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Sample records for catalase overexpression reduces

  1. Catalase overexpression does not impair extensor digitorum longus muscle function in normal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingju; Yue, Yongping; Li, Dejia; Duan, Dongsheng

    2007-12-01

    Catalase is a major antioxidant enzyme. Increasing catalase expression represents a promising avenue to improve muscle function in certain physiological conditions and in some muscle diseases. We hypothesized that catalase overexpression should not impair normal muscle contraction. We delivered a hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged human catalase gene to normal mouse muscle by an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV). Western blot and immunostaining revealed efficient expression of HA-tagged catalase. Enzymatic assay demonstrated an approximately threefold increase in catalase activity in AAV-infected muscles. Catalase overexpression impaired neither twitch nor tetanic tension in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Furthermore, EDL fatigue response was not altered. Taken together, we have developed a novel AAV vector to enhance catalase expression. Lack of apparent toxicity in normal muscle strongly supports further exploration of this vector to reduce oxidative stress-induced muscle damage.

  2. Over-Expression of Catalase in Myeloid Cells Confers Acute Protection Following Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bernadette Cabigas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and new treatment options are greatly needed. Oxidative stress is increased following myocardial infarction and levels of antioxidants decrease, causing imbalance that leads to dysfunction. Therapy involving catalase, the endogenous scavenger of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, has been met with mixed results. When over-expressed in cardiomyocytes from birth, catalase improves function following injury. When expressed in the same cells in an inducible manner, catalase showed a time-dependent response with no acute benefit, but a chronic benefit due to altered remodeling. In myeloid cells, catalase over-expression reduced angiogenesis during hindlimb ischemia and prevented monocyte migration. In the present study, due to the large inflammatory response following infarction, we examined myeloid-specific catalase over-expression on post-infarct healing. We found a significant increase in catalase levels following infarction that led to a decrease in H2O2 levels, leading to improved acute function. This increase in function could be attributed to reduced infarct size and improved angiogenesis. Despite these initial improvements, there was no improvement in chronic function, likely due to increased fibrosis. These data combined with what has been previously shown underscore the need for temporal, cell-specific catalase delivery as a potential therapeutic option.

  3. Overexpression of Catalase Diminishes Oxidative Cysteine Modifications of Cardiac Proteins.

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    Chunxiang Yao

    Full Text Available Reactive protein cysteine thiolates are instrumental in redox regulation. Oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, react with thiolates to form oxidative post-translational modifications, enabling physiological redox signaling. Cardiac disease and aging are associated with oxidative stress which can impair redox signaling by altering essential cysteine thiolates. We previously found that cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase (Cat, an enzyme that detoxifies excess H2O2, protected from oxidative stress and delayed cardiac aging in mice. Using redox proteomics and systems biology, we sought to identify the cysteines that could play a key role in cardiac disease and aging. With a 'Tandem Mass Tag' (TMT labeling strategy and mass spectrometry, we investigated differential reversible cysteine oxidation in the cardiac proteome of wild type and Cat transgenic (Tg mice. Reversible cysteine oxidation was measured as thiol occupancy, the ratio of total available versus reversibly oxidized cysteine thiols. Catalase overexpression globally decreased thiol occupancy by ≥1.3 fold in 82 proteins, including numerous mitochondrial and contractile proteins. Systems biology analysis assigned the majority of proteins with differentially modified thiols in Cat Tg mice to pathways of aging and cardiac disease, including cellular stress response, proteostasis, and apoptosis. In addition, Cat Tg mice exhibited diminished protein glutathione adducts and decreased H2O2 production from mitochondrial complex I and II, suggesting improved function of cardiac mitochondria. In conclusion, our data suggest that catalase may alleviate cardiac disease and aging by moderating global protein cysteine thiol oxidation.

  4. Overexpression of Catalase Diminishes Oxidative Cysteine Modifications of Cardiac Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chunxiang; Behring, Jessica B; Shao, Di; Sverdlov, Aaron L; Whelan, Stephen A; Elezaby, Aly; Yin, Xiaoyan; Siwik, Deborah A; Seta, Francesca; Costello, Catherine E; Cohen, Richard A; Matsui, Reiko; Colucci, Wilson S; McComb, Mark E; Bachschmid, Markus M

    2015-01-01

    Reactive protein cysteine thiolates are instrumental in redox regulation. Oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), react with thiolates to form oxidative post-translational modifications, enabling physiological redox signaling. Cardiac disease and aging are associated with oxidative stress which can impair redox signaling by altering essential cysteine thiolates. We previously found that cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase (Cat), an enzyme that detoxifies excess H2O2, protected from oxidative stress and delayed cardiac aging in mice. Using redox proteomics and systems biology, we sought to identify the cysteines that could play a key role in cardiac disease and aging. With a 'Tandem Mass Tag' (TMT) labeling strategy and mass spectrometry, we investigated differential reversible cysteine oxidation in the cardiac proteome of wild type and Cat transgenic (Tg) mice. Reversible cysteine oxidation was measured as thiol occupancy, the ratio of total available versus reversibly oxidized cysteine thiols. Catalase overexpression globally decreased thiol occupancy by ≥1.3 fold in 82 proteins, including numerous mitochondrial and contractile proteins. Systems biology analysis assigned the majority of proteins with differentially modified thiols in Cat Tg mice to pathways of aging and cardiac disease, including cellular stress response, proteostasis, and apoptosis. In addition, Cat Tg mice exhibited diminished protein glutathione adducts and decreased H2O2 production from mitochondrial complex I and II, suggesting improved function of cardiac mitochondria. In conclusion, our data suggest that catalase may alleviate cardiac disease and aging by moderating global protein cysteine thiol oxidation.

  5. Overexpression of Catalase Enhances Benzo(a)pyrene Detoxification in Endothelial Microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Yang, Hong; Ramesh, Aramandla; Goodwin, J Shawn; Okoro, Emmanuel U; Guo, ZhongMao

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that overexpression of catalase upregulated xenobiotic- metabolizing enzyme (XME) expression and diminished benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) intermediate accumulation in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the most active organelle involved in BaP metabolism. To examine the involvement of ER in catalase-induced BaP detoxification, we compared the level and distribution of XMEs, and the profile of BaP intermediates in the microsomes of wild-type and catalase transgenic endothelial cells. Our data showed that endothelial microsomes were enriched in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP1B1 and epoxide hydrolase 1 (EH1), and contained considerable levels of quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase-pi (GSTP). Treatment of wild-type MAECs with 1μM BaP for 2 h increased the expression of microsomal CYP1A1, 1B1 and NQO1 by ~300, 64 and 116%, respectively. However, the same treatment did not significantly alter the expression of EH1 and GSTP. Overexpression of catalase did not significantly increase EH1, but upregulated BaP-induced expression of microsomal CYP1A1, 1B1, NQO1 and GSTP in the following order: 1A1>NQO1>GSTP>1B1. Overexpression of catalase did not alter the distribution of each of these enzymes in the microsomes. In contrast to our previous report showing lower level of BaP phenols versus BaP diols/diones in the whole-cell, this report demonstrated that the sum of microsomal BaP phenolic metabolites were ~60% greater than that of the BaP diols/diones after exposure of microsomes to BaP. Overexpression of catalase reduced the concentrations of microsomal BaP phenols and diols/diones by ~45 and 95%, respectively. This process enhanced the ratio of BaP phenol versus diol/dione metabolites in a potent manner. Taken together, upregulation of phase II XMEs and CYP1 proteins, but not EH1 in the ER might be the mechanism by which overexpression of catalase reduces the levels of all the BaP metabolites, and

  6. Overexpression of catalase in myeloid cells causes impaired postischemic neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodara, Roberto; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Velasquez-Castano, Juan C; Landázuri, Natalia; Han, Ji Woong; Yoon, Young-sup; Taylor, W Robert

    2011-10-01

    Myeloid lineage cells (MLCs) such as macrophages are known to play a key role in postischemic neovascularization. However, the role of MLC-derived reactive oxygen species in this process and their specific chemical identity remain unknown. Transgenic mice with MLC-specific overexpression of catalase (Tg(Cat-MLC) mice) were created on a C57BL/6 background. Macrophage catalase activity was increased 3.4-fold compared with wild-type mice. After femoral artery ligation, laser Doppler perfusion imaging revealed impaired perfusion recovery in Tg(Cat-MLC) mice. This was associated with fewer collateral vessels, as assessed by microcomputed tomography angiography, and decreased capillary density. Impaired functional recovery of the ischemic limb was also evidenced by a 50% reduction in spontaneous running activity. The deficient neovascularization was associated with a blunted inflammatory response, characterized by decreased macrophage infiltration of ischemic tissues, and lower mRNA levels of inflammatory markers, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, osteopontin, and matrix mettaloproteinase-9. In vitro macrophage migration was impaired in Tg(Cat-MLC) mice, suggesting a role for H(2)O(2) in regulating the ability of macrophages to infiltrate ischemic tissues. MLC-derived H(2)O(2) plays a key role in promoting neovascularization in response to ischemia and is a necessary factor for the development of ischemia-induced inflammation.

  7. Overexpression of Catalase in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Prevents the Formation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

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    Parastatidis, Ioannis; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Taylor, W Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been reported in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), but which reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes the development of AAA remains unclear. Here we investigate the effect of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) degrading enzyme catalase on the formation of AAA. Approach and Results AAA were induced with the application of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on mouse infrarenal aortas. The administration of PEG-catalase, but not saline, attenuated the loss of tunica media and protected against AAA formation (0.91±0.1 mm vs. 0.76±0.09 mm). Similarly, in a transgenic mouse model, catalase over-expression in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) preserved the thickness of tunica media and inhibited aortic dilatation by 50% (0.85±0.14 mm vs. 0.57±0.08 mm). Further studies showed that injury with CaCl2 decreased catalase expression and activity in the aortic wall. Pharmacologic administration or genetic over-expression of catalase restored catalase activity and subsequently decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity. In addition, a profound reduction in inflammatory markers and VSMC apoptosis was evident in aortas of catalase over-expressing mice. Interestingly, as opposed to infusion of PEG-catalase, chronic over-expression of catalase in VSMC did not alter the total aortic H2O2 levels. Conclusions The data suggest that a reduction in aortic wall catalase activity can predispose to AAA formation. Restoration of catalase activity in the vascular wall enhances aortic VSMC survival and prevents AAA formation primarily through modulation of matrix metalloproteinase activity. PMID:23950141

  8. Cardiac-Specific Overexpression of Catalase Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction: Role of Autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Turdi, Subat; Han, Xuefeng; Huff, Anna F.; Roe, Nathan D.; Hu, Nan; Gao, Feng; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria is a major initiator of sepsis, leading to cardiovascular collapse. Accumulating evidence has indicated a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular complication in sepsis. This study was designed to examine the effect of cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase in LPS-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction and the underlying mechanism(s) with a focus on autophagy. Catalase transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were challenged ...

  9. Cardiac-Specific Overexpression of Catalase Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction: Role of Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdi, Subat; Han, Xuefeng; Huff, Anna F.; Roe, Nathan D.; Hu, Nan; Gao, Feng; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria is a major initiator of sepsis, leading to cardiovascular collapse. Accumulating evidence has indicated a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular complication in sepsis. This study was designed to examine the effect of cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase in LPS-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction and the underlying mechanism(s) with a focus on autophagy. Catalase transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were challenged with LPS (6 mg/kg) and cardiac function was evaluated. Levels of oxidative stress, autophagy, apoptosis and protein damage were examined using fluorescence microscopy, Western blot, TUNEL assay, caspase-3 activity and carbonyl formation. Kaplan-Meier curve was constructed for survival following LPS treatment. Our results revealed a lower mortality in catalase mice compared with FVB mice following LPS challenge. LPS injection led to depressed cardiac contractile capacity as evidenced by echocardiography and cardiomyocyte contractile function, the effect of which was ablated by catalase overexpression. LPS treatment induced elevated TNF-α level, autophagy, apoptosis (TUNEL, caspase-3 activation, cleaved caspase-3), production of ROS and O2−, and protein carbonyl formation, the effects of which were significantly attenuated by catalase overexpression. Electron microscopy revealed focal myocardial damage characterized by mitochondrial injury following LPS treatment, which was less severe in catalase mice. Interestingly, LPS-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction was prevented by antioxidant NAC and the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. Taken together, our data revealed that catalase protects against LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction and mortality, which may be associated with inhibition of oxidative stress and autophagy. PMID:22902401

  10. Cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction: role of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdi, Subat; Han, Xuefeng; Huff, Anna F; Roe, Nathan D; Hu, Nan; Gao, Feng; Ren, Jun

    2012-09-15

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria is a major initiator of sepsis, leading to cardiovascular collapse. Accumulating evidence has indicated a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular complications in sepsis. This study was designed to examine the effect of cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase in LPS-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction and the underlying mechanism(s) with a focus on autophagy. Catalase transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were challenged with LPS (6 mg/kg) and cardiac function was evaluated. Levels of oxidative stress, autophagy, apoptosis, and protein damage were examined using fluorescence microscopy, Western blot, TUNEL assay, caspase-3 activity, and carbonyl formation. A Kaplan-Meier curve was constructed for survival after LPS treatment. Our results revealed a lower mortality in catalase mice compared with FVB mice after LPS challenge. LPS injection led to depressed cardiac contractile capacity as evidenced by echocardiography and cardiomyocyte contractile function, the effect of which was ablated by catalase overexpression. LPS treatment induced elevated TNF-α level, autophagy, apoptosis (TUNEL, caspase-3 activation, cleaved caspase-3), production of ROS and O(2)(-), and protein carbonyl formation, the effects of which were significantly attenuated by catalase overexpression. Electron microscopy revealed focal myocardial damage characterized by mitochondrial injury after LPS treatment, which was less severe in catalase mice. Interestingly, LPS-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction was prevented by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. Taken together, our data revealed that catalase protects against LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction and mortality, which may be associated with inhibition of oxidative stress and autophagy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase prevents diabetes-induced pathological changes by inhibiting NF-κB signaling activation in the heart.

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    Cong, Weitao; Ruan, Dandan; Xuan, Yuanhu; Niu, Chao; Tao, Youli; Wang, Yang; Zhan, Kungao; Cai, Lu; Jin, Litai; Tan, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Catalase is an antioxidant enzyme that specifically catabolizes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Overexpression of catalase via a heart-specific promoter (CAT-TG) was reported to reduce diabetes-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and further prevent diabetes-induced pathological abnormalities, including cardiac structural derangement and left ventricular abnormity in mice. However, the mechanism by which catalase overexpression protects heart function remains unclear. This study found that activation of a ROS-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway was downregulated in hearts of diabetic mice overexpressing catalase. In addition, catalase overexpression inhibited the significant increase in nitration levels of key enzymes involved in energy metabolism, including α-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase E1 component (α-KGD) and ATP synthase α and β subunits (ATP-α and ATP-β). To assess the effects of the NF-κB pathway activation on heart function, Bay11-7082, an inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway, was injected into diabetic mice, protecting mice against the development of cardiac damage and increased nitrative modifications of key enzymes involved in energy metabolism. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that catalase protects mouse hearts against diabetic cardiomyopathy, partially by suppressing NF-κB-dependent inflammatory responses and associated protein nitration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. catalase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof.Dr. Saleh

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... chromatography on diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE)-Sepharose. One peak catalase activity was obtained from the ... different applications, very little information on liver catalase from camel has been reported (Mousa et al.,. 2006). ..... Toxicology, 63: 45-52. Schisler NJ, Singh SM (1987). Inheritance and ...

  13. Cardiac-specific catalase overexpression rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of oxidative stress and autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Kandadi, Machender R; Yu, Xuejun; Frankel, Arthur E; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Lethal and edema toxins secreted by Bacillus anthracis during anthrax infection were found to incite serious cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying mechanisms in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac anomalies remain unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antioxidant enzyme catalase in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Methods Wild type (WT) and cardiac-specific catalase overexpression mice were challenged...

  14. Benzothiazole Aniline Tetra(ethylene glycol) and 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole Inhibit Neuroprotection against Amyloid Peptides by Catalase Overexpression in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease, Familial British dementia, Familial Danish dementia, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, plus Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are associated with amyloid fibril deposition and oxidative stress. The antioxidant enzyme catalase is a neuroprotective amyloid binding protein. Herein the effects of catalase overexpression in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells on the toxicity of amyloid-β (Aβ), amyloid-Bri (ABri), amyloid-Dan (ADan), amylin (IAPP), and prion protein (PrP) peptides were determined. Results showed catalase overexpression was neuroprotective against Aβ, ABri, ADan, IAPP, and PrP peptides. The catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) and catalase-amyloid interaction inhibitor benzothiazole aniline tetra(ethylene glycol) (BTA-EG4) significantly enhanced neurotoxicity of amyloid peptides in catalase overexpressing neuronal cells. This suggests catalase neuroprotection involves breakdown of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plus a direct binding interaction between catalase and the Aβ, ABri, ADan, IAPP, and PrP peptides. Kisspeptin 45–50 had additive neuroprotective actions against the Aβ peptide in catalase overexpressing cells. The effects of 3-AT had an intracellular site of action, while catalase-amyloid interactions had an extracellular component. These results suggest that the 3-AT and BTA-EG4 compounds may be able to inhibit endogenous catalase mediated neuroprotection. Use of BTA-EG4, or compounds that inhibit catalase binding to amyloid peptides, as potential therapeutics for Neurodegenerative diseases may therefore result in unwanted effects. PMID:23968537

  15. Benzothiazole aniline tetra(ethylene glycol) and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole inhibit neuroprotection against amyloid peptides by catalase overexpression in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilumuri, Amrutha; Odell, Mark; Milton, Nathaniel G N

    2013-11-20

    Alzheimer's disease, Familial British dementia, Familial Danish dementia, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, plus Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are associated with amyloid fibril deposition and oxidative stress. The antioxidant enzyme catalase is a neuroprotective amyloid binding protein. Herein the effects of catalase overexpression in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells on the toxicity of amyloid-β (Aβ), amyloid-Bri (ABri), amyloid-Dan (ADan), amylin (IAPP), and prion protein (PrP) peptides were determined. Results showed catalase overexpression was neuroprotective against Aβ, ABri, ADan, IAPP, and PrP peptides. The catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) and catalase-amyloid interaction inhibitor benzothiazole aniline tetra(ethylene glycol) (BTA-EG4) significantly enhanced neurotoxicity of amyloid peptides in catalase overexpressing neuronal cells. This suggests catalase neuroprotection involves breakdown of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plus a direct binding interaction between catalase and the Aβ, ABri, ADan, IAPP, and PrP peptides. Kisspeptin 45-50 had additive neuroprotective actions against the Aβ peptide in catalase overexpressing cells. The effects of 3-AT had an intracellular site of action, while catalase-amyloid interactions had an extracellular component. These results suggest that the 3-AT and BTA-EG4 compounds may be able to inhibit endogenous catalase mediated neuroprotection. Use of BTA-EG4, or compounds that inhibit catalase binding to amyloid peptides, as potential therapeutics for Neurodegenerative diseases may therefore result in unwanted effects.

  16. Targeted overexpression of mitochondrial catalase protects against cancer chemotherapy-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Laura A A; Lark, Daniel S; Reese, Lauren R; Torres, Maria J; Ryan, Terence E; Lin, Chien-Te; Cathey, Brook L; Neufer, P Darrell

    2016-08-01

    The loss of strength in combination with constant fatigue is a burden on cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Doxorubicin, a standard chemotherapy drug used in the clinic, causes skeletal muscle dysfunction and increases mitochondrial H2O2 We hypothesized that the combined effect of cancer and chemotherapy in an immunocompetent breast cancer mouse model (E0771) would compromise skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function, leading to an increase in H2O2-emitting potential and impaired muscle function. Here, we demonstrate that cancer chemotherapy decreases mitochondrial respiratory capacity supported with complex I (pyruvate/glutamate/malate) and complex II (succinate) substrates. Mitochondrial H2O2-emitting potential was altered in skeletal muscle, and global protein oxidation was elevated with cancer chemotherapy. Muscle contractile function was impaired following exposure to cancer chemotherapy. Genetically engineering the overexpression of catalase in mitochondria of muscle attenuated mitochondrial H2O2 emission and protein oxidation, preserving mitochondrial and whole muscle function despite cancer chemotherapy. These findings suggest mitochondrial oxidants as a mediator of cancer chemotherapy-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Cardiac-specific catalase overexpression rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of oxidative stress and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandadi, Machender R; Yu, Xuejun; Frankel, Arthur E; Ren, Jun

    2012-11-07

    Lethal and edema toxins secreted by Bacillus anthracis during anthrax infection were found to incite serious cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying mechanisms in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac anomalies remain unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antioxidant enzyme catalase in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Wild type (WT) and cardiac-specific catalase overexpression mice were challenged with lethal toxin (2 μg/g, intraperotineally (i.p.)). Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties were assessed 18 h later using an IonOptix edge-detection system. Proteasome function was assessed using chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities. GFP-LC3 puncta and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate autophagy and protein ubiquitination. Lethal toxin exposure suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function (suppressed peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/re-lengthening, prolonged duration of shortening/re-lengthening, and impaired intracellular Ca(2+) handling), the effects of which were alleviated by catalase. In addition, lethal toxin triggered autophagy, mitochondrial and ubiquitin-proteasome defects, the effects of which were mitigated by catalase. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes from catalase mice with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly attenuated or ablated catalase-offered protection against lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction. On the other hand, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA ablated or significantly attenuated lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile anomalies. Our results suggest that catalase is protective against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies, possibly through regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial function.

  18. Cardiac-specific catalase overexpression rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of oxidative stress and autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandadi Machender R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lethal and edema toxins secreted by Bacillus anthracis during anthrax infection were found to incite serious cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying mechanisms in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac anomalies remain unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antioxidant enzyme catalase in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Methods Wild type (WT and cardiac-specific catalase overexpression mice were challenged with lethal toxin (2 μg/g, intraperotineally (i.p.. Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ properties were assessed 18 h later using an IonOptix edge-detection system. Proteasome function was assessed using chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities. GFP-LC3 puncta and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate autophagy and protein ubiquitination. Results Lethal toxin exposure suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function (suppressed peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/re-lengthening, prolonged duration of shortening/re-lengthening, and impaired intracellular Ca2+ handling, the effects of which were alleviated by catalase. In addition, lethal toxin triggered autophagy, mitochondrial and ubiquitin-proteasome defects, the effects of which were mitigated by catalase. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes from catalase mice with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly attenuated or ablated catalase-offered protection against lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction. On the other hand, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA ablated or significantly attenuated lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile anomalies. Conclusions Our results suggest that catalase is protective against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ anomalies, possibly through regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial function.

  19. Reprogramming human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells by catalase overexpression: Reversion or promotion of malignancy by inducing melanogenesis or metastasis.

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    Bracalente, Candelaria; Salguero, Noelia; Notcovich, Cintia; Müller, Carolina B; da Motta, Leonardo L; Klamt, Fabio; Ibañez, Irene L; Durán, Hebe

    2016-07-05

    Advanced melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. It is highly metastatic and dysfunctional in melanogenesis; two processes that are induced by H2O2. This work presents a melanoma cell model with low levels of H2O2 induced by catalase overexpression to study differentiation/dedifferentiation processes. Three clones (A7, C10 and G10) of human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells with quite distinct phenotypes were obtained. These clones faced H2O2 scavenging by two main strategies. One developed by clone G10 where ROS increased. This resulted in G10 migration and metastasis associated with the increased of cofilin-1 and CAP1. The other strategy was observed in clone A7 and C10, where ROS levels were maintained reversing malignant features. Particularly, C10 was not tumorigenic, while A7 reversed the amelanotic phenotype by increasing melanin content and melanocytic differentiation markers. These clones allowed the study of potential differentiation and migration markers and its association with ROS levels in vitro and in vivo, providing a new melanoma model with different degree of malignancy.

  20. Reprogramming human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells by catalase overexpression: Reversion or promotion of malignancy by inducing melanogenesis or metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracalente, Candelaria; Salguero, Noelia; Notcovich, Cintia; Müller, Carolina B.; da Motta, Leonardo L.; Klamt, Fabio; Ibañez, Irene L.; Durán, Hebe

    2016-01-01

    Advanced melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. It is highly metastatic and dysfunctional in melanogenesis; two processes that are induced by H2O2. This work presents a melanoma cell model with low levels of H2O2 induced by catalase overexpression to study differentiation/dedifferentiation processes. Three clones (A7, C10 and G10) of human A375 amelanotic melanoma cells with quite distinct phenotypes were obtained. These clones faced H2O2 scavenging by two main strategies. One developed by clone G10 where ROS increased. This resulted in G10 migration and metastasis associated with the increased of cofilin-1 and CAP1. The other strategy was observed in clone A7 and C10, where ROS levels were maintained reversing malignant features. Particularly, C10 was not tumorigenic, while A7 reversed the amelanotic phenotype by increasing melanin content and melanocytic differentiation markers. These clones allowed the study of potential differentiation and migration markers and its association with ROS levels in vitro and in vivo, providing a new melanoma model with different degree of malignancy. PMID:27206672

  1. Overexpression of catalase delays G0/G1- to S-phase transition during cell cycle progression in mouse aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onumah, Ogbeyalu E; Jules, George E; Zhao, Yanfeng; Zhou, LiChun; Yang, Hong; Guo, ZhongMao

    2009-06-15

    Although it is understood that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) promotes cellular proliferation, little is known about its role in endothelial cell cycle progression. To assess the regulatory role of endogenously produced H(2)O(2) in cell cycle progression, we studied the cell cycle progression in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs) obtained from mice overexpressing a human catalase transgene (hCatTg), which destroys H(2)O(2). The hCatTg MAECs displayed a prolonged doubling time compared to wild-type controls (44.0 +/- 4.7 h versus 28.6 +/- 0.8 h, pcatalase inhibitor, prevented the observed diminished growth rate in hCatTg MAECs. Inhibition of catalase activity with aminotriazole abrogated catalase overexpression-induced antiproliferative action. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the prolonged doubling time was principally due to an extended G(0)/G(1) phase in hCatTg MAECs compared to the wild-type cells (25.0 +/- 0.9 h versus 15.9 +/- 1.4 h, pinhibitors, p21 and p27, which inhibit the Cdk activity required for the G(0)/G(1)- to S-phase transition. Knockdown of p21 and/or p27 attenuated the antiproliferative effect of catalase overexpression in MAECs. These results, together with the fact that catalase is an H(2)O(2) scavenger, suggest that endogenously produced H(2)O(2) mediates MAEC proliferation by fostering the transition from G(0)/G(1) to S phase.

  2. Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma reduces oxidative stress caused by hyperuricemia via upregulation of catalase.

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    Hong, Quan; Yu, Shandong; Mei, Yan; Lv, Yang; Chen, Dapeng; Wang, Yuanda; Geng, Wenjia; Wu, Di; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2014-01-01

    Reports have suggested that the traditional Chinese medicine Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma attenuates hyperuricemia, but its mechanism is unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that uric acid could induce the generation of reactive oxygen species(ROS), which subsequently cause endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we focused on the oxidative stress process. In this study, we would use LC-MS and bioinformatic analysis to investigate the underlying mechanism. We utilized LC-MS to reveal the differential protein expression in the kidneys of rats in the hyperuricemia group and the Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma treatment group and then subjected the differentially expressed proteins to bioinformatic analysis. We also determined the serum ROS level of the two groups. According the above results, we built our hypothesis and performed in vitro experiments to validate this hypothesis. We found that catalase was upregulated in the group treated with Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma, and the level of reactive oxygen species was higher in the hyperuricemia group. Thus, we speculated that Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma could alleviate oxidative stress by upregulating catalase. In vitro experiments, we found that high concentrations of uric acid reduced catalase expression in endothelial cells, which was alleviated by Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma and resulted in a reduction of reactive oxygen species. Knockdown of catalase led to an increase in reactive oxygen species. We demonstrated that Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by hyperuricemia by upregulating catalase expression. This finding could represent a new application for Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma in the treatment of hyperuricemia. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Mitochondrial catalase overexpressed transgenic mice are protected against lung fibrosis in part via preventing alveolar epithelial cell mitochondrial DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok-Jo; Cheresh, Paul; Jablonski, Renea P; Morales-Nebreda, Luisa; Cheng, Yuan; Hogan, Erin; Yeldandi, Anjana; Chi, Monica; Piseaux, Raul; Ridge, Karen; Michael Hart, C; Chandel, Navdeep; Scott Budinger, G R; Kamp, David W

    2016-12-01

    Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) injury and mitochondrial dysfunction are important in the development of lung fibrosis. Our group has shown that in the asbestos exposed lung, the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in AEC mediate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and apoptosis which are necessary for lung fibrosis. These data suggest that mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants should ameliorate asbestos-induced lung. To determine whether transgenic mice that express mitochondrial-targeted catalase (MCAT) have reduced lung fibrosis following exposure to asbestos or bleomycin and, if so, whether this occurs in association with reduced AEC mtDNA damage and apoptosis. Crocidolite asbestos (100µg/50µL), TiO 2 (negative control), bleomycin (0.025 units/50µL), or PBS was instilled intratracheally in 8-10 week-old wild-type (WT - C57Bl/6J) or MCAT mice. The lungs were harvested at 21d. Lung fibrosis was quantified by collagen levels (Sircol) and lung fibrosis scores. AEC apoptosis was assessed by cleaved caspase-3 (CC-3)/Surfactant protein C (SFTPC) immunohistochemistry (IHC) and semi-quantitative analysis. AEC (primary AT2 cells from WT and MCAT mice and MLE-12 cells) mtDNA damage was assessed by a quantitative PCR-based assay, apoptosis was assessed by DNA fragmentation, and ROS production was assessed by a Mito-Sox assay. Compared to WT, crocidolite-exposed MCAT mice exhibit reduced pulmonary fibrosis as measured by lung collagen levels and lung fibrosis score. The protective effects in MCAT mice were accompanied by reduced AEC mtDNA damage and apoptosis. Similar findings were noted following bleomycin exposure. Euk-134, a mitochondrial SOD/catalase mimetic, attenuated MLE-12 cell DNA damage and apoptosis. Finally, compared to WT, asbestos-induced MCAT AT2 cell ROS production was reduced. Our finding that MCAT mice have reduced pulmonary fibrosis, AEC mtDNA damage and apoptosis following exposure to asbestos or bleomycin suggests an important role

  4. Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma Reduces Oxidative Stress Caused by Hyperuricemia via Upregulation of Catalase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Hong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Reports have suggested that the traditional Chinese medicine Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma attenuates hyperuricemia, but its mechanism is unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that uric acid could induce the generation of reactive oxygen species(ROS, which subsequently cause endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we focused on the oxidative stress process. In this study, we would use LC-MS and bioinformatic analysis to investigate the underlying mechanism. Methods: We utilized LC-MS to reveal the differential protein expression in the kidneys of rats in the hyperuricemia group and the Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma treatment group and then subjected the differentially expressed proteins to bioinformatic analysis. We also determined the serum ROS level of the two groups. According the above results, we built our hypothesis and performed in vitro experiments to validate this hypothesis. Results: We found that catalase was upregulated in the group treated with Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma, and the level of reactive oxygen species was higher in the hyperuricemia group. Thus, we speculated that Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma could alleviate oxidative stress by upregulating catalase. In vitro experiments, we found that high concentrations of uric acid reduced catalase expression in endothelial cells, which was alleviated by Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma and resulted in a reduction of reactive oxygen species. Knockdown of catalase led to an increase in reactive oxygen species. Conclusion: We demonstrated that Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by hyperuricemia by upregulating catalase expression. This finding could represent a new application for Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma in the treatment of hyperuricemia.

  5. Neuroglobin-overexpression reduces traumatic brain lesion size in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Song

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that over-expression of Neuroglobin (Ngb is neuroprotective against hypoxic/ischemic brain injuries. In this study we tested the neuroprotective effects of Ngb over-expression against traumatic brain injury (TBI in mice. Results Both Ngb over-expression transgenic (Ngb-Tg and wild-type (WT control mice were subjected to TBI induced by a controlled cortical impact (CCI device. TBI significantly increased Ngb expression in the brains of both WT and Ngb-Tg mice, but Ngb-Tg mice had significantly higher Ngb protein levels at the pre-injury baseline and post-TBI. Production of oxidative tissue damage biomarker 3NT in the brain was significantly reduced in Ngb-Tg mice compared to WT controls at 6 hours after TBI. The traumatic brain lesion volume was significantly reduced in Ngb Tg mice compared to WT mice at 3 weeks after TBI; however, there were no significant differences in the recovery of sensorimotor and spatial memory functional deficits between Ngb-Tg and WT control mice for up to 3 weeks after TBI. Conclusion Ngb over-expression reduced traumatic lesion volume, which might partially be achieved by decreasing oxidative stress.

  6. α-Syntrophin stabilizes catalase to reduce endogenous reactive oxygen species levels during myoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jae Yun; Choi, Su Jin; Heo, Cheol Ho; Kim, Hwan Myung; Kim, Hye Sun

    2017-07-01

    α-Syntrophin is a component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex that interacts with various intracellular signaling proteins in muscle cells. The α-syntrophin knock-down C2 cell line (SNKD), established by infecting lentivirus particles with α-syntrophin shRNA, is characterized by a defect in terminal differentiation and increase in cell death. Since myoblast differentiation is accompanied by intensive mitochondrial biogenesis, the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) is also increased during myogenesis. Two-photon microscopy imaging showed that excessive intracellular ROS accumulated during the differentiation of SNKD cells as compared with control cells. The formation of 4-hydroxynonenal adduct, a byproduct of lipid peroxidation during oxidative stress, significantly increased in differentiated SNKD myotubes and was dramatically reduced by epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a well-known ROS scavenger. Among antioxidant enzymes, catalase was significantly decreased during differentiation of SNKD cells without changes at the mRNA level. Of interest was the finding that the degradation of catalase was rescued by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, in the SNKD cells. This study demonstrates a novel function of α-syntrophin. This protein plays an important role in the regulation of oxidative stress from endogenously generated ROS during myoblast differentiation by modulating the protein stability of catalase. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Catalase Overexpression Reduces Lactic Acid-Induced Oxidative Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, D.A.; Suir, E.; Duong, G.H.; De Hulster, E.; Pronk, J.T.; Van Maris, A.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Industrial production of lactic acid with the current pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains requires aeration to allow for respiratory generation of ATP to facilitate growth and, even under nongrowing conditions, cellular maintenance. In the current study, we observed an

  8. The impact of heterologous catalase expression and superoxide dismutase overexpression on enhancing the oxidative resistance in Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinzhong; Zou, Yexia; Cao, Kunlin; Ma, Chengjie; Chen, Zhengjun

    2016-05-01

    Two heme-dependent catalase genes were amplified from genomic DNA of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 (KatE1) and Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367 (KatE2), respectively, and a manganese-containing superoxide dismutase from Lactobacillus casei MCJΔ1 (MnSOD) were cloned into plasmid pELX1, yielding pELX1-KatE1, pELX1-KatE2 and pELX1-MnSOD, then the recombinant plasmids were transferred into L. casei MCJΔ1. The strains of L. casei MCJΔ1/pELX1-KatE1 and L. casei MCJΔ1/pELX1-KatE2 were tolerant at 2 mM H2O2. The survival rates of L. casei MCJΔ1/pELX1-KatE1 and L. casei MCJΔ1/pELX1-KatE2 were 270-fold and 300-fold higher than that of the control strain on a short-term H2O2 exposure, and in aerated condition, the survival cells counts were 146- and 190-fold higher than that of the control strain after 96 h of incubation. Furthermore, L. casei MCJΔ1/pELX1-MnSOD was the best in three recombinants which was superior in the living cell viability during storage when co-storage with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis LBCH-1.

  9. Catalase overexpression prevents nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 stimulation of renal angiotensinogen gene expression, hypertension, and kidney injury in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Shaaban; Shi, Yixuan; Otoukesh, Abouzar; Ghosh, Anindya; Lo, Chao-Sheng; Chenier, Isabelle; Filep, Janos G; Ingelfinger, Julie R; Zhang, Shao Ling; Chan, John S D

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of catalase (Cat) overexpression in renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) stimulation of angiotensinogen (Agt) gene expression and the development of hypertension and renal injury in diabetic Akita transgenic mice. Additionally, adult male mice were treated with the Nrf2 activator oltipraz with or without the inhibitor trigonelline. Rat RPTCs, stably transfected with plasmid containing either rat Agt or Nrf2 gene promoter, were also studied. Cat overexpression normalized systolic BP, attenuated renal injury, and inhibited RPTC Nrf2, Agt, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression in Akita Cat transgenic mice compared with Akita mice. In vitro, high glucose level, hydrogen peroxide, and oltipraz stimulated Nrf2 and Agt gene expression; these changes were blocked by trigonelline, small interfering RNAs of Nrf2, antioxidants, or pharmacological inhibitors of nuclear factor-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. The deletion of Nrf2-responsive elements in the rat Agt gene promoter abolished the stimulatory effect of oltipraz. Oltipraz administration also augmented Agt, HO-1, and Nrf2 gene expression in mouse RPTCs and was reversed by trigonelline. These data identify a novel mechanism, Nrf2-mediated stimulation of intrarenal Agt gene expression and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, by which hyperglycemia induces hypertension and renal injury in diabetic mice. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. RECK overexpression reduces invasive ability in ameloblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qi-xiang; Liang, Yan-can; Xu, Zhi-ying; Chen, Wei-liang; Xie, Hong-liang; Zhang, Bin

    2014-09-01

    Ameloblastoma is a frequent odontogenic neoplasm characterized by local invasiveness and high risk of recurrence. Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) is a tumor suppressor that inhibits metastasis and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of RECK overexpression on invasive potential in ameloblastoma cells. Lentiviral vectors containing human RECK gene were created and subsequently stably transfected into immortalized ameloblastoma cell line hTERT(+) -AM. Functional characteristics of hTERT(+) -AM cells with stable RECK overexpression included proliferation, migration, invasion, and regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, MMP-9 measured by zymography or commercially available assays. The stable and higher expression of RECK mRNA and protein (P 0.05). Overexpression of RECK gene significantly inhibited cell invasive ability of hTERT(+) -AM cells, suggesting RECK may be a new target for ameloblastoma treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Sarcolipin overexpression improves muscle energetics and reduces fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopariwala, Danesh H.; Pant, Meghna; Shaikh, Sana A.; Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Weisleder, Noah; Ma, Jianjie; Pan, Zui

    2015-01-01

    Sarcolipin (SLN) is a regulator of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase in skeletal muscle. Recent studies using SLN-null mice have identified SLN as a key player in muscle thermogenesis and metabolism. In this study, we exploited a SLN overexpression (SlnOE) mouse model to determine whether increased SLN level affected muscle contractile properties, exercise capacity/fatigue, and metabolic rate in whole animals and isolated muscle. We found that SlnOE mice are more resistant to fatigue and can run significantly longer distances than wild-type (WT). Studies with isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles showed that SlnOE EDL produced higher twitch force than WT. The force-frequency curves were not different between WT and SlnOE EDLs, but at lower frequencies the pyruvate-induced potentiation of force was significantly higher in SlnOE EDL. SLN overexpression did not alter the twitch and force-frequency curve in isolated soleus muscle. However, during a 10-min fatigue protocol, both EDL and soleus from SlnOE mice fatigued significantly less than WT muscles. Interestingly, SlnOE muscles showed higher carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 protein expression, which could enhance fatty acid metabolism. In addition, lactate dehydrogenase expression was higher in SlnOE EDL, suggesting increased glycolytic capacity. We also found an increase in store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in isolated flexor digitorum brevis fibers of SlnOE compared with WT mice. These data allow us to conclude that increased SLN expression improves skeletal muscle performance during prolonged muscle activity by increasing SOCE and muscle energetics. PMID:25701006

  12. Neuroprotective effect of adenoviral catalase gene transfer in cortical neuronal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gáspár, Tamás; Domoki, Ferenc; Lenti, Laura; Institoris, Adám; Snipes, James A; Bari, Ferenc; Busija, David W

    2009-05-13

    Reduced availability of reactive oxygen species is a key component of neuroprotection against various toxic stimuli. Recently we showed that the hydrogen peroxide scavenger catalase plays a central role in delayed preconditioning induced by the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener BMS-191095. The purpose of the experiments discussed here was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of catalase in vitro using a recombinant adenoviral catalase gene transfer protocol. To induce catalase overexpression, cultured rat cortical neurons were infected with the adenoviral vector Ad5CMVcatalase and control cells were incubated with Ad5CMVntLacZ for 24 h. Gene transfer effectively increased catalase protein levels and activity, but did not influence other antioxidants tested. Ad5CMVcatalase, with up to 10 plaque forming units (pfu) per neuron, did not affect cell viability under control conditions and did not protect against glutamate excitotoxicity or oxygen-glucose deprivation. In contrast, catalase overexpression conferred a dose-dependent protection against exposure to hydrogen peroxide (viability: control, 33.02+/-1.09%; LacZ 10 pfu/cell, 32.85+/-1.51%; catalase 1 pfu/cell, 62.09+/-4.17%*; catalase 2 pfu/cell, 98.71+/-3.35%*; catalase 10 pfu/cell, 99.68+/-1.99%*; *pcatalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole. Our results support the view that enhancing cellular antioxidant capacity may play a crucial role in neuroprotective strategies.

  13. Tratamento pós-menopausa reduz a atividade da catalase e atenua o risco cardiovascular Postmenopausal therapy reduces catalase activity and attenuates cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera S. Castanho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A menopausa pode levar a alterações na saúde feminina, com mudanças no estado oxidativo de mulheres pós-menopausadas, para as quais são limitadas as informações relativas à influência da hormonioterapia (HT sobre as atividades das enzimas antioxidantes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da HT sobre a atividade da catalase, concentrações de lipídeos e lipoproteínas, proteína de transferência de colesteril éster, substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico, nitratos, proteína C-reativa ultrassensível e espessura da carótida em mulheres pós-menopausadas. MÉTODOS: Foram alocadas 94 mulheres para um de quatro grupos com ou sem HT. O último grupo foi subdividido em mulheres sendo tratadas com estrógeno e outras com estrógeno mais progestágeno. Foram realizadas medidas de parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos e da espessura da íntima-média da carótida. RESULTADOS: A HT antagonizou a redução na atividade da catalase após a menopausa, mas não teve efeito sobre os níveis da proteína de transferência de colesteril éster, substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico, peróxido lipídico, nitrato e proteína C reativa ultrassensível, nem sobre a espessura da íntima-média da carótida. A análise multivariada mostrou que a HT baseada em estrógeno atenuou a relação entre os fatores de risco cardiovasculares e a espessura da íntima-média da carótida comum. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo mostra que a HT em mulheres pós-menopausadas produz efeitos antioxidantes e antiateroscleróticos benéficos por melhorar as concentrações séricas de lipídios e lipoproteínas, aumentar a atividade da catalase sérica e atenuar a associação entre os fatores de risco cardiovasculares e a aterosclerose precoce.BACKGROUND: Menopause can lead to alterations in women's health, with changes in the oxidative status of postmenopausal women in whom information regarding the influence of hormone therapy (HT on antioxidant

  14. Endothelial Dll4 overexpression reduces vascular response and inhibits tumor growth and metastasization in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Alexandre; Djokovic, Dusan; Gigante, Joana; Mendonça, Liliana; Duarte, António

    2017-03-14

    The inhibition of Delta-like 4 (Dll4)/Notch signaling has been shown to result in excessive, nonfunctional vessel proliferation and significant tumor growth suppression. However, safety concerns emerged with the identification of side effects resulting from chronic Dll4/Notch blockade. Alternatively, we explored the endothelial Dll4 overexpression using different mouse tumor models. We used a transgenic mouse model of endothelial-specific Dll4 overexpression, previously produced. Growth kinetics and vascular histopathology of several types of solid tumors was evaluated, namely Lewis Lung Carcinoma xenografts, chemically-induced skin papillomas and RIP1-Tag2 insulinomas. We found that increased Dll4/Notch signaling reduces tumor growth by reducing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced endothelial proliferation, tumor vessel density and overall tumor blood supply. In addition, Dll4 overexpression consistently improved tumor vascular maturation and functionality, as indicated by increased vessel calibers, enhanced mural cell recruitment and increased network perfusion. Importantly, the tumor vessel normalization is not more effective than restricted vessel proliferation, but was found to prevent metastasis formation and allow for increased delivery to the tumor of concomitant chemotherapy, improving its efficacy. By reducing endothelial sensitivity to VEGF, these results imply that Dll4/Notch stimulation in tumor microenvironment could be beneficial to solid cancer patient treatment by reducing primary tumor size, improving tumor drug delivery and reducing metastization. Endothelial specific Dll4 overexpression thus appears as a promising anti-angiogenic modality that might improve cancer control.

  15. CatB is Critical for Total Catalase Activity and Reduces Bactericidal Effects of Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid on Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiayan; Wu, Jian; Xu, Shu; Duan, Yabing; Zhou, Mingguo

    2017-02-01

    Rice bacterial leaf blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, and rice bacterial leaf streak, caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, are major diseases of rice. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) is a natural product that is isolated from Pseudomonas spp. and is used to control many important rice diseases in China. We previously reported that PCA disturbs the redox balance, which results in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in X. oryzae pv. oryzae. In this study, we found that PCA significantly upregulated the transcript levels of catB and katE, which encode catalases, and that PCA sensitivity was reduced when X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola were cultured with exogenous catalase. Furthermore, catB deletion mutants of X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola showed dramatically decreased total catalase activity, increased sensitivity to PCA, and reduced virulence in rice. In contrast, deletion mutants of srpA and katG, which also encode catalases, exhibited little change in PCA sensitivity. The results indicate that catB in both X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola encodes a catalase that helps protect the bacteria against PCA-induced stress.

  16. Reducing diacetyl production of wine by overexpressing BDH1 and BDH2 in Saccharomyces uvarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Guo, Xuewu; Shi, Tingting; Hu, Zhihui; Chen, Yefu; Du, Liping; Xiao, Dongguang

    2017-11-01

    As a byproduct of yeast valine metabolism during fermentation, diacetyl can produce a buttery aroma in wine. However, high diacetyl concentrations generate an aromatic off-flavor and poor quality in wine. 2,3-Butanediol dehydrogenase encoded by BDH1 can catalyze the two reactions of acetoin from diacetyl and 2,3-butanediol from acetoin. BDH2 is a gene adjacent to BDH1, and these genes are regulated reciprocally. In this study, BDH1 and BDH2 were overexpressed in Saccharomyces uvarum to reduce the diacetyl production of wine either individually or in combination. Compared with those in the host strain WY1, the diacetyl concentrations in the recombinant strains WY1-1 with overexpressed BDH1, WY1-2 with overexpressed BDH2 alone, and WY1-12 with co-overexpressed BDH1 and BDH2 were decreased by 39.87, 33.42, and 46.71%, respectively. BDH2 was only responsible for converting diacetyl into acetoin, but not for the metabolic pathway of acetoin to 2,3-butanediol in S. uvarum. This study provided valuable insights into diacetyl reduction in wine.

  17. Overexpression of SNX7 reduces Aβ production by enhancing lysosomal degradation of APP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaohua; Zhang, Lu; Brodin, Lennart

    2018-01-01

    Abnormal production of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) by proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is thought to be central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although many efforts have been made to investigate mechanisms that regulate APP processing, many details remain incompletely understood. Sorting nexins (SNXs) are a family of proteins which are involved in many intracellular trafficking events. Several SNXs have been implicated in APP processing and Aβ production. In this study, we extended the investigation to SNX7. We found that overexpression of SNX7 in HEK293T cells reduces the levels of secreted Aβ and β-cleaved N-terminal APP fragments (sAPPβ). Moreover, SNX7 overexpression caused a significant reduction of the steady-state levels of APP as well as of the cell surface APP levels. By using NH 4 Cl and Bafilomycin A1 to inhibit the lysosomal degradative pathway, we found that the reduction of APP induced by SNX7 overexpression was prevented by such inhibition. No change in the cell surface distribution or steady-state levels of BACE1 was detected after overexpression of SNX7. Taken together, these results suggest that SNX7 regulates Aβ production by directing APP for degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduced seed germination in Arabidopsis over-expressing SWI/SNF2 ATPase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeggangers, Hendrika A C F; Folta, Adam; Muras, Aleksandra; Nap, Jan-Peter; Mlynarova, Ludmila

    2015-02-01

    In the life of flowering plants, seed germination is a critical step to ensure survival into the next generation. Generally the seed prior to germination has been in a dormant state with a low rate of metabolism. In the transition from a dormant seed to a germinating seed, various epigenetic mechanisms play a regulatory role. Here, we demonstrate that the over-expression of chromatin remodeling ATPase genes (AtCHR12 or AtCHR23) reduced the frequency of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana up to 30% relative to the wild-type seeds. On the other hand, single loss-of-function mutations of the two genes did not affect seed germination. The reduction of germination in over-expressing mutants was more pronounced in stress conditions (salt or high temperature), showing the impact of the environment. Reduced germinations upon over-expression coincided with increased transcript levels of seed maturation genes and with reduced degradation of their mRNAs stored in dry seeds. Our results indicate that repression of AtCHR12/23 gene expression in germinating wild-type Arabidopsis seeds is required for full germination. This establishes a functional link between chromatin modifiers and regulatory networks towards seed maturation and germination. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Ubiquilin overexpression reduces GFP-polyalanine-induced protein aggregates and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongmin; Monteiro, Mervyn J.

    2007-01-01

    Several human disorders are associated with an increase in a continuous stretch of alanine amino acids in proteins. These so-called polyalanine expansion diseases share many similarities with polyglutamine-related disorders, including a length-dependent reiteration of amino acid induction of protein aggregation and cytotoxicity. We previously reported that overexpression of ubiquilin reduces protein aggregates and toxicity of expanded polyglutamine proteins. Here, we demonstrate a similar role for ubiquilin toward expanded polyalanine proteins. Overexpression of ubiquilin-1 in HeLa cells reduced protein aggregates and the cytotoxicity associated with expression of a transfected nuclear-targeted GFP-fusion protein containing 37-alanine repeats (GFP-A37), in a dose dependent manner. Ubiquilin coimmunoprecipitated more with GFP proteins containing a 37-polyalanine tract compared to either 7 (GFP-A7), or no alanine tract (GFP). Moreover, overexpression of ubiquilin suppressed the increased vulnerability of HeLa cell lines stably expressing the GFP-A37 fusion protein to oxidative stress-induced cell death compared to cell lines expressing GFP or GFP-A7 proteins. By contrast, siRNA knockdown of ubiquilin expression in the GFP-A37 cell line was associated with decreased cellular proliferation, and increases in GFP protein aggregates, nuclear fragmentation, and cell death. Our results suggest that boosting ubiquilin levels in cells might provide a universal and attractive strategy to prevent toxicity of proteins containing reiterative expansions of amino acids involved in many human diseases

  20. Overexpression of the essential Sis1 chaperone reduces TDP-43 effects on toxicity and proteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sei-Kyoung; Hong, Joo Y.; Arslan, Fatih; Tietsort, Alex; Tank, Elizabeth M. H.; Li, Xingli

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective loss of motor neurons with inclusions frequently containing the RNA/DNA binding protein TDP-43. Using a yeast model of ALS exhibiting TDP-43 dependent toxicity, we now show that TDP-43 overexpression dramatically alters cell shape and reduces ubiquitin dependent proteolysis of a reporter construct. Furthermore, we show that an excess of the Hsp40 chaperone, Sis1, reduced TDP-43’s effect on toxicity, cell shape and proteolysis. The strength of these effects was influenced by the presence of the endogenous yeast prion, [PIN+]. Although overexpression of Sis1 altered the TDP-43 aggregation pattern, we did not detect physical association of Sis1 with TDP-43, suggesting the possibility of indirect effects on TDP-43 aggregation. Furthermore, overexpression of the mammalian Sis1 homologue, DNAJB1, relieves TDP-43 mediated toxicity in primary rodent cortical neurons, suggesting that Sis1 and its homologues may have neuroprotective effects in ALS. PMID:28531192

  1. Nmdmc overexpression extends Drosophila lifespan and reduces levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Suyeun [Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, 73 Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Yeogil; Paik, Donggi [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Korea University, 73 Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eunil, E-mail: eunil@korea.ac.kr [Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, 73 Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joong-Jean, E-mail: parkjj@korea.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Korea University, 73 Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-02

    NAD-dependent methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase (NMDMC) is a bifunctional enzyme involved in folate-dependent metabolism and highly expressed in rapidly proliferating cells. However, Nmdmc physiological roles remain unveiled. We found that ubiquitous Nmdmc overexpression enhanced Drosophila lifespan and stress resistance. Interestingly, Nmdmc overexpression in the fat body was sufficient to increase lifespan and tolerance against oxidative stress. In addition, these conditions coincided with significant decreases in the levels of mitochondrial ROS and Hsp22 as well as with a significant increase in the copy number of mitochondrial DNA. These results suggest that Nmdmc overexpression should be beneficial for mitochondrial homeostasis and increasing lifespan. - Highlights: • Ubiquitous Nmdmc overexpression enhanced lifespan and stress tolerance. • Nmdmc overexpression in the fat body extended longevity. • Fat body-specific Nmdmc overexpression increased oxidative stress resistance. • Nmdmc overexpression decreased Hsp22 transcript levels and ROS. • Nmdmc overexpression increased mitochondrial DNA copy number.

  2. Nmdmc overexpression extends Drosophila lifespan and reduces levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Suyeun; Jang, Yeogil; Paik, Donggi; Lee, Eunil; Park, Joong-Jean

    2015-01-01

    NAD-dependent methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase (NMDMC) is a bifunctional enzyme involved in folate-dependent metabolism and highly expressed in rapidly proliferating cells. However, Nmdmc physiological roles remain unveiled. We found that ubiquitous Nmdmc overexpression enhanced Drosophila lifespan and stress resistance. Interestingly, Nmdmc overexpression in the fat body was sufficient to increase lifespan and tolerance against oxidative stress. In addition, these conditions coincided with significant decreases in the levels of mitochondrial ROS and Hsp22 as well as with a significant increase in the copy number of mitochondrial DNA. These results suggest that Nmdmc overexpression should be beneficial for mitochondrial homeostasis and increasing lifespan. - Highlights: • Ubiquitous Nmdmc overexpression enhanced lifespan and stress tolerance. • Nmdmc overexpression in the fat body extended longevity. • Fat body-specific Nmdmc overexpression increased oxidative stress resistance. • Nmdmc overexpression decreased Hsp22 transcript levels and ROS. • Nmdmc overexpression increased mitochondrial DNA copy number.

  3. FHL1 reduces dystrophy in transgenic mice overexpressing FSHD muscular dystrophy region gene 1 (FRG1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J Feeney

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is an autosomal-dominant disease with no effective treatment. The genetic cause of FSHD is complex and the primary pathogenic insult underlying the muscle disease is unknown. Several disease candidate genes have been proposed including DUX4 and FRG1. Expression analysis studies of FSHD report the deregulation of genes which mediate myoblast differentiation and fusion. Transgenic mice overexpressing FRG1 recapitulate the FSHD muscular dystrophy phenotype. Our current study selectively examines how increased expression of FRG1 may contribute to myoblast differentiation defects. We generated stable C2C12 cell lines overexpressing FRG1, which exhibited a myoblast fusion defect upon differentiation. To determine if myoblast fusion defects contribute to the FRG1 mouse dystrophic phenotype, this strain was crossed with skeletal muscle specific FHL1-transgenic mice. We previously reported that FHL1 promotes myoblast fusion in vitro and FHL1-transgenic mice develop skeletal muscle hypertrophy. In the current study, FRG1 mice overexpressing FHL1 showed an improvement in the dystrophic phenotype, including a reduced spinal kyphosis, increased muscle mass and myofiber size, and decreased muscle fibrosis. FHL1 expression in FRG1 mice, did not alter satellite cell number or activation, but enhanced myoblast fusion. Primary myoblasts isolated from FRG1 mice showed a myoblast fusion defect that was rescued by FHL1 expression. Therefore, increased FRG1 expression may contribute to a muscular dystrophy phenotype resembling FSHD by impairing myoblast fusion, a defect that can be rescued by enhanced myoblast fusion via expression of FHL1.

  4. Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase Overexpression Reduces Tumor Growth in a Xenograph Medulloblastoma Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica R Cappellari

    Full Text Available Ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 (ecto-5'-NT participates in extracellular ATP catabolism by converting adenosine monophosphate (AMP into adenosine. This enzyme affects the progression and invasiveness of different tumors. Furthermore, the expression of ecto-5'-NT has also been suggested as a favorable prognostic marker, attributing to this enzyme contradictory functions in cancer. Medulloblastoma (MB is the most common brain tumor of the cerebellum and affects mainly children.The effects of ecto-5'-NT overexpression on human MB tumor growth were studied in an in vivo model. Balb/c immunodeficient (nude 6 to 14-week-old mice were used for dorsal subcutaneous xenograph tumor implant. Tumor development was evaluated by pathophysiological analysis. In addition, the expression patterns of adenosine receptors were verified.The human MB cell line D283, transfected with ecto-5'-NT (D283hCD73, revealed reduced tumor growth compared to the original cell line transfected with an empty vector. D283hCD73 generated tumors with a reduced proliferative index, lower vascularization, the presence of differentiated cells and increased active caspase-3 expression. Prominent A1 adenosine receptor expression rates were detected in MB cells overexpressing ecto-5'-NT.This work suggests that ecto-5'-NT promotes reduced tumor growth to reduce cell proliferation and vascularization, promote higher differentiation rates and initiate apoptosis, supposedly by accumulating adenosine, which then acts through A1 adenosine receptors. Therefore, ecto-5'-NT might be considered an important prognostic marker, being associated with good prognosis and used as a potential target for therapy.

  5. Ecto-5’-Nucleotidase Overexpression Reduces Tumor Growth in a Xenograph Medulloblastoma Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellari, Angélica R.; Pillat, Micheli M.; Souza, Hellio D. N.; Dietrich, Fabrícia; Oliveira, Francine H.; Figueiró, Fabrício; Abujamra, Ana L.; Roesler, Rafael; Lecka, Joanna; Sévigny, Jean; Battastini, Ana Maria O.; Ulrich, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Background Ecto-5’-nucleotidase/CD73 (ecto-5’-NT) participates in extracellular ATP catabolism by converting adenosine monophosphate (AMP) into adenosine. This enzyme affects the progression and invasiveness of different tumors. Furthermore, the expression of ecto-5’-NT has also been suggested as a favorable prognostic marker, attributing to this enzyme contradictory functions in cancer. Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common brain tumor of the cerebellum and affects mainly children. Materials and Methods The effects of ecto-5’-NT overexpression on human MB tumor growth were studied in an in vivo model. Balb/c immunodeficient (nude) 6 to 14-week-old mice were used for dorsal subcutaneous xenograph tumor implant. Tumor development was evaluated by pathophysiological analysis. In addition, the expression patterns of adenosine receptors were verified. Results The human MB cell line D283, transfected with ecto-5’-NT (D283hCD73), revealed reduced tumor growth compared to the original cell line transfected with an empty vector. D283hCD73 generated tumors with a reduced proliferative index, lower vascularization, the presence of differentiated cells and increased active caspase-3 expression. Prominent A1 adenosine receptor expression rates were detected in MB cells overexpressing ecto-5’-NT. Conclusion This work suggests that ecto-5’-NT promotes reduced tumor growth to reduce cell proliferation and vascularization, promote higher differentiation rates and initiate apoptosis, supposedly by accumulating adenosine, which then acts through A1 adenosine receptors. Therefore, ecto-5’-NT might be considered an important prognostic marker, being associated with good prognosis and used as a potential target for therapy. PMID:26491983

  6. Effect on post-cryopreserved semen characteristics of Holstein bulls of adding combinations of vitamin C and either catalase or reduced glutathione to Tris extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidan, Sajeda M

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of adding combinations of vitamin C to Tris extender with either catalase or reduced glutathione on post-cryopreserved semen characteristics of Holstein bulls for different preservation periods (cooling at 5°C, 48 h, 1, 2 and 3 months post cryopreservation, PC). Seven Holstein bulls of 2.5-3 years of age were used in this experiment. Semen was collected via artificial vagina in one ejaculate per bull per week for the 7 week experimental period. Pooled semen was equally divided into three treatments using Tris extender. Combinations of vitamin C (2.5mM) were added with either catalase (100 IU/ml, T2) or reduced glutathione (2mM, T3) to Tris extender and comparisons in response were made with the control group (Tris extender, T1). Individual sperm motility (IM), viability (V), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), and acrosome integrity (AI) were assessed during all periods of the study along with Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and freezing ability. The IM was greater (P ≤ 0.01) in the T2 as compared with the T1 group at all periods of the study. Furthermore, the IM were greater (P ≤ 0.01) in the T3 as compared with the T1 group at the 48 h time period and at 3 months PC. The V, PMI and AI were greater (P ≤ 0.01) in T2 and T3 as compared with the T1 group at all the experimental periods. The MDA was greater (P ≤ 0.01) in the T2 as compared with the T1 group at 3 months PC. In conclusion, there was improved semen quality if semen of Holstein bulls was collected and stored in combinations of vitamin C with either catalase (T2) or reduced glutathione (T3) being added to Tris extender. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Overexpression of thrombospondin-1 reduces growth and vascular index but not perfusion in glioblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Michael; Quistorff, Bjørn; Tenan, Mirna

    2002-01-01

    growth, vascularity, and perfusion. Persistence of TSP-1 overexpression was confirmed after three serial s.c. passages of small xenografted tumor blocks of cells stably transfected with TSP-1 cDNA (clones C9 and E7) or vector controls (pooled clones A7-A9) in immunodeficient nu/nu mice. The tumor...... growth. In size-matched tumors (approximately 300 mm(3)), the blood volume and the histological vessel scores were lower in the TSP-1-transfected tumors than in controls, and this effect was more pronounced in tumors derived from the clone with the highest TSP-1 expression (clone E9). Despite this clear...... and a reduced vascular index at sacrifice are observed in TSP-1-transfected tumors, this did not affect perfusion when size-matched comparisons were performed. Given the increased time needed to reach equal size, it indicates that a fixed rate of perfusion must be maintained in the tumor to allow for growth...

  8. Hypoxia-induced cell damage is reduced by mild hypothermia and postconditioning with catalase in-vitro: application of an enzyme based oxygen deficiency system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Rodde, Cornelia; Steinfath, Markus; Scholz, Jens; Albrecht, Martin

    2010-02-25

    Mild hypothermia and pharmacological postconditioning are widespread therapeutical treatment options that positively influence the clinical outcome after tissue hypoxia. In the study presented, a two-enzyme based in-vitro oxygen deficiency model in combination with cultured HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells was employed to mimic the in-vivo situation of hypoxia and to evaluate the influence of mild hypothermia and postconditioning with catalase on hypoxia-mediated cell damage. Using the in-vitro oxygen deficiency model, partial pressure of oxygen was rapidly reduced to levels below 5mmHg in the culture media and cells responded with an increased expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 on protein level. Hypoxia resulted in significant cell rounding and retraction of cytoplasmic cell extensions. Evaluation of cytotoxicity revealed a 3.5-fold increase in lactate dehydrogenase levels which was accompanied by 40-fold elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide. The hypoxia-induced increase of lactate dehydrogenase was 2.5-fold reduced in the hypothermia group, although morphological correlates of cytotoxicity were still visible. Hypothermia did not significantly influence hydrogen peroxide concentrations in the culture media. Pharmacological postconditioning with catalase however dose-dependently decreased hypoxia-induced lactate dehydrogenase release. This cytoprotective effect was accompanied by a dose-dependent, up to 50-fold reduction of hydrogen peroxide concentrations and retention of normal cell morphology. We suggest that the described in-vitro oxygen deficiency model is a convenient and simple culture system for the investigation of cellular and subcellular events associated with oxygen deficiency. Moreover, our in-vitro results imply that catalase postconditioning may be a promising approach to attenuate hypoxia-induced and hydrogen peroxide-mediated cell and tissue damage.

  9. Cutting Edge: BAFF Overexpression Reduces Atherosclerosis via TACI-Dependent B Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Shaun W; Scharping, Nicole E; Jacobs, Holly M; Wang, Shari; Chait, Alan; Rawlings, David J

    2016-12-15

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus exhibit accelerated atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. The impact of B cells in atherosclerosis is controversial, with both protective and pathogenic roles described. For example, natural IgM binding conserved oxidized lipid epitopes protect against atherosclerosis, whereas anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) IgG likely promotes disease. Because BAFF promotes B cell class-switch recombination and humoral autoimmunity, we hypothesized that excess BAFF would accelerate atherosclerosis. In contrast, BAFF overexpression markedly reduced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice. BAFF-mediated atheroprotection required B cells and was associated with increased protective anti-oxLDL IgM. Surprisingly, high-titer anti-oxLDL IgM production and reduced atherosclerosis was dependent on the BAFF family receptor transmembrane activator and CAML interactor. In summary, we identified a novel role for B cell-specific, BAFF-dependent transmembrane activator and CAML interactor signals in atherosclerosis pathogenesis, of particular relevance to the use of BAFF-targeted therapies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Up-regulation of P-glycoprotein expression by catalase via JNK activation in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Xu, Jianfeng; Min, Taishan; Huang, Weida

    2006-01-01

    Overexpression of the MDR1 gene is one of the reasons for multidrug resistance (MDR). Some studies suggested that antioxidants could down-regulate MDR1 expression as a possible cancer treatment. In this report, we try to determine the effects of antioxidants (catalase or N-acetylcysteine [NAC]) on the regulation of intrinsic MDR1 overexpression in HepG2 cells. Adding catalase or N-acetylcysteine to the HepG2 culture led to a significant increase of MDR1 mRNA and P-glycoprotein drug transporter activity. After catalase or NAC treatment, a reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed. The JNK inhibitor SP600125 abolished the positive effects of catalase on drug transporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the up-regulation of P-glycoprotein functions by catalase was only observed in HepG2 cells but not in other cell lines tested (MCF-7, A549, A431). These data suggested that catalase can up-regulate P-glycoprotein expression in HepG2 cells via reducing intracellular ROS, and JNK may mediate this process.

  11. Metal-based superoxide dismutase and catalase mimics reduce oxidative stress biomarkers and extend life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Thales de P; Fonseca, Fernanda L; de Carvalho, Mariana D C; Godinho, Rodrigo M da C; de Almeida, Fernando Pereira; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Rey, Nicolás A; Fernandes, Christiane; Horn, Adolfo; Pereira, Marcos D

    2017-01-15

    Aging is a natural process characterized by several biological changes. In this context, oxidative stress appears as a key factor that leads cells and organisms to severe dysfunctions and diseases. To cope with reactive oxygen species and oxidative-related damage, there has been increased use of superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase (CAT) biomimetic compounds. Recently, we have shown that three metal-based compounds {[Fe(HPClNOL)Cl 2 ]NO 3 , [Cu(HPClNOL)(CH 3 CN)](ClO 4 ) 2 and Mn(HPClNOL)(Cl) 2 }, harboring in vitro SOD and/or CAT activities, were critical for protection of yeast cells against oxidative stress. In this work, treating Saccharomyces cerevisiae with these SOD/CAT mimics (25.0 µM/1 h), we highlight the pivotal role of these compounds to extend the life span of yeast during chronological aging. Evaluating lipid and protein oxidation of aged cells, it becomes evident that these mimics extend the life expectancy of yeast mainly due to the reduction in oxidative stress biomarkers. In addition, the treatment of yeast cells with these mimics regulated the amounts of lipid droplet occurrence, consistent with the requirement and protection of lipids for cell integrity during aging. Concerning SOD/CAT mimics uptake, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, we add new evidence that these complexes, besides being bioabsorbed by S. cerevisiae cells, can also affect metal homeostasis. Finally, our work presents a new application for these SOD/CAT mimics, which demonstrate a great potential to be employed as antiaging agents. Taken together, these promising results prompt future studies concerning the relevance of administration of these molecules against the emerging aging-related diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. Hippocampal neuroligin-2 overexpression leads to reduced aggression and inhibited novelty reactivity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Kohl

    Full Text Available Disturbances of the excitation/inhibition (E/I balance in the brain were recently suggested as potential factors underlying disorders like autism and schizophrenia resulting in associated behavioral alterations including changes in social and emotional behavior as well as abnormal aggression. Neuronal cell adhesion molecules (nCAMs and mutations in these genes were found to be strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of these disorders. Neuroligin2 (nlgn2 is a postsynaptic cell adhesion molecule, which is predominantly expressed at inhibitory synapses and required for synapse specification and stabilization. Changes in the expression of nlgn2 were shown to result in alterations of social behavior as well as altered inhibitory synaptic transmission, hence modifying the E/I balance. In our study, we focused on the role of nlgn2 in the dorsal hippocampus in the regulation of emotional and social behaviors. To this purpose, we injected an AAV construct overexpressing nlgn2 in the hippocampus of rats and investigated the effects on behavior and on markers for the E/I ratio. We could show an increase in GAD65, a GABA-synthesizing protein in neuronal terminals, and furthermore, reduced exploration of novel stimuli and less offensive behavior. Our data suggest nlgn2 in the hippocampus to be strongly implicated in maintaining the E/I balance in the brain and thereby modulating social and emotional behavior.

  13. Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay of phenolics and flavonoids with a modified cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method using catalase for hydrogen peroxide degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektaşoğlu, Burcu; Güçlü, Kubilay; Apak, Reşat

    2008-06-02

    Hydroxyl radicals (OH) generated in the human body may play an important role in tissue injury at sites of inflammation in oxidative stress-originated diseases. As a more convenient, efficient, and less costly alternative to HPLC/electrochemical detection techniques and to the nonspecific, low-yield deoxyribose (TBARS) test, we used a salicylate probe for detecting OH generated by the reaction of iron(II)-EDTA complex with H(2)O(2). The produced hydroxyl radicals attack both the salicylate probe and the hydroxyl radical scavengers that are incubated in solution for 10 min. Added radical scavengers compete with salicylate for the OH produced, and diminish chromophore formation from Cu(II)-neocuproine. At the end of the incubation period, the reaction was stopped by adding catalase. With the aid of this reaction, a kinetic approach was adopted to assess the hydroxyl radical scavenging properties of polyphenolics, flavonoids and other compounds (e.g., ascorbic acid, glucose, mannitol). A second-order rate constant for the reaction of the scavenger with OH could be deduced from the inhibition of colour formation due to the salicylate probe. In addition to phenolics and flavonoids, five kinds of herbs were evaluated for their OH scavenging activity using the developed method. The modified CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) assay proved to be efficient for ascorbic acid, gallic acid and chlorogenic acid, for which the deoxyribose assay test is basically nonresponsive. An important contribution of this developed assay is the inhibition of the Fenton reaction with catalase degradation of hydrogen peroxide so that the remaining H(2)O(2) would neither give a CUPRAC absorbance nor involve in redox cycling of phenolic antioxidants, enabling the rapid assay of polyphenolics.

  14. ATP Synthase β-Chain Overexpression in SR-BI Knockout Mice Increases HDL Uptake and Reduces Plasma HDL Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kexiu Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HDL cholesterol is known to be inversely correlated with cardiovascular disease due to its diverse antiatherogenic functions. SR-BI mediates the selective uptake of HDL-C. SR-BI knockout diminishes but does not completely block the transport of HDL; other receptors may be involved. Ectopic ATP synthase β-chain in hepatocytes has been previously characterized as an apoA-I receptor, triggering HDL internalization. This study was undertaken to identify the overexpression of ectopic ATP synthase β-chain on DIL-HDL uptake in primary hepatocytes in vitro and on plasma HDL levels in SR-BI knockout mice. Human ATP synthase β-chain cDNA was delivered to the mouse liver by adenovirus and GFP adenovirus as control. The adenovirus-mediated overexpression of β-chain was identified at both mRNA and protein levels on mice liver and validated by its increasing of DiL-HDL uptake in primary hepatocytes. In response to hepatic overexpression of β-chain, plasma HDL-C levels and cholesterol were reduced in SR-BI knockout mice, compared with the control. The present data suggest that ATP synthase β-chain can serve as the endocytic receptor of HDL, and its overexpression can reduce plasma HDL-C.

  15. Overexpression of TGF-ß1 in macrophages reduces and stabilizes atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Reifenberg

    Full Text Available Although macrophages represent the hallmark of both human and murine atherosclerotic lesions and have been shown to express TGF-ß1 (transforming growth factor β1 and its receptors, it has so far not been experimentally addressed whether the pleiotropic cytokine TGF-ß1 may influence atherogenesis by a macrophage specific mechanism. We developed transgenic mice with macrophage specific TGF-ß1 overexpression, crossed the transgenics to the atherosclerotic ApoE (apolipoprotein E knock-out strain and quantitatively analyzed both atherosclerotic lesion development and composition of the resulting double mutants. Compared with control ApoE(-/- mice, animals with macrophage specific TGF-ß1 overexpression developed significantly less atherosclerosis after 24 weeks on the WTD (Western type diet as indicated by aortic plaque area en face (p<0.05. Reduced atherosclerotic lesion development was associated with significantly less macrophages (p<0.05 after both 8 and 24 weeks on the WTD, significantly more smooth muscle cells (SMCs; p<0.01 after 24 weeks on the WTD, significantly more collagen (p<0.01 and p<0.05 after 16 and 24 weeks on the WTD, respectively without significant differences of inner aortic arch intima thickness or the number of total macrophages in the mice pointing to a plaque stabilizing effect of macrophage-specific TGF-ß1 overexpression. Our data shows that macrophage specific TGF-ß1 overexpression reduces and stabilizes atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE-deficient mice.

  16. Overexpression of thrombospondin-1 reduces growth and vascular index but not perfusion in glioblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Michael; Quistorff, Bjørn; Tenan, Mirna

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of antiangiogenic therapy on perfusion of human tumors and the mechanisms by which tumors can adapt to these treatments and recur. Here, we examined the effects of serial passaging of LN-229 human glioma xenografts overexpressing thrombospondin (TSP)-1 on tumor...... growth, vascularity, and perfusion. Persistence of TSP-1 overexpression was confirmed after three serial s.c. passages of small xenografted tumor blocks of cells stably transfected with TSP-1 cDNA (clones C9 and E7) or vector controls (pooled clones A7-A9) in immunodeficient nu/nu mice. The tumor...... vascularity was estimated by noninvasive near infrared spectroscopy measuring blood volume at 800 +/- 10 nm and by histological vessel scores in CD31-immunostained cryosections. The tumor perfusion was assessed by noninvasive laser Doppler flowmetry. Overexpression of TSP-1 significantly inhibited tumor...

  17. Hematopoietic overexpression of Cyp27a1 reduces hepatic inflammation independently of 27-hydroxycholesterol levels in Ldlr(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Tim; Jeurissen, Mike L J; Bieghs, Veerle; Walenbergh, Sofie M A; van Gorp, Patrick J; Verheyen, Fons; Houben, Tom; Guichot, Yasmin Dias; Gijbels, Marion J J; Leitersdorf, Eran; Hofker, Marten H; Lütjohann, Dieter; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit

    2015-02-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation. Currently, the underlying mechanisms, leading to hepatic inflammation, are still unknown. The breakdown of free cholesterol inside Kupffer cells (KCs) by the mitochondrial enzyme CYP27A1 produces 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC). We recently demonstrated that administration of 27HC to hyperlipidemic mice reduced hepatic inflammation. In line, hematopoietic deletion of Cyp27a1 resulted in increased hepatic inflammation. In the current manuscript, the effect of hematopoietic overexpression of Cyp27a1 on the development of NASH and cholesterol trafficking was investigated. We hypothesized that Cyp27a1 overexpression in KCs will lead to reduced hepatic inflammation. Irradiated Ldlr(-/-) mice were transplanted (tp) with bone marrow from mice overexpressing Cyp27a1 (Cyp27a1(over)) and wild type (Wt) mice and fed either chow or a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFC) diet for 3 months. Additionally, gene expression was assessed in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from Cyp27a1(over) and Wt mice. In line with our hypothesis, hepatic inflammation in HFC-fed Cyp27a1(over)-tp mice was reduced and KCs were less foamy compared to Wt-tp mice. Remarkably, these changes occurred even though plasma and liver levels of 27HC did not differ between both groups. BMDM from Cyp27a1(over) mice revealed reduced inflammatory gene expression and increased expression of cholesterol transporters compared to Wt BMDM after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our data suggest that overexpression of Cyp27a1 in KCs reduces hepatic inflammation independently of 27HC levels in plasma and liver, further pointing towards KCs as specific target for improving the therapy of NASH. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. SET overexpression in HEK293 cells regulates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins levels within a mitochondrial fission/reduced autophagic flux scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Luciana O.; Goto, Renata N. [Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Food Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Neto, Marinaldo P.C. [Department of Physics and Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Lucas O. [Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Food Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Curti, Carlos [Department of Physics and Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Leopoldino, Andréia M., E-mail: andreiaml@usp.br [Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Food Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-06

    We hypothesized that SET, a protein accumulated in some cancer types and Alzheimer disease, is involved in cell death through mitochondrial mechanisms. We addressed the mRNA and protein levels of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 (S and L isoforms) by quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence as well as other mitochondrial involvements, in HEK293 cells overexpressing the SET protein (HEK293/SET), either in the presence or absence of oxidative stress induced by the pro-oxidant t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). SET overexpression in HEK293 cells decreased UCP1 and increased UCP2 and UCP3 (S/L) mRNA and protein levels, whilst also preventing lipid peroxidation and decreasing the content of cellular ATP. SET overexpression also (i) decreased the area of mitochondria and increased the number of organelles and lysosomes, (ii) increased mitochondrial fission, as demonstrated by increased FIS1 mRNA and FIS-1 protein levels, an apparent accumulation of DRP-1 protein, and an increase in the VDAC protein level, and (iii) reduced autophagic flux, as demonstrated by a decrease in LC3B lipidation (LC3B-II) in the presence of chloroquine. Therefore, SET overexpression in HEK293 cells promotes mitochondrial fission and reduces autophagic flux in apparent association with up-regulation of UCP2 and UCP3; this implies a potential involvement in cellular processes that are deregulated such as in Alzheimer's disease and cancer. - Highlights: • SET, UCPs and autophagy prevention are correlated. • SET action has mitochondrial involvement. • UCP2/3 may reduce ROS and prevent autophagy. • SET protects cell from ROS via UCP2/3.

  19. Hepatic overexpression of the prodomain of furin lessens progression of atherosclerosis and reduces vascular remodeling in response to injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xia; Basu, Debapriya; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Maoxiang; Rudic, R Dan; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Jin, Weijun

    2014-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex disease, involving elevated LDL-c, lipid accumulation in the blood vessel wall, foam cell formation and vascular dysfunction. Lowering plasma LDL-c is the cornerstone of current management of cardiovascular disease. However, new approaches which reduce plasma LDL-c and lessen the pathological vascular remodeling occurring in the disease should also have therapeutic value. Previously, we found that overexpression of profurin, the 83-amino acid prodomain of the proprotein convertase furin, lowered plasma HDL levels in wild-type mice. The question that remained was whether it had effects on apolipoprotein B (ApoB)-containing lipoproteins. Adenovirus mediated overexpression of hepatic profurin in Ldlr(-/-)mice and wild-type mice were used to evaluate effects of profurin on ApoB-containing lipoproteins, atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling. Hepatic profurin overexpression resulted in a significant reduction in atherosclerotic lesion development in Ldlr(-/-)mice and a robust reduction in plasma LDL-c. Metabolic studies revealed lower secretion of ApoB and triglycerides in VLDL particles. Mechanistic studies showed that in the presence of profurin, hepatic ApoB, mainly ApoB100, was degraded by proteasomes. There was no effect on ApoB mRNA expression. Importantly, short-term hepatic profurin overexpression did not result in hepatic lipid accumulation. Blood vessel wall thickening caused by either wire-induced femoral artery injury or common carotid artery ligation was reduced. Profurin expression inhibited proliferation and migration in vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. These results indicate that a profurin-based therapy has the potential to treat atherosclerosis by improving metabolic lipid profiles and reducing both atherosclerotic lesion development and pathological vascular remodeling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Glyoxalase-1 overexpression reduces endothelial dysfunction and attenuates early renal impairment in a rat model of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwers, Olaf; Niessen, Petra M G; Miyata, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    the MGO-detoxifying enzyme glyoxalase-I (GLO-I), to determine the impact of intracellular glycation on vascular function and the development of early renal changes in diabetes. METHODS: Wild-type and Glo1-overexpressing rats were rendered diabetic for a period of 24 weeks by intravenous injection...... measured with ELISA-based techniques. RESULTS: Diabetes-induced formation of AGEs in mesenteric arteries and endothelial dysfunction were reduced by Glo1 overexpression. Despite the absence of advanced nephrotic lesions, early markers of renal dysfunction (i.e. increased glomerular volume, decreased...... and early renal impairment in experimental diabetes. Modulating the GLO-I pathway therefore may provide a novel approach to prevent vascular complications in diabetes....

  1. Catalase and NO CATALASE ACTIVITY1 promote autophagy-dependent cell death in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hackenberg, Thomas; Juul, Trine; Auzina, Aija

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death often depends on generation of reactive oxygen species, which can be detoxified by antioxidative enzymes, including catalases. We previously isolated catalase-deficient mutants (cat2) in a screen for resistance to hydroxyurea-induced cell death. Here, we identify...... an Arabidopsis thaliana hydroxyurea-resistant autophagy mutant, atg2, which also shows reduced sensitivity to cell death triggered by the bacterial effector avrRpm1. To test if catalase deficiency likewise affected both hydroxyurea and avrRpm1 sensitivity, we selected mutants with extremely low catalase...... activities and showed that they carried mutations in a gene that we named NO CATALASE ACTIVITY1 (NCA1). nca1 mutants showed severely reduced activities of all three catalase isoforms in Arabidopsis, and loss of NCA1 function led to strong suppression of RPM1-triggered cell death. Basal and starvation...

  2. MET18 Deficiency Increases the Sensitivity of Yeast to Oxidative Stress and Shortens Replicative Lifespan by Inhibiting Catalase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Qin; Liu, Xin-Guang; Zhao, Wei; Cui, Hongjing; Ruan, Jie; Yuan, Yuan; Tu, Zhiguang

    2017-01-01

    Yeast MET18 , a subunit of the cytosolic iron-sulfur (Fe/S) protein assembly (CIA) machinery which is responsible for the maturation of Fe/S proteins, has been reported to participate in the oxidative stress response. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we constructed a MET18/met18Δ heterozygous mutant yeast strain and found that MET18 deficiency in yeast cells impaired oxidative stress resistance as evidenced by increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP). Mechanistically, the mRNA levels of catalase A (CTA1) and catalase T (CTT1) as well as the total catalase activity were significantly reduced in MET18 -deficient cells. In contrast, overexpression of CTT1 or CTA1 in MET18 -deficient cells significantly increased the intracellular catalase activity and enhanced the resistance ability against H 2 O 2 and CHP. In addition, MET18 deficiency diminished the replicative capacity of yeast cells as evidenced by the shortened replicative lifespan, which can be restored by CTT1 overexpression, but not by CTA1 , in the MET18 -deficient cells. These results suggest that MET18 , in a catalase-dependent manner, plays an essential role in enhancing the resistance of yeast cells to oxidative stress and increasing the replicative capacity of yeast cells.

  3. Persistent overexpression of phosphoglycerate mutase, a glycolytic enzyme, modifies energy metabolism and reduces stress resistance of heart in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Okuda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heart failure is associated with changes in cardiac energy metabolism. Glucose metabolism in particular is thought to be important in the pathogenesis of heart failure. We examined the effects of persistent overexpression of phosphoglycerate mutase 2 (Pgam2, a glycolytic enzyme, on cardiac energy metabolism and function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transgenic mice constitutively overexpressing Pgam2 in a heart-specific manner were generated, and cardiac energy metabolism and function were analyzed. Cardiac function at rest was normal. The uptake of analogs of glucose or fatty acids and the phosphocreatine/βATP ratio at rest were normal. A comprehensive metabolomic analysis revealed an increase in the levels of a few metabolites immediately upstream and downstream of Pgam2 in the glycolytic pathway, whereas the levels of metabolites in the initial few steps of glycolysis and lactate remained unchanged. The levels of metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle were altered. The capacity for respiration by isolated mitochondria in vitro was decreased, and that for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in vitro was increased. Impaired cardiac function was observed in response to dobutamine. Mice developed systolic dysfunction upon pressure overload. CONCLUSIONS: Constitutive overexpression of Pgam2 modified energy metabolism and reduced stress resistance of heart in mice.

  4. Overexpressing the Multiple-Stress Responsive Gene At1g74450 Reduces Plant Height and Male Fertility in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Visscher

    Full Text Available A subset of genes in Arabidopsis thaliana is known to be up-regulated in response to a wide range of different environmental stress factors. However, not all of these genes are characterized as yet with respect to their functions. In this study, we used transgenic knockout, overexpression and reporter gene approaches to try to elucidate the biological roles of five unknown multiple-stress responsive genes in Arabidopsis. The selected genes have the following locus identifiers: At1g18740, At1g74450, At4g27652, At4g29780 and At5g12010. Firstly, T-DNA insertion knockout lines were identified for each locus and screened for altered phenotypes. None of the lines were found to be visually different from wildtype Col-0. Secondly, 35S-driven overexpression lines were generated for each open reading frame. Analysis of these transgenic lines showed altered phenotypes for lines overexpressing the At1g74450 ORF. Plants overexpressing the multiple-stress responsive gene At1g74450 are stunted in height and have reduced male fertility. Alexander staining of anthers from flowers at developmental stage 12-13 showed either an absence or a reduction in viable pollen compared to wildtype Col-0 and At1g74450 knockout lines. Interestingly, the effects of stress on crop productivity are most severe at developmental stages such as male gametophyte development. However, the molecular factors and regulatory networks underlying environmental stress-induced male gametophytic alterations are still largely unknown. Our results indicate that the At1g74450 gene provides a potential link between multiple environmental stresses, plant height and pollen development. In addition, ruthenium red staining analysis showed that At1g74450 may affect the composition of the inner seed coat mucilage layer. Finally, C-terminal GFP fusion proteins for At1g74450 were shown to localise to the cytosol.

  5. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In; Park, Sang-Joon; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Inkyu; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yoon, Duhak; Ryoo, Zae Young

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes

  6. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Joon [College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Gyu [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Inkyu [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-842 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Ok [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Duhak, E-mail: dhyoon@knu.ac.kr [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Zae Young, E-mail: jaewoong64@hanmail.net [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  7. Thrombospondin-2 overexpression in the skin of transgenic mice reduces the susceptibility to chemically induced multistep skin carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstfeld, Rainer; Hawighorst, Thomas; Streit, Michael; Hong, Young-Kwon; Nguyen, Lynh; Brown, Lawrence F; Detmar, Michael

    2014-05-01

    We have previously reported stromal upregulation of the endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2) during multistep carcinogenesis, and we found accelerated and enhanced skin angiogenesis and carcinogenesis in TSP-2 deficient mice. To investigate whether enhanced levels of TSP-2 might protect from skin cancer development. We established transgenic mice with targeted overexpression of TSP-2 in the skin and subjected hemizygous TSP-2 transgenic mice and their wild-type littermates to a chemical skin carcinogenesis regimen. TSP-2 transgenic mice showed a significantly delayed onset of tumor formation compared to wild-type mice, whereas the ratio of malignant conversion to squamous cell carcinomas was comparable in both genotypes. Computer-assisted morphometric analysis of blood vessels revealed pronounced tumor angiogenesis already in the early stages of carcinogenesis in wild type mice. TSP-2 overexpression significantly reduced tumor blood vessel density in transgenic mice but had no overt effect on LYVE-1 positive lymphatic vessels. The percentage of desmin surrounded, mature tumor-associated blood vessels and the degree of epithelial differentiation remained unaffected. The antiangiogenic effect of transgenic TSP-2 was accompanied by a significantly increased number of apoptotic tumor cells in transgenic mice. Our results demonstrate that enhanced levels of TSP-2 in the skin result in reduced susceptibility to chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis and identify TSP-2 as a new target for the prevention of skin cancer. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in the Siberian hamster increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jo E; Brameld, John M; Hill, Phil; Cocco, Cristina; Noli, Barbara; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P; Jethwa, Preeti H

    2017-01-01

    VGF (non-acronymic) was first highlighted to have a role in energy homeostasis through experiments involving dietary manipulation in mice. Fasting increased VGF mRNA in the Arc and levels were subsequently reduced upon refeeding. This anabolic role for VGF was supported by observations in a VGF null (VGF-/-) mouse and in the diet-induced and gold-thioglucose obese mice. However, this anabolic role for VGF has not been supported by a number of subsequent studies investigating the physiological effects of VGF-derived peptides. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of TLQP-21 increased resting energy expenditure and rectal temperature in mice and protected against diet-induced obesity. Similarly, ICV infusion of TLQP-21 into Siberian hamsters significantly reduced body weight, but this was due to a decrease in food intake, with no effect on energy expenditure. Subsequently NERP-2 was shown to increase food intake in rats via the orexin system, suggesting opposing roles for these VGF-derived peptides. Thus to further elucidate the role of hypothalamic VGF in the regulation of energy homeostasis we utilised a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector to over-express VGF in adult male Siberian hamsters, thus avoiding any developmental effects or associated functional compensation. Initially, hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in adult Siberian hamsters produced no effect on metabolic parameters, but by 12 weeks post-infusion hamsters had increased oxygen consumption and a tendency to increased carbon dioxide production; this attenuated body weight gain, reduced interscapular white adipose tissue and resulted in a compensatory increase in food intake. These observed changes in energy expenditure and food intake were associated with an increase in the hypothalamic contents of the VGF-derived peptides AQEE, TLQP and NERP-2. The complex phenotype of the VGF-/- mice is a likely consequence of global ablation of the gene and its derived peptides during development, as well

  9. Overexpression of hydroxynitrile lyase in cassava roots elevates protein and free amino acids while reducing residual cyanogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Narayanan N; Ihemere, Uzoma; Ellery, Claire; Sayre, Richard T

    2011-01-01

    Cassava is the major source of calories for more than 250 million Sub-Saharan Africans, however, it has the lowest protein-to-energy ratio of any major staple food crop in the world. A cassava-based diet provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein. Moreover, both leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides. The major cyanogen in cassava is linamarin which is stored in the vacuole. Upon tissue disruption linamarin is deglycosylated by the apolplastic enzyme, linamarase, producing acetone cyanohydrin. Acetone cyanohydrin can spontaneously decompose at pHs >5.0 or temperatures >35°C, or is enzymatically broken down by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) to produce acetone and free cyanide which is then volatilized. Unlike leaves, cassava roots have little HNL activity. The lack of HNL activity in roots is associated with the accumulation of potentially toxic levels of acetone cyanohydrin in poorly processed roots. We hypothesized that the over-expression of HNL in cassava roots under the control of a root-specific, patatin promoter would not only accelerate cyanogenesis during food processing, resulting in a safer food product, but lead to increased root protein levels since HNL is sequestered in the cell wall. Transgenic lines expressing a patatin-driven HNL gene construct exhibited a 2-20 fold increase in relative HNL mRNA levels in roots when compared with wild type resulting in a threefold increase in total root protein in 7 month old plants. After food processing, HNL overexpressing lines had substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin and cyanide levels in roots relative to wild-type roots. Furthermore, steady state linamarin levels in intact tissues were reduced by 80% in transgenic cassava roots. These results suggest that enhanced linamarin metabolism contributed to the elevated root protein levels.

  10. Transgenic overexpression of adenine nucleotide translocase 1 protects ischemic hearts against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpe, Inga; Savvatis, Konstantinos; Westermann, Dirk; Tschöpe, Carsten; Rauch, Ursula; Landmesser, Ulf; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Dörner, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Ischemia impairs the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), which transports ADP and ATP across the inner mitochondrial membrane. We investigated whether ANT1 overexpression has protective effects on ischemic hearts. Myocardial infarction was induced in wild-type (WT) and heart-specific ANT1-transgenic (ANT1-TG) rats, and hypoxia was set in isolated cardiomyocytes. ANT1 overexpression reduced the myocardial infarct area and increased the survival rate of infarcted rats. Reduced ANT1 expression and increased 4-hydroxynonenal modification of ANT paralleled to impaired ANT function in infarcted WT hearts. ANT1 overexpression improved ANT expression and function. This was accompanied by reduced mitochondrial cytochrome C release and caspase-3 activation. ANT1-TG hearts suffered less from oxidative stress, as shown by lower protein carbonylation and 4-hydroxynonenal modification of ANT. ANT1 overexpression also increased cell survival of hypoxic cardiomyocytes and attenuated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. This was linked to higher stability of mitochondrial membrane potential and lower activity of ROS detoxifying catalase. ANT1-TG cardiomyocytes also showed higher resistance against H2O2 treatment, which was independent of catalase activity. In conclusion, ANT1 overexpression compensates impaired ANT activity under oxygen-restricted conditions. It reduces ROS production and oxidative stress, stabilizes mitochondrial integrity, and increases survival, making ANT1 a component in ROS management and heart protection during ischemia. ANT1 overexpression reduces infarct size and increases survival after infarction. ANT1 overexpression compensates restricted ANT expression and function in infarcted hearts. Increased ANT1 expression enhances mitochondrial integrity. ANT1-overexpressing hearts reduce oxidative stress by decreasing ROS generation. ANT1 is a component in ROS management and heart protection.

  11. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein gene, AtRNP1, affects plant growth and reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenyu, E-mail: wzy72609@163.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhao, Xiuyang, E-mail: xiuzh@psb.vib-ugent.be [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Wang, Bing, E-mail: wangbing@ibcas.ac.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Liu, Erlong, E-mail: liuel14@lzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Chen, Ni, E-mail: 63710156@qq.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: wzhang1216@yahoo.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Bio-Energy Crops, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, Heng, E-mail: hengliu@lzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studies revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. - Highlights: • AtRNP1 is a widely expressed gene and its expression is slightly induced under abiotic stresses. • AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 affects plant growth. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses. • AtRNP1 overexpression plants show decreased proline accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions.

  12. Overexpression and deletion of phospholipid transfer protein reduce HDL mass and cholesterol efflux capacity but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwano, Takashi; Bi, Xin; Cipollari, Eleonora; Yasuda, Tomoyuki; Lagor, William R.; Szapary, Hannah J.; Tohyama, Junichiro; Millar, John S.; Billheimer, Jeffrey T.; Lyssenko, Nicholas N.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) may affect macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (mRCT) through its role in the metabolism of HDL. Ex vivo cholesterol efflux capacity and in vivo mRCT were assessed in PLTP deletion and PLTP overexpression mice. PLTP deletion mice had reduced HDL mass and cholesterol efflux capacity, but unchanged in vivo mRCT. To directly compare the effects of PLTP overexpression and deletion on mRCT, human PLTP was overexpressed in the liver of wild-type animals using an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector, and control and PLTP deletion animals were injected with AAV-null. PLTP overexpression and deletion reduced plasma HDL mass and cholesterol efflux capacity. Both substantially decreased ABCA1-independent cholesterol efflux, whereas ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux remained the same or increased, even though preβ HDL levels were lower. Neither PLTP overexpression nor deletion affected excretion of macrophage-derived radiocholesterol in the in vivo mRCT assay. The ex vivo and in vivo assays were modified to gauge the rate of cholesterol efflux from macrophages to plasma. PLTP activity did not affect this metric. Thus, deviations in PLTP activity from the wild-type level reduce HDL mass and ex vivo cholesterol efflux capacity, but not the rate of macrophage cholesterol efflux to plasma or in vivo mRCT. PMID:28137768

  13. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein gene, AtRNP1, affects plant growth and reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Xiuyang; Wang, Bing; Liu, Erlong; Chen, Ni; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studies revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. - Highlights: • AtRNP1 is a widely expressed gene and its expression is slightly induced under abiotic stresses. • AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 affects plant growth. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses. • AtRNP1 overexpression plants show decreased proline accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions.

  14. Prognostic significance of catalase expression and its regulatory effects on hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in HBV-related advanced hepatocellular carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi-Young; Cheong, Jae Youn; Lim, Wonchung; Jo, Sujin; Lee, Youngsoo; Wang, Hee-Jung; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Cho, Hyeseong

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a role in liver cancer development. We previously showed that ROS increased HBx levels and here, we investigated the role of antioxidants in the regulation of HBx expression and their clinical relevance. We found that overexpression of catalase induced a significant loss in HBx levels. The cysteine null mutant of HBx (Cys−) showed a dramatic reduction in its protein stability. In clonogenic proliferation assays, Huh7-X cells produced a significant number of colonies whereas Huh7-Cys− cells failed to generate them. The Cys at position 69 of HBx was crucial to maintain its protein stability and transactivation function in response to ROS. Among 50 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens, 72% of HCCs showed lower catalase levels than those of surrounding non-tumor tissues. In advanced stage IV, catalase levels in non-tumor tissues were increased whereas those in tumors were further reduced. Accordingly, patients with a high T/N ratio for catalase showed significantly longer survival than those with a low T/N ratio. Together, catalase expression in HCC patients can be clinically useful for prediction of patient survival, and restoration of catalase expression in HCCs could be an important strategy for intervention in HBV-induced liver diseases. PMID:25361011

  15. Prognostic significance of catalase expression and its regulatory effects on hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in HBV-related advanced hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi-Young; Cheong, Jae Youn; Lim, Wonchung; Jo, Sujin; Lee, Youngsoo; Wang, Hee-Jung; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Cho, Hyeseong

    2014-12-15

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a role in liver cancer development. We previously showed that ROS increased HBx levels and here, we investigated the role of antioxidants in the regulation of HBx expression and their clinical relevance. We found that overexpression of catalase induced a significant loss in HBx levels. The cysteine null mutant of HBx (Cys-) showed a dramatic reduction in its protein stability. In clonogenic proliferation assays, Huh7-X cells produced a significant number of colonies whereas Huh7-Cys- cells failed to generate them. The Cys at position 69 of HBx was crucial to maintain its protein stability and transactivation function in response to ROS. Among 50 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens, 72% of HCCs showed lower catalase levels than those of surrounding non-tumor tissues. In advanced stage IV, catalase levels in non-tumor tissues were increased whereas those in tumors were further reduced. Accordingly, patients with a high T/N ratio for catalase showed significantly longer survival than those with a low T/N ratio. Together, catalase expression in HCC patients can be clinically useful for prediction of patient survival, and restoration of catalase expression in HCCs could be an important strategy for intervention in HBV-induced liver diseases.

  16. Inactivation of Rac1 reduces Trastuzumab resistance in PTEN deficient and insulin-like growth factor I receptor overexpressing human breast cancer SKBR3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Zhishan; Jiang, Yiguo; Yang, Chengfeng

    2011-12-26

    Drug resistance remains to be a big challenge in applying anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody Trastuzumab for treating breast cancer with HER2 overexpression. Amplification of insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) and deletion of tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) are implicated in Trastuzumab resistance, however, the underlying mechanisms have not been clearly defined. Activation of Rac1, a member of Rho GTPase family, is capable of causing cytoskeleton reorganization, regulating gene expression and promoting cell proliferation. To investigate the mechanism of Trastuzumab resistance, PTEN knockdown and IGF-IR overexpressing stable cell lines were generated in HER2 overexpression human breast cancer SKBR3 cells. Rac1 was highly activated in PTEN deficient and IGF-IR overexpressing Trastuzumab-resistant cells in a HER2-independent manner. Inactivation of Rac1 by using a Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 or siRNA knocking down the expression of Tiam1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac, significantly reduced Trastuzumab resistance in SKBR3 cells. Inhibition of Rac1 had no effect on the levels of phosphor-HER2 and phosphor-Akt, but significantly decreased the levels of cyclin D1 in Trastuzumab-resistant cells. Inhibition of Akt with an Akt inhibitor also significantly reduced Trastuzumab resistance. However, simultaneous inhibition of both Rac1 and Akt resulted in a significantly more decrease of Trastuzumab resistance than inactivation of Rac1 or Akt alone. These results suggest that Rac1 activation is critically involved in Trastuzumab resistance caused by PTEN deletion or IGF-IR overexpression. Simultaneous inhibition of Rac1 and Akt may represent a promising strategy in reducing Trastuzumab resistance in HER2 overexpression breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Overexpression of rice NAC gene SNAC1 improves drought and salt tolerance by enhancing root development and reducing transpiration rate in transgenic cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanze Liu

    Full Text Available The SNAC1 gene belongs to the stress-related NAC superfamily of transcription factors. It was identified from rice and overexpressed in cotton cultivar YZ1 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SNAC1-overexpressing cotton plants showed more vigorous growth, especially in terms of root development, than the wild-type plants in the presence of 250 mM NaCl under hydroponic growth conditions. The content of proline was enhanced but the MDA content was decreased in the transgenic cotton seedlings under drought and salt treatments compared to the wild-type. Furthermore, SNAC1-overexpressing cotton plants also displayed significantly improved tolerance to both drought and salt stresses in the greenhouse. The performances of the SNAC1-overexpressing lines under drought and salt stress were significantly better than those of the wild-type in terms of the boll number. During the drought and salt treatments, the transpiration rate of transgenic plants significantly decreased in comparison to the wild-type, but the photosynthesis rate maintained the same at the flowering stage in the transgenic plants. These results suggested that overexpression of SNAC1 improve more tolerance to drought and salt in cotton through enhanced root development and reduced transpiration rates.

  18. Stable Overexpression of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor Reduces the Requirement for Culture with Dimethyl Sulfoxide for High Drug Metabolism in HepaRG Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Vincent A; Rudi de Waart, D; Shevchenko, Valery; Elferink, Ronald P J Oude; Chamuleau, Robert A F M; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2017-01-01

    Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) induces cellular differentiation and expression of drug metabolic enzymes in the human liver cell line HepaRG; however, DMSO also induces cell death and interferes with cellular activities. The aim of this study was to examine whether overexpression of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3), the nuclear receptor controlling various drug metabolism genes, would sufficiently promote differentiation and drug metabolism in HepaRG cells, optionally without using DMSO. By stable lentiviral overexpression of CAR, HepaRG cultures were less affected by DMSO in total protein content and obtained increased resistance to acetaminophen- and amiodarone-induced cell death. Transcript levels of CAR target genes were significantly increased in HepaRG-CAR cultures without DMSO, resulting in increased activities of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes and bilirubin conjugation to levels equal or surpassing those of HepaRG cells cultured with DMSO. Unexpectedly, CAR overexpression also increased the activities of non-CAR target P450s, as well as albumin production. In combination with DMSO treatment, CAR overexpression further increased transcript levels and activities of CAR targets. Induction of CYP1A2 and CYP2B6 remained unchanged, whereas CYP3A4 was reduced. Moreover, the metabolism of low-clearance compounds warfarin and prednisolone was increased. In conclusion, CAR overexpression creates a more physiologically relevant environment for studies on hepatic (drug) metabolism and differentiation in HepaRG cells without the utilization of DMSO. DMSO still may be applied to accomplish higher drug metabolism, required for sensitive assays, such as low-clearance studies and identification of (rare) metabolites, whereas reduced total protein content after DMSO culture is diminished by CAR overexpression. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Catalase and NO CATALASE ACTIVITY1 Promote Autophagy-Dependent Cell Death in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Thomas; Juul, Trine; Auzina, Aija; Gwiżdż, Sonia; Małolepszy, Anna; Van Der Kelen, Katrien; Dam, Svend; Bressendorff, Simon; Lorentzen, Andrea; Roepstorff, Peter; Lehmann Nielsen, Kåre; Jørgensen, Jan-Elo; Hofius, Daniel; Breusegem, Frank Van; Petersen, Morten; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death often depends on generation of reactive oxygen species, which can be detoxified by antioxidative enzymes, including catalases. We previously isolated catalase-deficient mutants (cat2) in a screen for resistance to hydroxyurea-induced cell death. Here, we identify an Arabidopsis thaliana hydroxyurea-resistant autophagy mutant, atg2, which also shows reduced sensitivity to cell death triggered by the bacterial effector avrRpm1. To test if catalase deficiency likewise affected both hydroxyurea and avrRpm1 sensitivity, we selected mutants with extremely low catalase activities and showed that they carried mutations in a gene that we named NO CATALASE ACTIVITY1 (NCA1). nca1 mutants showed severely reduced activities of all three catalase isoforms in Arabidopsis, and loss of NCA1 function led to strong suppression of RPM1-triggered cell death. Basal and starvation-induced autophagy appeared normal in the nca1 and cat2 mutants. By contrast, autophagic degradation induced by avrRpm1 challenge was compromised, indicating that catalase acted upstream of immunity-triggered autophagy. The direct interaction of catalase with reactive oxygen species could allow catalase to act as a molecular link between reactive oxygen species and the promotion of autophagy-dependent cell death. PMID:24285797

  20. Is Root Catalase a Bifunctional Catalase-Peroxidase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioti, Vasileia; Zervoudakis, George

    2017-05-25

    Plant catalases exhibit spatial and temporal distribution of their activity. Moreover, except from the typical monofunctional catalase, a bifunctional catalase-peroxidase has been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the leaf and root catalases from six different plant species ( Lactuca sativa , Cichorium endivia , Apium graveolens , Petroselinum crispum, Lycopersicon esculentum , and Solanum melongena ) correspond to the monofunctional or the bifunctional type based on their sensitivity to the inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT). The leaf catalases from all species seem to be monofunctional since they are very sensitive to 3-AT. On the other hand, the root enzymes from Lactuca sativa , Cichorium endivia , Lycopersicon esculentum , and Solanum melongena seem to be bifunctional catalase-peroxidases, considering that they are relatively insensitive to 3-AT, whereas the catalases from Apium graveolens and Petroselinum crispum display the same monofunctional characteristics as the leaves' enzymes. The leaf catalase activity is usually higher ( Lactuca sativa , Petroselinum crispum , and Solanum melongena ) or similar ( Cichorium endivia and Apium graveolens ) to the root one, except for the enzyme from Lycopersicon esculentum , while in all plant species the leaf protein concentration is significantly higher than the root protein concentration. These results suggest that there are differences between leaf and root catalases-differences that may correspond to their physiological role.

  1. Catalases are NAD(PH-dependent tellurite reductases.

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    Iván L Calderón

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species damage intracellular targets and are implicated in cancer, genetic disease, mutagenesis, and aging. Catalases are among the key enzymatic defenses against one of the most physiologically abundant reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide. The well-studied, heme-dependent catalases accelerate the rate of the dismutation of peroxide to molecular oxygen and water with near kinetic perfection. Many catalases also bind the cofactors NADPH and NADH tenaciously, but, surprisingly, NAD(PH is not required for their dismutase activity. Although NAD(PH protects bovine catalase against oxidative damage by its peroxide substrate, the catalytic role of the nicotinamide cofactor in the function of this enzyme has remained a biochemical mystery to date. Anions formed by heavy metal oxides are among the most highly reactive, natural oxidizing agents. Here, we show that a natural isolate of Staphylococcus epidermidis resistant to tellurite detoxifies this anion thanks to a novel activity of its catalase, and that a subset of both bacterial and mammalian catalases carry out the NAD(PH-dependent reduction of soluble tellurite ion (TeO(3(2- to the less toxic, insoluble metal, tellurium (Te(o, in vitro. An Escherichia coli mutant defective in the KatG catalase/peroxidase is sensitive to tellurite, and expression of the S. epidermidis catalase gene in a heterologous E. coli host confers increased resistance to tellurite as well as to hydrogen peroxide in vivo, arguing that S. epidermidis catalase provides a physiological line of defense against both of these strong oxidizing agents. Kinetic studies reveal that bovine catalase reduces tellurite with a low Michaelis-Menten constant, a result suggesting that tellurite is among the natural substrates of this enzyme. The reduction of tellurite by bovine catalase occurs at the expense of producing the highly reactive superoxide radical.

  2. Overexpression of Mitofusin 2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yanhong; Chen Kuanghueih; Gao Wei; Li Qian; Chen Li; Wang Guisong; Tang Jian

    2007-01-01

    Our previous studies have implies that Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), which was progressively reduced in arteries from ApoE -/- mice during the development of atherosclerosis, may take part in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein or serum induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by down-regulation of Akt and ERK phosphorylation. Then we investigated the in vivo role of Mfn2 on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits using adenovirus expressing Mitofusin 2 gene (AdMfn2). By morphometric analysis we found overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited atherosclerotic lesion formation and intima/media ratio by 66.7% and 74.6%, respectively, compared with control group. These results suggest that local Mfn2 treatment suppresses the development of atherosclerosis in vivo in part by attenuating the smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by lipid deposition and vascular injury

  3. Catalytic and physical properties of γ-irradiated catalase in dilute solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasyna, Z.; Bachman, S.

    1974-01-01

    The catalytic and physical properties of irradiated beef liver catalase have been studied. Modification of the enzyme by γ-rays brings about its reducibility by dithionite. The decrease of the catalytic activity is found to correspond to the decrease in the content of nonreducible catalase. Microaggregates of catalase molecules induced by irradiation have been fractionated. The results lead to the conclusion that aggregates are composed of active and modified catalase monomers. (author)

  4. MAPK/JNK1 activation protects cells against cadmium-induced autophagic cell death via differential regulation of catalase and heme oxygenase-1 in oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Keum-Young; Kim, Sang-Hun; Jung, Ki-Tae; Lee, Hyun-Young; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2017-10-01

    Antioxidant enzymes are related to oral diseases. We investigated the roles of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and catalase in cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and the underlying molecular mechanism in oral cancer cells. Exposing YD8 cells to Cd reduced the expression levels of catalase and superoxide dismutase 1/2 and induced the expression of HO-1 as well as autophagy and apoptosis, which were reversed by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Cd-exposed YD10B cells exhibited milder effects than YD8 cells, indicating that Cd sensitivity is associated with antioxidant enzymes and autophagy. Autophagy inhibition via pharmacologic and genetic modulations enhanced Cd-induced HO-1 expression, caspase-3 cleavage, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ho-1 knockdown increased autophagy and apoptosis. Hemin treatment partially suppressed Cd-induced ROS production and apoptosis, but enhanced autophagy and CHOP expression, indicating that autophagy induction is associated with cellular stress. Catalase inhibition by pharmacological and genetic modulations increased Cd-induced ROS production, autophagy, and apoptosis, but suppressed HO-1, indicating that catalase is required for HO-1 induction. p38 inhibition upregulated Cd-induced phospho-JNK and catalase, but suppressed HO-1, autophagy, apoptosis. JNK suppression exhibited contrary results, enhancing the expression of phospho-p38. Co-suppression of p38 and JNK1 failed to upregulate catalase and procaspase-3, which were upregulated by JNK1 overexpression. Overall, the balance between the responses of p38 and JNK activation to Cd appears to have an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis via the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and autophagy induction. In addition, the upregulation of catalase by JNK1 activation can play a critical role in cell protection against Cd-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. POD-1/Tcf21 overexpression reduces endogenous SF-1 and StAR expression in rat adrenal cells

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    M. M. França

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During gonad and adrenal development, the POD-1/capsulin/TCF21transcription factor negatively regulates SF-1/NR5A1expression, with higher SF-1 levels being associated with increased adrenal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. In adrenocortical tumor cells, POD-1 binds to the SF-1 E-box promoter region, decreasing SF-1 expression. However, the modulation of SF-1 expression by POD-1 has not previously been described in normal adrenal cells. Here, we analyzed the basal expression of Pod-1 and Sf-1 in primary cultures of glomerulosa (G and fasciculata/reticularis (F/R cells isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and investigated whether POD-1 overexpression modulates the expression of endogenous Sf-1 and its target genes in these cells. POD-1 overexpression, following the transfection of pCMVMycPod-1, significantly decreased the endogenous levels of Sf-1 mRNA and protein in F/R cells, but not in G cells, and also decreased the expression of the SF-1 target StAR in F/R cells. In G cells overexpressing POD-1, no modulation of the expression of SF-1 targets, StAR and CYP11B2, was observed. Our data showing that G and F/R cells respond differently to ectopic POD-1 expression emphasize the functional differences between the outer and inner zones of the adrenal cortex, and support the hypothesis that SF-1 is regulated by POD-1/Tcf21 in normal adrenocortical cells lacking the alterations in cellular physiology found in tumor cells.

  6. Astrocyte-Specific Overexpression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Protects Hippocampal Neurons and Reduces Behavioral Deficits following Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice.

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    Sindhu K Madathil

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI survivors often suffer from long-lasting cognitive impairment that stems from hippocampal injury. Systemic administration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, a polypeptide growth factor known to play vital roles in neuronal survival, has been shown to attenuate posttraumatic cognitive and motor dysfunction. However, its neuroprotective effects in TBI have not been examined. To this end, moderate or severe contusion brain injury was induced in mice with conditional (postnatal overexpression of IGF-1 using the controlled cortical impact (CCI injury model. CCI brain injury produces robust reactive astrocytosis in regions of neuronal damage such as the hippocampus. We exploited this regional astrocytosis by linking expression of hIGF-1 to the astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP promoter, effectively targeting IGF-1 delivery to vulnerable neurons. Following brain injury, IGF-1Tg mice exhibited a progressive increase in hippocampal IGF-1 levels which was coupled with enhanced hippocampal reactive astrocytosis and significantly greater GFAP levels relative to WT mice. IGF-1 overexpression stimulated Akt phosphorylation and reduced acute (1 and 3d hippocampal neurodegeneration, culminating in greater neuron survival at 10d after CCI injury. Hippocampal neuroprotection achieved by IGF-1 overexpression was accompanied by improved motor and cognitive function in brain-injured mice. These data provide strong support for the therapeutic efficacy of increased brain levels of IGF-1 in the setting of TBI.

  7. Acetoacetate reduces growth and ATP concentration in cancer cell lines which over-express uncoupling protein 2

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    Quadros Edward V

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that several human cancers are capable of uncoupling of mitochondrial ATP generation in the presence of intact tricarboxylic acid (TCA enzymes. The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that ketone bodies can inhibit cell growth in aggressive cancers and that expression of uncoupling protein 2 is a contributing factor. The proposed mechanism involves inhibition of glycolytic ATP production via a Randle-like cycle while increased uncoupling renders cancers unable to produce compensatory ATP from respiration. Methods Seven aggressive human cancer cell lines, and three control fibroblast lines were grown in vitro in either 10 mM glucose medium (GM, or in glucose plus 10 mM acetoacetate [G+AcA]. The cells were assayed for cell growth, ATP production and expression of UCP2. Results There was a high correlation of cell growth with ATP concentration (r = 0.948 in a continuum across all cell lines. Controls demonstrated normal cell growth and ATP with the lowest density of mitochondrial UCP2 staining while all cancer lines demonstrated proportionally inhibited growth and ATP, and over-expression of UCP2 (p Conclusion Seven human cancer cell lines grown in glucose plus acetoacetate medium showed tightly coupled reduction of growth and ATP concentration. The findings were not observed in control fibroblasts. The observed over-expression of UCP2 in cancer lines, but not in controls, provides a plausible molecular mechanism by which acetoacetate spares normal cells but suppresses growth in cancer lines. The results bear on the hypothesized potential for ketogenic diets as therapeutic strategies.

  8. Pulse radiolysis of catalase in solution: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebicka, Lidia; Metodiewa, Diana; Gebicki, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The time-course of absorption changes of oxygen-saturated solutions of bovine-liver catalase after pulse radiolysis have been studied. The rate constant of formation of Compound I due to the reaction of catalase with hydrogen peroxide has been estimated to be 2.0 x 10 7 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . Radiation generated super-oxide radicals reduce Compound I to Compound II with a rate constant of 5.0 x 10 6 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . The formation of Compound III in the direct reaction of O 2 - with catalase has also been observed. (author)

  9. Peroxide reduction by a metal-dependent catalase in Nostoc punctiforme (cyanobacteria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudek, L; Torriero, A A J; Michalczyk, A A; Neilan, B A; Ackland, M L; Bräu, Lambert

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the role of a novel metal-dependent catalase (Npun_R4582) that reduces hydrogen peroxide in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that npun_R4582 relative mRNA levels were upregulated by over 16-fold in cells treated with either 2 μM added Co, 0.5 μM added Cu, 500 μM Mn, 1 μM Ni, or 18 μM Zn. For cells treated with 60 μM H 2 O 2 , no significant alteration in Npun_R4582 relative mRNA levels was detected, while in cells treated with Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, or Zn and 60 μM peroxide, relative mRNA levels were generally above control or peroxide only treated cells. Disruption or overexpression of npun_R4582 altered sensitivity to cells exposed to 60 μM H 2 O 2 and metals for treatments beyond the highest viable concentrations, or in a mixed metal solution for Npun_R4582 - cells. Moreover, overexpression of npun_R4582 increased cellular peroxidase activity in comparison with wild-type and Npun_R4582 - cells, and reduced peroxide levels by over 50%. The addition of cobalt, manganese, nickel, and zinc increased the capacity of Npun_R4582 to reduce the rate or total levels of peroxide produced by cells growing under photooxidative conditions. The work presented confirms the function of NpunR4582 as a catalase and provides insights as to how cells reduce potentially lethal peroxide levels produced by photosynthesis. The findings also show how trace elements play crucial roles as enzymatic cofactors and how the role of Npun_R4582 in hydrogen peroxide breakdown is dependent on the type of metal and the level available to cells.

  10. In vitro assembly of catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baureder, Michael; Barane, Elisabeth; Hederstedt, Lars

    2014-10-10

    Most aerobic organisms contain catalase, which functions to decompose hydrogen peroxide. Typical catalases are structurally complex homo-tetrameric enzymes with one heme prosthetic group buried in each subunit. It is not known how catalase in the cell is assembled from its constituents. The bacterium Enterococcus faecalis cannot synthesize heme but can acquire it from the environment to form a cytoplasmic catalase. We have in E. faecalis monitored production of the enzyme polypeptide (KatA) depending on the availability of heme and used our findings to devise a procedure for the purification of preparative amounts of in vivo-synthesized apocatalase. We show that fully active catalase can be obtained in vitro by incubating isolated apoprotein with hemin. We have characterized features of the assembly process and describe a temperature-trapped hemylated intermediate of the enzyme maturation process. Hemylation of apocatalase does not require auxiliary cell components, but rapid assembly of active enzyme seemingly is assisted in the cell. Our findings provide insight about catalase assembly and offer new experimental possibilities for detailed studies of this process. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. In Vitro Assembly of Catalase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baureder, Michael; Barane, Elisabeth; Hederstedt, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Most aerobic organisms contain catalase, which functions to decompose hydrogen peroxide. Typical catalases are structurally complex homo-tetrameric enzymes with one heme prosthetic group buried in each subunit. It is not known how catalase in the cell is assembled from its constituents. The bacterium Enterococcus faecalis cannot synthesize heme but can acquire it from the environment to form a cytoplasmic catalase. We have in E. faecalis monitored production of the enzyme polypeptide (KatA) depending on the availability of heme and used our findings to devise a procedure for the purification of preparative amounts of in vivo-synthesized apocatalase. We show that fully active catalase can be obtained in vitro by incubating isolated apoprotein with hemin. We have characterized features of the assembly process and describe a temperature-trapped hemylated intermediate of the enzyme maturation process. Hemylation of apocatalase does not require auxiliary cell components, but rapid assembly of active enzyme seemingly is assisted in the cell. Our findings provide insight about catalase assembly and offer new experimental possibilities for detailed studies of this process. PMID:25148685

  12. 7 CFR 58.432 - Catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Catalase. 58.432 Section 58.432 Agriculture... Material § 58.432 Catalase. The catalase preparation shall be a stable, buffered solution, neutral in pH, having a potency of not less than 100 Keil units per milliliter. The source of the catalase, its...

  13. Overexpression of the KdpF membrane peptide in Mycobacterium bovis BCG results in reduced intramacrophage growth and altered cording morphology.

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    Laila Gannoun-Zaki

    Full Text Available Membrane peptides appear as an emerging class of regulatory molecules in bacteria, which can interact with membrane proteins, such as sensor kinases. To date, regulatory membrane peptides have been completely overlooked in mycobacteria. The 30 amino-acid-long KdpF peptide, which is co-transcribed with kdpABC genes and regulated by the KdpDE two-component system, is supposed to stabilize the KdpABC potassium transporter complex but may also exhibit unsuspected regulatory function(s towards the KdpD sensor kinase. Herein, we showed by quantitative RT-PCR that the Mycobacterium bovis BCG kdpAB and kdpDE genes clusters are differentially induced in potassium-deprived broth medium or within infected macrophages. We have overexpressed the kdpF gene in M. bovis BCG to investigate its possible regulatory role and effect on mycobacterial virulence. Our results indicate that KdpF does not play a critical regulatory role on kdp genes expression despite the fact that KdpF interacts with the KdpD sensor kinase in a bacterial two-hybrid assay. However, overexpression of kdpF results in a significant reduction of M. bovis BCG growth in both murine and human primary macrophages, and is associated with a strong alteration of colonial morphology and impaired cording formation. To identify novel KdpF interactants, a mycobacterial library was screened using KdpF as bait in the bacterial two-hybrid system. This allowed us to identify members of the MmpL family of membrane proteins, known to participate in the biosynthesis/transport of various cell wall lipids, thus highlighting a possible link between KdpF and cell wall lipid metabolism. Taken together, these data suggest that KdpF overexpression reduces intramacrophage growth which may result from alteration of the mycobacterial cell wall.

  14. Loss of catalase increases malignant mouse keratinocyte cell growth through activation of the stress activated JNK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Neale T; Finch, Joanne S; Bowden, G Timothy

    2008-05-01

    A cell line that produces mouse squamous cell carcinoma (6M90) was modified to develop a cell line with an introduced Tet-responsive catalase transgene (MTOC2). We have previously reported that the overexpressed catalase in the MTOC2 cells reverses the malignant phenotype in part by decreasing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. With this work we expanded the investigation into the differences between these two cell lines. We found that the decreased EGFR pathway activity of the MTOC2 cells is not because of reduced autocrine secretion of an epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligand but rather because of lower basal receptor activity. Phosphorylated levels of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) members JNK and p38 were both higher in the 6M90 cells with low catalase when compared with the MTOC2 cell line. Although treatment with an EGFR inhibitor, AG1478, blocked the increased activity of JNK in the 6M90 cells, a similar effect was not observed for p38. Basal levels of downstream c-jun transcription were also found to be higher in the 6M90 cells versus MTOC2 cells. Activated p38 was found to down-regulate the JNK MAPK pathway in the 6M90 cells. However, the 6M90 cells contain constitutively high levels of phosphorylated JNK, generating higher levels of phosphorylated c-jun and total c-jun than those in the MTOC2 cells. Inhibition of JNK activity in the 6M90 cells reduced AP-1 transcription and cell proliferation. The data confirm the inhibitory effects of catalase on tumor cell growth, specifically through a ligand-independent decrease in the stress activated JNK pathway. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. A Twist on Measuring Catalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    "Catalase," an enzyme found in both plant and animal cells, prevents the accumulation of toxic levels of hydrogen peroxide (H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2]) by catalyzing its decomposition to water and oxygen gas. Because this enzyme is ubiquitous, it is frequently used in high school biology laboratories to explore enzyme reactions. This…

  16. Overexpression of SrUGT85C2 from Stevia reduced growth and yield of transgenic Arabidopsis by influencing plastidial MEP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, Praveen; Masand, Shikha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2014-04-15

    The transcript expression of a gene SrUGT85C2 has been documented for direct relation with steviol glycoside content in Stevia plant. Steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthetic routes are divergent branches of methyl erythritol-4 phosphate (MEP) pathway. So, SrUGT85C2 might be an influencing gibberellin content. Hence in the present study, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing SrUGT85C2 cDNA from Stevia rebaudiana was developed to check its effect on gibberellin accumulation and related plant growth parameters. The developed transgenics showed a noteworthy decrease of 78-83% in GA3 content. Moreover, the transgenics showed a gibberellin deficient phenotype comprising stunted hypocotyl length, reduced shoot growth and a significant fall in relative water content. Transgenics also showed 17-37 and 64-76% reduction in chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents, respectively. Reduction in photosynthetic pigments could be responsible for the noticed significant decrease in plant biomass. Like steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis, chlorophyll biosynthesis also occurs from the precursors isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) of MEP pathway in the plastids. The observed downregulated expression of genes encoding MEP pathway enzymes geranyl geranyl diphosphate synthase (GGDPS), copalyl diphosphate synthase (CDPS), kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), chlorophyll synthetase and chlorophyll a oxygenase in transgenics overexpressing SrUGT85C2 might be responsible for the reduction in gibberellins as well as chlorophyll. This study has documented for the first time the regulatory role of SrUGT85C2 in the biosynthesis of steviol glycoside, gibberellins and chlorophyll. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mitochondrial targeting of a catalase transgene product by plasmid liposomes increases radioresistance in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperly, Michael W; Melendez, J A; Zhang, Xichen; Nie, Suhua; Pearce, Linda; Peterson, James; Franicola, Darcy; Dixon, Tracy; Greenberger, Benjamin A; Komanduri, Paavani; Wang, Hong; Greenberger, Joel S

    2009-05-01

    To determine whether increased mitochondrially localized catalase was radioprotective, a human catalase transgene was cloned into a small pSVZeo plasmid and localized to the mitochondria of 32D cl 3 cells by adding the mitochondrial localization sequence of MnSOD (mt-catalase). The cell lines 32D-Cat and 32D-mt-Cat had increased catalase biochemical activity as confirmed by Western blot analysis compared to the 32D cl 3 parent cells. The MnSOD-overexpressing 32D cl 3 cell line, 2C6, had decreased baseline catalase activity that was increased in 2C6-Cat and 2C6-mt-Cat subclonal cell lines. 32D-mt-Cat cells were more radioresistant than 32D-Cat cells, but both were radioresistant relative to 32D cl 3 cells. 2C6-mt-Cat cells but not 2C6-Cat cells were radioresistant compared to 2C6 cells. Intratracheal injection of the mt-catalase-plasmid liposome complex (mt-Cat-PL) but not the catalase-plasmid liposome complex (Cat-PL) increased the resistance of C57BL/6NHsd female mice to 20 Gy thoracic irradiation compared to MnSOD-plasmid liposomes. Thus mitochondrially targeted overexpression of the catalase transgene is radioprotective in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Radiation immobilization of catalase and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guanghui; Ha Hongfei; Wang Xia; Wu Jilan

    1988-01-01

    Catalase was immobilized by a chemical method on porous polyacrylamide particles produced by radiation polymerization of acrylamide monomer at low temperature (-78 0 C). Activity of immobilized catalase was enhanced distinctly by joining a chemical arm to the support. The method of recovery of catalase activity on immobilized polymer was found by soaking it in certain buffer. The treatment of H 2 O 2 both in aqueous solution and alcoholic solution by using the immobilized catalase was performed. (author)

  19. Factors Affecting Catalase Expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms and Planktonic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick, Jesse R.; Elkins, James G.; Bollinger, Nikki; Hassett, Daniel J.; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2001-01-01

    Previous work with Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that catalase activity in biofilms was significantly reduced relative to that in planktonic cells. To better understand biofilm physiology, we examined possible explanations for the differential expression of catalase in cells cultured in these two different conditions. For maximal catalase activity, biofilm cells required significantly more iron (25 μM as FeCl3) in the medium, whereas planktonic cultures required no addition of iron. However, ...

  20. Resuscitation effects of catalase on airborne bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Marthi, B; Shaffer, B T; Lighthart, B; Ganio, L

    1991-01-01

    Catalase incorporation into enumeration media caused a significant increase (greater than 63%) in the colony-forming abilities of airborne bacteria. Incubation for 30 to 60 min of airborne bacteria in collection fluid containing catalase caused a greater than 95% increase in colony-forming ability. However, catalase did not have any effects on enumeration at high relative humidities (80 to 90%).

  1. Activation of catalase activity by a peroxisome-localized small heat shock protein Hsp17.6CII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guannan; Li, Jing; Hao, Rong; Guo, Yan

    2017-08-20

    Plant catalases are important antioxidant enzymes and are indispensable for plant to cope with adverse environmental stresses. However, little is known how catalase activity is regulated especially at an organelle level. In this study, we identified that small heat shock protein Hsp17.6CII (AT5G12020) interacts with and activates catalases in the peroxisome of Arabidopsis thaliana. Although Hsp17.6CII is classified into the cytosol-located small heat shock protein subfamily, we found that Hsp17.6CII is located in the peroxisome. Moreover, Hsp17.6CII contains a novel non-canonical peroxisome targeting signal 1 (PTS1), QKL, 16 amino acids upstream from the C-terminus. The QKL signal peptide can partially locate GFP to peroxisome, and mutations in the tripeptide lead to the abolishment of this activity. In vitro catalase activity assay and holdase activity assay showed that Hsp17.6CII increases CAT2 activity and prevents it from thermal aggregation. These results indicate that Hsp17.6CII is a peroxisome-localized catalase chaperone. Overexpression of Hsp17.6CII conferred enhanced catalase activity and tolerance to abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, overexpression of Hsp17.6CII in catalase-deficient mutants, nca1-3 and cat2 cat3, failed to rescue their stress-sensitive phenotypes and catalase activity, suggesting that Hsp17.6CII-mediated stress response is dependent on NCA1 and catalase activity. Overall, we identified a novel peroxisome-located catalase chaperone that is involved in plant abiotic stress resistance by activating catalase activity. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Purification and Characterization of Catalase from Marine Bacterium Acinetobacter sp. YS0810

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    Xinhua Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalase from marine bacterium Acinetobacter sp. YS0810 (YS0810CAT was purified and characterized. Consecutive steps were used to achieve the purified enzyme as follows: ethanol precipitation, DEAE Sepharose ion exchange, Superdex 200 gel filtration, and Resource Q ion exchange. The active enzyme consisted of four identical subunits of 57.256 kDa. It showed a Soret peak at 405 nm, indicating the presence of iron protoporphyrin IX. The catalase was not apparently reduced by sodium dithionite but was inhibited by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, hydroxylamine hydrochloride, and sodium azide. Peroxidase-like activity was not found with the substrate o-phenylenediamine. So the catalase was determined to be a monofunctional catalase. N-terminal amino acid of the catalase analysis gave the sequence SQDPKKCPVTHLTTE, which showed high degree of homology with those of known catalases from bacteria. The analysis of amino acid sequence of the purified catalase by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed that it was a new catalase, in spite of its high homology with those of known catalases from other bacteria. The catalase showed high alkali stability and thermostability.

  3. Effect of hydrogen peroxide and catalase derivatives on functional activity of platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavaev, A V; Buryachkovskaya, L I; Uchitel, I A; Tishchenko, E G; Maksimenko, A V

    2012-01-01

    Effects of H(2)O(2) on platelet aggregation were estimated in vitro in the presence and absence of inductors (ADP, serotonin, TRAP) and native and modified catalase. Dose-dependent effect of H(2)O(2) (50 μM or more) was investigated in a pathophysiological concentration of 300 μM inducing platelet aggregation. H(2)O(2) modulated aggregation induced by ADP, serotonin, and TRAP significantly increasing the initial platelet aggregation followed by disaggregation, which was always more pronounced than in control. Catalase derivatives (native and modified forms) dose-dependently reduced the effect of H(2)O(2) and completely abolished it in a dose of 9000 U catalase activity per 1 ml of solution for native catalase and 1200 U/ml for modified one. Modified catalase, in contrast to native one, produced an independent inhibitory effect on induced platelet aggregation. Components of modified catalase (individual substance and simple mixture) had no antiaggregant effect.

  4. Overexpression of fatty acid synthase in human gliomas correlates with the WHO tumor grade and inhibition with Orlistat reduces cell viability and triggers apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Susanne; Dünisch, Pedro; Freitag, Diana; Klausnitzer, Maren; Sakr, Yasser; Walter, Jan; Kalff, Rolf; Ewald, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN), catalyzing the de novo synthesis of fatty acids, is known to be deregulated in several cancers. Inhibition of this enzyme reduces tumor cell proliferation. Unfortunately, adverse effects and chemical instability prevent the in vivo use of the best-known inhibitors, Cerulenin and C75. Orlistat, a drug used for obesity treatment, is also considered as a potential FASN inhibitor, but its impact on glioma cell biology has not yet been described. In this study, we analyzed FASN expression in human glioma samples and primary glioblastoma cell cultures and the effects of FASN inhibition with Orlistat, Cerulenin and C75. Immunohistochemistry followed by densitometric analysis of 20 glioma samples revealed overexpression of FASN that correlated with the WHO tumor grade. Treatment of glioblastoma cells with these inhibitors resulted in a significant, dose-dependent reduction in tumor cell viability and fatty acid synthesis. Compared to Cerulenin and C75, Orlistat was a more potent inhibitor in cell cultures and cell lines. In LN229, cell-growth was reduced by 63.9 ± 8.7 % after 48 h and 200 µM Orlistat compared to controls; in LT68, the reduction in cell growth was 76.3 ± 23.7 %. Nuclear fragmentation assay and Western blotting analysis after targeting FASN with Orlistat demonstrated autophagy and apoptosis. Organotypic slice cultures treated with Orlistat showed reduced proliferation after Ki67 staining and increased caspase-3 cleavage. Our results suggest that FASN may be a therapeutic target in malignant gliomas and identify Orlistat as a possible anti-tumor drug in this setting.

  5. Cardiac-Restricted IGF-1Ea Overexpression Reduces the Early Accumulation of Inflammatory Myeloid Cells and Mediates Expression of Extracellular Matrix Remodelling Genes after Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gallego-Colon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to limit damage and improve repair after myocardial infarct remain a major therapeutic goal in cardiology. Our previous studies have shown that constitutive expression of a locally acting insulin-like growth factor-1 Ea (IGF-1Ea propeptide promotes functional restoration after cardiac injury associated with decreased scar formation. In the current study, we investigated the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms behind the enhanced functional recovery. We observed improved cardiac function in mice overexpressing cardiac-specific IGF-1Ea as early as day 7 after myocardial infarction. Analysis of gene transcription revealed that supplemental IGF-1Ea regulated expression of key metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9, their inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, and collagen types (Col 1α1 and Col 1α3 in the first week after injury. Infiltration of inflammatory cells, which direct the remodelling process, was also altered; in particular there was a notable reduction in inflammatory Ly6C+ monocytes at day 3 and an increase in anti-inflammatory CD206+ macrophages at day 7. Taken together, these results indicate that the IGF-1Ea transgene shifts the balance of innate immune cell populations early after infarction, favouring a reduction in inflammatory myeloid cells. This correlates with reduced extracellular matrix remodelling and changes in collagen composition that may confer enhanced scar elasticity and improved cardiac function.

  6. Long-term controlled GDNF over-expression reduces dopamine transporter activity without affecting tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the rat mesostriatal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso-Chinea, Pedro; Cruz-Muros, Ignacio; Afonso-Oramas, Domingo; Castro-Hernández, Javier; Salas-Hernández, Josmar; Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Luis-Ravelo, Diego; Humbert-Claude, Marie; Tenenbaum, Liliane; González-Hernández, Tomás

    2016-04-01

    The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) is a plasma membrane glycoprotein expressed in dopaminergic (DA-) cells that takes back DA into presynaptic neurons after its release. DAT dysfunction has been involved in different neuro-psychiatric disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). On the other hand, numerous studies support that the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has a protective effect on DA-cells. However, studies in rodents show that prolonged GDNF over-expression may cause a tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the limiting enzyme in DA synthesis) decline. The evidence of TH down-regulation suggests that another player in DA handling, DAT, may also be regulated by prolonged GDNF over-expression, and the possibility that this effect is induced at GDNF expression levels lower than those inducing TH down-regulation. This issue was investigated here using intrastriatal injections of a tetracycline-inducible adeno-associated viral vector expressing human GDNF cDNA (AAV-tetON-GDNF) in rats, and doxycycline (DOX; 0.01, 0.03, 0.5 and 3mg/ml) in the drinking water during 5weeks. We found that 3mg/ml DOX promotes an increase in striatal GDNF expression of 12× basal GDNF levels and both DA uptake decrease and TH down-regulation in its native and Ser40 phosphorylated forms. However, 0.5mg/ml DOX promotes a GDNF expression increase of 3× basal GDNF levels with DA uptake decrease but not TH down-regulation. The use of western-blot under non-reducing conditions, co-immunoprecipitation and in situ proximity ligation assay revealed that the DA uptake decrease is associated with the formation of DAT dimers and an increase in DAT-α-synuclein interactions, without changes in total DAT levels or its compartmental distribution. In conclusion, at appropriate GDNF transduction levels, DA uptake is regulated through DAT protein-protein interactions without interfering with DA synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Overexpression of miR-519d-3p inhibits the proliferation of DU-145 prostate cancer cells by reducing TRAF4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Han, Xingtao; Yang, Jinhui; Sun, Jiantao; Wei, Pengtao

    2018-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of microRNA-519d-3p (miR-519d-3p) on the proliferation of prostate cancer cells and explore the possible molecular mechanism. Methods The expression level of miR-519d-3p in PC-3, DU-145, 22RV1, PC-3M, LNCaP human prostate cancer cells and RWPE-1 human normal prostate epithelial cells was detected by real-time quantitative PCR. miR-519d-3p mimics or negative control microRNAs (miR-NC) was transfected into the prostate cancer cells with the lowest level of miR-519d-3p expression. Transfection efficiency was examined. The effect of miR-519d-3p on the cell cycle of prostate cancer was detected by flow cytometry. MTT assay and plate clone formation assay were used to detect its effect on the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Bioinformatics software was used to predict and dual luciferase reporter assay was used to validate the target gene of miR-519d-3p. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression of miR-519d-3p target gene. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of target gene protein and downstream protein. Results The expression of miR-519d-3p in normal prostate epithelial cells was significantly higher than that in prostate cancer cells, and the lowest was found in DU-145 cells. After transfected with miR-519d-3p mimics, the expression level of miR-519d-3p in DU-145 cells increased significantly. Bioinformatics prediction and dual luciferase reporter gene confirmed that tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 4 (TRAF4) was the target gene of miR-519d-3p. Overexpression of miR-519d-3p significantly reduced the expression of TRAF4 gene and its downstream TGF-β signaling pathway proteins in the prostate cancer cells. Conclusion The expression of miR-519d-3p is down-regulated in prostate cancer cells. Overexpression of miR-519d-3p can inhibit the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. The possible mechanism is that miR-519d-3p inhibits the expression of TRAF4.

  8. Embryonic catalase protects against ethanol embryopathies in acatalasemic mice and transgenic human catalase-expressing mice in embryo culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller-Pinsler, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the mechanism of ethanol (EtOH) teratogenicity, but the protective role of the embryonic antioxidative enzyme catalase is unclear, as embryonic activity is only about 5% of maternal levels. We addressed this question in a whole embryo culture model. C57BL/6 mouse embryos expressing human catalase (hCat) or their wild-type (C57BL/6 WT) controls, and C3Ga.Cg-Cat b /J catalase-deficient, acatalasemic (aCat) mouse embryos or their wild-type C3HeB/FeJ (C3H WT) controls, were explanted on gestational day (GD) 9 (plug = GD 1), exposed for 24 h to 2 or 4 mg/mL EtOH or vehicle, and evaluated for functional and morphological changes. hCat and C57BL/6 WT vehicle-exposed embryos developed normally, while EtOH was embryopathic in C57BL/6 WT embryos, evidenced by decreases in anterior neuropore closure, somites developed, turning and head length, whereas hCat embryos were protected (p < 0.001). Maternal pretreatment of C57BL/6 WT dams with 50 kU/kg PEG-catalase (PEG-cat) 8 h prior to embryo culture, which increases embryonic catalase activity, blocked all EtOH embryopathies (p < 0.001). Vehicle-exposed aCat mouse embryos had lower yolk sac diameters compared to WT controls, suggesting that endogenous ROS are embryopathic. EtOH was more embryopathic in aCat embryos than WT controls, evidenced by reduced head length and somite development (p < 0.01), and trends for reduced anterior neuropore closure, turning and crown–rump length. Maternal pretreatment of aCat dams with PEG-Cat blocked all EtOH embryopathies (p < 0.05). These data suggest that embryonic catalase is a determinant of risk for EtOH embryopathies. - Highlights: • Ethanol (EtOH) exposure causes structural embryopathies in embryo culture. • Genetically enhanced catalase (hCat) protects against EtOH embryopathies. • Genetically deficient catalase (aCat) exacerbates EtOH embryopathies. • Embryonic catalase is developmentally important. • EtOH developmental

  9. Embryonic catalase protects against ethanol embryopathies in acatalasemic mice and transgenic human catalase-expressing mice in embryo culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller-Pinsler, Lutfiya [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wells, Peter G., E-mail: pg.wells@utoronto.ca [Division of Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the mechanism of ethanol (EtOH) teratogenicity, but the protective role of the embryonic antioxidative enzyme catalase is unclear, as embryonic activity is only about 5% of maternal levels. We addressed this question in a whole embryo culture model. C57BL/6 mouse embryos expressing human catalase (hCat) or their wild-type (C57BL/6 WT) controls, and C3Ga.Cg-Cat{sup b}/J catalase-deficient, acatalasemic (aCat) mouse embryos or their wild-type C3HeB/FeJ (C3H WT) controls, were explanted on gestational day (GD) 9 (plug = GD 1), exposed for 24 h to 2 or 4 mg/mL EtOH or vehicle, and evaluated for functional and morphological changes. hCat and C57BL/6 WT vehicle-exposed embryos developed normally, while EtOH was embryopathic in C57BL/6 WT embryos, evidenced by decreases in anterior neuropore closure, somites developed, turning and head length, whereas hCat embryos were protected (p < 0.001). Maternal pretreatment of C57BL/6 WT dams with 50 kU/kg PEG-catalase (PEG-cat) 8 h prior to embryo culture, which increases embryonic catalase activity, blocked all EtOH embryopathies (p < 0.001). Vehicle-exposed aCat mouse embryos had lower yolk sac diameters compared to WT controls, suggesting that endogenous ROS are embryopathic. EtOH was more embryopathic in aCat embryos than WT controls, evidenced by reduced head length and somite development (p < 0.01), and trends for reduced anterior neuropore closure, turning and crown–rump length. Maternal pretreatment of aCat dams with PEG-Cat blocked all EtOH embryopathies (p < 0.05). These data suggest that embryonic catalase is a determinant of risk for EtOH embryopathies. - Highlights: • Ethanol (EtOH) exposure causes structural embryopathies in embryo culture. • Genetically enhanced catalase (hCat) protects against EtOH embryopathies. • Genetically deficient catalase (aCat) exacerbates EtOH embryopathies. • Embryonic catalase is developmentally important. • Et

  10. The Role of Catalase in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takigawa Tomoko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catalase is preferentially expressed in bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells, and acts as an endogenous antioxidant enzyme in normal lungs. We thus postulated epithelial damage would be associated with a functional deficiency of catalase during the development of lung fibrosis. Methods The present study evaluates the expression of catalase mRNA and protein in human interstitial pneumonias and in mouse bleomycin-induced lung injury. We examined the degree of bleomycin-induced inflammation and fibrosis in the mice with lowered catalase activity. Results In humans, catalase was decreased at the levels of activity, protein content and mRNA expression in fibrotic lungs (n = 12 compared to control lungs (n = 10. Immunohistochemistry revealed a decrease in catalase in bronchiolar epithelium and abnormal re-epithelialization in fibrotic areas. In C57BL/6J mice, catalase activity was suppressed along with downregulation of catalase mRNA in whole lung homogenates after bleomycin administration. In acatalasemic mice, neutrophilic inflammation was prolonged until 14 days, and there was a higher degree of lung fibrosis in association with a higher level of transforming growth factor-β expression and total collagen content following bleomycin treatment compared to wild-type mice. Conclusions Taken together, these findings demonstrate diminished catalase expression and activity in human pulmonary fibrosis and suggest the protective role of catalase against bleomycin-induced inflammation and subsequent fibrosis.

  11. Overexpression of the Brassica rapa transcription factor WRKY12 results in reduced soft rot symptoms caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum in Arabidopsis and Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H S; Park, Y H; Nam, H; Lee, Y M; Song, K; Choi, C; Ahn, I; Park, S R; Lee, Y H; Hwang, D J

    2014-09-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), an important vegetable crop, can succumb to diseases such as bacterial soft rot, resulting in significant loss of crop productivity and quality. Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum (Pcc) causes soft rot disease in various plants, including Chinese cabbage. To overcome crop loss caused by bacterial soft rot, a gene from Chinese cabbage was isolated and characterised in this study. We isolated the BrWRKY12 gene from Chinese cabbage, which is a group II member of the WRKY transcription factor superfamily. The 645-bp coding sequence of BrWRKY12 translates to a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 24.4 kDa, and BrWRKY12 was exclusively localised in the nucleus. Transcripts of BrWRKY12 were induced by Pcc infection in Brassica. Heterologous expression of BrWRKY12 resulted in reduced susceptibility to Pcc but not to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in Arabidopsis. Defence-associated genes, such as AtPDF1.2 and AtPGIP2, were constitutively expressed in transgenic lines overexpressing BrWRKY12. The expression of AtWKRY12, which is the closest orthologue of BrWRKY12, was down-regulated by Pcc in Arabidopsis. However, the Atwrky12-2 mutants did not show any difference in response to Pcc, pointing to a difference in function of WRKY12 in Brassica and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, BrWRKY12 in Chinese cabbage also exhibited enhanced resistance to bacterial soft rot and increased the expression of defence-associated genes. In summary, BrWRKY12 confers enhanced resistance to Pcc through transcriptional activation of defence-related genes. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Corticotropin-releasing factor-overexpressing mice exhibit reduced neuronal activation in the arcuate nucleus and food intake in response to fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Million, Mulugeta; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P; Kobelt, Peter; Mönnikes, Hubert; Taché, Yvette; Wang, Lixin

    2009-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) overexpressing (OE) mice are a genetic model that exhibits features of chronic stress. We investigated whether the adaptive feeding response to a hypocaloric challenge induced by food deprivation is impaired under conditions of chronic CRF overproduction. Food intake response to a 16-h overnight fast and ip injection of gut hormones regulating food intake were compared in CRF-OE and wild type (WT) littermate mice along with brain Fos expression, circulating ghrelin levels, and gastric emptying of a nonnutrient meal. CRF-OE mice injected ip with saline showed a 47 and 44% reduction of 30-min and 4-h cumulative food intake response to an overnight fast, respectively, compared with WT. However, the 30-min food intake decrease induced by ip cholecystokinin (3 microg/kg) and increase by ghrelin (300 microg/kg) were similar in CRF-OE and WT mice. Overnight fasting increased the plasma total ghrelin to similar levels in CRF-OE and WT mice, although CRF-OE mice had a 2-fold reduction of nonfasting ghrelin levels. The number of Fos-immunoreactive cells induced by fasting in the arcuate nucleus was reduced by 5.9-fold in CRF-OE compared with WT mice whereas no significant changes were observed in other hypothalamic nuclei. In contrast, fasted CRF-OE mice displayed a 5.6-fold increase in Fos-immunoreactive cell number in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve and a 34% increase in 20-min gastric emptying. These findings indicate that sustained overproduction of hypothalamic CRF in mice interferes with fasting-induced activation of arcuate nucleus neurons and the related hyperphagic response.

  13. Chromatin remodeling regulates catalase expression during cancer cells adaptation to chronic oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorieux, Christophe; Sandoval, Juan Marcelo; Fattaccioli, Antoine; Dejeans, Nicolas; Garbe, James C; Dieu, Marc; Verrax, Julien; Renard, Patricia; Huang, Peng; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2016-10-01

    Regulation of ROS metabolism plays a major role in cellular adaptation to oxidative stress in cancer cells, but the molecular mechanism that regulates catalase, a key antioxidant enzyme responsible for conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the transcriptional regulatory mechanism controlling catalase expression in three human mammary cell lines: the normal mammary epithelial 250MK primary cells, the breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and an experimental model of MCF-7 cells resistant against oxidative stress resulting from chronic exposure to H 2 O 2 (Resox), in which catalase was overexpressed. Here we identify a novel promoter region responsible for the regulation of catalase expression at -1518/-1226 locus and the key molecules that interact with this promoter and affect catalase transcription. We show that the AP-1 family member JunB and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) mediate catalase transcriptional activation and repression, respectively, by controlling chromatin remodeling through a histone deacetylases-dependent mechanism. This regulatory mechanism plays an important role in redox adaptation to chronic exposure to H 2 O 2 in breast cancer cells. Our study suggests that cancer adaptation to oxidative stress may be regulated by transcriptional factors through chromatin remodeling, and reveals a potential new mechanism to target cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. KatB, a cyanobacterial Mn-catalase with unique active site configuration: Implications for enzyme function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihani, Subhash C; Chakravarty, Dhiman; Ballal, Anand

    2016-04-01

    Manganese catalases (Mn-catalases), a class of H2O2 detoxifying proteins, are structurally and mechanistically distinct from the commonly occurring catalases, which contain heme. Active site of Mn-catalases can serve as template for the synthesis of catalase mimetics for therapeutic intervention in oxidative stress related disorders. However, unlike the heme catalases, structural aspects of Mn-catalases remain inadequately explored. The genome of the ancient cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC7120, shows the presence of two Mn-catalases, KatA and KatB. Here, we report the biochemical and structural characterization of KatB. The KatB protein (with a C-terminal his-tag) was over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. On the addition of Mn(2+) to the E. coli growth medium, a substantial increase in production of the soluble KatB protein was observed. The purified KatB protein was an efficient catalase, which was relatively insensitive to inhibition by azide. Crystal structure of KatB showed a hexameric assembly with four-helix bundle fold, characteristic of the Ferritin-like superfamily. With canonical Glu4His2 coordination geometry and two terminal water ligands, the KatB active site was distinctly different from that of other Mn-catalases. Interestingly, the KatB active site closely resembled the active sites of ruberythrin/bacterioferritin, bi-iron members of the Ferritin-like superfamily. The KatB crystal structure provided fundamental insights into the evolutionary relationship within the Ferritin-like superfamily and further showed that Mn-catalases can be sub-divided into two groups, each with a distinct active site configuration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adenovirus-Mediated Delivery of Catalase to Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Protects Neighboring Photoreceptors from Photo-Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rex, T.S.; Tsui, I.; Hahn, P.; Maguire, A.M.; Duan, D.; Bennett, J.; Dunaief, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Overexpression of antioxidant enzymes by gene therapy may protect tissues from oxidative damage. Because the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide can diffuse across cell membranes, we hypothesized that overexpression of the antioxidant catalase within certain cells might protect neighboring cells. To test this hypothesis, we transduced retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vitro and in vivo with adenovirus carrying th...

  16. Chaperonin GroEL/GroES Over-Expression Promotes Aminoglycoside Resistance and Reduces Drug Susceptibilities in Escherichia coli Following Exposure to Sublethal Aminoglycoside Doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Sarusie, Menachem V; Bentin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge to modern healthcare. Aminoglycoside antibiotics cause translation corruption and protein misfolding and aggregation in Escherichia coli. We previously showed that chaperonin GroEL/GroES depletion and over-expression sensitize and promote short...

  17. Characterization of partially purified catalase from camel ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The liver of camel has high level of catalase (32,225 units/g tissue) as commercially used bovine liver catalase. For the establishment of the enzyme, the rate of catalase activity was linearly increased with increase of the catalase concentration and incubation time. The procedure of partial purification of catalase from camel ...

  18. Characterization of Catalase from Psychrotolerant Psychrobacter piscatorii T-3 Exhibiting High Catalase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kimoto, Hideyuki; Yoshimune, Kazuaki; Matsuyma, Hidetoshi; Yumoto, Isao

    2012-01-01

    A psychrotolerant bacterium, strain T-3 (identified as Psychrobacter piscatorii), that exhibited an extraordinarily high catalase activity was isolated from the drain pool of a plant that uses H2O2 as a bleaching agent. Its cell extract exhibited a catalase activity (19,700 U·mg protein−1) that was higher than that of Micrococcus luteus used for industrial catalase production. Catalase was approximately 10% of the total proteins in the cell extract of the strain. The catalase (PktA) was purif...

  19. Sirt1 protects against oxidative stress-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis by the bidirectional regulation of catalase expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Wakino, Shu; Yoshioka, Kyoko; Tatematsu, Satoru; Hara, Yoshikazu; Minakuchi, Hitoshi; Washida, Naoki; Tokuyama, Hirobumi; Hayashi, Koichi; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    NAD + -dependent protein deacetylase Sirt1 regulates cellular apoptosis. We examined the role of Sirt1 in renal tubular cell apoptosis by using HK-2 cells, proximal tubular cell lines with or without reactive oxygen species (ROS), H 2 O 2 . Without any ROS, Sirt1 inhibitors enhanced apoptosis and the expression of ROS scavenger, catalase, and Sirt1 overexpression downregulated catalase. When apoptosis was induced with H 2 O 2 , Sirt1 was upregulated with the concomitant increase in catalase expression. Sirt1 overexpression rescued H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis through the upregulation of catalase. H 2 O 2 induced the nuclear accumulation of forkhead transcription factor, FoxO3a and the gene silencing of FoxO3a enhanced H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis. In conclusion, endogenous Sirt1 maintains cell survival by regulating catalase expression and by preventing the depletion of ROS required for cell survival. In contrast, excess ROS upregulates Sirt1, which activates FoxO3a and catalase leading to rescuing apoptosis. Thus, Sirt1 constitutes a determinant of renal tubular cell apoptosis by regulating cellular ROS levels

  20. Downregulation of catalase by reactive oxygen species via PI 3 kinase/Akt signaling in mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Balachandar; Mahimainathan, Lenin; Das, Falguni; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Ghosh Choudhury, Goutam

    2007-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to many glomerular diseases by targeting mesangial cells. ROS have been shown to regulate expression of many antioxidant enzymes including catalase. The mechanism by which the expression of catalase protein is regulated by ROS is not precisely known. Here we report that increased intracellular ROS level by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) reduced the expression of catalase. H(2)O(2) increased phosphorylation of Akt kinase in a dose-dependent and sustained manner with a concomitant increase in the phosphorylation of FoxO1 transcription factor. Further analysis revealed that H(2)O(2) promoted rapid activation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3 kinase. The PI 3 kinase inhibitor Ly294002 and expression of tumor suppressor protein PTEN inhibited Akt kinase activity, resulting in the attenuation of FoxO1 phosphorylation and preventing the downregulating effect of H(2)O(2) on catalase protein level. Dominant negative Akt attenuated the inhibitory effect of H(2)O(2) on expression of catalase. Constitutively active FoxO1 increased the expression of catalase. However, dominant negative FoxO1 inhibited catalase protein level. Catalase transcription was reduced by H(2)O(2) treatment. Furthermore, expression of dominant negative Akt and constitutively active FoxO1 increased catalase transcription, respectively. These results demonstrate that ROS downregulate the expression of catalase in mesangial cells by PI 3 kinase/Akt signaling via FoxO1 as a target. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Growth of catalase A and catalase T deficient mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on ethanol and oleic acid : Growth profiles and catalase activities in relation to microbody proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klei, Ida J. van der; Rytka, Joanna; Kunau, Wolf H.; Veenhuis, Marten

    The parental strain (A+T+) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mutants, deficient in catalase T (A+T-), catalase A (A-T+) or both catalases (A-T-), grew on ethanol and oleic acid with comparable doubling times. Specific activities of catalase were low in glucose- and ethanol-grown cells. In the two

  2. Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C inhibition reduces HER2-overexpression, cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth in a highly tumorigenic ovarian cancer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaro, Francesca; Abalsamo, Laura; Pisanu, Maria Elena; Ricci, Alessandro; Cecchetti, Serena; Altabella, Luisa; Buoncervello, Maria; Lozneanu, Ludmila; Bagnoli, Marina; Ramoni, Carlo; Canevari, Silvana; Mezzanzanica, Delia

    2017-01-01

    Antagonizing the oncogenic effects of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) with current anti-HER2 agents has not yet yielded major progress in the treatment of advanced HER2-positive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Using preclinical models to explore alternative molecular mechanisms affecting HER2 overexpression and oncogenicity may lead to new strategies for EOC patient treatment. We previously reported that phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) exerts a pivotal role in regulating HER2 overexpression in breast cancer cells. The present study, conducted on two human HER2-overexpressing EOC cell lines - SKOV3 and its in vivo-passaged SKOV3.ip cell variant characterized by enhanced in vivo tumorigenicity - and on SKOV3.ip xenografts implanted in SCID mice, showed: a) about 2-fold higher PC-PLC and HER2 protein expression levels in SKOV3.ip compared to SKOV3 cells; b) physical association of PC-PLC with HER2 in non-raft domains; c) HER2 internalization and ca. 50% reduction of HER2 mRNA and protein expression levels in SKOV3.ip cells exposed to the PC-PLC inhibitor tricyclodecan-9-yl-potassium xanthate (D609); d) differential effects of D609 and trastuzumab on HER2 protein expression and cell proliferation; e) decreased in vivo tumor growth in SKOV3.ip xenografts during in vivo treatment with D609; f) potential use of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and imaging (MRI) parameters as biomarkers of EOC response to PC-PLC inhibition. Overall, these findings support the view that PC-PLC inhibition may represent an effective means to target the tumorigenic effects of HER2 overexpression in EOC and that in vivo MR approaches can efficiently monitor its effects. PMID:28903399

  3. Fungal catalases: function, phylogenetic origin and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansberg, Wilhelm; Salas-Lizana, Rodolfo; Domínguez, Laura

    2012-09-15

    Most fungi have several monofunctional heme-catalases. Filamentous ascomycetes (Pezizomycotina) have two types of large-size subunit catalases (L1 and L2). L2-type are usually induced by different stressors and are extracellular enzymes; those from the L1-type are not inducible and accumulate in asexual spores. L2 catalases are important for growth and the start of cell differentiation, while L1 are required for spore germination. In addition, pezizomycetes have one to four small-size subunit catalases. Yeasts (Saccharomycotina) do not have large-subunit catalases and generally have one peroxisomal and one cytosolic small-subunit catalase. Small-subunit catalases are inhibited by substrate while large-subunit catalases are activated by H(2)O(2). Some small-subunit catalases bind NADPH preventing inhibition by substrate. We present a phylogenetic analysis revealing one or two events of horizontal gene transfers from Actinobacteria to a fungal ancestor before fungal diversification, as the origin of large-size subunit catalases. Other possible horizontal transfers of small- and large-subunit catalases genes were detected and one from bacteria to the fungus Malassezia globosa was analyzed in detail. All L2-type catalases analyzed presented a secretion signal peptide. Mucorales preserved only L2-type catalases, with one containing a secretion signal if two or more are present. Basidiomycetes have only L1-type catalases, all lacking signal peptide. Fungal small-size catalases are related to animal catalases and probably evolved from a common ancestor. However, there are several groups of small-size catalases. In particular, a conserved group of fungal sequences resemble plant catalases, whose phylogenetic origin was traced to a group of bacteria. This group probably has the heme orientation of plant catalases and could in principle bind NADPH. From almost a hundred small-subunit catalases only one fourth has a peroxisomal localization signal and in fact many fungi lack

  4. Evaluation of salivary catalase activity in blighted ovum gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ahmadizadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anembryonic gestation (blighted ovum is the most common identifiable pathology in the first trimester of pregnancy, always leads to miscarriage. Early pregnancy failures from blighted ovum are often due to chromosomal abnormalities and a poor quality of sperm or egg. Oxidative stresses as a factor of disturbance balance between the production of free radicals and antioxidant defenses is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including mouth and throat cancer and cardiovascular disease. Catalase is one of the defensive systems against damages caused by oxidative stress in human. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of salivary catalase in women with blighted ovum and women with history of normal pregnancy. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 34 patient women with blighted ovum and 34 healthy women as a control group. The study was performed in biochemistry laboratory at the University of Guilan from October 2015 to July 2015. The age range was 20-44 years and 18-45 years in patient and control groups, respectively. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected using spitting method. Catalase activity was measured by evaluating the constant rate of hydrogen peroxide decomposition in patient and control groups. Results: The patient group matched with healthy subjects in average age and having no other diseases history. The biochemical enzymatic assays indicate that the average catalase activities of saliva in patient and control groups were 14.47±3.8 and 16.42±3.48, respectively. Therefore, the catalase activity was significantly reduced in patient group as compared to the control group (P=0.03. Conclusion: The obtained results suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of blighted ovum. Therefore, determination the activity of other antioxidant enzymes, in addition to catalse, may be used as a marker for diagnosis of blighted ovum. More studies with larger studied

  5. Characterization of Catalase from Psychrotolerant Psychrobacter piscatorii T-3 Exhibiting High Catalase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Hideyuki; Yoshimune, Kazuaki; Matsuyma, Hidetoshi; Yumoto, Isao

    2012-01-01

    A psychrotolerant bacterium, strain T-3 (identified as Psychrobacter piscatorii), that exhibited an extraordinarily high catalase activity was isolated from the drain pool of a plant that uses H2O2 as a bleaching agent. Its cell extract exhibited a catalase activity (19,700 U·mg protein−1) that was higher than that of Micrococcus luteus used for industrial catalase production. Catalase was approximately 10% of the total proteins in the cell extract of the strain. The catalase (PktA) was purified homogeneously by only two purification steps, anion exchange and hydrophobic chromatographies. The purified catalase exhibited higher catalytic efficiency and higher sensitivity of activity at high temperatures than M. luteus catalase. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest homology with catalase of Psycrobacter cryohalolentis, a psychrotolelant bacterium obtained from Siberian permafrost. These findings suggest that the characteristics of the PktA molecule reflected the taxonomic relationship of the isolate as well as the environmental conditions (low temperatures and high concentrations of H2O2) under which the bacterium survives. Strain T-3 efficiently produces a catalase (PktA) at a higher rate than Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans, which produces a very strong activity of catalase (EktA) at a moderate rate, in order to adapt to high concentration of H2O2. PMID:22408420

  6. The three catalases in Deinococcus radiodurans: Only two show catalase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sun-Wook; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Min-Kyu; Seo, Ho Seong; Lim, Heon-Man; Lim, Sangyong

    2016-01-15

    Deinococcus radiodurans, which is extremely resistant to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress, is known to have three catalases (DR1998, DRA0146, and DRA0259). In this study, to investigate the role of each catalase, we constructed catalase mutants (Δdr1998, ΔdrA0146, and ΔdrA0259) of D. radiodurans. Of the three mutants, Δdr1998 exhibited the greatest decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) resistance and the highest increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels following H2O2 treatments, whereas ΔdrA0146 showed no change in its H2O2 resistance or ROS level. Catalase activity was not attenuated in ΔdrA0146, and none of the three bands detected in an in-gel catalase activity assay disappeared in ΔdrA0146. The purified His-tagged recombinant DRA0146 did not show catalase activity. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis of the deinococcal catalases revealed that the DR1998-type catalase is common in the genus Deinococcus, but the DRA0146-type catalase was found in only 4 of 23 Deinococcus species. Taken together, these results indicate that DR1998 plays a critical role in the anti-oxidative system of D. radiodurans by detoxifying H2O2, but DRA0146 does not have catalase activity and is not involved in the resistance to H2O2 stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Altered methanol embryopathies in embryo culture with mutant catalase-deficient mice and transgenic mice expressing human catalase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the teratogenicity of methanol (MeOH) in rodents, unlike its acute toxicity in humans, are unclear, but may involve reactive oxygen species (ROS). Embryonic catalase, although expressed at about 5% of maternal activity, may protect the embryo by detoxifying ROS. This hypothesis was investigated in whole embryo culture to remove confounding maternal factors, including metabolism of MeOH by maternal catalase. C57BL/6 (C57) mouse embryos expressing human catalase (hCat) or their wild-type (C57 WT) controls, and C3Ga.Cg-Catb/J acatalasemic (aCat) mouse embryos or their wild-type C3HeB/FeJ (C3H WT) controls, were explanted on gestational day (GD) 9 (plug = GD 1), exposed for 24 h to 4 mg/ml MeOH or vehicle, and evaluated for functional and morphological changes. hCat and C57 WT vehicle-exposed embryos developed normally. MeOH was embryopathic in C57 WT embryos, evidenced by decreases in anterior neuropore closure, somites developed and turning, whereas hCat embryos were protected. Vehicle-exposed aCat mouse embryos had lower yolk sac diameters compared to C3H WT controls, suggesting that endogenous ROS are embryopathic. MeOH was more embryopathic in aCat embryos than WT controls, with reduced anterior neuropore closure and head length only in catalase-deficient embryos. These data suggest that ROS may be involved in the embryopathic mechanism of methanol, and that embryonic catalase activity may be a determinant of teratological risk.

  8. Crithidia fasciculata: a catalase-containing trypanosomatid sensitive to nitroheterocyclic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteridge, W E; Ross, J; Hargadon, M R; Hudson, J E

    1982-01-01

    Crithidia fasciculata, which contains high levels of a cytosolic catalase, is sensitive to inhibition by at least two nitroheterocyclic drugs, Nifurtimox and MK 436, both of which are also active against Trypanosoma cruzi. Drug sensitivity is not enhanced in organisms containing reduced levels of catalase. The ultrastructural lesions in T. cruzi produced by nitroheterocycles, especially the swelling and gross vacuolation of the mitochondria, are seen also in C. fasciculata. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that the action of drugs such as Nifurtimox on T. cruzi involve hydrogen peroxide accumulation as a result of the absence of catalase.

  9. Overexpression of extracellular superoxide dismutase reduces severity of radiation-induced lung toxicity through downregulation of the TGF-β signal transduction pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbani, Z.N.; Anscher, M.S.; Archer, E.; Chen, L.; Samulski, T.V.; Folz, R.J.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Vujaskovic, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether overexpression of ECSOD, ameliorates acute radiation induced lung injury by inhibiting activation of TGF-β and down regulating phosphorylation of (p)Smad 3 signal transduction protein. Transgenic (TG) B6C3 mice that overexpress human EC-SOD (hEC-SOD) and wild-type (WT) littermates received single dose of 15 Gy to the whole thorax and sacrificed at 1day, 1wk, 2wk, 3wk, 6wk, 10 and 14 weeks. Different endpoints were assessed to look for lung damage. Starting at 3rd week after radiation, there was significant increase in breathing rates, right lung wet weights and lung tissue damage score of XRT-WT vs. XRT-TG (p<0.05). In BALF, total cell counts per ml were significantly increased in XRT-WT whereas XRT-TG animals did not show any significant increase except at 14 weeks after irradiation (p<0.05). Macrophages and lymphocytes were the predominant inflammatory cells in BALF of XRT-WT compared to XRT-TG (p<0.05). XRT-WT group had a significantly higher percentage of activated TGF-β1 than the XRT-TG (p=0.04) at 14 weeks. There was a mild immunoreactivity of pSmad3 in bronchial epithelium and type II pneumocytes of control animals. In XRT-WT pSmad3 immunostaining was moderate at 1 week and moderate to strong at 3, 6 and 10 weeks whereas in XRT-TG mice immmunostaining was mild to moderate. This study shows that, the overexpression of ECSOD in transgenic animals is radioprotective in acute phase of radiation induced lung injury. Fewer inflammatory cells in XRT-TG group confirms the deprivation of important source for free radicals and TGF-β cytokine. Significant reduction in TGF-β activation in ECSOD overexpressing animals, followed by downregulation of pSmad3 indicates important role of reactive oxygen species in activation of TGF-β signal transduction pathway

  10. The three catalases in Deinococcus radiodurans: Only two show catalase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sun-Wook [Research Division for Biotechnology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biological Sciences, College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Min-Kyu; Seo, Ho Seong [Research Division for Biotechnology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Heon-Man [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sangyong, E-mail: saylim@kaeri.re.kr [Research Division for Biotechnology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Deinococcus radiodurans, which is extremely resistant to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress, is known to have three catalases (DR1998, DRA0146, and DRA0259). In this study, to investigate the role of each catalase, we constructed catalase mutants (Δdr1998, ΔdrA0146, and ΔdrA0259) of D. radiodurans. Of the three mutants, Δdr1998 exhibited the greatest decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) resistance and the highest increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels following H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatments, whereas ΔdrA0146 showed no change in its H{sub 2}O{sub 2} resistance or ROS level. Catalase activity was not attenuated in ΔdrA0146, and none of the three bands detected in an in-gel catalase activity assay disappeared in ΔdrA0146. The purified His-tagged recombinant DRA0146 did not show catalase activity. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis of the deinococcal catalases revealed that the DR1998-type catalase is common in the genus Deinococcus, but the DRA0146-type catalase was found in only 4 of 23 Deinococcus species. Taken together, these results indicate that DR1998 plays a critical role in the anti-oxidative system of D. radiodurans by detoxifying H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but DRA0146 does not have catalase activity and is not involved in the resistance to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stress. - Highlights: • The dr1998 mutant strain lost 90% of its total catalase activity. • Increased ROS levels and decreased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} resistance were observed in dr1998 mutants. • Lack of drA0146 did not affect any oxidative stress-related phenotypes. • The purified DRA0146 did not show catalase activity.

  11. The three catalases in Deinococcus radiodurans: Only two show catalase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sun-Wook; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Min-Kyu; Seo, Ho Seong; Lim, Heon-Man; Lim, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans, which is extremely resistant to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress, is known to have three catalases (DR1998, DRA0146, and DRA0259). In this study, to investigate the role of each catalase, we constructed catalase mutants (Δdr1998, ΔdrA0146, and ΔdrA0259) of D. radiodurans. Of the three mutants, Δdr1998 exhibited the greatest decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) resistance and the highest increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels following H 2 O 2 treatments, whereas ΔdrA0146 showed no change in its H 2 O 2 resistance or ROS level. Catalase activity was not attenuated in ΔdrA0146, and none of the three bands detected in an in-gel catalase activity assay disappeared in ΔdrA0146. The purified His-tagged recombinant DRA0146 did not show catalase activity. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis of the deinococcal catalases revealed that the DR1998-type catalase is common in the genus Deinococcus, but the DRA0146-type catalase was found in only 4 of 23 Deinococcus species. Taken together, these results indicate that DR1998 plays a critical role in the anti-oxidative system of D. radiodurans by detoxifying H 2 O 2 , but DRA0146 does not have catalase activity and is not involved in the resistance to H 2 O 2 stress. - Highlights: • The dr1998 mutant strain lost 90% of its total catalase activity. • Increased ROS levels and decreased H 2 O 2 resistance were observed in dr1998 mutants. • Lack of drA0146 did not affect any oxidative stress-related phenotypes. • The purified DRA0146 did not show catalase activity.

  12. Overexpression of the Rice SUMO E3 Ligase Gene OsSIZ1 in Cotton Enhances Drought and Heat Tolerance, and Substantially Improves Fiber Yields in the Field under Reduced Irrigation and Rainfed Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Neelam; Sun, Li; Zhu, Xunlu; Smith, Jennifer; Prakash Srivastava, Anurag; Yang, Xiaojie; Pehlivan, Necla; Esmaeili, Nardana; Luo, Hong; Shen, Guoxin; Jones, Don; Auld, Dick; Burke, John

    2017-01-01

    The Arabidopsis SUMO E3 ligase gene AtSIZ1 plays important roles in plant response to abiotic stresses as loss of function in AtSIZ1 leads to increased sensitivity to drought, heat and salt stresses. Overexpression of the AtSIZ1 rice homolog, OsSIZ1, leads to increased heat and drought tolerance in bentgrass, suggesting that the function of the E3 ligase SIZ1 is highly conserved in plants and it plays a critical role in abiotic stress responses. To test the possibility that the SUMO E3 ligase could be used to engineer drought- and heat-tolerant crops, the rice gene OsSIZ1 was overexpressed in cotton. We report here that overexpression of OsSIZ1 in cotton results in higher net photosynthesis and better growth than wild-type cotton under drought and thermal stresses in growth chamber and greenhouse conditions. Additionally, this tolerance to abiotic stresses was correlated with higher fiber yield in both controlled-environment and field trials carried out under reduced irrigation and rainfed conditions. These results suggest that OsSIZ1 is a viable candidate gene to improve crop yields under water-limited and rainfed agricultural production systems. PMID:28340002

  13. Do pH and flavonoids influence hypochlorous acid-induced catalase inhibition and heme modification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krych-Madej, Justyna; Gebicka, Lidia

    2015-09-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), highly reactive oxidizing and chlorinating species, is formed in the immune response to invading pathogens by the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with chloride catalyzed by the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Catalase, an important antioxidant enzyme, catalyzing decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen, hampers in vitro HOCl formation, but is also one of the main targets for HOCl. In this work we have investigated HOCl-induced catalase inhibition at different pH, and the influence of flavonoids (catechin, epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin) on this process. It has been shown that HOCl-induced catalase inhibition is independent on pH in the range 6.0-7.4. Preincubation of catalase with epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin before HOCl treatment enhances the degree of catalase inhibition, whereas catechin does not affect this process. Our rapid kinetic measurements of absorption changes around the heme group have revealed that heme modification by HOCl is mainly due to secondary, intramolecular processes. The presence of flavonoids, which reduce active catalase intermediate, Compound I to inactive Compound II have not influenced the kinetics of HOCl-induced heme modification. Possible mechanisms of the reaction of hypochlorous acid with catalase are proposed and the biological consequences are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Overexpression of the alfalfa WRKY11 gene enhances salt tolerance in soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youjing Wang

    Full Text Available The WRKY transcription factors play an important role in the regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with plant abiotic stress responses. In this study, the WRKY transcription factor MsWRKY11, containing the plant-specific WRKY zinc finger DNA-binding motif, was isolated from alfalfa. The MsWRKY11 gene was detected in all plant tissues (root, stem, leaf, flower, and fruit, with high expression in root and leaf tissues. MsWRKY11 was upregulated in response to a variety of abiotic stresses, including salinity, alkalinity, cold, abscisic acid, and drought. Overexpression of MsWRKY11 in soybean enhanced the salt tolerance at the seedling stage. Transgenic soybean had a better salt-tolerant phenotype, and the hypocotyls were significantly longer than those of wild-type seeds after salt treatment. Furthermore, MsWRKY11 overexpression increased the contents of chlorophyll, proline, soluble sugar, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, but reduced the relative electrical conductivity and the contents of malonaldehyde, H2O2, and O2-. Plant height, pods per plant, seeds per plant, and 100-seed weight of transgenic MsWRKY11 soybean were higher than those of wild-type soybean, especially OX2. Results of the salt experiment showed that MsWRKY11 is involved in salt stress responses, and its overexpression improves salt tolerance in soybean.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine... a partially purified liquid or powder. Its characterizing enzyme activity is catalase (EC 1.11.1.6...

  16. Overexpression of Phosphorylated 4E-BP1 Predicts for Tumor Recurrence and Reduced Survival in Cervical Carcinoma Treated With Postoperative Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavente, Sergio; Verges, Ramona; Hermosilla, Eduardo; Fumanal, Victor; Casanova, Nathalie; Garcia, Angel; Ramon y Cajal, Santiago; Giralt, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the prognostic value of the 4E-BP1 activation state and related upstream/downstream signaling proteins on the clinical outcome of patients with intermediate- or high-risk early-stage cervical carcinoma treated with postoperative radiotherapy and to determine the optimal treatment of early-stage cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical staining was performed on 64 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical carcinoma surgical specimens for each protein of the panel (p4E-BP1, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase, pAkt, vascular endothelial growth factor, KDR, Bcl-2, TP53, receptor for activated C-kinase 1). The expression patterns were related to the clinical data. All patients received postoperative radiotherapy. Concurrent chemotherapy was added if high-risk features were present. The median follow-up was 40 months. Results: Of the 64 patients, 13 received concomitant chemotherapy. p4E-BP1 overexpression in moderate/high-risk early-stage cervical carcinoma correlated significantly with disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 4.39; p = .009) and overall survival (hazard ratio, 4.88; p = .005). Vascular endothelial growth factor, and its receptor KDR, had positive immunoreactivity in all tumor samples. No correlation with clinical outcome was found for the remaining proteins evaluated. Conclusion: In this study, moderate/high-risk early-stage cervical carcinoma with low p4E-BP1 expression was highly curable with the current postoperative treatments. For tumors with p4E-BP1 overexpression, new investigational strategies are needed.

  17. MiR-133b is frequently decreased in gastric cancer and its overexpression reduces the metastatic potential of gastric cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yu; Zhu, Zhenggang; Huang, Jie; Zhang, Li; Qu, Ying; Li, Jianfang; Yu, Beiqin; Yan, Min; Yu, Yingyan; Liu, Bingya

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs are involved in gastric cancer development and progression. Here we examine the role of miR-133b in gastric cancer. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed in 140 patient gastric cancer tissues and 8 gastric cancer cell lines. The effects of miR-133b in gastric cancer cells metastasis were examined by scratch assay, transwell migration and matrigel invasion. In vivo effects of miR-133b were examined in an intraperitoneal mouse tumor model. Targets of miR-133b were predicted by bioinformatics tools and validated by luciferase reporter analyses, western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR. MiR-133b was significantly downregulated in 70% (98/140) of gastric cancer patients. Expression of miR-133b was negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer in patients. Similarly, the expression of miR-133b was significantly lower in seven tested gastric cancer cell lines than in the immortalized non-cancerous GES-1 gastric epithelial cells. Overexpression of miR-133b markedly inhibited metastasis of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the transcriptional factor Gli1 was identified as a direct target for miR-133b. Level of Gli1 protein but not mRNA was decreased by miR-133b. Activity of luciferase with Gli1 3′-untranslated region was markedly decreased by miR-133b in gastric cancer cells. Gli1 target genes, OPN and Zeb2, were also inhibited by miR133b. MiR-133b is frequently decreased in gastric cancer. Overexpression of miR-133b inhibits cell metastasis in vitro and in vivo partly by directly suppressing expression of Gli1 protein. These results suggested that miR-133b plays an important role in gastric cancer metastasis

  18. Catalase-dependent H2O2 consumption by cardiac mitochondria and redox-mediated loss in insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindler, Paul M; Cacciola, Angela; Kinter, Michael; Szweda, Luke I

    2016-11-01

    We have recently demonstrated that catalase content in mouse cardiac mitochondria is selectively elevated in response to high dietary fat, a nutritional state associated with oxidative stress and loss in insulin signaling. Catalase and various isoforms of glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin each catalyze the consumption of H 2 O 2 Catalase, located primarily within peroxisomes and to a lesser extent mitochondria, has a low binding affinity for H 2 O 2 relative to glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin. As such, the contribution of catalase to mitochondrial H 2 O 2 consumption is not well understood. In the current study, using highly purified cardiac mitochondria challenged with micromolar concentrations of H 2 O 2 , we found that catalase contributes significantly to mitochondrial H 2 O 2 consumption. In addition, catalase is solely responsible for removal of H 2 O 2 in nonrespiring or structurally disrupted mitochondria. Finally, in mice fed a high-fat diet, mitochondrial-derived H 2 O 2 is responsible for diminished insulin signaling in the heart as evidenced by reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. While elevated mitochondrial catalase content (∼50%) enhanced the capacity of mitochondria to consume H 2 O 2 in response to high dietary fat, the selective increase in catalase did not prevent H 2 O 2 -induced loss in cardiac insulin signaling. Taken together, our results indicate that mitochondrial catalase likely functions to preclude the formation of high levels of H 2 O 2 without perturbing redox-dependent signaling. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Catalase deletion promotes prediabetic phenotype in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Claire; Marshall, Stephanie; Singh, Surrendra; Yu, Xiaoqing; Charkoftaki, Georgia; Zhao, Hongyu; Orlicky, David J; Fritz, Kristofer S; Thompson, David C; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2017-02-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is produced endogenously and can be toxic to living organisms by inducing oxidative stress and cell damage. However, it has also been identified as a signal transduction molecule. By metabolizing hydrogen peroxide, catalase protects cells and tissues against oxidative damage and may also influence signal transduction mechanisms. Studies suggest that acatalasemic individuals (i.e., those with very low catalase activity) have a higher risk for the development of diabetes. We now report catalase knockout (Cat -/- ) mice, when fed a normal (6.5% lipid) chow, exhibit an obese phenotype that manifests as an increase in body weight that becomes more pronounced with age. The mice demonstrate altered hepatic and muscle lipid deposition, as well as increases in serum and hepatic triglycerides (TGs), and increased hepatic transcription and protein expression of PPARγ. Liver morphology revealed steatosis with inflammation. Cat -/- mice also exhibited pancreatic morphological changes that correlated with impaired glucose tolerance and increased fasting serum insulin levels, conditions consistent with pre-diabetic status. RNA-seq analyses revealed a differential expression of pathways and genes in Cat -/- mice, many of which are related to metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and obesity, such as Pparg and Cidec. In conclusion, the results of the present study show mice devoid of catalase develop an obese, pre-diabetic phenotype and provide compelling evidence for catalase (or its products) being integral in metabolic regulation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Potential enzyme toxicity of oxytetracycline to catalase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Zhenxing; Liu Rutao; Zhang Hao

    2010-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a kind of widely used veterinary drugs. The residue of OTC in the environment is potentially harmful. In the present work, the non-covalent toxic interaction of OTC with catalase was investigated by the fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy at physiological pH 7.4. OTC can interact with catalase to form a complex mainly by van der Waals' interactions and hydrogen bonds with one binding site. The association constants K were determined to be K 293K = 7.09 x 10 4 L mol -1 and K 311K = 3.31 x 10 4 L mol -1 . The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH o , ΔG o and ΔS o ) of the interaction were calculated. Based on the Foerster theory of non-radiative energy transfer, the distance between bound OTC and the tryptophan residues of catalase was determined to be 6.48 nm. The binding of OTC can result in change of the micro-environment of the tryptophan residues and the secondary structure of catalase. The activity of catalase was also inhibited for the bound OTC. This work establishes a new strategy to probe the enzyme toxicity of veterinary drug residues and is helpful for clarifying the molecular toxic mechanism of OTC in vivo. The established strategy can be used to investigate the potential enzyme toxicity of other small organic pollutants and drugs.

  1. RESTORATION INDUCED BY CATALASE IN IRRADIATED MICROORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Raymond; Caldas, Luis Renato

    1952-01-01

    1. E. coli, strain K-12, and B. megatherium 899, irradiated in strict but still undefined physiological conditions with certain heavy doses of ultraviolet light, are efficiently restored by catalase, which acts on or fixes itself upon the bacteria in a few minutes. This restoration (C. R.), different from photorestoration, is aided by a little visible light. 2. At 37° the restorability lasts for about 2 hours after UV irradiation; the restored cells begin to divide at the same time as the normal survivors. 3. C. R. is not produced after x-irradiation. 4. B. megatherium Mox and E. coli, strain B/r show little C. R.; E. coli strain B shows none. None of these three strains is lysogenic, whereas the two preceding catalase-restorable strains are. 5. Phage production in the system "K-12 infected with T2 phage" is restored by catalase after UV irradiation, whereas phage production in the system "infected B" is not. 6. With K-12, catalase does not prevent the growth of phage and the lysis induced by UV irradiation (Lwoff's phenomenon). 7. Hypotheses are discussed concerning: (a) the chemical nature of this action of catalase; (b) a possible relation between C. R. and lysogenicity of the sensitive bacteria; (c) the consequences of such chemical restorations on the general problem of cell radiosensitivity. PMID:14898028

  2. Progeric effects of catalase inactivation in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Jay I; Wood, Christopher S; Terlecky, Laura J; Walton, Paul A; Terlecky, Stanley R

    2008-10-01

    Peroxisomes generate hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species, as part of their normal metabolism. A number of pathological situations exist in which the organelle's capacity to degrade the potentially toxic oxidant is compromised. It is the peroxidase, catalase, which largely determines the functional antioxidant capacity of the organelle, and it is this enzyme that is affected in aging, in certain diseases, and in response to exposure to specific chemical agents. To more tightly control the enzymatic activity of peroxisomal catalase and carefully document the effects of its impaired action on human cells, we employed the inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. We show that by chronically reducing catalase activity to approximately 38% of normal, cells respond in a dramatic manner, displaying a cascade of accelerated aging reactions. Hydrogen peroxide and related reactive oxygen species are produced, protein and DNA are oxidatively damaged, import into peroxisomes and organelle biogenesis is corrupted, and matrix metalloproteinases are hyper-secreted from cells. In addition, mitochondria are functionally impaired, losing their ability to maintain a membrane potential and synthesize reactive oxygen species themselves. These latter results suggest an important redox-regulated connection between the two organelle systems, a topic of considerable interest for future study.

  3. Progeric effects of catalase inactivation in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepke, Jay I.; Wood, Christopher S.; Terlecky, Laura J.; Walton, Paul A.; Terlecky, Stanley R.

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisomes generate hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species, as part of their normal metabolism. A number of pathological situations exist in which the organelle's capacity to degrade the potentially toxic oxidant is compromised. It is the peroxidase, catalase, which largely determines the functional antioxidant capacity of the organelle, and it is this enzyme that is affected in aging, in certain diseases, and in response to exposure to specific chemical agents. To more tightly control the enzymatic activity of peroxisomal catalase and carefully document the effects of its impaired action on human cells, we employed the inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. We show that by chronically reducing catalase activity to approximately 38% of normal, cells respond in a dramatic manner, displaying a cascade of accelerated aging reactions. Hydrogen peroxide and related reactive oxygen species are produced, protein and DNA are oxidatively damaged, import into peroxisomes and organelle biogenesis is corrupted, and matrix metalloproteinases are hyper-secreted from cells. In addition, mitochondria are functionally impaired, losing their ability to maintain a membrane potential and synthesize reactive oxygen species themselves. These latter results suggest an important redox-regulated connection between the two organelle systems, a topic of considerable interest for future study

  4. Low catalase activity in blood is associated with the diabetes caused by alloxan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Kazunori; Tanaka, Miho; Iwata, Hiroshi; Nishihara, Ryou; Ishihara, Kohji; Wang, Da-Hong; Ogino, Keiki; Taniuchi, Koji; Masuoka, Noriyoshi

    2009-09-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is enzymatically processed by catalase, and catalase deficiency in blood is known as acatalasemia. We examined whether low catalase activity is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus. Blood glucose, insulin and glucose tolerance test were examined in acatalasemic and normal mice under non-stress and oxidative stress conditions. Alloxan administration was used as oxidative stress. Alloxan, which was a drug that caused diabetes mellitus, mostly generated hydrogen peroxide by the reaction of alloxan and reduced glutathione, in vitro. Incidence of hyperglycemia in alloxan-untreated acatalasemic mice was as low as that in the normal mice. However, the incidence of acatalasemia mice treated with alloxan was higher than that in normal mice, and the number of pancreatic beta-cells in the acatalasemic mice was less than that in normal mice. These results indicate that low catalase activity in the blood is associated with the diabetes mellitus caused by alloxan administration.

  5. Comparative study on the catalase activity in grassy and forestry plants exposed to low gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteni, A. A; Mocanasu, R. C.; Arteni, V.; Creanga, I.

    2001-01-01

    Since gamma rays level in atmosphere occasionally increases affecting biosphere,the radiation effect damages seriously certain plant species. This study was focused on a grassy species,Triticum aestivum, in comparison to a forestry species, namely Quercus robur. Young plantlets were exposed to weak gamma rays delivered by a laboratory 60 Co source, for different irradiation times. The enzymatic activity of catalase was evaluated using biochemical methods. Triticum aestivum presented a slight enhancing of catalase, both in caryopsides and leafs. Quercus robur revealed a rapid linear enhancing of catalase in saplings cultivated in laboratory while saplings grown in forestry were characterized by a reduced catalase activity. Concurrent phenomena of enzyme biosynthesis stimulation and enzyme structure damage are presumed to be the cause of such behavior. (authors)

  6. Destructive effect of non-enzymatic glycation on catalase and remediation via curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofidi Najjar, Fayezeh; Taghavi, Fereshteh; Ghadari, Rahim; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2017-09-15

    Non-enzymatic glycation of proteins is a post-translational modification that is produced by a covalent binding between reducing sugars and amino groups of lysine and arginine residues. In this paper the effect of pathological conditions, derived from hyperglycemia on bovine liver catalase (BLC) as a model protein was considered by measuring enzyme activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and changes in catalase conformational properties. We observed that in the presence of glucose, the catalase activity gradually decreased. ROS generation was also involved in the glycation process. Thus, decreased BLC activity was partly considered as a result of ROS generation through glycation. However, in the presence of curcumin the amount of ROS was reduced resulting in increased activity of the glycated catalase. The effect of high glucose level and the potential inhibitory effect of curcumin on aggregation and structural changes of catalase were also investigated. Molecular dynamic simulations also showed that interaction of catalase with curcumin resulted in changes in accessible surface area (ASA) and pKa, two effective parameters of glycation, in potential glycation lysine residues. Thus, the decrease in ASA and increase in pKa of important lysine residues were considered as predominant factors in decreased glycation of BLC by curcumin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Elevated catalase expression in a fungal pathogen is a double-edged sword of iron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Pradhan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most fungal pathogens of humans display robust protective oxidative stress responses that contribute to their pathogenicity. The induction of enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS is an essential component of these responses. We showed previously that ectopic expression of the heme-containing catalase enzyme in Candida albicans enhances resistance to oxidative stress, combinatorial oxidative plus cationic stress, and phagocytic killing. Clearly ectopic catalase expression confers fitness advantages in the presence of stress, and therefore in this study we tested whether it enhances fitness in the absence of stress. We addressed this using a set of congenic barcoded C. albicans strains that include doxycycline-conditional tetON-CAT1 expressors. We show that high basal catalase levels, rather than CAT1 induction following stress imposition, reduce ROS accumulation and cell death, thereby promoting resistance to acute peroxide or combinatorial stress. This conclusion is reinforced by our analyses of phenotypically diverse clinical isolates and the impact of stochastic variation in catalase expression upon stress resistance in genetically homogeneous C. albicans populations. Accordingly, cat1Δ cells are more sensitive to neutrophil killing. However, we find that catalase inactivation does not attenuate C. albicans virulence in mouse or invertebrate models of systemic candidiasis. Furthermore, our direct comparisons of fitness in vitro using isogenic barcoded CAT1, cat1Δ and tetON-CAT1 strains show that, while ectopic catalase expression confers a fitness advantage during peroxide stress, it confers a fitness defect in the absence of stress. This fitness defect is suppressed by iron supplementation. Also high basal catalase levels induce key iron assimilatory functions (CFL5, FET3, FRP1, FTR1. We conclude that while high basal catalase levels enhance peroxide stress resistance, they place pressure on iron homeostasis through an

  8. Elevated catalase expression in a fungal pathogen is a double-edged sword of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Arnab; Herrero-de-Dios, Carmen; Belmonte, Rodrigo; Budge, Susan; Lopez Garcia, Angela; Kolmogorova, Aljona; Lee, Keunsook K; Martin, Brennan D; Ribeiro, Antonio; Bebes, Attila; Yuecel, Raif; Gow, Neil A R; Munro, Carol A; MacCallum, Donna M; Quinn, Janet; Brown, Alistair J P

    2017-05-01

    Most fungal pathogens of humans display robust protective oxidative stress responses that contribute to their pathogenicity. The induction of enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an essential component of these responses. We showed previously that ectopic expression of the heme-containing catalase enzyme in Candida albicans enhances resistance to oxidative stress, combinatorial oxidative plus cationic stress, and phagocytic killing. Clearly ectopic catalase expression confers fitness advantages in the presence of stress, and therefore in this study we tested whether it enhances fitness in the absence of stress. We addressed this using a set of congenic barcoded C. albicans strains that include doxycycline-conditional tetON-CAT1 expressors. We show that high basal catalase levels, rather than CAT1 induction following stress imposition, reduce ROS accumulation and cell death, thereby promoting resistance to acute peroxide or combinatorial stress. This conclusion is reinforced by our analyses of phenotypically diverse clinical isolates and the impact of stochastic variation in catalase expression upon stress resistance in genetically homogeneous C. albicans populations. Accordingly, cat1Δ cells are more sensitive to neutrophil killing. However, we find that catalase inactivation does not attenuate C. albicans virulence in mouse or invertebrate models of systemic candidiasis. Furthermore, our direct comparisons of fitness in vitro using isogenic barcoded CAT1, cat1Δ and tetON-CAT1 strains show that, while ectopic catalase expression confers a fitness advantage during peroxide stress, it confers a fitness defect in the absence of stress. This fitness defect is suppressed by iron supplementation. Also high basal catalase levels induce key iron assimilatory functions (CFL5, FET3, FRP1, FTR1). We conclude that while high basal catalase levels enhance peroxide stress resistance, they place pressure on iron homeostasis through an elevated cellular demand

  9. Natural resistance to ascorbic acid induced oxidative stress is mainly mediated by catalase activity in human cancer cells and catalase-silencing sensitizes to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klingelhoeffer Christoph

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ascorbic acid demonstrates a cytotoxic effect by generating hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS involved in oxidative cell stress. A panel of eleven human cancer cell lines, glioblastoma and carcinoma, were exposed to serial dilutions of ascorbic acid (5-100 mmol/L. The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of catalase, an important hydrogen peroxide-detoxifying enzyme, on the resistance of cancer cells to ascorbic acid mediated oxidative stress. Methods Effective concentration (EC50 values, which indicate the concentration of ascorbic acid that reduced the number of viable cells by 50%, were detected with the crystal violet assay. The level of intracellular catalase protein and enzyme activity was determined. Expression of catalase was silenced by catalase-specific short hairpin RNA (sh-RNA in BT-20 breast carcinoma cells. Oxidative cell stress induced apoptosis was measured by a caspase luminescent assay. Results The tested human cancer cell lines demonstrated obvious differences in their resistance to ascorbic acid mediated oxidative cell stress. Forty-five percent of the cell lines had an EC50 > 20 mmol/L and fifty-five percent had an EC50 50 of 2.6–5.5 mmol/L, glioblastoma cells were the most susceptible cancer cell lines analysed in this study. A correlation between catalase activity and the susceptibility to ascorbic acid was observed. To study the possible protective role of catalase on the resistance of cancer cells to oxidative cell stress, the expression of catalase in the breast carcinoma cell line BT-20, which cells were highly resistant to the exposure to ascorbic acid (EC50: 94,9 mmol/L, was silenced with specific sh-RNA. The effect was that catalase-silenced BT-20 cells (BT-20 KD-CAT became more susceptible to high concentrations of ascorbic acid (50 and 100 mmol/L. Conclusions Fifty-five percent of the human cancer cell lines tested were unable to protect themselves

  10. The protective role of catalase against cerebral ischemia in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armogida, M; Spalloni, A; Amantea, D; Nutini, M; Petrelli, F; Longone, P; Bagetta, G; Nisticò, R; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the protective role of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) with relation to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) degradation in oxygen plus water on electrophysiological and fluorescence changes induced by in vitro ischemia and on brain damage produced by transient in vivo ischemia. Neuroprotective effects of CAT were determined by means of electrophysiological recordings and confocal fluorescence microscopy in the hippocampal slice preparation. Ischemia was simulated in vitro by oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD). In vivo ischemia was produced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). A protection of the rat CA1 field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) loss caused by a prolonged OGD (40 min) was observed after exogenous CAT (500 U/mL) bath-applied before a combined exposure to OGD and H(2)O(2) (3 mM). Of note, neither H(2)O(2) nor exogenous CAT alone had a protective action when OGD lasted for 40 min. The CAT-induced neuroprotection was confirmed in a transgenic mouse model over-expressing human CAT [Tg(CAT)]. In the presence of H(2)O(2), the hippocampus of Tg(CAT) showed an increased resistance against OGD compared to that of wild-type (WT) animals. Moreover, CAT treatment reduced for about 50 min fEPSP depression evoked by repeated applications of H(2)O(2) in normoxia. A lower sensitivity to H(2)O(2)-induced depression of fEPSPs was also indicated by the rightward shift of concentration-response curve in Tg(CAT) compared to WT mice. Noteworthy, Tg(CAT) mice had a reduced infarct size after MCAo. Our data suggest new strategies to reduce neuronal damage produced by transient brain ischemia through the manipulation of CAT enzyme.

  11. Isolation and Abiotic Stress Resistance Analyses of a Catalase Gene from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Bin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Pan; Zheng, Haiyan; Fei, Xueting; Hong, Zixi; Ma, Qinqin; Miao, Yuzhi; Yuan, Xianghua; Jiang, Yusong; Shao, Huanhuan

    2017-01-01

    As an indicator of the antioxidant capability of plants, catalase can detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by environmental stresses. Sweet potato is one of the top six most important crops in the world. However, its catalases remain largely unknown. In this study, a catalase encoding gene, IbCAT2 (accession number: KY615708), was identified and cloned from sweet potato cv. Xushu 18. It contained a 1479 nucleotides' open reading frame (ORF). S-R-L, Q-K-L, and a putative calmodulin binding domain were located at the C-terminus of IbCAT2, which suggests that IbCAT2 could be a peroxisomal catalase. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) based quantitative analyses showed that IbCAT2 was mainly expressed in young leaves and expanding tuberous roots under normal conditions. When exposed to 10% PEG6000 or 200 mmol/L NaCl solutions, IbCAT2 was upregulated rapidly in the first 11 days and then downregulated, although different tissues showed different degree of change. Overexpression of IbCAT2 conferred salt and drought tolerance in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The positive response of IbCAT2 to abiotic stresses suggested that IbCAT2 might play an important role in stress responses.

  12. Purification, cloning, expression, and biochemical characterization of a monofunctional catalase, KatP, from Pigmentiphaga sp. DL-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weiliang; Hou, Ying; Li, Shuhuan; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jie; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Yicheng; Huang, Fei; Fu, Lei; Huang, Yan; Cui, Zhongli

    2015-04-01

    Catalases are essential components of the cellular equipment used to cope with oxidative stress. The monofunctional catalase KatP was purified from Pigmentiphaga sp. using ammonium sulfate precipitation (ASP), diethylaminoethyl ion exchange chromatography (IEC), and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). The purified catalase formed polymer with an estimated monomer molecular mass of 54kDa, which were resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and zymogram analysis. KatP exhibited a specific catalytic activity of 73,000U/mg, which was higher than that of catalase-1 of Comamonas terrigena N3H (55,900U/mg). Seven short tryptic fragments of this catalase were obtained by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS), and the gene, katP, was cloned by PCR amplification and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Based on the complete amino acid sequence, KatP was identified as a clade 3 monofunctional catalase. The specific activities of recombinant KatP for hydrogen peroxide (690,000U/mg) increased 9-fold over that of the parent strain. The Km and Vmax of recombinant KatP were 9.48mM and 81.2mol/minmg, respectively. The optimal pH and temperature for KatP were 7.0 and 37°C, respectively, and the enzyme displayed abroad pH-stable range of 4.0-11.0. The enzyme was inhibited by Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Cr(2+), and Mn(2+), whereas Fe(3+) and Mg(2+) stimulated KatP enzymatic activity. Interestingly, the catalase activity of recombinant KatP displayed high stability under different temperature and pH conditions, suggesting that KatP is a potential candidate for the production of catalase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization of extracellular catalase production from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The studies of the effect of each variable and the establishment of a correlation between the response of enzyme activity and variables revealed that the link is a multiple linear regression form. The optimization was carried out through a simplex algorithm. The amount of extracellular catalase produced by the strain in the ...

  14. Redundant Catalases Detoxify Phagocyte Reactive Oxygen and Facilitate Histoplasma capsulatum Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Eric D.; Smolnycki, Katherine A.; Youseff, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is a respiratory pathogen that infects phagocytic cells. The mechanisms allowing Histoplasma to overcome toxic reactive oxygen molecules produced by the innate immune system are an integral part of Histoplasma's ability to survive during infection. To probe the contribution of Histoplasma catalases in oxidative stress defense, we created and analyzed the virulence defects of mutants lacking CatB and CatP, which are responsible for extracellular and intracellular catalase activities, respectively. Both CatB and CatP protected Histoplasma from peroxide challenge in vitro and from antimicrobial reactive oxygen produced by human neutrophils and activated macrophages. Optimal protection required both catalases, as the survival of a double mutant lacking both CatB and CatP was lower than that of single-catalase-deficient cells. Although CatB contributed to reactive oxygen species defenses in vitro, CatB was dispensable for lung infection and extrapulmonary dissemination in vivo. Loss of CatB from a strain also lacking superoxide dismutase (Sod3) did not further reduce the survival of Histoplasma yeasts. Nevertheless, some catalase function was required for pathogenesis since simultaneous loss of both CatB and CatP attenuated Histoplasma virulence in vivo. These results demonstrate that Histoplasma's dual catalases comprise a system that enables Histoplasma to efficiently overcome the reactive oxygen produced by the innate immune system. PMID:23589579

  15. Electrochemical monitoring of native catalase activity in skin using skin covered oxygen electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocchi, Sarah; Björklund, Sebastian; Svensson, Birgitta; Engblom, Johan; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas

    2017-07-15

    A skin covered oxygen electrode, SCOE, was constructed with the aim to study the enzyme catalase, which is part of the biological antioxidative system present in skin. The electrode was exposed to different concentrations of H 2 O 2 and the amperometric current response was recorded. The observed current is due to H 2 O 2 penetration through the outermost skin barrier (referred to as the stratum corneum, SC) and subsequent catalytic generation of O 2 by catalase present in the underlying viable epidermis and dermis. By tape-stripping the outermost skin layers we demonstrate that SC is a considerable diffusion barrier for H 2 O 2 penetration. Our experiments also indicate that skin contains a substantial amount of catalase, which is sufficient to detoxify H 2 O 2 that reaches the viable epidermis after exposure of skin to high concentrations of peroxide (0.5-1mM H 2 O 2 ). Further, we demonstrate that the catalase activity is reduced at acidic pH, as compared with the activity at pH 7.4. Finally, experiments with often used penetration enhancer thymol shows that this compound interferes with the catalase reaction. Health aspect of this is briefly discussed. Summarizing, the results of this work show that the SCOE can be utilized to study a broad spectrum of issues involving the function of skin catalase in particular, and the native biological antioxidative system in skin in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Arabidopsis ABI5 plays a role in regulating ROS homeostasis by activating CATALASE 1 transcription in seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chao; Ma, Yu; Wu, Zhen; Yu, Yong-Tao; Liang, Shan; Lu, Kai; Wang, Xiao-Fang

    2017-05-01

    It has been known that ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) plays a vital role in regulating seed germination. In the present study, we showed that inhibition of the catalase activity with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) inhibits seed germination of Col-0, abi5 mutants and ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines. Compared with Col-0, the seeds of abi5 mutants showed more sensitive to 3-AT during seed germination, while the seeds of ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines showed more insensitive. H 2 O 2 showed the same effect on seed germination of Col-0, abi5 mutants and ABI5-overexpression transgenic lines as 3-AT. These results suggest that ROS is involved in the seed germination mediated by ABI5. Further, we observed that T-DNA insertion mutants of the three catalase members in Arabidopsis displayed 3-AT-insensitive or -hypersensitive phenotypes during seed germination, suggesting that these catalase members regulate ROS homeostasis in a highly complex way. ABI5 affects reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis by affecting CATALASE expression and catalase activity. Furthermore, we showed that ABI5 directly binds to the CAT1 promoter and activates CAT1 expression. Genetic evidence supports the idea that CAT1 functions downstream of ABI5 in ROS signaling during seed germination. RNA-sequencing analysis indicates that the transcription of the genes involved in ROS metabolic process or genes responsive to ROS stress is impaired in abi5-1 seeds. Additionally, expression changes in some genes correlative to seed germination were showed due to the change in ABI5 expression under 3-AT treatment. Together, all the findings suggest that ABI5 regulates seed germination at least partly by affecting ROS homeostasis.

  17. Protection of Human Neutrophils by Endogenous Catalase: STUDIES WITH CELLS FROM CATALASE-DEFICIENT INDIVIDUALS

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, Dirk; Weening, Ron S.; Wyss, Sonja R.; Aebi, Hugo E.

    1980-01-01

    To investigate the importance of catalase as a protecting enzyme against oxidative damage in phagocytic leukocytes, we have tested the functional capacity of neutrophils from two individuals homozygous for Swiss-type acatalasemia and from two individuals heterozygous for this deficiency. In the former cells, 25-30% of residual activity of catalase was present. In the latter cells, the values were close to normal.

  18. Natural resistance to ascorbic acid induced oxidative stress is mainly mediated by catalase activity in human cancer cells and catalase-silencing sensitizes to oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Ascorbic acid demonstrates a cytotoxic effect by generating hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved in oxidative cell stress. A panel of eleven human cancer cell lines, glioblastoma and carcinoma, were exposed to serial dilutions of ascorbic acid (5-100 mmol/L). The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of catalase, an important hydrogen peroxide-detoxifying enzyme, on the resistance of cancer cells to ascorbic acid mediated oxidative stress. Methods Effective concentration (EC50) values, which indicate the concentration of ascorbic acid that reduced the number of viable cells by 50%, were detected with the crystal violet assay. The level of intracellular catalase protein and enzyme activity was determined. Expression of catalase was silenced by catalase-specific short hairpin RNA (sh-RNA) in BT-20 breast carcinoma cells. Oxidative cell stress induced apoptosis was measured by a caspase luminescent assay. Results The tested human cancer cell lines demonstrated obvious differences in their resistance to ascorbic acid mediated oxidative cell stress. Forty-five percent of the cell lines had an EC50 > 20 mmol/L and fifty-five percent had an EC50 ascorbic acid was observed. To study the possible protective role of catalase on the resistance of cancer cells to oxidative cell stress, the expression of catalase in the breast carcinoma cell line BT-20, which cells were highly resistant to the exposure to ascorbic acid (EC50: 94,9 mmol/L), was silenced with specific sh-RNA. The effect was that catalase-silenced BT-20 cells (BT-20 KD-CAT) became more susceptible to high concentrations of ascorbic acid (50 and 100 mmol/L). Conclusions Fifty-five percent of the human cancer cell lines tested were unable to protect themselves against oxidative stress mediated by ascorbic acid induced hydrogen peroxide production. The antioxidative enzyme catalase is important to protect cancer cells against cytotoxic hydrogen peroxide

  19. Influence of catalase on the radiation sensitizing effect of misonidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazso, G.L.; Dam, A.

    1985-01-01

    The radiation modifying action of misonidazole and catalase was investigated in Bacillus megaterium spores at various oxygen concentrations. Catalase (120 μg/ml) decreased the radiation sensitizing action of misonidazole. Misonidazole as an electron affinic radiation sensitizer enhanced the build up of H 2 O 2 , thus promoting the reaction with catalase. Protection by catalase was not enough to eliminate the total radiation sensitizing effect of misonidazole. (orig.)

  20. 21 CFR 173.135 - Catalase derived from Micrococcus lysodeikticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase derived from Micrococcus lysodeikticus... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.135 Catalase derived from Micrococcus lysodeikticus. Bacterial catalase derived from Micrococcus lysodeikticus by a pure culture...

  1. Catalase as a sulfide-sulfur oxido-reductase: An ancient (and modern?) regulator of reactive sulfur species (RSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kenneth R; Gao, Yan; DeLeon, Eric R; Arif, Maaz; Arif, Faihaan; Arora, Nitin; Straub, Karl D

    2017-08-01

    Catalase is well-known as an antioxidant dismutating H 2 O 2 to O 2 and H 2 O. However, catalases evolved when metabolism was largely sulfur-based, long before O 2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) became abundant, suggesting catalase metabolizes reactive sulfide species (RSS). Here we examine catalase metabolism of H 2 S n , the sulfur analog of H 2 O 2 , hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and other sulfur-bearing molecules using H 2 S-specific amperometric electrodes and fluorophores to measure polysulfides (H 2 S n ; SSP4) and ROS (dichlorofluorescein, DCF). Catalase eliminated H 2 S n , but did not anaerobically generate H 2 S, the expected product of dismutation. Instead, catalase concentration- and oxygen-dependently metabolized H 2 S and in so doing acted as a sulfide oxidase with a P 50 of 20mmHg. H 2 O 2 had little effect on catalase-mediated H 2 S metabolism but in the presence of the catalase inhibitor, sodium azide (Az), H 2 O 2 rapidly and efficiently expedited H 2 S metabolism in both normoxia and hypoxia suggesting H 2 O 2 is an effective electron acceptor in this reaction. Unexpectedly, catalase concentration-dependently generated H 2 S from dithiothreitol (DTT) in both normoxia and hypoxia, concomitantly oxidizing H 2 S in the presence of O 2 . H 2 S production from DTT was inhibited by carbon monoxide and augmented by NADPH suggesting that catalase heme-iron is the catalytic site and that NADPH provides reducing equivalents. Catalase also generated H 2 S from garlic oil, diallyltrisulfide, thioredoxin and sulfur dioxide, but not from sulfite, metabisulfite, carbonyl sulfide, cysteine, cystine, glutathione or oxidized glutathione. Oxidase activity was also present in catalase from Aspergillus niger. These results show that catalase can act as either a sulfide oxidase or sulfur reductase and they suggest that these activities likely played a prominent role in sulfur metabolism during evolution and may continue do so in modern cells as well. This also appears

  2. Catalase as a sulfide-sulfur oxido-reductase: An ancient (and modern? regulator of reactive sulfur species (RSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Olson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Catalase is well-known as an antioxidant dismutating H2O2 to O2 and H2O. However, catalases evolved when metabolism was largely sulfur-based, long before O2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS became abundant, suggesting catalase metabolizes reactive sulfide species (RSS. Here we examine catalase metabolism of H2Sn, the sulfur analog of H2O2, hydrogen sulfide (H2S and other sulfur-bearing molecules using H2S-specific amperometric electrodes and fluorophores to measure polysulfides (H2Sn; SSP4 and ROS (dichlorofluorescein, DCF. Catalase eliminated H2Sn, but did not anaerobically generate H2S, the expected product of dismutation. Instead, catalase concentration- and oxygen-dependently metabolized H2S and in so doing acted as a sulfide oxidase with a P50 of 20 mmHg. H2O2 had little effect on catalase-mediated H2S metabolism but in the presence of the catalase inhibitor, sodium azide (Az, H2O2 rapidly and efficiently expedited H2S metabolism in both normoxia and hypoxia suggesting H2O2 is an effective electron acceptor in this reaction. Unexpectedly, catalase concentration-dependently generated H2S from dithiothreitol (DTT in both normoxia and hypoxia, concomitantly oxidizing H2S in the presence of O2. H2S production from DTT was inhibited by carbon monoxide and augmented by NADPH suggesting that catalase heme-iron is the catalytic site and that NADPH provides reducing equivalents. Catalase also generated H2S from garlic oil, diallyltrisulfide, thioredoxin and sulfur dioxide, but not from sulfite, metabisulfite, carbonyl sulfide, cysteine, cystine, glutathione or oxidized glutathione. Oxidase activity was also present in catalase from Aspergillus niger. These results show that catalase can act as either a sulfide oxidase or sulfur reductase and they suggest that these activities likely played a prominent role in sulfur metabolism during evolution and may continue do so in modern cells as well. This also appears to be the first observation of catalase

  3. Gremlin-1 Overexpression in Mouse Lung Reduces Silica-Induced Lymphocyte Recruitment - A Link to Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis through Negative Correlation with CXCL10 Chemokine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Koli

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is characterized by activation and injury of epithelial cells, the accumulation of connective tissue and changes in the inflammatory microenvironment. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP inhibitor protein gremlin-1 is associated with the progression of fibrosis both in human and mouse lung. We generated a transgenic mouse model expressing gremlin-1 in type II lung epithelial cells using the surfactant protein C (SPC promoter and the Cre-LoxP system. Gremlin-1 protein expression was detected specifically in the lung after birth and did not result in any signs of respiratory insufficiency. Exposure to silicon dioxide resulted in reduced amounts of lymphocyte aggregates in transgenic lungs while no alteration in the fibrotic response was observed. Microarray gene expression profiling and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokines indicated a reduced lymphocytic response and a downregulation of interferon-induced gene program. Consistent with reduced Th1 response, there was a downregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of the anti-fibrotic chemokine CXCL10, which has been linked to IPF. In human IPF patient samples we also established a strong negative correlation in the mRNA expression levels of gremlin-1 and CXCL10. Our results suggest that in addition to regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during tissue injury, gremlin-1 modulates inflammatory cell recruitment and anti-fibrotic chemokine production in the lung.

  4. Gremlin-1 Overexpression in Mouse Lung Reduces Silica-Induced Lymphocyte Recruitment - A Link to Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis through Negative Correlation with CXCL10 Chemokine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koli, Katri; Sutinen, Eva; Rönty, Mikko; Rantakari, Pia; Fortino, Vittorio; Pulkkinen, Ville; Greco, Dario; Sipilä, Petra; Myllärniemi, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by activation and injury of epithelial cells, the accumulation of connective tissue and changes in the inflammatory microenvironment. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor protein gremlin-1 is associated with the progression of fibrosis both in human and mouse lung. We generated a transgenic mouse model expressing gremlin-1 in type II lung epithelial cells using the surfactant protein C (SPC) promoter and the Cre-LoxP system. Gremlin-1 protein expression was detected specifically in the lung after birth and did not result in any signs of respiratory insufficiency. Exposure to silicon dioxide resulted in reduced amounts of lymphocyte aggregates in transgenic lungs while no alteration in the fibrotic response was observed. Microarray gene expression profiling and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokines indicated a reduced lymphocytic response and a downregulation of interferon-induced gene program. Consistent with reduced Th1 response, there was a downregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of the anti-fibrotic chemokine CXCL10, which has been linked to IPF. In human IPF patient samples we also established a strong negative correlation in the mRNA expression levels of gremlin-1 and CXCL10. Our results suggest that in addition to regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during tissue injury, gremlin-1 modulates inflammatory cell recruitment and anti-fibrotic chemokine production in the lung.

  5. Silencing an Anopheles gambiae Catalase and Sulfhydryl Oxidase Increases Mosquito Mortality After a Blood Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, T.; Brackney, D.E.; Beier, J.C.; Foy, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    Catalase is a potent antioxidant, likely involved in post-blood meal homeostasis in mosquitoes. This enzyme breaks down H2O2, preventing the formation of the hydroxyl radical (HO•). Quiescins are newly classified sulfhydryl oxidases that bear a thioredoxin motif at the N-terminal and an ERV1-like portion at the C-terminal. These proteins have a major role in generating disulfides in intra- or extracellular environments, and thus participate in redox reactions. In the search for molecules to serve as targets for novel anti-mosquito strategies, we have silenced a catalase and a putative quiescin/sulfhydryl oxidase (QSOX), from the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, through RNA interference (RNAi) experiments. We observed that the survival of catalase- and QSOX-silenced insects was reduced over controls following blood digestion, most likely due to the compromised ability of mosquitoes to scavenge and/or prevent damage caused by blood meal-derived oxidative stress. The higher mortality effect was more accentuated in catalase-silenced mosquitoes, where catalase activity was reduced to low levels. Lipid peroxidation was higher in QSOX-silenced mosquitoes suggesting the involvement of this protein in redox homeostasis following a blood meal. This study points to the potential of molecules involved in antioxidant response and redox metabolism to serve as targets of novel anti-mosquito strategies and offers a screening methodology for finding targetable mosquito molecules. PMID:18454489

  6. Antioxidant catalase rescues against high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction via an IKKβ-AMPK-dependent regulation of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Shou, Xi-Ling; Zhao, Hai-Kang; Ren, Gu-Qun; Wang, Jian-Bang; Wang, Xi-Hui; Ai, Wen-Ting; Maris, Jackie R; Hueckstaedt, Lindsay K; Ma, Ai-Qun; Zhang, Yingmei

    2015-02-01

    Autophagy, a conservative degradation process for long-lived and damaged proteins, participates in a variety of biological processes including obesity. However, the precise mechanism of action behind obesity-induced changes in autophagy still remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the role of the antioxidant catalase in high fat diet-induced changes in cardiac geometry and function as well as the underlying mechanism of action involved with a focus on autophagy. Wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice with cardiac overexpression of catalase were fed low or high fat diet for 20 weeks prior to assessment of myocardial geometry and function. High fat diet intake triggered obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, the effects of which were unaffected by catalase transgene. Myocardial geometry and function were compromised with fat diet intake as manifested by cardiac hypertrophy, enlarged left ventricular end systolic and diastolic diameters, fractional shortening, cardiomyocyte contractile capacity and intracellular Ca²⁺ mishandling, the effects of which were ameliorated by catalase. High fat diet intake promoted reactive oxygen species production and suppressed autophagy in the heart, the effects of which were attenuated by catalase. High fat diet intake dampened phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B kinase β(IKKβ), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) while promoting phosphorylation of mTOR, the effects of which were ablated by catalase. In vitro study revealed that palmitic acid compromised cardiomyocyte autophagy and contractile function in a manner reminiscent of fat diet intake, the effect of which was significantly alleviated by inhibition of IKKβ, activation of AMPK and induction of autophagy. Taken together, our data revealed that the antioxidant catalase counteracts against high fat diet-induced cardiac geometric and functional anomalies possibly via an IKKβ-AMPK-dependent restoration of myocardial

  7. Growth-Dependent Catalase Localization in Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans T-2-2T Reflected by Catalase Activity of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Yoshiko; Takebe, Fumihiko; Nodasaka, Yoshinobu; Hara, Isao; Matsuyama, Hidetoshi; Yumoto, Isao

    2013-01-01

    A psychrotolerant and H2O2-resistant bacterium, Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans T-2-2T, exhibits extraordinary H2O2 resistance and produces catalase not only intracellularly but also extracellularly. The intracellular and extracellular catalases exhibited the same enzymatic characteristics, that is, they exhibited the temperature-dependent activity characteristic of a cold-adapted enzyme, their heat stabilities were similar to those of mesophilic enzymes and very high catalytic intensity. In addition, catalase gene analysis indicated that the bacterium possessed the sole clade 1 catalase gene corresponding to intracellular catalase. Hence, intracellular catalase is secreted into the extracellular space. In addition to intracellular and extracellular catalases, the inner circumference of the cells showed the localization of catalase in the mid-stationary growth phase, which was observed by immunoelectron microscopy using an antibody against the intracellular catalase of the strain. The cells demonstrated higher catalase activity in the mid-stationary growth phase than in the exponential growth phase. The catalase localized in the inner circumference can be dissociated by treatment with Tween 60. Thus, the localized catalase is not tightly bound to the inner circumference of the cells and may play a role in the oxidative defense of the cells under low metabolic state. PMID:24204687

  8. Reduced Production of Higher Alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Red Wine Fermentation by Simultaneously Overexpressing BAT1 and Deleting BAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijuan; Huang, Shiyong; Du, Liping; Tang, Ping; Xiao, Dongguang

    2017-08-16

    In red wine, the contents of higher alcohols and ethyl carbamate (EC) are two significant health concerns. To reduce the production of higher alcohols by wine yeast YZ22 with low production of EC, one BAT2 was replaced by a BAT1 expression cassette first and then another BAT2 was deleted to obtain the mutant SYBB3. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the relative expression level of BAT1 in SYBB3 improved 28 times compared with that in YZ22. The yields of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol produced by mutant SYBB3 reduced by 39.41% and 37.18% compared to those by the original strain YZ22, and the total production of higher alcohols decreased from 463.82 mg/L to 292.83 mg/L in must fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon. Meanwhile, there were no obvious differences on fermentation characteristics of the mutant and parental strain. This research has suggested an effective strategy for decreasing production of higher alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  9. Molecular Characterization of a Catalase from Hydra vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Dash, Bhagirathi; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Catalase, an antioxidant and hydroperoxidase enzyme protects the cellular environment from harmful effects of hydrogen peroxide by facilitating its degradation to oxygen and water. Molecular information on a cnidarian catalase and/or peroxidase is, however, limited. In this work an apparent full length cDNA sequence coding for a catalase (HvCatalase) was isolated from Hydra vulgaris using 3’- and 5’- (RLM) RACE approaches. The 1859 bp HvCatalase cDNA included an open reading frame of 1518 bp ...

  10. Restoring catalase activity in Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius leads to loss of pathogenicity for lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Ricardo; Díez, Rosa M; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo; Orden, José A; Martínez-Pulgarín, Susana

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius, a microaerophilic and catalase-negative bacterium, is the etiological agent of abscess disease, a specific chronic condition of sheep and goats, which is characterized by formation of necrotic lesions that are located typically in superficial lymph nodes. We constructed an isogenic mutant of S. aureus subsp. anaerobius (RDKA84) that carried a repaired and functional catalase gene from S. aureus ATCC 12600, to investigate whether the lack of catalase in S. aureus subsp. anaerobius plays a role in its physiological and pathogenic characteristics. The catalase activity had no apparent influence on the in vitro growth characteristics of RDKA84, which, like the wild-type, did not grow on aerobically incubated agar plates. Restoration of catalase activity in RDKA84 substantially increased resistance to H2O2 when analyzed in a death assay. The intracellular survival rates of the catalase-positive mutant RDKA84 in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) isolated from adult sheep were significantly higher than those of the wild-type, while no differences were found with PMN isolated from lambs. RDKA84 showed significantly lower survival rates in murine macrophages (J774A.1 cells) than the wild-type strains did, whereas, in bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T), no differences in intracellular survival were observed. Interestingly, the virulence for lambs, the natural host for abscess disease, of the catalase-positive mutant RDKA84 was reduced dramatically in comparison with wild-type S. aureus subsp. anaerobius in two experimental models of infection. Copyright (c) INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.

  11. The Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenger, Catalase, Alleviates Ion Transport Dysfunction in Murine Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kim E.; McCole, Declan F.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contribute to epithelial damage and ion transport dysfunction (key events in inflammatory diarrhea) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to identify if H2O2 mediates suppression of colonic ion transport function in the murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model by using the H2O2 degrading enzyme, catalase. Colitis was induced by administering DSS (4%) in drinking water for 5 days followed by 3 days on normal H2O. Mice were administered either pegylated-catalase or saline at day −1, 0 and +1 of DSS treatment. Ion transport responses to the Ca2+-dependent agonist, carbachol (CCh), or the cAMP-dependent agonist, forskolin, were measured across distal colonic mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers. Parameters of DSS-induced inflammation (loss in body weight, decreased colon length, altered stool consistency), were only partially alleviated by catalase while histology was only minimally improved. However, catalase significantly reversed the DSS-induced reduction in baseline ion transport as well as colonic Isc responses to CCh. However, ion transport responses to forskolin were not significantly restored. Catalase also reduced activation of ERK MAP kinase in the setting of colitis, and increased expression of the Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter, NKCC1, consistent with restoration of ion transport function. Ex vivo treatment of inflamed colonic mucosae with catalase also partially restored ion transport function. Therefore, catalase partially prevents, and rescues, the loss of ion transport properties in DSS colitis even in the setting of unresolved tissue inflammation. These findings indicate a prominent role for ROS in ion transport dysfunction in colitis and may suggest novel strategies for the treatment of inflammatory diarrhea. PMID:27543846

  12. Hydrogen peroxide scavenger, catalase, alleviates ion transport dysfunction in murine colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kim E; McCole, Declan F

    2016-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) contribute to epithelial damage and ion transport dysfunction (key events in inflammatory diarrhoea) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to identify if H 2 O 2 mediates suppression of colonic ion transport function in the murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model by using the H 2 O 2 degrading enzyme, catalase. Colitis was induced by administering DSS (4%) in drinking water for 5 days followed by 3 days on normal H 2 O. Mice were administered either pegylated catalase or saline at day -1, 0 and +1 of DSS treatment. Ion transport responses to the Ca 2+ -dependent agonist, carbachol (CCh), or the cAMP-dependent agonist, forskolin, were measured across distal colonic mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers. Parameters of DSS-induced inflammation (loss in body weight, decreased colon length, altered stool consistency), were only partially alleviated by catalase while histology was only minimally improved. However, catalase significantly reversed the DSS-induced reduction in baseline ion transport as well as colonic I sc responses to CCh. However, ion transport responses to forskolin were not significantly restored. Catalase also reduced activation of ERK MAP kinase in the setting of colitis, and increased expression of the Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransporter, NKCC1, consistent with restoration of ion transport function. Ex vivo treatment of inflamed colonic mucosae with catalase also partially restored ion transport function. Therefore, catalase partially prevents, and rescues, the loss of ion transport properties in DSS colitis even in the setting of unresolved tissue inflammation. These findings indicate a prominent role for ROS in ion transport dysfunction in colitis and may suggest novel strategies for the treatment of inflammatory diarrhoea. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Adeno-Associated Viral-Mediated Catalase Expression Suppresses Optic Neuritis in Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, John; Qi, Xiaoping; Hauswirth, William W.

    1998-11-01

    Suppression of oxidative injury by viral-mediated transfer of the human catalase gene was tested in the optic nerves of animals with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder of primary central nervous system demyelination that has been frequently used as an animal model for the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS). The optic nerve is a frequent site of involvement common to both EAE and MS. Recombinant adeno-associated virus containing the human gene for catalase was injected over the right optic nerve heads of SJL/J mice that were simultaneously sensitized for EAE. After 1 month, cell-specific catalase activity, evaluated by quantitation of catalase immunogold, was increased approximately 2-fold each in endothelia, oligodendroglia, astrocytes, and axons of the optic nerve. Effects of catalase on the histologic lesions of EAE were measured by computerized analysis of the myelin sheath area (for demyelination), optic disc area (for optic nerve head swelling), extent of the cellular infiltrate, extravasated serum albumin labeled by immunogold (for blood-brain barrier disruption), and in vivo H2O2 reaction product. Relative to control, contralateral optic nerves injected with the recombinant virus without a therapeutic gene, catalase gene inoculation reduced demyelination by 38%, optic nerve head swelling by 29%, cellular infiltration by 34%, disruption of the blood-brain barrier by 64%, and in vivo levels of H2O2 by 61%. Because the efficacy of potential treatments for MS are usually initially tested in the EAE animal model, this study suggests that catalase gene delivery by using viral vectors may be a therapeutic strategy for suppression of MS.

  14. Preparation of highly efficient manganese catalase mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triller, Michael U; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Pecoraro, Vincent L; Rompel, Annette; Krebs, Bernt

    2002-10-21

    The series of compounds [Mn(bpia)(mu-OAc)](2)(ClO(4))(2) (1), [Mn(2)(bpia)(2)(muO)(mu-OAc)](ClO(4))(3).CH(3)CN (2), [Mn(bpia)(mu-O)](2)(ClO(4))(2)(PF(6)).2CH(3)CN (3), [Mn(bpia)(Cl)(2)](ClO)(4) (4), and [(Mn(bpia)(Cl))(2)(mu-O)](ClO(4))(2).2CH(3)CN (5) (bpia = bis(picolyl)(N-methylimidazol-2-yl)amine) represents a structural, spectroscopic, and functional model system for manganese catalases. Compounds 3 and 5 have been synthesized from 2 via bulk electrolysis and ligand exchange, respectively. All complexes have been structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography and by UV-vis and EPR spectroscopies. The different bridging ligands including the rare mono-mu-oxo and mono-mu-oxo-mono-mu-carboxylato motifs lead to a variation of the Mn-Mn separation across the four binuclear compounds of 1.50 A (Mn(2)(II,II) = 4.128 A, Mn(2)(III,III) = 3.5326 and 3.2533 A, Mn(2)(III,IV) = 2.624 A). Complexes 1, 2, and 3 are mimics for the Mn(2)(II,II), the Mn(2)(III,III), and the Mn(2)(III,IV) oxidation states of the native enzyme. UV-vis spectra of these compounds show similarities to those of the corresponding oxidation states of manganese catalase from Thermus thermophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum. Compound 2 exhibits a rare example of a Jahn-Teller compression. While complexes 1 and 3 are efficient catalysts for the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide and contain an N(4)O(2) donor set, 4 and 5 show no catalase activity. These complexes have an N(4)Cl(2) and N(4)OCl donor set, respectively, and serve as mimics for halide inhibited manganese catalases. Cyclovoltammetric data show that the substitution of oxygen donor atoms with chloride causes a shift of redox potentials to more positive values. To our knowledge, complex 1 is the most efficient binuclear functional manganese catalase mimic exhibiting saturation kinetics to date.

  15. Aiolos Overexpression in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus B Cell Subtypes and BAFF-Induced Memory B Cell Differentiation Are Reduced by CC-220 Modulation of Cereblon Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yumi; Kosek, Jolanta; Capone, Lori; Hur, Eun Mi; Schafer, Peter H; Ringheim, Garth E

    2017-10-01

    BAFF is a B cell survival and maturation factor implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this in vitro study, we describe that soluble BAFF in combination with IL-2 and IL-21 is a T cell contact-independent inducer of human B cell proliferation, plasmablast differentiation, and IgG secretion from circulating CD27 + memory and memory-like CD27 - IgD - double-negative (DN) B cells, but not CD27 - IgD + naive B cells. In contrast, soluble CD40L in combination with IL-2 and IL-21 induces these activities in both memory and naive B cells. Blood from healthy donors and SLE patients have similar circulating levels of IL-2, whereas SLE patients exhibit elevated BAFF and DN B cells and reduced IL-21. B cell differentiation transcription factors in memory, DN, and naive B cells in SLE show elevated levels of Aiolos, whereas Ikaros levels are unchanged. Treatment with CC-220, a modulator of the cullin ring ligase 4-cereblon E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, reduces Aiolos and Ikaros protein levels and BAFF- and CD40L-induced proliferation, plasmablast differentiation, and IgG secretion. The observation that the soluble factors BAFF, IL-2, and IL-21 induce memory and DN B cell activation and differentiation has implications for extrafollicular plasmablast development within inflamed tissue. Inhibition of B cell plasmablast differentiation by reduction of Aiolos and Ikaros may have utility in the treatment of SLE, where elevated levels of BAFF and Aiolos may prime CD27 + memory and DN memory-like B cells to become Ab-producing plasmablasts in the presence of BAFF and proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. Phenotype analysis of male transgenic mice overexpressing mutant IGFBP-2 lacking the Cardin-Weintraub sequence motif: Reduced expression of synaptic markers and myelin basic protein in the brain and a lower degree of anxiety-like behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, N; Mayer, J; Saenger, S; Gimsa, U; Walz, C; Brenmoehl, J; Ohde, D; Wirthgen, E; Tuchscherer, A; Russo, V C; Frank, M; Kirschstein, T; Metzger, F; Hoeflich, A

    2017-04-01

    Brain growth and function are regulated by insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) but also by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), including IGFBP-2. In addition to modulating IGF activities, IGFBP-2 interacts with a number of components of the extracellular matrix and cell membrane via a Cardin-Weintraub sequence or heparin binding domain (HBD1). The nature and the signalling elicited by these interactions are not fully understood. Here, we examined transgenic mice (H1d-hBP2) overexpressing a mutant human IGFBP-2 that lacks a specific heparin binding domain (HBD1) known as the Cardin-Weintraub sequence. H1d-hBP2 transgenic mice have the genetic background of FVB mice and are characterized by severe deficits in brain growth throughout their lifetime (pmice, protein levels of the GTPase dynamin-I were significantly reduced (pmice in the cerebellum but not in the hippocampus. At 80weeks of age, weight reductions were similarly present in the cerebellum (-28%; pmice were challenged in the elevated plus maze, aged but not younger H1d-hBP2 mice displayed significantly less anxiety-like behaviour, which was also observed in a second transgenic mouse model overexpressing mouse IGFBP-2 lacking HBD1 (H1d-mBP2). These in vivo studies provide, for the first time, evidence for a specific role of IGFBP-2 in brain functions associated with anxiety and risk behaviour. These activities of IGFBP-2 could be mediated by the Cardin-Weintraub/HBD1 sequence and are altered in mice expressing IGFBP-2 lacking the HBD1. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Catalase down-regulation in cancer cells exposed to arsenic trioxide is involved in their increased sensitivity to a pro-oxidant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorieux, Christophe; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2018-01-01

    Pro-oxidant drugs have been proposed for treating certain cancers but the resistance developed by cancer cells to oxidative stress limits its potential use in clinics. To understand the mechanisms underlying resistance to oxidative stress, we found that the chronic exposure to an H 2 O 2 -generating system (ascorbate/menadione, Asc/Men) or catalase overexpression (CAT3 cells) increased the resistance of cancer cells to oxidative stress, likely by increasing the antioxidant status of cancer cells. Modulation of catalase expression was performed by either protein overexpression or protein down-regulation using siRNA against catalase and aminotriazole as pharmacological inhibitor. The former approach was done by transfecting cells with a plasmid construct containing human catalase cDNA (CAT3 cells, derived from MCF-7 breast cancer cell line) or by generating resistant cells through chronic exposure to an oxidant injury (Resox cells). Cell survival was monitored by using the MTT reduction assay and further calculation of IC 50 values. Protein expression was done by Western blots procedures. The formation of reactive oxygen species was performed by flow cytometry. The transcriptional activity of human catalase promoter was assessed by using transfected cells with a plasmid containing the - 1518/+ 16 promoter domain. Using Resox and CAT3 cells (derived from MCF-7 breast cancer cell line) as models for cancer resistance to pro-oxidative treatment, we found that arsenic trioxide (ATO) remarkably sensitized Resox and CAT3 cells to Asc/Men treatment. Since catalase is a key antioxidant enzyme involved in detoxifying Asc/Men (as shown by siRNA-mediated catalase knockdown) that is overexpressed in resistant cells, we hypothesized that ATO might regulate the expression levels of catalase. Consistently, catalase protein level is decreased in Resox cells when incubated with ATO likely by a decreased transcriptional activity of the catalase promoter. Our findings support the

  18. Increased catalase activity by all-trans retinoic acid and its effect on radiosensitivity in rat glioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hua; Jeon, Ha Yeun; Park, Woo Yoon; Kim, Won Dong; Ahn, Hee Yul [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Jae Ran [Konkuk University College of Medicine, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    It has been reported that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can inhibit glioma growing in vitro. However, clinical trials with ATRA alone in gliomas revealed modest results. ATRA has been shown to increase radiosensitivity in other tumor types, so combining radiation and ATRA would be one of alternatives to increase therapeutic efficacy in malignant gliomas. Thus, we intended to know the role of catalase, which is induced by ATRA, for radiosensitivity. If radiation-reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) is removed by catalase, the effect of radiation will be reduced. A rat glioma cell line (36B10) was used for this study. The change of catalase activity and radiosensitivity by ATRA, with or without 3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole (ATZ), a chemical inhibitor of catalase were measured. Catalase activity was measured by the decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} spectrophotometrically. Radiosensitivity was measured with clonogenic assay. Also ROS was measured using a 2, 7-dichlorofluores-cein diacetate spectrophotometrically. When 36B10 cells were exposed to 10, 25 and 50 {mu} M of ATRA for 48 h, the expression of catalase activity were increased with increasing concentration and incubation time of ATRA. Catalase activity was decreased with increasing the concentration of AT (1, 10 mM) dose-dependently. ROS was increased with ATRA and it was augmented with the combination of ATRA and radiation. ATZ decreased ROS production and increased cell survival in combination of ATRA and radiation despite the reduction of catalase. The increase of ROS is one of the reasons for the increased radiosensitivity in combination with ATRA. The catalase that is induced by ATRA doesn't decrease ROS production and radiosensitivity.

  19. Increased catalase activity by all-trans retinoic acid and its effect on radiosensitivity in rat glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hua; Jeon, Ha Yeun; Park, Woo Yoon; Kim, Won Dong; Ahn, Hee Yul; Yu, Jae Ran

    2005-01-01

    It has been reported that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can inhibit glioma growing in vitro. However, clinical trials with ATRA alone in gliomas revealed modest results. ATRA has been shown to increase radiosensitivity in other tumor types, so combining radiation and ATRA would be one of alternatives to increase therapeutic efficacy in malignant gliomas. Thus, we intended to know the role of catalase, which is induced by ATRA, for radiosensitivity. If radiation-reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) is removed by catalase, the effect of radiation will be reduced. A rat glioma cell line (36B10) was used for this study. The change of catalase activity and radiosensitivity by ATRA, with or without 3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole (ATZ), a chemical inhibitor of catalase were measured. Catalase activity was measured by the decomposition of H 2 O 2 spectrophotometrically. Radiosensitivity was measured with clonogenic assay. Also ROS was measured using a 2, 7-dichlorofluores-cein diacetate spectrophotometrically. When 36B10 cells were exposed to 10, 25 and 50 μ M of ATRA for 48 h, the expression of catalase activity were increased with increasing concentration and incubation time of ATRA. Catalase activity was decreased with increasing the concentration of AT (1, 10 mM) dose-dependently. ROS was increased with ATRA and it was augmented with the combination of ATRA and radiation. ATZ decreased ROS production and increased cell survival in combination of ATRA and radiation despite the reduction of catalase. The increase of ROS is one of the reasons for the increased radiosensitivity in combination with ATRA. The catalase that is induced by ATRA doesn't decrease ROS production and radiosensitivity

  20. Reduced cathepsins B and D cause impaired autophagic degradation that can be almost completely restored by overexpression of these two proteases in Sap C-deficient fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatti, Massimo; Motta, Marialetizia; Di Bartolomeo, Sabrina; Scarpa, Susanna; Cianfanelli, Valentina; Cecconi, Francesco; Salvioli, Rosa

    2012-12-01

    Saposin (Sap) C deficiency, a rare variant form of Gaucher disease, is due to mutations in the Sap C coding region of the prosaposin (PSAP) gene. Sap C is required as an activator of the lysosomal enzyme glucosylceramidase (GCase), which catalyzes glucosylceramide (GC) degradation. Deficit of either GCase or Sap C leads to the accumulation of undegraded GC and other lipids in lysosomes of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Recently, we reported that Sap C mutations affecting a cysteine residue result in increased autophagy. Here, we characterized the basis for the autophagic dysfunction. We analyzed Sap C-deficient and GCase-deficient fibroblasts and observed that autophagic disturbance was only associated with lack of Sap C. By a combined fluorescence microscopy and biochemical studies, we demonstrated that the accumulation of autophagosomes in Sap C-deficient fibroblasts is not due to enhanced autophagosome formation but to delayed degradation of autolysosomes caused, in part, to decreased amount and reduced enzymatic activity of cathepsins B and D. On the contrary, in GCase-deficient fibroblasts, the protein level and enzymatic activity of cathepsin D were comparable with control fibroblasts, whereas those of cathepsin B were almost doubled. Moreover, the enhanced expression of both these lysosomal proteases in Sap C-deficient fibroblasts resulted in close to functional autophagic degradation. Our data provide a novel example of altered autophagy as secondary event resulting from insufficient lysosomal function.

  1. Development of a new catalase activity assay for biological samples using optical CUPRAC sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekdeşer, Burcu; Özyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Alkan, Fulya Üstün; Apak, Reşat

    2014-11-01

    A novel catalase activity assay was developed for biological samples (liver and kidney tissue homogenates) using a rapid and low-cost optical sensor-based ‘cupric reducing antioxidant capacity' (CUPRAC) method. The reagent, copper(II)-neocuproine (Cu(II)-Nc) complex, was immobilized onto a cation-exchanger film of Nafion, and the absorbance changes associated with the formation of the highly-colored Cu(I)-Nc chelate as a result of reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was measured at 450 nm. When catalase was absent, H2O2 produced the CUPRAC chromophore, whereas catalase, being an effective H2O2 scavenger, completely annihilated the CUPRAC signal due to H2O2. Thus, the CUPRAC absorbance due to H2O2 oxidation concomitant with Cu(I)-Nc formation decreased proportionally with catalase. The developed sensor gave a linear response over a wide concentration range of H2O2 (0.68-78.6 μM). This optical sensor-based method applicable to tissue homogenates proved to be efficient for low hydrogen peroxide concentrations (physiological and nontoxic levels) to which the widely used UV method is not accurately responsive. Thus, conventional problems of the UV method arising from relatively low sensitivity and selectivity, and absorbance disturbance due to gaseous oxygen evolution were overcome. The catalase findings of the proposed method for tissue homogenates were statistically alike with those of HPLC.

  2. Development of a new catalase activity assay for biological samples using optical CUPRAC sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekdeşer, Burcu; Özyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Alkan, Fulya Üstün; Apak, Reşat

    2014-11-11

    A novel catalase activity assay was developed for biological samples (liver and kidney tissue homogenates) using a rapid and low-cost optical sensor-based 'cupric reducing antioxidant capacity' (CUPRAC) method. The reagent, copper(II)-neocuproine (Cu(II)-Nc) complex, was immobilized onto a cation-exchanger film of Nafion, and the absorbance changes associated with the formation of the highly-colored Cu(I)-Nc chelate as a result of reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was measured at 450 nm. When catalase was absent, H2O2 produced the CUPRAC chromophore, whereas catalase, being an effective H2O2 scavenger, completely annihilated the CUPRAC signal due to H2O2. Thus, the CUPRAC absorbance due to H2O2 oxidation concomitant with Cu(I)-Nc formation decreased proportionally with catalase. The developed sensor gave a linear response over a wide concentration range of H2O2 (0.68-78.6 μM). This optical sensor-based method applicable to tissue homogenates proved to be efficient for low hydrogen peroxide concentrations (physiological and nontoxic levels) to which the widely used UV method is not accurately responsive. Thus, conventional problems of the UV method arising from relatively low sensitivity and selectivity, and absorbance disturbance due to gaseous oxygen evolution were overcome. The catalase findings of the proposed method for tissue homogenates were statistically alike with those of HPLC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Superoxide dismutase and catalase conjugated to polyethylene glycol increases endothelial enzyme activity and oxidant resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, J.S.; Minor, R.L. Jr.; White, C.W.; Repine, J.E.; Rosen, G.M.; Freeman, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Covalent conjugation of superoxide dismutase and catalase with polyethylene glycol (PEG) increases the circulatory half-lives of these enzymes from 125 I-PEG-catalase or 125 I-PEG-superoxide dismutase produced a linear, concentration-dependent increase in cellular enzyme activity and radioactivity. Fluorescently labeled PEG-superoxide dismutase incubated with endothelial cells showed a vesicular localization. Mechanical injury to cell monolayers, which is known to stimulate endocytosis, further increased the uptake of fluorescent PEG-superoxide dismutase. Addition of PEG and PEG-conjugated enzymes perturbed the spin-label binding environment, indicative of producing an increase in plasma membrane fluidity. Thus, PEG conjugation to superoxide dismutase and catalase enhances cell association of these enzymes in a manner which increases cellular enzyme activities and provides prolonged protection from partially reduced oxygen species

  4. Structural and functional changes in catalase induced by near-UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigman, S.; Schultz, J.B.; McDaniel, T.

    1996-01-01

    Part one of this study shows that exposure of purified beef liver catalase in buffered solutions to BL lamps that provide a mixture of 99% UVA and 1% UVB (to be labeled UV A ) alters its chemistry and enzymatic activity. Thus, its spectral absorbance lose detail, it aggregated and exhibited a lower isoelectric point and its enzymatic activity was substantially reduced. These photochemically induced changes were increased by irradiation in phosphate buffer or in physiological medium (minimal essential medium) containing riboflavin and tryptophan. Neither α-tocopherol nor deferoxamine were protective against these UV A -induced changes in pure catalase. We further investigated the effect of UV A radiation on the activity of catalase in cultured lens epithelial cells and the protective effects of antioxidants. (Author)

  5. Overexpression of HIPK2 attenuates spinal cord injury in rats by modulating apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renbo; Shang, Jingbo; Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Li; Xie, Donghui; Tu, Guanjun

    2018-04-09

    HIPK2 is considered to be a tumor suppressor. It also has been implicated in several functions such as apoptosis and inflammation that are linked to spinal cord injury (SCI). However, whether HIPK2 ameliorates the neurological pain of SCI remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of HIPK2 on neurological function, oxidative stress, levels of inflammatory cytokines and expression of Bcl-2/Bax in an SCI model. Firstly, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of HIPK2 on neurological pain in the SCI rat using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores and H & E staining. Overexpression of HIPK2 significantly elevated the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and reduced the mRNA expression of Nogo-A and RhoA in SCI rats. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays showed that overexpression of HIPK2 significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. Overexpression of HIPK2 also decreased expression of Bax and Caspase-3 and elevated expression of Bcl-2 in the SCI model, indicating that HIPK2 exhibited its protective activity by inhibiting SCI-induced apoptosis. Then, we measured the serum concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX). We also determined the mRNA and protein levels of nuclear factor-κB p65 unit, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-1β. HIPK2 overexpression reduced oxidative stress and the levels of inflammatory cytokines compared with SCI control animals. Additionally, acetylation of HIPK2 was reduced in SCI rats. Overexpression of HIPK2 could enhance autophagy by elevating the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3-II while autophagy is regarded as a beneficial regulator to improve spinal cord injury. Together, overexpression of HIPK2 improved contusive SCI induced pain by modulating oxidative stress, Bcl‑2 and Bax signaling, and

  6. Molecular Characterization of a Catalase from Hydra vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Bhagirathi; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Catalase, an antioxidant and hydroperoxidase enzyme protects the cellular environment from harmful effects of hydrogen peroxide by facilitating its degradation to oxygen and water. Molecular information on a cnidarian catalase and/or peroxidase is, however, limited. In this work an apparent full length cDNA sequence coding for a catalase (HvCatalase) was isolated from Hydra vulgaris using 3’- and 5’- (RLM) RACE approaches. The 1859 bp HvCatalase cDNA included an open reading frame of 1518 bp encoding a putative protein of 505 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 57.44 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of HvCatalase contained several highly conserved motifs including the heme-ligand signature sequence RLFSYGDTH and the active site signature FXRERIPERVVHAKGXGA. A comparative analysis showed the presence of conserved catalytic amino acids [His(71), Asn(145), and Tyr(354)] in HvCatalase as well. Homology modeling indicated the presence of the conserved features of mammalian catalase fold. Hydrae exposed to thermal, starvation, metal and oxidative stress responded by regulating its catalase mRNA transcription. These results indicated that the HvCatalase gene is involved in the cellular stress response and (anti)oxidative processes triggered by stressor and contaminant exposure. PMID:22521743

  7. Targeted endothelial delivery of nanosized catalase immunoconjugates protects lung grafts donated after cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Gerhard; Loehe, Florian; Huff, Ines V; Ebersberger, Ulrich; Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Bittmann, Iris; Hermanns, Iris; Kirkpatrick, James C; Fischer, Karl; Eichhorn, Martin E; Winter, Hauke; Jauch, Karl W; Albelda, Steven M; Muzykantov, Vladimir R; Wiewrodt, Rainer

    2011-08-27

    Donor organ shortage represents a major problem in lung transplantation. Donation after cardiac death could help to expand the pool of organs, but the additional period of warm ischemia after cardiac arrest aggravates primary graft dysfunction. The pulmonary endothelium of the graft constitutes an important source and target of reactive oxygen species generated during ischemia and reperfusion. Targeted protection of graft pulmonary endothelial cells by the antioxidant enzyme catalase, conjugated with a platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) antibody to nanosized particles (anti-PECAM/catalase conjugates), might improve outcome in lung transplantation using donors after cardiac death and prolonged hypothermic preservation. Left lung transplantation was performed in 18 pigs. Before cardiac arrest, donors received anti-PECAM/catalase, unconjugated component mixture or vehicle solution. After 90-min warm and 18-hr hypothermic ischemia, lungs were transplanted, and function was assessed during 6 hr after reperfusion. Samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were taken thereafter. Six sham-operated animals served as controls. During 6-hr reperfusion, anti-PECAM/catalase significantly ameliorated graft function, evidenced by major improvements of gas exchange and reduced intrapulmonary shunt fraction. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation, alveolar leakage, and edema formation were reduced in protected grafts. Similarly moderate lung pathology was seen after transplantation. Augmentation of the antioxidant capacity of graft pulmonary endothelial cells with anti-PECAM/catalase nanoparticles represents a straightforward approach to enable a safe transplantation of prolonged preserved donation after cardiac death lungs. Anti-PECAM/catalase protection alleviated oxidative stress and allowed immediate reconstitution of normal gas exchange and pulmonary microcirculation, a prerequisite for improved graft and patient outcome.

  8. Synergistic roles of Helicobacter pylori methionine sulfoxide reductase and GroEL in repairing oxidant-damaged catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, Manish; Tran, ViLinh; Sharp, Joshua S; Maier, Robert J

    2011-05-27

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) produced via the enzyme myeloperoxidase is a major antibacterial oxidant produced by neutrophils, and Met residues are considered primary amino acid targets of HOCl damage via conversion to Met sulfoxide. Met sulfoxide can be repaired back to Met by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr). Catalase is an important antioxidant enzyme; we show it constitutes 4-5% of the total Helicobacter pylori protein levels. msr and katA strains were about 14- and 4-fold, respectively, more susceptible than the parent to killing by the neutrophil cell line HL-60 cells. Catalase activity of an msr strain was much more reduced by HOCl exposure than for the parental strain. Treatment of pure catalase with HOCl caused oxidation of specific MS-identified Met residues, as well as structural changes and activity loss depending on the oxidant dose. Treatment of catalase with HOCl at a level to limit structural perturbation (at a catalase/HOCl molar ratio of 1:60) resulted in oxidation of six identified Met residues. Msr repaired these residues in an in vitro reconstituted system, but no enzyme activity could be recovered. However, addition of GroEL to the Msr repair mixture significantly enhanced catalase activity recovery. Neutrophils produce large amounts of HOCl at inflammation sites, and bacterial catalase may be a prime target of the host inflammatory response; at high concentrations of HOCl (1:100), we observed loss of catalase secondary structure, oligomerization, and carbonylation. The same HOCl-sensitive Met residue oxidation targets in catalase were detected using chloramine-T as a milder oxidant.

  9. Synergistic Roles of Helicobacter pylori Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase and GroEL in Repairing Oxidant-damaged Catalase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, Manish; Tran, ViLinh; Sharp, Joshua S.; Maier, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) produced via the enzyme myeloperoxidase is a major antibacterial oxidant produced by neutrophils, and Met residues are considered primary amino acid targets of HOCl damage via conversion to Met sulfoxide. Met sulfoxide can be repaired back to Met by methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr). Catalase is an important antioxidant enzyme; we show it constitutes 4–5% of the total Helicobacter pylori protein levels. msr and katA strains were about 14- and 4-fold, respectively, more susceptible than the parent to killing by the neutrophil cell line HL-60 cells. Catalase activity of an msr strain was much more reduced by HOCl exposure than for the parental strain. Treatment of pure catalase with HOCl caused oxidation of specific MS-identified Met residues, as well as structural changes and activity loss depending on the oxidant dose. Treatment of catalase with HOCl at a level to limit structural perturbation (at a catalase/HOCl molar ratio of 1:60) resulted in oxidation of six identified Met residues. Msr repaired these residues in an in vitro reconstituted system, but no enzyme activity could be recovered. However, addition of GroEL to the Msr repair mixture significantly enhanced catalase activity recovery. Neutrophils produce large amounts of HOCl at inflammation sites, and bacterial catalase may be a prime target of the host inflammatory response; at high concentrations of HOCl (1:100), we observed loss of catalase secondary structure, oligomerization, and carbonylation. The same HOCl-sensitive Met residue oxidation targets in catalase were detected using chloramine-T as a milder oxidant. PMID:21460217

  10. Transcriptional Repression of Catalase in Mouse Skin Tumor Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Kwei, Kevin A.; Finch, Joanne S.; Thompson, Eric J.; Bowden, G. Tim

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the elevation of reactive oxygen species levels and the repression of the antioxidant enzyme, catalase, played a critical role in the in vitro progression of benign papilloma cells to malignant carcinoma cells. Catalase message, protein levels, and activity levels were found to be downregulated in the malignantly progressed cells. The goal of this study is to further characterize the repression of catalase in malignant progression of mouse sk...

  11. Transcriptional Repression of Catalase in Mouse Skin Tumor Progression1

    OpenAIRE

    Kwei, Kevin A; Finch, Joanne S; Thompson, Eric J; Bowden, G Tim

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the elevation of reactive oxygen species levels and the repression of the antioxidant enzyme, catalase, played a critical role in the in vitro progression of benign papilloma cells to malignant carcinoma cells. Catalase message, protein levels, and activity levels were found to be downregulated in the malignantly progressed cells. The goal of this study is to further characterize the repression of catalase in malignant progression of mouse sk...

  12. Catalytic properties of three catalases from Kohlrabi ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) was extracted from kohlrabi bulbs (Brassica oleracea gongylodes) with 0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. On the basis of kinetic studies and activity stain for catalase, only three isoenzymes of catalases were detected in kohlrabi bulbs extract with pH optima at 4.5, 6.5 and 10. Highest catalytic ...

  13. Quantitative nature of overexpression experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression experiments are sometimes considered as qualitative experiments designed to identify novel proteins and study their function. However, in order to draw conclusions regarding protein overexpression through association analyses using large-scale biological data sets, we need to recognize the quantitative nature of overexpression experiments. Here I discuss the quantitative features of two different types of overexpression experiment: absolute and relative. I also introduce the four primary mechanisms involved in growth defects caused by protein overexpression: resource overload, stoichiometric imbalance, promiscuous interactions, and pathway modulation associated with the degree of overexpression. PMID:26543202

  14. Opposite effects of catalase and MnSOD ectopic expression on stress induced defects and mortality in the desmin deficient cardiomyopathy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapti, Kleopatra; Diokmetzidou, Antigoni; Kloukina, Ismini; Milner, Derek J; Varela, Aimilia; Davos, Constantinos H; Capetanaki, Yassemi

    2017-09-01

    Oxidative stress has been linked strongly to cell death and cardiac remodeling processes, all hallmarks of heart failure. Mice deficient for desmin (des-/-), the major muscle specific intermediate filament protein, develop dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure characterized by mitochondrial defects and cardiomyocyte death. The cellular and biochemical alterations in the hearts of these mice strongly suggest that oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of the phenotype. Recently, we showed that indeed the desmin deficient cardiomyocytes are under increased oxidative stress. In order to verify these findings in vivo, we generated transgenic animals overexpressing SOD2 (MnSOD) and/or catalase in the heart and crossed them with des-/- mice, thus allowing us to evaluate the contribution of oxidative injury in inherited cardiomyopathies, as well as the therapeutic potential of antioxidant strategies. Moderate MnSOD and/or catalase overexpression in des-/- hearts leads to a marked decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), ameliorates mitochondrial and other ultrastructural defects, minimizes myocardial degeneration and leads to a significant improvement of cardiac function. Importantly, catalase overexpression increased the 50% survival rate of des-/- mice in an obligatory exercise to 100%. In contrast, MnSOD overexpression enhanced the lethality of des-/- mice, underscoring the importance of a fine balanced cellular redox status. Overall, the present study supports the contribution of oxidative stress in the development of des-/- cardiomyopathy and points to a well-considered antioxidant treatment as therapeutic for cardiomyopathies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Catalase-positive microbial detection by using different ultrasonic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S K; Durán, C; Elvira, L

    2012-01-01

    A method for rapid detection of catalase enzyme activity using ultrasonic parameters is presented in this work. It is based on the detection of the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide molecule into water and oxygen induced by the enzyme catalase. A special medium was made to amplify changes produced by catalase enzyme during the hydrolysis process. Enzymatic process can be monitored by means of ultrasonic parameters such as wave amplitude, time of flight (TOF), and backscattering measurements which are sensitive to oxygen bubble production. It is shown that catalase activity of the order of 10 −3 unit/ml can be detected using different ultrasonic parameters. The sensitivity provided by them is discussed.

  16. Catalase therapy corrects oxidative stress-induced pathophysiology in incipient diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Courtney R; Roberts, Robin; Krentz, Kendra A; Bissig, David; Talreja, Deepa; Kumar, Ashok; Terlecky, Stanley R; Berkowitz, Bruce A

    2015-05-01

    Preclinical studies have highlighted retinal oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. We evaluated whether a treatment designed to enhance cellular catalase reduces oxidative stress in retinal cells cultured in high glucose and in diabetic mice corrects an imaging biomarker responsive to antioxidant therapy (manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging [MEMRI]). Human retinal Müller and pigment epithelial cells were chronically exposed to normal or high glucose levels and treated with a cell-penetrating derivative of the peroxisomal enzyme catalase (called CAT-SKL). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were measured using a quantitative fluorescence-based assay. For in vivo studies, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic C57Bl/6 mice were treated subcutaneously once a week for 3 to 4 months with CAT-SKL; untreated age-matched nondiabetic controls and untreated diabetic mice also were studied. MEMRI was used to analytically assess the efficacy of CAT-SKL treatment on diabetes-evoked oxidative stress-related pathophysiology in vivo. Similar analyses were performed with difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase. After catalase transduction, high glucose-induced peroxide production was significantly lowered in both human retinal cell lines. In diabetic mice in vivo, subnormal intraretinal uptake of manganese was significantly improved by catalase supplementation. In addition, in the peroxisome-rich liver of treated mice catalase enzyme activity increased and oxidative damage (as measured by lipid peroxidation) declined. On the other hand, DFMO was largely without effect in these in vitro or in vivo assays. This proof-of-concept study raises the possibility that augmentation of catalase is a therapy for treating the retinal oxidative stress associated with diabetic retinopathy.

  17. Novel immobilization process of a thermophilic catalase: efficient purification by heat treatment and subsequent immobilization at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Luo, Hui; López, Claudia; Xiao, Jing; Chang, Yanhong

    2015-10-01

    The main goal of the present work is to investigate a novel process of purification and immobilization of a thermophilic catalase at high temperatures. The catalase, originated from Bacillus sp., was overexpressed in a recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pET28-CATHis and efficiently purified by heat treatment, achieving a threefold purification. The purified catalase was then immobilized onto an epoxy support at different temperatures (25, 40, and 55 °C). The immobilizate obtained at higher temperatures reached its maximum activity in a shorter time than that obtained at lower temperatures. Furthermore, immobilization at higher temperatures required a lower ionic strength than immobilization at lower temperatures. The characteristics of immobilized enzymes prepared at different temperatures were investigated. The high-temperature immobilizate (55 °C) showed the highest thermal stability, followed by the 40 °C immobilizate. And the high-temperature immobilizate (55 °C) had slightly higher operational stability than the 25 °C immobilizate. All of the immobilized catalase preparations showed higher stability than the free enzyme at alkaline pH 10.0, while the alkali resistance of the 25 °C immobilizate was slightly better than that of the 40 and 55 °C immobilizates.

  18. Peroxisomal catalase deficiency modulates yeast lifespan depending on growth conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawalek, Adam; Lefevre, Sophie D.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    We studied the role of peroxisomal catalase in chronological aging of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha in relation to various growth substrates. Catalase-deficient (cat) cells showed a similar chronological life span (CLS) relative to the wild-type control upon growth on carbon and nitrogen sources

  19. Catalase epitopes vaccine design for Helicobacter pylori : A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catalase, an important enzyme in the virulence of H. pylori, could be a suitable candidate for vaccine design because it is highly conserved, which is important for the survival of H. pylori; it is expressed in high level and it is exposed on the surface of the bacteria. In this study, we designed epitope-based vaccine for catalase ...

  20. Catalase supplementation on thawed bull spermatozoa abolishes the detrimental effect of oxidative stress on motility and DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Santos, M R; Domínguez-Rebolledo, A E; Esteso, M C; Garde, J J; Martínez-Pastor, F

    2009-08-01

    The potential protective effect of catalase supplementation during in vitro culture of frozen/thawed bull spermatozoa was investigated. Frozen/thawed semen collected from three fighting bulls was diluted in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and incubated at 37 degrees C under different experimental conditions: Control, Catalase (CAT) (200 U/mL), Oxidant (OXI) (100 microm Fe(2+)/1 mm ascorbate), and Catalase + Oxidant (CAT/OXI). We assessed sperm motility, acrosomal integrity, viability and chromatin status (SCSA) at 0, 2 and 6 h of incubation. Our results showed that catalase abolished the effect of the oxidant, protecting spermatozoa against reactive oxygen species, and improving both sperm motility and chromatin status during incubation. The OXI treatment significantly reduced the percentage of motile sperm after 6 h of incubation. The statistical model also showed that there were differences in sperm motility between CAT/OXI (20.8 +/- 2.9%) and OXI (11.6 +/- 7.6%) (p Catalase prevented DNA fragmentation even in the presence of the oxidant (%DFI: 30.3 +/- 0.8% OXI vs. 17.4 +/- 0.7% CAT/OXI). We conclude that catalase supplementation after thawing could protect bull spermatozoa against oxidative stress, and it could improve media used for processing thawed spermatozoa.

  1. Layer-by-layer immobilized catalase on electrospun nanofibrous mats protects against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Deng, Hongbing; Cai, Tongjian; Zhan, Yingfei; Wang, Xiankai; Chen, Xuanxuan; Ji, Ailing; Lil, Xueyong

    2014-07-01

    Catalase, a kind of redox enzyme and generally recognized as an efficient agent for protecting cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxicity. The immobilization of catalase was accomplished by depositing the positively charged chitosan and the negatively charged catalase on electrospun cellulose nanofibrous mats through electrospining and layer-by-layer (LBL) techniques. The morphology obtained from Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) indicated that more orderly arranged three-dimension (3D) structure and roughness formed with increasing the number of coating bilayers. Besides, the enzyme-immobilized nanofibrous mats were found with high enzyme loading and activity, moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results further demonstrated the successful immobilization of chitosan and catalase on cellulose nanofibers support. Furthermore, we evaluated the cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide in the Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells with or without pretreatment of nanofibrous mats by MTT assay, LDH activity and Flow cytometric evaluation, and confirmed the pronounced hydrogen peroxide-induced toxicity, but pretreatment of immobilized catalase reduced the cytotoxicity and protected cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxic effects which were further demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images. The data pointed toward a role of catalase-immobilized nanofibrous mats in protecting cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular damage and their potential application in biomedical field.

  2. Catalase prevents maternal diabetes-induced perinatal programming via the Nrf2-HO-1 defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiao-Ying; Chen, Yun-Wen; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Chenier, Isabelle; Tran, Stella; Sauvé, Alexandre; Ingelfinger, Julie R; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2012-10-01

    We investigated whether overexpression of catalase (CAT) in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) could prevent the programming of hypertension and kidney disease in the offspring of dams with maternal diabetes. Male offspring of nondiabetic and diabetic dams from two transgenic (Tg) lines (Hoxb7-green fluorescent protein [GFP]-Tg [controls] and Hoxb7/CAT-GFP-Tg, which overexpress CAT in RPTCs) were studied from the prenatal period into adulthood. Nephrogenesis, systolic blood pressure, renal hyperfiltration, kidney injury, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were assessed. Gene expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), nuclear factor erythroid 2p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was tested in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Renal dysmorphogenesis was observed in offspring of Hoxb7-GFP-Tg dams with severe maternal diabetes; the affected male offspring displayed higher renal ROS generation and developed hypertension and renal hyperfiltration as well as renal injury with heightened TGF-β1 expression in adulthood. These changes were ameliorated in male offspring of diabetic Hoxb7/CAT-GFP-Tg dams via the Nrf2-HO-1 defense system. CAT promoted Nrf2 nuclear translocation and HO-1 gene expression, seen in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In conclusion, CAT overexpression in the RPTCs ameliorated maternal diabetes-induced perinatal programming, mediated, at least in part, by triggering the Nrf2-HO-1 defense system.

  3. DNA methyltransferase 1/3a overexpression in sporadic breast cancer is associated with reduced expression of estrogen receptor-alpha/breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 and poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaojin; Xiao, Qinghuan; Zhao, Lin; Ren, Jie; Bai, Xuefeng; Sun, Mingli; Wu, Huizhe; Liu, Xiaojian; Song, Zhiguo; Yan, Yuanyuan; Mi, Xiaoyi; Wang, Enhua; Jin, Feng; Wei, Minjie

    2015-09-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), including DNMT1, 3a, and 3b, play an important role in the progression of many malignant tumors. However, it remains unclear whether expression of DNMTs is associated with the development of breast cancer. This study aimed to explore the clinical significance of DNMT proteins in sporadic breast cancer. We investigated the expression of DNMT1, 3a, and 3b in 256 breast cancer and 36 breast fibroadenoma, using immunohistochemistry. The expression of DNMT1 and 3a was significantly higher in breast cancer than in fibroadenoma. In breast cancer, the expression of DNMT1 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.020), and the expression of DNMT3a and 3b was significantly correlated with advanced clinical stages (P = 0.046 and 0.012, respectively). Overexpression of DNMT1/3a was correlated with promoter hypermethylation and reduced expression of ERα and BRCA1. The expression levels of DNMT1 or DNMT3a were associated with a significantly shorter DFS or OS in a subgroup of breast cancer patients (patients with the age ≤50 years old, ERα-negative status, or HER2-postive status). The expression of DNMT1 or a combined expression of DNMT1 and 3a was associated with poor prognosis in patients who received chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, but not in patients who received chemotherapy alone. These findings suggest that DNMT1 and 3a may be involved in the progression and prognosis of sporadic breast cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Rhodococcus equi's extreme resistance to hydrogen peroxide is mainly conferred by one of its four catalase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidaud, Pauline; Hébert, Laurent; Barbey, Corinne; Appourchaux, Anne-Cécile; Torelli, Riccardo; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Laugier, Claire; Petry, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is one of the most widespread causes of disease in foals aged from 1 to 6 months. R. equi possesses antioxidant defense mechanisms to protect it from reactive oxygen metabolites such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generated during the respiratory burst of phagocytic cells. These defense mechanisms include enzymes such as catalase, which detoxify hydrogen peroxide. Recently, an analysis of the R. equi 103 genome sequence revealed the presence of four potential catalase genes. We first constructed ΔkatA-, ΔkatB-, ΔkatC-and ΔkatD-deficient mutants to study the ability of R. equi to survive exposure to H(2)O(2)in vitro and within mouse peritoneal macrophages. Results showed that ΔkatA and, to a lesser extent ΔkatC, were affected by 80 mM H(2)O(2). Moreover, katA deletion seems to significantly affect the ability of R. equi to survive within murine macrophages. We finally investigated the expression of the four catalases in response to H(2)O(2) assays with a real time PCR technique. Results showed that katA is overexpressed 367.9 times (± 122.6) in response to exposure to 50 mM of H(2)O(2) added in the stationary phase, and 3.11 times (± 0.59) when treatment was administered in the exponential phase. In untreated bacteria, katB, katC and katD were overexpressed from 4.3 to 17.5 times in the stationary compared to the exponential phase. Taken together, our results show that KatA is the major catalase involved in the extreme H(2)O(2) resistance capability of R. equi.

  5. The Coffee Protective Effect on Catalase System in the Preneoplastic Induced Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Schmidt de Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of organic/conventional coffee in liver tissues in the cancer process, taking into account the level and activities of catalase. The experiments were carried out with 8 groups of rats during 12 weeks. They received two injections of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution 1.5% (v/v prepared in 0.9% NaCl or 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH subcutaneous dose of 40 mg·kg−1·bw−1 for 2 weeks. The organic/conventional coffee infusions were at 5, 10, and 20% and were incorporated to feed (100 mL of infusion·kg−1 of diet. The catalase activity showed a decrease for livers which received DMH and DMH plus organic coffee at 5% and 10%. However, an increase was observed for those receiving organic 20% and conventional 10% coffee, slowing down and favoring the reversibility of the carcinogenic process. By SDS-PAGE, we observed an intensity decrease of 59 kDa bands, as the percentage of coffee was increased. The iron concentration (by ET-AAS confirmed the electrophoretic results, suggesting that the DMH influenced the catalase expression conditions, reducing the activity by the loss of iron ions. Thus, the coffee may restore the catalase system in the liver, exerting its chemopreventive effects.

  6. Hand1 overexpression inhibits medulloblastoma metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Guda, Maheedhara R. [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Martin, Sarah E. [Department of Pathology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Antony, Reuben; Fernandez, Karen [Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Lin, Julian [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Tsung, Andrew J. [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Illinois Neurological Institute, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Velpula, Kiran K., E-mail: velpula@uic.edu [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor. Current treatment includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, ongoing treatment in patients is further classified according to the presence or absence of metastasis. Since metastatic medulloblastoma are refractory to current treatments, there is need to identify novel biomarkers that could be used to reduce metastatic potential, and more importantly be targeted therapeutically. Previously, we showed that ionizing radiation-induced uPAR overexpression is associated with increased accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus. We further demonstrated that uPAR protein act as cytoplasmic sequestration factor for a novel basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Hand1. Among the histological subtypes classical and desmoplastic subtypes account for the majority while large cell/anaplastic variant is most commonly associated with metastatic disease. In this present study using immunohistochemical approach and patient data mining for the first time, we demonstrated that Hand1 expression is observed to be downregulated in all the subtypes of medulloblastoma. Previously we showed that Hand1 overexpression regulated medulloblastoma angiogenesis and here we investigated the role of Hand1 in the context of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Moreover, UW228 and D283 cells overexpressing Hand1 demonstrated decreased-expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, β-catenin and SOX2); metastatic marker (SMA); and increased expression of epithelial marker (E-cadherin). Strikingly, human pluripotent stem cell antibody array showed that Hand1 overexpression resulted in substantial decrease in pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct3/4, Otx2, Flk1) suggesting that Hand1 expression may be essential to attenuate the EMT and our findings underscore a novel role for Hand1 in medulloblastoma metastasis. - Highlights: • Hand1 expression is downregulated in Medulloblastoma. • Hand1 over expression reduce

  7. Hand1 overexpression inhibits medulloblastoma metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Guda, Maheedhara R.; Martin, Sarah E.; Antony, Reuben; Fernandez, Karen; Lin, Julian; Tsung, Andrew J.; Velpula, Kiran K.

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor. Current treatment includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, ongoing treatment in patients is further classified according to the presence or absence of metastasis. Since metastatic medulloblastoma are refractory to current treatments, there is need to identify novel biomarkers that could be used to reduce metastatic potential, and more importantly be targeted therapeutically. Previously, we showed that ionizing radiation-induced uPAR overexpression is associated with increased accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus. We further demonstrated that uPAR protein act as cytoplasmic sequestration factor for a novel basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Hand1. Among the histological subtypes classical and desmoplastic subtypes account for the majority while large cell/anaplastic variant is most commonly associated with metastatic disease. In this present study using immunohistochemical approach and patient data mining for the first time, we demonstrated that Hand1 expression is observed to be downregulated in all the subtypes of medulloblastoma. Previously we showed that Hand1 overexpression regulated medulloblastoma angiogenesis and here we investigated the role of Hand1 in the context of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Moreover, UW228 and D283 cells overexpressing Hand1 demonstrated decreased-expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, β-catenin and SOX2); metastatic marker (SMA); and increased expression of epithelial marker (E-cadherin). Strikingly, human pluripotent stem cell antibody array showed that Hand1 overexpression resulted in substantial decrease in pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct3/4, Otx2, Flk1) suggesting that Hand1 expression may be essential to attenuate the EMT and our findings underscore a novel role for Hand1 in medulloblastoma metastasis. - Highlights: • Hand1 expression is downregulated in Medulloblastoma. • Hand1 over expression reduce

  8. Regulation of catalase expression in healthy and cancerous cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorieux, Christophe; Zamocky, Marcel; Sandoval, Juan Marcelo; Verrax, Julien; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2015-10-01

    Catalase is an important antioxidant enzyme that dismutates hydrogen peroxide into water and molecular oxygen. The catalase gene has all the characteristics of a housekeeping gene (no TATA box, no initiator element sequence, high GC content in promoter) and a core promoter that is highly conserved among species. We demonstrate in this review that within this core promoter, the presence of DNA binding sites for transcription factors, such as NF-Y and Sp1, plays an essential role in the positive regulation of catalase expression. Additional transcription factors, such as FoxO3a, are also involved in this regulatory process. There is strong evidence that the protein Akt/PKB in the PI3K signaling pathway plays a major role in the expression of catalase by modulating the activity of FoxO3a. Over the past decade, other transcription factors (PPARγ, Oct-1, etc.), as well as genetic, epigenetic, and posttranscriptional processes, have emerged as crucial contributors to the regulation of catalase expression. Altered expression levels of catalase have been reported in cancer tissues compared to their normal counterparts. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms that regulate catalase expression could, therefore, be of crucial importance for the future development of pro-oxidant cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The Cryptococcus neoformans Catalase Gene Family and Its Role in Antioxidant Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, Steven S.; Stajich, Jason E.; Nichols, Connie; Gerrald, Quincy D.; Alspaugh, J. Andrew; Dietrich, Fred; Perfect, John R.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we sought to elucidate the contribution of the Cryptococcus neoformans catalase gene family to antioxidant defense. We employed bioinformatics techniques to identify four members of the C. neoformans catalase gene family and created mutants lacking single or multiple catalase genes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, CAT1 and CAT3 encode putative spore-specific catalases, CAT2 encodes a putative peroxisomal catalase, and CAT4 encodes a putative cytosolic catalase. Only Ca...

  10. Amyloid-beta binds catalase with high affinity and inhibits hydrogen peroxide breakdown.

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, N G

    1999-01-01

    Amyloid-beta (Abeta) specifically bound purified catalase with high affinity and inhibited catalase breakdown of H(2)O(2). The Abeta-induced catalase inhibition involved formation of the inactive catalase Compound II and was reversible. CatalaseAbeta interactions provide rapid functional assays for the cytotoxic domain of Abeta and suggest a mechanism for some of the observed actions of Abeta plus catalase in vitro.

  11. Catalase Is Differentially Expressed in Dividing and Nondividing Protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminis, C. I.; Kanellis, A. K.; Roubelakis-Angelakis, K. A.

    1994-08-01

    Based on our previous results that peroxidase is induced in dividing tobacco protoplasts but it is not expressed in the nondividing grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) protoplasts during culture (C.I. Siminis, A.K. Kanellis, K.A. Roubelakis-Angelakis [1993] Physiol Plant 87: 263-270), we further tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress may be implicated in the recalcitrance of plant protoplasts. The expression of catalase, a major defense enzyme against cell oxidation, was studied during isolation and culture of mesophyll protoplasts from the recalcitrant grapevine and regenerating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Incubation of tobacco leaf strips with cell wall-degrading enzymes resulted in a burst of catalase activity and an increase in its immunoreactive protein; in contrast, no such increases were found in grapevine. The cathodic and anodic catalase isoforms consisted exclusively of subunits [alpha] and [beta], respectively, in tobacco, and of subunits [beta] and [alpha], respectively, in grapevine. The catalase specific activity increased only in grapevine protoplasts during culture. The ratio of the enzymatic activities to the catalase immunoreactive protein declined in dividing tobacco protoplasts and remained fairly constant in nondividing tobacco and grapevine protoplasts during culture. Also, in dividing tobacco protoplasts the de novo accumulation of the catalase [beta] subunit gave rise to the acidic isoenzymes, whereas in nondividing tobacco and grapevine protoplasts, after 8 d in culture, only the basic isoenzymes remained due to de novo accumulation of the [alpha] subunit. The pattern of catalase expression in proliferating tobacco leaf cells during callogenesis was similar to that in dividing protoplasts. The different responses of catalase expression in dividing and nondividing tobacco and grapevine mesophyll protoplasts may indicate a specificity of catalase related to induction of totipotency.

  12. New evidence on the role of catalase in Escherichia coli-mediated biocorrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, S.; Vejar, N.; Gulppi, M.; Azocar, M.; Melo, F.; Monsalve, A.; Pérez-Donoso, J.; Vásquez, C.C.; Pavez, J.; Zagal, J.H.; Zhou, X.; Thompson, G.E.; Páez, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► MIC on stainless by catalase deficient Escherichia coli bacteria reveals the enzyme influence. ► The localized damage was greater in the presence of the wild E. coli. ► Catalase assists oxygen generation by disproportionation of H 2 O 2 to H 2 O and O 2 . - Abstract: The role of catalase on the microbiologically influenced corrosion mechanism by Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been examined, employing wild type and catalase-deficient cells. The bacteria were cultured for different times in the presence of AISI 316L stainless steel samples. The morphologies of the metallic surfaces covered by biofilms were studied by optical microscopy. The localized corrosion catalyzed by the bacteria was followed by scanning electron microscopy after immersion in the bacterial culture for different times. Susceptibility to corrosion was further investigated by potentiodynamic measurements. It was found that wild type E. coli is more aggressive than the mutant one, suggesting a role for catalase in increasing the kinetics of the cathodic reaction and, consequently, the global corrosion process. This correlates with oxygen uptake kinetics, as determined by differential pulse voltammetry on a pyrolytic graphite electrode modified with cobalt phthalocyanine, which was higher in the presence of wild type E. coli. When H 2 O 2 was deliberately added to the culture medium, wild type E. coli catalyzed oxygen disproportionation more efficiently than the mutant derivative, thus limiting H 2 O 2 accumulation in the medium and, hence, bacterial poisoning. In fact, the reduced adhesion of mutant cells to the metal substrate is apparently the result of H 2 O 2 accumulation in the culture broth. Thus, the rapid consumption of oxygen and peroxide in the presence of wild type E. coli is associated with the catalysis of H 2 O 2 disproportionation to water and oxygen. On the stainless steel, however, a dual mechanism of oxygen reduction, i.e. through formation of hydrogen peroxide

  13. Mitochondrial-Targeted Catalase: Extended Longevity and the Roles in Various Disease Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, D-F; Chiao, Y-A; Martin, G M; Marcinek, D J; Basisty, N; Quarles, E K; Rabinovitch, P S

    2017-01-01

    The free-radical theory of aging was proposed more than 50 years ago. As one of the most popular mechanisms explaining the aging process, it has been extensively studied in several model organisms. However, the results remain controversial. The mitochondrial version of free-radical theory of aging proposes that mitochondria are both the primary sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the primary targets of ROS-induced damage. One critical ROS is hydrogen peroxide, which is naturally degraded by catalase in peroxisomes or glutathione peroxidase within mitochondria. Our laboratory developed mice-overexpressing catalase targeted to mitochondria (mCAT), peroxisomes (pCAT), or the nucleus (nCAT) in order to investigate the role of hydrogen peroxide in different subcellular compartments in aging and age-related diseases. The mCAT mice have demonstrated the largest effects on life span and healthspan extension. This chapter will discuss the mCAT phenotype and review studies using mCAT to investigate the roles of mitochondrial oxidative stresses in various disease models, including metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis, cardiac aging, heart failure, skeletal muscle pathology, sensory defect, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. As ROS has been increasingly recognized as essential signaling molecules that may be beneficial in hormesis, stress response and immunity, the potential pleiotropic, or adverse effects of mCAT are also discussed. Finally, the development of small-molecule mitochondrial-targeted therapeutic approaches is reviewed. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal stability for the effective use of commercial catalase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miłek J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalase with the commercial catalase name Terminox Ultra is widely used in the textile industry in bleaching processes. This enzyme is used to catalyse the decomposition of residual hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water. In this study catalase was kept for about 30 hours in water baths in a temperature range from 35 to 70°C. For the first time, the kinetics of thermal deactivation of this enzyme was examined using an oxygen electrode. Stability of the enzyme depends strongly on temperature and its half-life times are 0.0014 h and 7.6 h, at 35 and 70°C, respectively.

  15. Effect of catalase-specific inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole on yeast peroxisomal catalase in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Tomoko; Kamasawa, Naomi; Osumi, Masako; Tanaka, Atsuo

    2003-02-14

    3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) is known as an inhibitor of catalase to whose active center it specifically and covalently binds. Subcellular fractionation and immunoelectronmicroscopic observation of the yeast Candida tropicalis revealed that, in 3-AT-treated cells in which the 3-AT was added to the n-alkane medium from the beginning of cultivation, catalase transported into peroxisomes was inactivated and was present as insoluble aggregated forms in the organelle. The aggregation of catalase in peroxisomes occurred only in these 3-AT-treated cells and not in cells in which 3-AT was added at the late exponential growth phase. Furthermore, 3-AT did not affect the transportation of catalase into peroxisomes. The appearance of aggregation only in cells to which 3-AT was added from the beginning of cultivation suggests that, in the process of catalase transportation into yeast peroxisomes, some conformational change may take place and that correct folding may be inhibited by the binding of 3-AT to the active center of catalase. Accordingly, 3-AT will be an interesting compound for investigation of the transport machinery of the peroxisomal tetrameric catalase.

  16. N-glycosylation-negative catalase: a useful tool for exploring the role of hydrogen peroxide in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortz, S; Lenzen, S; Mehmeti, I

    2015-03-01

    Disulfide bond formation during protein folding of nascent proteins is associated with the generation of H2O2 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Approaches to quantifying H2O2 directly within the ER failed because of the oxidative environment in the ER lumen, and ER-specific catalase expression to detoxify high H2O2 concentrations resulted in an inactive protein owing to N-glycosylation. Therefore, the N-glycosylation motifs at asparagine-244 and -439 of the human catalase protein were deleted by site-directed mutagenesis. The ER-targeted expression of these variants revealed that the deletion of the N-glycosylation motif only at asparagine-244 (N244) was associated with the maintenance of full enzymatic activity in the ER. Expression of catalase N244 in the ER (ER-Catalase N244) was ER-specific and protected the cells significantly against exogenously added H2O2. With the expression of ER-Catalase N244, a highly effective H2O2 inactivation within the ER was achieved for the first time. Catalase has a high H2O2-inactivation capacity without the need of reducing cofactors, which might interfere with the ER redox homeostasis, and is not involved in protein folding. With these characteristics ER-Catalase N244 is an ideal tool to explore the impact of ER-generated H2O2 on the generation of disulfide bonds or to study the induction of ER-stress pathways through protein folding overload and accumulation of H2O2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Polypeptides having catalase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Lan

    2017-05-02

    Provided are isolated polypeptides having catalase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. Also provided are nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  18. A Laboratory Experiment of the Purification of Catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Montserrat; Franco, Rafael

    1986-01-01

    Describes a simple method for purifying catalase for the study of proteins. Procedures are systematically and diagramatically presented. Also identifies polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, kinetic studies, and apparent molecular weight determination as possible techniques to be used in studying proteins. (ML)

  19. Purification and biosynthesis of cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum L.) catalase.

    OpenAIRE

    Kunce, C M; Trelease, R N; Turley, R B

    1988-01-01

    As part of our research on peroxisome biogenesis, catalase was purified from cotyledons of dark-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedlings and monospecific antibodies were raised in rabbits. Purified catalase appeared as three distinct electrophoretic forms in non-denaturing gels and as a single protein band (with a subunit Mr of 57,000) on silver-stained SDS/polyacrylamide gels. Western blots of crude extracts and isolated peroxisomes from cotton revealed one immunoreactive polypeptide w...

  20. Purification and Properties of Catalase from Sweet Potato Root Microbodies

    OpenAIRE

    Muneharu, Esaka; Tadashi, Asahi; Laboratory of Biochelnistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University; Laboratory of Biochelnistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University

    1982-01-01

    Catalase was isolated in a pure form from sweet potato root microbodies by simple procedures including ammonium sulfate fractionation and Sepharose 6B column chromatography. A single protein band was detected after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified preparation. The catalase consisted of polypeptides with a molecular weight of 60,000 when analyzed by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, while the molecular weight of the enzyme was about 240,000 when estima...

  1. Effects of Peroxisomal Catalase Inhibition on Mitochondrial Function

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Paul A.; Pizzitelli, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes produce hydrogen peroxide as a metabolic by-product of their many oxidase enzymes, but contain catalase that breaks down hydrogen peroxide in order to maintain the organelle’s oxidative balance. It has been previously demonstrated that, as cells age, catalase is increasingly absent from the peroxisome, and resides instead as an unimported tetrameric molecule in the cell cytosol; an alteration that is coincident with increased cellular hydrogen peroxide levels. As this process begi...

  2. Effects of peroxisomal catalase inhibition on mitochondrial function.

    OpenAIRE

    Paul eWalton

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes produce hydrogen peroxide as a metabolic by-product of their many oxidase enzymes, but contain catalase that breaks down hydrogen peroxide in order to maintain the organelle’s oxidative balance. It has been previously demonstrated that, as cells age, catalase is increasingly absent from the peroxisome, and resides instead as an unimported tetrameric molecule in the cell cytosol; an alteration that is coincident with increased cellular hydrogen peroxide levels. As this process be...

  3. Formulation and characterization of catalase in albumin microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwale, Rodney C; Oettinger, Carl W; Pai, S Balakrishna; Addo, Richard; Uddin, Nasir; Siddig, Aladin; D'Souza, Martin J

    2009-08-01

    Catalase in albumin microspheres were formulated for intravenous administration to antagonize the effects of over-production of reactive oxygenated species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in septic shock. The aim was to increase effective half-life of catalase and take advantage of the phagocytic uptake of the encapsulated catalase by the vascular endothelium. Catalase microspheres were prepared by spray-drying. The microspheres were evaluated for particle size, particle shape and surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), drug encapsulation efficiency, chemical stability, thermal stability and in vitro drug release characteristics. The microspheres had a mean particle size of 4.7 +/- 2 microm, optimal for phagocytic uptake, as demonstrated by Makino et al. SEM revealed that microspheres were spherical with smooth surface morphology. An encapsulation efficiency of 91.5 +/- 3% was achieved and the encapsulated catalase was chemically and thermally stable. Application of in vitro drug release data to the Higuchi kinetic equation indicated matrix diffusion-controlled catalase release from albumin microspheres.

  4. Characterization of a cDNA encoding cottonseed catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W; Turley, R B; Trelease, R N

    1990-06-21

    A 1.7 kb cDNA clone was isolated from our lambda gt11 library constructed from poly(A) RNA of 24-h-old cotyledons. The cDNA encodes a full-length catalase peptide (492 amino acid residues). The calculated molecular mass is 56,800, similar to that determined for purified enzyme (57,000 SDS-PAGE). Among higher plant catalases, this cotton catalase shows the highest amino acid sequence identity (85%) to the subunit of homotetrameric maize CAT 1, a developmental counterpart to the homotetrameric CAT A isoform of cotton seeds. Comparison of sequences from cotton, sweet potato, maize CAT 1, and yeast with bovine catalase revealed that the amino acid residues and regions that are involved in catalytic activity and/or required to maintain basic catalase structure, are highly conserved. The C-terminus region, which has the lowest nucleotide sequence identity between plant and mammalian catalases, does not terminate with a tripeptide, S-K/R/H-L, a putative targeting signal for peroxisomal proteins.

  5. Pseudomonas syringae Catalases Are Collectively Required for Plant Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Block, Anna; Bryan, Crystal D.; Becker, Donald F.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 must detoxify plant-produced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in order to survive in its host plant. Candidate enzymes for this detoxification include the monofunctional catalases KatB and KatE and the bifunctional catalase-peroxidase KatG of DC3000. This study shows that KatG is the major housekeeping catalase of DC3000 and provides protection against menadione-generated endogenous H2O2. In contrast, KatB rapidly and substantially accumulates in response to exogenous H2O2. Furthermore, KatB and KatG have nonredundant roles in detoxifying exogenous H2O2 and are required for full virulence of DC3000 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Therefore, the nonredundant ability of KatB and KatG to detoxify plant-produced H2O2 is essential for the bacteria to survive in plants. Indeed, a DC3000 catalase triple mutant is severely compromised in its ability to grow in planta, and its growth can be partially rescued by the expression of katB, katE, or katG. Interestingly, our data demonstrate that although KatB and KatG are the major catalases involved in the virulence of DC3000, KatE can also provide some protection in planta. Thus, our results indicate that these catalases are virulence factors for DC3000 and are collectively required for pathogenesis. PMID:22797762

  6. Time course of cerebellar catalase levels after neonatal ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Meglio, A.; Caceres, L.; Zieher, L.M.; Guelman, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Reactive oxygen species are physiologically generated as a consequence of aerobic respiration, but this generation is increased in response to external stimuli, including ionizing radiation. The central nervous system (CNS) is vulnerable to oxidative stress due to its high oxygen consumption rate, its high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low levels of antioxidant defences. An important compound of this defence system is the antioxidant enzyme catalase, an heme protein that removes hydrogen peroxide from the cell by catalyzing its conversion to water. The aim of the present work was to study if catalase is susceptible to oxidative stress generated by ionizing radiation on the cerebellum. Neonatal rats were irradiated with 5 Gy of X rays and the levels of catalase were measured at 15, 30 and 60 days of age. Results show that there is a decrease in the activity of catalase in irradiated cerebellum at 15 (% respect the control, 65.6 ± 14.8), 30 (51.35± 5.8%), and 60 days (9.3 ± 0.34%). Catalase activity at 15 and 30 days has shown to be positively correlated with the radiation-induced decrease in tissue's weight, while at 60 days there is an extra decrease. It would be suggested that, at long term, radiation exposure might induce, in addition to cerebellar atrophy, the oxidation of the radiosensitive heme group of the enzyme, leading to its inactivation. In conclusion, the antioxidant enzyme catalase has shown to be especially sensitive to ionizing radiation. (author)

  7. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF BASIDIOMYCETES — PRODUCERS OF CATALASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Voloshko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of growth and catalase activity of 57 strains of basidiomycetes were investigated. Glucose-peptone medium was used for surface cultivation of fungi. The objects of study were 57 strains, 5 of which belongs to 5 species of the order Polyporales, and others do to 7 species of the order Agaricales. The weight measurement to estimate accumulation of absolutely dry biomass was used to study growth rates. The spectrophotometric methods were used for determination of catalase activity and protein content in mycelium and culture filtrate. The specific catalase activity was calculated based on this data. The levels of biomass accumulation and catalase activity of the strains on the 9-th and 12-th days of cultivation and ability of the most fungi to synthesize mainly extracellular catalase were determined. Individual variability of the strains was shown. The results allowed selecting the strains — active producers of catalase, including F. velutipes F-2 and P. ostreatus R-208, which are perspective for use in biotechnology of enzyme preparations.

  8. Overexpression of a bacterial mercury transporter MerT in Arabidopsis enhances mercury tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sheng; Sun, Bin; Wang, Rong; He, Jia; Xia, Bing; Xue, Yong; Wang, Ren

    2017-08-19

    The phytoremediation by using of green plants in the removal of environmental pollutant is an environment friendly, green technology that is cost effective and energetically inexpensive. By using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically expressing mercuric transport protein gene (merT) from Pseudomonas alcaligenes. Compared with wild-type (WT) plants, overexpressing PamerT in Arabidopsis enhanced the tolerance to HgCl 2 . Further results showed that the enhanced total activities or corresponding transcripts of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) were observed in transgenic Arabidopsis under HgCl 2 stress. These results were confirmed by the alleviation of oxidative damage, as indicated by the decrease of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) contents and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. In addition, localization analysis of PaMerT in Arabidopsis protoplast showed that it is likely to be associated with vacuole. In all, PamerT increased mercury (Hg) tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis, and decreased production of Hg-induced ROS, thereby protecting plants from oxidative damage. The present study has provided further evidence that bacterial MerT plays an important role in the plant tolerance to HgCl 2 and in reducing the production of ROS induced by HgCl 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Overexpression of the wheat aquaporin gene, TaAQP7, enhances drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyi Zhou

    Full Text Available Aquaporin (AQP proteins have been shown to transport water and other small molecules through biological membranes, which is crucial for plants to combat stress caused by drought. However, the precise role of AQPs in drought stress response is not completely understood in plants. In this study, a PIP2 subgroup gene AQP, designated as TaAQP7, was cloned and characterized from wheat. Expression of TaAQP7-GFP fusion protein revealed its localization in the plasma membrane. TaAQP7 exhibited high water channel activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes and TaAQP7 transcript was induced by dehydration, and treatments with polyethylene glycol (PEG, abscisic acid (ABA and H(2O(2. Further, TaAQP7 was upregulated after PEG treatment and was blocked by inhibitors of ABA biosynthesis, implying that ABA signaling was involved in the upregulation of TaAQP7 after PEG treatment. Overexpression of TaAQP7 increased drought tolerance in tobacco. The transgenic tobacco lines had lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and H(2O(2, and less ion leakage (IL, but higher relative water content (RWC and superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities when compared with the wild type (WT under drought stress. Taken together, our results show that TaAQP7 confers drought stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by increasing the ability to retain water, reduce ROS accumulation and membrane damage, and enhance the activities of antioxidants.

  10. [The catalase inhibitor aminotriazole alleviates acute alcoholic liver injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Qing; Ge, Pu; Dai, Jie; Liang, Tian-Cai; Yang, Qing; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Li

    2015-02-25

    In this study, the effects of catalase (CAT) inhibitor aminotriazole (ATZ) on alcohol-induced acute liver injury were investigated to explore the potential roles of CAT in alcoholic liver injury. Acute liver injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection of alcohol in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, and various doses of ATZ (100-400 mg/kg) or vehicle were administered intraperitoneally at 30 min before alcohol exposure. After 24 h of alcohol exposure, the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in plasma were determined. The degree of hepatic histopathological abnormality was observed by HE staining. The activity of hepatic CAT, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) level and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver tissue were measured by corresponding kits. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in plasma were determined by ELISA method. The results showed that treatment with ATZ dose-dependently suppressed the elevation of ALT, AST and LDH levels induced by alcohol exposure, and that ATZ alleviated alcohol-induced histopathological alterations. Furthermore, ATZ inhibited the activity of CAT, reduced hepatic levels of H₂O₂and MDA in alcohol exposed rats. ATZ also decreased the levels of plasma TNF-α and IL-6 in rats with alcohol exposure. These results indicated that ATZ attenuated alcohol-induced acute liver injury in rats, suggesting that CAT might play important pathological roles in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury.

  11. Antioxidant mechanism of heme oxygenase-1 involves an increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase in experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkseven, Saadet; Kruger, Adam; Mingone, Christopher J; Kaminski, Pawel; Inaba, Muneo; Rodella, Luigi F; Ikehara, Susumu; Wolin, Michael S; Abraham, Nader G

    2005-08-01

    Increased heme oxygenase (HO)-1 activity attenuates endothelial cell apoptosis and decreases superoxide anion (O2-) formation in experimental diabetes by unknown mechanisms. We examined the effect of HO-1 protein and HO activity on extracellular SOD (EC-SOD), catalase, O2-, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) levels and vascular responses to ACh in control and diabetic rats. Vascular EC-SOD and plasma catalase activities were significantly reduced in diabetic compared with nondiabetic rats (P inhibitor of HO-1 activity, decreased EC-SOD protein. Increased HO-1 activity in diabetic rats was associated with a decrease in iNOS but increases in eNOS and plasma catalase activity. On the other hand, aortic ring segments from diabetic rats exhibited a significant reduction in vascular relaxation to ACh, which was reversed with cobalt protoporphyrin treatment. These data demonstrate that an increase in HO-1 protein and activity, i.e., CO and bilirubin production, in diabetic rats brings about a robust increase in EC-SOD, catalase, and eNOS with a concomitant increase in endothelial relaxation and a decrease in O2-. These observations in experimental diabetes suggest that the vascular cytoprotective mechanism of HO-1 against oxidative stress requires an increase in EC-SOD and catalase.

  12. THE EFFECT OF MAXIMUM PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND MANGGONG BAMBOO (Gigantochloa manggong LEAF EXTRACT ON CATALASE ACTIVITY IN LIVER ORGAN OF RATS (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Supriyatin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gigantochloa manggong, one of endemic bamboo plant in Indonesia is suspected to have exogenous antioxidant potential. Exogenous antioxidant can help the activity of endogenous antioxidant in the body when overtraining occurs. Antioxidant can be measured by catalase enzymes activity. This study was carried out to determine the effect of maximum physical activity and leaf bamboo extract on catalase activity in liver organ of rats. This research used experimental method with completely randomized design (CRD. The test groups were the control rats (E0R0, leaf extract induced rats (E1R0, swimming activity treated rats (E0R1 and leaf extract induced and swimming activity treated rats (E1R1. Data were analyzed by the two-way ANOVA statistical test. Bamboo leaf extract non-toxic and leaf extract contained flavonoids, alkaloids, triterpenoids dan saponins. Catalase units in the control group is 1.00 unit/ml, the induced leaf extract group is 0.89 unit/ml, the maximum physical activity group is 0.78 unit/ml and the maximum physical activity treated and induced leaf extract group is 0.56 unit/ml. Based on statistical test, catalase activity has no effect (p>0,05 on rats. It was concluded that maximum physical activity could not reduce catalase activity. Manggong bamboo leaves extract could not increase catalase activity and there was no effect between maximum physical activity and manggong bamboo leaf extract on catalase activity in liver organ of rats.

  13. Nitric oxide and catalase-sensitive relaxation by scutellarin in the mouse thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Lust, Robert M; Bofferding, April; Wingard, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    The vascular activity of scutellarin (SCU), a flavonoid isolated from a Chinese traditional medicinal plant, was investigated in isolated thoracic aortic rings of mice. SCU-induced dose-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine (1 microM) stimulated contractions. This relaxation was reduced by endothelium removal, significantly reduced by both the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methylester, 300 microM) and slightly limited by the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (1 H-[1,2,4] oxidazolol [4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one, 100 microM). The catalase inhibitor (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 50 mM) augmented the constriction and blocked the lowest SCU concentration relaxation, whereas catalase addition was without effect. Preincubation with 300 and 1000 microM SCU significantly suppressed the contractile dose-response to phenylephrine, causing both a significant rise in half maximal effective concentration and a decrease in the maximal developed force. Western blot analysis showed that SCU inhibition of contraction was independent of reductions in myosin light chain phosphorylation. These results suggested that SCU relaxation was predominantly endothelium dependent and likely involved the catalase-sensitive nitric oxide synthase signaling pathway, without loss of myosin phosphorylation. The potential clinical use of SCU may prove to be effective in increasing vasoreactivity, independently of smooth muscle contractile activity that is mediated by the 20-kDa myosin light chain phosphorylation.

  14. Purification and Partial Characterization of Catalase from Chicken Erythrocytes and the Effect of Various Inhibitors on Enzyme Activity

    OpenAIRE

    AYDEMİR, Tülin; KURU, Kevser

    2003-01-01

    Catalase plays a major role in the protection of tissues from the toxic effects of H2O2 and partially reduced oxygen species. A nearly 136-fold enzyme purification was obtained from chicken erythrocyte by acetone precipitation, ethanol-chloroform treatment, CM-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. The specific activity of purified enzyme was 42,556 U/mg. The molecular weight of the native chicken erythrocyte catalase was estimated at 240 kDa by gel filtration. SDS-gel electr...

  15. The Catalase Activity of Catalase-Peroxidases Is Modulated by Changes in the pKa of the Distal Histidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuqueiro, Miguel; Victor, Bruno; Switala, Jacek; Villanueva, Jacylyn; Rovira, Carme; Fita, Ignacio; Loewen, Peter C

    2017-05-02

    The unusual Met-Tyr-Trp adduct composed of cross-linked side chains along with an associated mobile Arg is essential for catalase activity in catalase-peroxidases. In addition, acidic residues in the entrance channel, in particular an Asp and a Glu ∼7 and ∼15 Å, respectively, from the heme, significantly enhance catalase activity. The mechanism by which these channel carboxylates influence catalase activity is the focus of this work. Seventeen new variants with fewer and additional acidic residues have been constructed and characterized structurally and for enzymatic activity, revealing that their effect on activity is roughly inversely proportional to their distance from the heme and adduct, suggesting that the electrostatic potential of the heme cavity may be affected. A discrete group of protonable residues are contained within a 15 Å sphere surrounding the heme iron, and a computational analysis reveals that the pK a of the distal His 112 , alone, is modulated within the pH range of catalase activity by the remote acidic residues in a pattern consistent with its protonated form having a key role in the catalase reaction cycle. The electrostatic potential also impacts the catalatic reaction through its influence on the charged status of the Met-Tyr-Trp adduct.

  16. Tamoxifen up-regulates catalase production, inhibits vessel wall neutrophil infiltration, and attenuates development of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryants, Vladimir; Hannawa, Kevin K; Pearce, Charles G; Sinha, Indranil; Roelofs, Karen J; Ailawadi, Gorav; Deatrick, Kristopher B; Woodrum, Derek T; Cho, Brenda S; Henke, Peter K; Stanley, James C; Eagleton, Matthew J; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2005-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), similar to estrogens, possess vasoprotective effects by reducing release of reactive oxygen species. Little is known about the potential effects of SERMs on the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). This study's objective was to investigate the growth of experimental AAAs in the setting of the SERM tamoxifen. In the first set of experiments, adult male rats underwent subcutaneous tamoxifen pellet (delivering 10 mg/kg/day) implantation (n = 14) or sham operation (n = 16). Seven days later, all animals underwent pancreatic elastase perfusion of the abdominal aorta. Aortic diameters were determined at that time, and aortas were harvested 7 and 14 days after elastase perfusion for immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and zymography. In the second set of experiments, a direct irreversible catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT), was administered intraperitoneally (1 mg/kg) daily to tamoxifen-treated (n = 6) and control rats (n = 6), starting on day 7 after elastase perfusion. Aortic diameters were measured on day 14. In a third set of experiments, rats were perfused with catalase (150 mg/kg) after the elastase (n = 5), followed by daily intravenous injections of catalase (150 mg/kg/day) administered for 10 days. A control group of rats (n = 7) received 0.9% NaCl instead of catalase. Mean AAA diameters were approximately 50% smaller in tamoxifen-treated rats compared with sham rats 14 days after elastase perfusion (P = .002). The tamoxifen-treated group's aortas had a five-fold increase in catalase mRNA expression (P = .02) on day 7 and an eight-fold increase in catalase protein on day 14 (P = .04). Matrix metalloprotroteinase-9 activity was 2.4-fold higher (P = .01) on day 7 in the aortas of the controls compared to the tamoxifen-treated group's aortas. Tamoxifen-treated rats had approximately 40% fewer aortic polymorphonuclear neutrophils compared to

  17. Central reinforcing effects of ethanol are blocked by catalase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhnikov, Michael E; Molina, Juan C; Spear, Norman E

    2007-11-01

    Recent studies have systematically indicated that newborn rats are highly sensitive to ethanol's positive reinforcing effects. Central administrations of ethanol (25-200mg %) associated with an olfactory conditioned stimulus (CS) promote subsequent conditioned approach to the CS as evaluated through the newborn's response to a surrogate nipple scented with the CS. It has been shown that ethanol's first metabolite, acetaldehyde, exerts significant reinforcing effects in the central nervous system. A significant amount of acetaldehyde is derived from ethanol metabolism via the catalase system. In newborn rats, catalase levels are particularly high in several brain structures. The present study tested the effect of catalase inhibition on central ethanol reinforcement. In the first experiment, pups experienced lemon odor either paired or unpaired with intracisternal (IC) administrations of 100mg% ethanol. Half of the animals corresponding to each learning condition were pretreated with IC administrations of either physiological saline or a catalase inhibitor (sodium-azide). Catalase inhibition completely suppressed ethanol reinforcement in paired groups without affecting responsiveness to the CS during conditioning or responding by unpaired control groups. A second experiment tested whether these effects were specific to ethanol reinforcement or due instead to general impairment in learning and expression capabilities. Central administration of an endogenous kappa opioid receptor agonist (dynorphin A-13) was used as an alternative source of reinforcement. Inhibition of the catalase system had no effect on the reinforcing properties of dynorphin. The present results support the hypothesis that ethanol metabolism regulated by the catalase system plays a critical role in determination of ethanol reinforcement in newborn rats.

  18. Catalase protects Aedes aegypti from oxidative stress and increases midgut infection prevalence of Dengue but not Zika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, José Henrique M; Talyuli, Octávio A C; Goncalves, Renata L S; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela Oliveira; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique F; Alvarenga, Patricia Hessab; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2017-04-01

    Digestion of blood in the midgut of Aedes aegypti results in the release of pro-oxidant molecules that can be toxic to the mosquito. We hypothesized that after a blood meal, the antioxidant capacity of the midgut is increased to protect cells against oxidative stress. Concomitantly, pathogens present in the blood ingested by mosquitoes, such as the arboviruses Dengue and Zika, also have to overcome the same oxidative challenge, and the antioxidant program induced by the insect is likely to influence infection status of the mosquito and its vectorial competence. We found that blood-induced catalase mRNA and activity in the midgut peaked 24 h after feeding and returned to basal levels after the completion of digestion. RNAi-mediated silencing of catalase (AAEL013407-RB) reduced enzyme activity in the midgut epithelia, increased H2O2 leakage and decreased fecundity and lifespan when mosquitoes were fed H2O2. When infected with Dengue 4 and Zika virus, catalase-silenced mosquitoes showed no alteration in infection intensity (number of plaque forming units/midgut) 7 days after the infectious meal. However, catalase knockdown reduced Dengue 4, but not Zika, infection prevalence (percent of infected midguts). Here, we showed that blood ingestion triggers an antioxidant response in the midgut through the induction of catalase. This protection facilitates the establishment of Dengue virus in the midgut. Importantly, this mechanism appears to be specific for Dengue because catalase silencing did not change Zika virus prevalence. In summary, our data suggest that redox balance in the midgut modulates mosquito vectorial competence to arboviral infections.

  19. Metallic mercury uptake by catalase Part 1 In Vitro metallic mercury uptake by various kind of animals' erythrocytes and purified human erythrocyte catalase

    OpenAIRE

    劒持, 堅志

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of metallic mercury was studied using erythrocytes with different catalase activities taken from various kind of animals. The results were: 1) The uptake of metallic mercury by erythrocytes paralleled the activity of catalase in the erythrocytes with and without hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that the erythrocyte catalase activity is related to the uptake of metallic mercury. 2) The uptake of metallic mercury occurred not only with purified human erythrocyte catalase but also with h...

  20. Catalase-Negative Staphylococcus lugdunensis Strain with a Novel Point Mutation in the Catalase Gene Isolated from a Patient with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yong; Wang, Yiping; Ling, Buzhi; Ke, Xianfu; Ying, Jianfei; Yu, Yanhong; He, Mingyang; Li, Xiangyang

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the results of the sequence analysis of a methicillin-susceptible strain of catalase-negative Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Molecular characterization of the deduced sequence revealed a novel point mutation in the catalase gene. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a catalase-negative S. lugdunensis strain, although catalase-negative isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been previously reported.

  1. Nitrite and nitroso compounds can serve as specific catalase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Vladimir Yu; Osipov, Anatoly N

    2017-03-01

    We present evidence that nitrite and nitrosothiols, nitrosoamines and non-heme dinitrosyl iron complexes can reversibly inhibit catalase with equal effectiveness. Catalase activity was evaluated by the permanganatometric and calorimetric assays. This inhibition is not the result of chemical transformations of these compounds to a single inhibitor, as well as it is not the result of NO release from these substances (as NO traps have no effect on the extent of inhibition). It was found that chloride and bromide in concentration above 80 mM and thiocyanate in concentration above 20 μM enhance catalase inhibition by nitrite and the nitroso compounds more than 100 times. The inhibition degree in this case is comparable with that induced by azide. We propose that the direct catalase inhibitor is a positively charged NO-group. This group acquires a positive charge in the active center of enzyme by interaction of nitrite or nitroso compounds with some enzyme groups. Halides and thiocyanate protect the NO + group from hydration and thus increase its inhibition effect. It is probable that a comparatively low chloride concentration in many cells is the main factor to protect catalase from inhibition by nitrite and nitroso compounds.

  2. Molecular identification and characterisation of catalase and catalase-like protein genes in urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T; Kuribayashi, T; Moore, J E; Millar, B C; Yamamoto, S; Matsuda, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter are important bacterial pathogens of foodborne diseases worldwide. These organisms' physiology requires a microaerophilic atmosphere. To date, little is known about the protective catalase mechanism in urease-positive thermophilic campylobacters (UPTC); hence, it was the aim of this study to identify and characterise catalase and catalase-like protein genes in these organisms. Catalase (katA) and catalase (Kat)-like protein genes from the Japanese UPTC CF89-12 strain were molecularly analysed and compared with C. lari RM2100 and other C. lari and thermophilic Campylobacter reference isolates. A possible open reading frame of 1,422 base pairs, predicted to encode a peptide of 474 amino acid residues, with calculated molecular weight of 52.7 kilo Daltons for katA, was identified within UPTC CF89-12. A probable ribosome binding site, two putative promoters and a putative ρ-independent transcription terminator were also identified within katA. A similar katA cluster also existed in the C. lari RM2100 strain, except that this strain carries no DcuB genes. However, the Kat-like protein gene or any other homologue(s) were never identified in the C. lari RM2100 strain, or in C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis. This study demonstrates the presence of catalase/catalase-like protein genes in UPTC organisms. These findings are significant in that they suggest that UPTC organisms have the protective genetic capability of helping protect the organisms from toxic oxygen stress, which may help them to survive in physiologically harsh environments, both within human and animal hosts, as well as in the natural environment.

  3. Automated evaluation of the effect of ionic liquids on catalase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Paula C A G; Costa, Andreia D F; Lima, José L F C; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S

    2011-03-01

    An automated assay for the evaluation of the influence of ionic liquids on the activity of catalase was developed. The activity and inhibition assays were implemented in a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system and intended to contribute for the estimation of the toxicity of the tested compounds. The fast developed methodology was based on the oxidation of the non-fluorescent probe amplex red, in the presence of H₂O₂, to produce resorufin, a strong fluorescent compound. Catalase activity was monitored by the decreased of the fluorescence intensity due to the consumption of H₂O₂ by the enzyme. The activity assays were performed in strictly aqueous media and in the presence of increasing concentrations of seven commercially available ionic liquids and sodium azide, a strong inhibitor of catalase. IC₅₀ values between 0.15 and 2.77 M were obtained for the tested compounds, revealing distinct inhibitory effects. This allowed us to perform some considerations about the toxicity of the tested cations and anions. The developed SIA methodology showed to be robust and exhibited good repeatability in all the assay conditions. On the other hand, it proved to be in good agreement with the actual concerns of "Green Chemistry" since it involved the consumption of less than 200 μL of reagents and the production of only 1.7 mL of effluent (per cycle) and at the same time reduced the operator exposure resulting in increased environmental and human safety. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Cytoprotective effect of phloroglucinol on oxidative stress induced cell damage via catalase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Kyoung Hwa; Chae, Sungwook; Zhang, Rui; Jung, Myung Sun; Ham, Young Min; Baik, Jong Seok; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Jin Won

    2006-02-15

    We investigated the cytoprotective effect of phloroglucinol, which was isolated from Ecklonia cava (brown alga), against oxidative stress induced cell damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells. Phloroglucinol was found to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hydroxy radical, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thus prevented lipid peroxidation. As a result, phloroglucinol reduced H(2)O(2) induced apoptotic cells formation in V79-4 cells. In addition, phloroglucinol inhibited cell damage induced by serum starvation and radiation through scavenging ROS. Phloroglucinol increased the catalase activity and its protein expression. In addition, catalase inhibitor abolished the protective effect of phloroglucinol from H(2)O(2) induced cell damage. Furthermore, phloroglucinol increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK). Taken together, the results suggest that phloroglucinol protects V79-4 cells against oxidative damage by enhancing the cellular catalase activity and modulating ERK signal pathway. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Combustion products of 1,3-butadiene inhibit catalase activity and induce expression of oxidative DNA damage repair enzymes in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christopher H.; Catallo, W. James; Wilson, Vincent L.; Mitchell, James B.

    2012-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene, an important petrochemical, is commonly burned off when excess amounts need to be destroyed. This combustion process produces butadiene soot (BDS), which is composed of a complex mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in particulates ranging in size from butadiene soot ethanol extract (BSEE) on both enzyme activity and expression of proteins involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. Catalase was found to be sensitive to BDS as catalase activity was potently diminished in the presence of BSEE. Using Western analysis, both the alpha isoform of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (α-hOGG1) and human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE-1) were shown to be significantly overexpressed as compared to untreated controls after exposure of NHBE cells to BSEE. Our results indicate that BSEE is capable of effectively inactivating the antioxidant enzyme catalase, presumably via oxidation of protein amino acids. The presence of oxidized proteins may partially explain the extranuclear fluorescence that is detected when NHBE cells are treated with an organic extract of BDS. Overexpression of both α-hOGG1 and APE-1 proteins following treatment of NHBE cells with BSEE suggests that this mixture causes oxidative DNA damage. PMID:18685817

  6. Kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition by catalase: hydroxylic solvent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raducan, Adina; Cantemir, Anca Ruxandra; Puiu, Mihaela; Oancea, Dumitru

    2012-11-01

    The effect of water-alcohol (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, propan-2-ol, ethane-1,2-diol and propane-1,2,3-triol) binary mixtures on the kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition in the presence of bovine liver catalase is investigated. In all solvents, the activity of catalase is smaller than in water. The results are discussed on the basis of a simple kinetic model. The kinetic constants for product formation through enzyme-substrate complex decomposition and for inactivation of catalase are estimated. The organic solvents are characterized by several physical properties: dielectric constant (D), hydrophobicity (log P), concentration of hydroxyl groups ([OH]), polarizability (α), Kamlet-Taft parameter (β) and Kosower parameter (Z). The relationships between the initial rate, kinetic constants and medium properties are analyzed by linear and multiple linear regression.

  7. Catalase in Leishmaniinae: With me or against me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeva, Natalya; Horáková, Eva; Kostygov, Alexei Y; Kořený, Luděk; Butenko, Anzhelika; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav; Lukeš, Julius

    2017-06-01

    The catalase gene is a virtually ubiquitous component of the eukaryotic genomes. It is also present in the monoxenous (i.e. parasitizing solely insects) trypanosomatids of the subfamily Leishmaniinae, which have acquired the enzyme by horizontal gene transfer from a bacterium. However, as shown here, the catalase gene was secondarily lost from the genomes of all Leishmania sequenced so far. Due to the potentially key regulatory role of hydrogen peroxide in the inter-stagial transformation of Leishmania spp., this loss seems to be a necessary prerequisite for the emergence of a complex life cycle of these important human pathogens. Hence, in this group of protists, the advantages of keeping catalase were uniquely outweighed by its disadvantages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits IL-6 expression via PPARγ-mediated expression of catalase in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Eun Ah; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2017-07-01

    Cerulein pancreatitis mirrors human acute pancreatitis. In pancreatic acinar cells exposed to cerulein, reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate inflammatory signaling by Janus kinase (JAK) 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, and cytokine induction. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) acts as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), which mediates the expression of some antioxidant enzymes. We hypothesized that DHA may induce PPARγ-target catalase expression and reduce ROS levels, leading to the inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 activation and IL-6 expression in cerulein-stimulated acinar cells. Pancreatic acinar AR42J cells were treated with DHA in the presence or absence of the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, or treated with the PPARγ agonist troglitazone, and then stimulated with cerulein. Expression of IL-6 and catalase, ROS levels, JAK2/STAT3 activation, and nuclear translocation of PPARγ were assessed. DHA suppressed the increase in ROS, JAK2/STAT3 activation, and IL-6 expression induced nuclear translocation of PPARγ and catalase expression in cerulein-stimulated AR42J cells. Troglitazone inhibited the cerulein-induced increase in ROS and IL-6 expression, but induced catalase expression similar to DHA in AR42J cells. GW9662 abolished the inhibitory effect of DHA on cerulein-induced increase in ROS and IL-6 expression in AR42J cells. DHA-induced expression of catalase was suppressed by GW9662 in cerulein-stimulated AR42J cells. Thus, DHA induces PPARγ activation and catalase expression, which inhibits ROS-mediated activation of JAK2/STAT3 and IL-6 expression in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. High Dietary Fat Selectively Increases Catalase Expression within Cardiac Mitochondria*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindler, Paul M.; Plafker, Scott M.; Szweda, Luke I.; Kinter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One consequence of obesity is dyslipidemia characterized by high blood triglycerides. It has been proposed that oxidative stress, driven by utilization of lipids for energy, contributes to these diseases. The effects of oxidative stress are mitigated by an endogenous antioxidant enzyme network, but little is known about its response to high fat utilization. Our experiments used a multiplexed quantitative proteomics method to measure antioxidant enzyme expression in heart tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. This experiment showed a rapid and specific up-regulation of catalase protein, with subsequent assays showing increases in activity and mRNA. Catalase, traditionally considered a peroxisomal protein, was found to be present in cardiac mitochondria and significantly increased in content and activity during high fat feeding. These data, coupled with the fact that fatty acid oxidation enhances mitochondrial H2O2 production, suggest that a localized catalase increase is needed to consume excessive mitochondrial H2O2 produced by increased fat metabolism. To determine whether the catalase-specific response is a common feature of physiological conditions that increase blood triglycerides and fatty acid oxidation, we measured changes in antioxidant expression in fasted versus fed mice. Indeed, a similar specific catalase increase was observed in mice fasted for 24 h. Our findings suggest a fundamental metabolic process in which catalase expression is regulated to prevent damage while preserving an H2O2-mediated sensing of diet composition that appropriately adjusts insulin sensitivity in the short term as needed to prioritize lipid metabolism for complete utilization. PMID:23204527

  10. Catalase is a determinant of the colonization and transovarial transmission of Rickettsia parkeri in the Gulf Coast tick Amblyomma maculatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budachetri, K; Kumar, D; Karim, S

    2017-08-01

    The Gulf Coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum) has evolved as a competent vector of the spotted-fever group rickettsia, Rickettsia parkeri. In this study, the functional role of catalase, an enzyme responsible for the degradation of toxic hydrogen peroxide, in the colonization of the tick vector by R. parkeri and transovarial transmission of this pathogen to the next tick generation, was investigated. Catalase gene (CAT) expression in midgut, salivary glands and ovarian tissues exhibited a 2-11-fold increase in transcription level upon R. parkeri infection. Depletion of CAT transcripts using an RNA-interference approach significantly reduced R. parkeri infection levels in midgut and salivary gland tissues by 53-63%. The role of CAT in transovarial transmission of R. parkeri was confirmed by simultaneously blocking the transcript and the enzyme by injecting double-stranded RNA for CAT and a catalase inhibitor (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole) into gravid females. Simultaneous inhibition of the CAT transcript and the enzyme significantly reduced the egg conversion ratio with a 44% reduction of R. parkeri transovarial transmission. These data suggest that catalase is required for rickettsial colonization of the tick vector and transovarial transmission to the next generation. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. Catalase induction in normal and tumorigenic mice using x-rays, clofibrate, ethanol, or hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, L.; Oberley, L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors studied catalase induction in normal male Swiss mice as well as in male mice harboring H-6 hepatomas. The induction patterns many suggest reasons why tumor cells have lower catalase activity than normal cells. X-rays, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, and clofibrate were used as inducing agents. X-rays interact with tissue and cause free radical formation. This results in an increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration, which ought to induce catalase. Oral administration of hydrogen peroxide should induce catalase similarly. Ethanol can be a substrate for catalase, forming acetalehyde; and as such may induce catalase. Ethanol can also restore inactive catalase compound II to useful catalase. Clofibrate is a hypolipidemic agent which induces catalase, most likely because of its ability to accelerate lipid breakdown, which raises peroxide concentration

  12. Development of lyophilization cycle and effect of excipients on the stability of catalase during lyophilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lale, Shantanu V; Goyal, Monu; Bansal, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to screen excipients such as amino acids and non-aqueous solvents for their stabilizing effect on catalase, a model protein, for lyophilization. The present study also includes optimization of lyophilization cycle for catalase formulations, which is essential from the commercial point of view, since lyophilization is an extremely costly process. Materials and Methods: Activity of catalase was determined using catalase activity assay. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine eutectic melting temperature of the frozen catalase solution, which is essential for the optimization of lyophilization cycle. Results: When catalase was lyophilized without excipients, it was found that about 65-78% of the initial activity of catalase was lost during the lyophilization process in a concentration dependent manner. The maximum stability of catalase during lyophilization was observed at pH 7.0. Amino acids like alanine, glycine, lysine, serine and 4-hydroxy proline showed strong stabilizing effect on catalase during lyophilization by protecting catalase activity above 95%, whereas valine and cysteine hydrochloride showed destabilizing effect on catalase. Non-aqueous solvents such as dimethyl formamide, dimethyl sulphoxide, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 200, PEG 400, PEG 600 and ethylene glycol also showed destabilizing effect on catalase during lyophilization. Conclusions: In order to prevent loss of catalase activity during lyophilization of catalase, use of amino acids like alanine, glycine, lysine, serine and 4-hydroxy proline in optimum concentration is highly advisable. PMID:23071946

  13. Using superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics to manipulate the redox environment of neural precursor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limoli, C. L.; Giedzinski, E.; Baure, J.; Doctrow, S. R.; Rola, R.; Fike, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    Past work has shown that neural precursor cells are predisposed to redox sensitive changes, and that oxidative stress plays a critical role in the acute and persistent changes that occur within the irradiated CNS. Irradiation leads to a marked rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that correlates with oxidative endpoints in vivo and reductions in neuro-genesis. To better understand the impact of oxidative stress on neural precursor cells, and to determine if radiation-induced oxidative damage and precursor cell loss after irradiation could be reduced, a series of antioxidant compounds (EUK-134, EUK-163, EUK-172, EUK-189) were tested, three of which possess both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities and one (EUK-163) whose only significant activity is SOD. Our results show that these SOD/catalase mimetics apparently increase the oxidation of a ROS-sensitive fluorescent indicator dye, particularly after short (12 h) treatments, but that longer treatments (24 h) decrease oxidation attributable to radiation-induced ROS. Similarly, other studies found that cells incubated with CuZnSOD showed some increase in intracellular ROS levels. Subsequent data suggested that the dye-oxidising capabilities of the EUK compounds were linked to differences in their catalase activity and, most likely, their ability to catalyse per-oxidative pathways. In unirradiated mice, the EUK-134 analogue induced some decrease of proliferating precursor cells and immature neurons 48 h after radiation, an effect that may be attributable to cytotoxicity and/or inhibition of precursor proliferation. In irradiated mice, a single injection of EUK-134 was not found to be an effective radioprotector at acute times (48 h). The present results support continued development of our in vitro model as a tool for predicting certain in vivo responses, and suggest that in some biological systems the capability to scavenge superoxide but produce excess H 2 O 2 , as is known for CuZnSOD, may be

  14. Phenotypic effects of membrane protein overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melén, Karin; Blomberg, Anders; von Heijne, Gunnar

    2006-07-01

    Large-scale protein overexpression phenotype screens provide an important complement to the more common gene knockout screens. Here, we have targeted the so far poorly understood Saccharomyces cerevisiae membrane proteome and report growth phenotypes for a strain collection overexpressing 600 C-terminally tagged integral membrane proteins grown both under normal and three different stress conditions. Although overexpression of most membrane proteins reduce the growth rate in synthetic defined medium, we identify a large number of proteins that, when overexpressed, confer specific resistance to various stress conditions. Our data suggest that regulation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis and the Na+/K+ homeostasis system constitute major downstream targets of the yeast PKA/RAS pathway and point to a possible connection between the early secretory pathway and the cells' response to oxidative stress. We also have quantified the expression levels for >550 membrane proteins, facilitating the choice of well expressing proteins for future functional and structural studies. caffeine | paraquat | salt tolerance | yeast

  15. Catalytic properties of three catalases from Kohlrabi (Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... pH optima at 4.5 was very sensitive to azide and more resistant to cyanide in comparison to other two isoenzymes active in kohlrabi bulbs extract. Substrate inhibition was found only for the isoenzyme active at pH 4.5. Heat inactivation studies showed a decrease in catalases activity at temperatures.

  16. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To evaluate catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity in healthy and inflamed dental pulp of young patient's teeth and to investigate if an active defense system oxidizing agents is present as a response to bacterial invasion. Materials and Methods: Twenty young patients between 15 and 25 ages, who were diagnosed to be ...

  17. Catalase activity of cassava ( Manihot esculenta ) plant under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African cassava mosaic virus has caused an immersed low yield of the cassava crop. The virus impacts stress on the cellular metabolism of the plant producing a lot of reactive oxygen species and increases the expression of the antioxidant enzymes. The activity of catalase as a response to oxidative stress was investigated ...

  18. Effects of peroxisomal catalase inhibition on mitochondrial function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eWalton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisomes produce hydrogen peroxide as a metabolic by-product of their many oxidase enzymes, but contain catalase that breaks down hydrogen peroxide in order to maintain the organelle’s oxidative balance. It has been previously demonstrated that, as cells age, catalase is increasingly absent from the peroxisome, and resides instead as an unimported tetrameric molecule in the cell cytosol; an alteration that is coincident with increased cellular hydrogen peroxide levels. As this process begins in middle-passage cells, we sought to determine whether peroxisomal hydrogen peroxide could contribute to the oxidative damage observed in mitochondria in late-passage cells. Early-passage human fibroblasts (Hs27 treated with aminotriazole (3-AT, an irreversible catalase inhibitor, demonstrated decreased catalase activity, increased levels of cellular hydrogen peroxide, protein carbonyls, and peroxisomal numbers. This treatment increased mitochondrial ROS levels, and decreased the mitochondrial aconitase activity by approximately 85% within 24 hours. In addition, mitochondria from 3-AT treated cells show a decrease in inner membrane potential. These results demonstrate that peroxisome-derived oxidative imbalance may rapidly impair mitochondrial function, and considering that peroxisomal oxidative imbalance begins to occur in middle-passage cells, supports the hypothesis that peroxisomal oxidant release occurs upstream of, and contributes to, the mitochondrial damage observed in aging cells.

  19. Effects of peroxisomal catalase inhibition on mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Paul A; Pizzitelli, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes produce hydrogen peroxide as a metabolic by-product of their many oxidase enzymes, but contain catalase that breaks down hydrogen peroxide in order to maintain the organelle's oxidative balance. It has been previously demonstrated that, as cells age, catalase is increasingly absent from the peroxisome, and resides instead as an unimported tetrameric molecule in the cell cytosol; an alteration that is coincident with increased cellular hydrogen peroxide levels. As this process begins in middle-passage cells, we sought to determine whether peroxisomal hydrogen peroxide could contribute to the oxidative damage observed in mitochondria in late-passage cells. Early-passage human fibroblasts (Hs27) treated with aminotriazole (3-AT), an irreversible catalase inhibitor, demonstrated decreased catalase activity, increased levels of cellular hydrogen peroxide, protein carbonyls, and peroxisomal numbers. This treatment increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels, and decreased the mitochondrial aconitase activity by ∼85% within 24 h. In addition, mitochondria from 3-AT treated cells show a decrease in inner membrane potential. These results demonstrate that peroxisome-derived oxidative imbalance may rapidly impair mitochondrial function, and considering that peroxisomal oxidative imbalance begins to occur in middle-passage cells, supports the hypothesis that peroxisomal oxidant release occurs upstream of, and contributes to, the mitochondrial damage observed in aging cells.

  20. Catalase in Leishmaniinae: With me or against me?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraeva, N.; Horáková, Eva; Kostygov, A.Y.; Kořený, Luděk; Butenko, A.; Yurchenko, V.; Lukeš, Julius

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, JUN (2017), s. 121-127 ISSN 1567-1348 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-18699S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Catalase * Leishmania * Trypanosomatids * Gene loss Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 2.885, year: 2016

  1. Catalase epitopes vaccine design for Helicobacter pylori: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... Helicobacter pylori is necessary, because of high prevalence of the infection (25 to 90%). ... immunoinformatics tools would be valuable for developing new immuoprophylatic strategy against H. pylori infection. Key words: Helicobacter pylori, catalase, epitopes. ..... tuberculosis epitopes by HLA alleles.

  2. Studies to reveal the nature of interactions between catalase and curcumin using computational methods and optical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofidi Najjar, Fayezeh; Ghadari, Rahim; Yousefi, Reza; Safari, Naser; Sheikhhasani, Vahid; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2017-02-01

    Curcumin is an important antioxidant compound, and is widely reported as an effective component for reducing complications of many diseases. However, the detailed mechanisms of its activity remain poorly understood. We found that curcumin can significantly increase catalase activity of BLC (bovine liver catalase). The mechanism of curcumin action was investigated using a computational method. We suggested that curcumin may activate BLC by modifying the bottleneck of its narrow channel. The molecular dynamic simulation data showed that placing curcumin on the structure of enzyme can increase the size of the bottleneck in the narrow channel of BLC, and readily allow the access of substrate to the active site. Because of the increase of the distance between amino acids of the bottleneck in the presence of curcumin, the entrance space of substrate increased from 250Å 3 to 440Å 3 . In addition, the increase in emission of intrinsic fluorescence of BLC in presence of curcumin demonstrated changes in tertiary structure of catalase, and possibility of less quenching. We also used circular dichroism (CD) spectropolarimetry to determine how curcumin may alter the enzyme secondary structure. Catalase spectra in the presence of various concentrations of curcumin showed an increase in the amount of α-helix content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Embryonic catalase protects against ethanol embryopathies in acatalasemic mice and transgenic human catalase-expressing mice in embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Pinsler, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G

    2015-09-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the mechanism of ethanol (EtOH) teratogenicity, but the protective role of the embryonic antioxidative enzyme catalase is unclear, as embryonic activity is only about 5% of maternal levels. We addressed this question in a whole embryo culture model. C57BL/6 mouse embryos expressing human catalase (hCat) or their wild-type (C57BL/6 WT) controls, and C3Ga.Cg-Cat(b)/J catalase-deficient, acatalasemic (aCat) mouse embryos or their wild-type C3HeB/FeJ (C3H WT) controls, were explanted on gestational day (GD) 9 (plug=GD 1), exposed for 24h to 2 or 4mg/mL EtOH or vehicle, and evaluated for functional and morphological changes. hCat and C57BL/6 WT vehicle-exposed embryos developed normally, while EtOH was embryopathic in C57BL/6 WT embryos, evidenced by decreases in anterior neuropore closure, somites developed, turning and head length, whereas hCat embryos were protected (pcatalase (PEG-cat) 8h prior to embryo culture, which increases embryonic catalase activity, blocked all EtOH embryopathies (pcatalase is a determinant of risk for EtOH embryopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatic catalase activity after whole-body irradiation of the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neveux, Y.; Drouet, J.; Guillouzo, A.; Rault, H.; Picard, G.

    Using biochemical techniques, the effect of irradiation on catalase rate of different tissues is studied. With cytochemistry, the decrease of catalase activity is studied in situ, after exposure to great ionizing radiation doses [fr

  5. Scattering of neutrons by catalase: a study of molecules, subunits, and tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, J.; Starling, D.; Baldwin, J.P.; Ibel, K.

    1976-01-01

    The paper deals with small-angle scattering of neutrons by catalase tetramers, dimers, and monomers and with neutron diffraction by helical assemblies of tetramers in the form of tubules. A preliminary study of catalase is described

  6. Novel Insights in Mammalian Catalase Heme Maturation: Effect of NO and Thioredoxin-1

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravarti, Ritu; Gupta, Karishma; Majors, Alana; Ruple, Lisa; Aronica, Mark; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    Catalase is a tetrameric heme-containing enzyme with essential antioxidant functions in biology. Multiple factors including nitric oxide (NO) have been shown to attenuate its activity. However, the possible impact of NO in relation to the maturation of active catalase, including its heme acquisition and tetramer formation, has not been investigated. We found that NO attenuates heme insertion into catalase in both short-term and long-term incubations. The NO inhibition in catalase heme incorpo...

  7. Development of lyophilization cycle and effect of excipients on the stability of catalase during lyophilization

    OpenAIRE

    Lale, Shantanu V; Goyal, Monu; Bansal, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to screen excipients such as amino acids and non-aqueous solvents for their stabilizing effect on catalase, a model protein, for lyophilization. The present study also includes optimization of lyophilization cycle for catalase formulations, which is essential from the commercial point of view, since lyophilization is an extremely costly process. Materials and Methods: Activity of catalase was determined using catalase activity assay. Differen...

  8. MnSOD and catalase transgenes demonstrate that protection of islets from oxidative stress does not alter cytokine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hainan; Li, Xiaoyan; Epstein, Paul N

    2005-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are proposed mediators of cytokine-induced beta-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes. We produced transgenic mice with increased beta-cell expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase. Expression of these antioxidants increased beta-cell ROS scavenging and improved beta-cell survival after treatment with different sources of ROS. MnSOD or catalase conferred protection against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced beta-cell injury. Coexpression of MnSOD and catalase provided synergistic protection against peroxynitrite and STZ. To determine the potential effect of these antioxidants on cytokine-induced toxicity, we exposed isolated islets to a cytokine mixture, including interleukin-1beta and interferon-gamma. Cytokine toxicity was measured as reduced metabolic activity after 6 days and reduced insulin secretion after 1 day. Cytokines increased ROS production, and both antioxidants were effective in reducing cytokine-induced ROS. However, MnSOD and/or catalase provided no protection against cytokine-induced injury. To understand this, the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling cascade was investigated. Antioxidants reduced NF-kappaB activation by ROS, but none of the antioxidants altered activation by cytokines, as measured by inhibitor of kappaB phosphorylation, NF-kappaB translocation, inducible NO synthase activation, and NO production. Our data agree with previous reports that antioxidants benefit beta-cell survival against ROS damage, but they are not consistent with reports that antioxidants reduce cytokine toxicity. ROS appear to have no role in cytokine toxicity in primary beta-cells.

  9. The relevance of the non-canonical PTS1 of peroxisomal catalase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Chris; Aksam, Eda Bener; Gunkel, Katja; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    Catalase is sorted to peroxisomes via a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1), which binds to the receptor protein Pex5. Analysis of the C-terminal sequences of peroxisomal catalases from various species indicated that catalase never contains the typical C-terminal PTS1 tripeptide-SKL,

  10. Radiation-induced inactivation of bovine liver catalase in nitrous oxide-saturated solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebicka, L.; Metodiewa, D.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation-induced inactivation of catalase by . OH/H . radicals was studied. It was found that inactivation yield of catalase depended on the dose. Optical spectrum of irradiated catalase showed that no redox processes in active site of enzyme occurred as a result of . OH/H . interaction. (author) 19 refs.; 3 figs

  11. Catalase-only nanoparticles prepared by shear alone: Characteristics, activity and stability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Nan; Du, Xin-Ying; Xing, Jin-Feng; Ge, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Catalase is a promising therapeutic enzyme; however, it carries risks of inactivation and rapid degradation when it is used in practical bioprocess, such as delivery in vivo. To overcome the issue, we made catalase-only nanoparticles using shear stress alone at a moderate shear rate of 217s(-1) in a coaxial cylinder flow cell. Properties of nanoparticles, including particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential, were characterized. The conformational changes of pre- and post-sheared catalase were determined using spectroscopy techniques. The results indicated that the conformational changes of catalase and reduction in α-helical content caused by shear alone were less significant than that by desolvation method. Catalase-only nanoparticles prepared by single shear retained over 90% of its initial activity when compared with the native catalase. Catalase nanoparticles lost only 20% of the activity when stored in phosphate buffer solution for 72h at 4°C, whereas native catalase lost 53% under the same condition. Especially, the activity of nanogranulated catalase was decreased only slightly in the simulated intestinal fluid containing α-chymotrypsin during 4h incubation at 37°C, implying that the catalase nanoparticle was more resistant to the degradation of proteases than native catalase molecules. Overall, catalase-only nanoparticles offered a great potential to stabilize enzymes for various pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), a saturated structural analog of capsaicin, induces autophagy in human cancer cells in a catalase-regulated manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seon Hee; Kim, Young Soon; Lim, Sung Chul; Hou, Yi Feng; Chang, In Youb; You, Ho Jin

    2008-11-01

    Although capsaicin, a pungent component of red pepper, is known to induce apoptosis in several types of cancer cells, the mechanisms underlying capsaicin-induced cytotoxicity are unclear. Here, we showed that dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), an analog of capsaicin, is a potential inducer of autophagy. DHC was more cytotoxic than capsaicin in HCT116, MCF-7 and WI38 cell lines. Capsaicin and DHC did not affect the sub-G(1) apoptotic peak, but induced G(0)/G(1) arrest in HCT116 and MCF-7 cells. DHC caused the artificial autophagosome marker GFP-LC3 to redistribute and upregulated expression of autophagy-related proteins. Blocking of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3MA) as well as siRNA Atg5 induced a high level of caspase-3 activation. Although pretreatment with zVAD completely inhibited caspase-3 activation by 3MA, it did not prevent cell death. DHC-induced autophagy was enhanced by zVAD pretreatment, as shown by increased accumulation of LC3-II protein. DHC attenuated basal ROS levels through catalase induction; this effect was enhanced by antioxidants, which increased both LC3-II expression and caspase-3 activation. The catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT) abrogated DHC-induced expression of LC3-II, overexpression of the catalase gene increased expression of LC3-II protein, and knockdown decreased it. Additionally, DHC-induced autophagy was independent of p53 status. Collectively, DHC activates autophagy in a p53-independent manner and that may contribute to cytotoxicity of DHC.

  13. Structure of catalase determined by MicroED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannenga, Brent L; Shi, Dan; Hattne, Johan; Reyes, Francis E; Gonen, Tamir

    2014-01-01

    MicroED is a recently developed method that uses electron diffraction for structure determination from very small three-dimensional crystals of biological material. Previously we used a series of still diffraction patterns to determine the structure of lysozyme at 2.9 Å resolution with MicroED (Shi et al., 2013). Here we present the structure of bovine liver catalase determined from a single crystal at 3.2 Å resolution by MicroED. The data were collected by continuous rotation of the sample under constant exposure and were processed and refined using standard programs for X-ray crystallography. The ability of MicroED to determine the structure of bovine liver catalase, a protein that has long resisted atomic analysis by traditional electron crystallography, demonstrates the potential of this method for structure determination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03600.001 PMID:25303172

  14. Catalase activity, allelic variations in the catalase gene and risk of kidney complications in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammedi, Kamel; Patente, Thiago A; Bellili-Muñoz, Naïma; Driss, Fathi; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz; Roussel, Ronan; Pavin, Elizabeth J; Seta, Nathalie; Fumeron, Frédéric; Azevedo, Mirela J; Canani, Luis H; Hadjadj, Samy; Marre, Michel; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Velho, Gilberto

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. The antioxidant enzyme catalase plays a key role in redox regulation in the kidney. We investigated associations of catalase gene (CAT) polymorphisms and plasma catalase activity with diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetic patients. We genotyped nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CAT region in participants from the Survival Genetic Nephropathy (SURGENE) (340 French participants, 10 year follow-up) and the Génétique de la Néphropathie Diabétique (GENEDIAB) (444 Belgian and French participants, 8 year follow-up) study cohorts. Replication was performed in a Brazilian cross-sectional cohort (n = 451). Baseline plasma catalase activity was measured in SURGENE (n = 120) and GENEDIAB (n = 391) participants. The A allele of rs7947841 was associated with the prevalence of incipient (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.21, 6.24, p = 0.01) and established or advanced nephropathy (OR 5.72, 95% CI 1.62, 22.03, p = 0.007), and with the incidence of renal events, which were defined as new cases of microalbuminuria or progression to a more severe stage of nephropathy during follow-up (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.13, 2.81, p = 0.01) in SURGENE participants. The same risk allele was associated with incipient nephropathy (OR 3.13, 95% CI 1.42, 7.24, p = 0.004) and with the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.23, 3.60, p = 0.008) in GENEDIAB participants. In both cohorts, the risk allele was associated with lower catalase activity. Associations with incipient and established or advanced nephropathy were confirmed in the replication cohort. CAT variants were associated with the prevalence and incidence of diabetic nephropathy and ESRD in type 1 diabetic patients. Our results confirm the protective role of catalase against oxidative stress in the kidney.

  15. Catalase and superoxide dismutase conjugated with platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule antibody distinctly alleviate abnormal endothelial permeability caused by exogenous reactive oxygen species and vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingyan; Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2011-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide anion (O(2)()) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) produced by activated leukocytes and endothelial cells in sites of inflammation or ischemia cause endothelial barrier dysfunction that may lead to tissue edema. Antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) conjugated with antibodies to platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) specifically bind to endothelium, quench the corresponding ROS, and alleviate vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. In the present work, we studied the effects of anti-PECAM/catalase and anti-PECAM/SOD conjugates on the abnormal permeability manifested by transendothelial electrical resistance decline, increased fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran influx, and redistribution of vascular endothelial-cadherin in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers. Anti-PECAM/catalase protected HUVEC monolayers against H(2)O(2)-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. Polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase exerted orders of magnitude lower endothelial uptake and no protective effect, similarly to IgG/catalase. Anti-PECAM/catalase, but not anti-PECAM/SOD, alleviated endothelial hyperpermeability caused by exposure to hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase, implicating primarily H(2)O(2) in the disruption of the endothelial barrier in this model. Thrombin-induced endothelial permeability was not affected by treatment with anti-PECAM/AOEs or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin or overexpression of AOEs, indicating that the endogenous ROS play no key role in thrombin-mediated endothelial barrier dysfunction. In contrast, anti-PECAM/SOD, but not anti-PECAM/catalase, inhibited a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced increase in endothelial permeability, identifying a key role of endogenous O(2)() in the VEGF-mediated regulation of endothelial barrier function. Therefore, AOEs targeted to endothelial cells provide versatile molecular tools for testing the roles of

  16. Catalase increases ethanol oxidation through the purine catabolism in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-García, Daniel; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2017-08-01

    Hepatic ethanol oxidation increases according to its concentration and is raised to near-saturation levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH); therefore, re-oxidation of NADH becomes rate limiting in ethanol metabolism by the liver. Adenosine is able to increase liver ethanol oxidation in both in vivo and in vitro conditions; the enhancement being related with the capacity of the nucleoside to accelerate the transport of cytoplasmic reducing equivalents to mitochondria, by modifying the subcellular distribution of the malate-aspartate shuttle components. In the present study, we explored the putative effects of adenosine and other purines on liver ethanol oxidation mediated by non-ADH pathways. Using the model of high precision-cut rat liver slices, a pronounced increase of ethanol oxidation was found in liver slices incubated with various intermediates of the purine degradation pathway, from adenosine to uric acid (175-230%, over controls). Of these, urate had the strongest (230%), whereas xanthine had the less pronounced effect (178% over controls). The enhancement was not abolished by 4-methylpyrazole, indicating that the effect was independent of alcohol dehydrogenase. Conversely, aminotriazole, a catalase inhibitor, completely abolished the effect, pointing out that this enhanced ethanol oxidation is mediated by catalase activity. It is concluded that the H 2 O 2 needed for catalase activity is derived from the oxidation of (hypo)xanthine by xanthine oxidase and the oxidation of urate by uricase. The present and previous data led us to propose that, depending on the metabolic conditions, adenosine might be able to stimulate the metabolism of ethanol through different pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tritium effect in peroxidation of ethanol by liver catalase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damgaard, S.E.

    1977-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of the rate of appearance of 3 H in water from [(1 R)-1- 3 H 1 ]-ethanol and the rate of acetaldehyde formation in the presence of rat or ox liver catalase under conditions of steady-state generation of H 2 O 2 allowed calculation of the 3 H isotope effect. The mean value of 2.52 obtained for rat liver catalase at 37 0 C and pH 6.3 to 7.7 was independent of both ethanol concentration and the rate of H 2 O 2 generation over a wide range. At 25 0 C a slightly lower mean value of 2.40 was obtained with the ox liver catalase. Neither the product, acetaldehyde, nor 4-methylpyrazole influenced the two rates measured in the assay. Relating the value obtained for the 3 H isotope effect to a known value for the 2 H isotope effect strongly supports the view that both values are close to the true isotope effect with the respective substituted compounds on the rate constant in the catalytic step involving scission of the C-H bond. The constancy of the isotope effect under various conditions makes it possible to use it for interpretations in vivo. It was established that β-D-galactose dehydrogenase exhibits B-specificity towards the nicotinamide ring in NAD. (author)

  18. Pepino mosaic virus triple gene block protein 1 (TGBp1) interacts with and increases tomato catalase 1 activity to enhance virus accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathioudakis, Matthaios M; Veiga, Rita S L; Canto, Tomas; Medina, Vicente; Mossialos, Dimitris; Makris, Antonios M; Livieratos, Ioannis

    2013-08-01

    Various plant factors are co-opted by virus elements (RNA, proteins) and have been shown to act in pathways affecting virus accumulation and plant defence. Here, an interaction between Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) triple gene block protein 1 (TGBp1; p26) and tomato catalase 1 (CAT1), a crucial enzyme in the decomposition of toxic hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), was identified using the yeast two-hybrid assay, and confirmed via an in vitro pull-down assay and bimolecular fluorescent complementation (BiFC) in planta. Each protein was independently localized within loci in the cytoplasm and nuclei, sites at which their interaction had been visualized by BiFC. Following PepMV inoculation, CAT mRNA and protein levels in leaves were unaltered at 0, 3 and 6 days (locally) and 8 days (systemically) post-inoculation; however, leaf extracts from the last two time points contained increased CAT activity and lower H₂O₂ evels. Overexpression of PepMV p26 in vitro and in planta conferred the same effect, suggesting an additional involvement of TGBp1 in potexvirus pathogenesis. The accumulation of PepMV genomic and subgenomic RNAs and the expression of viral coat protein in noninoculated (systemic) leaves were reduced significantly in CAT-silenced plants. It is postulated that, during PepMV infection, a p26-CAT1 interaction increases H₂O₂ cavenging, thus acting as a negative regulator of plant defence mechanisms to promote PepMV infections. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Revolutionizing membrane protein overexpression in bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, Susan; Klepsch, Mirjam; Gialama, Dimitra; Wickstrom, David; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; de Gier, Jan-Willem; Wickström, David

    The bacterium Escherichia coli is the most widely used expression host for overexpression trials of membrane proteins. Usually, different strains, culture conditions and expression regimes are screened for to identify the optimal overexpression strategy. However, yields are often not satisfactory,

  20. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Novel Thermophilic Monofunctional Catalase from Geobacillus sp. CHB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xianbo; Chen, Jichen; Lin, Chenqiang; Lin, Xinjian

    2016-01-01

    Catalases are widely used in many scientific areas. A catalase gene (Kat) from Geobacillus sp. CHB1 encoding a monofunctional catalase was cloned and recombinant expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), which was the first time to clone and express this type of catalase of genus Geobacillus strains as far as we know. This Kat gene was 1,467 bp in length and encoded a catalase with 488 amino acid residuals, which is only 81% similar to the previously studied Bacillus sp. catalase in terms of amino acid sequence. Recombinant catalase was highly soluble in E. coli and made up 30% of the total E. coli protein. Fermentation broth of the recombinant E. coli showed a high catalase activity level up to 35,831 U/mL which was only lower than recombinant Bacillus sp. WSHDZ-01 among the reported catalase production strains. The purified recombinant catalase had a specific activity of 40,526 U/mg and K m of 51.1 mM. The optimal reaction temperature of this recombinant enzyme was 60°C to 70°C, and it exhibited high activity over a wide range of reaction temperatures, ranging from 10°C to 90°C. The enzyme retained 94.7% of its residual activity after incubation at 60°C for 1 hour. High yield and excellent thermophilic properties are valuable features for this catalase in industrial applications.

  1. Novel insights in mammalian catalase heme maturation: effect of NO and thioredoxin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Ritu; Gupta, Karishma; Majors, Alana; Ruple, Lisa; Aronica, Mark; Stuehr, Dennis J

    2015-05-01

    Catalase is a tetrameric heme-containing enzyme with essential antioxidant functions in biology. Multiple factors including nitric oxide (NO) have been shown to attenuate its activity. However, the possible impact of NO in relation to the maturation of active catalase, including its heme acquisition and tetramer formation, has not been investigated. We found that NO attenuates heme insertion into catalase in both short-term and long-term incubations. The NO inhibition in catalase heme incorporation was associated with defective oligomerization of catalase, such that inactive catalase monomers and dimers accumulated in place of the mature tetrameric enzyme. We also found that GAPDH plays a key role in mediating these NO effects on the structure and activity of catalase. Moreover, the NO sensitivity of catalase maturation could be altered up or down by manipulating the cellular expression level or activity of thioredoxin-1, a known protein-SNO denitrosylase enzyme. In a mouse model of allergic inflammatory asthma, we found that lungs from allergen-challenged mice contained a greater percentage of dimeric catalase relative to tetrameric catalase in the unchallenged control, suggesting that the mechanisms described here are in play in the allergic asthma model. Together, our study shows how maturation of active catalase can be influenced by NO, S-nitrosylated GAPDH, and thioredoxin-1, and how maturation may become compromised in inflammatory conditions such as asthma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Catalytic Properties and Immobilization Studies of Catalase from Malva sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arabaci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalase was partially purified from Malva sylvestris L. and immobilized onto chitosan. Then, its catalytic properties were investigated. (NH42SO4 precipitation and dialysis were performed in the extracted enzyme. Further purification was performed with sephadex G-200 column. Kinetic studies of the purified enzyme activity were measured and characterized. The inhibitory effects of KCN, NaN3, CuSO4, and EDTA on M. sylvestris L. catalase activity were observed except NaCl. Furthermore, M. sylvestris L. catalase was immobilized covalently with glutaraldehyde onto chitosan particles. The pH and temperature optima as well as the changes in the kinetics (Km, Vmax of the immobilized and free M. sylvestris L. catalase were determined. The Km value for immobilized catalase (23.4 mM was higher than that of free enzyme (17.6 mM. Optimum temperature was observed higher than that of the free enzyme. The optimum pH was the same for both free and immobilized catalases (pH 7.50. Immobilized catalase showed higher storage and thermal stabilities than free catalases. Free catalase lost all its activity within 60 days whereas immobilized catalase lost 45% of its activity during the same incubation period at 4°C. The remaining immobilized catalase activity was about 70% after 8 cycles of batch operations.

  3. [Fermentation production of microbial catalase and its application in textile industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongxu; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2010-11-01

    Microbial catalase is an important industrial enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. This enzyme has great potential of application in food, textile and pharmaceutical industries. The production of microbial catalase has been significantly improved thanks to advances in bioprocess engineering and genetic engineering. In this paper, we review the progresses in fermentation production of microbial catalase and its application in textile industry. Among these progresses, we will highlight strain isolation, substrate and environment optimization, enzyme induction, construction of engineering strains and application process optimization. Meanwhile, we also address future research trends for microbial catalase production and its application in textile industry. Molecular modification (site-directed mutagenesis and directed revolution) will endue catalase with high pH and temperature stabilities. Improvement of catalase production, based on the understanding of induction mechanism and the process control of recombinant stain fermentation, will further accelerate the application of catalase in textile industry.

  4. Consequences of membrane protein overexpression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Samuel; Baars, Louise; Ytterberg, A Jimmy; Klussmeier, Anja; Wagner, Claudia S; Nord, Olof; Nygren, Per-Ake; van Wijk, Klaas J; de Gier, Jan-Willem

    2007-09-01

    Overexpression of membrane proteins is often essential for structural and functional studies, but yields are frequently too low. An understanding of the physiological response to overexpression is needed to improve such yields. Therefore, we analyzed the consequences of overexpression of three different membrane proteins (YidC, YedZ, and LepI) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the bacterium Escherichia coli and compared this with overexpression of a soluble protein, GST-GFP. Proteomes of total lysates, purified aggregates, and cytoplasmic membranes were analyzed by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry complemented with flow cytometry, microscopy, Western blotting, and pulse labeling experiments. Composition and accumulation levels of protein complexes in the cytoplasmic membrane were analyzed with improved two-dimensional blue native PAGE. Overexpression of the three membrane proteins, but not soluble GST-GFP, resulted in accumulation of cytoplasmic aggregates containing the overexpressed proteins, chaperones (DnaK/J and GroEL/S), and soluble proteases (HslUV and ClpXP) as well as many precursors of periplasmic and outer membrane proteins. This was consistent with lowered accumulation levels of secreted proteins in the three membrane protein overexpressors and is likely to be a direct consequence of saturation of the cytoplasmic membrane protein translocation machinery. Importantly accumulation levels of respiratory chain complexes in the cytoplasmic membrane were strongly reduced. Induction of the acetate-phosphotransacetylase pathway for ATP production and a down-regulated tricarboxylic acid cycle indicated the activation of the Arc two-component system, which mediates adaptive responses to changing respiratory states. This study provides a basis for designing rational strategies to improve yields of membrane protein overexpression in E. coli.

  5. The effect of deep eutectic solvents on catalytic function and structure of bovine liver catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harifi-Mood, Ali Reza; Ghobadi, Roohollah; Divsalar, Adeleh

    2017-02-01

    Aqueous solutions of reline and glyceline, the most common deep eutectic solvents, were used as a medium for Catalase reaction. By some spectroscopic methods such as UV-vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) function and structure of Catalase were investigated in aqueous solutions of reline and glyceline. These studies showed that the binding affinity of the substrate to the enzyme increased in the presence of 100mM glyceline solution, which contrasts with reline solution that probably relates to instructive changes in secondary structure of protein. Meanwhile, enzyme remained nearly 70% and 80% active in this concentration of glyceline and reline solutions respectively. In the high concentration of DES solutions, enzyme became mainly inactive but surprisingly stayed in nearly 40% active in choline chloride solution, which is the common ion species in reline and glyceline solvents. It is proposed that the chaotropic nature of choline cation might stop the reducing trend of activity in concentrated choline chloride solutions but this instructive effect is lost in aqueous deep eutectic solvents. In this regard, the presence of various concentrations of deep eutectic solvents in the aqueous media of human cells would be an activity adjuster for this important enzyme in its different operation conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. ADAM12 overexpression does not improve outcome in mice with laminin alpha2-deficient muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Ling T; Shelton, G Diane; Wewer, Ulla M

    2005-01-01

    We have recently shown that overexpression of ADAM12 results in increased muscle regeneration and significantly reduced pathology in mdx, dystrophin deficient mice. In the present study, we tested the effect of overexpressing ADAM12 in dy(W) laminin-deficient mice. dy mice have a very severe...... clinical phenotype and would be expected to benefit greatly from enhanced regeneration. We found that dy(W) mice overexpressing ADAM12 indeed have increased muscle regeneration, as evidenced by increased numbers of muscle fibers expressing fetal myosin. However, overexpression of ADAM12 had no significant...

  7. Transgenic Mouse Model for Reducing Oxidative Damage in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Torres, S.; Truong, T.; Moyer, E. L.; Kumar, A.; Tahimic, Candice C. G.; Alwood, J. S.; Limoli, C. L.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Bone loss can occur due to many challenges such age, radiation, microgravity, and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a critical role in bone resorption by osteoclasts (Bartell et al. 2014). We hypothesize that suppression of excess ROS in skeletal cells, both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, regulates skeletal growth and remodeling. To test our hypothesis, we used transgenic mCAT mice which overexpress the human anti-oxidant catalase gene targeted to the mitochondria, the main site for endogenous ROS production. mCAT mice have a longer life-span than wildtype controls and have been used to study various age-related disorders. To stimulate remodeling, 16 week old mCAT mice or wildtype mice were exposed to treatment (hindlimb-unloading and total body-irradiation) or sham treatment conditions (control). Tissues were harvested 2 weeks later for skeletal analysis (microcomputed tomography), biochemical analysis (gene expression and oxidative damage measurements), and ex vivo bone marrow derived cell culture (osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis). mCAT mice expressed the transgene and displayed elevated catalase activity in skeletal tissue and marrow-derived osteoblasts and osteoclasts grown ex vivo. In addition, when challenged with treatment, bone tissues from wildtype mice showed elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), indicating oxidative damage) whereas mCAT mice did not. Correlation analysis revealed that increased catalase activity significantly correlated with decreased MDA levels and that increased oxidative damage correlated with decreased percent bone volume (BVTV). In addition, ex-vivo cultured osteoblast colony growth correlated with catalase activity in the osteoblasts. Thus, we showed that these transgenic mice can be used as a model to study the relationship between markers of oxidative damage and skeletal properties. mCAT mice displayed reduced BVTV and trabecular number relative to wildtype mice, as well as increased structural model index in the

  8. Gene Overexpression: Uses, Mechanisms, and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The classical genetic approach for exploring biological pathways typically begins by identifying mutations that cause a phenotype of interest. Overexpression or misexpression of a wild-type gene product, however, can also cause mutant phenotypes, providing geneticists with an alternative yet powerful tool to identify pathway components that might remain undetected using traditional loss-of-function analysis. This review describes the history of overexpression, the mechanisms that are responsible for overexpression phenotypes, tests that begin to distinguish between those mechanisms, the varied ways in which overexpression is used, the methods and reagents available in several organisms, and the relevance of overexpression to human disease. PMID:22419077

  9. Contribution of the activated catalase to oxidative stress resistance and γ-aminobutyric acid production in Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Changjiang; Hu, Sheng; Huang, Jun; Luo, Maiqi; Lu, Tao; Mei, Lehe; Yao, Shanjing

    2016-12-05

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally sensitive to H 2 O 2 , a compound which can paradoxically produce themselves and lead to the growth arrest and cell death. To counteract the potentially toxic effects of this compound, the gene katE encoding a heme-dependent catalase (CAT) belonging to the family of monofunctional CATs was cloned from Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC1306. The enhanced homologous CAT expression was achieved using the NICE system. L. brevis cells with overexpressed CAT showed 685-fold and 823-fold higher survival when exposed to 30mmol/L of H 2 O 2 and long-term aerated stress (after 72h), respectively, than that of the wild type cells. Furtherly, the effects of activated CAT on GABA production in L. brevis were investigated. A GABA production level of 66.4g/L was achieved using two-step biotransformation that successively employed the growing and resting cells derived from engineering L. brevis CAT. These results demonstrated clearly that overexpression of the KatE gene in L. brevis led to a marked increased survival in oxidizing environment, and shed light on a novel feasible approach to enhance the GABA production level by improving the antioxidative properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cj1386 Is an Ankyrin-Containing Protein Involved in Heme Trafficking to Catalase in Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Annika; Sun, Yi-Qian

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a microaerophilic bacterium, is the most frequent cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis. C. jejuni is exposed to harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during its own normal metabolic processes and during infection from the host immune system and from host intestinal microbiota. These ROS will damage DNA and proteins and cause peroxidation of lipids. Consequently, identifying ROS defense mechanisms is important for understanding how Campylobacter survives this environmental stress during infection. Construction of a ΔCj1386 isogenic deletion mutant and phenotypic assays led to its discovery as a novel oxidative stress defense gene. The ΔCj1386 mutant has an increased sensitivity toward hydrogen peroxide. The Cj1386 gene is located directly downstream from katA (catalase) in the C. jejuni genome. A ΔkatAΔ Cj1386 double deletion mutant was constructed and exhibited a sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide similar to that seen in the ΔCj1386 and ΔkatA single deletion mutants. This observation suggests that Cj1386 may be involved in the same detoxification pathway as catalase. Despite identical KatA abundances, catalase activity assays showed that the ΔCj1386 mutant had a reduced catalase activity relative to that of wild-type C. jejuni. Heme quantification of KatA protein from the ΔCj1386 mutant revealed a significant decrease in heme concentration. This indicates an important role for Cj1386 in heme trafficking to KatA within C. jejuni. Interestingly, the ΔCj1386 mutant had a reduced ability to colonize the ceca of chicks and was outcompeted by the wild-type strain for colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of neonate piglets. These results indicate an important role for Cj1386 in Campylobacter colonization and pathogenesis. PMID:22081390

  11. Wood Utilization Is Dependent on Catalase Activities in the Filamentous Fungus Podospora anserina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdais, Anne; Bidard, Frederique; Zickler, Denise; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Silar, Philippe; Espagne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Catalases are enzymes that play critical roles in protecting cells against the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. They are implicated in various physiological and pathological conditions but some of their functions remain unclear. In order to decipher the role(s) of catalases during the life cycle of Podospora anserina, we analyzed the role of the four monofunctional catalases and one bifunctional catalase-peroxidase genes present in its genome. The five genes were deleted and the phenotypes of each single and all multiple mutants were investigated. Intriguingly, although the genes are differently expressed during the life cycle, catalase activity is dispensable during both vegetative growth and sexual reproduction in laboratory conditions. Catalases are also not essential for cellulose or fatty acid assimilation. In contrast, they are strictly required for efficient utilization of more complex biomass like wood shavings by allowing growth in the presence of lignin. The secreted CATB and cytosolic CAT2 are the major catalases implicated in peroxide resistance, while CAT2 is the major player during complex biomass assimilation. Our results suggest that P. anserina produces external H2O2 to assimilate complex biomass and that catalases are necessary to protect the cells during this process. In addition, the phenotypes of strains lacking only one catalase gene suggest that a decrease of catalase activity improves the capacity of the fungus to degrade complex biomass. PMID:22558065

  12. Catalase degradation in sunflower cotyledons during peroxisome transition from glyoxysomal to leaf peroxisomal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eising, R.; Gerhardt, B.

    1987-01-01

    First order rate constant for the degradation (degradation constants) of catalase in the cotyledons of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were determined by measuring the loss of catalase containing 14 C-labeled heme. During greening of the cotyledons, a period when peroxisomes change from glyoxysomal to leaf peroxisomal function, the degradation of glyoxysomal catalase is significantly slower than during all other stages of cotyledon development in light or darkness. The degradation constant during the transition stage of peroxisome function amounts to 0.205 day -1 in contrast to the constants ranging from 0.304 day -1 to 0.515 day -1 during the other developmental stages. Density labeling experiments comprising labeling of catalase with 2 H 2 O and its isopycnic centrifugation on CsCl gradients demonstrated that the determinations of the degradation constants were not substantially affected by reutilization of 14 C-labeled compounds for catalase synthesis. The degradation constants for both glyoxysomal catalase and catalase synthesized during the transition of peroxisome function do not differ. This was shown by labeling the catalases with different isotopes and measuring the isotope ratio during the development of the cotyledons. The results are inconsistent with the concept that an accelerated and selective degradation of glyoxysomes underlies the change in peroxisome function. The data suggest that catalase degradation is at least partially due to an individual turnover of catalase and does not only result from a turnover of the whole peroxisomes

  13. [Effects of catalase on human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lin-Ping; Gao, Ying-Dai; Zheng, Guo-Guang; Shi, Ying-Xu; Xie, Yin-Liang; Liu, Yong-Jun; Yuan, Wei-Ping; Cheng, Tao

    2010-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the growth and multiple differentiation potential of human umbilical cord tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) transfected by a retroviral vector with catalase (CAT) gene. The UC-MSCs cultured in vitro were transfected by using pMSCV carrying GFP (pMSCV-GFP) and pMSCV carrying CAT (pMSCV-GFP-CAT) respectively, then the MSC-GFP cell line and MSC-GFP-CAT cell line were obtained by sorting of flow cytometry. The GFP expression was observed by a fluorescent microscopy at 48 hours after CAT gene transfection. The GFP+ cells were sorted by flow cytometry. The activity of CAT in GFP+ cells was detected by catalase assay kit. The proliferative capacity of transfected UC-MSCs was determined by cell counting kit-8. The differentiation ability of gene-transfected GFP+ cells into osteogenesis and adipogenesis was observed by von Kossa and oil red O staining. The results indicated that green fluorescence in UC-MSCs was observed at 48 hours after transfection, and the fluorescence gradually enhanced to a steady level on day 3. The percentage of MSCs-GFP was (25.54+/-8.65)%, while the percentage of MSCs-GFP-CAT was (35.4+/-18.57)%. The activity of catalase in UC-MSCs, MSCs-GFP, MSCs-GFP-CAT cells were 19.5, 20.3, 67.2 U, respectively. The transfected MSCs-GFP-CAT could be induced into osteoblasts and adipocytes. After 21 days, von Kossa staining showed induced osteoblasts. Many lipid droplets with high refractivity occurred in cytoplasm of the transfected UC-MSCs, and showed red fat granules in oil red O staining cells. There were no significant differences between transfected and non-transfected UC-MSCs cells (p>0.05). It is concluded that UC-MSCs are successfully transfected by retrovirus carrying GFP or CAT gene, the activity of catalase increased by 3.4-fold. The transfected UC-MSCs maintain proliferation potential and ability of differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes.

  14. A new PANI biosensor based on catalase for cyanide determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Hakkı Mevlüt; Aydin, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Cyanide is one of the most widespread of compounds measured in environmental analysis due to their toxic effects on environment and health. We report a highly sensitive, reliable, selective amperometric sensor for determination of cyanide, using a polyaniline conductive polymer. The enzyme catalase was immobilized by electropolymerization. The steps during the immobilization were controlled by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Optimum pH, temperature, aniline concentration, enzyme concentration, and the number of scans obtained during electropolymerization, were investigated. In addition, the cyanide present in artificial waste water samples was determined. In the characterization studies of the biosensor, some parameters such as reproducibility and storage stability, were analyzed.

  15. Endothelin-1 stimulates catalase activity through the PKCδ mediated phosphorylation of Serine 167

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafikov, Ruslan; Kumar, Sanjiv; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Hou, Yali; Kangath, Archana; Pardo, Daniel; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that endothelin-1 (ET-1) stimulates catalase activity in endothelial cells and lambs with acute increases in pulmonary blood flow (PBF), without altering gene expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism by which this occurs. Exposing pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAEC) to ET-1 increased catalase activity and decreased cellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. These changes correlated with an increase in serine phosphorylated catalase. Using the inhibitory peptide δV1.1, this phosphorylation was shown to be PKCδ dependent. Mass spectrometry identified serine167 as the phosphorylation site. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate a phospho-mimic (S167D) catalase. Activity assays using recombinant protein purified from E.coli or transiently transfected COS-7 cells, demonstrated that S167D-catalase had an increased ability to degrade H2O2 compared to the wildtype enzyme. Using a phospho-specific antibody, we were able to verify that pS167 catalase levels are modulated in lambs with acute increases in PBF in the presence and absence of the ET receptor antagonist, tezosentan. S167 is being located on the dimeric interface suggesting it could be involved in regulating the formation of catalase tetramers. To evaluate this possibility we utilized analytical gel-filtration to examine the multimeric structure of recombinant wildtype- and S167D-catalase. We found that recombinant wildtype catalase was present as a mixture of monomers and dimers while S167D catalase was primarily tetrameric. Further, the incubation of wildtype catalase with PKCδ was sufficient to convert wildtype catalase into a tetrameric structure. In conclusion, this is the first report indicating that the phosphorylation of catalase regulates its multimeric structure and activity. PMID:24211614

  16. A gasometric method to determine erythrocyte catalase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.S. Siqueira

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new gasometric method to determine erythrocyte catalase activity by the measurement of the volume of oxygen produced as a result of hydrogen peroxide decomposition in a system where enzyme and substrate are separated in a special reaction test tube connected to a manometer and the reagents are mixed with a motor-driven stirrer. The position of the reagents in the test tube permits the continuous measurement of oxygen evolution from the time of mixing, without the need to stop the reaction by the addition of acid after each incubation time. The enzyme activity is reported as KHb, i.e., mg hydrogen peroxide decomposed per second per gram of hemoglobin (s-1 g Hb-1. The value obtained for catalase activity in 28 samples of hemolyzed human blood was 94.4 ± 6.17 mg H2O2 s-1 g Hb-1. The results obtained were precise and consistent, indicating that this rapid, simple and inexpensive method could be useful for research and routine work.

  17. Roles of Catalase and Trehalose in the Protection from Hydrogen Peroxide Toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Takuto; Watanabe, Takeru; Furuta, Masakazu; Kataoka, Michihiko; Kishida, Masao

    2016-01-01

    The roles of catalase and trehalose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae subject to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment were examined by measuring the catalase activity and intracellular trehalose levels in mutants lacking catalase or trehalose synthetase. Intracellular trehalose was elevated but the survival rate after H2O2 treatment remained low in mutants with deletion of the Catalase T gene. On the other hand, deletion of the trehalose synthetase gene increased the catalase activity in mutated yeast to levels higher than those in the wild-type strain, and these mutants exhibited some degree of tolerance to H2O2 treatment. These results suggest that Catalase T is critical in the yeast response to oxidative damage caused by H2O2 treatment, but trehalose also plays a role in protection against H2O2 treatment.

  18. Overexpression of TIMP-1 and Sensitivity to Topoisomerase Inhibitors in Glioblastoma Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Fogh, Louise; Sørensen, Mia Dahl

    2018-01-01

    influence the efficacy of such treatment. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether a high TIMP-1 expression in glioblastoma cell lines would affect the sensitivity to TOP inhibitors, and whether TIMP-1 overexpressing cells would have alterered growth and invasion. We established TIMP-1...... overexpressing subclones from two human glioblastoma cell lines. TIMP-1 overexpressing U87MG cells were significantly more resistant than low TIMP-1 expressing clones and parental cells when exposed to SN-38 (TOP1 inhibitor) or epirubicin (TOP2 inhibitor). No significant differences were observed for the TIMP-1...... transfected A172 cells. Implantation of both U87MG and A172 spheroids into organotypic brain slice cultures revealed a reduced growth of TIMP-1 overexpressing U87MG spheroids, however, no significant differences in invasion were observed. The present study suggests that TIMP-1 overexpression reduces...

  19. Evaluation of salivary catalase, vitamin C, and alpha-amylase in smokers and non-smokers: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2017-05-01

    Saliva and its defence systems such as antioxidants and minerals are very important in the pathogenesis of different diseases. Cigarette smoking has many destructive effects. Oxidative stresses play an important role in the side effects of smoking. This study assessed the effect of cigarette smoking on salivary levels of catalase, vitamin C, and α-amylase. This retrospective cohort study was carried out in Hamadan, Iran, on 510 subjects; 259 subjects were smokers (the exposed group) and 251 were non-smokers (the unexposed group). Five microliters of unstimulated saliva was collected by spitting method. Catalase, vitamin C, and α-amylase salivary levels were determined by spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with t-test using STATA 12. Vitamin C level in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers. The salivary catalase levels were lower and α-amylase levels were higher in smokers, but the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.416 and P = 0.265, respectively). Smokers were younger than non-smokers. Smoking resulted in a change in salivary antioxidant levels. Changes in antioxidant levels can influence the deleterious effects of smoking on oral mucosa; it might also indicate systemic changes and changes in the serum levels of oxidative agents. Further studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms and real effects of smoking, to determine the benefits of supplementary antioxidants for treatment and to reduce the dangerous side effects of smoking. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A chaperone function of NO CATALASE ACTIVITY1 is required to maintain catalase activity and for multiple stress responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Juntao; Wang, Guoqiang; Cha, Joon-Yung; Li, Guannan; Chen, She; Li, Zhen; Guo, Jinghua; Zhang, Caiguo; Yang, Yongqing; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Yun, Dae-Jin; Schumaker, Karen S; Chen, Zhongzhou; Guo, Yan

    2015-03-01

    Catalases are key regulators of reactive oxygen species homeostasis in plant cells. However, the regulation of catalase activity is not well understood. In this study, we isolated an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, no catalase activity1-3 (nca1-3) that is hypersensitive to many abiotic stress treatments. The mutated gene was identified by map-based cloning as NCA1, which encodes a protein containing an N-terminal RING-finger domain and a C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat-like helical domain. NCA1 interacts with and increases catalase activity maximally in a 240-kD complex in planta. In vitro, NCA1 interacts with CATALASE2 (CAT2) in a 1:1 molar ratio, and the NCA1 C terminus is essential for this interaction. CAT2 activity increased 10-fold in the presence of NCA1, and zinc ion binding of the NCA1 N terminus is required for this increase. NCA1 has chaperone protein activity that may maintain the folding of catalase in a functional state. NCA1 is a cytosol-located protein. Expression of NCA1 in the mitochondrion of the nca1-3 mutant does not rescue the abiotic stress phenotypes of the mutant, while expression in the cytosol or peroxisome does. Our results suggest that NCA1 is essential for catalase activity. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  1. A Chaperone Function of NO CATALASE ACTIVITY1 Is Required to Maintain Catalase Activity and for Multiple Stress Responses in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Juntao; Wang, Guoqiang; Cha, Joon-Yung; Li, Guannan; Chen, She; Li, Zhen; Guo, Jinghua; Zhang, Caiguo; Yang, Yongqing; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Yun, Dae-Jin; Schumaker, Karen S.; Chen, Zhongzhou; Guo, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Catalases are key regulators of reactive oxygen species homeostasis in plant cells. However, the regulation of catalase activity is not well understood. In this study, we isolated an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, no catalase activity1-3 (nca1-3) that is hypersensitive to many abiotic stress treatments. The mutated gene was identified by map-based cloning as NCA1, which encodes a protein containing an N-terminal RING-finger domain and a C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat-like helical domain. NCA1 interacts with and increases catalase activity maximally in a 240-kD complex in planta. In vitro, NCA1 interacts with CATALASE2 (CAT2) in a 1:1 molar ratio, and the NCA1 C terminus is essential for this interaction. CAT2 activity increased 10-fold in the presence of NCA1, and zinc ion binding of the NCA1 N terminus is required for this increase. NCA1 has chaperone protein activity that may maintain the folding of catalase in a functional state. NCA1 is a cytosol-located protein. Expression of NCA1 in the mitochondrion of the nca1-3 mutant does not rescue the abiotic stress phenotypes of the mutant, while expression in the cytosol or peroxisome does. Our results suggest that NCA1 is essential for catalase activity. PMID:25700484

  2. Catalase Expression Is Modulated by Vancomycin and Ciprofloxacin and Influences the Formation of Free Radicals in Staphylococcus aureus Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Hougaard, Anni B; Paulander, Wilhelm; Skibsted, Leif H; Ingmer, Hanne; Andersen, Mogens L

    2015-09-01

    Detection of free radicals in biological systems is challenging due to their short half-lives. We have applied electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy combined with spin traps using the probes PBN (N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone) and DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide) to assess free radical formation in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus treated with a bactericidal antibiotic, vancomycin or ciprofloxacin. While we were unable to detect ESR signals in bacterial cells, hydroxyl radicals were observed in the supernatant of bacterial cell cultures. Surprisingly, the strongest signal was detected in broth medium without bacterial cells present and it was mitigated by iron chelation or by addition of catalase, which catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. This suggests that the signal originates from hydroxyl radicals formed by the Fenton reaction, in which iron is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide. Previously, hydroxyl radicals have been proposed to be generated within bacterial cells in response to bactericidal antibiotics. We found that when S. aureus was exposed to vancomycin or ciprofloxacin, hydroxyl radical formation in the broth was indeed increased compared to the level seen with untreated bacterial cells. However, S. aureus cells express catalase, and the antibiotic-mediated increase in hydroxyl radical formation was correlated with reduced katA expression and catalase activity in the presence of either antibiotic. Therefore, our results show that in S. aureus, bactericidal antibiotics modulate catalase expression, which in turn influences the formation of free radicals in the surrounding broth medium. If similar regulation is found in other bacterial species, it might explain why bactericidal antibiotics are perceived as inducing formation of free radicals. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila catalase gene by the DRE/DREF system

    OpenAIRE

    Park, So Young; Kim, Young-Shin; Yang, Dong-Jin; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2004-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause oxidative stress and aging. The catalase gene is a key component of the cellular antioxidant defense network. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate catalase gene expression are poorly understood. In this study, we have identified a DNA replication-related element (DRE; 5′-TATCGATA) in the 5′-flanking region of the Drosophila catalase gene. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that a previously identified factor called DREF (DRE- binding factor) bind...

  4. [Effects of catalase on the engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells in NOD/SCID mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming; Hu, Lin-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Yuan, Wei-Ping; Cheng, Tao

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of catalase (CAT) on engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) by co-transplanting umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSC) with over-expressed CAT and human HSC into NOD/SCID mice. The UC-MSC cultured in vitro were transfected by the retrovirus containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and GFP-CAT genes respectively. MSC-GFP and MSC-GFP-CAT cell lines were sorted by flow cytometry. Co-culture and co-transplant experiments were performed to detect the effects of CAT on expansion and engraftment of human HSC. The percentage of GFP(+) cells were approximately 97.6% and 96.8% after sorting. The mRNA expression of CAT in MSC-GFP-CAT was 23.9-fold higher than that in UC-MSC. The activity of CAT in UC-MSC, MSC-GFP, MSC-GFP-CAT cells were 19.5, 20.3 and 74.1 Unit respectively. There was no significant differences in the percentage of CD34(+) cells between 3 groups in co-culture experiment. And the percentage of human CD45(+) cells in NOD/SCID mice were (3.22 ± 3.1)%, (4.26 ± 3.56)% and (7.37 ± 4.51)% respectively. MSC-GFP-CAT significantly improves the engraftment of human HSC in NOD/SCID mice, whereas co-culture with the MSC-GFP-CAT can not promote the expansion of HSC in vitro.

  5. Helicobacter Catalase Devoid of Catalytic Activity Protects the Bacterium against Oxidative Stress*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stéphane L.; Maier, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Catalase, a conserved and abundant enzyme found in all domains of life, dissipates the oxidant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori undergoes host-mediated oxidant stress exposure, and its catalase contains oxidizable methionine (Met) residues. We hypothesized catalase may play a large stress-combating role independent of its classical catalytic one, namely quenching harmful oxidants through its recyclable Met residues, resulting in oxidant protection to the bacterium. Two Helicobacter mutant strains (katAH56A and katAY339A) containing catalase without enzyme activity but that retain all Met residues were created. These strains were much more resistant to oxidants than a catalase-deletion mutant strain. The quenching ability of the altered versions was shown, whereby oxidant-stressed (HOCl-exposed) Helicobacter retained viability even upon extracellular addition of the inactive versions of catalase, in contrast to cells receiving HOCl alone. The importance of the methionine-mediated quenching to the pathogen residing in the oxidant-rich gastric mucus was studied. In contrast to a catalase-null strain, both site-change mutants proficiently colonized the murine gastric mucosa, suggesting that the amino acid composition-dependent oxidant-quenching role of catalase is more important than the well described H2O2-dissipating catalytic role. Over 100 years after the discovery of catalase, these findings reveal a new non-enzymatic protective mechanism of action for the ubiquitous enzyme. PMID:27605666

  6. Comparable effects in the radiolysis and ultrasound sonolysis of aqueous solutions of catalase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrach, D.; Siefke, B.

    1987-01-01

    Catalase was desactivated in aqueous solution by irradiation with gamma-rays or ultrasound with nearly equal yields, if the applied doses were related to the response of a chemical dosimeter. The decrease of the enzymatic activity proceeded in parallel to the release of 125 iodine from 125 I-(iodo)-catalase. The same competition kinetics were observed in the radiolytic and sonolytic bleaching of p-nitrosodimethylaniline in the presence of catalase. It is concluded that OH-radicals were responsible for the sonolytic destruction of catalase. Phospholipids exerted a protective effect which may be useful in the preparation of liposomes as carriers of macromolecules. (author)

  7. Extracellular localization of catalase is associated with the transformed state of malignant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Britta; Heinzelmann, Sonja; Motz, Manfred; Bauer, Georg

    2015-12-01

    Oncogenic transformation is dependent on activated membrane-associated NADPH oxidase (NOX). However, the resultant extracellular superoxide anions are also driving the NO/peroxynitrite and the HOCl pathway, which eliminates NOX-expressing transformed cells through selective apoptosis induction. Tumor progression is dependent on dominant interference with intercellular apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling through membrane-associated catalase, which decomposes H2O2 and peroxynitrite and oxidizes NO. Particularly, the decomposition of extracellular peroxynitrite strictly requires membrane-associated catalase. We utilized small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of catalase and neutralizing antibodies directed against the enzyme in combination with challenging H2O2 or peroxynitrite to determine activity and localization of catalase in cells from three distinct steps of multistage oncogenesis. Nontransformed cells did not generate extracellular superoxide anions and only showed intracellular catalase activity. Transformed cells showed superoxide anion-dependent intercellular apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling in the presence of suboptimal catalase activity in their membrane. Tumor cells exhibited tight control of intercellular apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling through a high local concentration of membrane-associated catalase. These data demonstrate that translocation of catalase to the outside of the cell membrane is already associated with the transformation step. A strong local increase in the concentration of membrane-associated catalase is achieved during tumor progression and is controlled by tumor cell-derived H2O2 and by transglutaminase.

  8. Catalase reverses tumorigenicity in a malignant cell line by an epidermal growth factor receptor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Joanne S; Tome, Margaret E; Kwei, Kevin A; Bowden, G Tim

    2006-03-01

    We have used a keratinocyte in vivo/in vitro cell model to test the hypothesis that hydrogen peroxide acts as a signaling molecule, contributing to proliferation and tumorigenesis. A cell line, 6M90, that produces squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), has high levels of ROS and low levels of catalase. A new cell line, MTOC2, generated from parental 6M90 cells by introduction of a Tet-responsive catalase transgene, effectively expressed higher peroxisomal catalase. Increased catalase expression diminished constitutive ROS and enhanced viability after treatment with hydrogen peroxide. Protein tyrosine phosphatase activity was higher in the MTOC2 cells with high catalase, consistent with detection of a lower level of phosphorylation at tyrosine 1068 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R). Transcription of downstream c-fos, AP-1 transactivation and cell proliferation were higher in the low catalase cells. An EGF-R inhibitor, AG1478, blocks the higher AP-1 transactivation and cell proliferation of the low catalase 6M90 cells. Tumorigenesis in SCID mice was greatly diminished in the high catalase cells. Our data suggest that hydrogen peroxide functions as a signaling molecule that can modulate activity of a protein tyrosine phosphatase/(s) resulting in phosphorylation of tryrosine/(s) on the EGF-R. Therefore, catalase acts as a tumor-suppressor gene in part by decreasing EGF-R signaling.

  9. Copper suppresses abscisic acid catabolism and catalase activity, and inhibits seed germination of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Nenghui; Li, Haoxuan; Zhu, Guohui; Liu, Yinggao; Liu, Rui; Xu, Weifeng; Jing, Yu; Peng, Xinxiang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-11-01

    Although copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for plants, a slight excess of Cu in soil can be harmful to plants. Unfortunately, Cu contamination is a growing problem all over the world due to human activities, and poses a soil stress to plant development. As one of the most important biological processes, seed germination is sensitive to Cu stress. However, little is known about the mechanism of Cu-induced inhibition of seed germination. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between Cu and ABA which is the predominant regulator of seed germination. Cu at a concentration of 30 µM effectively inhibited germination of rice caryopsis. ABA content in germinating seeds under copper stress was also higher than that under control conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that Cu treatment reduced the expression of OsABA8ox2, a key gene of ABA catabolism in rice seeds. In addition, both malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents were increased by Cu stress in the germinating seeds. Antioxidant enzyme assays revealed that only catalase activity was reduced by excess Cu, which was consistent with the mRNA profile of OsCATa during seed germination under Cu stress. Together, our results demonstrate that suppression of ABA catabolism and catalase (CAT) activity by excess Cu leads to the inhibition of seed germination of rice. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  11. Properties of the catalase molecule obtained from acatalasemic and hypocatalasemic mice Part I. Effects of denaturants on the catalase activity in the mouse liver

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, 征紀

    1985-01-01

    Homogenates of mouse liver with isotonic sucrose solution were separated by the cell fractionation with repeating centrifugation. The supernatants were used for the inhibition test with the reagents such as 3,5 diiodosalicylic acid lithium salt (LIS), guanidine and azide, heat, acid and alkali. After various treatments, the remaining catalase activities were measured and showed as a relative enzyme activity. Stability of catalase in liver supernatants was compared normal (C3H/C(as)C(as)) and ...

  12. Identification of Scedosporium boydii catalase A1 gene, a reactive oxygen species detoxification factor highly expressed in response to oxidative stress and phagocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Sara; Staerck, Cindy; d'Almeida, Sènan M; Marot, Agnès; Delneste, Yves; Calenda, Alphonse; Tabiasco, Julie; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Fleury, Maxime J J

    2015-12-01

    Scedosporium boydii is an opportunistic filamentous fungus which may be responsible for a large variety of infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. This fungus belongs to the Scedosporium apiospermum species complex which usually ranks second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Species of the S. apiospermum complex are able to chronically colonize the CF airways suggesting pathogenic mechanisms allowing persistence and growth of these fungi in the respiratory tract. Few putative virulence factors have been purified and characterized so far in the S. apiospermum complex including a cytosolic Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a monofunctional catalase (catalase A1). Upon microbial infection, host phagocytes release reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide, as part of the antimicrobial response. Catalases are known to protect pathogens against ROS by degradation of the hydrogen peroxide. Here, we identified the S. boydii catalase A1 gene (CATA1) and investigated its expression in response to the environmental conditions encountered in the CF airways and to the oxidative stress. Results showed that S. boydii CATA1 gene expression is not affected by hypoxia, hypercapnia or pH changes. In contrast, CATA1 gene was overexpressed in response to a chemically induced oxidative stress with a relative gene expression 37-fold higher in the presence of 250 μM H(2)O(2), 20-fold higher with 250 μM menadione and 5-fold higher with 2 mM paraquat. Moreover, S. boydii CATA1 gene expression progressively increased upon exposure to activated THP-1-derived macrophages, reaching a maximum after 12 h (26 fold). Activated HL60-derived neutrophils and activated human peripheral blood neutrophils more rapidly induced S. boydii CATA1 gene overexpression, a maximum gene expression level being reached at 75 min (17 fold) and 60 min (15 fold), respectively. In contrast expression of the gene

  13. Location of catalase in crystalline peroxisomes of methanol-grown Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, Ineke; Roggenkamp, Rainer; Harder, Willem; Veenhuis, Marten

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the intraperoxisomal location of catalase in peroxisomes of methanol-grown Hansenula polymorpha by (immuno)cytochemical means. In completely crystalline peroxisomes, in which the crystalline matrix is composed of octameric alcohol oxidase (AO) molecules, most of the catalase protein

  14. Cytoplasmic catalase and ghostlike peroxisomes in the liver from a child with atypical chondrodysplasia punctata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espeel, M.; Heikoop, J. C.; Smeitink, J. A.; Beemer, F. A.; de Craemer, D.; van den Berg, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Wanders, R. J.; Schutgens, R. B.; Poll-The, B. T.

    1993-01-01

    In the liver biopsy from an 8.5-year-old girl with the biochemical characteristics of rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP), but with normal limbs, normal catalase-containing peroxisomes were absent. Light microscopy after diaminobenzidine staining for catalase activity (the peroxisomal marker

  15. Production and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies against native and disassembled human catalase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiemer, E. A.; Ofman, R.; Middelkoop, E.; de Boer, M.; Wanders, R. J.; Tager, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Catalase isolated from human erythrocytes was used to immunise mice, in order to generate hybridomas producing specific monoclonal antibodies to the enzyme. Hybridomas secreting anti-(catalase) antibodies were identified by a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using either

  16. Inhibition of Catalase by Tea Catechins in Free and Cellular State: A Biophysical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sandip; Dey, Subrata Kumar; Saha, Chabita

    2014-01-01

    Tea flavonoids bind to variety of enzymes and inhibit their activities. In the present study, binding and inhibition of catalase activity by catechins with respect to their structure-affinity relationship has been elucidated. Fluorimetrically determined binding constants for (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with catalase were observed to be 2.27×106 M−1 and 1.66×106 M−1, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters evidence exothermic and spontaneous interaction between catechins and catalase. Major forces of interaction are suggested to be through hydrogen bonding along with electrostatic contributions and conformational changes. Distinct loss of α-helical structure of catalase by interaction with EGCG was captured in circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Gallated catechins demonstrated higher binding constants and inhibition efficacy than non-gallated catechins. EGCG exhibited maximum inhibition of pure catalase. It also inhibited cellular catalase in K562 cancer cells with significant increase in cellular ROS and suppression of cell viability (IC50 54.5 µM). These results decipher the molecular mechanism by which tea catechins interact with catalase and highlight the potential of gallated catechin like EGCG as an anticancer drug. EGCG may have other non-specific targets in the cell, but its anticancer property is mainly defined by ROS accumulation due to catalase inhibition. PMID:25025898

  17. Effects of cysteine on growth, protease production, and catalase activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    OpenAIRE

    Himelbloom, B H; Hassan, H M

    1986-01-01

    Cysteine inhibits growth of and protease production by Pseudomonas fluorescens NC3. Catalase activity in P. fluorescens NC3 was increased by cysteine. The addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide did not increase catalase activity, thus suggesting a role for the endogenous generation of hydrogen peroxide via the autoxidation of cysteine.

  18. The in vivo toxicity of hydroxyurea depends on its direct target catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Trine; Malolepszy, Anna; Dybkaer, Karen; Kidmose, Rune; Rasmussen, Jan Trige; Andersen, Gregers Rom; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Jørgensen, Jan-Elo; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2010-07-09

    Hydroxyurea (HU) is a well tolerated ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor effective in HIV, sickle cell disease, and blood cancer therapy. Despite a positive initial response, however, most treated cancers eventually progress due to development of HU resistance. Although RNR properties influence HU resistance in cell lines, the mechanisms underlying cancer HU resistance in vivo remain unclear. To address this issue, we screened for HU resistance in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana and identified seventeen unique catalase mutants, thereby establishing that HU toxicity depends on catalase in vivo. We further demonstrated that catalase is a direct HU target by showing that HU acts as a competitive inhibitor of catalase-mediated hydrogen peroxide decomposition. Considering also that catalase can accelerate HU decomposition in vitro and that co-treatment with another catalase inhibitor alleviates HU effects in vivo, our findings suggests that HU could act as a catalase-activated pro-drug. Clinically, we found high catalase activity in circulating cells from untreated chronic myeloid leukemia, offering a possible explanation for the efficacy of HU against this malignancy.

  19. Purification and characterization of an intracellular catalase-peroxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, Marco W.; Roubroeks, Hanno P.; Hagen, Wilfred R.; Berkel, Willem J.H. van

    1996-01-01

    The first dimeric catalase-peroxidase of eucaryotic origin, an intracellular hydroperoxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum which exhibited both catalase and peroxidase activities, has been isolated. The enzyme has an apparent molecular mass of about 170 kDa and is composed of two identical

  20. Relationship between catalase activity and uptake of elemental mercury by rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, I.; Syversen, T.L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Uptake of mercury by brain after intravenous injection of elemental mercury was investigated in the rat. Catalase activity was inhibited by aminotriazole either by intraperitoneal affecting catalase in most tissues of the animal or by intraventricular injections affecting catalase in the brain selectively. Uptake of elemental mercury by rat brain was not influenced by intraperitoneal administration of aminotriazole resulting in 50% inhibition of brain catalase. However, when the inhibitor was injected intraventricularly in concentrations to give a 50% inhibition of brain catalase, it was shown that the mercury uptake by brain was significantly decreased. In the latter case when only brain catalase was inhibited and the supply of elemtal mercury to brain was maintained, mercury uptake by brain was proportional to the activity of catalase in brain tissue and to the injected amount of elemental mercury. Contrary to the intraventricular injection of aminotriazole, in animals recieving aminotriazole intraperitoneally prior to elemental mercury injection, we suggest that the lower activity of brain catalse is compensated by an increased supply of elemtal mercury caused by the generally lower oxidation rate in the animal. This view is supported by the finding that mercury uptake by liver increased due to aminotriazole intraperitoneally although activity of catalase was depressed. (author)

  1. Enhanced alkaline catalase production by Serratia marcescens FZSF01: Enzyme purification, characterization, and recombinant expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbo Jia

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: To our knowledge, these results represent one of the highest fermentation levels reported among current catalase-producing strains. This FZSF01 catalase may be suitable for several industrial applications that comprise exposure to alkaline conditions and under a wide range of temperatures.

  2. Soluble epoxide hydrolase contamination of specific catalase preparations inhibits epoxyeicosatrienoic acid vasodilation of rat renal arterioles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lauren; Harder, Adam; Isbell, Marilyn; Imig, John D.; Gutterman, David D.; Falck, J. R.; Campbell, William B.

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are important signaling molecules in the kidney. In renal arteries, EETs cause vasodilation whereas H2O2 causes vasoconstriction. To determine the physiological contribution of H2O2, catalase is used to inactivate H2O2. However, the consequence of catalase action on EET vascular activity has not been determined. In rat renal afferent arterioles, 14,15-EET caused concentration-related dilations that were inhibited by Sigma bovine liver (SBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml) but not Calbiochem bovine liver (CBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml). SBL catalase inhibition was reversed by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor tAUCB (1 μM). In 14,15-EET incubations, SBL catalase caused a concentration-related increase in a polar metabolite. Using mass spectrometry, the metabolite was identified as 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-DHET), the inactive sEH metabolite. 14,15-EET hydrolysis was not altered by the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-ATZ; 10–50 mM), but was abolished by the sEH inhibitor BIRD-0826 (1–10 μM). SBL catalase EET hydrolysis showed a regioisomer preference with greatest hydrolysis of 14,15-EET followed by 11,12-, 8,9- and 5,6-EET (Vmax = 0.54 ± 0.07, 0.23 ± 0.06, 0.18 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 ng DHET·U catalase−1·min−1, respectively). Of five different catalase preparations assayed, EET hydrolysis was observed with two Sigma liver catalases. These preparations had low specific catalase activity and positive sEH expression. Mass spectrometric analysis of the SBL catalase identified peptide fragments matching bovine sEH. Collectively, these data indicate that catalase does not affect EET-mediated dilation of renal arterioles. However, some commercial catalase preparations are contaminated with sEH, and these contaminated preparations diminish the biological activity of H2O2 and EETs. PMID:21753077

  3. Effect of cimetidine on catalase activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a suggested mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Masoudeh; Ebrahimi, Farnoosh; Minai-Tehrani, Dariush

    2014-01-01

    Catalase is an important enzyme for the degradation of hydrogen peroxide in cells. Bacteria have potent catalase to deal with H2O2 in their medium culture. Any chemicals that inhibit catalase activity can be harmful for cells. Histamine H2 antagonist drugs such as cimetidine and ranitidine are used for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders. The present results showed that cimetidine could inhibit the catalase activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a competitive inhibition. The determination of IC50 value and Ki (6.5 μM) of cimetidine demonstrated that the enzyme binds to the drug with high affinity. Binding of the drug to the enzyme was pH-dependent and no binding was observed at basic pH (>9) and acidic pH (effect on the catalase activity. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The utilization of some iron and zinc compounds as regulators of catalase activity at Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremova, N.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to examine the impact of some zinc and iron compounds as oxidative stress factors on catalase activity, which is known to be important defense system of microorganisms to metal stress. For the investigation was used baker's yeast strain - Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-11 previously selected as a source of protein and catalase. The obtained results have revealed that compounds of iron and zinc with citrate and acetate contributes to the accumulation of yeast biomass and have beneficial effect on the catalase activity at selected yeast strain. The maximum increase of catalase activity in yeast biomass was established in case of iron and zinc citrate supplementation to the nutritive medium in optimal concentration of 15.0 mg/l. Results of the present study could be used for the elaboration of new procedures of catalase obtaining by directed synthesis with the utilization of selected metal compounds.

  5. Comparative kinetic characterization of catalases from Candida boidinii yeast and bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelitza, D I; Eryomin, A N; Artzukevich, I M; Chernikevich, I P

    1997-04-01

    Catalase with molecular weight 230 +/- kD was isolated and purified from methylotrophic yeasts Candida boidinii by ion-exchange chromatography. The kinetic characteristics of yeast and bovine liver catalases were compared in the reaction of H2O2 decomposition using a wide range of H2O2 concentrations (up to 0.12 M) and PH (2-10). First order rates constants (k, sec-1) were determined for both enzymes from semi-logarithmic anamorphoses of kinetic curves of H2O2 utilization. Anamorphoses of complete kinetic curves as a function of 1/ln([H2O2]0/[H2O2]t) versus 1/t were used for calculation of the effective rate constants of catalase inactivation during the reaction (k(in), sec-1) and the rate constants of interaction of catalase complex I with the second molecule of H2O2 (k2, M-1.sec-1). The effects of initial catalase concentrations, H2O2, and pH on k, k2, and k(in) were similar for both enzymes. Catalytic constant, k2, and the efficacy expressed as a ratio kcat/Km were 1.87-, 1.45-, and 1.3-fold, respectively, higher for bovine catalase than that of yeast catalase. Operational stability of yeast catalase is 3.5-fold higher than the stability of bovine catalase and much higher during cyclic decomposition of 50 mM H2O2. Enhanced operational stability and inexpensive source of its preparation open prospects for practical applications of yeast catalase for co-immobilization with superoxide dismutase on non-toxic carriers.

  6. Human islet amyloid polypeptide fibril binding to catalase: a transmission electron microscopy and microplate study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Nathaniel G N; Harris, J Robin

    2010-05-18

    The diabetes-associated human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is a 37-amino-acid peptide that forms fibrils in vitro and in vivo. Human IAPP fibrils are toxic in a similar manner to Alzheimer's amyloid-beta (A-beta) and prion protein (PrP) fibrils. Previous studies have shown that catalase binds to A-beta fibrils and appears to recognize a region containing the Gly-Ala-Ile-Ile sequence that is similar to the Gly-Ala-Ile-Leu sequence found in human IAPP residues 24-27. This study presents a transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-based analysis of fibril formation and the binding of human erythrocyte catalase to IAPP fibrils. The results show that human IAPP 1-37, 8-37, and 20-29 peptides form fibrils with diverse and polymorphic structures. All three forms of IAPP bound catalase, and complexes of IAPP 1-37 or 8-37 with catalase were identified by immunoassay. The binding of biotinylated IAPP to catalase was high affinity with a KD of 0.77 nM, and could be inhibited by either human or rat IAPP 1-37 and 8-37 forms. Fibrils formed by the PrP 118-135 peptide with a Gly-Ala-Val-Val sequence also bound catalase. These results suggest that catalase recognizes a Gly-Ala-Ile-Leu-like sequence in amyloid fibril-forming peptides. For IAPP 1-37 and 8-37, the catalase binding was primarily directed towards fibrillar rather than ribbon-like structures, suggesting differences in the accessibility of the human IAPP 24-27 Gly-Ala-Ile-Leu region. This suggests that catalase may be able to discriminate between different structural forms of IAPP fibrils. The ability of catalase to bind IAPP, A-beta, and PrP fibrils demonstrates the presence of similar accessible structural motifs that may be targets for antiamyloid therapeutic development.

  7. Regulation of catalase activity and gene expression during Phytophthora nicotianae development and infection of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Leila M; Hardham, Adrienne R

    2008-07-01

    Plant defence against pathogen attack typically incorporates an oxidative burst involving elevated levels of reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide. In the present study, we have used an in-gel assay to monitor the activity of the hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzyme, catalase, during asexual development of Phytophthora nicotianae and during infection of host tobacco plants. In vitro, catalase activity is highest in sporulating hyphae; in planta, catalase activity increases dramatically about 8 h after host inoculation. We have cloned and characterized three catalase genes, designated PnCat1, PnCat2 and PnCat3, from P. nicotianae and identified their homologues in P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum. In all three species, Cat2 is predicted to be targeted to the peroxisome and the other catalases are likely to be cytosolic. Quantitative real-time PCR assessment of catalase transcripts during development and infection indicates that peroxisomal PnCat2 is the gene predominantly expressed, with transcript levels peaking in vitro in sporulating hyphae and in planta increasing dramatically during the first 24 h after inoculation of susceptible tobacco seedlings. Levels of tobacco catalase gene expression are significantly down-regulated in susceptible tobacco 4, 8 and 24 h post-inoculation and in resistant plants at 24 h post-inoculation. Together, our results give evidence that during infection P. nicotianae increases its own peroxisomal catalase levels while concurrently down-regulating host catalase expression. This behaviour is consistent with a role of pathogen catalase in counterdefence and protection against oxidative stress and of pathogen-orchestrated enhanced plant cell death to support necrotrophic pathogen growth and plant colonization.

  8. Catalase activity is modulated by calcium and calmodulin in detached mature leaves of sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiyanti, Mufidah; Chen, Hsien-Jung

    2014-01-15

    Catalase (CAT) functions as one of the key enzymes in the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and affects the H2O2 homeostasis in plants. In sweet potato, a major catalase isoform was detected, and total catalase activity showed the highest level in mature leaves (L3) compared to immature (L1) and completely yellow, senescent leaves (L5). The major catalase isoform as well as total enzymatic activity were strongly suppressed by ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). This inhibition could be specifically and significantly mitigated in mature L3 leaves by exogenous CaCl2, but not MgCl2 or CoCl2. EGTA also inhibited the activity of the catalase isoform in vitro. Furthermore, chlorpromazine (CPZ), a calmodulin (CAM) inhibitor, drastically suppressed the major catalase isoform as well as total enzymatic activity, and this suppression was alleviated by exogenous sweet potato calmodulin (SPCAM) fusion protein in L3 leaves. CPZ also inhibited the activity of the catalase isoform in vitro. Protein blot hybridization showed that both anti-catalase SPCAT1 and anti-calmodulin SPCAM antibodies detect a band at the same position, which corresponds to the activity of the major catalase isoform from unboiled, but not boiled crude protein extract of L3 leaves. An inverse correlation between the major catalase isoform/total enzymatic activity and the H2O2 level was also observed. These data suggest that sweet potato CAT activity is modulated by CaCl2 and SPCAM, and plays an important role in H2O2 homeostasis in mature leaves. Association of SPCAM with the major CAT isoform is required and regulates the in-gel CAT activity band. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Catalase inhibits ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xia; Luo, Hongmei; Vanek, Kenneth N; LaRue, Amanda C; Schulte, Bradley A; Wang, Gavin Y

    2015-06-01

    Hematologic toxicity is a major cause of mortality in radiation emergency scenarios and a primary side effect concern in patients undergoing chemo-radiotherapy. Therefore, there is a critical need for the development of novel and more effective approaches to manage this side effect. Catalase is a potent antioxidant enzyme that coverts hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen and water. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of catalase as a protectant against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced toxicity in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). The results revealed that catalase treatment markedly inhibits IR-induced apoptosis in murine hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells. Subsequent colony-forming cell and cobble-stone area-forming cell assays showed that catalase-treated HSPCs can not only survive irradiation-induced apoptosis but also have higher clonogenic capacity, compared with vehicle-treated cells. Moreover, transplantation of catalase-treated irradiated HSPCs results in high levels of multi-lineage and long-term engraftments, whereas vehicle-treated irradiated HSPCs exhibit very limited hematopoiesis reconstituting capacity. Mechanistically, catalase treatment attenuates IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks and inhibits reactive oxygen species. Unexpectedly, we found that the radioprotective effect of catalase is associated with activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway and pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 abolishes the protective activity of catalase, suggesting that catalase may protect HSPCs against IR-induced toxicity via promoting STAT3 activation. Collectively, these results demonstrate a previously unrecognized mechanism by which catalase inhibits IR-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in HSPCs.

  10. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Fibril Binding to Catalase: A Transmission Electron Microscopy and Microplate Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel G. N. Milton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The diabetes-associated human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP is a 37-amino-acid peptide that forms fibrils in vitro and in vivo. Human IAPP fibrils are toxic in a similar manner to Alzheimer's amyloid-β (Aβ and prion protein (PrP fibrils. Previous studies have shown that catalase binds to Aβ fibrils and appears to recognize a region containing the Gly-Ala-Ile-Ile sequence that is similar to the Gly-Ala-Ile-Leu sequence found in human IAPP residues 24-27. This study presents a transmission electron microscopy (TEM—based analysis of fibril formation and the binding of human erythrocyte catalase to IAPP fibrils. The results show that human IAPP 1-37, 8-37, and 20-29 peptides form fibrils with diverse and polymorphic structures. All three forms of IAPP bound catalase, and complexes of IAPP 1-37 or 8-37 with catalase were identified by immunoassay. The binding of biotinylated IAPP to catalase was high affinity with a KD of 0.77nM, and could be inhibited by either human or rat IAPP 1-37 and 8-37 forms. Fibrils formed by the PrP 118-135 peptide with a Gly-Ala-Val-Val sequence also bound catalase. These results suggest that catalase recognizes a Gly-Ala-Ile-Leu—like sequence in amyloid fibril-forming peptides. For IAPP 1-37 and 8-37, the catalase binding was primarily directed towards fibrillar rather than ribbon-like structures, suggesting differences in the accessibility of the human IAPP 24-27 Gly-Ala-Ile-Leu region. This suggests that catalase may be able to discriminate between different structural forms of IAPP fibrils. The ability of catalase to bind IAPP, Aβ, and PrP fibrils demonstrates the presence of similar accessible structural motifs that may be targets for antiamyloid therapeutic development.

  11. Purification of camel liver catalase by zinc chelate affinity chromatography and pH gradient elution: An enzyme with interesting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafik, Abdelbasset; Essamadi, Abdelkhalid; Çelik, Safinur Yildirim; Mavi, Ahmet

    2017-12-01

    Climate change and increasing temperatures are global concerns. Camel (Camelus dromedarius) lives most of its life under high environmental stress in the desert and represent ideal model for studying desert adaptation among mammals. Catalase plays a key role in protecting cells against oxidative stress. For the first time, catalase from camel liver was purified to homogeneity by zinc chelate affinity chromatography using pH gradient elution, a better separation was obtained. A purification fold of 201.81 with 1.17% yield and a high specific activity of 1132539.37U/mg were obtained. The native enzyme had a molecular weight of 268kDa and was composed of four subunits of equal size (65kDa). The enzyme showed optimal activity at a temperature of 45°C and pH 7.2. Thiol reagents, β-Mercaptoethanol and D,L-Dithiothreitol, inhibited the enzyme activity. The enzyme was inhibited by Al 3+ , Cd 2+ and Mg 2+ , whereas Ca 2+ , Co 2+ and Ni 2+ stimulated the catalase activity. Reduced glutathione has no effect on catalase activity. The K m and V max of the enzyme for hydrogen peroxide were 37.31mM and 6185157U/mg, respectively. Sodium azide inhibited the enzyme noncompetitively with K i value of 14.43μM, the IC 50 was found to be 16.71μM. The properties of camel catalase were different comparing to those of mammalian species. Relatively higher molecular weight, higher optimum temperature, protection of reduced glutathione from hydrogen peroxide oxidation and higher affinity for hydrogen peroxide and sodium azide, these could be explained by the fact that camel is able to live in the intense environmental stress in the desert. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) nanosphere encapsulating superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sushant; Singh, Abhay Narayan; Verma, Anil; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) nanosphere encapsulating superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were successfully synthesized using double emulsion (w/o/w) solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of the nanosphere using dynamic light scattering, field emission scanning electron microscope, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed a spherical-shaped nanosphere in a size range of 812 ± 64 nm with moderate protein encapsulation efficiency of 55.42 ± 3.7 % and high in vitro protein release. Human skin HaCat cells were used for analyzing antioxidative properties of SOD- and CAT-encapsulated PCL nanospheres. Oxidative stress condition in HaCat cells was optimized with exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 1 mM) as external stress factor and verified through reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis using H2DCFDA dye. PCL nanosphere encapsulating SOD and CAT together indicated better antioxidative defense against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human skin HaCat cells in comparison to PCL encapsulating either SOD or CAT alone as well as against direct supplement of SOD and CAT protein solution. Increase in HaCat cells SOD and CAT activities after treatment hints toward uptake of PCL nanosphere into the human skin HaCat cells. The result signifies the role of PCL-encapsulating SOD and CAT nanosphere in alleviating oxidative stress.

  13. A Review on Direct Electrochemistry of Catalase for Electrochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Periasamy Arun Prakash

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Catalase (CAT is a heme enzyme with a Fe(III/II prosthetic group at its redox centre. CAT is present in almost all aerobic living organisms, where it catalyzes the disproportionation of H2O2 into oxygen and water without forming free radicals. In order to study this catalytic mechanism in detail, the direct electrochemistry of CAT has been investigated at various modified electrode surfaces with and without nanomaterials. The results show that CAT immobilized on nanomaterial modified electrodes shows excellent catalytic activity, high sensitivity and the lowest detection limit for H2O2 determination. In the presence of nanomaterials, the direct electron transfer between the heme group of the enzyme and the electrode surface improved significantly. Moreover, the immobilized CAT is highly biocompatible and remains extremely stable within the nanomaterial matrices. This review discusses about the versatile approaches carried out in CAT immobilization for direct electrochemistry and electrochemical sensor development aimed as efficient H2O2 determination. The benefits of immobilizing CAT in nanomaterial matrices have also been highlighted.

  14. Post-irradiation modification of oxygen-dependent and independent damage by catalase in barley seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, N.K.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    If H 2 O 2 is one of the major mediators of the 'oxygen effect' in biological systems then catalase, which enzymically decomposes H 2 O 2 should have a significant influence on radiation damage, particularly under oxygenated conditions. The post-irradiation (300 Gy gamma rays) effect of catalase was, therefore, assessed on barley seeds of about 4% moisture content under oxygenated and oxygen-free conditions at varying temperatures. Catalase affords concentration-dependent radioprotection under oxygenated condition at both 25 0 C and 4 0 C. The level of protection at 4 0 C is less than at 25 0 C. This is obviously due to a decrease in catalase activity at low temperature. Under oxygen-free conditions, catalase enhances radiation damage at 4 0 C while at 25 0 C it it has no effect. This has been substantiated by data on the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and on peroxidase activity. Sodium azide, a catalase inhibitor, was found to eliminate the radioprotective action of catalase. The study supports the view that the 'oxygen effect' is mediated largely through peroxides in irradiated biological systems. However, the observations made particularly at 4 0 C under oxygen-free condition seem to involve physicochemical reactions. (author)

  15. Catalase inhibition an anti cancer property of flavonoids: A kinetic and structural evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Debashis; Das, Asmita; Saha, Chabita

    2017-11-01

    Flavonoids are dietary polyphenols that present abundantly in fruits and vegetables. Flavonoids have inhibitory effects on enzymes and catalase is one among them. Catalase is a common enzyme ubiquitously found in all living organisms exposed to oxygen. It catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen (2H 2 O 2 →2H 2 O+O 2 ) . Inhibition of pure and cellular catalase from K562 cells by flavonoids was similar and exhibited the following efficacy; Myrecetin>Quercetin>Kaempferol and Quercetin>Luteolin>Apigenin demonstrating structure activity relationship. Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra have shown distinct loss in α-helical structure of the catalase on interaction with the flavonoids. All flavonoids inhibited the catalase activity by uncompetitive mechanism. The K m and V max values of pure catalase were observed to be 294mM -1 and 0.222mM -1 s -1 respectively and on inhibition with myrecetin the values decreased to a minimum of 23mM -1 and 0.014mM -1 s -1 respectively. Inhibition of catalase will directly results in increased production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and pro-oxidant property of flavonoids. This inhibition was reversed in presence of Cu 2+ ions because of the chelating affect of flavonoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of TiO₂ nanoparticles on the structure and activity of catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Cao, Jian; Tang, Bo-Ping; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2014-08-05

    TiO₂ nanoparticles are the most widely used metal oxide nanoparticles and have oxidative toxicity. Catalase is an important antioxidant enzyme. Here the understanding of an effect of TiO₂ nanoparticles on the activity and structure of catalase is crucial to characterize the toxicity of TiO₂ nanoparticles. These experimental data revealed that TiO₂ nanoparticles could bind to catalase by the electrostatic and hydrogen bonding forces. On binding TiO₂ nanoparticles, catalase got destabilized with the decrease of α-helices content, the solvent polarity of environment around the fluorescence chromophores on catalase were also affected. In addition, TiO₂ nanoparticles also affected the activity of catalase. TiO₂ nanoparticles acted as an activator of catalase activity at a low molar concentration and as an inhibitor at a higher molar concentration. With regard to human health, the present study could provide a better understanding of the potential nanotoxicity of TiO₂ nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adventitial gene transfer of catalase attenuates angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cun-Fei; Zhang, Jia; Shen, Kai; Gao, Ping-Jin; Wang, Hai-Ya; Jin, Xin; Meng, Chao; Fang, Ning-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Vascular adventitia and adventitia‑derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to vascular remodeling following vascular injury. A previous ex vivo study in adventitial fibroblasts showed that catalase, one of most important anti‑oxide enzymes, was downregulated by angiotensin II (AngII). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether adventitial gene transfer of catalase affects AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in vivo. Adenoviruses co‑expressing catalase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or expressing eGFP only were applied to the adventitial surface of common carotid arteries of Sprague‑Dawley rats. Alzet minipumps administering AngII (0.75 mg/kg/day) were then implanted subcutaneously for 14 days. Systolic blood pressure and biological parameters of vascular remodeling were measured in each group. Adventitial fibroblasts were cultured and p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was measured using western blot analysis. The results showed that adventitial gene transfer of catalase had no effect on AngII‑induced systolic blood pressure elevation. However, catalase adenovirus transfection significantly inhibited AngII‑induced media hypertrophy compared with that of the control virus (Padventitial α‑smooth muscle actin expression. Furthermore, catalase transfection significantly inhibited the AngII‑induced increase in p38MAPK phosphorylation. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that adventitial gene transfer of catalase significantly attenuated AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in rats via inhibition of adventitial p38MAPK phosphorylation.

  18. Effects of rs769217 and rs1001179 polymorphisms of catalase gene on blood catalase, carbohydrate and lipid biomarkers in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góth, László; Nagy, Teréz; Kósa, Zsuzsanna; Fejes, Zsolt; Bhattoa, Harjit Pal; Paragh, György; Káplár, Miklós

    2012-10-01

    Oxidative stress and deficiency of the enzyme catalase, which is the primary scavenger of the oxidant H(2)O(2), may contribute to diabetes. The current study examined two polymorphisms in the catalase gene, -262C>nT in the promoter and 111C>T in exon 9, and their effects on blood catalase activity as well as on concentrations of blood glucose, haemoglobin A1c, triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, ApoA-I and ApoB. Subjects were type-1 and type-2 diabetics. We evaluated PCR-single strand conformational polymorphism for 111C>T and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for - 262C>T. TT genotype frequency of 111C>T polymorphism was increased in type-1 diabetes. Type-2 diabetics with the CC or CT genotypes had decreased catalase and increased glucose, hemoglobinA1c and ApoB. Type-2 diabetics who have TT genotype in -262C>T may have elevated risk for diabetes complications; these patients had the lowest mean catalase and HDL, as well as the highest glucose, haemoglobin A1c, cholesterol and ApoB.

  19. Effects of pergolide mesylate on transduction efficiency of PEP-1-catalase protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Eun Jeong; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, Young Nam; Kim, So Mi [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Soon Sung [Department of Food Science and Nutrition and RIC Center, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae-Cheon [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyeok Yil [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duk-Soo [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan-Si 330-090 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Woo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hyun Sook, E-mail: wazzup@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Young, E-mail: sychoi@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} We studied effects of pergolide mesylate (PM) on in vitro and in vivo transduction of PEP-1-catalase. {yields} PEP-1-catatase inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation. {yields} PM enhanced the transduction of PEP-1-catalase into HaCaT cells and skin tissue. {yields} PM increased anti-inflammatory activity of PEP-1-catalase. {yields} PM stimulated therapeutic action of anti-oxidant enzyme catalase in oxidative-related diseases. -- Abstract: The low transduction efficiency of various proteins is an obstacle to their therapeutic application. However, protein transduction domains (PTDs) are well-known for a highly effective tool for exogenous protein delivery to cells. We examined the effects of pergolide mesylate (PM) on the transduction of PEP-1-catalase into HaCaT human keratinocytes and mice skin and on the anti-inflammatory activity of PEP-1-catatase against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation using Western blot and histological analysis. PM enhanced the time- and dose-dependent transduction of PEP-1-catalase into HaCaT cells without affecting the cellular toxicity. In a mouse edema model, PEP-1-catalase inhibited the increased expressions of inflammatory mediators and cytokines such as cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6 and -1{beta}, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} induced by TPA. On the other hand, PM alone failed to exert any significant anti-inflammatory effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of co-treatment with PEP-1-catalase and PM was more potent than that of PEP-1-catalase alone. Our results indicate that PM may enhance the delivery of PTDs fusion therapeutic proteins to target cells and tissues and has potential to increase their therapeutic effects of such drugs against various diseases.

  20. Helicobacter Catalase Devoid of Catalytic Activity Protects the Bacterium against Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stéphane L; Maier, Robert J

    2016-11-04

    Catalase, a conserved and abundant enzyme found in all domains of life, dissipates the oxidant hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori undergoes host-mediated oxidant stress exposure, and its catalase contains oxidizable methionine (Met) residues. We hypothesized catalase may play a large stress-combating role independent of its classical catalytic one, namely quenching harmful oxidants through its recyclable Met residues, resulting in oxidant protection to the bacterium. Two Helicobacter mutant strains ( katA H56A and katA Y339A ) containing catalase without enzyme activity but that retain all Met residues were created. These strains were much more resistant to oxidants than a catalase-deletion mutant strain. The quenching ability of the altered versions was shown, whereby oxidant-stressed (HOCl-exposed) Helicobacter retained viability even upon extracellular addition of the inactive versions of catalase, in contrast to cells receiving HOCl alone. The importance of the methionine-mediated quenching to the pathogen residing in the oxidant-rich gastric mucus was studied. In contrast to a catalase-null strain, both site-change mutants proficiently colonized the murine gastric mucosa, suggesting that the amino acid composition-dependent oxidant-quenching role of catalase is more important than the well described H 2 O 2 -dissipating catalytic role. Over 100 years after the discovery of catalase, these findings reveal a new non-enzymatic protective mechanism of action for the ubiquitous enzyme. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Effects of pergolide mesylate on transduction efficiency of PEP-1-catalase protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Eun Jeong; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, Young Nam; Kim, So Mi; Lim, Soon Sung; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Kwon, Hyeok Yil; Kim, Duk-Soo; Cho, Sung-Woo; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Choi, Soo Young

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We studied effects of pergolide mesylate (PM) on in vitro and in vivo transduction of PEP-1-catalase. → PEP-1-catatase inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation. → PM enhanced the transduction of PEP-1-catalase into HaCaT cells and skin tissue. → PM increased anti-inflammatory activity of PEP-1-catalase. → PM stimulated therapeutic action of anti-oxidant enzyme catalase in oxidative-related diseases. -- Abstract: The low transduction efficiency of various proteins is an obstacle to their therapeutic application. However, protein transduction domains (PTDs) are well-known for a highly effective tool for exogenous protein delivery to cells. We examined the effects of pergolide mesylate (PM) on the transduction of PEP-1-catalase into HaCaT human keratinocytes and mice skin and on the anti-inflammatory activity of PEP-1-catatase against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation using Western blot and histological analysis. PM enhanced the time- and dose-dependent transduction of PEP-1-catalase into HaCaT cells without affecting the cellular toxicity. In a mouse edema model, PEP-1-catalase inhibited the increased expressions of inflammatory mediators and cytokines such as cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6 and -1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α induced by TPA. On the other hand, PM alone failed to exert any significant anti-inflammatory effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of co-treatment with PEP-1-catalase and PM was more potent than that of PEP-1-catalase alone. Our results indicate that PM may enhance the delivery of PTDs fusion therapeutic proteins to target cells and tissues and has potential to increase their therapeutic effects of such drugs against various diseases.

  2. Mutual synergy between catalase and peroxidase activities of the bifunctional enzyme KatG is facilitated by electron hole-hopping within the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuma, Olive J; Davis, Ian; Ndontsa, Elizabeth N; Krewall, Jessica R; Liu, Aimin; Goodwin, Douglas C

    2017-11-10

    KatG is a bifunctional, heme-dependent enzyme in the front-line defense of numerous bacterial and fungal pathogens against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative damage from host immune responses. Contrary to the expectation that catalase and peroxidase activities should be mutually antagonistic, peroxidatic electron donors (PxEDs) enhance KatG catalase activity. Here, we establish the mechanism of synergistic cooperation between these activities. We show that at low pH values KatG can fully convert H 2 O 2 to O 2 and H 2 O only if a PxED is present in the reaction mixture. Stopped-flow spectroscopy results indicated rapid initial rates of H 2 O 2 disproportionation slowing concomitantly with the accumulation of ferryl-like heme states. These states very slowly returned to resting ( i.e. ferric) enzyme, indicating that they represented catalase-inactive intermediates. We also show that an active-site tryptophan, Trp-321, participates in off-pathway electron transfer. A W321F variant in which the proximal tryptophan was replaced with a non-oxidizable phenylalanine exhibited higher catalase activity and less accumulation of off-pathway heme intermediates. Finally, rapid freeze-quench EPR experiments indicated that both WT and W321F KatG produce the same methionine-tyrosine-tryptophan (MYW) cofactor radical intermediate at the earliest reaction time points and that Trp-321 is the preferred site of off-catalase protein oxidation in the native enzyme. Of note, PxEDs did not affect the formation of the MYW cofactor radical but could reduce non-productive protein-based radical species that accumulate during reaction with H 2 O 2 Our results suggest that catalase-inactive intermediates accumulate because of off-mechanism oxidation, primarily of Trp-321, and PxEDs stimulate KatG catalase activity by preventing the accumulation of inactive intermediates. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Overexpression of a Chitinase Gene from Trichoderma asperellum Increases Disease Resistance in Transgenic Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuli; Ruan, Xianle; Wang, Xian; Liu, Zhihua; Hu, Lizong; Li, Chengwei

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, a chi gene from Trichoderma asperellum, designated Tachi, was cloned and functionally characterized in soybean. Firstly, the effects of sodium thiosulfate on soybean Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation with embryonic tip regeneration system were investigated. The transformation frequency was improved by adding sodium thiosulfate in co-culture medium for three soybean genotypes. Transgenic soybean plants with constitutive expression of Tachi showed increased resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum compared to WT plants. Meanwhile, overexpression of Tachi in soybean exhibited increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level as well as peroxidase (POD) and catalase (SOD) activities, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content, along with diminished electrolytic leakage rate after S. sclerotiorum inoculation. These results suggest that Tachi can improve disease resistance in plants by enhancing ROS accumulation and activities of ROS scavenging enzymes and then diminishing cell death. Therefore, Tachi represents a candidate gene with potential application for increasing disease resistance in plants.

  4. CTT1 overexpression increases the replicative lifespan of MMS-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae deficient in KSP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Hua-Zhen; Zhou, Tao; Hong, Xiao-Shan; Cui, Hong-Jing; Jiang, Zhi-Wen; Chen, Hui-Ji; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Liu, Xin-Guang

    2017-06-01

    Ksplp is a nuclear-localized Ser/Thr kinase that is not essential for the vegetative growth of yeast. A global gene function analysis in yeast suggested that Ksplp was involved in the oxidative stress response; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we showed that KSP1-deficient yeast cells exhibit hypersensitivity to the DNA alkylating agent methyl methanesulphonate (MMS), and treatment of the KSP1-deficient strain with MMS could trigger abnormal mitochondrial membrane potential and up-regulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In addition, the mRNA expression level of the catalase gene CTT1 (which encodes cytosolic catalase) and total catalase activity were strongly down-regulated in the KSP1-deleted strain compared with those in wild-type cells. Moreover, the KSP1 deficiency also leads to a shortened replicative lifespan, which could be restored by the increased expression of CTT1. On the other hand, KSP1-overexpressed (KSP1OX) yeast cells exhibited increased resistance towards MMS, an effect that was, at least in part, CTT1 independent. Collectively, these findings highlight the involvement of Ksplp in the DNA damage response and implicate Ksplp as a modulator of the replicative lifespan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transgenic Mouse Model for Reducing Oxidative Damage in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, A.-S.; Torres, S.; Truong, T.; Kumar, A.; Alwood, J. S.; Limoli, C. L.; Globus, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to musculoskeletal disuse and radiation result in bone loss; we hypothesized that these catabolic treatments cause excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thereby alter the tight balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, culminating in bone loss. To test this, we used transgenic mice which over-express the human gene for catalase, targeted to mitochondria (MCAT). Catalase is an anti-oxidant that converts the ROS hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. MCAT mice were shown previously to display reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress and radiosensitivity of the CNS compared to wild type controls (WT). As expected, MCAT mice expressed the transgene in skeletal tissue, and in marrow-derived osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors cultured ex vivo, and also showed greater catalase activity compared to wildtype (WT) mice (3-6 fold). Colony expansion in marrow cells cultured under osteoblastogenic conditions was 2-fold greater in the MCAT mice compared to WT mice, while the extent of mineralization was unaffected. MCAT mice had slightly longer tibiae than WT mice (2%, P less than 0.01), although cortical bone area was slightly lower in MCAT mice than WT mice (10%, p=0.09). To challenge the skeletal system, mice were treated by exposure to combined disuse (2 wk Hindlimb Unloading) and total body irradiation Cs(137) (2 Gy, 0.8 Gy/min), then bone parameters were analyzed by 2-factor ANOVA to detect possible interaction effects. Treatment caused a 2-fold increase (p=0.015) in malondialdehyde levels of bone tissue (ELISA) in WT mice, but had no effect in MCAT mice. These findings indicate that the transgene conferred protection from oxidative damage caused by treatment. Unexpected differences between WT and MCAT mice emerged in skeletal responses to treatment.. In WT mice, treatment did not alter osteoblastogenesis, cortical bone area, moment of inertia, or bone perimeter, whereas in MCAT mice, treatment increased these

  6. In vitro evaluation of antitumoral efficacy of catalase in combination with traditional chemotherapeutic drugs against human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Valeska Aguiar; da Motta, Leonardo Lisbôa; De Bastiani, Marco Antônio; Lopes, Fernanda Martins; Müller, Carolina Beatriz; Gabiatti, Bernardo Papini; França, Fernanda Stapenhorst; Castro, Mauro Antônio Alves; Klamt, Fabio

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is the most lethal cancer-related disease worldwide. Since survival rates remain poor, there is an urgent need for more effective therapies that could increase the overall survival of lung cancer patients. Lung tumors exhibit increased levels of oxidative markers with altered levels of antioxidant defenses, and previous studies demonstrated that the overexpression of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) might control tumor proliferation and aggressiveness. Herein, we evaluated the effect of CAT treatment on the sensitivity of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells toward various anticancer treatments, aiming to establish the best drug combination for further therapeutic management of this disease. Exponentially growing A549 cells were treated with CAT alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs (cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, daunorubicin, and hydroxyurea). CalcuSyn(®) software was used to assess CAT/drug interactions (synergism or antagonism). Growth inhibition, NFκB activation status, and redox parameters were also evaluated in CAT-treated A549 cells. CAT treatment caused a cytostatic effect, decreased NFκB activation, and modulated the redox parameters evaluated. CAT treatment exhibited a synergistic effect among most of the anticancer drugs tested, which is significantly correlated with an increased H2O2 production. Moreover, CAT combination caused an antagonism in paclitaxel anticancer effect. These data suggest that combining CAT (or CAT analogs) with traditional chemotherapeutic drugs, especially cisplatin, is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of lung cancer.

  7. The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase in isogenous bacteria strains with different radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, E.I.; Goncharenko, E.N.; Yudz, T.I.; Samojlenko, I.I.

    1984-01-01

    The catalase and superoxide dismutase activity in isogenous bacterial strains with various radiosensitivity is investigated. In micrococcus radiodurans mutants with defects in the DNA repair systems the superoxide dismutase activity is lower than in the wild type cells. In investigated Escherichia coli strains differing in radiosensitivity, no alteration in catalase and superoxide dismutase activity is found. The conclusion is drawn that viability of bacteria subjected to the effect of ionizing radiations is determined by the efficiency of DNA repair systems whose functional reliability is sometimes connected with the catalase and suferoxide dismutase activity

  8. Zymography Methods to Simultaneously Analyze Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Activities: Novel Application for Yeast Species Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Matallana, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    We provide an optimized protocol for a double staining technique to analyze superoxide dismutase enzymatic isoforms Cu-Zn SOD (Sod1) and Mn-SOD (Sod2) and catalase in the same polyacrylamide gel. The use of NaCN, which specifically inhibits yeast Sod1 isoform, allows the analysis of Sod2 isoform while the use of H 2 O 2 allows the analysis of catalase. The identification of a different zymography profiling of SOD and catalase isoforms in different yeast species allowed us to propose this technique as a novel yeast identification and classification strategy.

  9. Overexpression of the mitochondrial T3 receptor induces skeletal muscle atrophy during aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Casas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, we characterized a new hormonal pathway involving a mitochondrial T3 receptor (p43 acting as a mitochondrial transcription factor. In in vitro and in vivo studies, we have shown that p43 increases mitochondrial transcription and mitochondrial biogenesis. In addition, p43 overexpression in skeletal muscle stimulates mitochondrial respiration and induces a shift in metabolic and contractile features of muscle fibers which became more oxidative.Here we have studied the influence of p43 overexpression in skeletal muscle of mice during aging. We report that p43 overexpression initially increased mitochondrial mass. However, after the early rise in mitochondrial DNA occurring at 2 months of age in transgenic mice, we observed a progressive decrease of mitochondrial DNA content which became 2-fold lower at 23 months of age relatively to control animals. Moreover, p43 overexpression induced an oxidative stress characterized by a strong increase of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in quadriceps muscle, although antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase and superoxide dismutase were stimulated. In addition, muscle atrophy became detectable at 6 months of age, probably through a stimulation of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway via two muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases E3, Atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF1.Taken together, these results demonstrate that a prolonged stimulation of mitochondrial activity induces muscle atrophy. In addition, these data underline the importance of a tight control of p43 expression and suggest that a deregulation of the direct T3 mitochondrial pathway could be one of the parameters involved in the occurrence of sarcopenia.

  10. Wild-type catalase peroxidase vs G279D mutant type: Molecular basis of Isoniazid drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aishwarya; Singh, Aditi; Grover, Sonam; Pandey, Bharati; Kumari, Anchala; Grover, Abhinav

    2018-01-30

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis katG gene is responsible for production of an enzyme catalase peroxidase that peroxidises and activates the prodrug Isoniazid (INH), a first-line antitubercular agent. INH interacts with catalase peroxidase enzyme within its heme pocket and gets converted to an active form. Mutations occurring in katG gene are often linked to reduced conversion rates for INH. This study is focussed on one such mutation occurring at residue 279, where glycine often mutates to aspartic acid (G279D). In the present study, several structural analyses were performed to study the effect of this mutation on functionality of KatG protein. On comparison, mutant protein exhibited a lower docking score, smaller binding cavity and reduced affinity towards INH. Molecular dynamics analysis revealed the mutant to be more rigid and less compact than the native protein. Essential dynamics analysis determined correlated motions of residues within the protein structure. G279D mutant was found to have many residues that showed related motions and an undesirable effect on the functionality of protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Flavonoid-induced conversion of catalase to its inactive form--Compound II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krych, J; Gebicki, J L; Gebicka, L

    2014-11-01

    Flavonoids (FlaOHs), plant polyphenols, are ubiquitous components of human diet and are known as antioxidants. However, their prooxidant activity has also been reported. We have recently found that FlaOHs inhibit catalase, the heme enzyme which catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into water and molecular oxygen. The catalytic cycle proceeds with the formation of the intermediate, Compound I (Cpd I), an oxoferryl porphyrin π-cation radical, the two-electron oxidation product of a heme group. Under conditions of low H2O2 fluxes and in the presence of an appropriate substrate, Cpd I can undergo one-electron reduction to inactive Compound II (Cpd II), oxoferryl derivative without radical site. Here we show that in vitro, under low fluxes of H2O2, FlaOHs reduce Cpd I to inactive Cpd II. Measurable amounts of Cpd II can be formed even in the presence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) at concentration comparable with the investigated FlaOHs. Possible mechanisms of electron transfer from FlaOH molecule to the heme are discussed.

  12. Spectral studies of intermediate species formed in one-electron reactions of bovine liver catalase at room and low temperatures. A comparison with peroxidase reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metodiewa, D.; Dunford, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    The reactions of native bovine catalase with superoxide and solvated electrons have been investigated using three different methods for generating these reducing substrates: γ-radiolysis of oxygenated or deaerated buffer solutions in the presence of an OH radical scavenger; either xanthine or acetaldehyde with xanthine oxidase; and low-temperature (77 K) γ-radiolysis of buffered ethylene glycol/water solutions with subsequent annealing of samples at 183 K. (Author)

  13. Soluble and immobilized catalase. Effect of pressure and inhibition on kinetics and deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, P T; Thakur, D S

    1994-12-01

    This article examines the effect of pressure on the steady-state kinetics and long-term deactivation of the enzyme catalase supported on porous alumina. The reaction studied is the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The results of studies carried out in a continuous stirred-tank reactor under isothermal conditions are presented and compared with results obtained for soluble catalase. For soluble catalase, it is found that in the range of pressures studied, the oxygen flow rate increases with increase in pressure up to a certain value and then decreases. Hydrogen peroxide concentration appears to have a strong influence on pressure effects. With immobilized catalase, the pressure effects are not as prominent. Fluorescent microscopy studies of the immobilized enzyme suggest that this is probably because of pore diffusional limitations.

  14. HUMAN CATALASE IS IMPORTED AND ASSEMBLED IN PEROXISOMES OF SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEHOOP, MJ; HOLTMAN, WL; AB, G

    To study the conservation of peroxisomal targeting signals, we have determined the intracellular localization of human peroxisomal catalase when expressed in yeast. Using immunofluorescence, differential centrifugation and immuno-electron microscopy, we show that the protein is targeted to the

  15. Isolation, Fractionation and Characterization of Catalase from Neurospora crassa (InaCC F226)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani; Ambarsari, L.; Lindawati, E.

    2017-03-01

    Catalase from Indigenous isolate Neurospora crassa InaCC F226 has been isolated, fractionated and characterized. Production of catalase by Neurospora crassa was done by using PDA medium (Potato Dextrosa Agar) and fractionated with ammonium sulphate with 20-80% saturation. Fraction 60% was optimum saturation of ammonium sulphate and had highest specific activity 3339.82 U/mg with purity 6.09 times, total protein 0.920 mg and yield 88.57%. The optimum pH and temperature for catalase activity were at 40°C and pH 7.0, respectively. The metal ions that stimulated catalase activity acted were Ca2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+, and inhibitors were EDTA, Mg2+ and Cu2+. Based on Km and Vmax values were 0.2384 mM and 13.3156 s/mM.

  16. Immobilization of catalase on chitosan and amino acid- modified chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başak, Esra; Aydemir, Tülin

    2013-08-01

    Bovine liver catalase was covalently immobilized onto amino acid-modified chitosan beads. The beads were characterized with SEM, FTIR, TGA and the effects of immobilization on optimum pH and temperature, thermostability, reusability were evaluated. Immobilized catalase showed the maximal enzyme activity at pH 7.0 at 30°C. The kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax, for immobilized catalase on alanine-chitosan beads and lysine-chitosan beads were estimated to be 25.67 mM, 27 mM and 201.39 μmol H2O2/min, 197.50 μmol H2O2/min, respectively. The activity of the immobilized catalase on Ala-CB and Lys-CB retained 40% of its high initial activity after 100 times of reuse.

  17. The effect of haematin and catalase on Streptococcus faecalis var. zymogenes growing on glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D J; Knowles, C J

    1980-12-01

    Streptococcus faecalis var. zymogenes was grown aerobically on a complex medium containing glycerol as the carbon source. Addition of hematin or bovine liver catalase to the growth medium resulted in a small increment in growth yield. Suspensions of bacteria that had been grown in the presence of haematin or catalase, respectively, translocated 0.83 to 1.98 and 1.33 to 2.53 protons per oxygen atom consumed in glycerol oxidation. Bacterial grown without haematin or catalase had nil or little respiratory-induced proton translocation during glycerol oxidation. Inclusion of haematin in the growth medium caused the bacterium to form a cyanide- and azide-sensitive catalase. Superoxide dismutase activity was similar whether or not haematin was added to the growth medium.

  18. High production, purification, biochemical characterization and gene analysis of a novel catalase from the thermophilic bacterium Ureibacillus thermosphaericus FZSF03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xianbo; Lin, Xinjian; Tian, Yandan; Chen, Jichen; You, Minsheng

    2017-10-01

    A catalase-producing thermophilic bacterium, Ureibacillus thermosphaericus FZSF03, was isolated from high-temperature compost. Catalase production in this strain increased 31 times and reached 57,630U/mL after optimization in a shake flask, which might represent the highest catalase activity level among reported wild strains. This catalase was further purified and identified. The purified enzyme showed a specific activity of 219,360U/mg, higher than many other catalases. The molecular weight of this enzyme is 52kDa according to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and the enzyme was identified as a monofunctional haeme catalase of Ureibacillus thermosphaericus by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS. The optimal reaction temperature for this catalase was found to be 60°C. Stability was observed at 60°C and at a pH of 10.0, indicating the superiority of this enzyme at a high temperature and under alkaline conditions. Therefore, this catalase is a prospective candidate for industrial production and applications. The gene encoding this catalase is 1503bp. As the amino acid sequence shows low similarity with other catalases, we suggest that this is a novel monofunctional haeme catalase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Two divergent catalase genes are differentially regulated during Aspergillus nidulans development and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, L; Wysong, D; Diamond, R; Aguirre, J

    1997-05-01

    Catalases are ubiquitous hydrogen peroxide-detoxifying enzymes that are central to the cellular antioxidant response. Of two catalase activities detected in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans, the catA gene encodes the spore-specific catalase A (CatA). Here we characterize a second catalase gene, identified after probing a genomic library with catA, and demonstrate that it encodes catalase B. This gene, designated catB, predicts a 721-amino-acid polypeptide (CatB) showing 78% identity to an Aspergillus fumigatus catalase and 61% identity to Aspergillus niger CatR. Notably, similar levels of identity are found when comparing CatB to Escherichia coli catalase HPII (43%), A. nidulans CatA (40%), and the predicted peptide of a presumed catA homolog from A. fumigatus (38%). In contrast, the last two peptides share a 79% identity. The catalase B activity was barely detectable in asexual spores (conidia), disappeared after germination, and started to accumulate 10 h after spore inoculation, throughout growth and conidiation. The catB mRNA was absent from conidia, and its accumulation correlated with catalase activity, suggesting that catB expression is regulated at the transcription level. In contrast, the high CatA activity found in spores was lost gradually during germination and growth. In addition to its developmental regulation, CatB was induced by H2O2, heat shock, paraquat, or uric acid catabolism but not by osmotic stress. This pattern of regulation and the protective role against H2O2 offered by CatA and CatB, at different stages of the A. nidulans life cycle, suggest that catalase gene redundancy performs the function of satisfying catalase demand at the two different stages of metabolic and genetic regulation represented by growing hyphae versus spores. Alternative H2O2 detoxification pathways in A. nidulans were indicated by the fact that catA/catB double mutants were able to grow in substrates whose catabolism generates H2O2.

  20. Direct measurement of catalase activity in living cells and tissue biopsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, Christine N.; Xu, Qijin; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan, E-mail: Ramanujanv@csmc.edu

    2016-01-29

    Spatiotemporal regulation of enzyme-substrate interactions governs the decision-making steps in biological systems. Enzymes, being functional units of every living cell, contribute to the macromolecular stability of cell survival, proliferation and hence are vital windows to unraveling the biological complexity. Experimental measurements capturing this dynamics of enzyme-substrate interactions in real time add value to this understanding. Furthermore these measurements, upon validation in realistic biological specimens such as clinical biopsies – can further improve our capability in disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Towards this direction, we describe here a novel, high-sensitive measurement system for measuring diffusion-limited enzyme-substrate kinetics in real time. Using catalase (enzyme) and hydrogen peroxide (substrate) as the example pair, we demonstrate that this system is capable of direct measurement of catalase activity in vitro and the measured kinetics follows the classical Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. We further demonstrate the system performance by measuring catalase activity in living cells and in very small amounts of liver biopsies (down to 1 μg total protein). Catalase-specific enzyme activity is demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological tools. Finally we show the clinically-relevant diagnostic capability of our system by comparing the catalase activities in liver biopsies from young and old mouse (liver and serum) samples. We discuss the potential applicability of this system in clinical diagnostics as well as in intraoperative surgical settings. - Highlights: • A novel, direct measurement of Catalase enzyme activity via, oxygen sensing method. • Steady-stateprofiles of Catalase activity follow the Michaelis-Menten Kinetics. • Catalase-specific activity demonstrated using genetic and pharmacological tools. • Overcomes limitations of spectroscopic methods and indirect calorimetric approaches. • Clear

  1. Direct measurement of catalase activity in living cells and tissue biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaglione, Christine N.; Xu, Qijin; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of enzyme-substrate interactions governs the decision-making steps in biological systems. Enzymes, being functional units of every living cell, contribute to the macromolecular stability of cell survival, proliferation and hence are vital windows to unraveling the biological complexity. Experimental measurements capturing this dynamics of enzyme-substrate interactions in real time add value to this understanding. Furthermore these measurements, upon validation in realistic biological specimens such as clinical biopsies – can further improve our capability in disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Towards this direction, we describe here a novel, high-sensitive measurement system for measuring diffusion-limited enzyme-substrate kinetics in real time. Using catalase (enzyme) and hydrogen peroxide (substrate) as the example pair, we demonstrate that this system is capable of direct measurement of catalase activity in vitro and the measured kinetics follows the classical Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. We further demonstrate the system performance by measuring catalase activity in living cells and in very small amounts of liver biopsies (down to 1 μg total protein). Catalase-specific enzyme activity is demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological tools. Finally we show the clinically-relevant diagnostic capability of our system by comparing the catalase activities in liver biopsies from young and old mouse (liver and serum) samples. We discuss the potential applicability of this system in clinical diagnostics as well as in intraoperative surgical settings. - Highlights: • A novel, direct measurement of Catalase enzyme activity via, oxygen sensing method. • Steady-stateprofiles of Catalase activity follow the Michaelis-Menten Kinetics. • Catalase-specific activity demonstrated using genetic and pharmacological tools. • Overcomes limitations of spectroscopic methods and indirect calorimetric approaches. • Clear

  2. Effects of autogamy in Paramecium tetraurelia on catalase activity and on radiosensitivity to natural ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croute, F.; Dupouy, D.; Charley, J.P.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Planel, H.

    1980-01-01

    Catalase activity of Paramecium tetraurelia decreased during autogamy and recovered to normal 5 days later. Autogamy also caused changes in the ciliate's sensitivity sensitivity to natural ionizing radiations - the decrease in cell growth rate previously described in shielded cultures did not occur when autogamous cells were used. Maximum effect of shielding was observed in 11-day-old postautogamous cells. The role of the catalase in the mechanism of natural irradiation effect is discussed

  3. Action of ionizing radiation on catalase synthesis in the rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komov, V.P.; Strelkova, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    3-amino-1,2,4-triazole was used to study the effect of total-body X-ray irradiation on the rates of catalase synthesis and breakdown in rat liver. It was found that in the interval between hour 22 and hour 144 of radiation sickness, the average rate of catalase synthesis in the liver was 2.6 times lower in rats that received a dose of 800 rads than in control rats

  4. Catalytic Properties and Immobilization Studies of Catalase from Malva sylvestris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Arabaci, G.; Usluoglu, A.

    2013-01-01

    Catalase was partially purified from Malva sylvestris L. and immobilized onto chitosan. Then, its catalytic properties were investigated. (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and dialysis were performed in the extracted enzyme. Further purification was performed with sephadex G-200 column. Kinetic studies of the purified enzyme activity were measured and characterized. The inhibitory effects of KCN, NaN3, CuSO4, and EDTA on M. sylvestris L. catalase activity were observed except NaCl. Furthermore, M. sylv...

  5. Transduction with the antioxidant enzyme catalase protects human T cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takashi; Mimura, Kousaku; Johansson, C Christian; Hanson, Mikael G; Mougiakakos, Dimitrios; Larsson, Charlotte; Martins da Palma, Telma; Sakurai, Daiju; Norell, Håkan; Li, Mingli; Nishimura, Michael I; Kiessling, Rolf

    2008-12-15

    Patients with diseases characterized by chronic inflammation, caused by infection or cancer, have T cells and NK cells with impaired function. The underlying molecular mechanisms are diverse, but one of the major mediators in this immune suppression is oxidative stress caused by activated monocytes, granulocytes, or myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Reactive oxygen species can seriously hamper the efficacy of active immunotherapy and adoptive transfer of T and NK cells into patients. In this study, we have evaluated whether enhanced expression of the antioxidant enzyme catalase in human T cells can protect them against reactive oxygen species. Human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells retrovirally transduced with the catalase gene had increased intracellular expression and activity of catalase. Catalase transduction made CD4(+) T cells less sensitive to H(2)O(2)-induced loss-of-function, measured by their cytokine production and ability to expand in vitro following anti-CD3 stimulation. It also enhanced the resistance to oxidative stress-induced cell death after coculture with activated granulocytes, exposure to the oxidized lipid 4-hydroxynonenal, or H(2)O(2). Expression of catalase by CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells saved cells from cell death and improved their capacity to recognize CMV peptide-loaded target cells when exposed to H(2)O(2). These findings indicate that catalase-transduced T cells potentially are more efficacious for the immunotherapy of patients with advanced cancer or chronic viral infections.

  6. Binding of Cimetidine to Balb/C Mouse Liver Catalase; Kinetics and Conformational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangirvand, Mahboubeh; Minai-Tehrani, Dariush; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Razmi, Nematollah

    2016-01-01

    Catalase is responsible for converting hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into water and oxygen in cells. This enzyme has high affinity for hydrogen peroxide and can protect the cells from oxidative stress damage. Catalase is a tetramer protein and each monomer contains a heme group. Cimetidine is a histamine H2 receptor blocker which inhibits acid release from stomach and is used for gasterointestinal diseases. In this research, effect of cimetidine on the activity of liver catalase was studied and the kinetic parameters of this enzyme and its conformational changes were investigated. Cell free extract of mouse liver was used for the catalase assay. The activity of the catalase was detected in the absence and presence of cimetidine by monitoring hydrogen peroxide reduction absorbance at 240 nm. The purified enzyme was used for conformational studies by Fluorescence spectrophotometry. The data showed that cimetidine could inhibit the enzyme in a non-competitive manner. Ki and IC50 values of the drug were determined to be about 0.75 and 0.85 uM, respectively. The Arrhenius plot showed that activation energy was 6.68 and 4.77 kJ/mol in the presence and absence of the drug, respectively. Fluorescence spectrophotometry revealed that the binding of cimetidine to the purified enzyme induced hyperchromicity and red shift which determined the conformational change on the enzyme. Cimetidine could non-competitively inhibit the liver catalase with high affinity. Binding of cimetidine to the enzyme induced conformational alteration in the enzyme.

  7. The critical role of catalase in prooxidant and antioxidant function of p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M Y; Kim, H-B; Piao, C; Lee, K H; Hyun, J W; Chang, I-Y; You, H J

    2013-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is an important regulator of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, although downstream mediators of p53 remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that p53 and its downstream targets, p53-inducible ribonucleotide reductase (p53R2) and p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3), physically and functionally interact with catalase for efficient regulation of intracellular ROS, depending on stress intensity. Under physiological conditions, the antioxidant functions of p53 are mediated by p53R2, which maintains increased catalase activity and thereby protects against endogenous ROS. After genotoxic stress, high levels of p53 and PIG3 cooperate to inhibit catalase activity, leading to a shift in the oxidant/antioxidant balance toward an oxidative status, which could augment apoptotic cell death. These results highlight the essential role of catalase in p53-mediated ROS regulation and suggest that the p53/p53R2–catalase and p53/PIG3–catalase pathways are critically involved in intracellular ROS regulation under physiological conditions and during the response to DNA damage, respectively. PMID:22918438

  8. Reversible adsorption of catalase onto Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş Uygun, Deniz; Uygun, Murat; Akgöl, Sinan; Denizli, Adil

    2015-05-01

    In this presented study, poly(acrylamide-glycidyl methacrylate) [poly(AAm-GMA)] cryogels were synthesized by cryopolymerization technique at sub-zero temperature. Prepared cryogels were then functionalized with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) and chelated with Fe(3+) ions in order produce the metal chelate affinity matrix. Synthesized cryogels were characterized with FTIR, ESEM and EDX analysis, and it was found that the cryogel had sponge like structure with interconnected pores and their pore diameter was about 200 μm. Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogels were used for the adsorption of catalase and optimum adsorption conditions were determined by varying the medium pH, initial catalase concentration, temperature and ionic strength. Maximum catalase adsorption onto Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogel was found to be 12.99 mg/g cryogel at 25 °C, by using pH 5.0 acetate buffer. Adsorbed catalase was removed from the cryogel by using 1.0M of NaCl solution and desorption yield was found to be 96%. Additionally, reusability profile of the Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogel was also investigated and it was found that, adsorption capacity of the cryogels didn't decrease significantly at the end of the 40 reuses. Catalase activity studies were also tested and it was demonstrated that desorbed catalase retained 70% of its initial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Catalase expression impairs oxidative stress-mediated signalling in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Anna Cláudia Guimarães; Alves, Ceres Luciana; Goes, Grazielle Ribeiro; Resende, Bruno Carvalho; Moretti, Nilmar Silvio; Nunes, Vinícius Santana; Aguiar, Pedro Henrique Nascimento; Tahara, Erich Birelli; Franco, Glória Regina; Macedo, Andréa Mara; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho; Gadelha, Fernanda Ramos; Guarneri, Alessandra Aparecida; Schenkman, Sergio; Vieira, Leda Quercia; Machado, Carlos Renato

    2017-09-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is exposed to oxidative stresses during its life cycle, and amongst the strategies employed by this parasite to deal with these situations sits a peculiar trypanothione-dependent antioxidant system. Remarkably, T. cruzi's antioxidant repertoire does not include catalase. In an attempt to shed light on what are the reasons by which this parasite lacks this enzyme, a T. cruzi cell line stably expressing catalase showed an increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) when compared with wild-type cells. Interestingly, preconditioning carried out with low concentrations of H2O2 led untransfected parasites to be as much resistant to this oxidant as cells expressing catalase, but did not induce the same level of increased resistance in the latter ones. Also, presence of catalase decreased trypanothione reductase and increased superoxide dismutase levels in T. cruzi, resulting in higher levels of residual H2O2 after challenge with this oxidant. Although expression of catalase contributed to elevated proliferation rates of T. cruzi in Rhodnius prolixus, it failed to induce a significant increase of parasite virulence in mice. Altogether, these results indicate that the absence of a gene encoding catalase in T. cruzi has played an important role in allowing this parasite to develop a shrill capacity to sense and overcome oxidative stress.

  10. Fluorescence spectrometry of the interaction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with catalase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.; Cai, H.; Miao, J.; Yang, Q.; Li, Y.; Li, J.; Fu, D.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with catalase is investigated using fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. The results of the fluorescence experiments suggest that MWCNTs quench the intrinsic fluorescence of catalase via a static quenching mechanism. The circular dichroism spectral results reveal the unfolding of catalase with a significant decrease in the α-helix content in the presence of MWCNTs, which indicates that the conformation of catalase is changed in the binding process, thereby remarkably decreasing its activity. The binding constants and the number of binding sites of the MWCNT to the catalase are calculated at different temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters, such as the changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS), are calculated using thermodynamic equations. The fact that all negative values of ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS are obtained suggests that the interaction of the MWCNTs with catalase is spontaneous, and that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions play an important role in the binding process. (authors)

  11. Inhibitory effects of a novel Val to Thr mutation on the distal heme of human catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Zahra; Boeglin, William E; Brash, Alan R

    2014-11-01

    True catalases efficiently breakdown hydrogen peroxide, whereas the catalase-related enzyme allene oxide synthase (cAOS) is completely unreactive and instead metabolizes a fatty acid hydroperoxide. In cAOS a Thr residue adjacent to the distal His restrains reaction with H2O2 (Tosha et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281:12610; De Luna et al. (2013) J. Phys. Chem. B 117: 14635) and its mutation to the consensus Val of true catalases permits the interaction. Here we investigated the effects of the reciprocal experiment in which the Val74 of human catalase is mutated to Thr, Ser, Met, Pro, or Ala. The Val74Thr substitution decreased catalatic activity by 3.5-fold and peroxidatic activity by 3-fold. Substitution with Ser had similar negative effects (5- and 3-fold decreases). Met decreased catalatic activity 2-fold and eliminated peroxidatic activity altogether, whereas the Val74Ala substitution was well tolerated. (The Val74Pro protein lacked heme). We conclude that the conserved Val74 of true catalases helps optimize catalysis. There are rare substitutions of Val74 with Ala, Met, or Pro, but not with Ser of Thr, possibly due their hydrogen bonding affecting the conformation of His75, the essential distal heme residue for activity in catalases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  12. Catalase inhibition in the Arcuate nucleus blocks ethanol effects on the locomotor activity of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Segura, Carles; Correa, Mercé; Miquel, Marta; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2005-03-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that there is a bidirectional modulation of ethanol-induced locomotion produced by drugs that regulate brain catalase activity. In the present study we have assessed the effect in rats of intraperitoneal, intraventricular or intracraneal administration of the catalase inhibitor sodium azide in the locomotor changes observed after ethanol (1 g/kg) administration. Our results show that sodium azide prevents the effects of ethanol in rats locomotion not only when sodium azide was systemically administered but also when it was intraventricularly injected, then confirming that the interaction between catalase and ethanol takes place in Central Nervous System (CNS). Even more interestingly, the same results were observed when sodium azide administration was restricted to the hypothalamic Arcuate nucleus (ARC), a brain region which has one of the highest levels of expression of catalase. Therefore, the results of the present study not only confirm a role for brain catalase in the mediation of ethanol-induced locomotor changes in rodents but also point to the ARC as a major neuroanatomical location for this interaction. These results are in agreement with our reports showing that ethanol-induced locomotor changes are clearly dependent of the ARC integrity and, especially of the POMc-synthesising neurons of this nucleus. According to these data we propose a model in which ethanol oxidation via catalase could produce acetaldehyde into the ARC and to promote a release of beta-endorphins that would activate opioid receptors to produce locomotion and other ethanol-induced neurobehavioural changes.

  13. Involvement of brain catalase activity in the acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Laura; Miquel, Marta; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2008-03-18

    It has been suggested that some of the behavioral effects produced by ethanol are mediated by its first metabolite, acetaldehyde. The present research addressed the hypothesis that catalase-dependent metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde in the brain is an important step in the production of ethanol-related affective properties. Firstly, we investigated the contribution of brain catalase in the acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Secondly, the specificity of the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT) was evaluated with morphine- and cocaine-induced CPP. Finally, to investigate the role of catalase in the process of relapse to ethanol seeking caused by re-exposure to ethanol, after an initial conditioning and extinction, mice were primed with saline and ethanol or AT and ethanol and tested for reinstatement of CPP. Conditioned place preference was blocked in animals treated with AT and ethanol. Morphine and cocaine CPP were unaffected by AT treatment. However, the reinstatement of place preference was not modified by catalase inhibition. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that the brain catalase-H(2)O(2) system contributes to the acquisition of affective-dependent learning induced by ethanol, and support the involvement of centrally-formed acetaldehyde in the formation of positive affective memories produced by ethanol.

  14. Subchronic exposure to high-dose ACE-inhibitor moexipril induces catalase activity in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeghate, E; Hasan, M Y; Ponery, A S; Nurulain, S M; Petroianu, G A

    2005-12-01

    The long-term clinical effects of ACE-inhibitors have similarities with those of both fibrates and glitazones, activators of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor (PPAR) alpha and gamma, respectively. The antioxidant enzyme catalase, a heme protein that degrades hydrogen peroxide, is found at high concentrations in peroxisomes. Catalase activity is one of the recognized surrogate markers indicative of PPAR activation in the rat liver. The purpose of the study was to establish the effect of moexipril on catalase activity and to compare it with the effect of both saline controls and that of the known PPAR agonist clofibrate (positive control). Three groups of seven rats were used. All substances were applied i.p. daily for 5 days, followed by a 2-day break. The cycle was repeated eight times. After the final cycle (day 56) the animals were sacrificed and liver tissue collected. The number of catalase positive cells in both moexipril group (95% CI 57-61) and clofibrate group (95% CI 72-80) is higher than in controls (95% CI 3-16) (p catalase positive cells in the clofibrate group is higher than in the moexipril group (p inhibitor moexipril induces catalase activity in the rat liver to an extent comparable to fibrates. We suggest that some of the long-term advantages of ACE inhibitor use - beyond mere BP lowering - might be due to a PPAR mediated effect.

  15. CATALASE ACTIVITY OF TWO STREPTOCOCCUS FAECALIS STRAINS AND ITS ENHANCEMENT BY AEROBIOSIS AND ADDED CATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JONES, D; DEIBEL, R H; NIVEN, C F

    1964-09-01

    Jones, Dorothy (American Meat Institute Foundation, Chicago, Ill.), R. H. Deibel, and C. F. Niven, Jr. Catalase activity of two Streptococcus faecalis strains and its enhancement by aerobiosis and added cations. J. Bacteriol. 88:602-610. 1964.-The nature of catalase activity noted in two unusual Streptococcus faecalis strains was determined. Enzyme activity was lost slowly when cultures were maintained by daily transfer in test tubes of broth media. Loss of activity could be prevented by aerobic culture. Supplementation of the growth medium with ferric, manganese, and zinc ions, as well as aerobiosis, enhanced catalase activity. However, addition of these cations to cell suspensions or to cell-free extracts did not increase catalase activity. Although oxygen was observed to be one of the reaction end products, the catalase activity was not inhibited by cyanide or azide, and the iron-porphyrin coenzyme of classical catalase was not detected. The enzyme was purified 185-fold by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, followed by chromotography on a diethylaminoethyl cellulose column.

  16. Veillonella Catalase Protects the Growth of Fusobacterium nucleatum in Microaerophilic and Streptococcus gordonii-Resident Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Li, Xiaoli; Huang, I-Hsiu; Qi, Fengxia

    2017-10-01

    The oral biofilm is a multispecies community in which antagonism and mutualism coexist among friends and foes to keep an ecological balance of community members. The pioneer colonizers, such as Streptococcus gordonii , produce H 2 O 2 to inhibit the growth of competitors, like the mutans streptococci, as well as strict anaerobic middle and later colonizers of the dental biofilm. Interestingly, Veillonella species, as early colonizers, physically interact (coaggregate) with S. gordonii A putative catalase gene ( catA ) is found in most sequenced Veillonella species; however, the function of this gene is unknown. In this study, we characterized the ecological function of catA from Veillonella parvula PK1910 by integrating it into the only transformable strain, Veillonella atypica OK5, which is catA negative. The strain (OK5- catA ) became more resistant to H 2 O 2 Further studies demonstrated that the catA gene expression is induced by the addition of H 2 O 2 or coculture with S. gordonii Mixed-culture experiments further revealed that the transgenic OK5- catA strain not only enhanced the growth of Fusobacterium nucleatum , a strict anaerobic periodontopathogen, under microaerophilic conditions, but it also rescued F. nucleatum from killing by S. gordonii A potential role of catalase in veillonellae in biofilm ecology and pathogenesis is discussed here. IMPORTANCE Veillonella species, as early colonizers, can coaggregate with many bacteria, including the initial colonizer Streptococcus gordonii and periodontal pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum , during various stages of oral biofilm formation. In addition to providing binding sites for many microbes, our previous study also showed that Veillonella produces nutrients for the survival and growth of periodontal pathogens. These findings indicate that Veillonella plays an important "bridging" role in the development of oral biofilms and the ecology of the human oral cavity. In this study, we demonstrated that the reducing

  17. Effects of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Overexpression on Anxiety and Memory after Early Life Stress in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatsou, Sofia; Ter Horst, Judith P; Harris, Anjanette P; Seckl, Jonathan R; Krugers, Harmen J; Joëls, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for the development of psychopathology, particularly in women. Human studies have shown that certain haplotypes of NR3C2, encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), that result in gain of function, may protect against the consequences of stress exposure, including childhood trauma. Here, we tested the hypothesis that forebrain-specific overexpression of MR in female mice would ameliorate the effects of ELS on anxiety and memory in adulthood. We found that ELS increased anxiety, did not alter spatial discrimination and reduced contextual fear memory in adult female mice. Transgenic overexpression of MR did not alter anxiety but affected spatial memory performance and enhanced contextual fear memory formation. The effects of ELS on anxiety and contextual fear were not affected by transgenic overexpression of MR. Thus, MR overexpression in the forebrain does not represent a major resilience factor to early life adversity in female mice.

  18. Overexpression of malic enzyme in the larval stage extends Drosophila lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gye-Hyeong; Lee, Young-Eun; Lee, Gun-Ho; Cho, Youn-Ho; Lee, Young-Nam; Jang, Yeogil; Paik, Donggi; Park, Joong-Jean

    2015-01-09

    Metabolic modifications during the developmental period can extend longevity. We found that malic enzyme (Men) overexpression during the larval period lengthened the lifespan of Drosophila. Men overexpression by S106-GeneSwitch-Gal4 driver increased pyruvate content and NADPH/NADP(+) ratio but reduced triglyceride, glycogen, and ATP levels in the larvae. ROS levels increased unexpectedly in Men-overexpressing larvae. Interestingly, adults exposed to larval Men-overexpression maintained ROS tolerance with enhanced expression levels of glutathione-S-transferase D2 and thioredoxin-2. Our results suggest that metabolic changes mediated by Men during development might be related to the control of ROS tolerance and the longevity of Drosophila. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Protandim attenuates intimal hyperplasia in human saphenous veins cultured ex vivo via a catalase-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joddar, Binata; Reen, Rashmeet K; Firstenberg, Michael S; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; McCord, Joe M; Zweier, Jay L; Gooch, Keith J

    2011-03-15

    Human saphenous veins (HSVs) are widely used for bypass grafts despite their relatively low long-term patency. To evaluate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling in intima hyperplasia (IH), an early stage pathology of vein-graft disease, and to explore the potential therapeutic effects of up-regulating endogenous antioxidant enzymes, we studied segments of HSV cultured ex vivo in an established ex vivo model of HSV IH. Results showed that HSV cultured ex vivo exhibit an ~3-fold increase in proliferation and ~3.6-fold increase in intimal area relative to freshly isolated HSV. Treatment of HSV during culture with Protandim, a nutritional supplement known to activate Nrf2 and increase the expression of antioxidant enzymes in several in vitro and in vivo models, blocks IH and reduces cellular proliferation to that of freshly isolated HSV. Protandim treatment increased the activity of SOD, HO-1, and catalase 3-, 7-, and 12-fold, respectively, and decreased the levels of superoxide (O(2)(•-)) and the lipid peroxidation product 4-HNE. Blocking catalase activity by cotreating with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole abrogated the protective effect of Protandim on IH and proliferation. In conclusion, these results suggest that ROS-sensitive signaling mediates the observed IH in cultured HSV and that up-regulation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes can have a protective effect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential toxicity of sarafloxacin to catalase: Spectroscopic, ITC and molecular docking descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhaozhen; Liu, Rutao; Yang, Bingjun

    2013-11-01

    The interaction between sarafloxacin and catalase (CAT) was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) and molecular docking method. After deducting the inner filter effect, the fluorescence of CAT was quenched regularly by different concentrations of sarafloxacin. The quenching mechanism was studied by lifetime measurement, and it was proved to be mostly due to static quenching. The formation of sarafloxacin-CAT complex alters the micro-environment of amide moieties and tryptophan (Trp) residues, reduces the α-helix content of the enzyme, changes the peripheral substituents on the porphyrin ring of heme and leads to the inhibition of the enzyme activity. Molecular docking study reveals that sarafloxacin is located between two α-helix of CAT near to Trp 182 and Trp 185 residues, which supports the experimental results and helps to have a more clear understanding about the interaction mechanism. The change in the relative position of His 74 to heme induced by the variation of secondary structure is considered to be the major reason for the reduction of CAT activity. Moreover, sarafloxacin binds into a hydrophobic area of CAT mainly through hydrophobic interactions, which is consistent with the ITC analysis.

  1. Effects of Greek legume plant extracts on xanthine oxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanou, Chrysoula I; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Stagos, Dimitrios; Liadaki, Kalliopi; Aligiannis, Nectarios; Angelis, Apostolos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Anastasiadi, Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2012-03-01

    Legumes are considered to have beneficial health implications, which have been attributed to their phytochemical content. Polyphenols are considered the most important phytochemical compounds extensively studied for their antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of potent antioxidant legume plant extracts on xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. XO exerts a dual role, as it is the major contributor of free radicals during exercise while it generates uric acid, the most potent antioxidant molecule in plasma. CAT and SOD are two of the main enzymes of the antioxidant defence of tissues. We demonstrate that the majority of the extracts inhibited XO activity, but they had no effect on CAT inhibition and SOD induction when used at low concentrations. These results imply that the tested extracts may be considered as possible source of novel XO inhibitors. However, we have shown that allopurinol administration, a known XO inhibitor, before exercise reduces performance and induces oxidative stress in rats. Considering the fact that the extracts examined had an inhibitory effect on XO activity, possibly posing a restriction in their characterization as antioxidants, phytochemical antioxidant administration before exercise should probably be reconsidered.

  2. [Kinetics of catalase inactivation induced by ultrasonic cavitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapovich, M V; Eremin, A N; Metelitsa, D I

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic patterns of sonication-induced inactivation of bovine liver catalase (CAT) were studied in buffer solutions (pH 4-11) within the temperature range from 36 to 55 degrees C. Solutions of CAT were exposed to low-frequency (20.8 kHz) ultrasound (specific power, 48-62 W/cm2). The kinetics of CAT inactivation was characterized by effective first-order rate constants (s-1) of total inactivation (kin), thermal inactivation (*kin), and ultrasonic inactivation (kin(us)). In all cases, the following inequality was valid: kin > *kin. The value of kin(us) increased with the ultrasound power (range, 48-62 W/cm2) and exhibited a strong dependence on pH of the medium. On increasing the initial concentration of CAT (0.4-4.0 nM), kin(us) decreased. The three rate constants were minimum within the range of pH 6.5-8; their values increased considerably at pH 9. At 36-55 degrees C, temperature dependence of kin(us) was characterized by an activation energy (Eact) of 19.7 kcal/mol, whereas the value of Eact for CAT thermoinactivation was equal to 44.2 kcal/mol. Bovine serum and human serum albumins (BSA and HSA, respectively) inhibited sonication-induced CAT inactivation; complete prevention was observed at concentrations above 2.5 micrograms/ml. Dimethyl formamide (DMFA), a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals (HO.), prevented sonication-induced CAT inactivation at 10% (kin and *kin increased with the content of DMFA at concentrations in excess of 3%). The results obtained indicate that free radicals generated in the field of ultrasonic cavitation play a decisive role in the inactivation of CAT, which takes place when its solutions are exposed to low-frequency ultrasound. However, the efficiency of CAT inactivation by the radicals is determined by (1) the degree of association between the enzyme molecules in the reaction medium and (2) the composition thereof.

  3. Hepatoprotective effects of Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] on alcohol-damaged primary rat hepatocyte culture in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenhua; Bian, Yuzhu; Wang, Zhenghui; Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2017-02-01

    We have prepared a novel nanobiotherapeutic, Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase], which not only transports both oxygen and carbon dioxide but also a therapeutic antioxidant. Our previous study in a severe sustained 90 min hemorrhagic shock rat model shows that it has a hepatoprotective effect. We investigate its hepatoprotective effect further in this present report using an alcohol-damaged primary hepatocyte culture model. Results show that it significantly reduced ethanol-induced AST release, lipid peroxidation, and ROS production in rat primary hepatocytes culture. It also significantly enhanced the viability of ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Thus, the result shows that Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] also has some hepatoprotective effects against alcohol-induced injury in in vitro rat primary hepatocytes cell culture. This collaborate our previous observation of its hepatoprotective effect in a severe sustained 90-min hemorrhagic shock rat model.

  4. Interaction between Cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein and plant catalase induces a specific necrosis in association with proteasome activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murota, Katsunori; Shimura, Hanako; Takeshita, Minoru; Masuta, Chikara

    2017-01-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) can induce a specific necrosis on Arabidopsis through the interaction between the CMV 2b protein and host catalase, in which the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway may be involved. We previously reported that the CMV 2b protein, the viral RNA silencing suppressor, interacted with the H 2 O 2 scavenger catalase (CAT3), leading to necrosis on CMV-inoculated Arabidopsis leaves. We here confirmed that CMV could more abundantly accumulate in the CAT3-knockout mutant (cat3), and that CAT3 makes host plants a little more tolerant to CMV. We also found that the necrosis severity is not simply explained by a high level of H 2 O 2 given by the lack of CAT3, because the recombinant CMV, CMV-N, induced much milder necrosis in cat3 than in the wild type, suggesting some specific mechanism for the necrosis induction. To further characterize the 2b-inducing necrosis in relation to its binding to CAT3, we conducted the agroinfiltration experiments to overexpress CAT3 and 2b in N. benthamiana leaves. The accumulation levels of CAT3 were higher when co-expressed with the CMV-N 2b (N2b) than with CMV-Y 2b (Y2b). We infer that N2b made a more stable complex with CAT3 than Y2b did, and the longevity of the 2b-CAT3 complex seemed to be important to induce necrosis. By immunoprecipitation (IP) with an anti-ubiquitin antibody followed by the detection with anti-CAT3 antibodies, we detected a higher molecular-weight smear and several breakdown products of CAT3 among the IP-proteins. In addition, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 treatment could actually increase the accumulation levels of CAT3. This study suggests that the host proteasome pathway is, at least partially, responsible for the degradation of CAT3, which is manifested in CMV-infected tissues.

  5. Reduction in the anxiolytic effects of ethanol by centrally formed acetaldehyde: the role of catalase inhibitors and acetaldehyde-sequestering agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, M; Manrique, H M; Font, L; Escrig, M A; Aragon, C M G

    2008-11-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that brain ethanol metabolism mediated by catalase is involved in modulating some of the behavioral and physiological effects of this drug, which suggests that the first metabolite of ethanol, acetaldehyde, may have central actions. Previous results have shown that acetaldehyde administered into the lateral ventricles produced anxiolysis in a novel open arena in rats. The present studies investigate the effects of centrally formed acetaldehyde on ethanol-induced anxiolysis. The effects of the catalase inhibitor sodium azide (SA; 0 or 10 mg/kg, IP) on ethanol-induced anxiolysis (0.0, 0.5, or 1.0 g/kg, IP) were evaluated in CD1 mice in two anxiety paradigms, the elevated plus maze and the dark/light box. Additional studies assessed the effect of the noncompetitive catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT; 0.5 g/kg, IP) and the acetaldehyde inactivation agent D: -penicillamine (50 mg/kg, IP) on the plus maze. SA reduced the anxiolytic effects of ethanol on several parameters evaluated in the elevated plus maze and in the dark/light box. In the plus maze, AT completely blocked and D-penicillamine significantly reduced the anxiolytic properties of ethanol. Thus, when cerebral metabolism of ethanol into acetaldehyde is blocked by catalase inhibitors, or acetaldehyde is inactivated, there is a suppressive effect on the anxiolytic actions of ethanol. These data provide further support for the idea that centrally formed or administered acetaldehyde can contribute to some of the psychopharmacological actions of ethanol, including its anxiolytic properties.

  6. [Kinetic characteristics of extracellular catalase from Penicillium piceum F-648 and variants of fungi, adapted to hydrogen peroxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, A N; Metelitsa, D I; Moroz, I V; Pavlovskaia, Zh I; Mikhaĭlova, R V

    2002-01-01

    A comparative kinetic study of extracellular catalases produced by Penicillium piceum F-648 and their variants adapted to H2O2 was performed in culture liquid filtrates. The specific activity of catalase, the maximum rate of catalase-induced H2O2 degradation (Vmax),Vmax/KM ratio, and the catalase inactivation rate constant in the enzymatic reaction (kin, s-1) were estimated in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 30 degrees C. The effective constant representing the rate of catalase thermal inactivation (kin*, s-1) was determined at 45 degrees C. In all samples, the specific activity and KM for catalase were maximum at a protein concentration in culture liquid filtrates of 2.5-3.5 x 10(-4) mg/ml. The effective constants describing the rate of H2O2 degradation (k, s-1) were similar to that observed in the initial culture. These values reflected a twofold decrease in catalase activity in culture liquid filtrates. We hypothesized that culture liquid filtrates contain two isoforms of extracellular catalase characterized by different activities and affinities for H2O2. Catalases from variants 5 and 3 with high and low affinities for H2O2, respectively, had a greater operational stability than the enzyme from the initial culture. The method of adaptive selection for H2O2 can be used to obtain fungal variants producing extracellular catalases with improved properties.

  7. Evaluation on the Toxic Effects of NanoAg to Catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Zhai, Wenxin; Liu, Rutao; Yu, Zehua; Shen, Hengmei; Hu, Xinxin

    2015-02-01

    Protein is the functional actor of life. Research on protein damage induced by nanomaterials may give insight into the toxicity mechanisms of nanoparticles. Studying nano silver over the impact of the structure and function of catalase (CAT) at the molecular level, is of great significance for a comprehensive evaluation of their toxic effects. The toxic effects of nanoAg on catalase were thoroughly investigated using steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching measurements, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, resonance light scattering spectroscopy (RLS), circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). NanoAg could decrease the amount of alpha-helix and increase the beta sheet structure, leading to loose the skeleton structure of catalase. The characteristic fluorescence of catalase was obviously quenched, which showed the exposal of internal hydrophobic amino acids enhanced, and its quenching type is dynamic quenching. The result of RLS and TEM showed that the distribution and size of nanoAg become more uniform and smaller after their interaction, resulting in a decrease of RLS intensity. NanoAg could make the activity of catalase rise. By changing the structure of catalase, nanoAg increases its enzymatic activity to a certain extent, breaking down its balance in vivo, thereby affecting the normal physiological activities. NanoAg has obvious toxic effects on catalase. This paper provided a new perspective and method for the toxic effects of nanoAg to biological macromolecules; provided basic data and reference gist for the hygienics and toxicology studies of nanoAg. It is conducive to the toxicity prevention and control work of nanoAg, promoting nano-technology applied to human production and living better.

  8. The role and regulation of catalase in respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Mia M; Fan, Xin

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory tract bacterial pathogens are the etiologic agents of a variety of illnesses. The ability of these bacteria to cause disease is imparted through survival within the host and avoidance of pathogen clearance by the immune system. Respiratory tract pathogens are continually bombarded by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may be produced by competing bacteria, normal metabolic function, or host immunological responses. In order to survive and proliferate, bacteria have adapted defense mechanisms to circumvent the effects of ROS. Bacteria employ the use of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalases and catalase-peroxidases, to relieve the effects of the oxidative stressors to which they are continually exposed. The decomposition of ROS has been shown to provide favorable conditions in which respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Legionella pneumophila, and Neisseria meningitidis are able to withstand exposure to highly reactive molecules and yet survive. Bacteria possessing mutations in the catalase gene have a decreased survival rate, yet may be able to compensate for the lack of catalatic activity if peroxidatic activity is present. An incomplete knowledge of the mechanisms by which catalase and catalase-peroxidases are regulated still persists, however, in some bacterial species, a regulatory factor known as OxyR has been shown to either up-regulate or down-regulate catalase gene expression. Yet, more research is still needed to increase the knowledge base in relation to this enzyme class. As with this review, we focus on major respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens in order to elucidate the function and regulation of catalases. The importance of the research could lead to the development of novel treatments against respiratory bacterial infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cyclopamine and jervine induce COX-2 overexpression in human erythroleukemia cells but only cyclopamine has a pro-apoptotic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezali, Lamia; Leger, David Yannick; Limami, Youness [Université de Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, EA 1069 “Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Naturelles”, GDR CNRS 3049, Faculté de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire, 2 rue du Docteur Marcland, 87025 Limoges Cedex (France); Cook-Moreau, Jeanne [Université de Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, UMR CNRS 7276 “Contrôle de la réponse immune B et lymphoproliférations”, Faculté de Médecine, 2 rue du Docteur Marcland, 87025 Limoges Cedex (France); Beneytout, Jean-Louis [Université de Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, EA 1069 “Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Naturelles”, GDR CNRS 3049, Faculté de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire, 2 rue du Docteur Marcland, 87025 Limoges Cedex (France); Liagre, Bertrand, E-mail: bertrand.liagre@unilim.fr [Université de Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, EA 1069 “Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Naturelles”, GDR CNRS 3049, Faculté de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire, 2 rue du Docteur Marcland, 87025 Limoges Cedex (France)

    2013-04-15

    Erythroleukemia is generally associated with a very poor response and survival to current available therapeutic agents. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been described to play a crucial role in the proliferation and differentiation of leukemia cells, this enzyme seems to play an important role in chemoresistance in different cancer types. Previously, we demonstrated that diosgenin, a plant steroid, induced apoptosis in HEL cells with concomitant COX-2 overexpression. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of cyclopamine and jervine, two steroidal alkaloids with similar structures, on HEL and TF1a human erythroleukemia cell lines and, for the first time, their effect on COX-2 expression. Cyclopamine, but not jervine, inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in these cells. Both compounds induced COX-2 overexpression which was responsible for apoptosis resistance. In jervine-treated cells, COX-2 overexpression was NF-κB dependent. Inhibition of NF-κB reduced COX-2 overexpression and induced apoptosis. In addition, cyclopamine induced apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression via PKC activation. Inhibition of the PKC pathway reduced both apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression in both cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the p38/COX-2 pathway was involved in resistance to cyclopamine-induced apoptosis since p38 inhibition reduced COX-2 overexpression and increased apoptosis in both cell lines. - Highlights: ► Cyclopamine alone but not jervine induces apoptosis in human erythroleukemia cells. ► Cyclopamine and jervine induce COX-2 overexpression. ► COX-2 overexpression is implicated in resistance to cyclopamine-induced apoptosis. ► Apoptotic potential of jervine is restrained by NF-κB pathway activation. ► PKC is involved in cyclopamine-induced apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression.

  10. Cyclopamine and jervine induce COX-2 overexpression in human erythroleukemia cells but only cyclopamine has a pro-apoptotic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezali, Lamia; Leger, David Yannick; Limami, Youness; Cook-Moreau, Jeanne; Beneytout, Jean-Louis; Liagre, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Erythroleukemia is generally associated with a very poor response and survival to current available therapeutic agents. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been described to play a crucial role in the proliferation and differentiation of leukemia cells, this enzyme seems to play an important role in chemoresistance in different cancer types. Previously, we demonstrated that diosgenin, a plant steroid, induced apoptosis in HEL cells with concomitant COX-2 overexpression. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of cyclopamine and jervine, two steroidal alkaloids with similar structures, on HEL and TF1a human erythroleukemia cell lines and, for the first time, their effect on COX-2 expression. Cyclopamine, but not jervine, inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in these cells. Both compounds induced COX-2 overexpression which was responsible for apoptosis resistance. In jervine-treated cells, COX-2 overexpression was NF-κB dependent. Inhibition of NF-κB reduced COX-2 overexpression and induced apoptosis. In addition, cyclopamine induced apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression via PKC activation. Inhibition of the PKC pathway reduced both apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression in both cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the p38/COX-2 pathway was involved in resistance to cyclopamine-induced apoptosis since p38 inhibition reduced COX-2 overexpression and increased apoptosis in both cell lines. - Highlights: ► Cyclopamine alone but not jervine induces apoptosis in human erythroleukemia cells. ► Cyclopamine and jervine induce COX-2 overexpression. ► COX-2 overexpression is implicated in resistance to cyclopamine-induced apoptosis. ► Apoptotic potential of jervine is restrained by NF-κB pathway activation. ► PKC is involved in cyclopamine-induced apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression

  11. Significance of Aurora B overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Aurora B Overexpression in HCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zhong-Zhe; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Hu, Fu-Chang; Pan, Hung-Wei; Tsao, Hsin-Wei; Lai, Po-Lin; Lee, Po-Huang; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Hsu, Hey-Chi

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the significance of Aurora B expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The Aurora B and Aurora A mRNA level was measured in 160 HCCs and the paired nontumorous liver tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mutations of the p53 and β-catenin genes were analyzed in 134 and 150 tumors, respectively, by direct sequencing of exon 2 to exon 11 of p53 and exon 3 of β-catenin. Anticancer effects of AZD1152-HQPA, an Aurora B kinase selective inhibitor, were examined in Huh-7 and Hep3B cell lines. Aurora B was overexpressed in 98 (61%) of 160 HCCs and in all 7 HCC cell lines examined. The overexpression of Aurora B was associated with Aurora A overexpression (P = 0.0003) and p53 mutation (P = 0.002) and was inversely associated with β-catenin mutation (P = 0.002). Aurora B overexpression correlated with worse clinicopathologic characteristics. Multivariate analysis confirmed that Aurora B overexpression was an independent poor prognostic factor, despite its interaction with Aurora A overexpression and mutations of p53 and β-catenin. In Huh-7 and Hep3B cells, AZD1152-HQPA induced proliferation blockade, histone H3 (Ser10) dephosphorylation, cell cycle disturbance, and apoptosis. Aurora B overexpression is an independent molecular marker predicting tumor invasiveness and poor prognosis of HCC. Aurora B kinase selective inhibitors are potential therapeutic agents for HCC treatment

  12. Study on the role of catalase for uptake of metallic mercury Part 3 In vitro oxidation of metallic mercury by catalase and hydrogen peroxide generated by several oxidase system

    OpenAIRE

    劒持,堅志

    1984-01-01

    In vitro oxidation of metallic mercury by catalase and hydrogen peroxide generated by the glucose-glucose oxidase system, D-alanine-D-amino acid oxidase system and xanthine-xanthine oxidase-superoxide dismutase system was investigated. In vitro oxidation of metallic mercury by catalase and hydrogen peroxide generated by the reaction with glucose and glucose oxidase was observed in erythrocytes and crystalline beef liver catalase solution. The uptake depended on the concentration of glucose ox...

  13. Overexpression of homogentisate phytyltransferase in lettuce results ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... gene and the total content of α and γ-tocopherol in transgenic plants were increased up to 4 and 2.61 folds, respectively, demonstrating that overexpression of HPT gene is an effective way to improve vitamin E content in lettuce. Key words: Lactuca sativa, tocopherol, homogentisate phytyltransferase (HPT), ...

  14. Direct measurement of catalase activity in living cells and tissue biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Christine N; Xu, Qijin; Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2016-01-29

    Spatiotemporal regulation of enzyme-substrate interactions governs the decision-making steps in biological systems. Enzymes, being functional units of every living cell, contribute to the macromolecular stability of cell survival, proliferation and hence are vital windows to unraveling the biological complexity. Experimental measurements capturing this dynamics of enzyme-substrate interactions in real time add value to this understanding. Furthermore these measurements, upon validation in realistic biological specimens such as clinical biopsies - can further improve our capability in disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Towards this direction, we describe here a novel, high-sensitive measurement system for measuring diffusion-limited enzyme-substrate kinetics in real time. Using catalase (enzyme) and hydrogen peroxide (substrate) as the example pair, we demonstrate that this system is capable of direct measurement of catalase activity in vitro and the measured kinetics follows the classical Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. We further demonstrate the system performance by measuring catalase activity in living cells and in very small amounts of liver biopsies (down to 1 μg total protein). Catalase-specific enzyme activity is demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological tools. Finally we show the clinically-relevant diagnostic capability of our system by comparing the catalase activities in liver biopsies from young and old mouse (liver and serum) samples. We discuss the potential applicability of this system in clinical diagnostics as well as in intraoperative surgical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Catalase, a remarkable enzyme: targeting the oldest antioxidant enzyme to find a new cancer treatment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorieux, Christophe; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2017-09-26

    This review is centered on the antioxidant enzyme catalase and will present different aspects of this particular protein. Among them: historical discovery, biological functions, types of catalases and recent data with regard to molecular mechanisms regulating its expression. The main goal is to understand the biological consequences of chronic exposure of cells to hydrogen peroxide leading to cellular adaptation. Such issues are of the utmost importance with potential therapeutic extrapolation for various pathologies. Catalase is a key enzyme in the metabolism of H2O2 and reactive nitrogen species, and its expression and localization is markedly altered in tumors. The molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of catalase, the oldest known and first discovered antioxidant enzyme, are not completely elucidated. As cancer cells are characterized by an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a rather altered expression of antioxidant enzymes, these characteristics represent an advantage in terms of cell proliferation. Meanwhile, they render cancer cells particularly sensitive to an oxidant insult. In this context, targeting the redox status of cancer cells by modulating catalase expression is emerging as a novel approach to potentiate chemotherapy.

  16. Freezability of water buffalo spermatozoa is improved with the addition of catalase in cryodiluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, L; Hassan Andrabi, S M; Ahmed, H; Hussain Shah, A A

    Catalase enzyme is usually distributed in mammalian seminal plasma, where it decomposes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen and enhances sperm survivability. To evaluate the effect of catalase (0, 100, 200 or 300 IU/ml) added in tris-citric acid (TCA) based extender on motion characteristics, viability and DNA integrity of bubaline spermatozoa at post dilution (PD) and post thawing (PT) stages of cryopreservation. Collection of semen was done in four Nili-Ravi bulls with an artificial vagina (42 degree C). Qualified semen samples from each bull were further subdivided into four aliquots for dilution with the experimental TCA extender containing either 0.0 (T1), 100 IU (T2), 200 IU (T3) or 300 IU (T4) catalase (activity12660 U/mg). At PT, mean computer progressive motility, average path velocity, straight line velocity, curvilinear velocity, visual motility and DNA integrity were higher (P catalase fortified treatment groups as compared with control. Regarding plasma membrane integrity and supra-vital plasma membrane integrity, at PT the mean values were higher (P catalase at a concentration of 300IU/ml in TCA cryodiluent improved the freezability of water buffalo spermatozoa.

  17. Novel Role of Endogenous Catalase in Macrophage Polarization in Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ye Seul; Uddin, Md Jamal; Piao, Lingjuan; Hwang, Inah; Lee, Jung Hwa; Ha, Hunjoo

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are important components of adipose tissue inflammation, which results in metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance. Notably, obesity induces a proinflammatory phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophages, and oxidative stress facilitates this switch. Thus, we examined the role of endogenous catalase, a key regulator of oxidative stress, in the activity of adipose tissue macrophages in obese mice. Catalase knockout (CKO) exacerbated insulin resistance, amplified oxidative stress, and accelerated macrophage infiltration into epididymal white adipose tissue in mice on normal or high-fat diet. Interestingly, catalase deficiency also enhanced classical macrophage activation (M1) and inflammation but suppressed alternative activation (M2) regardless of diet. Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of catalase activity using 3-aminotriazole induced the same phenotypic switch and inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages. Finally, the same phenotypic switch and inflammatory responses were observed in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages from CKO mice. Taken together, the data indicate that endogenous catalase regulates the polarization of adipose tissue macrophages and thereby inhibits inflammation and insulin resistance.

  18. Catalase coupled gold nanoparticles: Comparison between carbodiimide and biotin-streptavidin methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirra, Hariharasudhan D.; Sexton, Travis; Biswal, Dipti; Hersh, Louis B.; Hilt, J. Zach

    2011-01-01

    The use of proteins for therapeutic applications requires the protein to maintain sufficient activity for the period of in vivo treatment. Many proteins exhibit a short half-life in vivo and, thus, require delivery systems for them to be applied as therapeutics. The relative biocompatibility and the ability to form functionalized bioconjugates via simple chemistry make gold nanoparticles excellent candidates as protein delivery systems. Herein, two protocols for coupling proteins to gold nanoparticles were compared. In the first, the strong biomolecular binding between biotin and streptavidin was used to couple catalase to the surface of gold nanoparticles. In the second protocol, the formation of an amide bond between carboxylic acid coated gold nanoparticles and free surface amines of catalase using carbodiimide chemistry was performed. The stability and kinetics of the different steps involved in these protocols were studied using UV-Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The addition of mercaptoundecanoic acid in conjugation with (N-(6-(biotinamido)hexyl)-3′-(2′-pyridyldithio)-propionamide increased the stability of biotinylated gold nanoparticles. Although the carbodiimide chemistry based bioconjugation approach exhibited a decrease in catalase activity, the carbodiimide chemistry based bioconjugation approach resulted in more active catalase per gold nanoparticle compared to that of mercaptoundecanoic acid stabilized biotinylated gold nanoparticles. Both coupling protocols resulted in gold nanoparticles loaded with active catalase. Thus, these gold nanoparticle systems and coupling protocols represent promising methods for the application of gold nanoparticles for protein delivery. PMID:21232642

  19. Functional and structural changes of human erythrocyte catalase induced by cimetidine: proposed model of binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Fatemeh; Minai-Tehrani, Dariush; Jahngirvand, Mahboubeh; Almasirad, Ali; Mousavi, Zahra; Masoud, Masoudeh; Mollasalehi, Hamidreza

    2015-06-01

    In erythrocyte, catalase plays an important role to protect cells from hydrogen peroxide toxicity. Hydrogen peroxide is a byproduct compound which is produced during metabolic pathway of cells. Cimetidine, a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, is used for gastrointestinal tract diseases and prevents the extra release of gastric acid. In this study, the effect of cimetidine on the activity of human erythrocyte catalase was investigated. Erythrocytes were broken by hypotonic solution. The supernatant was used for catalase assay and kinetics study. Lineweaver-Burk plot was performed to determine the type of inhibition. The kinetics data revealed that cimetidine inhibited the catalase activity by mixed inhibition. The IC50 (1.54 μM) and Ki (0.45 μM) values of cimetidine determined that the drug was bound to the enzyme with high affinity. Circular dichroism and fluorescence measurement showed that the binding of cimetidine to the enzyme affected the content of secondary structure of the enzyme as well as its conformational changes. Docking studies were carried out to detect the site in which the drug was bound to the enzyme. Molecular modeling and energy calculation of the binding showed that the cyanoguanidine group of the drug connected to Asp59 via two hydrogen bonds, while the imidazole group of the drug interacted with Phe64 in the enzyme by a hydrophobic interaction. In conclusion, cimetidine could bind to human erythrocyte catalase, and its interaction caused functional and conformational changes in the enzyme.

  20. Inactivation of catalase by free radicals derived from oxygen via gamma radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhaire, J.P.; Gardes-Albert, M.; Ferradini, C.; Sabourault, D.; Ribiere, C.

    1991-01-01

    The inactivation of catalase (10 -5 mol/l) by OH· or OH·/O 2 - · free radicals, at pH 7.4, has been investigated using γ radiolysis with doses up to 9000 Gy. Maxima initial G-values of catalase inactivation have been determined. These values are inferior to those of the free radicals OH· and O 2 - · produced by water radiolysis. Nevertheless, the presence of O 2 /O 2 - · enhances the inactivation due to OH· radicals. The general shape of the inactivation curves as a function of the radiation dose is biphasic: an initial rapid phase (from 0 to ∼ 500 Gy) followed by a slow phase (from ∼ 500 to 9000 Gy). The addition of H 2 O 2 at the beginning of irradiation decreases the inactivation yield by OH· radicals. This phenomenon could be due to the formation of compound-I (catalase-H 2 O 2 ) which would be less sensitive towards OH· radicals than catalase. In the presence of 0.1 mol/l ethanol, catalase (5 x 10 -6 mol/l) is not inactived by O 2 - · and RO 2 · (from ethanol) radicals for an irradiation dose of 2000 Gy, implying a complete protecting effect by ethanol [fr

  1. UV-resistant Acinetobacter sp. isolates from Andean wetlands display high catalase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Cecilia; Bortolotti, Ana; Farías, María Eugenia; Cortez, Néstor

    2011-04-01

    Andean wetlands are characterized by their extreme environmental conditions such as high UV radiation, elevated heavy metal content and salinity. We present here the first study on UV tolerance and antioxidant defense of four Acinetobacter strains: Ver3, Ver5 and Ver7, isolated from Lake Verde, and N40 from Lake Negra, both lakes located 4400 m above sea level. All four isolates displayed higher UV resistance compared with collection strains, with Ver3 and Ver7 being the most tolerant strains not only to UV radiation but also to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and methyl viologen (MV) challenges. A single superoxide dismutase band with similar activity was detected in all studied strains, whereas different electrophoretic pattern and activity levels were observed for catalase. Ver3 and Ver7 displayed 5-15 times higher catalase activity levels than the control strains. Analysis of the response of antioxidant enzymes to UV and oxidative challenges revealed a significant increase in Ver7 catalase activity after H(2)O(2) and MV exposure. Incubation of Ver7 cultures with a catalase inhibitor resulted in a significant decrease of tolerance against UV radiation. We conclude that the high catalase activity displayed by Ver7 isolate could play an important role in UV tolerance. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluorimetry as a Simple and Sensitive Method for Determination of Catalase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hedayati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Catalase enzyme plays an important role in the anti-oxidation defense of body so it is important to measure its activity. Nowadays catalase activity measurement is performed by expensive imported kits in various scientific fields. The purpose of this study was to design a sensitive fluorimetry method for measuring catalase activity with improved sensitivity, accuracy and speed. Materials and Methods: In this study, the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with peroxidase (as a reaction accelerator was used in fluorimetry for catalase activity measuring in serum samples in order to increase the sensitivity of the assay. The sensitivity and intra- and inter-assay accuracy, verification test, recovery and parallelism tests, comparison method and correlation and coherence investigation methods were also performed. In order to increase the accuracy and speed of reading, the assay was performed in microplates and reading was done in fluorimetry plates. Results: The percentage of intra- and inter-assay variation coefficients were measured 3.8- 6.6 % and 4.1-7.3%, respectively. Comparison of the results of mentioned method for 50 serum samples with common colorimetric method showed a good correlation (0.917. In assessing the accuracy, the recovery percent was obtained 91% to 107%. The test sensitivity was measured 0.02 IU/ml. Conclusion: The fluorimetry method by microplate reading has a sufficient precision, accuracy and efficiency for catalase activity measuring as well as speed of measurement. Thus it can be an alternative method to conventional imported colorimetric methods.

  3. Ectopic catalase expression in mitochondria by adeno-associated virus enhances exercise performance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejia Li

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is thought to compromise muscle contractility. However, administration of generic antioxidants has failed to convincingly improve performance during exhaustive exercise. One possible explanation may relate to the inability of the supplemented antioxidants to effectively eliminate excessive free radicals at the site of generation. Here, we tested whether delivering catalase to the mitochondria, a site of free radical production in contracting muscle, could improve treadmill performance in C57Bl/6 mice. Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype-9 (AV.RSV.MCAT was generated to express a mitochondria-targeted catalase gene. AV.RSV.MCAT was delivered to newborn C57Bl/6 mouse circulation at the dose of 10(12 vector genome particles per mouse. Three months later, we observed a approximately 2 to 10-fold increase of catalase protein and activity in skeletal muscle and the heart. Subcellular fractionation western blot and double immunofluorescence staining confirmed ectopic catalase expression in the mitochondria. Compared with untreated control mice, absolute running distance and body weight normalized running distance were significantly improved in AV.RSV.MCAT infected mice during exhaustive treadmill running. Interestingly, ex vivo contractility of the extensor digitorum longus muscle was not altered. Taken together, we have demonstrated that forced catalase expression in the mitochondria enhances exercise performance. Our result provides a framework for further elucidating the underlying mechanism. It also raises the hope of applying similar strategies to remove excessive, pathogenic free radicals in certain muscle diseases (such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and ameliorate muscle disease.

  4. Production of catalases by Aspergillus niger isolates as a response to pollutant stress by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckova, M.; Godocikova, J.; Simonovicova, A.; Polek, B. [Slovakian Academy of Science, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2005-04-15

    Isolates of Aspergillus niger, selected from the coal dust of a mine containing arsenic (As; 400 mg/kg) and from the river sediment of mine surroundings (As, 1651 mg/kg, Sb, 362 mg/kg), growing in minimal nitrate medium in the phase of hyphal development and spore formation, exhibited much higher levels of total catalase activity than the same species from the culture collection or a culture adapted to soil contaminated with As (5 mg/L). Electrophoretic resolution of catalases in cell-free extracts revealed three isozymes of catalases and production of individual isozymes was not significantly affected by stress environments. Exogenously added stressors (As{sup 5+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}) at final concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/L and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (20 or 40 m(M)) mostly stimulated production of catalases only in isolates from mines surroundings, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Hg{sup 2+} caused the disappearance of the smallest catalase I. Isolates exhibited a higher tolerance of the toxic effects of heavy metals and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, as monitored by growth, than did the strain from the culture collection.

  5. Arrhenius activation energy of damage to catalase during spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Joachim; Lee, Geoffrey

    2015-07-15

    The inactivation of catalase during spray-drying over a range of outlet gas temperatures could be closely represented by the Arrhenius equation. From this an activation energy for damage to the catalase could be calculated. The close fit to Arrhenius suggests that the thermally-induced part of inactivation of the catalase during the complex drying and particle-formation processes takes place at constant temperature. These processes are rapid compared with the residence time of the powder in the collecting vessel of the cyclone where dried catalase is exposed to a constant temperature equal to approximately the drying gas outlet temperature. A lower activation energy after spray drying with the ultrasonic nozzle was found than with the 2-fluid nozzle under otherwise identical spray drying conditions. It is feasible that the ultrasonic nozzle when mounted in the lid of the spray dryer heats up toward the drying gas inlet temperature much more that the air-cooled 2-fluid nozzle. Calculation of the Arrhenius activation energy also showed how the stabilizing efficacy of trehalose and mannitol on the catalase varies in strength across the range of drying gas inlet and outlet temperatures examined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of catalase by aminotriazole in vivo results in reduction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliak, M; Gospodaryov, D; Semchyshyn, H; Lushchak, V

    2008-04-01

    The inhibitor of catalase 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AMT) was used to study the physiological role of catalase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under starvation. It was shown that AMT at the concentration of 10 mM did not affect the growth of the yeast. In vivo and in vitro the degree of catalase inhibition by AMT was concentration- and time-dependent. Peroxisomal catalase in bakers' yeast was more sensitive to AMT than the cytosolic one. In vivo inhibition of catalase by AMT in S. cerevisiae caused a simultaneous decrease in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and an increase in glutathione reductase activity. At the same time, the level of protein carbonyls, a marker of oxidative modification, was not affected. Possible mechanisms compensating the negative effects caused by AMT inhibition of catalase are discussed.

  7. Parallel Changes in H2O2 and Catalase during Thermotolerance Induced by Salicylic Acid or Heat Acclimation in Mustard Seedlings1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, James F.; Lopez-Delgado, Humberto; Foyer, Christine H.; Scott, Ian M.

    1998-01-01

    Spraying mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings with salicylic acid (SA) solutions between 10 and 500 μm significantly improved their tolerance to a subsequent heat shock at 55°C for 1.5 h. The effects of SA were concentration dependent, with higher concentrations failing to induce thermotolerance. The time course of thermotolerance induced by 100 μm SA was similar to that obtained with seedlings acclimated at 45°C for 1 h. We examined the hypothesis that induced thermotolerance involved H2O2. Heat shock at 55°C caused a significant increase in endogenous H2O2 and reduced catalase activity. A peak in H2O2 content was observed within 5 min of either SA treatment or transfer to the 45°C acclimation temperature. Between 2 and 3 h after SA treatment or heat acclimation, both H2O2 and catalase activity significantly decreased below control levels. The lowered H2O2 content and catalase activity occurred in the period of maximum thermoprotection. It is suggested that thermoprotection obtained either by spraying SA or by heat acclimation may be achieved by a common signal transduction pathway involving an early increase in H2O2. PMID:9536052

  8. Transforming growth factor-betas block cytokine induction of catalase and xanthine oxidase mRNA levels in cultured rat cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, K C; Bhandiwad, A R; Winokur, T S

    1997-01-01

    We examined the effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) on the mRNA expression of the antioxidative enzymes, catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), as well as the oxidative enzyme, xanthine oxidase (XO), in cultures of cardiomyocytes, cardiac non-myocytes, and fetal bovine heart endothelial cells. TGF-betas alone had little effect on expression of these enzymes, but treatment with a combination of interleukin-1beta, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased expression of MnSOD, catalase, and XO in some cell types with little effect on CuZnSOD expression. When TGF-betas were added along with these inflammatory cytokines there was a return to control levels of catalase expression, as well as a dramatic reduction in XO expression. In fetal bovine heart endothelial cells, treatment with inflammatory cytokines increased XO mRNA expression 11.5-fold and inclusion of TGF-betas reduced this 4-5-fold: effects on XO enzyme activity paralleled those seen on mRNA expression. Similar changes in XO expression were seen in cardiomyocytes. In contrast, TGF-betas did not change cytokine-induced MnSOD expression. All three mammalian isoforms of TGF-beta showed similar effects. In summary, TGF-betas may be able to decrease superoxide anion production and subsequent tissue damage by decreasing levels of XO.

  9. The effects of exogenous catalase on broad-spectrum near-UV (300-400nm) treated Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammartano, L.J.; Tuveson, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Catalase incorporated into plating medium protects against inactivation and mutagenesis by broad-spectrum near-ultraviolet wavelength (300-400nm) (NUV) radiation in strains of Escherichia coli. Plating medium containing catalase does not provide protection against inactivation by wavelengths in the FUV region. Catalase added to the cell suspension during or added immediately after NUV exposure also protects against inactivation. The protection provided by catalase suggests a possible role for hydrogen peroxide in the processes of inactivation and mutagenesis by broad-spectrum NUV. (author)

  10. Six1 overexpression at early stages of HPV16-mediated transformation of human keratinocytes promotes differentiation resistance and EMT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hanwen; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory discovered that SIX1 mRNA expression increased during in vitro progression of HPV16-immortalized human keratinocytes (HKc/HPV16) toward a differentiation-resistant (HKc/DR) phenotype. In this study, we explored the role of Six1 at early stages of HPV16-mediated transformation by overexpressing Six1 in HKc/HPV16. We found that Six1 overexpression in HKc/HPV16 increased cell proliferation and promoted cell migration and invasion by inducing epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, the overexpression of Six1 in HKc/HPV16 resulted in resistance to serum and calcium-induced differentiation, which is the hallmark of the HKc/DR phenotype. Activation of MAPK in HKc/HPV16 overexpressing Six1 is linked to resistance to calcium-induced differentiation. In conclusion, this study determined that Six1 overexpression resulted in differentiation resistance and promoted EMT at early stages of HPV16-mediated transformation of human keratinocytes. - Highlights: • Six1 expression increases during HPV16-mediated transformation. • Six1 overexpression causes differentiation resistance in HPV16-immortalized cells. • Six1 overexpression in HPV16-immortalized keratinocytes activates MAPK. • Activation of MAPK promotes EMT and differentiation resistance. • Six1 overexpression reduces Smad-dependent TGF-β signaling

  11. The Effects of NDRG2 Overexpression on Cell Proliferation and Invasiveness of SW48 Colorectal Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestan, Ali; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Hamidinia, Maryam; Takhshid, Mohammad Ali

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in the world. The expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is down-regulated in CRC. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NDRG2 overexpression on cell proliferation and invasive potential of SW48 cells. SW48 cells were transfected with a plasmid overexpressing NDRG2. After stable transfection, the effect of NDRG2 overexpression on cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay. The effects of NDRG2 overexpression on cell migration, invasion and cell motility and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) activities were also investigated using matrigel transwell assay, wound healing assay and gelatin zymography, respectively. MTT assay showed that overexpression of NDRG2 caused attenuation of SW48 cell proliferation. Transwell and wound healing assay revealed that NDRG2 overexpression led to inhibition of migration, invasion, and motility of SW48 cells. The overexpression of NDRG2 also reduced the activity of secreted MMP-9. The results of this study suggest that NDRG2 overexpression inhibits proliferation and invasive potential of SW48 cells, which likely occurs via suppression of MMP-9 activity.

  12. A novel role of catalase in detoxification of peroxynitrite in S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Rupam; Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Majumdar, Uddalak; Ray, Sougata Sinha; Dutta, Tanmay; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2009-08-07

    The biological targets of peroxynitrite toxicity include wide array of biomolecules. Although several enzymes are found to be important components of cellular defense against peroxynitrite, the complete scenario is not totally understood. Yeast flavohemoglobin (YHB) and glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (GS-FDH) confers resistance against nitric oxide and related reactive nitrogen species. In the present study, when subtoxic dose of peroxynitrite was applied to wild type, Deltayhb1 and Deltasfa1 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, induction of cytosolic catalase was found at activity as well as gene expression level in mutants but not in wild type. Such induction was not due to intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Our in vitro studies confirmed the role of catalase in protection against peroxynitrite-mediated oxidation and nitration and also in peroxynitrite catabolism. This report is first of its kind regarding the novel role of catalase in peroxynitrite detoxification in Deltayhb1 and Deltasfa1 strains of S. cerevisiae.

  13. The role of cellular catalase on the radiosensitization of bacterial vegetative cells by N2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H.; Takehisa, M.

    1983-01-01

    The radiosensitizing effect of N 2 O on eight strains of bacteria was measured in dilute suspensions. The dose-modifying factors (DMF) of N 2 O on M. radiodurans R 1 , P. radiora O-1, M. lysodeikticus and B. pumilus E601 (vegetative cells) were 3.4, 2.9, 2.4 and 1.7, respectively. But P. radiora RP-C, P. fluorescens B3-1, E. coli B/r and E. coli K-12 were hardly sensitized by N 2 O. From measurements of catalase activity of each bacterium, it was found that the DMF increases with increased catalase activity, suggesting that cellular catalase promotes the sensitizing action of N 2 O. (author)

  14. Layer-by-layer assembled multilayers using catalase-encapsulated gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sungwoo; Park, Jeongju; Cho, Jinhan

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a novel and versatile approach for the preparation of multilayers, based on catalase-encapsulated gold nanoparticles (CAT-Au NP ), allowing electrostatic charge reversal and structural transformation through pH adjustment. CAT-Au NP , which are synthesized directly from CAT stabilizer, can be electrostatically assembled with anionic and cationic PEs as a result of the charge reversal of the catalase stabilizers through pH control. In particular, at pH 5.2, near the pI of catalase, dispersed CAT-Au NP are structurally transformed into colloidal or network CAT-Au NP nanocomposites. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the layer-by-layer assembled multilayers composed of PEs and CAT-Au NP induce an effective electron transfer between CAT and the electrode as well as a high loading of CAT and Au NP , and resultantly exhibit a highly catalytic activity toward H 2 O 2 .

  15. Ectopic overexpression of the cell wall invertase gene CIN1 leads to dehydration avoidance in tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albacete, Alfonso; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Grosskinsky, Dominik Kilian

    2015-01-01

    in plant growth and development. However, the physiological role of invertases during adaptation to abiotic stress conditions is not yet fully understood. Here it is shown that plant adaptation to drought stress can be markedly improved in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) by overexpression of the cell wall...... invertase (cwInv) gene CIN1 from Chenopodium rubrum. CIN1 overexpression limited stomatal conductance under normal watering regimes, leading to reduced water consumption during the drought period, while photosynthetic activity was maintained. This caused a strong increase in water use efficiency (up to 50......%), markedly improving water stress adaptation through an efficient physiological strategy of dehydration avoidance. Drought stress strongly reduced cwInv activity and induced its proteinaceous inhibitor in the leaves of the wild-type plants. However, the CIN1-overexpressing plants registered 3- to 6-fold...

  16. Ameliorating replicative senescence of human bone marrow stromal cells by PSMB5 overexpression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Li, E-mail: luli7300@126.com [Department of Anatomy, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Song, Hui-Fang; Wei, Jiao-Long; Liu, Xue-Qin [Department of Anatomy, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Song, Wen-Hui [Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Yan, Ba-Yi; Yang, Gui-Jiao [Department of Anatomy, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Li, Ang [Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Department of Anatomy, University of Hong Kong Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Yang, Wu-Lin, E-mail: wulinyoung@163.com [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Laboratory of Metabolic Medicine, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium (SBIC), Agency for Science, Technology and Research - A*STAR (Singapore)

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • PSMB5 overexpression restores the differentiation potential of aged hBMSCs. • PSMB5 overexpression enhances the proteasomal activity of late-stage hBMSCs. • PSMB5 overexpression inhibits replicative senescence and improved cell viability. • PSMB5 overexpression promotes cell growth by upregulating the Cyclin D1/CDK4 complex. - Abstract: Multipotent human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) potentially serve as a source for cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine. However, in vitro expansion was inescapably accompanied with cell senescence, characterized by inhibited proliferation and compromised pluripotency. We have previously demonstrated that this aging process is closely associated with reduced 20S proteasomal activity, with down-regulation of rate-limiting catalytic β-subunits particularly evident. In the present study, we confirmed that proteasomal activity directly contributes to senescence of hBMSCs, which could be reversed by overexpression of the β5-subunit (PSMB5). Knocking down PSMB5 led to decreased proteasomal activity concurrent with reduced cell proliferation in early-stage hBMSCs, which is similar to the senescent phenotype observed in late-stage cells. In contrast, overexpressing PSMB5 in late-stage cells efficiently restored the normal activity of 20S proteasomes and promoted cell growth, possibly via upregulating the Cyclin D1/CDK4 complex. Additionally, PSMB5 could enhance cell resistance to oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increased cell survival upon exposing senescent hBMSCs to hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, PSMB5 overexpression retained the pluripotency of late-stage hBMSCs by facilitating their neural differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our work reveals a critical role of PSMB5 in 20S proteasome-mediated protection against replicative senescence, pointing to a possible strategy for maintaining the integrity of culture-expanded hBMSCs by manipulating the expression of PSMB5.

  17. Ameliorating replicative senescence of human bone marrow stromal cells by PSMB5 overexpression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Li; Song, Hui-Fang; Wei, Jiao-Long; Liu, Xue-Qin; Song, Wen-Hui; Yan, Ba-Yi; Yang, Gui-Jiao; Li, Ang; Yang, Wu-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PSMB5 overexpression restores the differentiation potential of aged hBMSCs. • PSMB5 overexpression enhances the proteasomal activity of late-stage hBMSCs. • PSMB5 overexpression inhibits replicative senescence and improved cell viability. • PSMB5 overexpression promotes cell growth by upregulating the Cyclin D1/CDK4 complex. - Abstract: Multipotent human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) potentially serve as a source for cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine. However, in vitro expansion was inescapably accompanied with cell senescence, characterized by inhibited proliferation and compromised pluripotency. We have previously demonstrated that this aging process is closely associated with reduced 20S proteasomal activity, with down-regulation of rate-limiting catalytic β-subunits particularly evident. In the present study, we confirmed that proteasomal activity directly contributes to senescence of hBMSCs, which could be reversed by overexpression of the β5-subunit (PSMB5). Knocking down PSMB5 led to decreased proteasomal activity concurrent with reduced cell proliferation in early-stage hBMSCs, which is similar to the senescent phenotype observed in late-stage cells. In contrast, overexpressing PSMB5 in late-stage cells efficiently restored the normal activity of 20S proteasomes and promoted cell growth, possibly via upregulating the Cyclin D1/CDK4 complex. Additionally, PSMB5 could enhance cell resistance to oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increased cell survival upon exposing senescent hBMSCs to hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, PSMB5 overexpression retained the pluripotency of late-stage hBMSCs by facilitating their neural differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our work reveals a critical role of PSMB5 in 20S proteasome-mediated protection against replicative senescence, pointing to a possible strategy for maintaining the integrity of culture-expanded hBMSCs by manipulating the expression of PSMB5

  18. Isolation and characterization of a novel catalase-negative, urease-positive Campylobacter from cattle faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.; On, S.L.W.

    1997-01-01

    characteristics typical for Campylobacter species. However, they were unusual in that they produced urease and copious H2S in triple sugar iron (TSI) medium, but did not produce catalase. They did not grow aerobically. None of the strains grew on modified cefoperazone charcoal deoxycholate agar (m......CCDA). Macrorestriction profiles of chromosomal DNA were prepared for 15 strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Twelve of 15 profiles were identical and all appeared to be closely related. These catalase-negative, urease-positive campylobacters (CNUPC) represent a group not previously reported...

  19. Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Yiyang; Ke, Xin; Chen, Fajun

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the effects of three Bt-rice varieties and their non-Bt conventional isolines on biological traits including survival, reproduction, and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, in the Collembolan, Folsomia candida. The reproduction...... was significantly lower when fed Kemingdao and Huahui1 than those feeding on their non-GM near-isogenic varieties Xiushui and Minghui63 respectively, this can be explained by the differences of plant compositions depended on variety of rice. The catalase activity of F. candida was significantly lower when fed...

  20. Computational study concerning the effect of some pesticides on the Proteus Mirabilis catalase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isvoran, Adriana

    2016-03-01

    Assessment of the effects of the herbicides nicosulfuron and chlorsulfuron and the fungicides difenoconazole and drazoxlone upon catalase produced by soil microorganism Proteus mirabilis is performed using the molecular docking technique. The interactions of pesticides with the enzymes are predicted using SwissDock and PatchDock docking tools. There are correlations for predicted binding energy values for enzyme-pesticide complexes obtained using the two docking tools, all the considered pesticides revealing favorable binding to the enzyme, but only the herbicides bind to the catalytic site. These results suggest the inhibitory potential of chlorsulfuron and nicosulfuron on the catalase activity in soil.

  1. Data supporting the spectrophotometric method for the estimation of catalase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Hussein Hadwan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide raw and processed data and methods for the estimation of catalase activities. The method for presenting a simple and accurate colorimetric assay for catalase activities is described. This method is based on the reaction of undecomposed hydrogen peroxide with ammonium molybdate to produce a yellowish color, which has a maximum absorbance at 374 nm. The method is characterized by adding a correction factor to exclude the interference that arises from the presence of amino acids and proteins in serum. The assay acts to keep out the interferences that arose from measurement of absorbance at unsuitable wavelengths.

  2. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of ginger and orlistat on obesity management, pancreatic lipase and liver peroxisomal catalase enzyme in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, R H; Elnour, W A

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a disease involving body weight gain. Several synthetic drugs of better efficacy are being introduced in the modern system of medicine. Orlistat is a pharmacological agent promoting weight loss in obese subjects via inhibiting of gastric and pancreatic lipase. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae) is one of the most commonly used spices around the world; it has long been used in traditional medicine as a cure for some diseases. To evaluate the effect of ginger and orlistat on rats fed high fat diet. Forty male Albino rats were either not treated (control), or fed high fat diet, or fed high fat diet with dietary orlistat supplementation (200 mg/kg diet), or fed high fat diet supplemented with 5% ginger powder. After four weeks of treatment, final body weight and food intake were determined. Blood samples were collected, lipid parameters, total bilirubin, pancreatic lipase were determined. Liver peroxisomes were isolated from rat livers and peroxisomal catalase activity was determined. Treatment with both ginger and orlistat had significant effect in reducing body weight, besides, supplementing diet with orlistat increase food intake. Both ginger and orlistat had the ability to reduce lipid profile, ginger had great effect in increasing HDL-cholesterol than orlistat. When compared to the control group, ginger treatment did not alter either total bilirubin or pancreatic lipase activity while orlistat clearly reduced their concentration. Orlistat supplementation induced a significant reduction in peroxisomal catalase level, while ginger has been reported to interfere with enzyme activity increasing its level. Ginger has a great ability to reduce body weight without inhibiting pancreatic lipase level, or affecting bilirubin concentration, with positive effect on increasing peroxisomal catalase level and HDL-cholesterol.

  3. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahim Noor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 μg/ml. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide

  4. Tailoring nutritional and process variables for hyperproduction of catalase from a novel isolated bacterium Geobacillus sp. BSS-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauldhar, Baljinder Singh; Sooch, Balwinder Singh

    2016-01-14

    Catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) is one of the important industrial enzyme employed in diagnostic and analytical methods in the form of biomarkers and biosensors in addition to their enormous applications in textile, paper, food and pharmaceutical sectors. The present study demonstrates the utility of a newly isolated and adapted strain of genus Geobacillus possessing unique combination of several industrially important extremophilic properties for the hyper production of catalase. The bacterium can grow over a wide range of pH (3-12) and temperature (10-90 °C) with extraordinary capability to produce catalase. A novel extremophilic strain belonging to genus Geobacillus was exploited for the production of catalase by tailoring its nutritional requirements and process variables. One variable at a time traditional approach followed by computational designing was applied to customize the fermentation process. A simple fermentation media containing only three components namely sucrose (0.55 %, w/v), yeast extract (1.0 %, w/v) and BaCl2 (0.08 %, w/v) was designed for the hyperproduction of catalase. A controlled and optimum air supply caused a tremendous increase in the enzyme production on moving the bioprocess from the flask to bioreactor level. The present paper reports high quantum of catalase production (105,000 IU/mg of cells) in a short fermentation time of 12 h. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report in the literature that matches the performance of the developed protocol for the catalase production. This is the first serious study covering intracellular catalase production from thermophilic genus Geobacillus. An increase in intracellular catalase production by 214.72 % was achieved in the optimized medium when transferred from the shake flask to the fermenter level. The extraordinary high production of catalase from Geobacillus sp. BSS-7 makes the isolated strain a prospective candidate for bulk catalase production on an industrial scale.

  5. Catalase gene disruptant of the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans is defective in hyphal growth, and a catalase-specific inhibitor can suppress hyphal growth of wild-type cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    Although the catalase gene (CAT1) disruptant of the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans was viable under ordinary growth conditions, we previously found that it could not grow on YPD (yeast extract/peptone/dextrose) containing SDS or at higher growth temperatures. To investigate the pleiotrophic nature of the disruptant, we examined the effect of the catalase inhibitor 3-AT on the growth of wild-type strains. Surprisingly, the addition of 3-AT and SDS caused the wild-type cells to be non-viable on YPD plates. We found an additional phenotype of the catalase gene disruptant: it did not produce normal hyphae on Spider medium. Hyphal growth was observed in a CAP1 (Candida AP-1-like protein gene) disruptant, a HOG1 (high-osmolarity glycerol signaling pathway gene) disruptant, and the double CAP1/HOG1 disruptant, suggesting that the defect in hyphal formation by the catalase disruptant was independent of these genes. Addition of 3-AT and SDS to hyphae-inducing media suppressed growth of normal hyphae in the wild-type strain. The potential necessity for catalase action upon exposure to hyphae-inducing conditions was confirmed by the immediate elevation of the catalase gene message. In spite of the requirement for catalase during hyphal growth, the catalase gene disruptant was capable of forming germ tubes in medium containing serum.

  6. Frequent Nek1 overexpression in human gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jun [School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Neurosurgery Department, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Cai, Yu, E-mail: aihaozuqiu22@163.com [School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Neurosurgery Department, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Liu, Pin [Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Weiguo [Neurosurgery Department, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2016-08-05

    Never in mitosis A (NIMA)-related kinase 1 (Nek1) regulates cell cycle progression to mitosis. Its expression and potential functions in human gliomas have not been studied. Here, our immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay and Western blot assay results showed that Nek1 expression was significantly upregulated in fresh and paraffin-embedded human glioma tissues. Its level in normal brain tissues was low. Nek1 overexpression in human gliomas was correlated with the proliferation marker (Ki-67), tumor grade, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) and more importantly, patients’ poor survival. Further studies showed that Nek1 expression level was also increased in multiple human glioma cell lines (U251-MG, U87-MG, U118, H4 and U373). Significantly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nek1 inhibited glioma cell (U87-MG/U251-MG) growth. Nek1 siRNA also sensitized U87-MG/U251-MG cells to temozolomide (TMZ), causing a profound apoptosis induction and growth inhibition. The current study indicates Nek1 might be a novel and valuable oncotarget of glioma, it is important for glioma cell growth and TMZ-resistance. - Highlights: • Nek1 is upregulated in multiple human glioma tissues and cell lines. • Nek1 overexpression correlates with glioma grades and patients’ KPS score. • Nek1 overexpression correlates with patients’ poor overall survival. • siRNA knockdown of Nek1 inhibits glioma cell growth. • siRNA knockdown of Nek1 sensitizes human glioma cells to temozolomide.

  7. Lack of cyclin D1 overexpression in gastric carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, P.; Craanen, M. E.; van Diest, P. J.; Dekker, W.; Tytgat, G. N.

    2000-01-01

    Cyclin D1 overexpression was examined in early gastric carcinomas and precursor lesions with the following aims; (1) to assess the chronology of cyclin D1 overexpression in various stages of gastric carcinogenesis, (2) to correlate cyclin D1 overexpression with the Lauren type, the grade of

  8. CREB Overexpression Ameliorates Age-related Behavioral and Biophysical Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wen

    Age-related cognitive deficits are observed in both humans and animals. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits are not yet fully elucidated. In aged animals, a decrease in intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons from the CA1 sub-region of hippocampus is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive impairments, but the molecular mechanism(s) that modulate both these factors has yet to be identified. Increasing activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in young adult rodents has been shown to facilitate cognition, and increase intrinsic excitability of their neurons. However, how CREB changes with age, and how that impacts cognition in aged animals, is not clear. Therefore, we first systematically characterized age- and training-related changes in CREB levels in dorsal hippocampus. At a remote time point after undergoing behavioral training, levels of total CREB and activated CREB (phosphorylated at S133, pCREB) were measured in both young and aged rats. We found that pCREB, but not total CREB was significantly reduced in dorsal CA1 of aged rats. Importantly, levels of pCREB were found to be positively correlated with short-term spatial memory in both young and aged rats i.e. higher pCREB in dorsal CA1 was associated with better spatial memory. These findings indicate that an age-related deficit in CREB activity may contribute to the development of age-related cognitive deficits. However, it was still unclear if increasing CREB activity would be sufficient to ameliorate age-related cognitive, and biophysical deficits. To address this question, we virally overexpressed CREB in CA1, where we found the age-related deficit. Young and aged rats received control or CREB virus, and underwent water maze training. While control aged animals exhibited deficits in long-term spatial memory, aged animals with CREB overexpression performed at levels comparable to young animals. Concurrently, aged neurons

  9. Working Memory Deficits, Increased Anxiety-Like Traits, and Seizure Susceptibility in BDNF Overexpressing Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Francesco; Silverman, Jill L.; Aney, Jordan; Tian, Qingjun; Barkan, Charlotte L.; Chadman, Kathryn K.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2011-01-01

    BDNF regulates components of cognitive processes and has been implicated in psychiatric disorders. Here we report that genetic overexpression of the BDNF mature isoform (BDNF-tg) in female mice impaired working memory functions while sparing components of fear conditioning. BDNF-tg mice also displayed reduced breeding efficiency, higher…

  10. Effects of GGCX overexpression on anterior cruciate ligament transection-induced osteoarthritis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoling; Qiu, Ruiyun; Tang, Chunfang; Wang, Xiaomei; Cheng, Xigao; Yin, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Effective therapeutic methods for osteoarthritis (OA) are lacking. γ‑glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) is a key enzyme that regulates carboxylation of cartilage matrix Gla protein (MGP). Whether GGCX overexpression protects against OA remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of GGCX overexpression on anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT)‑induced OA and its mechanisms in Japanese white rabbits. ACLT surgery was used to establish an OA model in rabbits. A total of 48 rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: Sham, OA model + GGCX overexpression plasmid, OA model + saline and OA model + empty vector. The expression of uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP), carboxylated MGP (cMGP), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑13, collagen type X, collagen type II, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and interleukin (IL)‑1β were detected by ELISA, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Morphological changes to tibial cartilage were assessed by Giemsa and safranin O‑fast green staining, respectively. Compared with the Sham control, GGCX expression was significantly decreased in the OA Model group. GGCX expression was increased by injection of a lentivirus‑carried overexpression plasmid that encoded GGCX. GGCX overexpression ameliorated ATLC‑induced damage in articular cartilage. OA Model rabbits exhibited significantly decreased expression levels of cMGP and collagen type II, and increased expression of ucMGP, collagen type X, MMP‑13, IL‑1β and TNF‑α. Notably, these expression levels were reversed by GGCX overexpression in OA Model rabbits. Results from the present study indicated that GGCX expression was decreased in OA Model rabbits, whereas overexpression of GGCX was able to promote carboxylation of MGP, reduce inflammation, decrease MMP‑13 expression and regulate collagen expression. The results also indicated that GGCX may serve as a therapeutic target for OA.

  11. Overexpression of small heat shock protein LimHSP16.45 in Arabidopsis enhances tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Mu

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins (smHSPs play important and extensive roles in plant defenses against abiotic stresses. We cloned a gene for a smHSP from the David Lily (Lilium davidii (E. H. Wilson Raffill var. Willmottiae, which we named LimHSP16.45 based on its protein molecular weight. Its expression was induced by many kinds of abiotic stresses in both the lily and transgenic plants of Arabidopsis. Heterologous expression enhanced cell viability of the latter under high temperatures, high salt, and oxidative stress, and heat shock granules (HSGs formed under heat or salinity treatment. Assays of enzymes showed that LimHSP16.45 overexpression was related to greater activity by superoxide dismutase and catalase in transgenic lines. Therefore, we conclude that heterologous expression can protect plants against abiotic stresses by preventing irreversible protein aggregation, and by scavenging cellular reactive oxygen species.

  12. The cytochemical demonstration of catalase and D-amino acid oxidase in the microbodies of teleost kidney cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuis, M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of catalase and D-amino acid oxidase, marker enzymes for peroxisomes, was determined cytochemically in the kidney tubules of an euryhaline teleost, the three-spined stickleback. Catalase activity was localized with the diaminobenzidine technique. The presence of D-amino acid oxidase

  13. On the enzymatic activity of catalase : an iron L-edge X-ray absorption study of the active centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann, Nora; Bonhommeau, Sebastien; Lange, Kathrin M.; Greil, Stefanie M.; Eisebitt, Stefan; de Groot, Frank; Chergui, Majed; Aziz, Emad F.

    2010-01-01

    Catalase and methaemoglobin have very similar haem groups, which are both ferric, yet catalase decomposes hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen very efficiently, while methaemoglobin does not. Structural studies have attributed this behaviour to their different distal environments. Here we present

  14. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in macrophages by catalase: role of NF-kappaB and PI3K signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Byeong-Churl; Kim, Do-Hyun; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Sang-Pyo; Song, Dae-Kyu; Park, Jong-Gu; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Mun, Kyo-Chul; Baek, Won-Ki; Suh, Min-Ho; Hla, Timothy; Suh, Seong-Il

    2004-04-02

    Induction of COX-2 by catalase in smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and neuronal cells has been previously reported. However, the mechanism by which catalase up-regulates COX-2 remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of catalase on induction of COX-2 in macrophages. The addition of catalase into Raw 264.7 macrophages induced COX-2 expression that was correlated with increased COX-2 transcription and mRNA stability. Catalase also induced activation of NF-kappaB, PI3K, ERKs, p38s, or JNKs. Catalase-induced COX-2 expression was abrogated by treatment of MG-132 (a NF-kappaB inhibitor) or LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor), but not by treatment of PD98059 (an ERK inhibitor), SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor), or SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor). Moreover, inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 caused partial decrease of catalase-induced COX-2 transcription and steady-state COX-2 transcript levels, but not COX-2 mRNA stability. Together, these results suggest that catalase induces the expression of COX-2 in Raw 264.7 macrophages, and the induction is related with activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor and PI3K signaling pathway.

  15. Cytochemical localization of catalase and several hydrogen peroxide-producing oxidases in the nucleoids and matrix of rat liver peroxisomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuis, M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of catalase, amino acid oxidase, α-hydroxy acid oxidase, urate oxidase and alcohol oxidase was studied cytochemically in rat hepatocytes. The presence of catalase was demonstrated with the conventional diaminobenzidine technique. Oxidase activities were visualized with methods based

  16. The antiproliferative activity of di-2-pyridylketone dithiocarbamate is partly attributed to catalase inhibition: detailing the interaction by spectroscopic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Liu, Youxun; Fu, Yun; Huang, Tengfei; Kang, Lixia; Li, Changzheng

    2017-08-22

    The bioactivity of drugs is attributed to their interaction with biological molecules, embodied in either their direct or indirect influence on enzyme activity and conformation. Di-2-pyridylketone hydrazine dithiocarbamate (DpdtC) exhibits significant antitumor activity in our preliminary study. We speculated that its activity may partly stem from enzyme inhibition due to strong metal chelating ability. To this end, we assessed its effect on catalase from erythrocytes and found evidence of inhibition, which was further confirmed by ROS determination in vivo. Thus, detailing the interaction between the agent and catalase via spectroscopic methods and molecular docking was required to obtain information on both the dynamics and thermodynamic parameters. The Lineweaver-Burk plot implied an uncompetitive pattern between DpdtC and catalase from beef liver, and IC 50 = ∼7 μM. The thermodynamic parameters from fluorescence quenching measurements indicated that DpdtC could bind to catalase with moderate affinity (K a = approximately 10 4 M -1 ). CD spectra revealed that DpdtC could significantly disrupt the secondary structure of catalase. Docking studies indicated that DpdtC bound to a flexible region of catalase, involving hydrogen bonds and salt bond; this was consistent with thermodynamic results from spectral investigations. Our data clearly showed that catalase inhibition of DpdtC was not due to direct chelation of iron from heme (killing), but through an allosteric effect. Thus, it can be concluded that the antiproliferative activity of DpdtC is partially attributed to its catalase inhibition.

  17. Structural and functional alterations of catalase induced by acriflavine, a compound causing apoptosis and necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Farnoosh; Khavari-Nejad, Sarah; Keyhani, Jacqueline; Keyhani, Ezzatollah

    2009-08-01

    Acriflavine is an antiseptic agent causing both apoptosis and necrosis in yeast. In this work, its effect on the structure and function of catalase, a vital enzyme actively involved in protection against oxidative stress, was investigated. In vitro kinetic studies showed that acriflavine inhibited the enzymatic activity in a competitive manner. The residual activity detectable after preincubation of catalase (1.5 nmol/L) with various concentrations of acriflavine went from 50% to 20% of the control value as the acriflavine concentration increased from 30 to 90 micromol/L. Correlatively with the decrease in activity, alterations in the enzyme's conformation were observed as indicated by fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and electronic absorption spectroscopy. The enzyme's intrinsic fluorescence obtained upon excitation at either 297 nm (tryptophan residues) or 280 nm (tyrosine and tryptophan residues) decreased as a function of acriflavine concentration. Circular dichroism studies showed alterations of the protein structure by acriflavine with up to 13% decrease in alpha helix, 16% increase in beta-sheet content, 17% increase in random coil, and 4% increase in beta turns. Spectrophotometric studies showed a blueshift and modifications in the chromicity of catalase at 405 nm, corresponding to an absorbance band due to the enzyme's prosthetic group. Thus, acriflavine induced in vitro a profound change in the structure of catalase so that the enzyme could no longer function. Our results showed that acriflavine, a compound producing apoptosis and necrosis, can have a direct effect on vital functions in cells by disabling key enzymes.

  18. Development and characterization in vitro of a catalase-based biosensor for hydrogen peroxide monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K B; Killoran, S J; O'Neill, R D; Lowry, J P

    2007-06-15

    There is increasing evidence that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) may act as a neuromodulator in the brain, as well as contributing to neurodegeneration in diseased states, such as Parkinson's disease. The ability to monitor changes in endogenous H(2)O(2)in vivo with high temporal resolution is essential in order to further elucidate the roles of H(2)O(2) in the central nervous system. Here, we describe the in vitro characterization of an implantable catalase-based H(2)O(2) biosensor. The biosensor comprises two amperometric electrodes, one with catalase immobilized on the surface and one without enzyme (blank). The analytical signal is then the difference between the two electrodes. The H(2)O(2) sensitivity of various designs was compared, and ranged from 0 to 56+/-4 mA cm(-2)M(-1). The most successful design incorporated a Nafion layer followed by a poly-o-phenylenediamine (PPD) polymer layer. Catalase was adsorbed onto the PPD layer and then cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. The ability of the biosensors to exclude interference from ascorbic acid, and other interference species found in vivo, was also tested. A variety of the catalase-based biosensor designs described here show promise for in vivo monitoring of endogenous H(2)O(2) in the brain.

  19. Assembly of catalase-based bioconjugates for enhanced anticancer efficiency of photodynamic therapy in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Fei, Jinbo; Du, Cuiling; Cui, Wei; Ma, Hongchao; Li, Junbai

    2013-11-25

    An oxygen generation core-shell structure uploading rose bengal has been fabricated by covalent assembly of catalase and alginate dialdehyde via Schiff's base. The composite can catalyze the decomposition of intracellular H2O2 to increase the concentration of O2, which effectively enhances the anticancer efficiency of photodynamic therapy in vitro.

  20. Acidic catalase in human skin in vivo: a new marker of permanent damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, Vittoria; Flori, Enrica; Fabbri, Claudia; Briganti, Stefania; Mariani, Giustino; Catricalà, Caterina; Picardo, Mauro

    2009-12-01

    Malignant melanoma incidence is increasing rapidly in Western countries. Its prevention requires a deep knowledge of the biological basis of the neoplasm leading to the identification of new biological risk markers. In in-vitro and ex-vivo models we demonstrated that catalase was modified not only in its activity but also in its charge properties after ultraviolet A irradiation through pheomelanin. Here we focus on the electrophoretic behaviour of catalase in the human skin in vivo, in association with cutaneous phototype. Zymographic analysis of the enzyme on skin biopsies from Caucasian population (phototype I-IV), collected from the trunk in autumn-winter, to exclude possible influences of an acute photoexposure, evidenced a protein doublet, representing the coexistence of two active isoforms of catalase with different charge properties. In the skin from low-phototype subjects, the percent contribution of the more acidic component of the doublet was prevalent, inversely correlated with total melanin concentration in hair, and associated with a high number of melanocytic nevi. In summary, this study shows for the first time the existence of an acidic catalase in association with clinically defined risk characteristics in low phototype skin in vivo, contributing to the knowledge of a new biochemical marker of cutaneous photosusceptibility.

  1. Not so monofunctional-a case of thermostable Thermobifida fusca catalase with peroxidase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lončar, Nikola; Fraaije, Marco W

    Thermobifida fusca is a mesothermophilic organism known for its ability to degrade plant biomass and other organics, and it was demonstrated that it represents a rich resource of genes encoding for potent enzymes for biocatalysis. The thermostable catalase from T. fusca has been cloned and

  2. The regulation of catalase activity by PPAR gamma is affected by alpha-synuclein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakunin, Eugenia; Kisos, Haya; Kulik, Willem; Grigoletto, Jessica; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Sharon, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    Objective: While evidence for oxidative injury is frequently detected in brains of humans affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) and in relevant animal models, there is uncertainty regarding its cause. We tested the potential role of catalase in the oxidative injury that characterizes PD. Methods:

  3. Developmental changes of erythrocyte catalase activity in rats exposed to acute hypoxia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rauchová, Hana; Vokurková, Martina; Koudelová, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2005), s. 527-532 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/04/0500; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : erythrocyte * catalase * development Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005

  4. PaCATB, a secreted catalase protecting Podospora anserina against exogenous oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zintel, Sandra; Bernhardt, Dominik; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2011-01-01

    A differential mass spectrometry analysis of secreted proteins from juvenile and senescentPodospora anserina cultures revealed age-related differences in protein profiles. Among other proteins with decreased abundance in the secretome of senescent cultures a catalase, termed PaCATB, was identified...

  5. Do Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) protect Cells from DNA Damage Induced by Active Arsenicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide, which can be converted to water and oxygen through the action of catalase. Heterozygous mice of strain B6: 129S7-SodltmlLeb/J were obtained from Jackson Laboratories and bred to produce offspr...

  6. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent teeth in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Kmc; Kırıcı, D Ö; Evcil, M S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity in healthy and inflamed dental pulp of young patient's teeth and to investigate if an active defense system oxidizing agents is present as a response to bacterial invasion. Twenty young patients between 15 and 25 ages, who were diagnosed to be healthy, were the source of the pulp tissue. The situation of the dental pulps was evaluated using clinical and radiographic assessments. The patients were divided two groups from healthy, and inflamed pulp tissues were obtained; each participant provided one pulp tissue specimens. The specimens were collected during endodontic treatment or by longitudinally grooving and splitting the teeth (if extracted). Catalase activity was determined through spectrophotometric methods and an independent sample t-test assessed the significance of differences between the groups. There was statistically a difference between healthy pulp tissue and inflamed pulp tissue (P catalase activity of healthy group was significantly lower than inflamed pulp groups. The present study has shown that a significant increase in catalase activity is determined in inflamed dental pulps, which is due to pulpitis in comparison to healthy dental pulp.

  7. Low dose X –ray effects on catalase activity in animal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focea, R; Nadejde, C; Creanga, D; Luchian, T

    2012-01-01

    This study was intended to investigate the effect of low-dose X ray-irradiation upon the activity of catalase (CAT) in freshly excised chicken tissues (liver, kidney, brain, muscle). The tissue samples were irradiated with 0.5Gy and 2Gy respectively, in a 6 MV photon beam produced by a clinical linear accelerator (VARIAN CLINAC 2100SC). The dose rate was of 260.88cGy/min. at 100 cm source to sample distance. The catalase level was assayed spectrophotometrically, based on reaction kinetics, using a catalase UV assay kit (SIGMA). Catalase increased activity in various tissue samples exposed to the studied X ray doses (for example with 24 % in the liver cells, p<0.05) suggested the stimulation of the antioxidant enzyme biosynthesis within several hours after exposure at doses of 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy; the putative enzyme inactivation could also occur (due to the injuries on the hydrogen bonds that ensure the specificity of CAT active site) but the resulted balance of the two concurrent processes indicates the cell ability of decomposing the hydrogen peroxide-with benefits for the cell physiology restoration for the chosen low dose radiation.

  8. Radiation-induced inhibition of human lymphocyte blastogenesis: the effect of superoxide dismutase and catalase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, S.; Misra, H.P.; Shifrine, M.

    1982-01-01

    Mitogen-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis was measured following X-irradiation (0-4 Gy) in the presence or absence of superoxide dismutase (SOD), under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. There were no significant differences between radiation survival curves under these different conditions, nor did SOD have any radioprotective effect. This demonstrates lack of oxygen dependence of radiation-induced inhibition of lymphocyte blastogenesis. Following X-irradiation at 2 Gy, neither SOD nor catalase, alone or together, added before or after irradiation, were radioprotective. In comparison to controls, both enzymes depressed lymphocyte proliferation when added at levels as low as 25 μg catalase or 100 μg SOD/ml media. When SOD and catalase were added together, the greatest depression of blastogenesis was obtained with increasing levels of SOD relative to increasing levels of catalase, indicating that SOD was largely responsible for this depression. The suppressive effect of administration of SOD (p 2 - and/or H 2 O 2 are not involved in radiation-induced inhibition of lymphocyte blastogenesis. (author)

  9. Decrease in catalase activity of Folsomia candida fed a Bt rice diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yiyang; Ke Xin; Chen Fajun; Krogh, Paul Henning; Ge Feng

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the effects of three Bt-rice varieties and their non-Bt conventional isolines on biological traits including survival, reproduction, and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase, in the Collembolan, Folsomia candida. The reproduction was significantly lower when fed Kemingdao and Huahui1 than those feeding on their non-GM near-isogenic varieties Xiushui and Minghui63 respectively, this can be explained by the differences of plant compositions depended on variety of rice. The catalase activity of F. candida was significantly lower when fed the Bt-rice variety Kemingdao compared to the near-isogenic non-Bt-rice variety Xiushui. This suggests that some Bt-rice varieties may impose environmental stress to collembolans. We emphasize that changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes of non-target organisms are important in understanding the ecological consequences for organisms inhabiting transgenic Bt-rice plantations. - Highlights: → We examine the effects of Bt-rice on Folsomia candida with laboratory test. → The reproduction of F. candida was decreased by two Bt-rice varieties. → Decreased reproduction caused by the differences of varieties or C/N ratio of rice. → The catalase activity was decreased by Bt-rice Kemingdao. → Some Bt-rice may impose environmental stress on NTOs. - The catalase of the collembolan (Folsomia candida) was decreased when fed Bt-rice, Kemingdao.

  10. Time-resolved proton polarisation (TPP) images tyrosyl radical sites in bovine liver catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Oliver; Jouve, Hélène M.; Stuhrmann, Heinrich B.

    2017-05-01

    A differentiation between dynamic polarised protons close to tyrosyl radical sites in catalase and those of the bulk is achieved by time-resolved polarised neutron scattering. Three radical sites, all of them being close to the molecular centre and the heme, appear to be equally possible. Among these is tyr-369 the radial site of which had previously been proven by EPR.

  11. Effects of Radiofrequency Waves on the Catalase Content in Triticum Aestivum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiceanu, C.; Artenie, A.; Artenie, V.; Creanga, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible effects on enzyme biosynthesis in Triticum aestivum cariopsydes due to exposure to traveling radiofrequency (RF) waves. Triticum cariopsydes have been exposed to traveling RF waves inside a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell fed by a RF Power Generator. The frequency of the exposure field was 400 MHz. The TEM cell was excited with 2W RF power in order to obtain a power density of about 1 mW/cm2. Four sets of Triticum aestivum samples were placed in four Petri dishes. For each set of Triticum cariopsydes there has been chosen a daily exposure duration of 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours respectively. Experimental exposure was carried out for five consecutive days. After the electromagnetic treatment cariopsydes were let to germinate in Petri dishes on porous filter paper support. A couple of days later the catalase assay was performed. In comparison to the control samples, exposed samples revealed modified catalase content, significantly over the error level (five replays of every sample were assayed in identical experimental conditions in order to provide a reliable statistic result). All exposed samples presented higher catalase levels in comparison to the control samples. However, the experimental data do not suggest an evident analytical dependence between the catalase content and the exposure time duration. We presume that exposure to traveling RF waves seems to be a stimulatory factor of the enzyme biosynthesis being able to improve Triticum capacity of enzyme biosynthesis in the described experimental conditions. (author)

  12. Effect of dose and dose rate of gamma radiation on catalytic activity of catalase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaclav Cuba; Tereza Pavelkova; Viliam Mucka

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic activity of gamma irradiated catalase from bovine liver was studied for hydrogen peroxide decomposition at constant temperature and pressure. The measurement was performed at temperatures 27, 32, 37, 42 and 47 deg C. Solutions containing 1 and 0.01 g dm -3 of catalase in phosphate buffer were used for the study. Repeatability of both sample preparation and kinetics measurement was experimentally verified. Rate constants of the reaction were determined for all temperatures and the activation energy was evaluated from Arrhenius plot. Gamma irradiation was performed using 60 Co radionuclide source Gammacell 220 at two different dose rates 5.5 and 70 Gy h -1 , with doses ranging from 10 to 1000 Gy. The observed reaction of irradiated and non-irradiated catalase with hydrogen peroxide is of the first order. Irradiation significantly decreases catalytic activity of catalase, but the activation energy does not depend markedly on the dose. The effect of irradiation is more significant at higher dose rate. (author)

  13. Heterologous expression and characterization of a new heme-catalase in Bacillus subtilis 168.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibert, Tuyishime; Rao, Zhiming; Yang, Taowei; Zhou, Junping; Huang, Genshu; Irene, Komera; Samuel, Niyomukiza

    2016-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an inherent consequence to all aerobically living organisms that might lead to the cells being lethal and susceptible to oxidative stress. Bacillus pumilus is characterized by high-resistance oxidative stress that stimulated our interest to investigate the heterologous expression and characterization of heme-catalase as potential biocatalyst. Results indicated that recombinant enzyme significantly exhibited the high catalytic activity of 55,784 U/mg expressed in Bacillus subtilis 168 and 98.097 µmol/min/mg peroxidatic activity, the apparent K m of catalytic activity was 59.6 ± 13 mM with higher turnover rate (K cat = 322.651 × 10(3) s(-1)). The pH dependence of catalatic and peroxidatic activity was pH 7.0 and pH 4.5 respectively with temperature dependence of 40 °C and the recombinant heme-catalase exhibited a strong Fe(2+) preference. It was further revealed that catalase KatX2 improved the resistance oxidative stress of B. subtilis. These findings suggest that this B. pumilus heme-catalase can be considered among the industrially relevant biocatalysts due to its exceptional catalytic rate and high stability and it can be a potential candidate for the improvement of oxidative resistance of industrially produced strains.

  14. A manganese catalase from Thermomicrobium roseum with peroxidase and catecholase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, Robin; Sommerhalter, Monika

    2017-01-01

    An enzyme with catechol oxidase activity was identified in Thermomicrobium roseum extracts via solution assays and activity-stained SDS-PAGE. Yet, the genome of T. roseum does not harbor a catecholase gene. The enzyme was purified with two anion exchange chromatography steps and ultimately identified to be a manganese catalase with additional peroxidase and catecholase activity. Catalase activity (6280 ± 430 IU/mg) clearly dominated over pyrogallol peroxidase (231 ± 53 IU/mg) and catecholase (3.07 ± 0.56 IU/mg) activity as determined at 70 °C. Most enzyme kinetic properties were comparable to previously characterized manganese catalase enzymes. Catalase activity was highest at alkaline pH values and showed inhibition by excess substrate and chloride. The apparent K m and k cat values were 20 mM and 2.02 × 10 4  s -1 subunit -1 at 25 °C and pH 7.0.

  15. Effects of peroxide and catalase on near ultraviolet radiation sensitivity in Escherichia coli strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, A.M.L.; Moss, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    The role of peroxide and catalase on NUV radiation sensitivity was examined in two repair competent E. coli strains, AB1157 and B/r. Exponential phase B/r is considerably more sensitive to NUV radiation than exponential phase AB1157. However, resistance to 5 mmol dm -3 H 2 O 2 was induced in both AB1157 and B/r by pretreating growing cells with 30 μmol dm -3 H 2 O 2 . Pretreatment also induced resistance to broad-band NUV radiation in these strains. The addition of catalase to the post-irradiation plating medium increased survival to the same extent as that provided by pretreatment with 30 μmol dm -3 H 2 O 2 , in both strains. The NUV radiation sensitivity seen in B/r does not appear to be due to a deficiency in enzymes that scavenge H 2 O 2 , as a catalase deficient mutant, E. coli UM1, is more resistant to NUV radiation than B/r. Also, assays for H 2 O 2 scavenging ability show little difference between AB1157 and B/r in this respect. Two hypotheses are put forward to account for the sensitivity of exponential phase B/r. Whilst it is apparent that peroxides and catalase do have a role in NUV radiation damage, it is clear that other factors also influence survival under certain conditions. (author)

  16. Low dose X -ray effects on catalase activity in animal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focea, R.; Nadejde, C.; Creanga, D.; Luchian, T.

    2012-12-01

    This study was intended to investigate the effect of low-dose X ray-irradiation upon the activity of catalase (CAT) in freshly excised chicken tissues (liver, kidney, brain, muscle). The tissue samples were irradiated with 0.5Gy and 2Gy respectively, in a 6 MV photon beam produced by a clinical linear accelerator (VARIAN CLINAC 2100SC). The dose rate was of 260.88cGy/min. at 100 cm source to sample distance. The catalase level was assayed spectrophotometrically, based on reaction kinetics, using a catalase UV assay kit (SIGMA). Catalase increased activity in various tissue samples exposed to the studied X ray doses (for example with 24 % in the liver cells, p<0.05) suggested the stimulation of the antioxidant enzyme biosynthesis within several hours after exposure at doses of 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy; the putative enzyme inactivation could also occur (due to the injuries on the hydrogen bonds that ensure the specificity of CAT active site) but the resulted balance of the two concurrent processes indicates the cell ability of decomposing the hydrogen peroxide-with benefits for the cell physiology restoration for the chosen low dose radiation.

  17. Nitric oxide protects macrophages from hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis by inducing the formation of catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Tatsuya; Kishino, Takashi; Yamamuro, Akiko; Maeda, Sadaaki

    2006-04-15

    We investigated the cytoprotective effect of NO on H2O2-induced cell death in mouse macrophage-like cell line RAW264. H2O2-treated cells showed apoptotic features, such as activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, nuclear fragmentation, and DNA fragmentation. These apoptotic features were significantly inhibited by pretreatment for 24 h with NO donors, sodium nitroprusside and 1-hydroxy-2-oxo-3,3-bis-(2-aminoethyl)-1-triazene, at a low nontoxic concentration. The cytoprotective effect of NO was abrogated by the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole but was not affected by a glutathione synthesis inhibitor, L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine. NO donors increased the level of catalase and its activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, inhibited both the NO-induced increase in the catalase level and the cytoprotective effect of NO. These results indicate that NO at a low concentration protects macrophages from H2O2-induced apoptosis by inducing the production of catalase.

  18. Hydrogen peroxide homeostasis: activation of plant catalase by calcium/calmodulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental stimuli such as UV, pathogen attack, and gravity can induce rapid changes in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) levels, leading to a variety of physiological responses in plants. Catalase, which is involved in the degradation of H(2)O(2) into water and oxygen, is the major H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzyme in all aerobic organisms. A close interaction exists between intracellular H(2)O(2) and cytosolic calcium in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Studies indicate that an increase in cytosolic calcium boosts the generation of H(2)O(2). Here we report that calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein, binds to and activates some plant catalases in the presence of calcium, but calcium/CaM does not have any effect on bacterial, fungal, bovine, or human catalase. These results document that calcium/CaM can down-regulate H(2)O(2) levels in plants by stimulating the catalytic activity of plant catalase. Furthermore, these results provide evidence indicating that calcium has dual functions in regulating H(2)O(2) homeostasis, which in turn influences redox signaling in response to environmental signals in plants.

  19. Production of free radicals and catalase activity during acute exercise training in young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A.C. de Castro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are constantly produced by cells that promote cellular oxidative damage and are neutralized by an antioxidant system including superoxide dismutase, glutathione, peroxidase and catalase. Male volunteers were exercised for 20 minutes, three days (60, 70 and 80% of maximum heart rate. Catalase activity and plasma malondialdehyde concentration were measured. The mean age of the volunteers was 25±7 years, with body mass index of 24.03 ± 4.32 kg/m2. Acute exercise training produced an increase of malondialdehyde concentration that was exercise intensity-dependent in young volunteers. However, catalase activity shows a great variability at baseline and the percentual of reduction was exercise intensity-independent in this particular population. Therefore, our study shows that acute cycling exercise promotes an increase of oxidative stress that was exercise intensity-dependent in young volunteers. Furthermore, the antioxidant system measured by catalase activity was effective to counterbalance the ROS production showing a saturation behavior at an intensity of 70% of maximum heart rate

  20. Reactive oxygen species formation and cell death in catalase-deficient tobacco leaf discs exposed to paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, María Florencia; Rosales, Eliana Paola; Groppa, María Daniela; Benavides, María Patricia

    2012-05-01

    In the present work, the response of tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum L.) wild-type SR1 and transgenic CAT1AS plants (with a basal reduced CAT activity) was evaluated after exposure to the herbicide paraquat (PQ). Superoxide anion (O (2) (.-) ) formation was inhibited at 3 or 21 h of exposure, but H(2)O(2) production and ion leakage increased significantly, both in SR1 or CAT1AS leaf discs. NADPH oxidase activity was constitutively 57% lower in non-treated transgenic leaves than in SR1 leaves and was greatly reduced both at 3 or 21 h of PQ treatment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly reduced by PQ after 21 h, showing a decrease from 70% to 55%, whereas catalase (CAT) activity decreased an average of 50% after 3 h of treatment, and of 90% after 21 h, in SR1 and CAT1AS, respectively. Concomitantly, total CAT protein content was shown to be reduced in non-treated CAT1AS plants compared to control SR1 leaf discs at both exposure times. PQ decreased CAT expression in SR1 or CAT1AS plants at 3 and 21 h of treatment. The mechanisms underlying PQ-induced cell death were possibly not related exclusively to ROS formation and oxidative stress in tobacco wild-type or transgenic plants.

  1. Significance of membrane bioreactor design on the biocatalytic performance of glucose oxidase and catalase: Free vs. immobilized enzyme systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Meyer, Anne S.; Jørgensen, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Membrane separation of xylose and glucose can be accomplished via oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid by enzymatic glucose oxidase catalysis. Oxygen for this reaction can be supplied via decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by enzymatic catalase catalysis. In order to maximize the biocatalytic...... productivity of glucose oxidase and catalase (gluconic acid yield per total amount of enzyme) the following system set-ups were compared: immobilization of glucose oxidase alone; co-immobilization of glucose oxidase and catalase; glucose oxidase and catalase free in the membrane bioreactor. Fouling......-induced enzyme immobilization in the porous support of an ultrafiltration membrane was used as strategy for entrapment of glucose oxidase and catalase. The biocatalytic productivity of the membrane reactor was found to be highly related to the oxygen availability, which in turn depended on the reactor...

  2. Novel nonsense mutation in the katA gene of a catalase-negative Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Jaime; Alarcón, Pedro; Benadof, Dona; Ulloa, Soledad; Fasce, Rodrigo; Tognarelli, Javier; Aguayo, Carolina; Araya, Pamela; Parra, Bárbara; Olivares, Berta; Hormazábal, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We report the first description of a rare catalase-negative strain of Staphylococcus aureus in Chile. This new variant was isolated from blood and synovial tissue samples of a pediatric patient. Sequencing analysis revealed that this catalase-negative strain is related to ST10 strain, which has earlier been described in relation to S. aureus carriers. Interestingly, sequence analysis of the catalase gene katA revealed presence of a novel nonsense mutation that causes premature translational truncation of the C-terminus of the enzyme leading to a loss of 222 amino acids. Our study suggests that loss of catalase activity in this rare catalase-negative Chilean strain is due to this novel nonsense mutation in the katA gene, which truncates the enzyme to just 283 amino acids. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) and Fluorescence Spectroscopic Investigation of the Interactions of Ionic Liquids and Catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xing; Fan, Yunchang; Yang, Peng; Kong, Jichuan; Li, Dandan; Miao, Juan; Hua, Shaofeng; Hu, Chaobing

    2016-11-01

    The inhibitory effects of nine ionic liquids (ILs) on the catalase activity were investigated using fluorescence, absorption ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The interactions of ILs and catalase on the molecular level were studied. The experimental results indicated that ILs could inhibit the catalase activity and their inhibitory abilities depended on their chemical structures. Fluorescence experiments showed that hydrogen bonding played an important role in the interaction process. The inhibitory abilities of ILs on catalase activity could be simply described by their hydrophobicity and hydrogen bonding abilities. Unexpected less inhibitory effects of trifluoromethanesulfonate (TfO - ) might be ascribed to its larger size, which makes it difficult to go through the substrate channel of catalase to the active site. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Ozone Sensitivity and Catalase Activity in Pigmented and Non-Pigmented Strains of Serratia Marcescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ondarza, José

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ozone exposure rapidly leads to bacterial death, making ozone an effective disinfectant in food industry and health care arena. However, microbial defenses may moderate this effect and play a role in the effective use of oxidizing agents for disinfection. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen, expressing genes differentially during infection of a human host. A better understanding of regulatory systems that control expression of Serratia’s virulence genes and defenses is therefore valuable. Objective: Here, we investigated the role of pigmentation and catalase in Serratia marcescens on survival to ozone exposure. Method: Pigmented and non-pigmented strains of Serratia marcescens were cultured to exponential or stationary phase and exposed to 5 ppm of gaseous ozone for 2.5 – 10 minutes. Survival was calculated via plate counts. Catalase activity was measured photometrically and tolerance to hydrogen peroxide was assayed by disk-diffusion. Results: Exposure of S. marcescens to 5 ppm gaseous ozone kills > 90% of cells within 10 minutes in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Although pigmented Serratia (grown at 28°C) survived ozonation better than unpigmented Serratia (grown at 35°C), non-pigmented mutant strains of Serratia had similar ozone survival rates, catalase activity and H2O2 tolerance as wild type strains. Rather, ozone survival and catalase activity were elevated in 6 hour cultures compared to 48 hour cultures. Conclusion: Our studies did not bear out a role for prodigiosin in ozone survival. Rather, induction of oxidative stress responses during exponential growth increased both catalase activity and ozone survival in both pigmented and unpigmented S. marcescens. PMID:28567147

  5. Role of catalase on the hypoxia/reoxygenation stress in the hypoxia-tolerant Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Alexis F; Campos, Elida G; Cardoso, Luciano A; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2012-05-01

    The specific contribution of each antioxidant enzyme to protection against the reoxygenation-associated oxidative stress after periods of hypoxia is not well understood. We assessed the physiological role of catalase during posthypoxic reoxygenation by the combination of two approaches. First, catalase activity of Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) was 90% suppressed by intraperitoneal injection of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATZ, 1g/kg). In ATZ-injected fish, liver GSH levels, oxidative stress markers, and activities of other antioxidant enzymes remained unchanged. Second, animals with depleted catalase activity (or those saline-injected) were subjected to a cycle of severe hypoxia (dissolved O(2) = 0.28 mg/l for 3 h) followed by reoxyge