₂ autoreceptors. These properties resembled those recorded from identical cells in acute slices of intrastriatal grafts in the 6-hydroxy-DA-induced mouse PD model and from DA neurons in intact substantia nigra. Optogenetic activation...... using optogenetics that ectopically grafted stem cell-derived DA neurons become functionally integrated in the DA-denervated striatum. Further optogenetic dissection of the synaptic wiring between grafted and host neurons will be crucial to clarify the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying...

  16. A Phox2b BAC Transgenic Rat Line Useful for Understanding Respiratory Rhythm Generator Neural Circuitry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Ikeda

    Full Text Available The key role of the respiratory neural center is respiratory rhythm generation to maintain homeostasis through the control of arterial blood pCO2/pH and pO2 levels. The neuronal network responsible for respiratory rhythm generation in neonatal rat resides in the ventral side of the medulla and is composed of two groups; the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG and the pre-Bötzinger complex group (preBötC. The pFRG partially overlaps in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN, which was originally identified in adult cats and rats. Part of the pre-inspiratory (Pre-I neurons in the RTN/pFRG serves as central chemoreceptor neurons and the CO2 sensitive Pre-I neurons express homeobox gene Phox2b. Phox2b encodes a transcription factor and is essential for the development of the sensory-motor visceral circuits. Mutations in human PHOX2B cause congenital hypoventilation syndrome, which is characterized by blunted ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Here we describe the generation of a novel transgenic (Tg rat harboring fluorescently labeled Pre-I neurons in the RTN/pFRG. In addition, the Tg rat showed fluorescent signals in autonomic enteric neurons and carotid bodies. Because the Tg rat expresses inducible Cre recombinase in PHOX2B-positive cells during development, it is a potentially powerful tool for dissecting the entire picture of the respiratory neural network during development and for identifying the CO2/O2 sensor molecules in the adult central and peripheral nervous systems.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LAMOST/SP_Ace DR1 catalog (Boeche+, 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeche, C.; Smith, M. C.; Grebel, E. K.; Zhong, J.; Hou, J. L.; Chen, L.; Stello, D.

    2018-04-01

    The catalog contains stellar parameters including effective temperature (Teff), gravity (log g), metallicity [M/H], together with chemical abundances [Fe/H] and [alpha/H], derived with the code SP_Ace. It consists of 2,052,662 spectra, mostly Milky Way stars, from which 1,097,231 have measured parameters. The confidence intervals of the stellar parameters are expressed along with their upper and lower limits. Together with these main parameters we report other auxiliary information such as object designation, RA, DE, and other diagnostics as indicated in the table description. (1 data file).

  18. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2014-01-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons ar...

  19. Technical books and monographs. 1977 catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Books and monographs sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and by the organizations brought together to form ERDA under the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 are listed. In general, information for each published book, and for each book in press when known, includes title; author and author affiliation; publisher and publication date; page count; size of book; price; availability information if the book is not available from the publisher; Library of Congress card number (LC); International Standard Book Number (ISBN); a brief descriptive statement concerning the book; and for the more recent books a list or a description of the contents. The books and monographs are grouped under thirteen subject categories. Recent published symposiums from ERDA projects and recent and relevant bibliographies appear in special sections at the end of each subject category. Also, at the end of the catalog are described the following ERDA publications: ERDA Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, Solar Energy Update, Fossil Energy Update, Nuclear Safety, and Power Reactor Docket Information

  20. THE FIRST FERMI LAT SUPERNOVA REMNANT CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, F.; Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier (France); Bruel, P., E-mail: francesco.depalma@ba.infn.it, E-mail: t.j.brandt@nasa.gov, E-mail: john.w.hewitt@unf.edu [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); and others

    2016-05-01

    To uniformly determine the properties of supernova remnants (SNRs) at high energies, we have developed the first systematic survey at energies from 1 to 100 GeV using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Based on the spatial overlap of sources detected at GeV energies with SNRs known from radio surveys, we classify 30 sources as likely GeV SNRs. We also report 14 marginal associations and 245 flux upper limits. A mock catalog in which the positions of known remnants are scrambled in Galactic longitude allows us to determine an upper limit of 22% on the number of GeV candidates falsely identified as SNRs. We have also developed a method to estimate spectral and spatial systematic errors arising from the diffuse interstellar emission model, a key component of all Galactic Fermi LAT analyses. By studying remnants uniformly in aggregate, we measure the GeV properties common to these objects and provide a crucial context for the detailed modeling of individual SNRs. Combining our GeV results with multiwavelength (MW) data, including radio, X-ray, and TeV, we demonstrate the need for improvements to previously sufficient, simple models describing the GeV and radio emission from these objects. We model the GeV and MW emission from SNRs in aggregate to constrain their maximal contribution to observed Galactic cosmic rays.

  1. Large Astronomical Surveys, Catalogs and Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaelian A. M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the status of all-sky and large astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma-ray to radio, such as ROSAT in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS1/2 based catalogs (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC in optical, 2MASS and WISE in NIR, IRAS and AKARI in MIR/FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio range and others. Present astronomical archives contain billions of objects, Galactic as well as extragalactic, and the vast amount of data in them permit new studies and discoveries. Cross-correlations result in revealing new objects and new samples. Very often, dozens of thousands of sources hide a few very interesting ones that are needed to be discovered by comparison of various physical characteristics. Most of the modern databases currently provide VO access to the stored information. This permits not only open access but also fast analysis and managing of these data.

  2. NEURON and Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Michael L; Davison, Andrew P; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    The NEURON simulation program now allows Python to be used, alone or in combination with NEURON's traditional Hoc interpreter. Adding Python to NEURON has the immediate benefit of making available a very extensive suite of analysis tools written for engineering and science. It also catalyzes NEURON software development by offering users a modern programming tool that is recognized for its flexibility and power to create and maintain complex programs. At the same time, nothing is lost because all existing models written in Hoc, including graphical user interface tools, continue to work without change and are also available within the Python context. An example of the benefits of Python availability is the use of the xml module in implementing NEURON's Import3D and CellBuild tools to read MorphML and NeuroML model specifications.

  3. On Certain New Methodology for Reducing Sensor and Readout Electronics Circuitry Noise in Digital Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Miko, Joseph; Bradley, Damon; Heinzen, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and upcoming cosmology science missions carry instruments with multiple focal planes populated with many large sensor detector arrays. These sensors are passively cooled to low temperatures for low-level light (L3) and near-infrared (NIR) signal detection, and the sensor readout electronics circuitry must perform at extremely low noise levels to enable new required science measurements. Because we are at the technological edge of enhanced performance for sensors and readout electronics circuitry, as determined by thermal noise level at given temperature in analog domain, we must find new ways of further compensating for the noise in the signal digital domain. To facilitate this new approach, state-of-the-art sensors are augmented at their array hardware boundaries by non-illuminated reference pixels, which can be used to reduce noise attributed to sensors. There are a few proposed methodologies of processing in the digital domain the information carried by reference pixels, as employed by the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope Projects. These methods involve using spatial and temporal statistical parameters derived from boundary reference pixel information to enhance the active (non-reference) pixel signals. To make a step beyond this heritage methodology, we apply the NASA-developed technology known as the Hilbert- Huang Transform Data Processing System (HHT-DPS) for reference pixel information processing and its utilization in reconfigurable hardware on-board a spaceflight instrument or post-processing on the ground. The methodology examines signal processing for a 2-D domain, in which high-variance components of the thermal noise are carried by both active and reference pixels, similar to that in processing of low-voltage differential signals and subtraction of a single analog reference pixel from all active pixels on the sensor. Heritage methods using the aforementioned statistical parameters in the

  4. Deciphering the transcriptional circuitry of microRNA genes expressed during human monocytic differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian; MacPherson, Cameron R; Essack, Magbubah; Kaur, Mandeep; Schaefer, Ulf; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Macrophages are immune cells involved in various biological processes including host defence, homeostasis, differentiation, and organogenesis. Disruption of macrophage biology has been linked to increased pathogen infection, inflammation and malignant diseases. Differential gene expression observed in monocytic differentiation is primarily regulated by interacting transcription factors (TFs). Current research suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) degrade and repress translation of mRNA, but also may target genes involved in differentiation. We focus on getting insights into the transcriptional circuitry regulating miRNA genes expressed during monocytic differentiation. Results: We computationally analysed the transcriptional circuitry of miRNA genes during monocytic differentiation using in vitro time-course expression data for TFs and miRNAs. A set of TF?miRNA associations was derived from predicted TF binding sites in promoter regions of miRNA genes. Time-lagged expression correlation analysis was utilised to evaluate the TF?miRNA associations. Our analysis identified 12 TFs that potentially play a central role in regulating miRNAs throughout the differentiation process. Six of these 12 TFs (ATF2, E2F3, HOXA4, NFE2L1, SP3, and YY1) have not previously been described to be important for monocytic differentiation. The remaining six TFs are CEBPB, CREB1, ELK1, NFE2L2, RUNX1, and USF2. For several miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-424, and miR-17-92), we show how their inferred transcriptional regulation impacts monocytic differentiation. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that miRNAs and their transcriptional regulatory control are integral molecular mechanisms during differentiation. Furthermore, it is the first study to decipher on a large-scale, how miRNAs are controlled by TFs during human monocytic differentiation. Subsequently, we have identified 12 candidate key controllers of miRNAs during this differentiation process. 2009 Schmeier et al; licensee Bio

  5. Deciphering the transcriptional circuitry of microRNA genes expressed during human monocytic differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian

    2009-12-10

    Background: Macrophages are immune cells involved in various biological processes including host defence, homeostasis, differentiation, and organogenesis. Disruption of macrophage biology has been linked to increased pathogen infection, inflammation and malignant diseases. Differential gene expression observed in monocytic differentiation is primarily regulated by interacting transcription factors (TFs). Current research suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) degrade and repress translation of mRNA, but also may target genes involved in differentiation. We focus on getting insights into the transcriptional circuitry regulating miRNA genes expressed during monocytic differentiation. Results: We computationally analysed the transcriptional circuitry of miRNA genes during monocytic differentiation using in vitro time-course expression data for TFs and miRNAs. A set of TF?miRNA associations was derived from predicted TF binding sites in promoter regions of miRNA genes. Time-lagged expression correlation analysis was utilised to evaluate the TF?miRNA associations. Our analysis identified 12 TFs that potentially play a central role in regulating miRNAs throughout the differentiation process. Six of these 12 TFs (ATF2, E2F3, HOXA4, NFE2L1, SP3, and YY1) have not previously been described to be important for monocytic differentiation. The remaining six TFs are CEBPB, CREB1, ELK1, NFE2L2, RUNX1, and USF2. For several miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-424, and miR-17-92), we show how their inferred transcriptional regulation impacts monocytic differentiation. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that miRNAs and their transcriptional regulatory control are integral molecular mechanisms during differentiation. Furthermore, it is the first study to decipher on a large-scale, how miRNAs are controlled by TFs during human monocytic differentiation. Subsequently, we have identified 12 candidate key controllers of miRNAs during this differentiation process. 2009 Schmeier et al; licensee Bio

  6. VTA GABA neurons modulate specific learning behaviours through the control of dopamine and cholinergic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan C Creed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesolimbic reward system is primarily comprised of the ventral tegmental area (VTA and the nucleus accumbens (NAc as well as their afferent and efferent connections. This circuitry is essential for learning about stimuli associated with motivationally-relevant outcomes. Moreover, addictive drugs affect and remodel this system, which may underlie their addictive properties. In addition to DA neurons, the VTA also contains approximately 30% ɣ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurons. The task of signalling both rewarding and aversive events from the VTA to the NAc has mostly been ascribed to DA neurons and the role of GABA neurons has been largely neglected until recently. GABA neurons provide local inhibition of DA neurons and also long-range inhibition of projection regions, including the NAc. Here we review studies using a combination of in vivo and ex vivo electrophysiology, pharmacogenetic and optogenetic manipulations that have characterized the functional neuroanatomy of inhibitory circuits in the mesolimbic system, and describe how GABA neurons of the VTA regulate reward and aversion-related learning. We also discuss pharmacogenetic manipulation of this system with benzodiazepines (BDZs, a class of addictive drugs, which act directly on GABAA receptors located on GABA neurons of the VTA. The results gathered with each of these approaches suggest that VTA GABA neurons bi-directionally modulate activity of local DA neurons, underlying reward or aversion at the behavioural level. Conversely, long-range GABA projections from the VTA to the NAc selectively target cholinergic interneurons (CINs to pause their firing and temporarily reduce cholinergic tone in the NAc, which modulates associative learning. Further characterization of inhibitory circuit function within and beyond the VTA is needed in order to fully understand the function of the mesolimbic system under normal and pathological conditions.

  7. Spinal cord: motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Kourosh; Roos, Raymond P

    2013-02-01

    Spinal cord motor neuron diseases affect lower motor neurons in the ventral horn. This article focuses on the most common spinal cord motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which also affects upper motor neurons. Also discussed are other motor neuron diseases that only affect the lower motor neurons. Despite the identification of several genes associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the pathogenesis of this complex disease remains elusive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Histamine modulation of the basal ganglia circuitry in the development of pathological grooming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Frick, Luciana

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant histaminergic function has been proposed as a cause of tic disorders. A rare mutation in the enzyme that produces histamine (HA), histidine decarboxylase (HDC), has been identified in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS). Hdc knockout mice exhibit repetitive behavioral pathology and neurochemical characteristics of TS, establishing them as a plausible model of tic pathophysiology. Where, when, and how HA deficiency produces these effects has remained unclear: whether the contribution of HA deficiency to pathogenesis is acute or developmental, and where in the brain the relevant consequences of HA deficiency occur. Here, we address these key pathophysiological questions, using anatomically and cellularly targeted manipulations in mice. We report that specific ablation or chemogenetic silencing of histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) of the hypothalamus leads to markedly elevated grooming, a form of repetitive behavioral pathology, and to elevated markers of neuronal activity in both dorsal striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. Infusion of HA directly into the striatum reverses this behavioral pathology, confirming that acute HA deficiency mediates the effect. Bidirectional chemogenetic regulation reveals that dorsal striatum neurons activated after TMN silencing are both sufficient to produce repetitive behavioral pathology and necessary for the full expression of the effect. Chemogenetic activation of TMN-regulated medial prefrontal cortex neurons, in contrast, increases locomotion and not grooming. These data confirm the centrality of striatal regulation by neurotransmitter HA in the adult in the production of pathological grooming. PMID:28584117

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The VLBA Extragalactic Proper Motion Catalog (Truebenbach+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebenbach, A. E.; Darling, J.

    2017-11-01

    We created our catalog of extragalactic radio proper motions using the 2017a Goddard VLBI global solution. The 2017a solution is computed from more than 30 years of dual-band VLBI observations --1979 August 3 to 2017 March 27. We also observed 28 objects with either no redshift or a "questionable" Optical Characteristic of Astrometric Radio Sources (OCARS; Malkin 2016ARep...60..996M) redshift at the Apache Point Observatory (APO) 3.5m telescope and/or at Gemini North. We conducted observations on the 3.5m telescope at Apache Point Observatory with the Dual Imaging Spectrograph (DIS) from 2015 April 18 to 2016 June 30. We chose two objects for additional observations with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph-North (GMOS-N) at Gemini North Observatory. 2021+317 was observed on 2016 June 26 and 28, while 0420+417 was observed on 2016 November 8 and 26. We also observed 42 radio sources with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) in the X-band (3.6cm/8.3GHz). Our targets had all been previously observed by VLBI. Our VLBA observations were conducted in two campaigns from 2015 September to 2016 January and 2016 October to November. The final extragalactic proper motion catalog (created primarily from archival Goddard VLBI data, with redshifts obtained from OCARS) contains 713 proper motions with average uncertainties of 24μas/yr. (5 data files).

  10. Memory trace in feeding neural circuitry underlying conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuro Ito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis can maintain a conditioned taste aversion (CTA as a long-term memory. Previous studies have shown that the inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP evoked in the neuron 1 medial (N1M cell by activation of the cerebral giant cell (CGC in taste aversion-trained snails was larger and lasted longer than that in control snails. The N1M cell is one of the interneurons in the feeding central pattern generator (CPG, and the CGC is a key regulatory neuron for the feeding CPG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Previous studies have suggested that the neural circuit between the CGC and the N1M cell consists of two synaptic connections: (1 the excitatory connection from the CGC to the neuron 3 tonic (N3t cell and (2 the inhibitory connection from the N3t cell to the N1M cell. However, because the N3t cell is too small to access consistently by electrophysiological methods, in the present study the synaptic inputs from the CGC to the N3t cell and those from the N3t cell to the N1M cell were monitored as the monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP recorded in the large B1 and B3 motor neurons, respectively. The evoked monosynaptic EPSPs of the B1 motor neurons in the brains isolated from the taste aversion-trained snails were identical to those in the control snails, whereas the spontaneous monosynaptic EPSPs of the B3 motor neurons were significantly enlarged. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that, after taste aversion training, the monosynaptic inputs from the N3t cell to the following neurons including the N1M cell are specifically facilitated. That is, one of the memory traces for taste aversion remains as an increase in neurotransmitter released from the N3t cell. We thus conclude that the N3t cell suppresses the N1M cell in the feeding CPG, in response to the conditioned stimulus in Lymnaea CTA.

  11. Memory trace in feeding neural circuitry underlying conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Etsuro; Otsuka, Emi; Hama, Noriyuki; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Okada, Ryuichi; Hatakeyama, Dai; Fujito, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Suguru

    2012-01-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis can maintain a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as a long-term memory. Previous studies have shown that the inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) evoked in the neuron 1 medial (N1M) cell by activation of the cerebral giant cell (CGC) in taste aversion-trained snails was larger and lasted longer than that in control snails. The N1M cell is one of the interneurons in the feeding central pattern generator (CPG), and the CGC is a key regulatory neuron for the feeding CPG. Previous studies have suggested that the neural circuit between the CGC and the N1M cell consists of two synaptic connections: (1) the excitatory connection from the CGC to the neuron 3 tonic (N3t) cell and (2) the inhibitory connection from the N3t cell to the N1M cell. However, because the N3t cell is too small to access consistently by electrophysiological methods, in the present study the synaptic inputs from the CGC to the N3t cell and those from the N3t cell to the N1M cell were monitored as the monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) recorded in the large B1 and B3 motor neurons, respectively. The evoked monosynaptic EPSPs of the B1 motor neurons in the brains isolated from the taste aversion-trained snails were identical to those in the control snails, whereas the spontaneous monosynaptic EPSPs of the B3 motor neurons were significantly enlarged. These results suggest that, after taste aversion training, the monosynaptic inputs from the N3t cell to the following neurons including the N1M cell are specifically facilitated. That is, one of the memory traces for taste aversion remains as an increase in neurotransmitter released from the N3t cell. We thus conclude that the N3t cell suppresses the N1M cell in the feeding CPG, in response to the conditioned stimulus in Lymnaea CTA.

  12. NOAA's Data Catalog and the Federal Open Data Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengren, M. J.; de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2014-12-01

    The 2013 Open Data Policy Presidential Directive requires Federal agencies to create and maintain a 'public data listing' that includes all agency data that is currently or will be made publicly-available in the future. The directive requires the use of machine-readable and open formats that make use of 'common core' and extensible metadata formats according to the best practices published in an online repository called 'Project Open Data', to use open licenses where possible, and to adhere to existing metadata and other technology standards to promote interoperability. In order to meet the requirements of the Open Data Policy, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has implemented an online data catalog that combines metadata from all subsidiary NOAA metadata catalogs into a single master inventory. The NOAA Data Catalog is available to the public for search and discovery, providing access to the NOAA master data inventory through multiple means, including web-based text search, OGC CS-W endpoint, as well as a native Application Programming Interface (API) for programmatic query. It generates on a daily basis the Project Open Data JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) file required for compliance with the Presidential directive. The Data Catalog is based on the open source Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network (CKAN) software and runs on the Amazon Federal GeoCloud. This presentation will cover topics including mappings of existing metadata in standard formats (FGDC-CSDGM and ISO 19115 XML ) to the Project Open Data JSON metadata schema, representation of metadata elements within the catalog, and compatible metadata sources used to feed the catalog to include Web Accessible Folder (WAF), Catalog Services for the Web (CS-W), and Esri ArcGIS.com. It will also discuss related open source technologies that can be used together to build a spatial data infrastructure compliant with the Open Data Policy.

  13. Possible systematics in the VLBI catalogs as seen from Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N.; Zhu, Z.; Liu, J.-C.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: In order to investigate the systematic errors in the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) positions of extragalactic sources (quasars) and the global differences between Gaia and VLBI catalogs, we use the first data release of Gaia (Gaia DR1) quasar positions as the reference and study the positional offsets of the second realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) and the Goddard VLBI solution 2016a (gsf2016a) catalogs. Methods: We select a sample of 1032 common sources among three catalogs and adopt two methods to represent the systematics: considering the differential orientation (offset) and declination bias; analyzing with the vector spherical harmonics (VSH) functions. Results: Between two VLBI catalogs and Gaia DR1, we find that: i) the estimated orientation is consistent with the alignment accuracy of Gaia DR1 to ICRF, of 0.1 mas, but the southern and northern hemispheres show opposite orientations; ii) the declination bias in the southern hemisphere between Gaia DR1 and ICRF2 is estimated to be +152 μas, much larger than that between Gaia DR1 and gsf2016a which is +34 μas. Between two VLBI catalogs, we find that: i) the rotation component shows that ICRF2 and gsf2016a are generally consistent within 30 μas; ii) the glide component and quadrupole component report two declination-dependent offsets: dipolar deformation of +50 μas along the Z-axis, and quadrupolar deformation of -50 μas that would induce a pattern of sin2δ. Conclusions: The significant declination bias between Gaia DR1 and ICRF2 catalogs reported in previous studies is possibly attributed to the systematic errors of ICRF2 in the southern hemisphere. The global differences between ICRF2 and gsf2016a catalogs imply that possible, mainly declination-dependent systematics exit in the VLBI positions and need further investigations in the future Gaia data release and the next generation of ICRF.

  14. Neuronal-glial trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachelard, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The name 'glia' originates from the Greek word for glue, because astro glia (or astrocytes) were thought only to provide an anatomical framework for the electrically-excitable neurones. However, awareness that astrocytes perform vital roles in protecting the neurones, which they surround, emerged from evidence that they act as neuroprotective K + -sinks, and that they remove potentially toxic extracellular glutamate from the vicinity of the neurones. The astrocytes convert the glutamate to non-toxic glutamine which is returned to the neurones and used to replenish transmitter glutamate. This 'glutamate-glutamine cycle' (established in the 1960s by Berl and his colleagues) also contributes to protecting the neurones against a build-up of toxic ammonia. Glial cells also supply the neurones with components for free-radical scavenging glutathione. Recent studies have revealed that glial cells play a more positive interactive role in furnishing the neurones with fuels. Studies using radioactive 14 C, 13 C-MRS and 15 N-GCMS have revealed that glia produce alanine, lactate and proline for consumption by neurones, with increased formation of neurotransmitter glutamate. On neuronal activation the release of NH 4 + and glutamate from the neurones stimulates glucose uptake and glycolysis in the glia to produce more alanine, which can be regarded as an 'alanine-glutamate cycle' Use of 14 C-labelled precursors provided early evidence that neurotransmitter GABA may be partly derived from glial glutamine, and this has been confirmed recently in vivo by MRS isotopomer analysis of the GABA and glutamine labelled from 13 C-acetate. Relative rates of intermediary metabolism in glia and neurones can be calculated using a combination of [1- 13 C] glucose and [1,2- 13 C] acetate. When glutamate is released by neurones there is a net neuronal loss of TCA intermediates which have to be replenished. Part of this is derived from carboxylation of pyruvate, (pyruvate carboxylase

  15. Sex differences, hormones, and fMRI stress response circuitry deficits in psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M; Lancaster, Katie; Longenecker, Julia M; Abbs, Brandon; Holsen, Laura M; Cherkerzian, Sara; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nicolas; Tsuang, Ming T; Buka, Stephen L; Seidman, Larry J; Klibanski, Anne

    2015-06-30

    Response to stress is dysregulated in psychosis (PSY). fMRI studies showed hyperactivity in hypothalamus (HYPO), hippocampus (HIPP), amygdala (AMYG), anterior cingulate (ACC), orbital and medial prefrontal (OFC; mPFC) cortices, with some studies reporting sex differences. We predicted abnormal steroid hormone levels in PSY would be associated with sex differences in hyperactivity in HYPO, AMYG, and HIPP, and hypoactivity in PFC and ACC, with more severe deficits in men. We studied 32 PSY cases (50.0% women) and 39 controls (43.6% women) using a novel visual stress challenge while collecting blood. PSY males showed BOLD hyperactivity across all hypothesized regions, including HYPO and ACC by FWE-correction. Females showed hyperactivity in HIPP and AMYG and hypoactivity in OFC and mPFC, the latter FWE-corrected. Interaction of group by sex was significant in mPFC (F = 7.00, p = 0.01), with PSY females exhibiting the lowest activity. Male hyperactivity in HYPO and ACC was significantly associated with hypercortisolemia post-stress challenge, and mPFC with low androgens. Steroid hormones and neural activity were dissociated in PSY women. Findings suggest disruptions in neural circuitry-hormone associations in response to stress are sex-dependent in psychosis, particularly in prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Taste Reward Circuitry Related Brain Structures Characterize Ill and Recovered Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Guido K.; Shott, Megan E.; Hagman, Jennifer O.; Mittal, Vijay A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The pathophysiology of the eating disorder anorexia nervosa remains obscure, but structural brain alterations could be functionally important biomarkers. Here we assessed taste pleasantness and reward sensitivity in relation to brain structure, which might be related to food avoidance commonly seen in eating disorders. Method We used structural magnetic resonance brain imaging to study gray and white matter volumes in individuals with restricting type currently ill (n = 19) or recovered-anorexia nervosa (n = 24), bulimia nervosa (n= 19) and healthy control women (n=24). Results All eating disorder groups showed increased gray matter volume of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (gyrus rectus). Manually tracing confirmed larger gyrus rectus volume, and predicted taste pleasantness across all groups. The analyses also indicated other morphological differences between diagnostic categories: Ill and recovered-anorexia nervosa had increased right, while bulimia nervosa had increased left antero-ventral insula gray matter volumes compared to controls. Furthermore, dorsal striatum volumes were reduced in recovered-anorexia and bulimia nervosa, and predicted sensitivity to reward in the eating disorder groups. The eating disorder groups also showed reduced white matter in right temporal and parietal areas when compared to healthy controls. Notably, the results held when controlling for a range of covariates (e.g., age, depression, anxiety, medications). Conclusion Brain structure in medial orbitofrontal cortex, insula and striatum is altered in eating disorders and suggests altered brain circuitry that has been associated with taste pleasantness and reward value. PMID:23680873

  17. Central dopaminergic circuitry controlling food intake and reward: implications for the regulation of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetic, Zivjena; Reyes, Teresa M

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity in the general population has increased in the past 15 years from 15% to 35%. With increasing obesity, the coincident medical and social consequences are becoming more alarming. Control over food intake is crucial for the maintenance of body weight and represents an important target for the treatment of obesity. Central nervous system mechanisms responsible for control of food intake have evolved to sense the nutrient and energy levels in the organism and to coordinate appropriate responses to adjust energy intake and expenditure. This homeostatic system is crucial for maintenance of stable body weight over long periods of time of uneven energy availability. However, not only the caloric and nutritional value of food but also hedonic and emotional aspects of feeding affect food intake. In modern society, the increased availability of highly palatable and rewarding (fat, sweet) food can significantly affect homeostatic balance, resulting in dysregulated food intake. This review will focus on the role of hypothalamic and mesolimbic/mesocortical dopaminergic (DA) circuitry in coding homeostatic and hedonic signals for the regulation of food intake and maintenance of caloric balance. The interaction of dopamine with peripheral and central indices of nutritional status (e.g., leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y), and the susceptibility of the dopamine system to prenatal insults will be discussed. Additionally, the importance of alterations in dopamine signaling that occur coincidently with obesity will be addressed.

  18. Nuclear receptor/microRNA circuitry links muscle fiber type to energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhenji; Rumsey, John; Hazen, Bethany C; Lai, Ling; Leone, Teresa C; Vega, Rick B; Xie, Hui; Conley, Kevin E; Auwerx, Johan; Smith, Steven R; Olson, Eric N; Kralli, Anastasia; Kelly, Daniel P

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms involved in the coordinate regulation of the metabolic and structural programs controlling muscle fitness and endurance are unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ was shown to activate muscle endurance programs in transgenic mice. In contrast, muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of the related nuclear receptor, PPARα, results in reduced capacity for endurance exercise. We took advantage of the divergent actions of PPARβ/δ and PPARα to explore the downstream regulatory circuitry that orchestrates the programs linking muscle fiber type with energy metabolism. Our results indicate that, in addition to the well-established role in transcriptional control of muscle metabolic genes, PPARβ/δ and PPARα participate in programs that exert opposing actions upon the type I fiber program through a distinct muscle microRNA (miRNA) network, dependent on the actions of another nuclear receptor, estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ). Gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies in mice, together with assessment of muscle biopsies from humans, demonstrated that type I muscle fiber proportion is increased via the stimulatory actions of ERRγ on the expression of miR-499 and miR-208b. This nuclear receptor/miRNA regulatory circuit shows promise for the identification of therapeutic targets aimed at maintaining muscle fitness in a variety of chronic disease states, such as obesity, skeletal myopathies, and heart failure.

  19. The neural circuitry of visual artistic production and appreciation: A proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambar Chakravarty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nondominant inferior parietal lobule is probably a major "store house" of artistic creativity. The ventromedial prefrontal lobe (VMPFL is supposed to be involved in creative cognition and the dorsolateral prefrontal lobe (DLPFL in creative output. The conceptual ventral and dorsal visual system pathways likely represent the inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi. During artistic production, conceptualization is conceived in the VMPFL and the executive part is operated through the DLFPL. The latter transfers the concept to the visual brain through the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF, relaying on its path to the parietal cortex. The conceptualization at VMPFL is influenced by activity from the anterior temporal lobe through the uncinate fasciculus and limbic system pathways. The final visual image formed in the visual brain is subsequently transferred back to the DLPFL through the SLF and then handed over to the motor cortex for execution. During art appreciation, the image at the visual brain is transferred to the frontal lobe through the SLF and there it is matched with emotional and memory inputs from the anterior temporal lobe transmitted through the uncinate fasiculus. Beauty is perceived at the VMPFL and transferred through the uncinate fasciculus to the hippocampo-amygdaloid complex in the anterior temporal lobe. The limbic system (Papez circuit is activated and emotion of appreciation is evoked. It is postulated that in practice the entire circuitry is activated simultaneously.

  20. Electric field induced needle-pulsed arc discharge carbon nanotube production apparatus: Circuitry and mechanical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kia, Kaveh Kazemi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bonabi, Fahimeh [Department of Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A simple and low cost apparatus is reported to produce multiwall carbon nanotubes and carbon nano-onions by a low power short pulsed arc discharge reactor. The electric circuitry and the mechanical design details and a micro-filtering assembly are described. The pulsed-plasma is generated and applied between two graphite electrodes. The pulse width is 0.3 {mu}s. A strong dc electric field is established along side the electrodes. The repetitive discharges occur in less than 1 mm distance between a sharp tip graphite rod as anode, and a tubular graphite as cathode. A hydrocarbon vapor, as carbon source, is introduced through the graphite nozzle in the cathode assembly. The pressure of the chamber is controlled by a vacuum pump. A magnetic field, perpendicular to the plasma path, is provided. The results show that the synergetic use of a pulsed-current and a dc power supply enables us to synthesize carbon nanoparticles with short pulsed plasma. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this plan is noticeable. Pulsed nature of plasma provides some extra degrees of freedom that make the production more controllable. Effects of some design parameters such as electric field, pulse frequency, and cathode shape are discussed. The products are examined using scanning probe microscopy techniques.

  1. Electric field induced needle-pulsed arc discharge carbon nanotube production apparatus: circuitry and mechanical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Kaveh Kazemi; Bonabi, Fahimeh

    2012-12-01

    A simple and low cost apparatus is reported to produce multiwall carbon nanotubes and carbon nano-onions by a low power short pulsed arc discharge reactor. The electric circuitry and the mechanical design details and a micro-filtering assembly are described. The pulsed-plasma is generated and applied between two graphite electrodes. The pulse width is 0.3 μs. A strong dc electric field is established along side the electrodes. The repetitive discharges occur in less than 1 mm distance between a sharp tip graphite rod as anode, and a tubular graphite as cathode. A hydrocarbon vapor, as carbon source, is introduced through the graphite nozzle in the cathode assembly. The pressure of the chamber is controlled by a vacuum pump. A magnetic field, perpendicular to the plasma path, is provided. The results show that the synergetic use of a pulsed-current and a dc power supply enables us to synthesize carbon nanoparticles with short pulsed plasma. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this plan is noticeable. Pulsed nature of plasma provides some extra degrees of freedom that make the production more controllable. Effects of some design parameters such as electric field, pulse frequency, and cathode shape are discussed. The products are examined using scanning probe microscopy techniques.

  2. Assessing Ink Transfer Performance of Gravure-Offset Fine-Line Circuitry Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsien-Chie; Chen, You-Wei; Chen, Wen-Hwa; Lu, Su-Tsai; Lin, Shih-Ming

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the printing mechanism and performance of gravure-offset fine-line circuitry printing technology are investigated in terms of key printing parameters through experimental and theoretical analyses. First, the contact angles of the ink deposited on different substrates, blankets, and gravure metal plates are experimentally determined; moreover, their temperature and solvent content dependences are analyzed. Next, the ink solvent absorption and evaporation behaviors of the blankets at different temperatures, times, and numbers of printing repetitions are characterized by conducting experiments. In addition, while printing repeatedly, the surface characteristics of the blankets, such as the contact angle, vary with the amount of absorbed ink solvent, further affecting the ink transfer performance (ratio) and printing quality. Accordingly, the surface effect of the blanket due to ink solvent absorption on the ink contact angle is analyzed. Furthermore, the amount of ink transferred from the gravure plate to the blanket in the "off process" and from the blanket to the substrate in the "set process" is evaluated by conducting a simplified plate-to-plate experiment. The influences of loading rate (printing velocity), temperature, and solvent content on the ink transfer performance are addressed. Finally, the ink transfer mechanism is theoretically analyzed for different solvent contents using Surface Evolver. The calculation results are compared with those of the experiment.

  3. Intranasal insulin modulates intrinsic reward and prefrontal circuitry of the human brain in lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Stephanie; Frank, Sabine; Heni, Martin; Ketterer, Caroline; Veit, Ralf; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that food consumption is controlled by a wide range of brain circuits outside of the homeostatic system. Activation in these brain circuits may override the homeostatic system and also contribute to the enormous increase of obesity. However, little is known about the influence of hormonal signals on the brain's non-homeostatic system. Thus, selective insulin action in the brain was investigated by using intranasal application. We performed 'resting-state' functional magnetic resonance imaging in 17 healthy lean female subjects to assess intrinsic brain activity by fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) before, 30 and 90 min after application of intranasal insulin. Here, we showed that insulin modulates intrinsic brain activity in the hypothalamus and orbitofrontal cortex. Furthermore, we could show that the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex response to insulin is associated with body mass index. This demonstrates that hormonal signals as insulin may reduce food intake by modifying the reward and prefrontal circuitry of the human brain, thereby potentially decreasing the rewarding properties of food. Due to the alarming increase in obesity worldwide, it is of great importance to identify neural mechanisms of interaction between the homeostatic and non-homeostatic system to generate new targets for obesity therapy. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. A CREB-Sirt1-Hes1 Circuitry Mediates Neural Stem Cell Response to Glucose Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Fusco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Adult neurogenesis plays increasingly recognized roles in brain homeostasis and repair and is profoundly affected by energy balance and nutrients. We found that the expression of Hes-1 (hairy and enhancer of split 1 is modulated in neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs by extracellular glucose through the coordinated action of CREB (cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein and Sirt-1 (Sirtuin 1, two cellular nutrient sensors. Excess glucose reduced CREB-activated Hes-1 expression and results in impaired cell proliferation. CREB-deficient NSCs expanded poorly in vitro and did not respond to glucose availability. Elevated glucose also promoted Sirt-1-dependent repression of the Hes-1 promoter. Conversely, in low glucose, CREB replaced Sirt-1 on the chromatin associated with the Hes-1 promoter enhancing Hes-1 expression and cell proliferation. Thus, the glucose-regulated antagonism between CREB and Sirt-1 for Hes-1 transcription participates in the metabolic regulation of neurogenesis. : Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies, Fusco et al. find that excess glucose impairs the self-renewal capacity of neural stem cells through a molecular circuit that involves the transcription factor CREB and Sirtuin 1. The authors suggest that this circuitry may link nutrient excess with neurodegeneration and brain aging. Keywords: neural stem cells, adult neurogenesis, CREB, Sirt-1, nutrients, metabolism, diabetes

  5. The neural circuitry of visual artistic production and appreciation: A proposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2012-04-01

    The nondominant inferior parietal lobule is probably a major "store house" of artistic creativity. The ventromedial prefrontal lobe (VMPFL) is supposed to be involved in creative cognition and the dorsolateral prefrontal lobe (DLPFL) in creative output. The conceptual ventral and dorsal visual system pathways likely represent the inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi. During artistic production, conceptualization is conceived in the VMPFL and the executive part is operated through the DLFPL. The latter transfers the concept to the visual brain through the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), relaying on its path to the parietal cortex. The conceptualization at VMPFL is influenced by activity from the anterior temporal lobe through the uncinate fasciculus and limbic system pathways. The final visual image formed in the visual brain is subsequently transferred back to the DLPFL through the SLF and then handed over to the motor cortex for execution. During art appreciation, the image at the visual brain is transferred to the frontal lobe through the SLF and there it is matched with emotional and memory inputs from the anterior temporal lobe transmitted through the uncinate fasiculus. Beauty is perceived at the VMPFL and transferred through the uncinate fasciculus to the hippocampo-amygdaloid complex in the anterior temporal lobe. The limbic system (Papez circuit) is activated and emotion of appreciation is evoked. It is postulated that in practice the entire circuitry is activated simultaneously.

  6. The Chandra Source Catalog: Source Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Michael; Rots, A. H.; McCollough, M. L.; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Evans, I.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E. C.; Gibbs, D. G., II; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains fields of view that have been studied with individual, uninterrupted observations that span integration times ranging from 1 ksec to 160 ksec, and a large number of which have received (multiple) repeat observations days to years later. The CSC thus offers an unprecedented look at the variability of the X-ray sky over a broad range of time scales, and across a wide diversity of variable X-ray sources: stars in the local galactic neighborhood, galactic and extragalactic X-ray binaries, Active Galactic Nuclei, etc. Here we describe the methods used to identify and quantify source variability within a single observation, and the methods used to assess the variability of a source when detected in multiple, individual observations. Three tests are used to detect source variability within a single observation: the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and its variant, the Kuiper test, and a Bayesian approach originally suggested by Gregory and Loredo. The latter test not only provides an indicator of variability, but is also used to create a best estimate of the variable lightcurve shape. We assess the performance of these tests via simulation of statistically stationary, variable processes with arbitrary input power spectral densities (here we concentrate on results of red noise simulations) at variety of mean count rates and fractional root mean square variabilities relevant to CSC sources. We also assess the false positive rate via simulations of constant sources whose sole source of fluctuation is Poisson noise. We compare these simulations to an assessment of the variability found in real CSC sources, and estimate the variability sensitivities of the CSC.

  7. INTERACTION OF SEARCH CAPABILITIES OF ELECTRONIC AND TRADITIONAL (CARD CATALOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. В. Головко

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Interaction of search capabilities of electronic and traditional (card catalogs. Subject: search capabilities of electronic and traditional (card catalogs and their interaction. Goal: Creating efficient search system for library information services, updating and improving the information retrieval system. To reach this goal, following tasks are set: – to determine the possibility of parallel functioning of electronic and traditional card catalogs, and to reveal the interaction of their search capabilities by conducting a survey via questionnaire titled «Interaction of search capabilities of electronic and traditional (card catalogs»; – to find out which search systems are preferred by users; – to estimate the actual condition of search capabilities of electronic and traditional (card catalogs in the library. Methodology. On various stages of the survey the following methods were used: analysis and synthesis, comparison, generalization, primary sources search; sociological method (survey. These methods allowed determining, processing and ana lyzing the whole complex of available sources, which became an important factor of research objectivity. Finding. Survey results allowed us to analyze the dynamics of changes, new needs of the readers, and to make a decision regarding the quality improvement of information search services. Practical value. Creating a theoretical foundation for implementation of set tasks is the practical value of the acquired findings. Conclusions and results of the research can be used in university students’, postgraduates’ and professors’ information search activities. Certain results of the research are used and implemented in practice of the library of Kryvyi Rih State Pedagogical University, namely at workshops on the basics of information culture (using bibliographic reference unit, information search by key words, authors and titles via electronic catalogue. Guides for users were created. Duty

  8. Distal axotomy enhances retrograde presynaptic excitability onto injured pyramidal neurons via trans-synaptic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, Tharkika; Larsen, Rylan S; Bigler, Rebecca L; Frost, Shawn B; Philpot, Benjamin D; Nudo, Randolph J; Taylor, Anne Marion

    2017-09-20

    Injury of CNS nerve tracts remodels circuitry through dendritic spine loss and hyper-excitability, thus influencing recovery. Due to the complexity of the CNS, a mechanistic understanding of injury-induced synaptic remodeling remains unclear. Using microfluidic chambers to separate and injure distal axons, we show that axotomy causes retrograde dendritic spine loss at directly injured pyramidal neurons followed by retrograde presynaptic hyper-excitability. These remodeling events require activity at the site of injury, axon-to-soma signaling, and transcription. Similarly, directly injured corticospinal neurons in vivo also exhibit a specific increase in spiking following axon injury. Axotomy-induced hyper-excitability of cultured neurons coincides with elimination of inhibitory inputs onto injured neurons, including those formed onto dendritic spines. Netrin-1 downregulation occurs following axon injury and exogenous netrin-1 applied after injury normalizes spine density, presynaptic excitability, and inhibitory inputs at injured neurons. Our findings show that intrinsic signaling within damaged neurons regulates synaptic remodeling and involves netrin-1 signaling.Spinal cord injury can induce synaptic reorganization and remodeling in the brain. Here the authors study how severed distal axons signal back to the cell body to induce hyperexcitability, loss of inhibition and enhanced presynaptic release through netrin-1.

  9. Site locality identification study: Hanford Site. Volume II. Data cataloging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    Data compilation and cataloging for the candidate site locality identification study were conducted in order to provide a retrievable data cataloging system for the present siting study and future site evaluation and licensng processes. This task occurred concurrently with and also independently of other tasks of the candidate site locality identification study. Work in this task provided the data utilized primarily in the development and application of screening and ranking processes to identify candidate site localities on the Hanford Site. The overall approach included two steps: (1) data acquisition and screening; and (2) data compilation and cataloging. Data acquisition and screening formed the basis for preliminary review of data sources with respect to their probable utilization in the candidate site locality identification study and review with respect to the level of completeness and detail of the data. The important working assumption was that the data to be used in the study be based on existing and available published and unpublished literature. The data compilation and cataloging provided the basic product of the Task; a retrievable data cataloging system in the form of an annotated reference list and key word index and an index of compiled data. The annotated reference list and key word index are cross referenced and can be used to trace and retrieve the data sources utilized in the candidate site locality identification study

  10. Stellar abundances in the solar neighborhood: The Hypatia Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Timmes, F.X.; Young, Patrick A.; Pagano, Michael D. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Turnbull, Margaret C. [Global Science Institute, P.O. Box 252, Antigo, WI 54409 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We compile spectroscopic abundance data from 84 literature sources for 50 elements across 3058 stars in the solar neighborhood, within 150 pc of the Sun, to produce the Hypatia Catalog. We evaluate the variability of the spread in abundance measurements reported for the same star by different surveys. We also explore the likely association of the star within the Galactic disk, the corresponding observation and abundance determination methods for all catalogs in Hypatia, the influence of specific catalogs on the overall abundance trends, and the effect of normalizing all abundances to the same solar scale. The resulting stellar abundance determinations in the Hypatia Catalog are analyzed only for thin-disk stars with observations that are consistent between literature sources. As a result of our large data set, we find that the stars in the solar neighborhood may reveal an asymmetric abundance distribution, such that a [Fe/H]-rich group near the midplane is deficient in Mg, Si, S, Ca, Sc II, Cr II, and Ni as compared to stars farther from the plane. The Hypatia Catalog has a wide number of applications, including exoplanet hosts, thick- and thin-disk stars, and stars with different kinematic properties.

  11. Space Surveillance Catalog growth during SBIRS low deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoult, C. P.; Wright, R. P.

    The Space Surveillance Catalog is a database of all Resident Space Objects (RSOs) on Earth orbit. It is expected to grow in the future as more RSOs accumulate on orbit. Potentially still more dramatic growth could follow the deployment of the Space Based Infrared System Low Earth Orbit Component (SBTRS Low). SBIRS Low, currently about to enter development, offers the potential to detect and acquire much smaller debris RSOs than can be seen by the current ground-based Space Surveillance Network (SSN). SBIRS Low will host multicolor infrared/visible sensors on each satellite in a proliferated constellation on low Earth orbit, and if appropriately tasked, these sensors could provide significant space surveillance capability. Catalog growth during SBIRS Low deployment was analyzed using a highly aggregated code that numerically integrates the Markov equations governing the state transitions of RSOs from uncataloged to cataloged, and back again. It was assumed that all newly observed debris RSOs will be detected as by-products of routine Catalog maintenance, not including any post breakup searches, and if sufficient sensor resources are available, be acquired into the Catalog. Debris over the entire low to high altitude regime were considered.

  12. The Chandra Source Catalog: Source Properties and Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rots, Arnold; Evans, Ian N.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Primini, Francis A.; Zografou, Panagoula; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiang Qun (Helen); Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is breaking new ground in several areas. There are two aspects that are of particular interest to the users: its evolution and its contents. The CSC will be a living catalog that becomes richer, bigger, and better in time while still remembering its state at each point in time. This means that users will be able to take full advantage of new additions to the catalog, while retaining the ability to back-track and return to what was extracted in the past. The CSC sheds the limitations of flat-table catalogs. Its sources will be characterized by a large number of properties, as usual, but each source will also be associated with its own specific data products, allowing users to perform mini custom analysis on the sources. Source properties fall in the spatial (position, extent), photometric (fluxes, count rates), spectral (hardness ratios, standard spectral fits), and temporal (variability probabilities) domains, and are all accompanied by error estimates. Data products cover the same coordinate space and include event lists, images, spectra, and light curves. In addition, the catalog contains data products covering complete observations: event lists, background images, exposure maps, etc. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

  13. Functional integration of grafted neural stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons monitored by optogenetics in an in vitro Parkinson model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Tønnesen

    Full Text Available Intrastriatal grafts of stem cell-derived dopamine (DA neurons induce behavioral recovery in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD, but how they functionally integrate in host neural circuitries is poorly understood. Here, Wnt5a-overexpressing neural stem cells derived from embryonic ventral mesencephalon of tyrosine hydroxylase-GFP transgenic mice were expanded as neurospheres and transplanted into organotypic cultures of wild type mouse striatum. Differentiated GFP-labeled DA neurons in the grafts exhibited mature neuronal properties, including spontaneous firing of action potentials, presence of post-synaptic currents, and functional expression of DA D₂ autoreceptors. These properties resembled those recorded from identical cells in acute slices of intrastriatal grafts in the 6-hydroxy-DA-induced mouse PD model and from DA neurons in intact substantia nigra. Optogenetic activation or inhibition of grafted cells and host neurons using channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 and halorhodopsin (NpHR, respectively, revealed complex, bi-directional synaptic interactions between grafted cells and host neurons and extensive synaptic connectivity within the graft. Our data demonstrate for the first time using optogenetics that ectopically grafted stem cell-derived DA neurons become functionally integrated in the DA-denervated striatum. Further optogenetic dissection of the synaptic wiring between grafted and host neurons will be crucial to clarify the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying behavioral recovery as well as adverse effects following stem cell-based DA cell replacement strategies in PD.

  14. Area PEc Neurons Use a Multiphasic Pattern of Activity to Signal the Spatial Properties of Optic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Raffi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cortical representation of visual perception requires the integration of several-signal processing distributed across many cortical areas, but the neural substrates of such perception are largely unknown. The type of firing pattern exhibited by single neurons is an important indicator of dynamic circuitry within or across cortical areas. Neurons in area PEc are involved in the spatial mapping of the visual field; thus, we sought to analyze the firing pattern of activity of PEc optic flow neurons to shed some light on the cortical processing of visual signals. We quantified the firing activity of 152 optic flow neurons using a spline interpolation function, which allowed determining onset, end, and latency of each neuronal response. We found that many PEc neurons showed multiphasic activity, which is strictly related to the position of the eye and to the position of the focus of expansion (FOE of the flow field. PEc neurons showed a multiphasic activity comprised of excitatory phases interspersed with inhibitory pauses. This phasic pattern seems to be a very efficient way to signal the spatial location of visual stimuli, given that the same neuron sends different firing patterns according to a specific combination of FOE/eye position.

  15. Retrograde monosynaptic tracing reveals the temporal evolution of inputs onto new neurons in the adult dentate gyrus and olfactory bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Aditi; Bergami, Matteo; Ghanem, Alexander; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Lepier, Alexandra; Götz, Magdalena; Berninger, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the connectome of adult-generated neurons is essential for understanding how the preexisting circuitry is refined by neurogenesis. Changes in the pattern of connectivity are likely to control the differentiation process of newly generated neurons and exert an important influence on their unique capacity to contribute to information processing. Using a monosynaptic rabies virus-based tracing technique, we studied the evolving presynaptic connectivity of adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and olfactory bulb (OB) during the first weeks of their life. In both neurogenic zones, adult-generated neurons first receive local connections from multiple types of GABAergic interneurons before long-range projections become established, such as those originating from cortical areas. Interestingly, despite fundamental similarities in the overall pattern of evolution of presynaptic connectivity, there were notable differences with regard to the development of cortical projections: although DG granule neuron input originating from the entorhinal cortex could be traced starting only from 3 to 5 wk on, newly generated neurons in the OB received input from the anterior olfactory nucleus and piriform cortex already by the second week. This early glutamatergic input onto newly generated interneurons in the OB was matched in time by the equally early innervations of DG granule neurons by glutamatergic mossy cells. The development of connectivity revealed by our study may suggest common principles for incorporating newly generated neurons into a preexisting circuit. PMID:23487772

  16. NPR-9, a Galanin-Like G-Protein Coupled Receptor, and GLR-1 Regulate Interneuronal Circuitry Underlying Multisensory Integration of Environmental Cues in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C Campbell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available C. elegans inhabit environments that require detection of diverse stimuli to modulate locomotion in order to avoid unfavourable conditions. In a mammalian context, a failure to appropriately integrate environmental signals can lead to Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and epilepsy. Provided that the circuitry underlying mammalian sensory integration can be prohibitively complex, we analyzed nematode behavioral responses in differing environmental contexts to evaluate the regulation of context dependent circuit reconfiguration and sensorimotor control. Our work has added to the complexity of a known parallel circuit, mediated by interneurons AVA and AIB, that integrates sensory cues and is responsible for the initiation of backwards locomotion. Our analysis of the galanin-like G-protein coupled receptor NPR-9 in C. elegans revealed that upregulation of galanin signaling impedes the integration of sensory evoked neuronal signals. Although the expression pattern of npr-9 is limited to AIB, upregulation of the receptor appears to impede AIB and AVA circuits to broadly prevent backwards locomotion, i.e. reversals, suggesting that these two pathways functionally interact. Galanin signaling similarly plays a broadly inhibitory role in mammalian models. Moreover, our identification of a mutant, which rarely initiates backwards movement, allowed us to interrogate locomotory mechanisms underlying chemotaxis. In support of the pirouette model of chemotaxis, organisms that did not exhibit reversal behavior were unable to navigate towards an attractant peak. We also assessed ionotropic glutamate receptor GLR-1 cell-specifically within AIB and determined that GLR-1 fine-tunes AIB activity to modify locomotion following reversal events. Our research highlights that signal integration underlying the initiation and fine-tuning of backwards locomotion is AIB and NPR-9 dependent, and has demonstrated the suitability of C. elegans for analysis of multisensory integration

  17. Single neuron computation

    CERN Document Server

    McKenna, Thomas M; Zornetzer, Steven F

    1992-01-01

    This book contains twenty-two original contributions that provide a comprehensive overview of computational approaches to understanding a single neuron structure. The focus on cellular-level processes is twofold. From a computational neuroscience perspective, a thorough understanding of the information processing performed by single neurons leads to an understanding of circuit- and systems-level activity. From the standpoint of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a single real neuron is as complex an operational unit as an entire ANN, and formalizing the complex computations performed by real n

  18. Mesmerising mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-06-01

    Mirror neurons have been hailed as the key to understanding social cognition. I argue that three currents of thought-relating to evolution, atomism and telepathy-have magnified the perceived importance of mirror neurons. When they are understood to be a product of associative learning, rather than an adaptation for social cognition, mirror neurons are no longer mesmerising, but they continue to raise important questions about both the psychology of science and the neural bases of social cognition. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Luigi; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2009-05-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of neurons, originally discovered in the premotor cortex of monkeys, that discharge both when individuals perform a given motor act and when they observe others perform that same motor act. Ample evidence demonstrates the existence of a cortical network with the properties of mirror neurons (mirror system) in humans. The human mirror system is involved in understanding others' actions and their intentions behind them, and it underlies mechanisms of observational learning. Herein, we will discuss the clinical implications of the mirror system.

  20. A single GABAergic neuron mediates feedback of odor-evoked signals in the mushroom body of larval Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liria Monica Masuda-Nakagawa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition has a central role in defining the selectivity of the responses of higher order neurons to sensory stimuli. However, the circuit mechanisms of regulation of these responses by inhibitory neurons are still unclear. In Drosophila, the mushroom bodies (MBs are necessary for olfactory memory, and by implication for the selectivity of learned responses to specific odors. To understand the circuitry of inhibition in the calyx (the input dendritic region of the MBs, and its relationship with MB excitatory activity, we used the simple anatomy of the Drosophila larval olfactory system to identify any inhibitory inputs that could contribute to the selectivity of MB odor responses. We found that a single neuron accounts for all detectable GABA innervation in the calyx of the MBs, and that this neuron has presynaptic terminals in the calyx and postsynaptic branches in the MB lobes (output axonal area. We call this neuron the larval anterior paired lateral (APL neuron, because of its similarity to the previously described adult APL neuron. Reconstitution of GFP partners (GRASP suggests that the larval APL makes extensive contacts with the MB intrinsic neurons, Kenyon Cells (KCs, but few contacts with incoming projection neurons. Using calcium imaging of neuronal activity in live larvae, we show that the larval APL responds to odors, in a mannner that requires output from KCs. Our data suggest that the larval APL is the sole GABAergic neuron that innervates the MB input region and carries inhibitory feedback from the MB output region, consistent with a role in modulating the olfactory selectivity of MB neurons.

  1. High-Density Liquid-State Machine Circuitry for Time-Series Forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, Josep L; Alomar, Miquel L; Morro, Antoni; Oliver, Antoni; Canals, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Spiking neural networks (SNN) are the last neural network generation that try to mimic the real behavior of biological neurons. Although most research in this area is done through software applications, it is in hardware implementations in which the intrinsic parallelism of these computing systems are more efficiently exploited. Liquid state machines (LSM) have arisen as a strategic technique to implement recurrent designs of SNN with a simple learning methodology. In this work, we show a new low-cost methodology to implement high-density LSM by using Boolean gates. The proposed method is based on the use of probabilistic computing concepts to reduce hardware requirements, thus considerably increasing the neuron count per chip. The result is a highly functional system that is applied to high-speed time series forecasting.

  2. First realization of a tracking detector for high energy physics experiments based on Josephson digital readout circuitry

    CERN Document Server

    Pagano, S; Esposito, A P; Mukhanov, O; Rylov, S

    1999-01-01

    We have designed and realized a prototype of a high energy particle microstrip detector with Josephson readout circuits. The key features of this device are: minimum ionizing particle sensitivity, due to the use of semiconductive sensors, fast speed and radiation hardness, due to the use of superconductive circuitry, and current discrimination, which allows the use of several types of semiconductors as detector (Si, GaAs, CVD-diamond) without loss in performances. The Josephson circuitry, made by a combination of RSFQ and latching logic gates, realizes an 8-bit current discriminator and parallel to serial converter and can be directly interfaced to room temperature electronics. This device, which is designed for application as vertex detector for the Compass and LHC-B accelerator experiments, has been tested with small radioactive sources acid will undergo to a test beam at the CERN SPS facility with 24 GeV/c protons. Current results and future perspectives will be reported. (11 refs).

  3. Neuromorphic Silicon Neuron Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Giacomo; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Hamilton, Tara Julia; van Schaik, André; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Dudek, Piotr; Häfliger, Philipp; Renaud, Sylvie; Schemmel, Johannes; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Arthur, John; Hynna, Kai; Folowosele, Fopefolu; Saighi, Sylvain; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Wijekoon, Jayawan; Wang, Yingxue; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain–machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance-based Hodgkin–Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive integrate and fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips. PMID:21747754

  4. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ChaMP X-ray point source catalog (Kim+, 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.; Kim, D.-W.; Wilkes, B. J.; Green, P. J.; Kim, E.; Anderson, C. S.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Evans, N. R.; Ivezic, Z.; Karovska, M.; Kashyap, V. L.; Lee, M. G.; Maksym, P.; Mossman, A. E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tananbaum, H. D.

    2009-01-01

    We present the Chandra Multiwavelength Project (ChaMP) X-ray point source catalog with ~6800 X-ray sources detected in 149 Chandra observations covering ~10deg2. The full ChaMP catalog sample is 7 times larger than the initial published ChaMP catalog. The exposure time of the fields in our sample ranges from 0.9 to 124ks, corresponding to a deepest X-ray flux limit of f0.5-8.0=9x10-16ergs/cm2/s. The ChaMP X-ray data have been uniformly reduced and analyzed with ChaMP-specific pipelines and then carefully validated by visual inspection. The ChaMP catalog includes X-ray photometric data in eight different energy bands as well as X-ray spectral hardness ratios and colors. To best utilize the ChaMP catalog, we also present the source reliability, detection probability, and positional uncertainty. (10 data files).

  6. Safeguards instrumentation: a computer-based catalog. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, C.

    1985-04-01

    This catalog contains entries on new developments and on items listed in BNL 51450, which have either been carried over unchanged or been updated. More than 70 entries were deleted because of either obsolescence, insufficient interest in terms of safeguards, or lack of documentable development activities in recent years. Some old listings as well as new material was consolidated into more generic entries. As in the earlier document, the emphasis is on devices and instruments that are either in field use at this time or under active development. A few items such as NDA reference materials, instrument vans and certain shipping containers are included because they are important adjuncts to optimum utilization of safeguards instrumentation. This catalog does not include devices for physical protection. As was the case with its predecessor, most of the material in this catalog originated in the US and Canada; a few contributions came from member states of the European Community

  7. The Gaia hybrid catalog: a leverage to find Galactic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouesneau, M.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.

    2014-07-01

    The ongoing Gaia mission will undertake an astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic survey of the Galaxy. The Gaia consortium will use Gaia-only data to classify objects and to estimate their individual astrophysical parameters. However, one can achieve more reliable estimates of stellar parameters by combining Gaia data with data from other spectroscopic and photometric surveys. The Gaia "hybrid catalog" project will provide an exquisite value-added catalogs of astrophysical parameters for Gaia targets by taking into account the "obvious" non-Gaia data (e.g., SDSS, WISE, Pan-STARRS, APOGEE, PPMXL, SDSS, 2MASS, Tycho). By including spectroscopic indicators of metallicity when available, or infrared photometry, we can reduce the degeneracies between extinction and temperature and improve the estimation of metallicity and surface gravity. However, the creation of such catalogs comes with significant challenges. First the cross-matching of catalogs with various selection functions, or photometric depths. Second, we must optimize the data analysis to produce the most accurate information given a specific science goal. Finally, the construction of such catalogs will require significant computation power. The current plan is to do this using the local resources at the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, and then each catalog will go through validation and integration processes to finally be released as part of the value-added Gaia data products. From these challenges, it is clear that hybrid catalogs will not be a copy of the Gaia catalog but must be adapted to support very specific science questions. In the poster we presented, we details in particular two applications of the Gaia hybrid catalogs. First, we considered the addition of WISE data to the Gaia information. The WISE data enable us to constrain not only the amount of extinction through the addition of infrared data, but also allow us to better classify certain spectral types. For instance, from the addition

  8. QUEST1 Variability Survey. III. Light Curve Catalog Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengstorf, A. W.; Thompson, D. L.; Mufson, S. L.; Andrews, P.; Honeycutt, R. K.; Vivas, A. K.; Abad, C.; Adams, B.; Bailyn, C.; Baltay, C.; Bongiovanni, A.; Briceño, C.; Bruzual, G.; Coppi, P.; Della Prugna, F.; Emmet, W.; Ferrín, I.; Fuenmayor, F.; Gebhard, M.; Hernández, J.; Magris, G.; Musser, J.; Naranjo, O.; Oemler, A.; Rosenzweig, P.; Sabbey, C. N.; Sánchez, Ge.; Sánchez, Gu.; Schaefer, B.; Schenner, H.; Sinnott, J.; Snyder, J. A.; Sofia, S.; Stock, J.; van Altena, W.

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports an update to the QUEST1 (QUasar Equatorial Survey Team, Phase 1) Variability Survey (QVS) light curve catalog, which links QVS instrumental magnitude light curves to Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) objects and photometry. In the time since the original QVS catalog release, the overlap between publicly available SDSS data and QVS data has increased by 8% in sky coverage and 16,728 in number of matched objects. The astrometric matching and the treatment of SDSS masks have been refined for the updated catalog. We report on these improvements and present multiple bandpass light curves, global variability information, and matched SDSS photometry for 214,941 QUEST1 objects. Based on observations obtained at the Llano del Hato National Astronomical Observatory, operated by the Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía for the Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia of Venezuela.

  9. Effective Dark Matter Halo Catalog in f(R) Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian-Hua; Hawken, Adam J; Li, Baojiu; Guzzo, Luigi

    2015-08-14

    We introduce the idea of an effective dark matter halo catalog in f(R) gravity, which is built using the effective density field. Using a suite of high resolution N-body simulations, we find that the dynamical properties of halos, such as the distribution of density, velocity dispersion, specific angular momentum and spin, in the effective catalog of f(R) gravity closely mimic those in the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (ΛCDM). Thus, when using effective halos, an f(R) model can be viewed as a ΛCDM model. This effective catalog therefore provides a convenient way for studying the baryonic physics, the galaxy halo occupation distribution and even semianalytical galaxy formation in f(R) cosmologies.

  10. Safeguards instrumentation: a computer-based catalog. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, C.

    1985-04-01

    This catalog contains entries on new developments and on items listed in BNL 51450, which have either been carried over unchanged or been updated. More than 70 entries were deleted because of either obsolescence, insufficient interest in terms of safeguards, or lack of documentable development activities in recent years. Some old listings as well as new material was consolidated into more generic entries. As in the earlier document, the emphasis is on devices and instruments that are either in field use at this time or under active development. A few items such as NDA reference materials, instrument vans and certain shipping containers are included because they are important adjuncts to optimum utilization of safeguards instrumentation. This catalog does not include devices for physical protection. As was the case with its predecessor, most of the material in this catalog originated in the US and Canada; a few contributions came from member states of the European Community.

  11. The Southern Proper Motion Program. IV. The SPM4 Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Terrence M.; van Altena, William F.; Zacharias, Norbert; Vieira, Katherine; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Castillo, Danilo; Herrera, David; Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Monet, David G.; López, Carlos E.

    2011-07-01

    We present the fourth installment of the Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion Catalog, SPM4. The SPM4 contains absolute proper motions, celestial coordinates, and B, V photometry for over 103 million stars and galaxies between the south celestial pole and -20° declination. The catalog is roughly complete to V = 17.5 and is based on photographic and CCD observations taken with the Yale Southern Observatory's double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. The proper-motion precision, for well-measured stars, is estimated to be 2-3 mas yr-1, depending on the type of second-epoch material. At the bright end, proper motions are on the International Celestial Reference System by way of Hipparcos Catalog stars, while the faint end is anchored to the inertial system using external galaxies. Systematic uncertainties in the absolute proper motions are on the order of 1 mas yr-1.

  12. Resource Discovery: Comparative Results on Two Catalog Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Hessel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Like many libraries, the University of Minnesota Libraries-Twin Cities now offers a next-generation catalog alongside a traditional online public access catalog (OPAC. One year after the launch of its new platform as the default catalog, usage data for the OPAC remained relatively high, and anecdotal comments raised questions. In response, the Libraries conducted surveys that covered topics such as perceptions of success, known-item searching, preferred search environments, and desirable resource types. Results show distinct differences in the behavior of faculty, graduate student, and undergraduate survey respondents, and between library staff and non-library staff respondents. Both quantitative and qualitative data inform the analysis and conclusions.

  13. DOUBLE STARS IN THE USNO CCD ASTROGRAPHIC CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartkopf, William I.; Mason, Brian D.; Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert; Wycoff, Gary L.; Hsu, Danley, E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: bdm@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: finch@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: nz@usno.navy.mil [US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC 20392 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The newly completed Fourth USNO CCD Astrographic Catalog (UCAC4) has proven to be a rich source of double star astrometry and photometry. Following initial comparisons of UCAC4 results against those obtained by speckle interferometry, the UCAC4 catalog was matched against known double stars in the Washington Double Star Catalog in order to provide additional differential astrometry and photometry for these pairs. Matches to 58,131 pairs yielded 61,895 astrometric and 68,935 photometric measurements. Finally, a search for possible new common proper motion (CPM) pairs was made using new UCAC4 proper motion data; this resulted in 4755 new potential CPM doubles (and an additional 27,718 astrometric and photometric measures from UCAC and other sources)

  14. Comparing Automatic CME Detections in Multiple LASCO and SECCHI Catalogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Phillip [NRC Research Associate, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Colaninno, Robin C., E-mail: phillip.hess.ctr@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: robin.colaninno@nrl.navy.mil [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-02-10

    With the creation of numerous automatic detection algorithms, a number of different catalogs of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) spanning the entirety of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory ( SOHO ) Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) mission have been created. Some of these catalogs have been further expanded for use on data from the Solar Terrestrial Earth Observatory ( STEREO ) Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) as well. We compare the results from different automatic detection catalogs (Solar Eruption Event Detection System (SEEDS), Computer Aided CME Tracking (CACTus), and Coronal Image Processing (CORIMP)) to ensure the consistency of detections in each. Over the entire span of the LASCO catalogs, the automatic catalogs are well correlated with one another, to a level greater than 0.88. Focusing on just periods of higher activity, these correlations remain above 0.7. We establish the difficulty in comparing detections over the course of LASCO observations due to the change in the instrument image cadence in 2010. Without adjusting catalogs for the cadence, CME detection rates show a large spike in cycle 24, despite a notable drop in other indices of solar activity. The output from SEEDS, using a consistent image cadence, shows that the CME rate has not significantly changed relative to sunspot number in cycle 24. These data, and mass calculations from CORIMP, lead us to conclude that any apparent increase in CME rate is a result of the change in cadence. We study detection characteristics of CMEs, discussing potential physical changes in events between cycles 23 and 24. We establish that, for detected CMEs, physical parameters can also be sensitive to the cadence.

  15. Cataloging tremor at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, W. A.; Wech, A.

    2013-12-01

    Tremor is a ubiquitous seismic feature on Kilauea volcano, which emanates from at least three distinct sources. At depth, intermittent tremor and earthquakes thought to be associated with the underlying plumbing system of Kilauea (Aki and Koyanagi, 1981) occurs approximately 40 km below and 40 km SW of the summit. At the summit of the volcano, nearly continuous tremor is recorded close to a persistently degassing lava lake, which has been present since 2008. Much of this tremor is correlated with spattering at the lake surface, but tremor also occurs in the absence of spattering, and was observed at the summit of the volcano prior to the appearance of the lava lake, predominately in association with inflation/deflation events. The third known source of tremor is in the area of Pu`u `O`o, a vent that has been active since 1983. The exact source location and depth is poorly constrained for each of these sources. Consistently tracking the occurrence and location of tremor in these areas through time will improve our understanding of the plumbing geometry beneath Kilauea volcano and help identify precursory patterns in tremor leading to changes in eruptive activity. The continuous and emergent nature of tremor precludes the use of traditional earthquake techniques for automatic detection and location of seismicity. We implement the method of Wech and Creager (2008) to both detect and localize tremor seismicity in the three regions described above. The technique uses an envelope cross-correlation method in 5-minute windows that maximizes tremor signal coherency among seismic stations. The catalog is currently being built in near-realtime, with plans to extend the analysis to the past as time and continuous data availability permits. This automated detection and localization method has relatively poor depth constraints due to the construction of the envelope function. Nevertheless, the epicenters distinguish activity among the different source regions and serve as

  16. Dopaminergic circuitry and risk/reward decision making: implications for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopper, Colin M; Floresco, Stan B

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal reinforcement learning and representations of reward value are present in schizophrenia, and these impairments can manifest as deficits in risk/reward decision making. These abnormalities may be due in part to dopaminergic dysfunction within cortico-limbic-striatal circuitry. Evidence from studies with laboratory animal have revealed that normal DA activity within different nodes of these circuits is critical for mediating dissociable processes that can refine decision biases. Moreover, both phasic and tonic dopamine transmission appear to play separate yet complementary roles in these processes. Tonic dopamine release within the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, serves as a "running rate-meter" of reward and reflects contextual information such as reward uncertainty and overt choice behavior. On the other hand, manipulations of outcome-related phasic dopamine bursts and dips suggest these signals provide rapid feedback to allow for quick adjustments in choice as reward contingencies change. The lateral habenula is a key input to the DA system that phasic signals is necessary for expressing subjective decision biases; as suppression of activity within this nucleus leads to catastrophic impairments in decision making and random patterns of choice behavior. As schizophrenia is characterized by impairments in using positive and negative feedback to appropriately guide decision making, these findings suggest that these deficits in these processes may be mediated, at least in part, by abnormalities in both tonic and phasic dopamine transmission. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Long-term potentiation in hilar circuitry modulates gating by the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Brandon J; Jackson, Meyer B

    2014-07-16

    The dentate gyrus serves as a gateway to the hippocampus, filtering and processing sensory inputs as an animal explores its environment. The hilus occupies a strategic position within the dentate gyrus from which it can play a pivotal role in these functions. Inputs from dentate granule cells converge on the hilus, and excitatory hilar mossy cells redistribute these signals back to granule cells to transform a pattern of cortical input into a new pattern of output to the hippocampal CA3 region. Using voltage-sensitive dye to image electrical activity in rat hippocampal slices, we explored how long-term potentiation (LTP) of different excitatory synapses modifies the flow of information. Theta burst stimulation of the perforant path potentiated responses throughout the molecular layer, but left responses in the CA3 region unchanged. By contrast, theta burst stimulation of the granule cell layer potentiated responses throughout the molecular layer, as well as in the CA3 region. Theta burst stimulation of the granule cell layer potentiated CA3 responses not only to granule cell layer stimulation but also to perforant path stimulation. Potentiation of responses in the CA3 region reflected NMDA receptor-dependent LTP of upstream synapses between granule cells and mossy cells, with no detectable contribution from NMDA receptor-independent LTP of local CA3 mossy fiber synapses. Potentiation of transmission to the CA3 region required LTP in both granule cell→mossy cell and mossy cell→granule cell synapses. This bidirectional plasticity enables hilar circuitry to regulate the flow of information through the dentate gyrus and on to the hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349743-11$15.00/0.

  18. Neural circuitry of abdominal pain-related fear learning and reinstatement in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icenhour, A; Langhorst, J; Benson, S; Schlamann, M; Hampel, S; Engler, H; Forsting, M; Elsenbruch, S

    2015-01-01

    Altered pain anticipation likely contributes to disturbed central pain processing in chronic pain conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but the learning processes shaping the expectation of pain remain poorly understood. We assessed the neural circuitry mediating the formation, extinction, and reactivation of abdominal pain-related memories in IBS patients compared to healthy controls (HC) in a differential fear conditioning paradigm. During fear acquisition, predictive visual cues (CS(+)) were paired with rectal distensions (US), while control cues (CS(-)) were presented unpaired. During extinction, only CSs were presented. Subsequently, memory reactivation was assessed with a reinstatement procedure involving unexpected USs. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, group differences in neural activation to CS(+) vs CS(-) were analyzed, along with skin conductance responses (SCR), CS valence, CS-US contingency, state anxiety, salivary cortisol, and alpha-amylase activity. The contribution of anxiety symptoms was addressed in covariance analyses. Fear acquisition was altered in IBS, as indicated by more accurate contingency awareness, greater CS-related valence change, and enhanced CS(+)-induced differential activation of prefrontal cortex and amygdala. IBS patients further revealed enhanced differential cingulate activation during extinction and greater differential hippocampal activation during reinstatement. Anxiety affected neural responses during memory formation and reinstatement. Abdominal pain-related fear learning and memory processes are altered in IBS, mediated by amygdala, cingulate cortex, prefrontal areas, and hippocampus. Enhanced reinstatement may contribute to hypervigilance and central pain amplification, especially in anxious patients. Preventing a 'relapse' of learned fear utilizing extinction-based interventions may be a promising treatment goal in IBS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effects of direct social experience on trust decisions and neural reward circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic S. Fareri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The human striatum is integral for reward-processing and supports learning by linking experienced outcomes with prior expectations. Recent endeavors implicate the striatum in processing outcomes of social interactions, such as social approval/rejection, as well as in learning reputations of others. Interestingly, social impressions often influence our behavior with others during interactions. Information about an interaction partner’s moral character acquired from biographical information hinders updating of expectations after interactions via top down modulation of reward circuitry. An outstanding question is whether initial impressions formed through experience similarly modulate the ability to update social impressions at the behavioral and neural level. We investigated the role of experienced social information on trust behavior and reward-related BOLD activity. Participants played a computerized ball tossing game with three fictional partners manipulated to be perceived as good, bad or neutral. Participants then played an iterated trust game as investors with these same partners while undergoing fMRI. Unbeknownst to participants, partner behavior in the trust game was random and unrelated to their ball-tossing behavior. Participants’ trust decisions were influenced by their prior experience in the ball tossing game, investing less often with the bad partner compared to the good and neutral. Reinforcement learning models revealed that participants were more sensitive to updating their beliefs about good and bad partners when experiencing outcomes consistent with initial experience. Increased striatal and anterior cingulate BOLD activity for positive versus negative trust game outcomes emerged, which further correlated with model-derived prediction-error (PE learning signals. These results suggest that initial impressions formed from direct social experience can be continually shaped by consistent information through reward learning

  20. Effects of Direct Social Experience on Trust Decisions and Neural Reward Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareri, Dominic S.; Chang, Luke J.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2012-01-01

    The human striatum is integral for reward-processing and supports learning by linking experienced outcomes with prior expectations. Recent endeavors implicate the striatum in processing outcomes of social interactions, such as social approval/rejection, as well as in learning reputations of others. Interestingly, social impressions often influence our behavior with others during interactions. Information about an interaction partner’s moral character acquired from biographical information hinders updating of expectations after interactions via top down modulation of reward circuitry. An outstanding question is whether initial impressions formed through experience similarly modulate the ability to update social impressions at the behavioral and neural level. We investigated the role of experienced social information on trust behavior and reward-related BOLD activity. Participants played a computerized ball-tossing game with three fictional partners manipulated to be perceived as good, bad, or neutral. Participants then played an iterated trust game as investors with these same partners while undergoing fMRI. Unbeknownst to participants, partner behavior in the trust game was random and unrelated to their ball-tossing behavior. Participants’ trust decisions were influenced by their prior experience in the ball-tossing game, investing less often with the bad partner compared to the good and neutral. Reinforcement learning models revealed that participants were more sensitive to updating their beliefs about good and bad partners when experiencing outcomes consistent with initial experience. Increased striatal and anterior cingulate BOLD activity for positive versus negative trust game outcomes emerged, which further correlated with model-derived prediction error learning signals. These results suggest that initial impressions formed from direct social experience can be continually shaped by consistent information through reward learning mechanisms. PMID:23087604

  1. Hybrid nanowire ion-to-electron transducers for integrated bioelectronic circuitry (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrad, Damon J.; Mostert, Bernard; Meredith, Paul; Micolich, Adam P.

    2016-09-01

    A key task in bioelectronics is the transduction between ionic/protonic signals and electronic signals at high fidelity. This is a considerable challenge since the two carrier types exhibit intrinsically different physics. We present our work on a new class of organic-inorganic transducing interface utilising semiconducting InAs and GaAs nanowires directly gated with a proton transporting hygroscopic polymer consisting of undoped polyethylene oxide (PEO) patterned to nanoscale dimensions by a newly developed electron-beam lithography process [1]. Remarkably, we find our undoped PEO polymer electrolyte gate dielectric [2] gives equivalent electrical performance to the more traditionally used LiClO4-doped PEO [3], with an ionic conductivity three orders of magnitude higher than previously reported for undoped PEO [4]. The observed behaviour is consistent with proton conduction in PEO. We attribute our undoped PEO-based devices' performance to the small external surface and high surface-to-volume ratio of both the nanowire conducting channel and patterned PEO dielectric in our devices, as well as the enhanced hydration afforded by device processing and atmospheric conditions. In addition to studying the basic transducing mechanisms, we also demonstrate high-fidelity ionic to electronic conversion of a.c. signals at frequencies up to 50 Hz. Moreover, by combining complementary n- and p-type transducers we demonstrate functional hybrid ionic-electronic circuits can achieve logic (NOT operation), and with some further engineering of the nanowire contacts, potentially also amplification. Our device structures have significant potential to be scaled towards realising integrated bioelectronic circuitry. [1] D.J. Carrad et al., Nano Letters 14, 94 (2014). [2] D.J. Carrad et al., Manuscript in preparation (2016). [3] S.H. Kim et al., Advanced Materials 25, 1822 (2013). [4] S.K. Fullerton-Shirey et al., Macromolecules 42, 2142 (2009).

  2. Flexible thin film circuitry enabling ubiquitous electronics via post-fabrication customization (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Brian

    2015-09-01

    For decades, the electronics industry has been accurately described by Moore's Law, where the march towards increasing density and smaller feature sizes has enabled continuous cost reductions and performance improvements. With flexible electronics, this perpetual scaling is not foreseen to occur. Instead, the industry will be dominated by Wright's Law, first proposed in 1936, where increasing demand for high volumes of product will drive costs down. We have demonstrated thin film based circuitry compatible with flexible substrates with high levels of functionality designed for such a high volume industry. This includes a generic 8-bit microprocessor totaling more than 3.5k TFTs operating at 2.1 kHz. We have also developed a post fabrication programming technique via inkjet printing of conductive spots to form a one-time programmable instruction generator, allowing customization of the processor for a specific task. The combination demonstrates the possibility to achieve the high volume production of identical products necessary to reap the benefits promised by Wright's Law, while still retaining the individualization necessary for application differentiation. This is of particular importance in the area of item level identification via RFID, where low cost and individualized identification are necessary. Remotely powered RFID tags have been fabricated using an oxide semiconductor based TFT process. This process is compatible with the post-fabrication printing process to detail individual identification codes, with the goal of producing low cost, high volume flexible tags. The goal is to produce tags compatible with existing NFC communication protocols in order to communicate with readers that are already ubiquitous in the market.

  3. Serials cataloging at the turn of the century

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, James W

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the research topics and trends that have appeared over the last five years, Serials Cataloging at the Turn of the Century doesn't just tell you that there has been a lot of change--that the information environment is something of a chameleon, always beguiling and slipping out of grasp. Instead, it gives you the plain facts on the specific challenges serials catalogers have been facing and how they're meeting adversity head-on, ready to gain the advantage in the rumble with proliferating information and formats.Comprehensive, resource-packed, and easy-to-digest, Serials Catalogin

  4. Stress and Sucrose Intake Modulate Neuronal Activity in the Anterior Hypothalamic Area in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Arojit; Guèvremont, Geneviève; Timofeeva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The anterior hypothalamic area (AHA) is an important integrative relay structure for a variety of autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses including feeding behavior and response to stress. However, changes in the activity of the AHA neurons during stress and feeding in freely moving rats are not clear. The present study investigated the firing rate and burst activity of neurons in the central nucleus of the AHA (cAHA) during sucrose intake in non-stressful conditions and after acute stress in freely behaving rats. Rats were implanted with micro-electrodes into the cAHA, and extracellular multi-unit activity was recorded during 1-h access to 10% sucrose in non-stressful conditions or after acute foot shock stress. Acute stress significantly reduced sucrose intake, total sucrose lick number, and lick frequency in licking clusters, and increased inter-lick intervals. At the cluster start (CS) of sucrose licking, the cAHA neurons increased (CS-excited, 20% of the recorded neurons), decreased (CS-inhibited, 42% of the neurons) or did not change (CS-nonresponsive, 38% of the neurons) their firing rate. Stress resulted in a significant increase in the firing rate of the CS-inhibited neurons by decreasing inter-spike intervals within the burst firing of these neurons. This increase in the stress-induced firing rate of the CS-inhibited neurons was accompanied by a disruption of the correlation between the firing rate of CS-inhibited and CS-nonresponsive neurons that was observed in non-stressful conditions. Stress did not affect the firing rate of the CS-excited and CS-nonresponsive neurons. However, stress changed the pattern of burst firing of the CS-excited and CS-nonresponsive neurons by decreasing and increasing the burst number in the CS-excited and CS-nonresponsive neurons, respectively. These results suggest that the cAHA neurons integrate the signals related to stress and intake of palatable food and play a role in the stress- and eating-related circuitry.

  5. Online Catalogs from the Users' Perspective: The Use of Focus Group Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaway, Lynn Silipigni; Johnson, Debra Wilcox; Searing, Susan E.

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of a study conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to elicit information about the library's online catalog. Highlights the use of focus group interviews. Topics include experience with other catalogs, approaches to searching, positive feedback, barriers to use, and changes to the catalog as a result of the study. (LRW)

  6. The Second Fermi GBM Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog: The First Four Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Kienlin, A.; Meegan, C.A.; Paciesas, W.S.; Bhat, P.N.; Bissaldi, E.; Briggs, M.S.; Burgess, J.M.; Byrne, D.; Chaplin, V.; Cleveland, W.; Connaughton, V.; Collazzi, A.C.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; Gibby, M.; Giles, M.; Goldstein, A.; Greiner, J.; Gruber, D.; Guiriec, S.; van der Horst, A.J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Layden, E.; McBreen, S.; McGlynn, S.; Pelassa, V.; Preece, R.D.; Rau, A.; Tierney, D.; Wilson-Hodge, C.A.; Xiong, S.; Younes, G.; Yu, H-F.

    2014-01-01

    This is the second of a series of catalogs of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). It extends the first two-year catalog by two more years, resulting in an overall list of 953 GBM triggered GRBs. The intention of the GBM GRB catalog is to provide information

  7. Minimal-Level Cataloging: A Look at the Issues--A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horny, Karen L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Six articles on pros and cons of minimal-level cataloging (MLC) highlight patron access and browsability, time and cost savings, network and bibliographic utility cooperation, standards, alternatives to MLC, levels of records, online catalogs, experimental cataloging program at University of Michigan, and experiences at Kent State University…

  8. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0010] Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power... comment a draft NUREG, NUREG-2104, Revision 0, ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant... developed using this Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power Reactors...

  9. Bringing Federal Documents to the Forefront for Library Users: Selective Cataloging Using an OPAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Victor T.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the value of federal depository document titles and discuses reasons why many are worth cataloging. Several approaches to cataloging these titles to make them more readily accessible are profiled. The Adelphi University Library (New York) has devised a system, using Boolean logic and an online public access catalog to choose which titles…

  10. Resistance to Online Catalogs: A Comparative Study at Bryn Mawr and Swarthmore Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Carol; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Surveys of student and faculty attitudes toward proposed online public access catalogs were conducted in 1984 at Bryn Mawr and Swarthmore. The traditional card catalog was generally favored; only Swarthmore's faculty gave majority support to the online catalog. Differences between colleges may result from Swarthmore's greater experience with…

  11. Oxytocin receptors are expressed on dopamine and glutamate neurons in the mouse ventral tegmental area that project to nucleus accumbens and other mesolimbic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Joanna; MacFadyen, Kaley; Smith, Justin A; de Kloet, Annette D; Wang, Lei; Krause, Eric G

    2017-04-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) circuitry determines which behaviors are positively reinforcing and therefore should be encoded in the memory to become a part of the behavioral repertoire. Natural reinforcers, like food and sex, activate this pathway, thereby increasing the likelihood of further consummatory, social, and sexual behaviors. Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in mediating natural reward and OT-synthesizing neurons project to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc); however, direct neuroanatomical evidence of OT regulation of DA neurons within the VTA is sparse. To phenotype OT-receptor (OTR) expressing neurons originating within the VTA, we delivered Cre-inducible adeno-associated virus that drives the expression of fluorescent marker into the VTA of male mice that had Cre-recombinase driven by OTR gene expression. OTR-expressing VTA neurons project to NAc, prefrontal cortex, the extended amygdala, and other forebrain regions but less than 10% of these OTR-expressing neurons were identified as DA neurons (defined by tyrosine hydroxylase colocalization). Instead, almost 50% of OTR-expressing cells in the VTA were glutamate (GLU) neurons, as indicated by expression of mRNA for the vesicular GLU transporter (vGluT). About one-third of OTR-expressing VTA neurons did not colocalize with either DA or GLU phenotypic markers. Thus, OTR expression by VTA neurons implicates that OT regulation of reward circuitry is more complex than a direct action on DA neurotransmission. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1094-1108, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de, E-mail: dearcangelis@na.infn.it [Department of Information Engineering and CNISM, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  13. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de

    2011-01-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  14. Corticostriatal-hypothalamic circuitry and food motivation: integration of energy, action and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ann E; Baldo, Brian A; Pratt, Wayne E; Will, Matthew J

    2005-12-15

    Work over the past decade has supported the idea that discrete aspects of appetitive motivation are differentially mediated by separate but interacting neurochemical systems within the nucleus accumbens (Acb). We review herein a series of studies in rats comparing the effects of manipulating Acb amino acid, opioid, acetylcholine, and dopamine systems on tests of free-feeding and food-reinforced operant responding. Results from our laboratory and in the literature support three general conclusions: (1) GABA output neurons localized exclusively within the Acb shell directly influence hypothalamic effector mechanisms for feeding motor patterns, but do not participate in the execution of more complex food-seeking strategies; (2) enkephalinergic neurons distributed throughout the Acb and caudate-putamen mediate the hedonic impact of palatable (high sugar/fat) foods, and these neurons are under modulatory control by striatal cholinergic interneurons; and (3) dopamine transmission in the Acb governs general motoric and arousal processes related to response selection and invigoration, as well as motor learning-related plasticity. These dissociations may reflect the manner in which these neurochemical systems differentially access pallido-thalamo-cortical loops reaching the voluntary motor system (in the case of opioids and dopamine), versus more restricted efferent connections to hypothalamic motor/autonomic control columns (in the case of Acb shell GABA and glutamate systems). Moreover, we hypothesize that while these systems work in tandem to coordinate the anticipatory and consummatory phases of feeding with hypothalamic energy-sensing substrates, the striatal opioid network evolved a specialized capacity to promote overeating of energy-dense foods beyond acute homeostatic needs, to ensure an energy reserve for potential future famine.

  15. Functional diversity of supragranular GABAergic neurons in the barrel cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc J Gentet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the neocortex forms a distributed system comprised of several functional areas, its vertical columnar organization is largely conserved across areas and species, suggesting the existence of a canonical neocortical microcircuit. In order to elucidate the principles governing the organization of such a cortical diagram, a detailed understanding of the dynamics binding different types of cortical neurons into a coherent algorithm is essential. Within this complex circuitry, GABAergic interneurons, while forming approximately only 15-20% of all cortical neurons, appear critical in maintaining a dynamic balance between excitation and inhibition. Despite their importance, cortical GABAergic neurons have not been extensively studied in vivo and their precise role in shaping the local microcircuit sensory response still remains to be determined. Their paucity, combined with their molecular, anatomical and physiological diversity, has made it difficult to even establish a consensual nomenclature.However, recent technological advances in microscopy and mouse genetics have fostered a renewed interest in neocortical interneurons by putting them within visible reach of experimenters. The anatomically well-defined whisker-to-barrel pathway of the rodent is particularly amenable to studies attempting to link cortical circuit dynamics to behavior. To each whisker corresponds a discrete cortical unit equivalent to a single column, specialized in the encoding and processing of the sensory information it receives. In this review, we will focus on the functional role that each subtype of supragranular GABAergic neuron embedded within such a single neocortical unit may play in shaping the dynamics of the local circuit during somatosensory integration.

  16. Brainstem circuitry regulating phasic activation of trigeminal motoneurons during REM sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Anaclet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS is characterized by activation of the cortical and hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG and atonia of non-respiratory muscles with superimposed phasic activity or twitching, particularly of cranial muscles such as those of the eye, tongue, face and jaw. While phasic activity is a characteristic feature of REMS, the neural substrates driving this activity remain unresolved. Here we investigated the neural circuits underlying masseter (jaw phasic activity during REMS. The trigeminal motor nucleus (Mo5, which controls masseter motor function, receives glutamatergic inputs mainly from the parvocellular reticular formation (PCRt, but also from the adjacent paramedian reticular area (PMnR. On the other hand, the Mo5 and PCRt do not receive direct input from the sublaterodorsal (SLD nucleus, a brainstem region critical for REMS atonia of postural muscles. We hypothesized that the PCRt-PMnR, but not the SLD, regulates masseter phasic activity during REMS.To test our hypothesis, we measured masseter electromyogram (EMG, neck muscle EMG, electrooculogram (EOG and EEG in rats with cell-body specific lesions of the SLD, PMnR, and PCRt. Bilateral lesions of the PMnR and rostral PCRt (rPCRt, but not the caudal PCRt or SLD, reduced and eliminated REMS phasic activity of the masseter, respectively. Lesions of the PMnR and rPCRt did not, however, alter the neck EMG or EOG. To determine if rPCRt neurons use glutamate to control masseter phasic movements, we selectively blocked glutamate release by rPCRt neurons using a Cre-lox mouse system. Genetic disruption of glutamate neurotransmission by rPCRt neurons blocked masseter phasic activity during REMS.These results indicate that (1 premotor glutamatergic neurons in the medullary rPCRt and PMnR are involved in generating phasic activity in the masseter muscles, but not phasic eye movements, during REMS; and (2 separate brainstem neural circuits control postural and cranial muscle

  17. Divergent projections of catecholaminergic neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract to limbic forebrain and medullary autonomic brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Beverly A S; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J

    2006-10-30

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a critical structure involved in coordinating autonomic and visceral activities. Previous independent studies have demonstrated efferent projections from the NTS to the nucleus paragigantocellularis (PGi) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) in rat brain. To further characterize the neural circuitry originating from the NTS with postsynaptic targets in the amygdala and medullary autonomic targets, distinct green or red fluorescent latex microspheres were injected into the PGi and the CNA, respectively, of the same rat. Thirty-micron thick tissue sections through the lower brainstem and forebrain were collected. Every fourth section through the NTS region was processed for immunocytochemical detection of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a marker of catecholaminergic neurons. Retrogradely labeled neurons from the PGi or CNA were distributed throughout the rostro-caudal segments of the NTS. However, the majority of neurons containing both retrograde tracers were distributed within the caudal third of the NTS. Cell counts revealed that approximately 27% of neurons projecting to the CNA in the NTS sent collateralized projections to the PGi while approximately 16% of neurons projecting to the PGi sent collateralized projections to the CNA. Interestingly, more than half of the PGi and CNA-projecting neurons in the NTS expressed TH immunoreactivity. These data indicate that catecholaminergic neurons in the NTS are poised to simultaneously coordinate activities in limbic and medullary autonomic brain regions.

  18. S201 catalog of far-ultraviolet objects. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, T.; Carruthers, G.K.; Hill, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A catalog of star images was compiled from images obtained by an NRL Far-Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph operated from 21 to 23 April 1972 on the lunar surface during the Apollo-16 mission. These images were scanned on a microdensitometer, and the output recorded on magnetic tapes. The catalog is divided into 11 parts, covering ten fields in the sky (the Sagittarius field being covered by two parts), and each part is headed by a constellation name and the field center coordinates. The errors in position of the detected images are less than about 3 arc-min. Correlations are given with star numbers in the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory catalog. Values are given of the peak density and the density volume. The text includes a discussion of the photometry, corrections thereto due to threshold and saturation effects, and its comparison with theoretical expectation, stellar model atmospheres, and a generalized far-ultraviolet interstellar extinction law. The S201 catalog is also available on a single reel of seven-track magnetic tape

  19. CITE NLM: Natural-Language Searching in an Online Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doszkocs, Tamas E.

    1983-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine's Current Information Transfer in English public access online catalog offers unique subject search capabilities--natural-language query input, automatic medical subject headings display, closest match search strategy, ranked document output, dynamic end user feedback for search refinement. References, description…

  20. Software To Go: A Catalog of Software Available for Loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlychek, Ken, Comp.

    This catalog lists the holdings of the Software To Go software lending library and clearinghouse for programs and agencies serving students or clients who are deaf or hard of hearing. An introduction describes the clearinghouse and its collection of software, much of it commercial and copyrighted material, for Apple, Macintosh, and IBM (MS-DOS)…

  1. Distance of Sample Measurement Points to Prototype Catalog Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Perram, John

    2006-01-01

    We discuss strategies for comparing discrete data points to a catalog (reference) curve by means of the Euclidean distance from each point to the curve in a pump's head H vs. flow Qdiagram. In particular we find that a method currently in use is inaccurate. We propose several alternatives...

  2. Catalog on Microfiche at the Eastman Kodak Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Clare E.

    1977-01-01

    The paper traces the evolution of Eastman Kodak's computer produced union catalog on microfiche and describes the current operational procedures. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed, as well as possible future development. An example of a title record displayed on microfiche is included. (Author/JPF)

  3. Cataloging as a Customer Service: Applying Knowledge to Technology Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, Yuri

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the increase in significance and importance of cataloging and authority control in the online environment of libraries to help improve both precision and recall of searches. Highlights include the inadequacies of keyword searching; corporate library experiences; and library management with foreign library branches and foreign language…

  4. Bell Laboratories Book Acquisition, Accounting and Cataloging System (BELLTIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipfle, William K.

    BELLTIP is an on-line library processing system concerned with book acquisitions, cataloging, and financial accounting for a newwork of 26 technical libraries. At its center is an interactively updated and queried set of files concerned with all items currently in process. Principal products include all purchase orders, claims, and cancellations;…

  5. Catalog of Window Taper Functions for Sidelobe Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2017-04-01

    Window taper functions of finite apertures are well-known to control undesirable sidelobes, albeit with performance trades. A plethora of various taper functions have been developed over the years to achieve various optimizations. We herein catalog a number of window functions, and com pare principal characteristics.

  6. 41 CFR 109-27.5006 - Stores catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stores catalogs. 109-27.5006 Section 109-27.5006 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines § 109-27.5006 Stores...

  7. Library Dream Machines: Helping Students Master Super Online Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, T. D.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how automation has transformed the library and how super-catalogs have affected the process of doing research. Explains how faculty and librarians can work together to help students to use the available databases effectively, by teaching them Boolean logic, standard record formats, filing rules, etc. (DMM)

  8. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Information Resources Catalog 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-01-01

    NREL's ninth annual Information Resources Catalog can keep you up-to-date on the research, development, opportunities, and available technologies in energy efficiency and renewable energy. It includes five main sections with entries grouped according to subject area.

  9. Microcomputers as on-line catalogs in special libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, J B

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses the rationale for the conversion of a card catalog to an on-line system in a special library owning approximately 4000 titles. Equipment, software, and procedures are described. Pros and cons of the use of a microcomputer for such a project, as well as costs and personnel needs, are outlined.

  10. A Catalog of MIPSGAL Disk and Ring Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    remaining 11 are identified only as IRAS sources with no additional information available, except perhaps Two Micron All Sky Survey ( 2MASS )9 data...correspondence to the 24/xm emission, and a negative result means either no 9 Most of the catalog sources have at least one 2MASS source within 5", often

  11. Extending the Online Public Access Catalog into the Microcomputer Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Brett

    1990-01-01

    Describes PCBIS, a database program for MS-DOS microcomputers that features a utility for automatically converting online public access catalog search results stored as text files into structured database files that can be searched, sorted, edited, and printed. Topics covered include the general features of the program, record structure, record…

  12. Support Services for Remote Users of Online Public Access Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Sally W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the needs of remote users of online public access catalogs (OPACs). User expectations are discussed; problems encountered by remote-access users are examined, including technical problems and searching problems; support services are described, including instruction, print guides, and online help; and differences from the needs of…

  13. The Computer Catalog: A Democratic or Authoritarian Technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Judith A.

    1988-01-01

    Discussion of consequences of library automation argues that technology should be used to augment access to information. Online public access catalogs are considered in this context, along with several related issues such as system incompatibility, invasion of privacy, barriers to database access and manipulation, and user fees, which contribute…

  14. Designing User Manuals for the Online Public Access Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiden, Peggy; Sullivan, Patricia

    1986-01-01

    Describes the process of developing and revising a brochure to guide library patrons in conducting an author search on an online public access catalog in order to demonstrate the application of four steps in production of a functional document--analysis; planning; development; evaluation, testing, and revision. Three sources are given. (EJS)

  15. Training Concerns for an Online Public Access Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockman, Ilene F.; Adalian, Paul T., Jr.

    This report is designed to raise issues and concerns which will affect the successful implementation of an education and training program once an online public access catalog (OLPAC) has been installed in the Kennedy Library at California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly), San Luis Obispo. Information presented in the document was gathered…

  16. Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Catalogs and Atlases. Explanatory Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichman, C. A. (Editor); Neugebauer, G. (Editor); Habing, H. J. (Editor); Clegg, P. E. (Editor); Chester, T. J. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) mission is described. An overview of the mission, a description of the satellite and its telescope system, and a discussion of the mission design, requirements, and inflight modifications are given. Data reduction, flight tests, flux reconstruction and calibration, data processing, and the formats of the IRAS catalogs and atlases are also considered.

  17. Manual for cataloging and indexing documents for database acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.R.; Phillips, S.L.; Perra, J.J.

    1978-07-01

    The descriptive cataloging and subject indexing rules and methodology needed to process bibliographic information for GRID database storage are documented. Data elements which may appear in a bibliographic record are tabulated. Examples of coded data entry forms are included in an appendix. Examples are given of unit records in the database corresponding to one bibliographic reference. (MHR)

  18. Federating LHCb datasets using the DIRAC File catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Haen, Christophe; Frank, Markus; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    In the distributed computing model of LHCb the File Catalog (FC) is a central component that keeps track of each file and replica stored on the Grid. It is federating the LHCb data files in a logical namespace used by all LHCb applications. As a replica catalog, it is used for brokering jobs to sites where their input data is meant to be present, but also by jobs for finding alternative replicas if necessary. The LCG File Catalog (LFC) used originally by LHCb and other experiments is now being retired and needs to be replaced. The DIRAC File Catalog (DFC) was developed within the framework of the DIRAC Project and presented during CHEP 2012. From the technical point of view, the code powering the DFC follows an Aspect oriented programming (AOP): each type of entity that is manipulated by the DFC (Users, Files, Replicas, etc) is treated as a separate 'concern' in the AOP terminology. Hence, the database schema can also be adapted to the needs of a Virtual Organization. LHCb opted for a highly tuned MySQL datab...

  19. Improving Data Catalogs with Free and Open Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, R.; Hankin, S.; O'Brien, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Earth Observation Integrated Data Environment (GEO-IDE) is NOAA's effort to successfully integrate data and information with partners in the national US-Global Earth Observation System (US-GEO) and the international Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). As part of the GEO-IDE, the Unified Access Framework (UAF) is working to build momentum towards the goal of increased data integration and interoperability. The UAF project is moving towards this goal with an approach that includes leveraging well known and widely used standards, as well as free and open source software. The UAF project shares the widely held conviction that the use of data standards is a key ingredient necessary to achieve interoperability. Many community-based consensus standards fail, though, due to poor compliance. Compliance problems emerge for many reasons: because the standards evolve through versions, because documentation is ambiguous or because individual data providers find the standard inadequate as-is to meet their special needs. In addition, minimalist use of standards will lead to a compliant service, but one which is of low quality. In this presentation, we will be discussing the UAF effort to build a catalog cleaning tool which is designed to crawl THREDDS catalogs, analyze the data available, and then build a 'clean' catalog of data which is standards compliant and has a uniform set of data access services available. These data services include, among others, OPeNDAP, Web Coverage Service (WCS) and Web Mapping Service (WMS). We will also discuss how we are utilizing free and open source software and services to both crawl, analyze and build the clean data catalog, as well as our efforts to help data providers improve their data catalogs. We'll discuss the use of open source software such as DataNucleus, Thematic Realtime Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS), ncISO and the netCDF Java Common Data Model (CDM). We'll also demonstrate how we are

  20. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Bozorg Nia, Shahrzad; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I

    2014-02-10

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

  1. Radiation-Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays. Report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Jr, Charles L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shelton, Jacob H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ericson, Milton Nance [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blalock, Benjamin [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As the recent accident at Fukushima Daiichi so vividly demonstrated, telerobotic technologies capable of withstanding high radiation environments need to be readily available to enable operations, repair, and recovery under severe accident scenarios when human entry is extremely dangerous or not possible. Telerobotic technologies that enable remote operation in high dose rate environments have undergone revolutionary improvement over the past few decades. However, much of this technology cannot be employed in nuclear power environments because of the radiation sensitivity of the electronics and the organic insulator materials currently in use. This is a report of the activities involving Task 3 of the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) 2 project Radiation Hardened Circuitry Using Mask-Programmable Analog Arrays [1]. Evaluation of the performance of the system for both pre- and post-irradiation as well as operation at elevated temperature will be performed. Detailed performance of the system will be documented to ensure the design meets requirements prior to any extended evaluation. A suite of tests will be developed which will allow evaluation before and after irradiation and during temperature. Selection of the radiation exposure facilities will be determined in the early phase of the project. Radiation exposure will consist of total integrated dose (TID) up to 200 kRad or above with several intermediate doses during test. Dose rates will be in various ranges determined by the facility that will be used with a target of 30 kRad/hr. Many samples of the pre-commercial devices to be used will have been tested in previous projects to doses of at least 300 kRad and temperatures up to 125C. The complete systems will therefore be tested for performance at intermediate doses. Extended temperature testing will be performed up to the limit of the commercial sensors. The test suite performed at each test point will consist of operational testing of the three basic

  2. Hippocampome.org: a knowledge base of neuron types in the rodent hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Diek W; White, Charise M; Rees, Christopher L; Komendantov, Alexander O; Hamilton, David J; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2015-09-24

    Hippocampome.org is a comprehensive knowledge base of neuron types in the rodent hippocampal formation (dentate gyrus, CA3, CA2, CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex). Although the hippocampal literature is remarkably information-rich, neuron properties are often reported with incompletely defined and notoriously inconsistent terminology, creating a formidable challenge for data integration. Our extensive literature mining and data reconciliation identified 122 neuron types based on neurotransmitter, axonal and dendritic patterns, synaptic specificity, electrophysiology, and molecular biomarkers. All ∼3700 annotated properties are individually supported by specific evidence (∼14,000 pieces) in peer-reviewed publications. Systematic analysis of this unprecedented amount of machine-readable information reveals novel correlations among neuron types and properties, the potential connectivity of the full hippocampal circuitry, and outstanding knowledge gaps. User-friendly browsing and online querying of Hippocampome.org may aid design and interpretation of both experiments and simulations. This powerful, simple, and extensible neuron classification endeavor is unique in its detail, utility, and completeness.

  3. Maturation and integration of adult born hippocampal neurons: signal convergence onto small Rho GTPases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna eVadodaria

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis, restricted to specific regions in the mammalian brain, represents one of the most interesting forms of plasticity in the mature nervous system. Adult-born hippocampal neurons play important roles in certain forms of learning and memory, and altered hippocampal neurogenesis has been associated with a number of neuropsychiatric diseases such as major depression and epilepsy. Newborn neurons go through distinct developmental steps from a dividing neurogenic precursor to a synaptically integrated mature neuron. Previous studies have uncovered several molecular signaling pathways involved in distinct steps of this maturational process. In this context, the small Rho GTPases, Cdc42, Rac1 and RhoA have recently been shown to regulate the morphological and synaptic maturation of adult-born dentate granule cells in vivo. Distinct upstream regulators, including several growth factors that modulate maturation and integration of newborn neurons have been shown to also recruit the small Rho GTPases. Here we review recent findings and highlight the possibility that small Rho GTPases may act as central assimilators, downstream of critical input onto adult-born hippocampal neurons contributing to their maturation and integration into the existing dentate gyrus circuitry.

  4. Reorganization of Basolateral Amygdala-Subiculum Circuitry in Mouse Epilepsy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang eMa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the reorganized basolateral amygdala (BLA-subiculum pathway in a status epilepticus (SE mouse model with epileptic episodes induced by pilocarpine. We have previously observed a dramatic loss of neurons in the CA1-3 fields of the hippocampus in epileptic mice. Herein, we observed a 43-57 % reduction in the number of neurons in the BLA of epileptic mice. However, injection of an anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L into the BLA indicated 25.63 % increase in the number of PHA-L-immunopositive terminal-like structures in the ventral subiculum (v-Sub of epileptic mice as compared to control mice. These data suggest that the projections from the basal nucleus at BLA to the vSub in epileptic mice are resistant to epilepsy-induced damage. Consequently, these epileptic mice exhibit partially impairment but not total loss of context-dependent fear memory. Epileptic mice also show increased c-Fos expression in the BLA and vSub when subjected to contextual memory test, suggesting the participation of these 2 brain areas in foot shock-dependent fear conditioning. These results indicate the presence of functional neural connections between the BLA-vSub regions that participate in learning and memory in epileptic mice.

  5. Stochastic neuron models

    CERN Document Server

    Greenwood, Priscilla E

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a large number of open problems in the theory of stochastic neural systems, with the aim of enticing probabilists to work on them. This includes problems arising from stochastic models of individual neurons as well as those arising from stochastic models of the activities of small and large networks of interconnected neurons. The necessary neuroscience background to these problems is outlined within the text, so readers can grasp the context in which they arise. This book will be useful for graduate students and instructors providing material and references for applying probability to stochastic neuron modeling. Methods and results are presented, but the emphasis is on questions where additional stochastic analysis may contribute neuroscience insight. An extensive bibliography is included. Dr. Priscilla E. Greenwood is a Professor Emerita in the Department of Mathematics at the University of British Columbia. Dr. Lawrence M. Ward is a Professor in the Department of Psychology and the Brain...

  6. Morphological analysis of activity-reduced adult-born neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E Dahlen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult born neurons are added to the olfactory bulb (OB throughout life in rodents. While many factors have been identified as regulating the survival and integration of adult-born neurons (ABNs into existing circuitry, the understanding of how these factors affect ABN morphology and connectivity is limited. Here we compare how cell intrinsic (siRNA knock down of voltage gated sodium channels NaV1.1-1.3 and circuit level (naris occlusion reductions in activity affect ABN morphology during integration into the OB. We found that both manipulations reduce the number of dendritic spines (and thus likely the number of reciprocal synaptic connections formed with the surrounding circuitry and inhibited dendritic ramification of ABNs. Further, we identified regions of ABN apical dendrites where the largest and most significant decreases occur following siRNA knock down or naris occlusion. In siRNA knock down cells, reduction of spines is observed in proximal regions of the apical dendrite. This suggests that distal regions of the dendrite may remain active independent of NaV1.1-1.3 channel expression, perhaps facilitated by activation of T-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors. By contrast, circuit level reduction of activity by naris occlusion resulted in a global depression of spine number. Together, these results indicate that ABNs retain the ability to develop their typical overall morphological features regardless of experienced activity, and activity modulates the number and location of formed connections.

  7. Stimulation of feeding by three different glucose-sensing mechanisms requires hindbrain catecholamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Jun; Wang, Qing; Dinh, Thu T; Powers, Bethany R; Ritter, Sue

    2014-02-15

    Previous work has shown that hindbrain catecholamine neurons are required components of the brain's glucoregulatory circuitry. However, the mechanisms and circuitry underlying their glucoregulatory functions are poorly understood. Here we examined three drugs, glucosamine (GcA), phloridzin (Phl) and 5-thio-d-glucose (5TG), that stimulate food intake but interfere in different ways with cellular glucose utilization or transport. We examined feeding and blood glucose responses to each drug in male rats previously injected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus with anti-dopamine-β-hydroxylase conjugated to saporin (DSAP), a retrogradely transported immunotoxin that selectively lesions noradrenergic and adrenergic neurons, or with unconjugated saporin (SAP) control. Our major findings were 1) that GcA, Phl, and 5TG all stimulated feeding in SAP controls whether injected into the lateral or fourth ventricle (LV or 4V), 2) that each drug's potency was similar for both LV and 4V injections, 3) that neither LV or 4V injection of these drugs evoked feeding in DSAP-lesioned rats, and 4) that only 5TG, which blocks glycolysis, stimulated a blood glucose response. The antagonist of the MEK/ERK signaling cascade, U0126, attenuated GcA-induced feeding, but not Phl- or 5TG-induced feeding. Thus GcA, Phl, and 5TG, although differing in mechanism and possibly activating different neural populations, stimulate feeding in a catecholamine-dependent manner. Although results do not exclude the possibility that catecholamine neurons possess glucose-sensing mechanisms responsive to all of these agents, currently available evidence favors the possibility that the feeding effects result from convergent neural circuits in which catecholamine neurons are a required component.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Infrared-faint radio sources catalog (Collier+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J. D.; Banfield, J. K.; Norris, R. P.; Schnitzeler, D. H. F. M.; Kimball, A. E.; Filipovic, M. D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Tothill, N. F. H.

    2014-11-01

    The 20cm radio data come from the Unified Radio Catalog (URC) compiled by Kimball & Ivezic (2008AJ....136..684K). This radio catalogue combines data from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) VLA Sky Survey (NVSS; Condon et al., 1998, Cat. VIII/65), Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST; Becker, White & Helfand, 1995, cat. VIII/92), Green Bank 6cm survey (GB6; Gregory et al., 1996, Cat. VIII/40), the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS; Rengelink et al. 1997; de Bruyn et al. 2000, Cat. VIII/62) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 (SDSS DR6; Adelman-McCarthy et al., 2008, Cat. II/282). We use updated NVSS and FIRST data from the URC version 2.0 (Kimball & Ivezic, in preparation), which includes a number of new sources as well as updated positions and flux densities. The IR data come from WISE (Wright et al. (WISE Team) 2009, Cat. II/311), which is an all-sky survey centred at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22um (referred to as bands W1, W2, W3 and W4), with respective angular resolutions of 6.1, 6.4, 6.5 and 12.0-arcsec (full width at half-maximum, FWHM), and typical 5σ sensitivity levels of 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6mJy, with sensitivity increasing towards the ecliptic poles. (1 data file).

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CONCH-SHELL catalog of nearby M dwarfs (Gaidos+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, E.; Mann, A. W.; Lepine, S.; Buccino, A.; James, D.; Ansdell, M.; Petrucci, R.; Mauas, P.; Hilton, E. J.

    2015-04-01

    Lepinet et al. 2011 (J/AJ/142/138) selected candidate M dwarfs as stars that were (i) bright (J2.7), (iii) had absolute magnitudes or reduced proper motions, proxies for absolute magnitudes, consistent with the main sequence and (iv) infrared Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS; Skrutskie et al. 2006, Cat. II/246) JHKS colours that are consistent with M dwarfs. In this work, we constructed a revised catalogue of JMark III spectrograph and Boller & Chivens CCDS spectrograph (CCDS) on the 1.3m McGraw-Hill telescope at the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona, the REOSC spectrograph on the 2.15m Jorge Sahade telescope at the Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO), Argentina, and the RC spectrograph on the 1.9m Radcliffe telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. We obtained a total of 3071 spectra of 2583 stars or 86% of the catalog over the span 2002-2014 of more than 11 years. 425 stars were observed twice, 14 stars were observed thrice, and 6 stars had more than four observations. (2 data files).

  10. Neuronal Migration and Neuronal Migration Disorder in Cerebral Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Xue-Zhi; TAKAHASHI, Sentaro; GUI, Chun; ZHANG, Rui; KOGA, Kazuo; NOUYE, Minoru; MURATA, Yoshiharu

    2002-01-01

    Neuronal cell migration is one of the most significant features during cortical development. After final mitosis, neurons migrate from the ventricular zone into the cortical plate, and then establish neuronal lamina and settle onto the outermost layer, forming an "inside-out" gradient of maturation. Neuronal migration is guided by radial glial fibers and also needs proper receptors, ligands, and other unknown extracellular factors, requests local signaling (e.g. some emitted by the Cajal-Retz...

  11. Increased transient Na+ conductance and action potential output in layer 2/3 prefrontal cortex neurons of the fmr1-/y mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routh, Brandy N; Rathour, Rahul K; Baumgardner, Michael E; Kalmbach, Brian E; Johnston, Daniel; Brager, Darrin H

    2017-07-01

    Layer 2/3 neurons of the prefrontal cortex display higher gain of somatic excitability, responding with a higher number of action potentials for a given stimulus, in fmr1 -/y mice. In fmr1 -/y L2/3 neurons, action potentials are taller, faster and narrower. Outside-out patch clamp recordings revealed that the maximum Na + conductance density is higher in fmr1 -/y L2/3 neurons. Measurements of three biophysically distinct K + currents revealed a depolarizing shift in the activation of a rapidly inactivating (A-type) K + conductance. Realistic neuronal simulations of the biophysical observations recapitulated the elevated action potential and repetitive firing phenotype. Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental impairment and autism. The prefrontal cortex is responsible for higher order cognitive processing, and prefrontal dysfunction is believed to underlie many of the cognitive and behavioural phenotypes associated with fragile X syndrome. We recently demonstrated that somatic and dendritic excitability of layer (L) 5 pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex of the fmr1 -/y mouse is significantly altered due to changes in several voltage-gated ion channels. In addition to L5 pyramidal neurons, L2/3 pyramidal neurons play an important role in prefrontal circuitry, integrating inputs from both lower brain regions and the contralateral cortex. Using whole-cell current clamp recording, we found that L2/3 pyramidal neurons in prefrontal cortex of fmr1 -/y mouse fired more action potentials for a given stimulus compared with wild-type neurons. In addition, action potentials in fmr1 -/y neurons were significantly larger, faster and narrower. Voltage clamp of outside-out patches from L2/3 neurons revealed that the transient Na + current was significantly larger in fmr1 -/y neurons. Furthermore, the activation curve of somatic A-type K + current was depolarized. Realistic conductance-based simulations revealed that these biophysical changes in Na

  12. Age and gender modulate the neural circuitry supporting facial emotion processing in adults with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Emily M; Rapport, Lisa J; Kassel, Michelle T; Bieliauskas, Linas A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Weisenbach, Sara L; Langenecker, Scott A

    2015-03-01

    Emotion processing, supported by frontolimbic circuitry known to be sensitive to the effects of aging, is a relatively understudied cognitive-emotional domain in geriatric depression. Some evidence suggests that the neurophysiological disruption observed in emotion processing among adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) may be modulated by both gender and age. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of gender and age on the neural circuitry supporting emotion processing in MDD. Cross-sectional comparison of fMRI signal during performance of an emotion processing task. Outpatient university setting. One hundred adults recruited by MDD status, gender, and age. Participants underwent fMRI while completing the Facial Emotion Perception Test. They viewed photographs of faces and categorized the emotion perceived. Contrast for fMRI was of face perception minus animal identification blocks. Effects of depression were observed in precuneus and effects of age in a number of frontolimbic regions. Three-way interactions were present between MDD status, gender, and age in regions pertinent to emotion processing, including frontal, limbic, and basal ganglia. Young women with MDD and older men with MDD exhibited hyperactivation in these regions compared with their respective same-gender healthy comparison (HC) counterparts. In contrast, older women and younger men with MDD exhibited hypoactivation compared to their respective same-gender HC counterparts. This the first study to report gender- and age-specific differences in emotion processing circuitry in MDD. Gender-differential mechanisms may underlie cognitive-emotional disruption in older adults with MDD. The present findings have implications for improved probes into the heterogeneity of the MDD syndrome. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis circuitry: Implications for addiction-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Alice M; Sparta, Dennis R; Jennings, Joshua H; McElligott, Zoe A; Decot, Heather; Stuber, Garret D

    2014-01-01

    Complex motivated behavioral processes, such as those that can go awry following substance abuse and other neuropsychiatric disorders, are mediated by a distributive network of neurons that reside throughout the brain. Neural circuits within the amygdala regions, such as the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and downstream targets such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), are critical neuroanatomical structures for orchestrating emotional behavioral responses that may influence motivated actions such as the reinstatement of drug seeking behavior. Here, we review the functional neurocircuitry of the BLA and the BNST, and discuss how these circuits may guide maladaptive behavioral processes such as those seen in addiction. Thus, further study of the functional connectivity within these brain regions and others may provide insight for the development of new treatment strategies for substance use disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuronal nets in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Sanchez, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives a generic idea of the solutions that the neuronal nets contribute to the robotics. The advantages and the inconveniences are exposed that have regarding the conventional techniques. It also describe the more excellent applications as the pursuit of trajectories, the positioning based on images, the force control or of the mobile robots management, among others

  15. Hypothalamic neuroendocrine circuitry is programmed by maternal obesity: interaction with postnatal nutritional environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early life nutrition is critical for the development of hypothalamic neurons involved in energy homeostasis. We previously showed that intrauterine and early postnatal overnutrition programmed hypothalamic neurons expressing the appetite stimulator neuropeptide Y (NPY and suppressor proopiomelanocortin (POMC in offspring at weaning. However, the long-term effects of such programming and its interactions with post-weaning high-fat-diet (HFD consumption are unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to chow or HFD for 5 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. On postnatal day 1, litters were adjusted to 3/litter to induce postnatal overnutrition (vs. 12 in control. At postnatal day 20, half of the rats from each maternal group were weaned onto chow or HFD for 15 weeks. Hypothalamic appetite regulators, and fuel (glucose and lipid metabolic markers were measured. RESULTS: Offspring from obese dams gained more weight than those from lean dams independent of post-weaning diet. Maternal obesity interacted with post-weaning HFD consumption to cause greater levels of hyperphagia, adiposity, hyperlipidemia, and glucose intolerance in offspring. This was linked to increased hypothalamic NPY signaling and leptin resistance in adult offspring. Litter size reduction had a detrimental impact on insulin and adiponectin, while hypothalamic NPY and POMC mRNA expression were suppressed in the face of normal energy intake and weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal obesity, postnatal litter size reduction and post-weaning HFD consumption caused obesity via different neuroendocrine mechanism. There were strong additive effects of maternal obesity and post-weaning HFD consumption to increase the metabolic disorders in offspring.

  16. Web catalog of oceanographic data using GeoNetwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Veselka; Stefanov, Asen

    2017-04-01

    Most of the data collected, analyzed and used by Bulgarian oceanographic data center (BgODC) from scientific cruises, argo floats, ferry boxes and real time operating systems are spatially oriented and need to be displayed on the map. The challenge is to make spatial information more accessible to users, decision makers and scientists. In order to meet this challenge, BgODC concentrate its efforts on improving dynamic and standardized access to their geospatial data as well as those from various related organizations and institutions. BgODC currently is implementing a project to create a geospatial portal for distributing metadata and search, exchange and harvesting spatial data. There are many open source software solutions able to create such spatial data infrastructure (SDI). Finally, the GeoNetwork open source is chosen, as it is already widespread. This software is free, effective and "cheap" solution for implementing SDI at organization level. It is platform independent and runs under many operating systems. Filling of the catalog goes through these practical steps: • Managing and storing data reliably within MS SQL spatial data base; • Registration of maps and data of various formats and sources in GeoServer (most popular open source geospatial server embedded with GeoNetwork) ; • Filling added meta data and publishing geospatial data at the desktop of GeoNetwork. GeoServer and GeoNetwork are based on Java so they require installing of a servlet engine like Tomcat. The experience gained from the use of GeoNetwork Open Source confirms that the catalog meets the requirements for data management and is flexible enough to customize. Building the catalog facilitates sustainable data exchange between end users. The catalog is a big step towards implementation of the INSPIRE directive due to availability of many features necessary for producing "INSPIRE compliant" metadata records. The catalog now contains all available GIS data provided by BgODC for Internet

  17. Circuitry Linking the Catabolite Repression and Csr Global Regulatory Systems of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuri, Archana; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Zere, Tesfalem; McGibbon, Louise C; Edwards, Adrianne N; Georgellis, Dimitris; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2016-11-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and the cAMP receptor protein (cAMP-CRP) and CsrA are the principal regulators of the catabolite repression and carbon storage global regulatory systems, respectively. cAMP-CRP controls the transcription of genes for carbohydrate metabolism and other processes in response to carbon nutritional status, while CsrA binds to diverse mRNAs and regulates translation, RNA stability, and/or transcription elongation. CsrA also binds to the regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) CsrB and CsrC, which antagonize its activity. The BarA-UvrY two-component signal transduction system (TCS) directly activates csrB and csrC (csrB/C) transcription, while CsrA does so indirectly. We show that cAMP-CRP inhibits csrB/C transcription without negatively regulating phosphorylated UvrY (P-UvrY) or CsrA levels. A crp deletion caused an elevation in CsrB/C levels in the stationary phase of growth and increased the expression of csrB-lacZ and csrC-lacZ transcriptional fusions, although modest stimulation of CsrB/C turnover by the crp deletion partially masked the former effects. DNase I footprinting and other studies demonstrated that cAMP-CRP bound specifically to three sites located upstream from the csrC promoter, two of which overlapped the P-UvrY binding site. These two proteins competed for binding at the overlapping sites. In vitro transcription-translation experiments confirmed direct repression of csrC-lacZ expression by cAMP-CRP. In contrast, cAMP-CRP effects on csrB transcription may be mediated indirectly, as it bound nonspecifically to csrB DNA. In the reciprocal direction, CsrA bound to crp mRNA with high affinity and specificity and yet exhibited only modest, conditional effects on expression. Our findings are incorporated into an emerging model for the response of Csr circuitry to carbon nutritional status. Csr (Rsm) noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) CsrB and CsrC of Escherichia coli use molecular mimicry to sequester the RNA binding protein CsrA (RsmA) away from lower

  18. Vasculo-Neuronal Coupling: Retrograde Vascular Communication to Brain Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Jung; Ramiro Diaz, Juan; Iddings, Jennifer A; Filosa, Jessica A

    2016-12-14

    Continuous cerebral blood flow is essential for neuronal survival, but whether vascular tone influences resting neuronal function is not known. Using a multidisciplinary approach in both rat and mice brain slices, we determined whether flow/pressure-evoked increases or decreases in parenchymal arteriole vascular tone, which result in arteriole constriction and dilation, respectively, altered resting cortical pyramidal neuron activity. We present evidence for intercellular communication in the brain involving a flow of information from vessel to astrocyte to neuron, a direction opposite to that of classic neurovascular coupling and referred to here as vasculo-neuronal coupling (VNC). Flow/pressure increases within parenchymal arterioles increased vascular tone and simultaneously decreased resting pyramidal neuron firing activity. On the other hand, flow/pressure decreases evoke parenchymal arteriole dilation and increased resting pyramidal neuron firing activity. In GLAST-CreERT2; R26-lsl-GCaMP3 mice, we demonstrate that increased parenchymal arteriole tone significantly increased intracellular calcium in perivascular astrocyte processes, the onset of astrocyte calcium changes preceded the inhibition of cortical pyramidal neuronal firing activity. During increases in parenchymal arteriole tone, the pyramidal neuron response was unaffected by blockers of nitric oxide, GABA A , glutamate, or ecto-ATPase. However, VNC was abrogated by TRPV4 channel, GABA B , as well as an adenosine A 1 receptor blocker. Differently to pyramidal neuron responses, increases in flow/pressure within parenchymal arterioles increased the firing activity of a subtype of interneuron. Together, these data suggest that VNC is a complex constitutive active process that enables neurons to efficiently adjust their resting activity according to brain perfusion levels, thus safeguarding cellular homeostasis by preventing mismatches between energy supply and demand. We present evidence for vessel-to-neuron

  19. Neuronal survival in the brain: neuron type-specific mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfisterer, Ulrich Gottfried; Khodosevich, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenic regions of mammalian brain produce many more neurons that will eventually survive and reach a mature stage. Developmental cell death affects both embryonically produced immature neurons and those immature neurons that are generated in regions of adult neurogenesis. Removal of substantial...... numbers of neurons that are not yet completely integrated into the local circuits helps to ensure that maturation and homeostatic function of neuronal networks in the brain proceed correctly. External signals from brain microenvironment together with intrinsic signaling pathways determine whether...... for survival in a certain brain region. This review focuses on how immature neurons survive during normal and impaired brain development, both in the embryonic/neonatal brain and in brain regions associated with adult neurogenesis, and emphasizes neuron type-specific mechanisms that help to survive for various...

  20. One rule to grow them all: a general theory of neuronal branching and its practical application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Cuntz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the principles governing axonal and dendritic branching is essential for unravelling the functionality of single neurons and the way in which they connect. Nevertheless, no formalism has yet been described which can capture the general features of neuronal branching. Here we propose such a formalism, which is derived from the expression of dendritic arborizations as locally optimized graphs. Inspired by Ramón y Cajal's laws of conservation of cytoplasm and conduction time in neural circuitry, we show that this graphical representation can be used to optimize these variables. This approach allows us to generate synthetic branching geometries which replicate morphological features of any tested neuron. The essential structure of a neuronal tree is thereby captured by the density profile of its spanning field and by a single parameter, a balancing factor weighing the costs for material and conduction time. This balancing factor determines a neuron's electrotonic compartmentalization. Additions to this rule, when required in the construction process, can be directly attributed to developmental processes or a neuron's computational role within its neural circuit. The simulations presented here are implemented in an open-source software package, the "TREES toolbox," which provides a general set of tools for analyzing, manipulating, and generating dendritic structure, including a tool to create synthetic members of any particular cell group and an approach for a model-based supervised automatic morphological reconstruction from fluorescent image stacks. These approaches provide new insights into the constraints governing dendritic architectures. They also provide a novel framework for modelling and analyzing neuronal branching structures and for constructing realistic synthetic neural networks.

  1. A Catalog of 1022 Bright Contact Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettel, S. J.; Geske, M. T.; McKay, T. A.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we describe a large new sample of contact binary stars extracted in a uniform manner from sky patrol data taken by the ROTSE-I telescope. Extensive ROTSE-I light-curve data are combined with J-, H-, and K-band near-infrared data taken from the Two Micron All Sky Survey to add color information. Contact binary candidates are selected using the observed period-color relation. Candidates are confirmed by visual examination of the light curves. To enhance the utility of this catalog, we derive a new J-H period-color-luminosity relation and use this to estimate distances for the entire catalog. From these distance estimates we derive an estimated contact binary space density of (1.7+/-0.6)×10-5 pc-3.

  2. BAT2 GRB Catalog - Prompt Emission Properties of Swift GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Parsons, A.; Tueller, J.; Baumgartner, W.; Cummings, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Ukwatta, T.

    2010-01-01

    We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parameters measured by the BAT. The BAT T 90 duration peaks at 70 s. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT short-duration GRBs are generally harder than those of the long-duration GRBs. The observed durations of the BAT high redshift GRBs are not systematically longer than those of the moderate redshift GRBs. Furthermore, the observed spectra of the BAT high redshift GRBs are similar to or harder than the moderate redshift GRBs.

  3. Catalog of gamma-rays unplaced in radioactive decay schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Tsutomu; Kitao, Kensuke.

    1991-03-01

    A catalog is made for gamma-rays emitted in decay of radioactive nuclides but not placed in their decay schemes. It consists of two tables. In Table 1, the number of these unplaced gamma-ray components by a nuclide is given together with the fraction of total intensity of these gamma-rays to that of all observed gamma-rays. In Table 2, the unplaced gamma-rays are arranged in order of increasing energy. Each line of this table contains the gamma-ray energy, intensity, nuclide identification, and energies and intensities of the most prominent gamma-rays from the decay of the radionuclides. This catalog is a compilation from Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) maintained by National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory, of at February 1990. (author)

  4. THE FIVE YEAR FERMI/GBM MAGNETAR BURST CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collazzi, A. C. [SciTec, Inc., 100 Wall Street, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Kouveliotou, C.; Horst, A. J. van der; Younes, G. A. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Kaneko, Y.; Göğüş, E. [Sabancı University, Orhanlı-Tuzla, İstanbul 34956 (Turkey); Lin, L. [François Arago Centre, APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris (France); Granot, J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Raanana 43537 (Israel); Finger, M. H. [Universities Space Research Association, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Chaplin, V. L. [School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, 1161 21st Avenue S, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Huppenkothen, D. [Center for Data Science, New York University, 726 Broadway, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Watts, A. L. [Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kienlin, A. von [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Gruber, D. [Planetarium Südtirol, Gummer 5, I-39053 Karneid (Italy); Bhat, P. N. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Gibby, M. H., E-mail: acollazzi@scitec.com [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    Since launch in 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected many hundreds of bursts from magnetar sources. While the vast majority of these bursts have been attributed to several known magnetars, there is also a small sample of magnetar-like bursts of unknown origin. Here, we present the Fermi/GBM magnetar catalog, providing the results of the temporal and spectral analyses of 440 magnetar bursts with high temporal and spectral resolution. This catalog covers the first five years of GBM magnetar observations, from 2008 July to 2013 June. We provide durations, spectral parameters for various models, fluences, and peak fluxes for all the bursts, as well as a detailed temporal analysis for SGR J1550–5418 bursts. Finally, we suggest that some of the bursts of unknown origin are associated with the newly discovered magnetar 3XMM J185246.6+0033.7.

  5. Online catalog access and distribution of remotely sensed information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Stephen M.

    1997-09-01

    Remote sensing is providing voluminous data and value added information products. Electronic sensors, communication electronics, computer software, hardware, and network communications technology have matured to the point where a distributed infrastructure for remotely sensed information is a reality. The amount of remotely sensed data and information is making distributed infrastructure almost a necessity. This infrastructure provides data collection, archiving, cataloging, browsing, processing, and viewing for applications from scientific research to economic, legal, and national security decision making. The remote sensing field is entering a new exciting stage of commercial growth and expansion into the mainstream of government and business decision making. This paper overviews this new distributed infrastructure and then focuses on describing a software system for on-line catalog access and distribution of remotely sensed information.

  6. Developmental Connectivity and Molecular Phenotypes of Unique Cortical Projection Neurons that Express a Synapse-Associated Receptor Tyrosine Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Ryan J; Wu, Hsiao-Huei; Levitt, Pat

    2017-11-28

    The complex circuitry and cell-type diversity of the cerebral cortex are required for its high-level functions. The mechanisms underlying the diversification of cortical neurons during prenatal development have received substantial attention, but understanding of neuronal heterogeneity is more limited during later periods of cortical circuit maturation. To address this knowledge gap, connectivity analysis and molecular phenotyping of cortical neuron subtypes that express the developing synapse-enriched MET receptor tyrosine kinase were performed. Experiments used a MetGFP transgenic mouse line, combined with coexpression analysis of class-specific molecular markers and retrograde connectivity mapping. The results reveal that MET is expressed by a minor subset of subcerebral and a larger number of intratelencephalic projection neurons. Remarkably, MET is excluded from most layer 6 corticothalamic neurons. These findings are particularly relevant for understanding the maturation of discrete cortical circuits, given converging evidence that MET influences dendritic elaboration and glutamatergic synapse maturation. The data suggest that classically defined cortical projection classes can be further subdivided based on molecular characteristics that likely influence synaptic maturation and circuit wiring. Additionally, given that MET is classified as a high confidence autism risk gene, the data suggest that projection neuron subpopulations may be differentially vulnerable to disorder-associated genetic variation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Left-right asymmetry defect in the hippocampal circuitry impairs spatial learning and working memory in iv mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Goto

    Full Text Available Although left-right (L-R asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain function, little is known about how asymmetry defects of the brain affect animal behavior. Previously, we identified structural and functional asymmetries in the circuitry of the mouse hippocampus resulting from the asymmetrical distribution of NMDA receptor GluR ε2 (NR2B subunits. We further examined the ε2 asymmetry in the inversus viscerum (iv mouse, which has randomized laterality of internal organs, and found that the iv mouse hippocampus exhibits right isomerism (bilateral right-sidedness in the synaptic distribution of the ε2 subunit, irrespective of the laterality of visceral organs. To investigate the effects of hippocampal laterality defects on higher-order brain functions, we examined the capacity of reference and working memories of iv mice using a dry maze and a delayed nonmatching-to-position (DNMTP task, respectively. The iv mice improved dry maze performance more slowly than control mice during acquisition, whereas the asymptotic level of performance was similar between the two groups. In the DNMTP task, the iv mice showed poorer accuracy than control mice as the retention interval became longer. These results suggest that the L-R asymmetry of hippocampal circuitry is critical for the acquisition of reference memory and the retention of working memory.

  8. The Neural Basis of and a Common Neural Circuitry in Different Types of Pro-social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pro-social behaviors are voluntary behaviors that benefit other people or society as a whole, such as charitable donations, cooperation, trust, altruistic punishment, and fairness. These behaviors have been widely described through non self-interest decision-making in behavioral experimental studies and are thought to be increased by social preference motives. Importantly, recent studies using a combination of neuroimaging and brain stimulation, designed to reveal the neural mechanisms of pro-social behaviors, have found that a wide range of brain areas, specifically the prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala, are correlated or causally related with pro-social behaviors. In this review, we summarize the research on the neural basis of various kinds of pro-social behaviors and describe a common shared neural circuitry of these pro-social behaviors. We introduce several general ways in which experimental economics and neuroscience can be combined to develop important contributions to understanding social decision-making and pro-social behaviors. Future research should attempt to explore the neural circuitry between the frontal lobes and deeper brain areas.

  9. Lateral hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and ventral pallidum roles in eating and hunger: interactions between homeostatic and reward circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Charles Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the neural bases of eating behavior, hunger, and reward has consistently implicated the lateral hypothalamus (LH and its interactions with mesocorticolimbic circuitry, such as mesolimbic dopamine projections to nucleus accumbens (NAc and ventral pallidum (VP, in controlling motivation to eat. The NAc and VP play special roles in mediating the hedonic impact (‘liking’ and motivational incentive salience (‘wanting’ of food rewards, and their interactions with LH help permit regulatory hunger/satiety modulation of food motivation and reward. Here, we review some progress that has been made regarding this circuitry and its functions: the identification of localized anatomical hedonic hotspots within NAc and VP for enhancing hedonic impact; interactions of NAc/VP hedonic hotspots with specific LH signals such as orexin; an anterior-posterior gradient of sites in NAc shell for producing intense appetitive eating versus intense fearful reactions; and anatomically distributed appetitive functions of dopamine and mu opioid signals in NAc shell and related structures. Such findings help improve our understanding of NAc, VP, and LH interactions in mediating affective and motivation functions, including ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ for food rewards.

  10. Neurobiological Programming of Early Life Stress: Functional Development of Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry and Vulnerability for Stress-Related Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTieghem, Michelle R; Tottenham, Nim

    2017-04-25

    Early adverse experiences are associated with heighted vulnerability for stress-related psychopathology across the lifespan. While extensive work has investigated the effects of early adversity on neurobiology in adulthood, developmental approaches can provide further insight on the neurobiological mechanisms that link early experiences and long-term mental health outcomes. In the current review, we discuss the role of emotion regulation circuitry implicated in stress-related psychopathology from a developmental and transdiagnostic perspective. We highlight converging evidence suggesting that multiple forms of early adverse experiences impact the functional development of amygdala-prefrontal circuitry. Next, we discuss how adversity-induced alterations in amygdala-prefrontal development are associated with symptoms of emotion dysregulation and psychopathology. Additionally, we discuss potential mechanisms through which protective factors may buffer the effects of early adversity on amygdala-prefrontal development to confer more adaptive long-term outcomes. Finally, we consider limitations of the existing literature and make suggestions for future longitudinal and translational research that can better elucidate the mechanisms linking early adversity, neurobiology, and emotional phenotypes. Together, these findings may provide further insight into the neuro-developmental mechanisms underlying the emergence of adversity-related emotional disorders and facilitate the development of targeted interventions that can ameliorate risk for psychopathology in youth exposed to early life stress.

  11. 3FHL: The Third Catalog of Hard Fermi -LAT Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica “M. Merlin” dell’Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Britto, R. J. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Bruel, P., E-mail: majello@slac.stanford.edu [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); and others

    2017-10-01

    We present a catalog of sources detected above 10 GeV by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the first 7 years of data using the Pass 8 event-level analysis. This is the Third Catalog of Hard Fermi -LAT Sources (3FHL), containing 1556 objects characterized in the 10 GeV–2 TeV energy range. The sensitivity and angular resolution are improved by factors of 3 and 2 relative to the previous LAT catalog at the same energies (1FHL). The vast majority of detected sources (79%) are associated with extragalactic counterparts at other wavelengths, including 16 sources located at very high redshift ( z > 2). Of the sources, 8% have Galactic counterparts and 13% are unassociated (or associated with a source of unknown nature). The high-latitude sky and the Galactic plane are observed with a flux sensitivity of 4.4 to 9.5 × 10{sup −11} ph cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, respectively (this is approximately 0.5% and 1% of the Crab Nebula flux above 10 GeV). The catalog includes 214 new γ -ray sources. The substantial increase in the number of photons (more than 4 times relative to 1FHL and 10 times to 2FHL) also allows us to measure significant spectral curvature for 32 sources and find flux variability for 163 of them. Furthermore, we estimate that for the same flux limit of 10{sup −12} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, the energy range above 10 GeV has twice as many sources as the range above 50 GeV, highlighting the importance, for future Cherenkov telescopes, of lowering the energy threshold as much as possible.

  12. Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

  13. Catalog of research projects at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Catalog has been created to aid in the transfer of technology from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to potential users in industry, government, universities, and the public. The projects are listed for the following LBL groups: Accelerator and Fusion Research Division, Applied Science Division, Biology and Medicine Division, Center for Advanced Materials, Chemical Biodynamics Division, Computing Division, Earth Sciences Division, Engineering and Technical Services Division, Materials and Molecular Research Division, Nuclear Science Division, and Physics Division

  14. Analysis of Earthquake Catalogs for CSEP Testing Region Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peresan, A.; Romashkova, L.; Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V.; Panza, G.F.

    2010-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis shows that the set of catalogs provided by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV, Italy) as the authoritative database for the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability - Testing Region Italy (CSEP-TRI), is hardly a unified one acceptable for the necessary tuning of models/algorithms, as well as for running rigorous prospective predictability tests at intermediate- or long-term scale. (author)

  15. Catalog of research projects at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This Catalog has been created to aid in the transfer of technology from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to potential users in industry, government, universities, and the public. The projects are listed for the following LBL groups: Accelerator and Fusion Research Division, Applied Science Division, Biology and Medicine Division, Center for Advanced Materials, Chemical Biodynamics Division, Computing Division, Earth Sciences Division, Engineering and Technical Services Division, Materials and Molecular Research Division, Nuclear Science Division, and Physics Division.

  16. The Seamount Catalog in EarthRef.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotberg, N. K.; Koppers, A. A.; Staudigel, H.; Perez, J.

    2004-12-01

    Seamounts are important to research and education in many scientific fields, providing a wide range of data on physical, chemical, biological and geological processes. In order to make a diverse set of seamount data accessible we have developed the Seamount Catalog in EarthRef.org, available through the http://earthref.org/databases/SC/. The primary goal of the Seamount Catalog is to provide access to digital data files on a large assortment of interdisciplinary seamount research. The catalog can be searched at a variety of ability or expert levels allowing it to be used from basic education to advanced research. Each seamount is described in terms of its location, height, volume, elongation, azimuth, irregularity, rifts, morphological classification and relation to other features. GEBCO (General Bathymetric Chart of the Ocean) gazetteer data (2002; 2003) is included in the database in order to provide information on the history, discovery and names of the seamounts. Screen-optimized bathymetry maps, grid files and the original multibeam data files are available for online viewing with higher resolution downloadable versions (AI, PS, PDF) also offered. The data files for each seamount include a map made from the multibeam data only, a map made from Smith and Sandwell's (1996) predicted bathymetry, a merged map incorporating both data sets, and a map showing the differences between the two data sets. We are working towards expanding the Seamount Catalog by integrating bathymetry data from various sources, developing and linking disciplinary reference models, and integrating information from multiple disciplines and from the literature. We hope to create a data integrative environment that provides access to seamount data and the tools needed for working with that data.

  17. A catalog of observed nuclear magnitudes of Jupiter family comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, G.; Fernández, J. A.; Rickman, H.; Licandro, J.

    2000-10-01

    A catalog of a sample of 105 Jupiter family (JF) comets (defined as those with Tisserand constants T > 2 and orbital periods P International Comet Quarterly Archive of Cometary Photometric Data, the Minor Planet Center (MPC) data base, IAU Circulars, International Comet Quarterly, and a few papers devoted to some particular comets, together with our own observations. Photometric data previous to 1990 have mainly been taken from the Comet Light Curve Catalogue (CLICC) compiled by Kamél (\\cite{kamel}). We discuss the reliability of the reported nuclear magnitudes in relation to the inherent sources of errors and uncertainties, in particular the coma contamination often present even at large heliocentric distances. A large fraction of the JF comets of our sample indeed shows various degrees of activity at large heliocentric distances, which is correlated with recent downward jumps in their perihelion distances. The reliability of coma subtraction methods to compute the nuclear magnitude is also discussed. Most absolute nuclear magnitudes are found in the range 15 - 18, with no magnitudes fainter than H_N ~ 19.5. The catalog can be found at: http://www.fisica.edu.uy/ ~ gonzalo/catalog/. Table 2 and Appendix B are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Table 5 is also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  18. The Modeling and Simulation Catalog for Discovery, Knowledge and Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, George F. III; Greenberg, Brandi; Daehler-Wilking, Richard; Hunt, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The DoD M&S Steering Committee has noted that the current DoD and Service's modeling and simulation resource repository (MSRR) services are not up-to-date limiting their value to the using communities. However, M&S leaders and managers also determined that the Department needs a functional M&S registry card catalog to facilitate M&S tool and data visibility to support M&S activities across the DoD. The M&S Catalog will discover and access M&S metadata maintained at nodes distributed across DoD networks in a centrally managed, decentralized process that employs metadata collection and management. The intent is to link information stores, precluding redundant location updating. The M&S Catalog uses a standard metadata schemas based on the DoD's Net-Centric Data Strategy Community of Interest metadata specification. The Air Force, Navy and OSD (CAPE) have provided initial information to participating DoD nodes, but plans on the horizon are being made to bring in hundreds of source providers.

  19. Interactive Editing and Cataloging Interfaces for Modern Digital Library Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Raae, L C; Helstrup, H

    2009-01-01

    The next-generation High Energy Physics information system, INSPIRE, is being built by combining the content from the successful SPIRES database of bibliographic information with the CDS Invenio software being developed at CERN, an open-source platform for large digital library systems. The project is a collaboration between four major particle physics laboratories in Europe and the U.S. New tools are being developed to enable the global cooperation between catalogers at these labs. The BibEdit module will provide a central interface for the editing, enrichment, correction and verification of a record on its way into the system, by processing and presenting data from several supporting modules to the cataloger. The objective is to minimize the time and actions needed by the cataloger to process the record. To create a fast and powerful web application we make use of modern AJAX technology to create a dynamic and responsive user interface, where server communication happens in the background without delaying t...

  20. GRAVITATIONALLY CONSISTENT HALO CATALOGS AND MERGER TREES FOR PRECISION COSMOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi; Busha, Michael T.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Primack, Joel R.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for generating merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensures consistency of halo properties (mass, position, and velocity) across time steps. Our algorithm has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. In addition, our method is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders; it is the first to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations. We use this algorithm to generate merger trees for two large simulations (Bolshoi and Consuelo) and evaluate two halo finders (ROCKSTAR and BDM). We find that both the ROCKSTAR and BDM halo finders track halos extremely well; in both, the number of halos which do not have physically consistent progenitors is at the 1%-2% level across all halo masses. Our code is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/consistent-trees. Our trees and catalogs are publicly available at http://hipacc.ucsc.edu/Bolshoi/.