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Sample records for catabolic mobile element

  1. An unexpected location of the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) in a USA300-related MRSA strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Boye, Kit;

    2011-01-01

    In methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) was initially described in USA300 (t008-ST8) where it is located downstream of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). A common health-care associated MRSA in Copenhagen, Denmark (t024......-ST8) is clonally related to USA300 and is frequently PCR positive for the ACME specific arcA-gene. This study is the first to describe an ACME element upstream of the SCCmec in MRSA. By traditional SCCmec typing schemes, the SCCmec of t024-ST8 strain M1 carries SCCmec IVa, but full sequencing of the...

  2. Characterization of a Novel Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element (ACME) and Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec Composite Island with Significant Homology to Staphylococcus epidermidis ACME type II in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Genotype ST22-MRSA-IV.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-02-22

    The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is prevalent among ST8-MRSA-IVa (USA300) isolates and evidence suggests that ACME enhances the ability of ST8-MRSA-IVa to grow and survive on its host. ACME has been identified in a small number of isolates belonging to other MRSA clones but is widespread among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). This study reports the first description of ACME in two distinct strains of the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. A total of 238 MRSA isolates recovered in Ireland between 1971 and 2008 were investigated for ACME using a DNA microarray. Twenty-three isolates (9.7%) were ACME-positive, all were either MRSA genotype ST8-MRSA-IVa (7\\/23, 30%) or ST22-MRSA-IV (16\\/23, 70%). Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular characterization revealed the presence of a novel 46-kb ACME and SCCmec composite island (ACME\\/SCCmec-CI) in ST22-MRSA-IVh isolates (n = 15). This ACME\\/SCCmec-CI consists of a 12-kb DNA region previously identified in ACME type II in S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, a truncated copy of the J1 region of SCCmec I and a complete SCCmec IVh element. The composite island has a novel genetic organization with ACME located within orfX and SCCmec located downstream of ACME. One pvl-positive ST22-MRSA-IVa isolate carried ACME located downstream of SCCmec IVa as previously described in ST8-MRSA-IVa. These results suggest that ACME has been acquired by ST22-MRSA-IV on two independent occasions. At least one of these instances may have involved horizontal transfer and recombination events between MRSA and CoNS. The presence of ACME may enhance dissemination of ST22-MRSA-IV, an already successful MRSA clone.

  3. Characterization of a novel arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec composite island with significant homology to Staphylococcus epidermidis ACME type II in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotype ST22-MRSA-IV.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-05-01

    The arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is prevalent among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates of sequence type 8 (ST8) and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type IVa (USA300) (ST8-MRSA-IVa isolates), and evidence suggests that ACME enhances the ability of ST8-MRSA-IVa to grow and survive on its host. ACME has been identified in a small number of isolates belonging to other MRSA clones but is widespread among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). This study reports the first description of ACME in two distinct strains of the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. A total of 238 MRSA isolates recovered in Ireland between 1971 and 2008 were investigated for ACME using a DNA microarray. Twenty-three isolates (9.7%) were ACME positive, and all were either MRSA genotype ST8-MRSA-IVa (7\\/23, 30%) or MRSA genotype ST22-MRSA-IV (16\\/23, 70%). Whole-genome sequencing and comprehensive molecular characterization revealed the presence of a novel 46-kb ACME and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) composite island (ACME\\/SCCmec-CI) in ST22-MRSA-IVh isolates (n=15). This ACME\\/SCCmec-CI consists of a 12-kb DNA region previously identified in ACME type II in S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, a truncated copy of the J1 region of SCCmec type I, and a complete SCCmec type IVh element. The composite island has a novel genetic organization, with ACME located within orfX and SCCmec located downstream of ACME. One PVL locus-positive ST22-MRSA-IVa isolate carried ACME located downstream of SCCmec type IVa, as previously described in ST8-MRSA-IVa. These results suggest that ACME has been acquired by ST22-MRSA-IV on two independent occasions. At least one of these instances may have involved horizontal transfer and recombination events between MRSA and CoNS. The presence of ACME may enhance dissemination of ST22-MRSA-IV, an already successful MRSA clone.

  4. Calcium-dependent phospholipid catabolism and arachidonic acid mobilization in cerebral minces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral minces were used to investigate the role of calcium influx on trauma-induced alterations of brain lipid metabolism. Cerebral phospholipids, nonpolar lipids, and free fatty acids were radiolabeled in vivo with [3H]arachidonic acid. Tissue incubation stimulated the time-dependent catabolism of choline and inositol glycerophospholipids, and resulted in the accumulation of [3H]free fatty acids. These effects were attenuated in Ca2+-free incubations, and when EGTA or verapamil were present. The inhibition of calcium influx also reduced the labeling of diglycerides, whereas ethanolamine and serine glycerophospholipids were not affected by incubation or treatments. Replacing Ca2+ with other cations also attenuated the incubation-dependent alterations in lipid metabolism. However, only cadmium was able to compete with calcium and reduce the accumulation of [3H]free fatty acids. It appeared that about half of the observed phospholipid catabolism was dependent on Ca2+ influx and that at least 80% of the [3H]free fatty acid accumulation required calcium

  5. MOBILE ELEMENTS SCHEDULING FOR PERIODIC SENSOR APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam A.alqaralleh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the problem of designing the mobile elements tours such that the length of each tour is below a per-determined length and the depth of the multi-hop routing trees bounded by k. The path of the mobile element is designed to visit subset of the nodes (cache points. These cache points store other nodes data. To address this problem, we propose two heuristic-based solutions. Our solutions take into consideration the distribution of the nodes during the establishment of the tour. The results of our experiments indicate that our schemes significantly outperforms the best comparable scheme in the literature

  6. Mobile genetic elements in Methanobacterium thermoformicicum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nölling, J.

    1993-01-01

    The identification of the Archaea as a third primary lineage of life and their adaptation to extreme environmental conditions have generated considerable interest in the molecular biology of these organisms. Most progress in the investigation of archaeal mobile genetic elements, i.e. viruses, plasmi

  7. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Extreme Terrain Mobility Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During 2014, the Extreme Terrain Mobility project element is developing five technologies:Exoskeleton Development for ISS EvaluationExtreme Terrain Mobility...

  8. Mobile genetic elements in protozoan parasites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudha Bhattacharya; Abhijeet Bakre; Alok Bhattacharya

    2002-08-01

    Mobile genetic elements, by virtue of their ability to move to new chromosomal locations, are considered important in shaping the evolutionary course of the genome. They are widespread in the biological kingdom. Among the protozoan parasites several types of transposable elements are encountered. The largest variety is seen in the trypanosomatids—Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Crithidia fasciculata. They contain elements that insert site-specifically in the spliced-leader RNA genes, and others that are dispersed in a variety of genomic locations. Giardia lamblia contains three families of transposable elements. Two of these are subtelomeric in location while one is chromosome-internal. Entamoeba histolytica has an abundant retrotransposon dispersed in the genome. Nucleotide sequence analysis of all the elements shows that they are all retrotransposons, and, with the exception of one class of elements in T. cruzi, all of them are non-long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons. Although most copies have accumulated mutations, they can potentially encode reverse transcriptase, endonuclease and nucleic-acid-binding activities. Functionally and phylogenetically they do not belong to a single lineage, showing that retrotransposons were acquired early in the evolution of protozoan parasites. Many of the potentially autonomous elements that encode their own transposition functions have nonautonomous counterparts that probably utilize the functions in trans. In this respect these elements are similar to the mammalian LINEs and SINEs (long and short interspersed DNA elements), showing a common theme in the evolution of retrotransposons. So far there is no report of a DNA transposon in any protozoan parasite. The genome projects that are under way for most of these organisms will help understand the evolution and possible function of these genetic elements.

  9. Security Elements in Distributed Mobile Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Petre

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The mobile phones have emerged in order to overcome the basic need of human beings for being in contact one with each other. In time, the functionalities of such devices have evolved. And so, the users have started to use more and more online social services like Facebook™, Twitter™ or Foursquare™, in order to keep in touch more easily. Unfortunately, the current information exchange models come with a high risk when it comes to sensitive areas like keeping the users’ data private and protecting the intimacy of the users. The purpose of this paper is to make an audit of such a mobile distributed architecture – a real time location based mobile social network that aims at helping its users to remain in permanent contact with their beloved ones.

  10. Analysis and Design of Mobile Collaborative Applications Using Contextual Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Alarcón; LUIS A. GUERRERO; Sergio F. Ochoa; JOSÉ A. PINO

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative mobile applications support users on the move in order to perform a collaborative task. One of the challenges when designing such applications is to consider the context where they will execute. Contextualized applications are easy to adopt by the users; unfortunately the design of contextualized tools is not evident. This paper presents a framework of contextual elements to be considered during the conception, analysis and design phases of a mobile collaborative application. Th...

  11. Mobility of hobo transposable elements in non-drosophilid insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We will describe the development and implementation of assays which permit the mobility of hobo elements injected into developing insects embryos to be detected and examined. These assays have enabled us to classify hobo elements as members of a transposable element family which includes the Ac element of maize and the Tam3 element of snapdragon - two plant transposable elements that have wide host ranges. We will present data that show that hobo also has a wide host range in that it can excise and transpose in a number of non-drosophilid insect species. These results have led us to use hobo as a gene vector in the tephritid, Bactrocera tryoni, and we will discuss the progress of these ongoing experiments. (author)

  12. Element mobility in crystalline rock around open fractures at Palmottu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock specimens adjacent to two conducting fractures at a depth of about 205 m from the Palmottu uranium deposit, a natural analogue study site for radionuclide migration, Southern Finland, were studied in order to obtain information on element mobility. The drill core was sawn in such a way that a series of specimens perpendicular to the water conducting fracture were obtained for each of the fractures. Concentration profiles for a number of elements were determined. Uranium series disequilibrium studies as well as petrographic studies and porosity determinations were also performed. In spite of closeness of fractures (only 67 apart) they were different in character. Hardly any mobilization was observed for the lower fracture but for the upper fracture several elements had been mobilized, while many remained immobile. Elements such as Na, Ca, Al, Si and u were enriched adjacent to the upper fracture. At the same time Fe, Sc, Co, S and Cu remained immobile. Elemental concentration data provided also for the alteration depth about 25 mm. The conditions have been reducing for very long times

  13. Mobile DNA elements in T4 and related phages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belfort Marlene

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mobile genetic elements are common inhabitants of virtually every genome where they can exert profound influences on genome structure and function in addition to promoting their own spread within and between genomes. Phage T4 and related phage have long served as a model system for understanding the molecular mechanisms by which a certain class of mobile DNA, homing endonucleases, promote their spread. Homing endonucleases are site-specific DNA endonucleases that initiate mobility by introducing double-strand breaks at defined positions in genomes lacking the endonuclease gene, stimulating repair and recombination pathways that mobilize the endonuclease coding region. In phage T4, homing endonucleases were first discovered as encoded within the self-splicing td, nrdB and nrdD introns of T4. Genomic data has revealed that homing endonucleases are extremely widespread in T-even-like phage, as evidenced by the astounding fact that ~11% of the T4 genome encodes homing endonuclease genes, with most of them located outside of self-splicing introns. Detailed studies of the mobile td intron and its encoded endonuclease, I-TevI, have laid the foundation for genetic, biochemical and structural aspects that regulate the mobility process, and more recently have provided insights into regulation of homing endonuclease function. Here, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding T4-encoded homing endonucleases, with particular emphasis on the td/I-TevI model system. We also discuss recent progress in the biology of free-standing endonucleases, and present areas of future research for this fascinating class of mobile genetic elements.

  14. Mobile DNA elements in T4 and related phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, David R; Gibb, Ewan A; Belfort, Marlene

    2010-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements are common inhabitants of virtually every genome where they can exert profound influences on genome structure and function in addition to promoting their own spread within and between genomes. Phage T4 and related phage have long served as a model system for understanding the molecular mechanisms by which a certain class of mobile DNA, homing endonucleases, promote their spread. Homing endonucleases are site-specific DNA endonucleases that initiate mobility by introducing double-strand breaks at defined positions in genomes lacking the endonuclease gene, stimulating repair and recombination pathways that mobilize the endonuclease coding region. In phage T4, homing endonucleases were first discovered as encoded within the self-splicing td, nrdB and nrdD introns of T4. Genomic data has revealed that homing endonucleases are extremely widespread in T-even-like phage, as evidenced by the astounding fact that ~11% of the T4 genome encodes homing endonuclease genes, with most of them located outside of self-splicing introns. Detailed studies of the mobile td intron and its encoded endonuclease, I-TevI, have laid the foundation for genetic, biochemical and structural aspects that regulate the mobility process, and more recently have provided insights into regulation of homing endonuclease function. Here, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding T4-encoded homing endonucleases, with particular emphasis on the td/I-TevI model system. We also discuss recent progress in the biology of free-standing endonucleases, and present areas of future research for this fascinating class of mobile genetic elements. PMID:21029434

  15. Mobile antibiotic resistance encoding elements promote their own diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Garriss

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrating conjugative elements (ICEs are a class of bacterial mobile genetic elements that disseminate via conjugation and then integrate into the host cell genome. The SXT/R391 family of ICEs consists of more than 30 different elements that all share the same integration site in the host chromosome but often encode distinct properties. These elements contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in several gram-negative bacteria including Vibrio cholerae, the agent of cholera. Here, using comparative analyses of the genomes of several SXT/R391 ICEs, we found evidence that the genomes of these elements have been shaped by inter-ICE recombination. We developed a high throughput semi-quantitative method to explore the genetic determinants involved in hybrid ICE formation. Recombinant ICE formation proved to be relatively frequent, and to depend on host (recA and ICE (s065 and s066 loci, which can independently and potentially cooperatively mediate hybrid ICE formation. s065 and s066, which are found in all SXT/R391 ICEs, are orthologues of the bacteriophage lambda Red recombination genes bet and exo, and the s065/s066 recombination system is the first Red-like recombination pathway to be described in a conjugative element. Neither ICE excision nor conjugative transfer proved to be essential for generation of hybrid ICEs. Instead conjugation facilitates the segregation of hybrids and could provide a means to select for functional recombinant ICEs containing novel combinations of genes conferring resistance to antibiotics. Thus, ICEs promote their own diversity and can yield novel mobile elements capable of disseminating new combinations of antibiotic resistance genes.

  16. Characteristics and environmental mobility of trace elements in urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, U M; Balasubramanian, R

    2010-06-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of various trace elements in water and suspended solids in urban runoff from residential and industrial sites was studied. 240 sequential urban runoff samples from 39 rain/storm events were collected, processed and analyzed for 13 elements (12 metals - Al, Co, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni, Ti, V, and Zn, and one metalloid--As). The experimental protocol used in this study was validated using standard reference material (NIST 1648, urban particulate matter) and certified rain water samples. Good agreement was obtained between the certified and measured values. Al, Fe and Zn were found to be abundant in both residential and industrial runoffs. Some of the metals demonstrated first flush phenomena. Investigation of dissolved fraction, environmentally mobile fraction and total concentration for the 13 elements revealed that trace elements in industrial runoff were highly enriched as compared to those in the residential runoff. The environmentally mobile fraction was quite significant for most of the trace elements. Statistical correlations among the metals were studied, and principal component analysis (PCA) was used for identification of the major sources of the metals/metalloid in both residential and industrial runoffs. Crustal leaching, paints from building walls, and atmospheric deposition were found to be the main sources of metals/metalloid in runoff from the residential site while emissions from petrochemical and semiconductor industries, metal corrosion and vehicular emissions were the main sources of metals/metalloid in runoff from the industrial site. These results are presented and discussed in this paper. PMID:20444492

  17. Volatile/mobile trace elements in Karoonda /C4/ chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matza, S. D.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of ten volatile/mobile trace elements and of nonvolatile Co in the Karoonda (C4) meteorite were determined, and the atomic abundances relative to C1 are compared with values for the Murchison (C2) and Allende (C3) meteorites. Empirical Bi, In, and Tl data for Karoonda and heated Allende and Murchison are compared with theoretical curves for condensation from a gas of cosmic composition at low pressures. It is suggested that Karoonda might derive from low-temperature open-system metamorphism of pristine C3-like material.

  18. Adaptive Data Gathering in Mobile Sensor Networks Using Speedy Mobile Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxuan Lai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data gathering is a key operator for applications in wireless sensor networks; yet it is also a challenging problem in mobile sensor networks when considering that all nodes are mobile and the communications among them are opportunistic. This paper proposes an efficient data gathering scheme called ADG that adopts speedy mobile elements as the mobile data collector and takes advantage of the movement patterns of the network. ADG first extracts the network meta-data at initial epochs, and calculates a set of proxy nodes based on the meta-data. Data gathering is then mapped into the Proxy node Time Slot Allocation (PTSA problem that schedules the time slots and orders, according to which the data collector could gather the maximal amount of data within a limited period. Finally, the collector follows the schedule and picks up the sensed data from the proxy nodes through one hop of message transmissions. ADG learns the period when nodes are relatively stationary, so that the collector is able to pick up the data from them during the limited data gathering period. Moreover, proxy nodes and data gathering points could also be timely updated so that the collector could adapt to the change of node movements. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed scheme outperforms other data gathering schemes on the cost of message transmissions and the data gathering rate, especially under the constraint of limited data gathering period.

  19. Mammalian small nucleolar RNAs are mobile genetic elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel J Weber

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs of the H/ACA box and C/D box categories guide the pseudouridylation and the 2'-O-ribose methylation of ribosomal RNAs by forming short duplexes with their target. Similarly, small Cajal body-specific RNAs (scaRNAs guide modifications of spliceosomal RNAs. The vast majority of vertebrate sno/scaRNAs are located in introns of genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II and processed by exonucleolytic trimming after splicing. A bioinformatic search for orthologues of human sno/scaRNAs in sequenced mammalian genomes reveals the presence of species- or lineage-specific sno/scaRNA retroposons (sno/scaRTs characterized by an A-rich tail and an approximately 14-bp target site duplication that corresponds to their insertion site, as determined by interspecific genomic alignments. Three classes of snoRTs are defined based on the extent of intron and exon sequences from the snoRNA parental host gene they contain. SnoRTs frequently insert in gene introns in the sense orientation at genomic hot spots shared with other genetic mobile elements. Previously characterized human snoRNAs are encoded in retroposons whose parental copies can be identified by phylogenic analysis, showing that snoRTs can be faithfully processed. These results identify snoRNAs as a new family of mobile genetic elements. The insertion of new snoRNA copies might constitute a safeguard mechanism by which the biological activity of snoRNAs is maintained in spite of the risk of mutations in the parental copy. I furthermore propose that retroposition followed by genetic drift is a mechanism that increased snoRNA diversity during vertebrate evolution to eventually acquire new RNA-modification functions.

  20. Determination of mobile forms of elements in overburden and its application prospect in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author briefly expounds the development background of the technique (determination of mobile forms of elements in overburden) and its system, and the mobile forms of elements, as well as main extraction methods in surface loose medium. Moreover, the principles of the technique and the formation mechanism of the mobile forms of elements are preliminarily discussed. The author suggests that the geo-gas prospecting should belong to the determination of mobile forms of elements in overburden. The test application results show that the technique is effective and may be widely used in uranium exploration in the near future

  1. Chapter 8. On geochemical mobility elements in secondary basin sedimentation of depression of Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter of book author made conclusion that geochemical mobility of elements determine by properties of elements itself and concrete conditions of sedimentation formation medium: bismuth and thallium accumulate in coastal conditions and indium-in lagoon. As a whole for bismuth, indium, thallium mobility forms more typical then for lead, zink and copper

  2. Trace elements in floodplain soils - effects of redox conditions on the mobility of trace elements and volatilization of mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Hindersmann, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Floodplains are characterized by periodic flooding and their soils can contain high concentrations of trace elements. The flooding events lead to varying oxygen contents in the soil. This is accompanied with varying redox conditions that are expressed by strongly fluc-tuating redox potentials. This study investigated the influence of flooding events on the mo-bilization of the trace elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, and zinc, as ...

  3. Volatile/mobile trace elements in meteoritic, non-lunar basalts: Guides to Martian sample contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschutz, M. E.; Paul, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of genetic processes on or in extraterrestrial objects can be examined by study of volatile/mobile trace elements. Doubtless, considerable efforts will be expended on determining these elements in returned Martian samples. The purpose is to estimate levels of such elements expected to be present in returned Martian samples. Some ideas about Martian genesis were already advanced from the volatile/mobile element contents in SNC meteorites, assuming that Mars was their parent body. Even is Mars and the SNC meteorite parent body are identical, compositional ranges for returned Martian samples should exceed those of SNC meteorites. It is expected, therefore, that Martian samples returned from locations other than Polar regions will have indigenous volatile/mobile element contents within howardite-diogenite ranges. Elements with strong lithophile tendences may be more abundant, as they are in many lunar samples. Most of these elements should be at ppb levels except for Co, Ga, Zn, and Rb, which should lie at ppm levels. If Martian volcanism was accompanied by fumarolic emanations, it should be reflected in occasional huge enrichments of mobile trance elements, as in lunar meteorite Y 791197. During collection and transport Earthward, samples must be contained under conditions appropriate to ppb concentrations. Materials must be used that will not cause contamination which occurred during the Apollo program, where indium from seals contaminated many samples.

  4. Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Mobile Bearing Type Knee Prosthesis under Deep Flexional Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Afzan Mohd Anuar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to distinguish between mobile bearing and fixed bearing posterior stabilized knee prostheses in the mechanics performance using the finite element simulation. Quantifying the relative mechanics attributes and survivorship between the mobile bearing and the fixed bearing prosthesis remains in investigation among researchers. In the present study, 3-dimensional computational model of a clinically used mobile bearing PS type knee prosthesis was utilized to develop a finite element and dynamic simulation model. Combination of displacement and force driven knee motion was adapted to simulate a flexion motion from 0° to 135° with neutral, 10°, and 20° internal tibial rotation to represent deep knee bending. Introduction of the secondary moving articulation in the mobile bearing knee prosthesis has been found to maintain relatively low shear stress during deep knee motion with tibial rotation.

  5. Mobile elements reveal small population size in the ancient ancestors of Homo sapiens

    OpenAIRE

    Huff, Chad D; Xing, Jinchuan; Rogers, Alan R; Witherspoon, David; Jorde, Lynn B.

    2010-01-01

    The genealogies of different genetic loci vary in depth. The deeper the genealogy, the greater the chance that it will include a rare event, such as the insertion of a mobile element. Therefore, the genealogy of a region that contains a mobile element is on average older than that of the rest of the genome. In a simple demographic model, the expected time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) is doubled if a rare insertion is present. We test this expectation by examining single nucleotide p...

  6. Viruses and mobile elements as drivers of evolutionary transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V

    2016-08-19

    The history of life is punctuated by evolutionary transitions which engender emergence of new levels of biological organization that involves selection acting at increasingly complex ensembles of biological entities. Major evolutionary transitions include the origin of prokaryotic and then eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms and eusocial animals. All or nearly all cellular life forms are hosts to diverse selfish genetic elements with various levels of autonomy including plasmids, transposons and viruses. I present evidence that, at least up to and including the origin of multicellularity, evolutionary transitions are driven by the coevolution of hosts with these genetic parasites along with sharing of 'public goods'. Selfish elements drive evolutionary transitions at two distinct levels. First, mathematical modelling of evolutionary processes, such as evolution of primitive replicator populations or unicellular organisms, indicates that only increasing organizational complexity, e.g. emergence of multicellular aggregates, can prevent the collapse of the host-parasite system under the pressure of parasites. Second, comparative genomic analysis reveals numerous cases of recruitment of genes with essential functions in cellular life forms, including those that enable evolutionary transitions.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431520

  7. Finite-elements modeling of radiant heat transfers between mobile surfaces; Modelisation par elements finis de transferts radiatifs entre surfaces mobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daurelle, J.V.; Cadene, V.; Occelli, R. [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1996-12-31

    In the numerical modeling of thermal industrial problems, radiant heat transfers remain difficult to take into account and require important computer memory and long computing time. These difficulties are enhanced when radiant heat transfers are coupled with finite-elements diffusive heat transfers because finite-elements architecture is complex and requires a lot of memory. In the case of radiant heat transfers along mobile boundaries, the methods must be optimized. The model described in this paper concerns the radiant heat transfers between diffuse grey surfaces. These transfers are coupled with conduction transfers in the limits of the diffusive opaque domain. 2-D and 3-D geometries are analyzed and two configurations of mobile boundaries are considered. In the first configuration, the boundary follows the deformation of the mesh, while in the second, the boundary moves along the fixed mesh. Matter displacement is taken into account in the term of transport of the energy equation, and an appropriate variation of the thermophysical properties of the transition elements between the opaque and transparent media is used. After a description of the introduction of radiative limit conditions in a finite-elements thermal model, the original methods used to optimize calculation time are explained. Two examples of application illustrate the approach used. The first concerns the modeling of radiant heat transfers between fuel rods during a reactor cooling accident, and the second concerns the study of heat transfers inside the air-gap of an electric motor. The method of identification of the mobile surface on the fixed mesh is described. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  8. Mobile Genetic Elements Provide Evidence for a Bovine Origin of Clonal Complex 17 of Streptococcus agalactiae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Bruant, Guillaume; Lanotte, Philippe; Brun, Stella; Picard, Bertrand; Rosenau, Agnès; Van Ver Mee-Marquet, Nathalie; Rainard, Pascal; Quentin, Roland; Mereghetti, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    International audience We sought an explanation for epidemiological changes in Streptococcus agalactiae infections by investigating the link between ecological niches of the bacterium by determining the prevalence of 11 mobile genetic elements. The prevalence of nine of these elements differed significantly according to the human or bovine origin of the isolate. Correlating this distribution with the phylogeny obtained by multilocus sequence analysis, we observed that human isolates harbor...

  9. Trace element mobility and transfer to vegetation within the Ethiopian Rift Valley lake areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaye, Yetneberk A; Skipperud, Lindis; Meland, Sondre; Dadebo, Elias; Einset, John; Salbu, Brit

    2012-10-26

    To evaluate critical trace element loads in native vegetation and calculate soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs), 11 trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb and Mn) have been determined in leaves of 9 taxonomically verified naturally growing terrestrial plant species as well as in soil samples collected around 3 Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes (Koka, Ziway and Awassa). The Cr concentration in leaves of all the plant species was higher than the "normal" range, with the highest level (8.4 mg per kg dw) being observed in Acacia tortilis from the Lake Koka area. Caper species (Capparis fascicularis) and Ethiopian dogstooth grass (Cynodon aethiopicus) from Koka also contained exceptionally high levels of Cd (1 mg per kg dw) and Mo (32.8 mg per kg dw), respectively. Pb, As and Cu concentrations were low in the plant leaves from all sites. The low Cu level in important fodder plant species (Cynodon aethiopicus, Acacia tortilis and Opuntia ficus-indicus) implies potential deficiency in grazing and browsing animals. Compared to the Canadian environmental quality guideline and maximum allowable concentration in agricultural soils, the total soil trace element concentrations at the studied sites are safe for agricultural crop production. Enrichment factor was high for Zn in soils around Lakes Ziway and Awassa, resulting in moderate to high transfer of Zn to the studied plants. A six step sequential extraction procedure on the soils revealed a relatively high mobility of Cd, Se and Mn. Strong association of most trace elements with the redox sensitive fraction and mineral lattice was also confirmed by partial redundancy analysis. TF (mg per kg dw plants/mg per kg dw soil) values based on the total (TF(total)) and mobile fractions (TF(mobile)) of soil trace element concentrations varied widely among elements and plant species, with the averaged TF(total) and TF(mobile) values ranging from 0.01-2 and 1-60, respectively. Considering the mobile fraction in soils should

  10. Element mobilization from Bakken shales as a function of water chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Burns, Scott; Giammar, Daniel E; Fortner, John D

    2016-04-01

    Waters that return to the surface after injection of a hydraulic fracturing fluid for gas and oil production contain elements, including regulated metals and metalloids, which are mobilized through interactions between the fracturing fluid and the shale formation. The rate and extent of mobilization depends on the geochemistry of the formation and the chemical characteristics of the fracturing fluid. In this work, laboratory scale experiments investigated the influence of water chemistry on element mobilization from core samples taken from the Bakken formation, one of the most productive shale oil plays in the US. Fluid properties were systematically varied and evaluated with regard to pH, oxidant level, solid:water ratio, temperature, and chemical additives. Element mobilization strongly depended on solution pH and redox conditions and to a lesser extent on the temperature and solid:water ratio. The presence of oxygen and addition of hydrogen peroxide or ammonium persulfate led to pyrite oxidation, resulting in elevated sulfate concentrations. Further, depending on the mineral carbonates available to buffer the system pH, pyrite oxidation could lower the system pH and enhance the mobility of several metals and metalloids. PMID:26866966

  11. Organic complexant-enhanced mobility of toxic elements in low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results obtained during the recent activities of a project whose objective is to determine how and to what extent organic complexants affect the mobility of toxic elements in subsurface groundwaters at commercial low-level waste disposal sites. Generic soil components (e.g., hydrous oxides, silica, clays) are being employed so that the results will be broadly applicable. Data have been obtained with two radionuclides (63Ni and 239Pu) and one nonradioactive toxic element (Cd). Work with 63Ni has been emphasized; it was studied with five different generic soil components (hydrous ferric oxide, silica, titania, kaolinite, and montmorillonite) and five different complexants (EDTA, NTA, picolinate, citrate, and oxalate). EDTA was the complexant studied most extensively and hydrous ferric oxide, Fe2O3 . xH2O, was the most studied soil component. A wide diversity of effects of organic complexants on toxic elements sorption was observed. The effects vary not only among complexants, but also among toxic elements and among soil components. In some systems the complexant results in increased toxic element sorption (decreased mobility) while in other systems the complexant results in decreased toxic element sorption (increased mobility)

  12. Methionine catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpète, Philippe; Duthoit, Olivier; De Maeyer, Simon; Imray, Louise; Lawton, Andrew I; Stavropoulos, Konstantinos E; Gitonga, Virginia W; Hewlins, Michael J E; Dickinson, J Richard

    2006-01-01

    The catabolism of methionine to methionol and methanethiol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied using (13)C NMR spectroscopy, GC-MS, enzyme assays and a number of mutants. Methionine is first transaminated to alpha-keto-gamma-(methylthio)butyrate. Methionol is formed by a decarboxylation reaction, which yields methional, followed by reduction. The decarboxylation is effected specifically by Ydr380wp. Methanethiol is formed from both methionine and alpha-keto-gamma-(methylthio)butyrate by a demethiolase activity. In all except one strain examined, demethiolase was induced by the presence of methionine in the growth medium. This pathway results in the production of alpha-ketobutyrate, a carbon skeleton, which can be re-utilized. Hence, methionine catabolism is more complex and economical than the other amino acid catabolic pathways in yeast, which use the Ehrlich pathway and result solely in the formation of a fusel alcohol. PMID:16423070

  13. The mobility of radioactive elements in a Uranium exploitation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the purposes of this study is to gain knowledge on the possibilities of accumulations of the radioelements (238U, 232Th, 226Ra) in a given ecosystem, and, particularly, the knowledge of the mechanisms implied in the transfer of these radioelements around the abandoned mining exploitations. The final purpose is the evaluation of the quantity of the radioelements susceptible to reach the man. The research is directed towards a quantitative evaluation of the transport rate of the contaminating element in the soil. There have been studied the surroundings of ore mines in the Boul Massif in Poiana Rusca Mountains in Romania. These exploitations had been closed and abandoned in 1990. From a geological point of view, the region is formed from crystalline schists, banat eruptive and sedimentary rocks. The iron deposit is totally situated in crystalline rocks in Poiana Rusca Mountains. The concentration of magnetite in the deposit is 25% with a relatively uniform dissemination in the ore. Brannerite (UCaThY)(TiFe)2O6, was also found in the same place. It is an ore should contain UO3 in proportion of up to about 33%. In 1963 there were stood out areas with radioactive minerals with gamma doses in the range of 500-9100 nGy/hour. In the same time, there were also identified a few points in which the concentration of thorium and uranium were significant. The areas with radioactive mineralizations were generally limited and strictly located in the limit of the iron ores deposit. By closing the mining activities huge quantities of waste rock stored in unprotected dump remained abandoned. As a result of the process of ore extraction, the waste rock and a very low percentage of metallic minerals were stored in tailing ponds, with a clay liner necessary to isolate the tailing from the reast of the aquifer

  14. Micro-scale spatial expansion of microbial cells and mobile genetic elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smets, Barth F.; Kreft, Jan-Ulrich; Or, Dani;

    Microbes can actively explore their local spatial environment when sufficiently hydrated pathways are present - mobile gene elements can also travel in local environments when cellular density is sufficient. In this presentation, I will present our efforts at predicting the dynamics of these two...

  15. Deposition and mobility of chemical elements in forest and wetland environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study has been initiated to observe organic-rich natural system such as forest litter, bogs, wetlands, marshlands, and rivers to evaluate the role organic matter plays in retaining chemical elements from fallout. We have found that 210Pb can be used to date the layers of certain types of wetlands over the past 150 years. The dating method also provides quantitative information on the rate of aerobic oxidation of the upper layers from the change in organic carbon. Several sites have shown that during the first 40 years, one-half of the initially deposited litter decomposes; after this time the rate of decomposition is much slower. The 137Cs has limited mobility after deposition; infiltration penetrates ≤ 20cm. The 137Cs is much more mobile in the organic-rich marshlands than in the clay-silt rich lake sediments. 239,240Pu is also mobilized, possibly as organic complexes. (author)

  16. [Mobile genetic element MDG4 (gypsy) in Drosophila melanogaster. Features of structure and regulation of transposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusulidu, L K; Karpova, N N; Razorenova, O V; Glukhov, I A; Kim, A I; Liubomirskaia, N V; Il'in, Iu V

    2001-12-01

    Distribution of two structural functional variants of the MDG4 (gypsy) mobile genetic element was examined in 44 strains of Drosophila melanogaster. The results obtained suggest that less transpositionally active MDG4 variant is more ancient component of the Drosophila genome. Using Southern blotting, five strains characterized by increased copy number of MDG4 with significant prevalence of the active variant over the less active one were selected for further analysis. Genetic analysis of these strains led to the suggestion that some of them carry factors that mobilize MDG4 independently from the cellular flamenco gene known to be responsible for transposition of this element. Other strains probably contained a suppressor of the flam- mutant allele causing active transpositions of the MDG4. Thus, the material for studying poorly examined relationships between the retrovirus and the host cell genome was obtained. PMID:11785284

  17. Mobile genetic elements in the genus Bacteroides, and their mechanism(s) of dissemination

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Mai; Vedantam, Gayatri

    2011-01-01

    Bacteroides spp organisms, the predominant commensal bacteria in the human gut have become increasingly resistant to many antibiotics. They are now also considered to be reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes due to their capacity to harbor and disseminate these genes via mobile transmissible elements that occur in bewildering variety. Gene dissemination occurs within and from Bacteroides spp primarily by conjugation, the molecular mechanisms of which are still poorly understood in the gen...

  18. Conjugal mobilization of the mega element carrying mef(E) from Streptococcus salivarius to Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagati, Maria; Lupo, Agnese; Scillato, Marina; Di Martino, Andrea; Stefani, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of an unusual strain of Streptococcus salivarius, 3C30, displaying both the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B and the tetracycline resistance phenotypes. It harbours the mef(E), erm(B), and tet(M) genes carried by different genetic elements. The genetic element carrying mef(E), named mega, was investigated by long PCR and sequencing, while the presence of the Tn3872-like element, carrying tet(M) and erm(B), was demonstrated by sequencing of both the int-xis-Tn and the fragment between the two resistance genes. In strain 3C30 the mega element is 5388 bp in size and its nucleotide sequence is identical to that of the element described previously in S. salivarius, with the exception of a 912 bp deletion at the left end. The composite Tn3872-like element appeared to be nonconjugative while the mega element was transferred by conjugation to Streptococcus pneumoniae. It was, however, impossible to transfer it again from these transconjugants to other strains. In addition, only in the 3C30 strain did mega form circular structures, as identified by real-time PCR. In conclusion, we found a clinical strain of S. salivarius carrying both mega and Tn3872-like genetic elements. Mega is transferable by conjugation to S. pneumoniae but it is not transferable again from the transconjugants, suggesting a possible mobilization by recombinases of the coresident Tn3872-like transposon. PMID:19025575

  19. Major inputs and mobility of potentially toxic elements contamination in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachada, A; Dias, A C; Pato, P; Mieiro, C; Rocha-Santos, T; Pereira, M E; Ferreira da Silva, E; Duarte, A C

    2013-01-01

    Soil quality in urban areas is affected by anthropogenic activities, posing a risk to human health and ecosystems. Since the pseudo-total concentrations of potentially toxic elements may not reflect their potential risks, the study of element mobility is very important on a risk assessment basis. This study aims at characterising the distribution and major sources of 34 elements in two Portuguese urban areas (Lisbon and Viseu), with different geological characteristics, industrial and urban development processes. Furthermore, the potential availability of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was assessed, by measuring the fraction easily mobilised. Lisbon is enriched in elements of geogenic and anthropogenic origin, whereas in the smaller city, the high levels observed are mainly related to a geogenic origin. Background values can be more relevant than the dimension of the city, even when anthropogenic components may be present, and this parameter should be considered when comparing results from different cities. Regarding the potential available fraction, a high variability of results was observed for elements and for sampling sites with an influence of the soil's general characteristics. Elements showing very high concentrations due to geological reasons presented, in general, a low mobility and it was not dependent on the degree of contamination. For elements with major anthropogenic origin, only Zn was dependent on the pseudo-total content. Yet, the highest available fractions of some elements, both with major geogenic and anthropogenic origin, were observed in specific contaminated samples. Therefore, a site-specific evaluation in urban soils is important due to the high spatial variability and heterogeneity. PMID:22350347

  20. Domain-Partitioned Element Management Systems Employing Mobile Agents for Distributed Network Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Saini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Network management systems based on mobile agents are efficiently a better alternative than typicalclient / server based architectures. Centralized management models like SNMP or CMIP based management models suffer from scalability and flexibility issues which are addressed to great extent by flat bed or static mid-level manager models based on mobile agents, yet the use of mobile agents to distribute and delegate management tasks for above stated agent-based management frameworks like initial flat bed models and static mid-level managers cannot efficiently meet the demands of current networks which are growing in size and complexity. In view of the above mentioned limitations, we proposed a domain partitioned network management model based-on mobile agent & Element Management Systems in order to minimize management data flow to a centralized server. Intelligent agent allocated to specific EMS performs local network management and reports the results to the superior manager and finally the global manager performs global network management using those submitted management results. Experimental results of various scenarios of the proposed model have been presented to support the arguments given in favor of the prototype system based on mobile agents..

  1. PATH-CONSTRAINED DATA GATHERING SCHEME FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS WITH MOBILE ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam A. Alqaralleh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have emerged as a promising solution for variety of applications. Recently, in order to increase the lifetime of the network, many proposals have introduced the use of Mobile Elements (MEs as a mechanical carrier to collect data. In this paper, we investigate the problem of designing the mobile element tour to visit subset of the nodes, termed as caching points, where the length of the mobile element tour is bounded by pre-determined length. Caching can be implemented at various points on the network such that any node in the network is at most k-hops away from one of these caching points. To address this problem, we present heuristic-based solution. Our solution works by partitioning the network such that the depth of each partition is bounded by k. Then, in each partition, the minimum number of required caching points is identified. We compare the resulting performance of our algorithm with the best known comparable schemes in the literature.

  2. Data Gathering Scheme for Wireless SensorNetworks Using a Single Mobile Element

    CERN Document Server

    Alqaralleh, Bassam

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the problem of gathering the data in wireless sensor network using a single Mobile Element. In particular we consider the case where the data are produced by measurements and they need to be delivered to a predefined sink within a given time interval from the time the measurement takes place. A mobile element travels the network in predefined paths, collect the data from the nodes, and deliver them to the sink by a single long-distance transmission. In this problem, the length of the mobile element path is bounded by pre-determined length. This path will visit a subset of the nodes. These selected nodes will work as caching points and will aggregate the other nodes' data. The caching point nodes are selected with the aim of reducing the energy expenditures due to multi-hop forwarding. We provide a heuristic-based solution for this problem. We evaluate the performance of our algorithm by comparing it to the best well-known algorithms from the literature.

  3. Carbohydrate Catabolism in Azospirillum amazonense

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Drets, G.; Fabiano, E.; Cardona, A

    1985-01-01

    The nitrogen fixer Azospirillum amazonense grew on the various disaccharides, hexoses, and pentoses tested in this study but not on polyols and on some tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. An active transport system was detected for sucrose and glucose but not for mannitol and 2-ketoglutarate. Six A. amazonense strains were examined for 16 carbon-metabolizing enzymes, and the results indicate that these strains employ the Entner-Doudoroff pathway to catabolize sucrose, fructose, and glucos...

  4. Mobile insertion cassette elements found in small non-transmissible plasmids in Proteeae may explain qnrD mobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Guillard

    Full Text Available qnrD is a plasmid mediated quinolone resistance gene from unknown origin, recently described in Enterobacteriaceae. It encodes a pentapeptide repeat protein 36-60% different from the other Qnr (A, B, C, S and VC. Since most qnrD-positive strains were described as strains belonging to Proteus or Providencia genera, we hypothesized that qnrD originated in Proteeae before disseminating to other enterobacterial species. We screened 317 strains of Proteeae for qnrD and its genetic support by PCR. For all the seven qnrD-positive strains (4 Proteus mirabilis, 1 Proteus vulgaris and 2 Providencia rettgeri the gene was carried onto a small non-transmissible plasmid, contrarily to other qnr genes that are usually carried onto large multi-resistant plasmids. Nucleotide sequences of the qnrD-bearing plasmids were 96% identical. Plasmids contained 3 ORFs apart from qnrD and belonged to an undescribed incompatibility group. Only one plasmid, in P. vulgaris, was slightly different with a 1,568-bp insertion between qnrD and its promoter, leading to absence of quinolone resistance. We sought for similar plasmids in 15 reference strains of Proteeae, but which were tested negative for qnrD, and found a 48% identical plasmid (pVERM in Providencia vermicola. In order to explain how qnrD could have been inserted into such native plasmid, we sought for gene mobilization structures. qnrD was found to be located within a mobile insertion cassette (mic element which sequences are similar to one mic also found in pVERM. Our conclusions are that (i the small non-transmissible qnrD-plasmids described here may result from the recombination between an as-yet-unknown progenitor of qnrD and pVERM, (ii these plasmids are maintained in Proteeae being a qnrD reservoir (iii the mic element may explain qnrD mobilization from non-transmissible plasmids to mobilizable or conjugative plasmids from other Enterobacteriaceae, (iv they can recombined with larger multiresistant plasmids

  5. The Gypsy Database (GyDB) of mobile genetic elements: release 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Carlos; Futami, Ricardo; Covelli, Laura; Domínguez-Escribá, Laura; Viu, Jose M; Tamarit, Daniel; Aguilar-Rodríguez, Jose; Vicente-Ripolles, Miguel; Fuster, Gonzalo; Bernet, Guillermo P; Maumus, Florian; Munoz-Pomer, Alfonso; Sempere, Jose M; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andres

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the second release of the Gypsy Database of Mobile Genetic Elements (GyDB 2.0): a research project devoted to the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and transposable elements based on their phylogenetic classification (per lineage and protein domain). The Gypsy Database (GyDB) is a long-term project that is continuously progressing, and that owing to the high molecular diversity of mobile elements requires to be completed in several stages. GyDB 2.0 has been powered with a wiki to allow other researchers participate in the project. The current database stage and scope are long terminal repeats (LTR) retroelements and relatives. GyDB 2.0 is an update based on the analysis of Ty3/Gypsy, Retroviridae, Ty1/Copia and Bel/Pao LTR retroelements and the Caulimoviridae pararetroviruses of plants. Among other features, in terms of the aforementioned topics, this update adds: (i) a variety of descriptions and reviews distributed in multiple web pages; (ii) protein-based phylogenies, where phylogenetic levels are assigned to distinct classified elements; (iii) a collection of multiple alignments, lineage-specific hidden Markov models and consensus sequences, called GyDB collection; (iv) updated RefSeq databases and BLAST and HMM servers to facilitate sequence characterization of new LTR retroelement and caulimovirus queries; and (v) a bibliographic server. GyDB 2.0 is available at http://gydb.org. PMID:21036865

  6. SXT/R391 Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs) Encode a Novel ‘Trap-Door’ Strategy for Mobile Element Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael P.; Armshaw, Patricia; Pembroke, J. Tony

    2016-01-01

    Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) are a class of bacterial mobile elements that have the ability to mediate their own integration, excision, and transfer from one host genome to another by a mechanism of site-specific recombination, self-circularisation, and conjugative transfer. Members of the SXT/R391 ICE family of enterobacterial mobile genetic elements display an unusual UV-inducible sensitization function which results in stress induced killing of bacterial cells harboring the ICE. This sensitization has been shown to be associated with a stress induced overexpression of a mobile element encoded conjugative transfer gene, orf43, a traV homolog. This results in cell lysis and release of a circular form of the ICE. Induction of this novel system may allow transfer of an ICE, enhancing its survival potential under conditions not conducive to conjugative transfer. PMID:27303400

  7. Organic complexant-enhanced mobility of toxic elements in low-level wastes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a project whose objective was to determine how and to what extent organic complexants affect the mobility of toxic elements in subsurface groundwater at commercial low-level waste disposal sites. The complexants EDTA and picolinate, both of which are used in reactor decontamination operations, were studied most extensively. Hydrous ferric oxide, Fe2O3 x H2O, and kaolinite clay were the soil components most used. Four toxic elements were studied: Ni, Am, Cd, and Pu. Ni, Am and Pu have radioactive isotopes that are commonly present in commercial low-level wastes, and Cd is an example of a nonradioactive toxic element that might also be in such wastes. A wide diversity of effects of organic complexants on toxic element sorption was observed. Some complexes are sorbed by soil components at some pH values, but others are not. Important reactions are slow in some systems but rapid in others. There are two separate reactions in which slow kinetics have been observed in some systems; one is the slow dissociation of a preformed complex and the other is the slow desorption by complexant solutions of a previously sorbed uncomplexed element

  8. Goods-thinking vs. tree-thinking: Finding a place for mobile genetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, James; Cummins, Carla; Haggerty, Leanne

    2011-11-01

    While it has become increasingly clear that the Tree of Life hypothesis has limitations in its ability to describe the evolution of all evolving entities on the planet, there has been a marked reluctance to move away from the tree-based language. Ironically, while modifying the idea of the Tree of Life to the extent that it is only very distantly related to its original descriptions, there has been a very careful attempt to retain the language of tree-thinking. The recent movement away from a tree-thinking language toward a goods-thinking language and perspective is a significant improvement. In this commentary, we describe how goods-thinking can provide better descriptions of evolution, can integrate evolution with environment more closely and can offer an equal place for Mobile Genetic Elements and chromosomal elements in discussions of evolutionary history. PMID:22545244

  9. Study of protective properties of mobile elements in gamma-plants operating channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure radiation safety when designing radioisotope gamma plants, a possibility of using direct cylindrical channels improving the reliability of the source transport system construction is investigated. The experiments were carried out with an operating channel model. The 60Co standard source was used. Apparatus spectra of gamma radiation at the output of the operating channel model of the radiation - chemical facility are obtained. The values of exposure dose rate depending on thickness of mobile shielding, made of steel and lead cylinders are presented. The data are compared with the level of maximum permissible exposure dose rate. Mobile shields of lead encased in steel are the most effective; though is shields of steel spheres is the least effective. It is shown, that the mean rate of exposure dose at the channel output decreases as a result of random shifts in the position of mobile elements made as cylinders. The data obtained were used for optimization of the shields for K-300000 radiation-chemical facility

  10. [Structure and evolutionary role of the Penelope mobile element in Drosophila species of the virilis group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezin, G T; Makarova, K V; Velikodvorskaia, V V; Zelentsova, E S; Kechumian, R R; Kidwell, M G; Kunin, E V; Evgen'ev, M B

    2001-01-01

    The mobile element Penelope is activated and mobilizes several other transposons in dysgenic crosses in Drosophila virilis. Its structure proved to be complex and to vary greatly in all examined species of the virilis group. Phylogenetic analysis of the reverse transcriptase (RT) domain assigned Penelope to a new branch, rather than to any known family, of LTR-lacking retroelements. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that the C-terminal domain of the Penelope polyprotein is an active endonuclease, which is related to intron-encoded endonucleases and to bacterial repair endonuclease UrvC, and may act as an integras. Retroelements coding for a putative endonuclease that differs from typical integrase have thus far not been known. The N-terminal domain of the Penelope polyprotein was shown to contain a protease with significant homology to HIV-1 protease. Phylogenetic analysis divided the Penelope copies from several virilis species into two subfamilies, one including virtually identical full-length copies, and the other comprising highly divergent defective copies. The results suggest both vertical and horizontal transfer of the element. Possibly, Penelope invasion recurred during evolution and contributed to genome rearrangement in the virilis species. Chromosome aberrations detected in D. virilis, which is now being invaded by Penelope, is direct evidence for this assumption. PMID:11605533

  11. The impact of marketing mix elements on brand loyalty: A case study of mobile phone industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Pourdehghan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In today's highly competitive markets, keeping customers and retaining their loyalty is considered crucial in maintaining business. Companies and retailers also need to look for various marketing strategies in order to improve their customers’ loyalty. Having knowledge and skills about marketing is one of the capabilities which is required for success in the competition. In consumable markets, brands are the main points of differentiation between the competitive presentations, thus, they are crucial for the success of the companies. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of marketing mix elements on brand loyalty. The present study is applicable in terms of objective and descriptive survey in terms of data collection. To evaluate the model and hypotheses, data collection was carried out through surveying 384 mobile phone users. For data analysis and verification of the model, structural equation modeling approach (SEM and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were used and based on the results of the path analysis, the relationship between the variables in the model is investigated. Results indicated the positive impact of products elements, distribution channels, and promotional activities on brand loyalty. Also, the findings showed that indexes of satisfaction and trust which are considered as mediating variables between marketing mix and brand loyalty had positive and significant impact on brand loyalty in the mobile phone industry.

  12. Hydrothermal Processes and Mobile Element Transport in Martian Impact Craters - Evidence from Terrestrial Analogue Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, H. E.; Nelson, M. J.; Shearer, C. K.; Dressler, B. L.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrothermal alteration and chemical transport involving impact craters probably occurred on Mars throughout its history. Our studies of alteration products and mobile element transport in ejecta blanket and drill core samples from impact craters show that these processes may have contributed to the surface composition of Mars. Recent work on the Chicxulub Yaxcopoil-1 drill core has provided important information on the relative mobility of many elements that may be relevant to Mars. The Chicxulub impact structure in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico and offshore in the Gulf of Mexico is one of the largest impact craters identified on the Earth, has a diameter of 180-200 km, and is associated with the mass extinctions at the K/T boundary. The Yax-1 hole was drilled in 2001 and 2002 on the Yaxcopoil hacienda near Merida on the Yucatan Peninsula. Yax-1 is located just outside of the transient cavity, which explains some of the unusual characteristics of the core stratigraphy. No typical impact melt sheet was encountered in the hole and most of the Yax-1 impactites are breccias. In particular, the impact melt and breccias are only 100 m thick which is surprising taking into account the considerably thicker breccia accumulations towards the center of the structure and farther outside the transient crater encountered by other drill holes.

  13. Purposeful synthesis of chemical elements and ecologically pure mobile sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known [1] that the natural geo-transmutation of chemical elements occurs in the atmosphere and earth in the regions of a strong change in geo-, bio-, acoustic-, and electromagnetic fields. The mineral row materials contain the same accompanying chemical combinations which are independent of mineral deposit [2]. This means that the formation of chemical elements occurs in the same physical and chemical conditions. These conditions were simulated on the fundamental cooperative resonance synchronization principle [1]. The experimental facility was constructed on the basis of our model which provided with the calculated final chemical elements. These experimental results indicate new possibilities for, simulating, inducing and controlling nuclear reactions by low energy external fields. The borrowing from the geo-transmutation mechanisms of chemical elements creates the fundamental directions in low energy nuclear reaction researches for construction of new ecologically pure mobile sources of energy independent of oil, gas and coal, new substances, and technologies. References [1] F.A. Gareev, I.E. Zhidkova, E-print arXiv Nucl-th/0610002 2006. [2] V.A. Krivzskii, Transmutazija ximicheskix elementov v evolyuzii Semli (in Russian), Moscow 2003

  14. Influence of mobile shale on thrust faults: Insights from discrete element simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, S. L.; Morgan, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    We use two-dimensional discrete element method (DEM) simulations to study the effects of a two-layer mechanical stratigraphy on a gravitationally collapsing passive margin. The system consists of an upslope sedimentary wedge, overlying an extensional zone that is linked at depth with a downslope fold and thrust belt. The behavior of the system is dependent on the material properties and thickness of the competent units. The models are initially composed of a mobile shale unit overlain by a pre-delta unit. In DEM materials, the bulk rheology of the granular material is a product of the particle interactions, depending on a range of parameters, including friction and elastic moduli. Natural mobile shales underlying deltas are presumed to be viscous, and are therefore represented in DEM as very weak non-cohesive particles. The unbonded particles respond to loading by moving to areas of lower stress, i.e. out from beneath a growing sediment wedge. The bulk motion of the particles therefore flows away from the upslope extensional zone. Apparent viscosity is introduced in DEM materials due to time dependent numerical parameters such as viscous damping of particle motions. We characterized this apparent viscosity of this mobile shale unit with a series of shear box tests, with varying shear strain rates. The mobile shale particles have a viscosity of about 108 Pa*s, which is low for mobile shale. The low viscosity of our numerical materials can be compensated for by scaling time in our models, because the simulations are driven by sedimentary loading. By increasing the sedimentation rate by many orders of magnitude, we can approximate the natural values of shear stress in our simulations. Results are compared with the Niger Delta type locale for shale tectonics. The simulations succeed in creating an overall linked extensional-contractional system, as well as creating individual structures such as popups and intersecting forethrusts and backthrusts. In addition, toe

  15. Mobile genetic elements in the genome of the beneficial rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulsen Ian T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 is a plant-associated bacterium that inhabits the rhizosphere of a wide variety of plant species and and produces secondary metabolites suppressive of fungal and oomycete plant pathogens. The Pf-5 genome is rich in features consistent with its commensal lifestyle, and its sequence has revealed attributes associated with the strain's ability to compete and survive in the dynamic and microbiologically complex rhizosphere habitat. In this study, we analyzed mobile genetic elements of the Pf-5 genome in an effort to identify determinants that might contribute to Pf-5's ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions and/or colonize new ecological niches. Results Sequence analyses revealed that the genome of Pf-5 is devoid of transposons and IS elements and that mobile genetic elements (MGEs are represented by prophages and genomic islands that collectively span over 260 kb. The prophages include an F-pyocin-like prophage 01, a chimeric prophage 03, a lambdoid prophage 06, and decaying prophages 02, 04 and 05 with reduced size and/or complexity. The genomic islands are represented by a 115-kb integrative conjugative element (ICE PFGI-1, which shares plasmid replication, recombination, and conjugative transfer genes with those from ICEs found in other Pseudomonas spp., and PFGI-2, which resembles a portion of pathogenicity islands in the genomes of the plant pathogens Pseudomonas syringae and P. viridiflava. Almost all of the MGEs in the Pf-5 genome are associated with phage-like integrase genes and are integrated into tRNA genes. Conclusion Comparative analyses reveal that MGEs found in Pf-5 are subject to extensive recombination and have evolved in part via exchange of genetic material with other Pseudomonas spp. having commensal or pathogenic relationships with plants and animals. Although prophages and genomic islands from Pf-5 exhibit similarity to MGEs found in other Pseudomonas spp., they

  16. Two-Element PIFA Array Structure for Polarization Diversity in UMTS Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hamouz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to strongly modify the radiated fields of a UMTS handset by using a phased two-element PIFA array. The structure is composed of a 100x40 mm2 metallic ground plane acting as the Printed Circuit Board (PCB of the mobile phone. Two UMTS PIFAs are located at the top edge of this PCB. They are fed by a double Quasi-Lumped Coupler able to provide a 360 phase difference between its two outputs. By properly choosing the DC bias of the double QuasiLumped Coupler, we can set a specific phase difference between the two PIFAs. In this way the two-element array is able to radiate different electromagnetic fields. Simulated and measured radiation patterns in the two main planes of the chassis are presented for different phase differences. It is especially revealed that the novel twoantenna structure is able to radiate vertically-polarized electric fields in the azimuthal plane of the phone and horizontally-polarized electric fields in the same plane when changing the phase shift between the antennas from 0 to 180. Potential applications are polarization-diversity techniques and Specific Absorption Rate reduction for handsets.

  17. A mobile genetic element in Serratia marcescens, a causative agent of onion disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reva O. N.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To screen mobile genetic elements (MGE in the bacterium which caused decay of field-grown onion bulb and to study an integron and gene cassettes associated. Methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and PCR products sequencing were used for both the bacterium and MGE identification. Terminally-labeled Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (TRFLP analysis was performed for detection of any bacterium in the onion bulb tissue. Results. The bacterium, which caused field-grown onion decay, was identified by nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA genes to be S. marcescens known as phytopathogen. However, this isolate did not respond to specific primers designed for pathogenic strains. Inoculation of onion (Allium cepa L., Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heyhn, and lettuce (Lactuca sativa seeds resulted in biomass promotion of symptomless plants. PCR revealed the presence of a class 1 integron in S. marcescens IMBG291 which represents the first isolation of this integron in phytopathogenic Serratia species. The gene cassettes harbored by the integron have been represented with the promoterless genes encoded formimino-glutamate deiminase and ascorbate-specific phosphotransferase system enzyme IIC, and with additional three senseless sequences flanked by a 59-bp element. Conclusion. S. marcescens IMBG291 exhibited plant growth promotion or pathogenicity, depending on the environmental situation, due to horizontally acquired new gene cassettes located in the integron.

  18. Smoking accelerates biotin catabolism in women123

    OpenAIRE

    Sealey, Wendy M.; April M. Teague; Stratton, Shawna L.; Mock, Donald M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Smoking accelerates the degradation of many nutrients, including lipids, antioxidants, and certain B vitamins. Accelerated biotin catabolism is of concern in women because marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic in mammals.

  19. Organic complexant-enhanced mobility of toxic elements in low-level wastes. Annual report, July 1983-June 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the initial results obtained in a project whose objective is to determine how and to what extent organic complexants affect the mobility of toxic elements in subsurface groundwaters at commercial low-level waste disposal sites. Generic soil components (e.g., hydrous oxides, silica, clays) are being employed so that the results will be broadly applicable. Organic complexants used in the nuclear industry are being emphasized. Data have been obtained with two radioactive (63Ni and 239Pu) and one nonradioactive toxic element (Cd). Work with 63Ni has been emphasized; it was studied with five different generic soil components (hydrous ferric oxide, silica, titania, kaolinite, and montmorillonite) and five different complexants (EDTA, NTA, picolinate, citrate, and oxalate). EDTA was the complexant studied most extensively and hydrous ferric oxide was the most studied soil component. A wide diversity of effects of organic complexants on toxic elements sorption was observed. The effects vary not only among complexants, but also among toxic elements and among soil components. In some systems the complexant results in increased toxic element sorption (decreased mobility) while in other systems the complexant results in decreased toxic element sorption (increased mobility). 16 references, 14 figures, 5 tables

  20. Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The selection will cover diverse topics such as theories, concepts, methods, and approaches as well as it will explore various modes of mobilities and the relationship to everyday life practices. The selection also covers the ‘politics of mobilities’ from local urban planning schemes to geopolitical...... issues of refugees and environmental degradation. The spaces and territories marked by mobilities as well as the sites marked by the bypassing of such are explored. Moreover, the architectural and technological dimensions to infrastructures and sites of mobilities will be included as well as the issues...... of power, social exclusion, consumption, surveillance and mobilities history to mention some of the many themes covered by this reference work. This new title will focus on the academic contributions to this understanding by primarily focusing on works and publications in the aftermath of the seminal...

  1. Trace element mobility in a contaminated soil two years after field-amendment with a greenwaste compost mulch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of greenwaste compost to brownfield land is increasingly common in soil and landscape restoration. Previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects of this material on trace element mobility. A pot experiment with homogenised soil/compost investigated distribution and mobility of trace elements, two years after application of greenwaste compost mulch to shallow soils overlying a former alkali-works contaminated with Pb, Cu and As (∼900, 200 and 500 mg kg-1, respectively). Compost mulch increased organic carbon and Fe in soil pore water, which in turn increased As and Sb mobilization; this enhanced uptake by lettuce and sunflower. A very small proportion of the total soil trace element pool was in readily-exchangeable form (<0.01% As, <0.001% other trace elements), but the effect of compost on behaviour of metals was variable and ambiguous. It is concluded that greenwaste compost should be applied with caution to multi-element contaminated soils. - Arsenic solubility and bioavailability increases in soil two years after application of greenwaste compost mulch.

  2. Mobility properties of the Hermes transposable element in transgenic lines of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Atkinson, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    The Hermes transposable element has been used to genetically transform a wide range of insect species, including the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a vector of several important human pathogens. Hermes integrations into the mosquito germline are characterized by the non-canonical integration of the transposon and flanking plasmid and, once integrated, Hermes is stable in the presence of its transposase. In an effort to improve the post-integration mobility of Hermes in the germline of Ae. aegypti, a transgenic helper Mos1 construct expressing Hermes transposase under the control of a testis-specific promoter was crossed to a separate transgenic strain containing a target Hermes transposon. In less than 1% of the approximately 1,500 progeny from jumpstarter lines analyzed, evidence of putative Hermes germline remobilizations were detected. These recovered transposition events occur through an aberrant mechanism and provide insight into the non-canonical cut-and-paste transposition of Hermes in the germ line of Ae. aegypti. PMID:20596755

  3. Metagenomic profiling of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile genetic elements in a tannery wastewater treatment plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wang

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are often used to prevent sickness and improve production in animal agriculture, and the residues in animal bodies may enter tannery wastewater during leather production. This study aimed to use Illumina high-throughput sequencing to investigate the occurrence, diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs in aerobic and anaerobic sludge of a full-scale tannery wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. Metagenomic analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria dominated in the WWTP, but the relative abundance of archaea in anaerobic sludge was higher than in aerobic sludge. Sequencing reads from aerobic and anaerobic sludge revealed differences in the abundance of functional genes between both microbial communities. Genes coding for antibiotic resistance were identified in both communities. BLAST analysis against Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB further revealed that aerobic and anaerobic sludge contained various ARGs with high abundance, among which sulfonamide resistance gene sul1 had the highest abundance, occupying over 20% of the total ARGs reads. Tetracycline resistance genes (tet were highly rich in the anaerobic sludge, among which tet33 had the highest abundance, but was absent in aerobic sludge. Over 70 types of insertion sequences were detected in each sludge sample, and class 1 integrase genes were prevalent in the WWTP. The results highlighted prevalence of ARGs and MGEs in tannery WWTPs, which may deserve more public health concerns.

  4. Detection and linkage to mobile genetic elements of tetracycline resistance gene tet(M) in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado-Rabadan, Sonia; de la Fuente, Ricardo; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, Jose A.;

    2014-01-01

    (M) has been identified in E. coli, to our knowledge, there are no previous reports studying the linkage of the tet(M) gene in E. coli to different mobile genetic elements. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of tet(A), tet(B), and tet(M) genes in doxycycline-resistant E. coli isolates...... from pigs, as well as the detection of mobile genetic elements linked to tet(M) in E. coli and its possible transfer from enterococci. Results: tet(A) was the most frequently detected gene (87.9%) in doxycycline-resistant isolates. tet(M) was found in 13.1% E. coli isolates. The tet(M) gene...

  5. Detection and linkage to mobile genetic elements of tetracycline resistance gene tet(M) in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado-Rabadán, Sonia; de la Fuente, Ricardo; A Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José;

    2014-01-01

    (M) has been identified in E. coli, to our knowledge, there are no previous reports studying the linkage of the tet(M) gene in E. coli to different mobile genetic elements. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of tet(A), tet(B), and tet(M) genes in doxycycline-resistant E. coli isolates...... from pigs, as well as the detection of mobile genetic elements linked to tet(M) in E. coli and its possible transfer from enterococci. RESULTS: tet(A) was the most frequently detected gene (87.9%) in doxycycline-resistant isolates. tet(M) was found in 13.1% E. coli isolates. The tet(M) gene...

  6. Effect of organic amendments on the mobility of trace elements in phytoremediated techno-soils: role of the humic substances

    OpenAIRE

    Hattab, Nour; Soubrand, Maryline; Guégan, Régis; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Bourrat, Xavier; Faure, O.; Bouchardon, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of aided phytostabilization using organic amendments such as ramial chipped wood (RCW) and composted sewage sludge (CSS) was studied on contaminated techno-soils, on nine experimental plots. The objective was to characterize the role of fulvic (FA) and humic acids (HA) on the mobilization of trace elements, specifically As, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn. Results showed that the addition of CSS increased the total organic carbon and nitrogen content more than with RCW and as a result, the C...

  7. Fractionation and mobilization of toxic elements in floodplain soils from Egypt, Germany, and Greece: A comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Sabry M.; Rinklebe, Jörg; Tsadilas, Christos D.

    2015-12-01

    Determining the chemical fractions of toxic elements (TEs) in soils is important to evaluate their mobilization and bioavailability. In this study, samples from three representative floodplain soils located close to the Rivers Nile (Egypt), Elbe (Germany), and Pinios (Greece) were used to link the soil formation and properties to the geochemical fractions and mobilization of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in these soils. The Elbe soil showed the highest total concentration of the elements except for Ni, in which the Pinios soil had the highest amount. A significant amount (55-94%) of the elements was present in the Elbe soil in the potentially mobile (non-residual) fraction, while the amount of this fraction ranged between 9 and 39% in the Pinios soil and between 9 and 34% in the Nile soil. In the Elbe soil, most of the non-residual Ni, Pb, and Zn was associated with the Fe-Mn oxide fraction, while Cd was distributed in the soluble plus exchangeable fraction and Cu in the organic fraction. In the Nile and Pinios soils the Fe-Mn oxide fraction was the abundant pool for Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn whereas Cd had the highest amount in the soluble plus exchangeable as well as in the carbonate fractions.

  8. Fluid-Mobile Element Enrichment in the Mantle Wedge of Subduction Zones: A View From the Coast Range Ophiolite, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J. W.; Jean, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    It is now commonly accepted that island arc magmas in response to hydrous melting of a metasomatized mantle wedge that overlies the subducting oceanic plate. Fluids released from this plate lowers the mantle solidus, leading to enhanced melting compared to the anhydrous melting that characterizes mid-ocean ridge spreading centers. These fluids also enrich the refractory mantle in lithophile elements derived from the subducting oceanic crust and its carapace of pelagic sediment, and lead to the eruption of volcanic rocks that are compositionally distinct from mid-ocean ridge basalts. We have shown that supra-subduction zone ophiolites, which form in the mantle wedge of nascent subduction zones, preserve mantle lithologies that formed in response to hydrous melting and represent the refractory residuum of that process [Choi et al CMP 2008, Geology 2008; Jean et al CMP 2010]. In this study we document the concentrations of fluid-mobile elements in unaltered residual pyroxenes and show how these concentrations may be used to calculate the composition and flux of slab-derived fluids in the mantle wedge during melting. We use high-precision laser ablation ICP-MS analyses (Element 2 ICP-MS with 213 nm laser) of relic pyroxenes in supra-subduction zone peridotites for B, Be, Rb, Th, Ba, Li, and Pb - made in conjunction with a suite of non-fluid mobile elements including the REE and high-field strength elements, which are used to assess melt extraction and melt percolation. Results show that pyroxenes in all samples display enrichments in fluid-mobile elements relative to depleted MORB mantle, with B ~20-80x DMM and Pb ~4-20x DMM. In contrast, melting models based on the RE and HFS elements show that most fluid-mobile elements should have concentrations that are well below detection limits and concentrations that are effectively zero. Fluid-Cpx partition coefficients suggest fluid phase with fluid-mobile element concentrations of 30-500x DMM. Melt models require large mass

  9. Renal catabolism of 125I-glicentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renal catabolism of 125I-glicentin has been studied in vivo by the disappearance of this peptide from the plasma of bilaterally nephrectomized, ureteral-ligated, or normal rats and by using tubular microinfusion techniques. In addition the catabolism of glicentin by the isolated, perfused kidney has been studied. Results from in vivo studies demonstrated that half-disappearance time was lower in control (59.5 +/- 1.8 min) than in bilaterally nephrectomized rats (97.2 +/- 2.6 min), and this value was significantly higher than that of ureteral-ligated animals (83.2 +/- 1.1 min, P less than 0.005). Microinfusion experiments revealed that when 125I-glicentin was injected into the proximal tubule, no trichloroacetic-precipitable radioactivity was recovered in the urine, whereas most of inulin injected was recovered. By contrast most of the 125I-glicentin injected into the distal tubule was recovered in the urine. In isolated kidney experiments, organ clearance rate of 125I-glicentin averaged 0.88 +/- 0.10 ml/min, a value significantly higher than that of glomerular filtration rate (0.72 +/- 0.06 ml/min, P less than 0.005, paired data), and both parameters showed a close linear relationship (r = 0.90). Urinary clearance of glicentin was negligible. These results demonstrate that the kidney plays a major role in the catabolism of glicentin, mainly by glomerular filtration and tubular catabolism. The site of tubular catabolism appears to be the proximal tubule. Peritubular uptake was minimal

  10. Robotic Joint Torque Testing: A Critical Tool in the Development of Pressure Suit Mobility Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Meyen, Forrest Edward; Holschuh, Bradley T.; Kobrick, Ryan L.; Jacobs, Shane; Newman, Dava

    2011-01-01

    Pressure suits allow pilots and astronauts to survive in extreme environments at the edge of Earth’s atmosphere and in the vacuum of space. One obstacle that pilots and astronauts face is that gas-pressurized suits stiffen when pressurized and greatly limit user mobility. As a result, a critical need exists to quantify and improve the mobility characteristics of pressure suits. A historical survey and critique of pressure-suit testing methodologies is first presented, followed by the results ...

  11. Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prathumpai, W.; Gabelgaard, J.B.; Wanchanthuek, P.; Vondervoort, van de P.J.I.; Groot, de M.J.L.; McIntyre, M.; Nielsen, J.

    2003-01-01

    A kinetic model for xylose catabolism in Aspergillus is proposed. From a thermodynamic analysis it was found that the intermediate xylitol will accumulate during xylose catabolism. Use of the kinetic model allowed metabolic control analysis (MCA) of the xylose catabolic pathway to be carried out, an

  12. A sequential extraction procedure to evaluate the mobilization behavior of rare earth elements in soils and tailings materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermüller, Marc; Saatz, Jessica; Daus, Birgit

    2016-03-01

    A novel sequential extraction method for evaluation of the mobilization behavior of rare earth elements in soils and mine tailings materials is presented. The sequence consists of the following four steps: 0.05 mol L(-1) calcium nitrate (easily soluble and ion exchange fraction), 0.1 mol L(-1) citric acid (fraction mobilized by complexation and carbonate bound), 0.05 mol L(-1) hydroxylamine hydrochloride (pH = 2) (reducible fraction), 1.4 mol L(-1) nitric acid (acid soluble fraction). The procedure was optimized with a certified soil material and a mine tailings material and was applied to eight samples of a soil profile. The different results obtained by using either the developed method or the widespread used BCR-Method for comparison are discussed. There were clear advantages using the newly created sequential extraction procedure in getting more detailed information about the bioavailable fraction and a fraction addressing REE phosphates. PMID:26766351

  13. Glycosidases: inborn errors of glycosphingolipid catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hisashi; Li, Yu-Teh

    2014-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are information-rich glycoconjugates that occur in nature mainly as constituents of biomembranes. Each GSL contains a complex carbohydrate chain linked to a ceramide moiety that anchors the molecule to biomembranes. In higher animals, catabolism of GSLs takes place in lysosomes where sugar chains in GSLs are hydrolyzed by exo-glycosidases to cleave a sugar residue from the non-reducing end of a sugar chain. Inborn errors of GSL-catabolism, collectively called sphingolipidoses or GSL-storage diseases, are caused by the deficiency of exo-glycosidases responsible for the degradation of the specific sugar residues at the non-reducing termini in GSLs. This chapter briefly discusses glycone, anomeric, linkage, and aglycone specificities of exo-glycosidases and some of the historical landmarks on their associations with the chemical pathology of the five best known sphingolipidoses: GM1 gangliosidosis, GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease), Fabry disease, Gaucher disease, and Krabbe disease. PMID:25151392

  14. Transfer and mobility of trace metallic elements in the sedimentary column of continental hydro-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In freshwater systems, trace metal pollutants are transferred into water and sedimentary columns under dissolved forms and/or fixed onto solid particles. Accumulated in the sedimentary areas, these latter ones can constitute important stocks of materials and associated pollutants and may impair water quality when environmental changes lead to increase their mobility. The mobility of the stocks of pollutants is mainly depending on the erosion, on the interstitial diffusion of the mobile phases (dissolved and colloidal) and on the bioturbation. In this context, this study involves the analysis of the mobility by interstitial diffusion. This topic consists in studying trace metal fractionation between their mobile (dissolved and colloidal) and non mobile (fixed onto the particles) forms. This point is governed by sorption/desorption processes at the particle surfaces. These processes are regulated by physico-chemical parameters (pH, redox potential, ionic strength...) and are influenced by biogeochemical reactions resulting from the oxidation of the organic matter by the microbial activity. These reactions generate vertical profiles of nutrients and metal concentrations along the sedimentary column. To understand these processes, this work is based on a mixed approach that combines in situ, analysis and modelling. In situ experimental part consists in sampling natural sediments cores collected at 4 different sites (1 site in Durance and 3 sites on the Rhone). These samples are analyzed according to an analytical protocol that provides the vertical distribution of physicochemical parameters (pH, redox potential, size distribution, porosity), nutrients and solid - liquid forms of trace metals (cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, zinc). The analysis and interpretation of these experimental results are based on a model that was developed during this study and that includes: 1) model of interstitial diffusion (Boudreau, 1997), 2) biogeochemical model (Wang and Van Cappellen

  15. The influence of fracture mineral/groundwater interaction in the mobility of U, Th, REE and other trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace element analyses including U, Th and REE have been carried out on groundwater samples, fractures coating and rock samples from drill cores. The influence of fracture mineral/groundwater interaction on the mobility of these elements is discussed. Compared to the host rocks the levels and ranges of element contents in the fracture fillings are usually much higher, reflecting the wide range in sorption capacities of different fracture-filling minerals. In order to use the elements analysed as chemical analogues to predictions of actinide migration, the following cases are discussed: 1. Redistribution of elements in connection to clay forming alteration processes and preferential sorption of elements on clay minerals. 2. Occurances of Fe-oxyhydroxide associated with high concentrations of TH, U and LREEs at great depths. 3. Recent trace element distribution in a reactivated crush zone. 4. Use of Ce-anomalies and Eu-anomalies for tracing REE migration paths. 5. Validation of laboratory measured Kd's on crushed granite and mineral separates by determining distribution coefficients between fracture coatings and corresponding groundwater (in situ' Kd's). The examination of the relation between 'in situ' Kd's and laboratory-determined Kd's shows that the 'in situ' Kd's are on average a factor of 100 higher for Sr, Cs, Co, Eu and about 10 for U. It is suggested that fracture minerals such as Fe-oxyhydroxide, carbonated and clay minerals have sorption capacities significantly different from those of crushed granite. This is one of the explanations for the higher 'in situ' Kd's compared with the laboratory-determined ones. (38 refs.) (authors)

  16. Secure neighborhood discovery: A fundamental element for mobile ad hoc networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadimitratos, P.; Poturalski, M.; Schaller, P.; Lafourcade, P.; Basin, D.; Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Pervasive computing systems will likely be deployed in the near future, with the proliferation of wireless devices and the emergence of ad hoc networking as key enablers. Coping with mobility and the volatility of wireless communications in such systems is critical. Neighborhood discovery (ND......) - the discovery of devices directly reachable for communication or in physical proximity - becomes a fundamental requirement and building block for various applications. However, the very nature of wireless mobile networks makes it easy to abuse ND and thereby compromise the overlying protocols and...... applications. Thus, providing methods to mitigate this vulnerability and secure ND is crucial. In this article we focus on this problem and provide definitions of neighborhood types and ND protocol properties, as well as a broad classification of attacks. Our ND literature survey reveals that securing ND is...

  17. Secure neighborhood discovery: A fundamental element for mobile ad hoc networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadimitratos, P.; Poturalski, M.; Schaller, P.;

    2008-01-01

    Pervasive computing systems will likely be deployed in the near future, with the proliferation of wireless devices and the emergence of ad hoc networking as key enablers. Coping with mobility and the volatility of wireless communications in such systems is critical. Neighborhood discovery (ND......) - the discovery of devices directly reachable for communication or in physical proximity - becomes a fundamental requirement and building block for various applications. However, the very nature of wireless mobile networks makes it easy to abuse ND and thereby compromise the overlying protocols and applications....... Thus, providing methods to mitigate this vulnerability and secure ND is crucial. In this article we focus on this problem and provide definitions of neighborhood types and ND protocol properties, as well as a broad classification of attacks. Our ND literature survey reveals that securing ND is indeed...

  18. Element mobility during pyrite weathering: implications for acid and heavy metal pollution at mining-impacted sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Long; Wang, Rucheng; Chen, Fanrong; Xue, Jiyue; Zhang, Peihua; Lu, Jianjun

    2005-11-01

    Based on back scattered electron images and electron micro-probe analysis results, four alteration layers, including a transition layer, a reticulated ferric oxide layer, a nubby ferric oxide layer and a cellular ferric oxide layer, were identified in the naturally weathering products of pyrite. These layers represent a progressive alteration sequence of pyrite under weathering conditions. The cellular ferric oxide layer correlates with the strongest weathering phase and results from the dissolution of nubby ferric oxide by acidic porewater. Leaching coefficient was introduced to better express the response of element mobility to the degree of pyrite weathering. Its variation shows that the mobility of S, Co and Bi is stronger than As, Cu and Zn. Sulfur in pyrite is oxidized to sulfuric acid and sulfate that are basically released into to porewater, and heavy metals Co and Bi are evidently released by acid dissolution. As, Cu and Zn are enriched in ferric oxide by adsorption and by co-precipitation, but they would re-release to the environment via desorption or dissolution when porewater pH becomes low enough. Consequently, Co, Bi, As, Cu and Zn may pose a substantial impact on water quality. Considering that metal mobility and its concentration in mine waste are two important factors influencing heavy metal pollution at mining-impacted sites, Bi and Co are more important pollutants in this case.

  19. Aquaculture changes the profile of antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic element associated genes in Baltic Sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muziasari, Windi I; Pärnänen, Katariina; Johnson, Timothy A; Lyra, Christina; Karkman, Antti; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Tamminen, Manu; Tiedje, James M; Virta, Marko

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics are commonly used in aquaculture and they can change the environmental resistome by increasing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Sediment samples were collected from two fish farms located in the Northern Baltic Sea, Finland, and from a site outside the farms (control). The sediment resistome was assessed by using a highly parallel qPCR array containing 295 primer sets to detect ARGs, mobile genetic elements and the 16S rRNA gene. The fish farm resistomes were enriched in transposon and integron associated genes and in ARGs encoding resistance to antibiotics which had been used to treat fish at the farms. Aminoglycoside resistance genes were also enriched in the farm sediments despite the farms not having used aminoglycosides. In contrast, the total relative abundance values of ARGs were higher in the control sediment resistome and they were mainly genes encoding efflux pumps followed by beta-lactam resistance genes, which are found intrinsically in many bacteria. This suggests that there is a natural Baltic sediment resistome. The resistome associated with fish farms can be from native ARGs enriched by antibiotic use at the farms and/or from ARGs and mobile elements that have been introduced by fish farming. PMID:26976842

  20. Three-dimensional reconstruction of indoor whole elements based on mobile LiDAR point cloud data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuejian; Mao, Wenbo; Bi, Jiantao; Ji, Wei; He, Zhanjun

    2014-11-01

    Ground-based LiDAR is one of the most effective city modeling tools at present, which has been widely used for three-dimensional reconstruction of outdoor objects. However, as for indoor objects, there are some technical bottlenecks due to lack of GPS signal. In this paper, based on the high-precision indoor point cloud data which was obtained by LiDAR, an international advanced indoor mobile measuring equipment, high -precision model was fulfilled for all indoor ancillary facilities. The point cloud data we employed also contain color feature, which is extracted by fusion with CCD images. Thus, it has both space geometric feature and spectral information which can be used for constructing objects' surface and restoring color and texture of the geometric model. Based on Autodesk CAD platform and with help of PointSence plug, three-dimensional reconstruction of indoor whole elements was realized. Specifically, Pointools Edit Pro was adopted to edit the point cloud, then different types of indoor point cloud data was processed, including data format conversion, outline extracting and texture mapping of the point cloud model. Finally, three-dimensional visualization of the real-world indoor was completed. Experiment results showed that high-precision 3D point cloud data obtained by indoor mobile measuring equipment can be used for indoor whole elements' 3-d reconstruction and that methods proposed in this paper can efficiently realize the 3 -d construction of indoor whole elements. Moreover, the modeling precision could be controlled within 5 cm, which was proved to be a satisfactory result.

  1. Catabolism of hyaluronan: involvement of transition metals

    OpenAIRE

    Šoltés, Ladislav; Kogan, Grigorij

    2009-01-01

    One of the very complex structures in the vertebrates is the joint. The main component of the joint is the synovial fluid with its high-molar-mass glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan, which turnover is approximately twelve hours. Since the synovial fluid does not contain any hyaluronidases, the fast hyaluronan catabolism is caused primarily by reductive-oxidative processes. Eight transition metals – V23, Mn25, Fe26, Co27, Ni28, Cu29, Zn30, and Mo42 – naturally occurring in living organism are essent...

  2. The ELLIPSO (tm) system: Elliptical low orbits for mobile communications and other optimum system elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiel, David

    1991-09-01

    On 5 Nov. 1990, Ellipsat filed with the FCC the first application to provide voice communication services via low earth orbiting (LEO) satellites. The proposed system, ELLIPSO, aims at achieving end-user costs comparable to those in the cellular industry. On 3 Jun. 1991 Ellipsat filed for the second complement of its system. Ellipsat was also the first company to propose combined position determination and mobile voice services via low-earth orbiting satellites. Ellipsat is still the only proponent of elliptical orbits for any commercial system in the United States. ELLIPSO uses a spectrum efficient combination of FDMA and CDMA techniques. Ellipsat's strategy is to tailor required capacity to user demand, reduce initial system costs and investment risks, and allow the provision of services at affordable end-user prices. ELLIPSO offers optimum features in all the components of its system, elliptical orbits, small satellites, integrated protocol and signalling system, integrated end-user electronics, novel marketing approach based on the cooperation with the tenets of mobile communications, end-user costs that are affordable, and a low risk approach as deployment is tailored to the growth of its customer base. The efficient design of the ELLIPSO constellation and system allows estimated end-user costs in the $.50 per minute range, five to six times less than any other system of comparable capability.

  3. Experimental determination of trace element mobility in UK North Sea sandstones under conditions of geological CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.

    2016-04-01

    . (1979) and Wigley et al. (2013), to suit the North Sea sandstones used previously in the batch experiments. The extraction method targeted water soluble elements, elements leached through desorption from mineral surfaces, and elements released through the dissolution of carbonates, oxides, sulphides and silicates. From this experimental technique, trace element concentrations were classed as 'mobile' or 'immobile' under weak acid conditions of CO2 storage. The majority of elements were classified as largely immobile. Using the batch experiment results we determined that dissolution of carbonate and feldspar minerals was responsible for much of the observed mobilised concentrations, although the abundance of these minerals was not a predictor for absolute or relative concentrations. References: Tessier, A., Campbell, P. G. C., & Bisson, M. (1979). Sequential Extraction Procedure for the Speciation of Particulate Trace Metals. Analytical Chemistry, 51(7), 844-851. Wigley, M., Kampman, N., Chapman, H. J., Dubacq, B., & Bickle, M. J. (2013). In situ redeposition of trace metals mobilized by CO2-charged brines. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 14(5), 1321-1332. doi:10.1002/ggge.20104

  4. Variability of total and mobile element contents in ash derived from biomass combustion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Száková, J.; Ochecová, P.; Hanzlíček, Tomáš; Perná, Ivana; Tlustoš, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 11 (2013), s. 1376-1385. ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI102A207 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : biomass combustion * fly ash * bottom ash * element contents Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  5. Stress & strain analysis of mobile tower crane (luffing jib using finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul shanker suman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In present scenario, infrastructure is a basic need for the development of any country. The tower crane plays a vital role in the infrastructure field. The failure of the tower crane may be occur during loading & unloading due to failure of, its design. Tower crane are use to lift and carry heavy materials. This study focus on the prevention of crane damage which occur due to heavy load. In this study, by using the SOLID WORKS-12 software the crane parts material which is made by plain carbon steel is modeled one-by-one, with specific dimensions. Afterwards the stress distribution analysis & thedeformation analysis are done by SOLID WORKS-12 software. As the conclusion the safe design of mobile tower crane for 900 at a load of 800 kg on a different length of jib is recommended.

  6. Mobility behavior and environmental implications of trace elements associated with coal gangue: a case study at the Huainan Coalfield in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuncai, Zhou; Guijian, Liu; Dun, Wu; Ting, Fang; Ruwei, Wang; Xiang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The potential environmental hazards posed by trace elements have assumed serious proportions due to their toxicity, bioavailability and geochemical behavior. The toxicity and mobility of trace elements in coal gangue is dependent on the elements' chemical properties, therefore, the quantification of the different forms of trace elements is more significant than the estimation of their total concentrations. In this study, the mobility behavior of trace elements in coal gangue from the Huainan Coalfield was studied to evaluate the potential eco-toxicity of the trace elements. Sequential extraction was employed to analyze the fractionation behavior of trace elements in coal gangue. The selected trace elements (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se, Sn, V and Zn) are predominantly found in silicate-bound, sulfide-bound and carbonate-bound fractions. The correlation of the element concentration with ash yield, aluminum, calcium and iron-sulfur indicates that As, Co, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn in coal gangue are mainly associated with sulfide minerals, which could release from coal gangue easily and can disperse into the environment as a result of long-term natural weathering. The Risk Assessment Code reveals that the trace elements (Mn, Cr, Se, Ni, Zn, As and Cu) can pose serious environmental risks to the ecosystem. The fractionation profiles of other elements (Co, Sn and V) indicate no risk or low risk to the environment. PMID:24050719

  7. Microbial mobilization of rare earth elements (REE) from mineral solids—A mini review

    OpenAIRE

    Fabienne Barmettler; Claudio Castelberg; Carlotta Fabbri; Helmut Brandl

    2016-01-01

    In the light of an expected supply shortage of rare earth elements (REE) measures have to be undertaken for an efficient use in all kinds of technical, medical, and agricultural applications as well as—in particular—in REE recycling from post-use goods and waste materials. Biologically- based methods might offer an alternative and supplement to physico-chemical techniques for REE recovery and recycling. A wide variety of physiologically distinct microbial groups have the potential to be appli...

  8. Amendment application in a multicontaminated mine soil: Effects on trace element mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano, Rebeca; Peñalosa, Jesús Manuel; Esteban, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-014-1874-4 Several amendments were tested for their effectiveness in aiding plant growth and immobilising contaminants in pots containing soil from an arsenopyrite mine contaminated with arsenic and heavy metals. Trace element solubility in pore water was monitored using Rhizon samplers for five weeks. Results showed that amendments containing ferrous sulphate and ferrous sulphate combined with paper mill l...

  9. Trace elements mobility in soils from the hydrothermal area of Nisyros (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Daskalopoulou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nisyros Island, Greece, is a stratovolcano known for its intense hydrothermal activity. On June 2013, during a multidisciplinary field campaign, soil samples were collected in the caldera area to determinate the main mineralogical assemblages and to investigate the distribution of trace element concentrations and the possible relationship to the contribution of fluids of deep origin. Soil samples were analysed with XRD and for the chemical composition of their leachable (deionized water and pseudo total (microwave digestion fraction both for major and trace elements. The results allow to divide the samples in 2 groups: Lakki Plain and Stefanos Crater. The latter, where a fumarolic area is located, shows a mineralogical assemblage dominated by phases typical of hydrothermal alteration. Their very low pH values (1.9 – 3.4 show the strong impact of fumarolic gases which are probably also the cause of strong enrichments in these soils of highly volatile elements like S, As, Se, Bi, Sb, Tl and Te. 

  10. Effect of organic amendments on the mobility of trace elements in phytoremediated techno-soils: role of the humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattab, N; Soubrand, M; Guégan, R; Motelica-Heino, M; Bourrat, X; Faure, O; Bouchardon, J L

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency of aided phytostabilization using organic amendments such as ramial chipped wood (RCW) and composted sewage sludge (CSS) was studied on contaminated techno-soils, on nine experimental plots. The objective was to characterize the role of fulvic (FA) and humic acids (HA) on the mobilization of trace elements, specifically As, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn. Results showed that the addition of CSS increased the total organic carbon and nitrogen content more than with RCW and as a result, the C/N ratio in the CSS soil was higher than in the RCW and non-amended (NE) soil, reflecting the high decomposition of soil organic matter in the CSS soil compared with the other soils. The RCW and CSS amendments increased the hydrogen index (HI) values and the oxygen index (OI) values compared with the NE soil, especially for the soil treated with CSS which contained more aliphatic than aromatic compounds. The addition of CSS to the techno-soil significantly increased the percentage of C org associated with the HA fractions compared with the RCW and NE soils. The soil amended with CSS showed the highest E 4/E 6 ratio and the lowest E 2/E 3 ratio of FA. Zn and As were more abundant in the FA fraction than in the HA fraction, whereas Pb, Cu and Mo were more associated to HA than to FA in the treated and untreated soils, which may explain the difference in their mobility and availability. PMID:24854499

  11. Assessment of toxicity potential of metallic elements in discarded electronics:A case study of mobile phones in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Y. Wu; Y. C. Chan; A. Middendorf; X. Gu; H. W. Zhong

    2008-01-01

    The electronic waste (e-waste) is increasingly flooding Asia, especially China. E-waste could precipitate a growing volume of toxic input to the local environment if it was not handed properly. This makes the evaluation of environmental impact from electronics an essentially important task for the life cycle assessment (LCA) and the end-of-life management of electronic products. This study presented a quantitative investigation on the environmental performance of typical electronics. Two types of disposed mobile phones (MPs), as a representative of consumer electronics, were evaluated in terms of toxicity potential indicator (TPI) with an assumption of worst-case scenario. It is found that the composition and the percentages of constituents in MPs are similar. More than 20 metallic elements make up 35 wt.%-40 wt.% of the total weight, of which 12 elements are identified to be highly hazardous and 12 are less harmful. With the TPI technique, the environmental performance of Pb is attributed to be 20.8 mg-1. The total TPIs of metallic elements in the old and new type MP is 255,403 and 127,639 units, respectively, which is equivalent to the effect of releasing 6.14 and 12.28g Pb into the environment. The average TPI of the old and new type MP is 4.1 and 4.5 mg-1, respectively, which suggests a similar eco-efficiency per unit mass. The new model of MP is more eco-effective than the old one, which is not due to a reduction in the type of hazardous elements, but rather due to a significant miniaturization of the package with less weight. A single MP can have a considerable toxicity to the environment as referred to Pb, which suggests a major concern for the environmental impact of the total e-waste with a huge quantity and a heavy mass in China.

  12. Transposable B2 SINE elements can provide mobile RNA polymerase II promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, O; Virolle, T; Djabari, Z; Ortonne, J P; White, R J; Aberdam, D

    2001-05-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are highly abundant components of mammalian genomes that are propagated by retrotransposition. SINEs are recognized as a causal agent of human disease and must also have had a profound influence in shaping eukaryotic genomes. The B2 SINE family constitutes approximately 0.7% of total mouse genomic DNA (ref. 2) and is also found at low abundance in humans. It resembles the Alu family in several respects, such as its mechanism of propagation. B2 SINEs are derived from tRNA and are transcribed by RNA polymerase (pol) III to generate short transcripts that are not translated. We find here, however, that one B2 SINE also carries an active pol II promoter located outside the tRNA region. Indeed, a B2 element is responsible for the production of a mouse Lama3 transcript. The B2 pol II promoters can be bound and stimulated by the transcription factor USF (for upstream stimulatory factor), as shown by transient transfection experiments. Moreover, this pol II activity does not preclude the pol III transcription necessary for retrotransposition. Dispersal of B2 SINEs by retrotransposition may therefore have provided numerous opportunities for creating regulated pol II transcription at novel genomic sites. This mechanism may have allowed the evolution of new transcription units and new genes. PMID:11326281

  13. The dissemination of C10 cysteine protease genes in Bacteroides fragilis by mobile genetic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagawa Todd F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The C10 family of cysteine proteases includes enzymes that contribute to the virulence of bacterial pathogens, such as SpeB in Streptococcus pyogenes. The presence of homologues of cysteine protease genes in human commensal organisms has not been examined. Bacteroides fragilis is a member of the dominant Bacteroidetes phylum of the human intestinal microbiota, and is a significant opportunistic pathogen. Results Four homologues of the streptococcal virulence factor SpeB were identified in the B. fragilis genome. These four protease genes, two were directly contiguous to open reading frames predicted to encode staphostatin-like inhibitors, with which the protease genes were co-transcribed. Two of these protease genes are unique to B. fragilis 638R and are associated with two large genomic insertions. Gene annotation indicated that one of these insertions was a conjugative Tn-like element and the other was a prophage-like element, which was shown to be capable of excision. Homologues of the B. fragilis C10 protease genes were present in a panel of clinical isolates, and in DNA extracted from normal human faecal microbiota. Conclusions This study suggests a mechanism for the evolution and dissemination of an important class of protease in major members of the normal human microbiota.

  14. Microbial mobilization of rare earth elements (REE from mineral solids—A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Barmettler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the light of an expected supply shortage of rare earth elements (REE measures have to be undertaken for an efficient use in all kinds of technical, medical, and agricultural applications as well as—in particular—in REE recycling from post-use goods and waste materials. Biologically- based methods might offer an alternative and supplement to physico-chemical techniques for REE recovery and recycling. A wide variety of physiologically distinct microbial groups have the potential to be applied for REE bioleaching form solid matrices. This source is largely untapped until today. Depending of the type of organism, the technical process (including a series of influencing factors, the solid to be treated, and the target element, leaching efficiencies of 80 to 90% can be achieved. Bioleaching of REEs can help in reducing the supply risk and market dependency. Additionally, the application of bioleaching techniques for the treatment of solid wastes might contribute to the conversion towards a more sustainable and environmental friendly economy.

  15. The dissemination of C10 cysteine protease genes in Bacteroides fragilis by mobile genetic elements

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thornton, Roibeard F

    2010-04-23

    Abstract Background The C10 family of cysteine proteases includes enzymes that contribute to the virulence of bacterial pathogens, such as SpeB in Streptococcus pyogenes. The presence of homologues of cysteine protease genes in human commensal organisms has not been examined. Bacteroides fragilis is a member of the dominant Bacteroidetes phylum of the human intestinal microbiota, and is a significant opportunistic pathogen. Results Four homologues of the streptococcal virulence factor SpeB were identified in the B. fragilis genome. These four protease genes, two were directly contiguous to open reading frames predicted to encode staphostatin-like inhibitors, with which the protease genes were co-transcribed. Two of these protease genes are unique to B. fragilis 638R and are associated with two large genomic insertions. Gene annotation indicated that one of these insertions was a conjugative Tn-like element and the other was a prophage-like element, which was shown to be capable of excision. Homologues of the B. fragilis C10 protease genes were present in a panel of clinical isolates, and in DNA extracted from normal human faecal microbiota. Conclusions This study suggests a mechanism for the evolution and dissemination of an important class of protease in major members of the normal human microbiota.

  16. Trace Element Mobility in Water and Sediments in a Hyporheic Zone Adjacent to an Abandoned Uranium Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, C.; Blake, J.; Cerrato, J.; Ali, A.; Cabaniss, S.

    2015-12-01

    The legacy of abandoned uranium mines lead to community concerns about environmental and health effects. This study focuses on a cross section of the Rio Paguate, adjacent to the Jackpile Mine on the Laguna Reservation, west-central New Mexico. Often, the geochemical interactions that occur in the hyporheic zone adjacent to these abandoned mines play an important role in trace element mobility. In order to understand the mobility of uranium (U), arsenic (As), and vanadium (V) in the Rio Paguate; surface water, hyporheic zone water, and core sediment samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). All water samples were filtered through 0.45μm and 0.22μm filters and analyzed. The results show that there is no major difference in concentrations of U (378-496μg/L), As (0.872-6.78μg/L), and V (2.94-5.01μg/L) between the filter sizes or with depth (8cm and 15cm) in the hyporheic zone. The unfiltered hyporheic zone water samples were analyzed after acid digestion to assess the particulate fraction. These results show a decrease in U concentration (153-202μg/L) and an increase in As (33.2-219μg/L) and V (169-1130μg/L) concentrations compared to the filtered waters. Surface water concentrations of U(171-184μg/L) are lower than the filtered hyporheic zone waters while As(1.32-8.68μg/L) and V(1.75-2.38μg/L) are significantly lower than the hyporheic zone waters and particulates combined. Concentrations of As in the sediment core samples are higher in the first 15cm below the water-sediment interface (14.3-3.82μg/L) and decrease (0.382μg/L) with depth. Uranium concentrations are consistent (0.047-0.050μg/L) at all depths. The over all data suggest that U is mobile in the dissolved phase and both As and V are mobile in the particular phase as they travel through the system.

  17. Continuous-flow leaching in a rotating coiled column for studies on the mobility of toxic elements in dust samples collected near a metallurgic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, Petr S; Ermolin, Mikhail S; Ivaneev, Alexandr I; Fedyunina, Natalia N; Karandashev, Vasily K; Tatsy, Yury G

    2016-03-01

    Continuous-flow (dynamic) leaching in a rotating coiled column has been applied to studies on the mobility of Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Sb, As, S, and other potentially toxic elements in atmospherically deposited dust samples collected near a large copper smelter (Chelyabinsk region, Russia). Water and simulated "acid rain" (pH 4) were used as eluents. The technique enables not only the fast and efficient leaching of elements but as well time-resolved studies on the mobilization of heavy metals, sulphur, and arsenic in environmentally relevant forms to be made. It is shown that up to 1.5, 4.1, 1.9, 11.1, and 46.1% of Pb, As, Cu, Zn, and S, correspondingly, can be easily mobilized by water. Taking into consideration that the total concentrations of these elements in the samples under investigation are surprisingly high and vary in the range from 2.7 g/kg (for arsenic) to 15.5 g/kg (for sulphur), the environmental impact of the dust may be dramatic. The simulated acid rain results in somewhat higher recoveries of elements, except Cu and Pb. The proposed approach and the data obtained can very useful for the risk assessment related to the mobility of potentially toxic elements and their inclusion in the biogeochemical cycle. PMID:26741541

  18. Vein Formation and Element Mobility During Serpentinization of Peridotites: Mineralogy and Thermodynamic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbach, E. M.; Caddick, M. J.; Beard, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Serpentinization is a common mineralogical process that occurs in ultramafic rocks when water interacts with the primary minerals olivine and pyroxene to form a rock dominated by serpentine. Temperature of hydration and the primary mineralogy of the peridotite strongly influence the alteration products. We studied peridotites with low to extremely low degrees of serpentinization from two settings, the Santa Elena ophiolite in Costa Rica and the Gakkel Ridge, to test how temperature and primary mineralogy control reactions, reaction sequences, and subsequent vein textures during peridotite hydration. Serpentinization of a harzburgite from Costa Rica occurred at around 250°C, resulting in olivine-hosted veins that are a mixture of brucite and serpentine - with a bulk composition approximately equivalent to hydrated host olivine - and later stage veins that also contain magnetite. Serpentinite that formed by hydration of orthopyroxene is accompanied by talc, with a bulk composition (serp + tlc) that is depleted in silica relative to the orthopyroxene host. In contrast, veins in orthopyroxene in an almost un-serpentinized peridotite (degree of serpentinization ~ 5 %) from the ultra-slow spreading Gakkel Ridge have an average composition very similar to the host orthopyroxene, whilst veins in olivine suggest slight enrichment in silica compared to the host olivine. Replacement of orthopyroxene here results in the formation of serpentine, talc and amphibole. The presence of amphibole in orthopyroxene and the higher degree of orthopyroxene replacement compared to olivine suggests that serpentinization occurred at higher temperatures than in the Santa Elena peridotites, resulting in the mobilization of more silica through the system. Thermodynamic models of the hydration of olivine and orthopyroxene agree with the mineralogical observations and show that hydration of olivine first results in the simple formation of serpentine and brucite. Increasing water-rock ratios then

  19. Prospects for laser spectroscopy, ion chemistry and mobility measurements of superheavy elements in buffer-gas traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, H.; Lauth, W.; Block, M.; Laatiaoui, M.

    2015-12-01

    Laser spectroscopic methods are reviewed which are of potential interest for the investigation of atomic and ionic level structures of superheavy elements. The latter are defined here as the trans-fermium elements with Z > 100 for which no experimental atomic or ionic level structure information is known so far, and which cannot be bred in high flux nuclear power reactors via successive neutron capture. The principles of suitable laser spectroscopic methods are described, and illustrated by examples of real experiments. The addressed methods include single-ion spectroscopy in Paul traps, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIF), radiation-detected optical pumping (RADOP), radioactive decay-detected resonance ionization spectroscopy (RADRIS), and ion-guide-detected resonance ionization spectroscopy (IGRIS). With the exception of the first all take advantage of a storage of the ions or atoms in so-called buffer-gas traps. The developed experimental methods can, in principle, also be employed for studying ion-chemical reactions with gas admixtures like O2 as well as for performing ion mobility measurements. Both provide complementary information on the electronic structure of superheavy ions. First attempts on this road of research are reviewed as well.

  20. A Gaijin-like miniature inverted repeat transposable element is mobilized in rice during cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hai-Tao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Miniature inverted repeat transposable element (MITE is one type of transposable element (TE, which is largely found in eukaryotic genomes and involved in a wide variety of biological events. However, only few MITEs were proved to be currently active and their physiological function remains largely unknown. Results We found that the amplicon discrepancy of a gene locus LOC_Os01g0420 in different rice cultivar genomes was resulted from the existence of a member of Gaijin-like MITEs (mGing. This result indicated that mGing transposition was occurred at this gene locus. By using a modified transposon display (TD analysis, the active transpositions of mGing were detected in rice Jiahua No. 1 genome under three conditions: in seedlings germinated from the seeds received a high dose γ-ray irradiation, in plantlets regenerated from anther-derived calli and from scutellum-derived calli, and were confirmed by PCR validation and sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs or short additional DNA sequences at transposition sites post mGing transposition. It suggested that sequence modification was possibly taken place during mGing transposition. Furthermore, cell re-differentiation experiment showed that active transpositions of both mGing and mPing (another well studied MITE were identified only in regenerated plantlets. Conclusions It is for the first time that mGing active transposition was demonstrated under γ-ray irradiation or in cell re-differentiation process in rice. This newly identified active MITE will provide a foundation for further analysis of the roles of MITEs in biological process.

  1. The mobilization of hazardous elements after a tropical storm event in a polluted estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Iruretagoiena, Azibar; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; de Diego, Alberto; de Leão, Felipe B; de Medeiros, Diego; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Tafarel, Silvio R; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-09-15

    The Tubarão River (Santa Catarina, Brazil) is affected by hazardous elements (HEs) pollution from abandoned coal mines, agricultural activities, urban discharges, industrial and leisure zones, etc. In order to study the distribution and sources of HEs contamination in a polluted estuary after a tropical storm, waters and surface sediments were collected from 15 sampling sites along the Tubarão River. The concentration of 24 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Ti, Tl, V, W, and Zn) were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the mineralogical composition of the sediments by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The metal concentrations in water and sediment showed wide spatial variation due to the variability in water discharges and anthropogenic inputs after a storm. In general, higher metal concentration in water and lower in sediments were found upstream (closer to coal mining). Downstream sampling sites and the Oratorio River sampling site (one of the eight tributaries of the estuary) showed the highest values in sediment samples. Normalized and Weighed Average Concentrations (NWAC) were calculated, which allow us to identify, in a very simple way, the sampling sites of higher concern (hotspots of contamination) in the studied area. NWAC suggested that the strong rainfall events could affect to the metal distribution in sediments. The results of this study were compared with a previous study in the same area during dry season by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), showing changes in environmental pollution of the sediment after a strong storm event. PMID:27232719

  2. Exploring the Antarctic soil metagenome as a source of novel cold-adapted enzymes and genetic mobile elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Berlemont

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomic library PP1 was obtained from Antarctic soil samples. Both functional and genotypic metagenomic screening were used for the isolation of novel cold-adapted enzymes with potential applications, and for the detection of genetic elements associated with gene mobilization, respectively. Fourteen lipase/esterase-, 14 amylase-, 3 protease-, and 11 cellulase-producing clones were detected by activity-driven screening, with apparent maximum activities around 35 °C for both amylolytic and lipolytic enzymes, and 35-55 °C for cellulases, as observed for other cold-adapted enzymes. However, the behavior of at least one of the studied cellulases is more compatible to that observed for mesophilic enzymes. These enzymes are usually still active at temperatures above 60 °C, probably resulting in a psychrotolerant behavior in Antarctic soils. Metagenomics allows to access novel genes encoding for enzymatic and biophysic properties from almost every environment with potential benefits for biotechnological and industrial applications. Only intI- and tnp-like genes were detected by PCR, encoding for proteins with 58-86 %, and 58-73 % amino acid identity with known entries, respectively. Two clones, BAC 27A-9 and BAC 14A-5, seem to present unique syntenic organizations, suggesting the occurrence of gene rearrangements that were probably due to evolutionary divergences within the genus or facilitated by the association with transposable elements. The evidence for genetic elements related to recruitment and mobilization of genes (transposons/integrons in an extreme environment like Antarctica reinforces the hypothesis of the origin of some of the genes disseminated by mobile elements among "human-associated" microorganisms.A partir de muestras de suelo antártico se obtuvo la metagenoteca PP1. Esta fue sometida a análisis funcionales y genotípicos para el aislamiento de nuevas enzimas adaptadas al frío con potenciales aplicaciones, y para la detecci

  3. The Effect of Services Marketing Mix Elements on Customer-Based Brand Equity: An Empirical Study on Mobile Telecom Service Recipients in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Hani Al-Dmour; Zu'bi M.F. Al-Zu'bi; Dana Kakeesh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the effect of services marketing mix elements on customer-based brandequity through empirical study of mobile telecommunication service recipients. It also aims to determine theinfluence of such elements on customer-based brand equity and to reveal which is the most influential.We employed a questionnaire-based survey consisting of 56 questions and distributed to 1,930 respondents in thethree largest governorates in Jordan: Amman, Irbid, and Al-Zarqa. ...

  4. Effects of intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on the mobility of target elements for phytoremediation and phytomining in soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate how intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) affects the mobile fractions of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Th, U, Sc, La, Nd, Ge) in soil solution. Oat and white lupin were cultivated in monocultures and mixed cultures with differing oat/white lupin ratios (11% and 33% lupin, respectively). Temporal variation of soil solution chemistry was compared with the mobilization of elements in the rhizosphere of white lupin and concentrations in plant tissues. Relative to the monocrops, intercropping of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, La and Nd in soil solution as well as the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, Sc, La and Nd in tissues of oat. Enhanced mobility of the mentioned elements corresponded to a depletion of elements in the rhizosphere soil of white lupin. In mixed cultures with 33% lupin, concentrations in soil solution only slightly increased. We conclude that intercropping with 11% white lupin might be a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research enhancing mobility of essential trace metals as well as elements with relevance for phytoremediation (Pb, Th) and phytomining (La, Nd, Sc) in soil. PMID:26940160

  5. The potential leaching and mobilization of trace elements from FGD-gypsum of a coal-fired power plant under water re-circulation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Patricia; Castro, Iria; Maroto-Valer, Mercedes; Querol, Xavier

    2015-06-01

    Experimental and geochemical modelling studies were carried out to identify mineral and solid phases containing major, minor, and trace elements and the mechanism of the retention of these elements in Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD)-gypsum samples from a coal-fired power plant under filtered water recirculation to the scrubber and forced oxidation conditions. The role of the pH and related environmental factors on the mobility of Li, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Mo, and U from FGD-gypsums for a comprehensive assessment of element leaching behaviour were also carried out. Results show that the extraction rate of the studied elements generally increases with decreasing the pH value of the FGD-gypsum leachates. The increase of the mobility of elements such as U, Se, and As in the FGD-gypsum entails the modification of their aqueous speciation in the leachates; UO2SO4, H2Se, and HAsO2 are the aqueous complexes with the highest activities under acidic conditions. The speciation of Zn, Li, and Ni is not affected in spite of pH changes; these elements occur as free cations and associated to SO4(2) in the FGD-gypsum leachates. The mobility of Cu and Mo decreases by decreasing the pH of the FGD-gypsum leachates, which might be associated to the precipitation of CuSe2 and MoSe2, respectively. Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry of the solid phase combined with geochemical modelling of the aqueous phase has proved useful in understanding the mobility and geochemical behaviour of elements and their partitioning into FGD-gypsum samples. PMID:26040733

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Mobile Genetic Elements from Microbial Assemblages Obtained from the Field Research Center Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Sobecky; Cassie Hodges; Kerri Lafferty; Mike Humphreys; Melanie Raimondo; Kristin Tuttle; Tamar Barkay

    2004-03-17

    Considerable knowledge has been gained from the intensive study of a relatively limited group of bacterial plasmids. Recent efforts have begun to focus on the characterization of, at the molecular level, plasmid populations and associated mobile genetic elements (e.g., transposons, integrons) occurring in a wider range of aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Surprisingly, however, little information is available regarding the incidence and distribution of mobile genetic elements extant in contaminated subsurface environments. Such studies will provide greater knowledge on the ecology of plasmids and their contributions to the genetic plasticity (and adaptation) of naturally occurring subsurface microbial communities. We requested soil cores from the DOE NABIR Field Research Center (FRC) located on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The cores, received in February 2003, were sampled from four areas on the Oak Ridge Site: Area 1, Area 2, Area 3 (representing contaminated subsurface locales) and the background reference sites. The average core length (24 in) was subdivided into three profiles and soil pH and moisture content were determined. Uranium concentration was also determined in bulk samples. Replicate aliquots were fixed for total cell counts and for bacterial isolation. Four different isolation media were used to culture aerobic and facultative microbes from these four study areas. Colony forming units ranged from a minimum of 100 per gram soil to a maximum of 10,000 irrespective of media composition used. The vast majority of cultured subsurface isolates were gram-positive isolates and plasmid characterization was conducted per methods routinely used in the Sobecky laboratory. The percentage of plasmid incidence ranged from 10% to 60% of all isolates tested. This frequency appears to be somewhat higher than the incidence of plasmids we have observed in other habitats and we are increasing the number of isolates screened to confirm this observation. We are also

  7. Effects of lipopolysaccharide on the catabolic activity of macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of macrophages to degrade and catabolize antigens is of relevance both as a means to process complex antigens prior to presentation to T cells, as well as a way to down regulate immune responses by destroying the antigenicity of polypeptides. With these considerations, the authors have investigated the regulation of macrophage catabolic activity by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Catabolic activity was quantitated by following the distribution and molecular form of 125-I labelled surface components of heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKLM) subsequent to their uptake by macrophages. They have compared the catabolic activity of macrophages from peritoneal exudates of mice injected i.p. with saline or LPS and have found that LPS-elicited macrophages display a greatly enhanced (3 fold) rate of catabolism. This increase in catabolic activity peaks 3 days after LPS injection and steadily declines thereafter, approaching a baseline level after 3 weeks. The enhancement of catabolic activity is under LPS gene control. LPS-elicited macrophages rapidly destroy the antigenicity of bacterial antigens and function poorly as antigen presenting cells in vitro. These results suggest that LPS elicits a macrophage population specialized for antigen degradation functions with negative regulatory effects on the induction of specific immune responses

  8. The Use of Anabolic Agents in Catabolic States

    OpenAIRE

    Demling, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We plan to review the current problem of lean mass erosion in catabolic states, caused by injury and critical illness. This protein loss is driven by the hormonal imbalance and excess inflammation referred to as the “stress response to injury.” We then plan to provide the current concepts on the use of available anabolic agents to attenuate the excess catabolism. Data Source: The available published literature on the pathogenesis of acute catabolic states and the use of anabolic an...

  9. Arginine transport in catabolic disease states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ming; Choudry, Haroon A; Epler, Mark J; Meng, Qinghe; Karinch, Anne; Lin, Chengmao; Souba, Wiley

    2004-10-01

    Arginine appears to be a semiessential amino acid in humans during critical illness. Catabolic disease states such as sepsis, injury, and cancer cause an increase in arginine utilization, which exceeds body production, leading to arginine depletion. This is aggravated by the reduced nutrient intake that is associated with critical illness. Arginine depletion may have negative consequences on tissue function under these circumstances. Nutritional regimens containing arginine have been shown to improve nitrogen balance and lymphocyte function, and stimulate arginine transport in the liver. We have studied the effects of stress mediators on arginine transport in vascular endothelium, liver, and gut epithelium. In vascular endothelium, endotoxin stimulates arginine uptake, an effect that is mediated by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and by the cyclo-oxygenase pathway. This TNF-alpha stimulation involves the activation of intracellular protein kinase C (PKC). A significant increase in hepatic arginine transport activity also occurs following burn injury and in rats with progressive malignant disease. Surgical removal of the growing tumor results in a normalization of the accelerated hepatic arginine transport within days. Chronic metabolic acidosis and sepsis individually augment intestinal arginine transport in rats and Caco-2 cell culture. PKC and mitogen-activated protein kinases are involved in mediating the sepsis/acidosis stimulation of arginine transport. Understanding the regulation of plasma membrane arginine transport will enhance our knowledge of nutrition and metabolism in seriously ill patients and may lead to the design of improved nutritional support formulas. PMID:15465794

  10. Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a multi-element contaminated soil profile assessed by in-situ soil pore water sampling, column leaching and sequential extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beesley, Luke, E-mail: l.beesley@2007.ljmu.ac.u [Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo [Departamento de Quimica Agricola, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Clemente, Rafael [Dep. of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, PO Box 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain); Lepp, Nicholas; Dickinson, Nicholas [Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Three methods for predicting element mobility in soils have been applied to an iron-rich soil, contaminated with arsenic, cadmium and zinc. Soils were collected from 0 to 30 cm, 30 to 70 cm and 70 to 100 cm depths in the field and soil pore water was collected at different depths from an adjacent 100 cm deep trench. Sequential extraction and a column leaching test in the laboratory were compared to element concentrations in pore water sampled directly from the field. Arsenic showed low extractability, low leachability and occurred at low concentrations in pore water samples. Cadmium and zinc were more labile and present in higher concentrations in pore water, increasing with soil depth. Pore water sampling gave the best indication of short term element mobility when field conditions were taken into account, but further extraction and leaching procedures produced a fuller picture of element dynamics, revealing highly labile Cd deep in the soil profile. - Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a polluted soil can be realistically interpreted by in-situ soil pore water sampling.

  11. Fructose catabolism in Azospirillum brasilense and Azospirillum lipoferum.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The pathways for catabolism of fructose were investigated in the type strains of Azospirillum lipoferum and Azospirillum brasilense grown aerobically with (NH4)2SO4 as the nitrogen source. When grown on fructose, the former species possessed a complete Entner-Doudoroff pathway, whereas the latter species lacked activity for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Both species possessed a complete catabolic Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. Neither species possessed the key enzyme of the hexose monop...

  12. Protein catabolism and requirements in severe illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, L; Pichard, C

    2011-03-01

    Reduced total body protein mass is a marker of protein-energy malnutrition and has been associated with numerous complications. Severe illness is characterized by a loss of total body protein mass, mainly from the skeletal muscle. Studies on protein turnover describe an increased protein breakdown and, to a lesser extent, an increased whole-body protein synthesis, as well as an increased flux of amino acids from the periphery to the liver. Appropriate nutrition could limit protein catabolism. Nutritional support limits but does not stop the loss of total body protein mass occurring in acute severe illness. Its impact on protein kinetics is so far controversial, probably due to the various methodologies and characteristics of nutritional support used in the studies. Maintaining calorie balance alone the days after an insult does not clearly lead to an improved clinical outcome. In contrast, protein intakes between 1.2 and 1.5 g/kg body weight/day with neutral energy balance minimize total body protein mass loss. Glutamine and possibly leucine may improve clinical outcome, but it is unclear whether these benefits occur through an impact on total body protein mass and its turnover, or through other mechanisms. Present recommendations suggest providing 20 - 25 kcal/kg/day over the first 72 - 96 hours and increasing energy intake to target thereafter. Simultaneously, protein intake should be between 1.2 and 1.5 g/kg/day. Enteral immunonutrition enriched with arginine, nucleotides, and omega-3 fatty acids is indicated in patients with trauma, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and mild sepsis. Glutamine (0.2 - 0.4 g/kg/day of L-glutamine) should be added to enteral nutrition in burn and trauma patients (ESPEN guidelines 2006) and to parenteral nutrition, in the form of dipeptides, in intensive care unit (ICU) patients in general (ESPEN guidelines 2009). PMID:22139565

  13. Membrane lipids regulate ganglioside GM2 catabolism and GM2 activator protein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anheuser, Susi; Breiden, Bernadette; Schwarzmann, Günter; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2015-09-01

    Ganglioside GM2 is the major lysosomal storage compound of Tay-Sachs disease. It also accumulates in Niemann-Pick disease types A and B with primary storage of SM and with cholesterol in type C. Reconstitution of GM2 catabolism with β-hexosaminidase A and GM2 activator protein (GM2AP) at uncharged liposomal surfaces carrying GM2 as substrate generated only a physiologically irrelevant catabolic rate, even at pH 4.2. However, incorporation of anionic phospholipids into the GM2 carrying liposomes stimulated GM2 hydrolysis more than 10-fold, while the incorporation of plasma membrane stabilizing lipids (SM and cholesterol) generated a strong inhibition of GM2 hydrolysis, even in the presence of anionic phospholipids. Mobilization of membrane lipids by GM2AP was also inhibited in the presence of cholesterol or SM, as revealed by surface plasmon resonance studies. These lipids also reduced the interliposomal transfer rate of 2-NBD-GM1 by GM2AP, as observed in assays using Förster resonance energy transfer. Our data raise major concerns about the usage of recombinant His-tagged GM2AP compared with untagged protein. The former binds more strongly to anionic GM2-carrying liposomal surfaces, increases GM2 hydrolysis, and accelerates intermembrane transfer of 2-NBD-GM1, but does not mobilize membrane lipids. PMID:26175473

  14. A forward genetic approach in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a strategy for exploring starch catabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Tunçay

    Full Text Available A screen was recently developed to study the mobilization of starch in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This screen relies on starch synthesis accumulation during nitrogen starvation followed by the supply of nitrogen and the switch to darkness. Hence multiple regulatory networks including those of nutrient starvation, cell cycle control and light to dark transitions are likely to impact the recovery of mutant candidates. In this paper we monitor the specificity of this mutant screen by characterizing the nature of the genes disrupted in the selected mutants. We show that one third of the mutants consisted of strains mutated in genes previously reported to be of paramount importance in starch catabolism such as those encoding β-amylases, the maltose export protein, and branching enzyme I. The other mutants were defective for previously uncharacterized functions some of which are likely to define novel proteins affecting starch mobilization in green algae.

  15. Phylogenomics of the reproductive parasite Wolbachia pipientis wMel: a streamlined genome overrun by mobile genetic elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wu

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The complete sequence of the 1,267,782 bp genome of Wolbachia pipientis wMel, an obligate intracellular bacteria of Drosophila melanogaster, has been determined. Wolbachia, which are found in a variety of invertebrate species, are of great interest due to their diverse interactions with different hosts, which range from many forms of reproductive parasitism to mutualistic symbioses. Analysis of the wMel genome, in particular phylogenomic comparisons with other intracellular bacteria, has revealed many insights into the biology and evolution of wMel and Wolbachia in general. For example, the wMel genome is unique among sequenced obligate intracellular species in both being highly streamlined and containing very high levels of repetitive DNA and mobile DNA elements. This observation, coupled with multiple evolutionary reconstructions, suggests that natural selection is somewhat inefficient in wMel, most likely owing to the occurrence of repeated population bottlenecks. Genome analysis predicts many metabolic differences with the closely related Rickettsia species, including the presence of intact glycolysis and purine synthesis, which may compensate for an inability to obtain ATP directly from its host, as Rickettsia can. Other discoveries include the apparent inability of wMel to synthesize lipopolysaccharide and the presence of the most genes encoding proteins with ankyrin repeat domains of any prokaryotic genome yet sequenced. Despite the ability of wMel to infect the germline of its host, we find no evidence for either recent lateral gene transfer between wMel and D. melanogaster or older transfers between Wolbachia and any host. Evolutionary analysis further supports the hypothesis that mitochondria share a common ancestor with the alpha-Proteobacteria, but shows little support for the grouping of mitochondria with species in the order Rickettsiales. With the availability of the complete genomes of both species and excellent genetic tools for

  16. Mobilities Mobilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Pompeyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Urry, John (2007 Mobilities.Oxford: Polity Press.Urry, John (2007 Mobilities.Oxford: Polity Press.John Urry (1946-, profesor en la Universidad de Lancaster, es un sociólogo de sobra conocido y altamente reputado en el panorama internacional de las ciencias sociales. Su dilatada carrera, aparentemente dispersa y diversificada, ha seguido senderos bastante bien definidos dejando tras de sí un catálogo extenso de obras sociológicas de primer nivel. Sus primeros trabajos se centraban en el campo de la teoría social y la filosofía de las ciencias sociales o de la sociología del poder [...

  17. The wide expansion of hepatitis delta virus-like ribozymes throughout trypanosomatid genomes is linked to the spreading of L1Tc/ingi clade mobile elements

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. Sánchez-Luque; López López, Manuel Carlos; Carreira, Patricia E; Alonso, Carlos; Thomas, María Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV)-like ribozymes have recently been found in many mobile elements in which they take part in a mechanism that releases intermediate RNAs from cellular co-transcripts. L1Tc in Trypanosoma cruzi is one of the elements in which such a ribozyme is located. It lies in the so-called Pr77-hallmark, a conserved region shared by retrotransposons belonging to the trypanosomatid L1Tc/ingi clade. The wide distribution of the Pr77-hallmark detected in trypanosomatid re...

  18. Mobility of major and trace elements in andosols from Iceland: correlating extent of chemical weathering with climatic conditions at soil formation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskarsson, Birgir V.; Riishuus, Morten S.; Arnalds, Olafur

    2010-05-01

    Element mobility within volcanic soil profiles developed in diverse climatic conditions in Iceland is assessed. Soils were selected from areas with good monitoring of annual temperature and precipitation and the degree of weathering and elemental behavior was compared. Most soils in Iceland develop in parent materials of volcanic origin, including a variety of basaltic and andesitic tephras, hyaloclastites and glacial tillites. Most Icelandic soils are subject to considerable flux of eolian deposition and in times receive tephra ejecta from volcanic eruptions. In this study, samples were carefully extracted from brown and gleyic andosol horizons for major and trace element analysis. Each horizon is representative of a pedogenetic stage. Preliminary results show that the major elements TiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 (T) (mean wt% = 3.4, 19.2, 17.3) appear immobile relative to the parent material (p.m. mean wt% = 1.6, 14.6, 10.9) and are found enriched within more mature horizons. The base cations MgO, CaO and Na2O (mean wt% = 4.11, 7.23, 1.8) are depleted in these horizons (p.m. mean wt% = 9.1, 11.8, 2.0) showing mobilization during pedogenesis. The trace elements reveal no strong enrichment/depletion trend with a range of mobility from mobile to immobile Rb, Zn, Y, Sr, Ba, Ni, La, Cr, Cu, Nd, V, Zr and Nb. Soils developed in colder and dryer climatic conditions in Iceland (MAT = -1°C and MAP = 1000mm) show higher levels of weathering (CIA-K = 50-65) and element mobilization. The parent materials have a CIA-K weathering index of 37. The relationship of the covariance of the climate parameters with extent of chemical weathering may be quantified as climofunctions to deliver proxy climate data under cool to subarctic conditions. Our results may yield reasonable tools for determining past climate variations from weathered tephras found as paleosols in the Neogene lava piles of Iceland and other volcanic provinces.

  19. Mobile Payload Element (MPE): Concept study for a sample fetching rover for the ESA Lunar Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarmann, R.; Jaumann, R.; Claasen, F.; Apfelbeck, M.; Klinkner, S.; Richter, L.; Schwendner, J.; Wolf, M.; Hofmann, P.

    2012-12-01

    In late 2010, the DLR Space Administration invited the German industry to submit a proposal for a study about a Mobile Payload Element (MPE), which could be a German national contribution to the ESA Lunar Lander Mission. Several spots in the south polar region of the moon come into consideration as landing site for this mission. All possible spots provide sustained periods of solar illumination, interrupted by darkness periods of several 10 h. The MPE is outlined to be a small, autonomous, innovative vehicle in the 10 kg class for scouting and sampling the environment in the vicinity of the lunar landing site. The novel capabilities of the MPE will be to acquire samples of lunar regolith from surface, subsurface as well as shadowed locations, define their geological context and bring them back to the lander. This will enable access to samples that are not contaminated by the lander descent propulsion system plumes to increase the chances of detecting any indigenous lunar volatiles contained within the samples. Kayser-Threde, as prime industrial contractor for Phase 0/A, has assembled for this study a team of German partners with relevant industrial and institutional competence in space robotics and lunar science. The primary scientific objective of the MPE is to acquire clearly documented samples and to bring them to the lander for analysis with the onboard Lunar Dust Analysis Package (L-DAP) and Lunar Volatile Resources Analysis Package (L-VRAP). Due to the unstable nature of volatiles, which are of particular scientific interest, the MPE design needs to provide a safe storage and transportation of the samples to the lander. The proposed MPE rover concept has a four-wheeled chassis configuration with active suspension, being a compromise between innovation and mass efficiency. The suspension chosen allows a compact stowage of the MPE on the lander as well as precise alignment of the solar generators and instruments. Since therefore no further complex mechanics are

  20. Effects of biochar and greenwaste compost amendments on mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of inorganic and organic contaminants in a multi-element polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Luke; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Gomez-Eyles, Jose L

    2010-06-01

    Applying amendments to multi-element contaminated soils can have contradictory effects on the mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of specific elements, depending on the amendment. Trace elements and PAHs were monitored in a contaminated soil amended with biochar and greenwaste compost over 60 days field exposure, after which phytotoxicity was assessed by a simple bio-indicator test. Copper and As concentrations in soil pore water increased more than 30 fold after adding both amendments, associated with significant increases in dissolved organic carbon and pH, whereas Zn and Cd significantly decreased. Biochar was most effective, resulting in a 10 fold decrease of Cd in pore water and a resultant reduction in phytotoxicity. Concentrations of PAHs were also reduced by biochar, with greater than 50% decreases of the heavier, more toxicologically relevant PAHs. The results highlight the potential of biochar for contaminated land remediation. PMID:20219274

  1. Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prathumpai, Wai; Gabelgaard, J.B.; Wanchanthuek, P.; van de Vondervoort, P.J.I.; de Groot, M.J.L.; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    A kinetic model for xylose catabolism in Aspergillus is proposed. From a thermodynamic analysis it was found that the intermediate xylitol will accumulate during xylose catabolism. Use of the kinetic model allowed metabolic control analysis (MCA) of the xylose catabolic pathway to be carried out......, and flux control was shown to be dependent on the metabolite levels. Due to thermodynamic constraints, flux control may reside at the first step in the pathway, i.e., at the xylose reductase, even when the intracellular xylitol concentration is high. On the basis of the kinetic analysis, the general...... dogma specifying that flux control often resides at the step following an intermediate present at high concentrations was, therefore, shown not to hold. The intracellular xylitol concentration was measured in batch cultivations of two different strains of Aspergillus niger and two different strains of...

  2. Element redistribution and mobility during upper crustal metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks: an example from the eastern Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerli, Johannes; Spandler, Carl; Oliver, Nicholas H. S.

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed study on element mobility during prograde metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks of the eastern Mt. Lofty Ranges, South Australia. Mineral and bulk rock compositions were monitored across a regional metamorphic gradient from ≈350-400 °C to migmatite grade (≈650-700 °C) at ≈0.3-0.5 GPa, where pervasive up-temperature fluid flow during metamorphism has been proposed previously. Major and most trace elements (including rare earth elements) are isochemical during metamorphism as they are effectively redistributed into newly formed major and/or accessory minerals. Monazite or allanite and xenotime control the whole rock concentration of rare earth elements (REEs), whereas apatite and titanite are minor REE hosts. The only non-volatile elements that are demonstrably mobilized by metamorphic fluids are Zn, Pb, Ag, Cs, Sb, Bi and As, whose concentrations decreased with increasing metamorphic grade. Depletion of Zn, Sb and Pb was progressive with increasing temperature in staurolite-absent psammopelites, with losses of ≈80 % of the original Zn and >80 % of the protolithic Sb and ≈50 % of the original Pb from the rocks from high-grade metamorphic zones. Pronounced depletion of As and Cs occurs at the greenschist/amphibolite facies boundary and the transition to migmatite grade, respectively, while Ag and Bi contents decrease between 500 and 550 °C where >50 % of the original Ag and Bi is lost. While for most elements, unmetamorphosed sedimentary sequences can be considered chemical equivalents of metasedimentary rocks occupying deeper crust levels, in some cases, such as the extensive flow of Cl-rich fluid documented here, metals such as Zn, Pb and Ag may be stripped and may serve as a metal source for orebody formation. The decrease of As, Bi and Sb contents during prograde metamorphism might be a more universal feature that is linked with sulphide phase transitions.

  3. Construction of stably maintained non-mobilizable derivatives of RSF1010 lacking all known elements essential for mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokmakova Irina L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RSF1010 is a well-studied broad-host-range plasmid able to be mobilized to different bacteria and plants. RSF1010-derived plasmid vectors are widely used in both basic research and industrial applications. In the latter case, exploiting of mobilizable plasmids or even the plasmids possessing negligible mobilization frequency, but containing DNA fragments that could promote conjugal transfer, is undesirable because of biosafety considerations. Previously, several mutations significantly decreasing efficiency of RSF1010 mobilization have been selected. Nevertheless, construction of the RSF1010 derivative lacking all known loci involved in the conjugal transfer has not been reported yet. Results Novel non-mobilizable derivatives of RSF1010 lacking all known DNA sequences involved in the mobilization process have been obtained due to the exploiting of λRed-driven recombination between the plasmid and a constructed in vitro linear DNA fragment. To provide auto-regulated transcription of the essential replication gene, repB, the plasmid loci oriT, mobC and mobA were substituted by the DNA fragment containing PlacUV5→lacI. Mobilization of the obtained RSFmob plasmid was not detected in standard tests. The derivative of RSFmob with increased copy number has been obtained after lacI elimination. High stability of both constructed plasmids has been demonstrated in Escherichia coli and Pantoea ananatis. Design of RSFmob allows easy substitution of PlacUV5 by any desirable promoter for construction of novel derivatives with changed copy number or host range. Conclusion Novel non-mobilizable derivatives of RSF1010 lacking all known DNA sequences involved in the mobilization process and stably maintained at least in E. coli and P. ananatis have been constructed. The obtained plasmids became the progenitors of new cloning vectors answering all biosafety requirements of genetically modified organisms used in scale-up production.

  4. Should I Stay or Should I Go? The Effects of Weathering on Siderophile and Chalcophile Element Mobility in Mantle-Derived Sulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J.; Warren, J. M.; Humayun, M.; Walshaw, R.

    2015-12-01

    Jason Harvey1,2, Jessica M Warren2, Munir Humayun3, Richard D Walshaw1 School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford CA, USA National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee FL, USA Peridotite xenoliths possess lower abundances of S and Os than peridotite massifs. This has been attributed to the ingress of meteoric water, which oxidizes sulfide, removing sulfur as soluble sulfate, while volatilizing Os to its more mobile OsO4 form[1]. Selenium is considered to be less mobile than S under oxidizing conditions[2]. This assumption was challenged recently when peridotite xenoliths from Kilbourne Hole were analysed for bulk-rock PGE-S-Se-Te-Re abundances[3]. The sulfides they contained had clearly experienced varying degrees of oxidation to Fe-oxyhydroxides, but yielded chondritic bulk-rock Se/S, consistent with values found in massif peridotites. This requires that Se is mobile during supergene weathering, otherwise supra-chondritic Se/S would be generated. Here, we present the results of a LA-ICP-MS investigation into the highly siderophile element (HSE) and chalcophile element abundances of ca. 20 BMS grains from one of the same Kilbourne Hole xenoliths of the former bulk-rock study[3]. Osmium abundance and Os/Ir (where not fractionated by high temperature processes involving sulfide) are well correlated with both Se and S across a wide range of oxidation. Other platinum group elements (Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd) show no obvious signs of mobility with decreasing S (or Se) abundance. The positive co-variation between S and Se for a wide range of S abundance adds credence to the theory that Se may also be mobile during the oxidative breakdown of peridotite- hosted sulfides. Using Se as a proxy for S abundance in peridotite xenoliths should therefore be used with care. Moreover, the attribution of chondritic Se/S in peridotites to bulk-earth compositions may

  5. Metabolic control analysis of Aspergillus niger L-arabinose catabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, M.J.L.; Prathumpai, Wai; Visser, J.; Ruijter, G.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography, and their...

  6. Oxidative mobilization of cerium and uranium and enhanced release of "immobile" high field strength elements from igneous rocks in the presence of the biogenic siderophore desferrioxamine B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Dennis; Kopf, Sebastian; Bau, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Polyvalent trace elements such as the high field strength elements (HFSE) are commonly considered rather immobile during low-temperature water-rock interaction. Hence, they have become diagnostic tools that are widely applied in geochemical studies. We present results of batch leaching experiments focused on the mobilization of certain HFSE (Y, Zr, Hf, Th, U and rare earth elements) from mafic, intermediate and felsic igneous rocks in the presence and absence, respectively, of the siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB). Our data show that DFOB strongly enhances the mobility of these trace elements during low-temperature water-rock interaction. The presence of DFOB produces two distinct features in the Rare Earths and Yttrium (REY) patterns of leaching solutions, regardless of the mineralogical and chemical composition or the texture of the rock type studied. Bulk rock-normalized REY patterns of leaching solutions with DFOB show (i) a very distinct positive Ce anomaly and (ii) depletion of La and other light REY relative to the middle REY, with a concave downward pattern between La and Sm. These features are not observed in experiments with hydrochloric acid, acetic acid or deionized water. In DFOB-bearing leaching solutions Ce and U are decoupled from and selectively enriched relative to light REY and Th, respectively, due to oxidation to Ce(IV) and U(VI). Oxidation of Ce3+ and U4+ is promoted by the significantly higher stability of the Ce(IV) and U(VI) DFOB complexes as compared to the Ce(III) and U(IV) DFOB complexes. This is similar to the relationship between the Ce(IV)- and Ce(III)-pentacarbonate complexes that cause positive Ce anomalies in alkaline lakes. However, while formation of Ce(IV) carbonate complexes is confined to alkaline environments, Ce(IV) DFOB complexes may produce positive Ce anomalies even in mildly acidic and near-neutral natural waters. Siderophore-promoted dissolution processes also significantly enhance mobility of other 'immobile' HFSE

  7. Characterizing slab inputs in the earliest stages of subduction: Preliminary evidence from fluid-mobile element systematics for IODP Expedition 352 recovered volcanic samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanatan, Keir; Ryan, Jeffrey; Atlas, Zachary; Reagan, Mark

    2016-04-01

    IODP Expedition 352 recovered ~1.22 km of boninitic and basaltic volcanic rocks from four sites in the Izu-Bonin forearc to examine the volcanic phenomena associated with subduction initiation. While the recovered forearc basalts give little indication for the involvement of slab-derived volatiles, the extensive sequences of boninite series lavas recovered up-section show physical evidence for extensive fluid involvement (heavy vesicularity, explosive eruptive style), along with chemistries indicative of fluid-addition melting of depleted mantle sources. We are attempting to assay the makeup and likely slab provenance of these fluids via their fluid-mobile element (B, As, Cs, Sb, Pb, Li) systematics. Boron abundances measured thus far in fresh boninitic glasses recovered from Holes U1439C and U1442A range from 3-12 ppm, with B/Be and B/La ranging from 7.5-106 and 2-18.5, respectively. While the highest values are comparable to those observed in the most B-enriched Izu-bonin arc rocks, most of the data are at the low end of this range. Cs/Th and Pb/Ce ratios encompass the range of values encountered in IBM boninites in the literature, and are comparable to values for Izu arc lavas, while As/Sm ratios appear to be lower than in arc suites. Li concentrations are elevated relative to basaltic lavas, at 7-17 ppm, and Li/Yb ratios range from 8-22, a factor of four higher than the range encountered in volcanic arc suites. While fluid-mobile element systematics of Izu-Bonin volcanic arc lavas show evidence for inputs of two unique slab components with markedly different fluid-mobile element enrichments, the Izu-Bonin boninites can best be explained as simple mixtures of very depleted mantle and a single slab phase with high abundances of fluid-mobile species, along with elevated K, Ba, and other common subduction indicator species. Volcanic arc lavas globally show evidence for a fluid-mobile element enriched component that appears to be similar to serpentinite

  8. The D-galacturonic acid catabolic pathway in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lisha; Thiewes, Harry; van Kan, Jan A L

    2011-10-01

    D-galacturonic acid is the most abundant component of pectin, one of the major polysaccharide constituents of plant cell walls. Galacturonic acid potentially is an important carbon source for microorganisms living on (decaying) plant material. A catabolic pathway was proposed in filamentous fungi, comprising three enzymatic steps, involving D-galacturonate reductase, L-galactonate dehydratase, and 2-keto-3-deoxy-L-galactonate aldolase. We describe the functional, biochemical and genetic characterization of the entire D-galacturonate-specific catabolic pathway in the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. The B. cinerea genome contains two non-homologous galacturonate reductase genes (Bcgar1 and Bcgar2), a galactonate dehydratase gene (Bclgd1), and a 2-keto-3-deoxy-L-galactonate aldolase gene (Bclga1). Their expression levels were highly induced in cultures containing GalA, pectate, or pectin as the sole carbon source. The four proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and their enzymatic activity was characterized. Targeted gene replacement of all four genes in B. cinerea, either separately or in combinations, yielded mutants that were affected in growth on D-galacturonic acid, pectate, or pectin as the sole carbon source. In Aspergillus nidulans and A. niger, the first catabolic conversion only involves the Bcgar2 ortholog, while in Hypocrea jecorina, it only involves the Bcgar1 ortholog. In B. cinerea, however, BcGAR1 and BcGAR2 jointly contribute to the first step of the catabolic pathway, albeit to different extent. The virulence of all B. cinerea mutants in the D-galacturonic acid catabolic pathway on tomato leaves, apple fruit and bell peppers was unaltered. PMID:21683149

  9. Variable carbon catabolism among Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Ching Chai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi is strictly a human intracellular pathogen. It causes acute systemic (typhoid fever and chronic infections that result in long-term asymptomatic human carriage. S. Typhi displays diverse disease manifestations in human infection and exhibits high clonality. The principal factors underlying the unique lifestyle of S. Typhi in its human host during acute and chronic infections remain largely unknown and are therefore the main objective of this study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To obtain insight into the intracellular lifestyle of S. Typhi, a high-throughput phenotypic microarray was employed to characterise the catabolic capacity of 190 carbon sources in S. Typhi strains. The success of this study lies in the carefully selected library of S. Typhi strains, including strains from two geographically distinct areas of typhoid endemicity, an asymptomatic human carrier, clinical stools and blood samples and sewage-contaminated rivers. An extremely low carbon catabolic capacity (27% of 190 carbon substrates was observed among the strains. The carbon catabolic profiles appeared to suggest that S. Typhi strains survived well on carbon subtrates that are found abundantly in the human body but not in others. The strains could not utilise plant-associated carbon substrates. In addition, α-glycerolphosphate, glycerol, L-serine, pyruvate and lactate served as better carbon sources to monosaccharides in the S. Typhi strains tested. CONCLUSION: The carbon catabolic profiles suggest that S. Typhi could survive and persist well in the nutrient depleted metabolic niches in the human host but not in the environment outside of the host. These findings serve as caveats for future studies to understand how carbon catabolism relates to the pathogenesis and transmission of this pathogen.

  10. Roadside Accumulation of Pt, Pd, Rh and Other Trace Elements From Automobiles: Catalytic Converter Attrition and Platinum-Group Element Mobility in the Roadside Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, J. C.; Dahlheimer, S. R.; Neal, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Elemental abundances of Pt, Pd and Rh have been documented across the industrialized world in roadside environments due to attrition of automotive catalytic converters (Zereini and Alt, 2000, Anthropogenic PGE Emissions, Springer, 308pp; Ely et al., 2001, EnvSci&Tech, 35:3816-3822; Whiteley and Murray, 2003, SciTotEnv, in press). In our ongoing study, the highest reported roadside Pt abundance 1.8 ppm has been found immediately adjacent to the road at a field site in South Bend, IN, USA. Furthermore, initial studies show positive correlations of Pt, Pd and Rh with some trace elements (Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb), which has been confirmed by further analysis for these and other elements (Ce, Cr). It has been demonstrated that elements such as Ce are present in catalytic converters at concentrations of 100's ppm to 3-wt.%. These elements are also being attrited with Pt, Pd and Rh and aerially transported and deposited. Our field site was established next to US-933 adjacent to the Notre Dame campus. Areas were cleared of the top 2-4 cm of soil (removing surficial Pt, Pd and Rh) at 1, 5, 10 and 50 meters from the roadside. Within 3 months the 1-meter site contained 67% of the initial Rh and Pt concentrations and 100% of the initial Pd concentration. The sites at 5, 10 and 50 meters showed similar results, in some cases exceeding the initial concentrations. After 6 months the concentrations of Pt, Pd and Rh were all within error of the initial concentrations, indicating steady state abundances had probably been reached. Grass samples from each site showed that washed vs. unwashed samples were within error of each other, and there may be a slight enrichment (approx. 1 ppb) in the grasses of Pd and Pt, but this enrichment was independent of distance from the road. The steady-state situation suggests that the PGEs are being removed from the immediate roadside environment, which requires that the metals are being oxidized and/or complexed in such a way to facilitate transport. The

  11. CRISPR/cas loci of type II Propionibacterium acnes confer immunity against acquisition of mobile elements present in type I P. acnes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Brüggemann

    Full Text Available Propionibacterium acnes is a skin commensal that occasionally acts as an opportunistic pathogen. The population structure of this species shows three main lineages (I-III. While type I strains are mainly associated with sebaceous follicles of human skin and inflammatory acne, types II and III strains are more often associated with deep tissue infections. We investigated the occurrence and distribution of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR in P. acnes, assessed their immunological memory, and addressed the question if such a system could account for type-specific properties of the species. A collection of 108 clinical isolates covering all known phylotypes of P. acnes was screened for the existence of CRISPR/cas loci. We found that CRISPR loci are restricted to type II P. acnes strains. Sequence analyses of the CRISPR spacers revealed that the system confers immunity to P. acnes-specific phages and to two mobile genetic elements. These elements are found almost exclusively in type I P. acnes strains. Genome sequencing of a type I P. acnes isolate revealed that one element, 54 kb in size, encodes a putative secretion/tight adherence (TAD system. Thus, CRISPR/cas loci in P. acnes recorded the exposure of type II strains to mobile genetic elements of type I strains. The CRISPR/cas locus is deleted in type I strains, which conceivably accounts for their ability to horizontally acquire fitness or virulence traits and might indicate that type I strains constitute a younger subpopulation of P. acnes.

  12. What Elements of the 2013 American Nurses Association Safe Patient Handling and Mobility Standards are Reflected in State Legislation?

    OpenAIRE

    Powell-Cope, Gail; Rugs, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Many professional organizations have endorsed and provided guidance on the implementation of safe patient handling and mobility (SPHM) programs. In 2013, the American Nurses Association published the interprofessional standards of SPHM. Eleven states have passed laws to implement statewide SPHM programs. This article describes the evaluation of the quality of SPHM legislation against the ANA standards. Information gleaned from this analysis could be used to strengthen existing legislation, cr...

  13. Mobile genetic elements related to the diffusion of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases or carbapenemases from Enterobacteriaceae: findings from a multicenter study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, L; Miró, E; Juan, C; Gómez, L; Bou, G; González-López, J J; Martínez-Martínez, L; Aracil, B; Conejo, M C; Oliver, A; Navarro, F

    2015-09-01

    We examined the genetic context of 74 acquired ampC genes and 17 carbapenemase genes from 85 of 640 Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected in 2009. Using S1 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization, 37 of 74 bla AmpC genes were located on large plasmids of different sizes belonging to six incompatibility groups. We used sequencing and PCR mapping to investigate the regions flanking the acquired ampC genes. The bla CMY-2-like genes were associated with ISEcp1; the surrounding bla DHA genes were similar to Klebsiella pneumoniae plasmid pTN60013 associated with IS26 and the psp and sap operons; and the bla ACC-1 genes were associated with IS26 elements inserted into ISEcp1. All of the carbapenemase genes (bla VIM-1, bla IMP-22, and bla IMP-28) were located in class 1 integrons. Therefore, although plasmids are the main cause of the rapid dissemination of ampC genes among Enterobacteriaceae, we need to be aware that other mobile genetic elements, such as insertion sequences, transposons, or integrons, can be involved in the mobilization of these genes of chromosomal origin. Additionally, three new integrons (In846 to In848) are described in this study. PMID:26077249

  14. Distribution and mobility of heavy elements in floodplain agricultural soils along the Ibar River (Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo). Chemometric investigation of pollutant sources and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barać, Nemanja; Škrivanj, Sandra; Bukumirić, Zoran; Živojinović, Dragana; Manojlović, Dragan; Barać, Milan; Petrović, Rada; Ćorac, Aleksandar

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the influence of a high-magnitude flood event on heavy elements (HEs) pollution and mobility in the agricultural soils along Ibar River in Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo. The study area was one of the most important Pb/Zn industrial regions in Europe. Soil samples (n = 50) collected before and after the floods in May 2014 were subjected to the sequential extraction procedure proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). The results indicated that the floods significantly increased not only the pseudo total concentrations of HEs in the soil but also their mobile and potentially bioavailable amounts. Moreover, higher concentrations (both pseudo total and potentially bioavailable) were found in the agricultural soils closer to the industrial hotspots. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis successfully grouped the analyzed elements according to their anthropogenic or natural origin. The floods significantly increased the potential ecological risk of HEs associated with Pb/Zn industrial activities in the study area. The potential ecological risk of Cd after the floods was highest and should be of special concern. PMID:26822217

  15. Final report - Reduction of mercury in saturated subsurface sediments and its potential to mobilize mercury in its elemental form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakray, Tamar [Rutgers University

    2013-06-13

    The goal of our project was to investigate Hg(II) reduction in the deep subsurface. We focused on microbial and abiotic pathways of reduction and explored how it affected the toxicity and mobility of Hg in this unique environment. The project’s tasks included: 1. Examining the role of mer activities in the reduction of Hg(II) in denitrifying enrichment cultures; 2. Investigating the biotic/abiotic reduction of Hg(II) under iron reducing conditions; 3. Examining Hg(II) redox transformations under anaerobic conditions in subsurface sediments from DOE sites.

  16. Catabolism of 3-Nitrophenol by Ralstonia eutropha JMP 134

    OpenAIRE

    Schenzle, A.; Lenke, H; Fischer, P.; Williams, P A; Knackmuss, H.

    1997-01-01

    Ralstonia eutropha JMP 134 utilizes 3-nitrophenol as the sole source of nitrogen, carbon, and energy. The entire catabolic pathway of 3-nitrophenol is chromosomally encoded. An initial NADPH-dependent reduction of 3-nitrophenol was found in cell extracts of strain JMP 134. By use of a partially purified 3-nitrophenol nitroreductase from 3-nitrophenol-grown cells, 3-hydroxylaminophenol was identified as the initial reduction product. Resting cells of R. eutropha JMP 134 metabolized 3-nitrophen...

  17. A new mechanism for the aerobic catabolism of dimethyl sulfide.

    OpenAIRE

    Visscher, P T; Taylor, B F

    1993-01-01

    Aerobic degradation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), previously described for thiobacilli and hyphomicrobia, involves catabolism to sulfide via methanethiol (CH3SH). Methyl groups are sequentially eliminated as HCHO by incorporation of O2 catalyzed by DMS monooxygenase and methanethiol oxidase. H2O2 formed during CH3SH oxidation is destroyed by catalase. We recently isolated Thiobacillus strain ASN-1, which grows either aerobically or anaerobically with denitrification on DMS. Comparative experimen...

  18. Increase in sphingolipid catabolic enzyme activity during aging

    OpenAIRE

    Sacket, Santosh J; Chung, Hae-young; Okajima, Fumikazu; Im, Dong-Soon

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To understand the contribution of sphingolipid metabolism and its metabolites to development and aging. Methods: A systemic analysis on the changes in activity of sphingolipid metabolic enzymes in kidney, liver and brain tissues during development and aging was conducted. The study was conducted using tissues from 1-day-old to 720-day-old rats. Results: Catabolic enzyme activities as well as the level of sphingomyelinase (SMase) and ceramidase (CDase) were higher than that of anabolic en...

  19. Identification of genes required for Pseudomonas aeruginosa carnitine catabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Wargo, Matthew J.; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Carnitine is a quaternary amine compound prevalent in animal tissues, and a potential carbon, nitrogen and energy source for pathogens during infection. Characterization of activities in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell lysates has previously shown that carnitine is converted to 3-dehydrocarnitine (3-dhc) which is in turn metabolized to glycine betaine (GB), an intermediate metabolite in the catabolism of carnitine to glycine. However, the identities of the enzymes required for carnitine catabolis...

  20. Mediated Electrochemical Measurements of Intracellular Catabolic Activities of Yeast Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Sheng ZHAO; Zhen Yu YANG; Yao LU; Zheng Yu YANG

    2005-01-01

    Coupling with the dual mediator system menadione/ferricyanide, microelectrode voltammetric measurements were undertaken to detect the ferrocyanide accumulations arising from the mediated reduction of ferricyanide by yeast cells. The results indicate that the dual mediator system menadione/ferricyanide could be used as a probe to detect cellular catabolic activities in yeast cells and the electrochemical response has a positive relationship with the specific growth rate of yeast cells.

  1. Effects of biochar and greenwaste compost amendments on mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of inorganic and organic contaminants in a multi-element polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applying amendments to multi-element contaminated soils can have contradictory effects on the mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of specific elements, depending on the amendment. Trace elements and PAHs were monitored in a contaminated soil amended with biochar and greenwaste compost over 60 days field exposure, after which phytotoxicity was assessed by a simple bio-indicator test. Copper and As concentrations in soil pore water increased more than 30 fold after adding both amendments, associated with significant increases in dissolved organic carbon and pH, whereas Zn and Cd significantly decreased. Biochar was most effective, resulting in a 10 fold decrease of Cd in pore water and a resultant reduction in phytotoxicity. Concentrations of PAHs were also reduced by biochar, with greater than 50% decreases of the heavier, more toxicologically relevant PAHs. The results highlight the potential of biochar for contaminated land remediation. - Biochar was more effective than greenwaste compost at reducing bioavailable fractions of phytotoxic Cd and Zn as well as the heavier, more toxicologically relevant PAHs.

  2. Geochemical element mobility during the history of a Paleo-proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the mechanisms of migration and deposition of ore elements, it is essential to determine the timing, source, and destination of the geochemical element mass transfers and/or transportation on a scale encompassing the great sedimentary basins. The purpose of this study is to trace and to date the element migrations that occurred during the history of a Paleo-proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin, which hosts the world's largest and richest uranium deposits. As this geological environment was proved to be efficient to preserve high grade ore deposits for over more than one billion years, it provides an opportunity to study some natural analogues of deep geological nuclear waste storage. Five research topics were studied: 3D modelling of the distribution of normative minerals and trace elements on a basin-wide scale; U-Pb and Rb-Sr systematics; average chemical age estimation; thermodynamic modelling of the major mineralogical assemblages; U-Pb geochronology of uranium oxides. Some elements have remained immobile (Zr) since their initial sedimentary deposition, or were transferred from one phase to another (Al, Th). Other elements have been transported during fluid flow events that occurred: (1) on a basin wide scale during diagenesis (REE, Y, Sr, Fe), (2) at the unconformity and in the vicinity of the fault zones that represent preferential fluid flow pathways between the basement and the sandstone cover (U, Ni, As, B, Mg, K, Fe, Sr, REE), (3) during the late fault reactivation events associated with the basin uplift (U, Pb, Ni, S, Sr, REE). The successive tectonic events related to the geodynamical context that lead to the formation of these high-grade U concentrations (1460 Ma, 1335 Ma and 1275 Ma in the McArthur River deposit), did not however systematically occur in the whole basin (1275 Ma only at Shea Creek). The exceptionally high grade and tonnages of some deposits seem to be related to a larger number of U

  3. Mobility of major-, minor- and trace elements in solutions of a planosolic soil: Distribution and controlling factors

    OpenAIRE

    Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Gassama, Nathalie; Grimaud, D.

    2009-01-01

    International audience Subsurface waters circulating in an unpolluted soil of a planosolic horizon (Massif Central, France) were studied in order to determine their physico-chemical characteristics. Three water sampling sites were chosen along a toposequence. For each site, two piezometers were placed above and in the gravelly and concretion-rich horizon (Fe- and Mn- oxyhydroxides). Concentrations of major-, minor- (cations, anions, Fe, Mn, P and Si) and trace elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr,...

  4. Preliminary results of trace elements mobility in soils and plants from the active hydrothermal area of Nisyros island (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; Calabrese, Sergio; Milazzo, Silvia; Brusca, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Walter; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Tassi, Franco; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements, i.e. chemical constituents of rocks with concentration Cistus Creticus and Salvifolius and Erica Arborea and Manipuliflora) were collected in the caldera area, with the aim to investigate the distribution of concentrations of trace elements related to the contribution of deep originated fluids. Moreover, one sample of plant and soil was collected outside the caldera as local background, for comparison. All the soil samples were powdered avoiding metal contamination and they were extracted twice, using HNO3 + HCl for one extraction (closed microwave digestion) and ultrapure de- ionized water for the other one (leaching extraction). The leaves of plants were gently isolated, dried and powdered for acid microwave extraction (HNO3 + H2O2). All the solutions were analysed for major and trace elements contents by using ionic chromatography (IC) and inductively plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES). The preliminary results showed high enrichment of many trace elements both in plant and soils respect to the local background, in particular for Tl, Rb, Zn, Mn, As, Pb, Se, Bi, Al. The highest concentrations were found both in soils and plants close to the most active fumarolic areas of Stefanos, Kaminakia and Polyvotes and also close to the Geothermal Drill (exploration well). Moreover, both soils and plants showed a good correlation between Cu-Zn, Cu-Pb, Bi-Pb, Ba-Sr, Bi-Tl, Ti-Al, Ni-Al, Tl-As, Te-Tl, Te-Se as well as REE's. From the comparison between Cistus sp. and Erica sp. we found a significant enrichment in the former respect to the latter, making Cistus sp. the most suitable plant for biomonitoring studies at Nisyros.

  5. Mobilization of Toxic Elements from an Abandoned Manganese Mine in the Arid Metropolitan Las Vegas (NV, USA) Area

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Hye Park1,2,3#, Sang Bae Lee1,#, Kyung-Hoon Lee2,3,* & Jee-Yin Ahn1,3,*; Vernon Hodge; Shawn Gerstenberger; Krystyna Stave

    2014-01-01

    Active and abandoned mines may present health risks, especially to children, from environmental exposure to airborne chemical elements, such as Pb, As, and Mn. X-ray fluorescence analysis of tailings at the Three Kids Mine show they contain high levels of: Pb (15,300 mg/kg), As (3690 mg/kg), and Mn (153,000 mg/kg). Soil was sampled along eight transects, radiating from the dried tailings ponds. Concentrations of Mn and Pb to the NE are at background concentrations at 4.8 km, and, As and Sr a...

  6. Transcription and translation products of the cytolysin gene psm-mec on the mobile genetic element SCCmec regulate Staphylococcus aureus virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikara Kaito

    Full Text Available The F region downstream of the mecI gene in the SCCmec element in hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA contains two bidirectionally overlapping open reading frames (ORFs, the fudoh ORF and the psm-mec ORF. The psm-mec ORF encodes a cytolysin, phenol-soluble modulin (PSM-mec. Transformation of the F region into the Newman strain, which is a methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA strain, or into the MW2 (USA400 and FRP3757 (USA300 strains, which are community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA strains that lack the F region, attenuated their virulence in a mouse systemic infection model. Introducing the F region to these strains suppressed colony-spreading activity and PSMα production, and promoted biofilm formation. By producing mutations into the psm-mec ORF, we revealed that (i both the transcription and translation products of the psm-mec ORF suppressed colony-spreading activity and promoted biofilm formation; and (ii the transcription product of the psm-mec ORF, but not its translation product, decreased PSMα production. These findings suggest that both the psm-mec transcript, acting as a regulatory RNA, and the PSM-mec protein encoded by the gene on the mobile genetic element SCCmec regulate the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

  7. Mobility of rare earth elements in hydrothermally altered meta-turbites associated with mesothermal gold mineralisation in central Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare earth elements (REE) and high-field-strength elements (HFSE) are useful in understanding the process that lead to the genesis of a given ore deposit, as they can provide constraints on the nature, source and composition of ore-forming hydrothermal fluids, when used in conjunction with pertrographical information, fluid inclusion data, and isotopic signatures. Alteration traverses across and away from auriferous structures in six deposits (Ballarat West, Ballarat East, Fiddlers Reef, Fosterville, Maldon, Tarnagulla) sampled during previous studies provided an ideal opportunity to investigate possible systematic variations in REE distributions in hydrothermally altered meta-sedimentary rocks. Most noticeably, systematic trends (i.e., from most altered to least altered samples) cannot be identified in any of the traverses. Aside from some variations in the total REE content, all samples display chondrite-normalised REE signatures very similar to Post-Archaean Average Shale (PAAS) with general REE enrichment relative to chondrite values, and particular enrichment in light REE (LREE). (La/Yb)n ranges from 7.1 1 to 1 1.93, they are moderately depleted in Eu (Eu/Eu* 0.48-0.69) and have relatively flat heavy REE (HREE) patterns with (Tb/Yb)n approximating 1.1. These REE signatures, which suggest that REE and HFSE remained practically immobile throughout hydrothermal alteration, rule out high-temperature, strongly reducing or strongly acidic fluid compositions and further support the argument that REE remain relatively immobile during sericitisation and carbonatisation of siliclastic sediments, notwithstanding relatively high fluid-rock ratios

  8. Mobilization of Toxic Elements from an Abandoned Manganese Mine in the Arid Metropolitan Las Vegas (NV, USA Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Park

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Active and abandoned mines may present health risks, especially to children, from environmental exposure to airborne chemical elements, such as Pb, As, and Mn. X-ray fluorescence analysis of tailings at the Three Kids Mine show they contain high levels of: Pb (15,300 mg/kg, As (3690 mg/kg, and Mn (153,000 mg/kg. Soil was sampled along eight transects, radiating from the dried tailings ponds. Concentrations of Mn and Pb to the NE are at background concentrations at 4.8 km, and, As and Sr at 3.2 km from the mine. Going SW to the City of Henderson, all elements are at background at 1.6 cm, with the closest houses at 1.8 km. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Regional Screening Levels (RSLs are exceeded for Pb, As and Mn at 0.8 km on all transects except one. The RSLs are exceeded for Pb, As and Mn on the NE transects at 1.6 km. Future home sites are on a NE transect between 0.4 km and 2.3 km downwind from the tailings ponds, in an area highly impacted by tailings which exceed the USEPA RSLs. This research demonstrates that there has been the farthest transport of tailings offsite by the prevailing winds to the NE; the closest currently-built homes have not received measurable tailings dust because they are upwind; and that precautions must be taken during the proposed remediation of the mine to restrict dust-transport of Pb, As, and Mn to avoid human exposure and ecological damage.

  9. Toxic element mobility assessment and modeling for regional geo-scientific survey to support Risk Assessment in a European Union context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdaal, Ahmed; Jordan, Gyozo; Bartha, Andras; Fugedi, Ubul

    2013-04-01

    The Mine Waste Directive 2006/21/EC requires the risk-based inventory of all mine waste sites in Europe. The geochemical documentation concerning inert classification and ranking of the mine wastes requires detailed field study and laboratory testing and analyses of waste material to assess the Acid Mine Drainage potential and toxic element mobility. The procedure applied in this study used a multi-level decision support scheme including: 1) expert judgment, 2) data review, 3) representative field sampling and laboratory analysis of formations listed in the Inert Mining Waste List, and 4) requesting available laboratory analysis data from selected operating mines. Based on expert judgment, the listed formations were classified into three categories. A: inert B: probably inert, but has to be checked, C: probably not inert, has to be examined. This paper discusses the heavy metal contamination risk assessment (RA) in leached quarry-mine waste sites in Hungary. In total 34 mine waste sites (including tailing lagoons and heaps of both abandoned mines and active quarries) have been selected for scientific testing using the EU Pre-selection Protocol. Over 93 field samples have been collected from the mine sites including Ore (Andesite and Ryolite), Coal (Lignite, black and brown coals), Peat, Alginite, Bauxite, Clay and Limestone. Laboratory analyses of the total toxic element content (aqua regia extraction), the mobile toxic element content (deionized water leaching) and the analysis of different forms of sulfur (sulfuric acid potential) ) on the base of Hungarian GKM Decree No. 14/2008. (IV. 3) concerning mining waste management. A detailed geochemical study together with spatial analysis and GIS has been performed to derive a geochemically sound contamination RA of the mine waste sites. Key parameters such as heavy metal and sulphur content, in addition to the distance to the nearest surface and ground water bodies, or to sensitive receptors such as settlements and

  10. Eukaryotic gene invasion by a bacterial mobile insertion sequence element IS2 during cloning into a plasmid vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senejani, Alireza G; Sweasy, Joann B

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) are commonly used as hosts for DNA cloning and sequencing. Upon transformation of E. coli with recombined vector carrying a gene of interest, the bacteria multiply the gene of interest while maintaining the integrity of its content. During the subcloning of a mouse genomic fragment into a plasmid vector, we noticed that the size of the insert increased significantly upon replication in E. coli. The sequence of the insert was determined and found to contain a novel DNA sequence within the mouse genomic insert. A BLAST search of GenBank revealed the novel sequence to be that of the Insertion Sequence 2 (IS2) element from E. coli that was likely inserted during replication in that organism. Importantly, a detailed search of GenBank shows that the IS2 is present within many eukaryotic nucleotide sequences, and in many cases, has been annotated as being part of the protein. The results of this study suggest that one must perform additional careful analysis of the sequence results using BLAST comparisons, and further verification of gene annotation before submission into the GenBank. PMID:20678256

  11. Eukaryotic gene invasion by a bacterial mobile insertion sequence element IS2 during cloning into a plasmid vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senejani Alireza G

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Escherichia coli (E. coli are commonly used as hosts for DNA cloning and sequencing. Upon transformation of E. coli with recombined vector carrying a gene of interest, the bacteria multiply the gene of interest while maintaining the integrity of its content. During the subcloning of a mouse genomic fragment into a plasmid vector, we noticed that the size of the insert increased significantly upon replication in E. coli. The sequence of the insert was determined and found to contain a novel DNA sequence within the mouse genomic insert. A BLAST search of GenBank revealed the novel sequence to be that of the Insertion Sequence 2 (IS2 element from E. coli that was likely inserted during replication in that organism. Importantly, a detailed search of GenBank shows that the IS2 is present within many eukaryotic nucleotide sequences, and in many cases, has been annotated as being part of the protein. The results of this study suggest that one must perform additional careful analysis of the sequence results using BLAST comparisons, and further verification of gene annotation before submission into the GenBank.

  12. Directed evolution of a second xylitol catabolic pathway in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Doten, R C; Mortlock, R P

    1984-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae PRL-R3 has inducible catabolic pathways for the degradation of ribitol and D-arabitol but cannot utilize xylitol as a growth substrate. A mutation in the rbtB regulatory gene of the ribitol operon permits the constitutive synthesis of the ribitol catabolic enzymes and allows growth on xylitol. The evolved xylitol catabolic pathway consists of an induced D-arabitol permease system that also transports xylitol, a constitutively synthesized ribitol dehydrogenase that oxidiz...

  13. Effects of wood bark and fertilizer amendment on trace element mobility in mine soils, Broken Hill, Australia: implications for mined land reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munksgaard, N C; Lottermoser, B G

    2010-01-01

    Soil amendments can immobilize metals in soils, reducing the risks of metal exposure and associated impacts to flora, fauna and human health. In this study, soil amendments were compared, based on "closed system" water extracts, for reducing metal mobility in metal-contaminated soil from the Broken Hill mining center, Australia. Phosphatefertilizer (bovine bone meal, superphosphate, triple superphosphate, potassium orthophosphate) and pine bark (Pinus radiata) were applied to two soils (BH1, BH2) contaminated with mining waste. Both soils had near neutral to alkaline pH values, were sulfide- or sulfate-rich, and contained metal and metalloid at concentrations that pose high environmental risks (e.g., Pb = 1.25 wt% and 0.55 wt%, Zn = 0.71 wt% and 0.47 wt% for BH1 and BH2, respectively). The addition of fertilizers and/or pine bark to both soil types increased water extractable metals and metalloids concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sb, Zn) compared with nonamended soils. One or more of the elements As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn increased significantly in extracts of a range of different soil+pine bark and soil+fertilizer+piner+pine bark tests in response to increased pine bark doses. By contrast, Fe and Sb concentrations in extracts did not change significantly with pine bark addition. Solution pH was decreased by phosphate fertilizers (except for bovine bone meal) and pine bark, and pine bark enhanced dissolved organic carbon. At least in the short-term, the application of phosphate fertilizers and pine bark proved to be an ineffective method for controlling metal and metalloid mobility in soils that contain admixtures of polymetallic, polymineralic mine wastes. PMID:21284303

  14. Phosphonate biosynthesis and catabolism: a treasure trove of unusual enzymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Spencer C; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2013-08-01

    Natural product biosynthesis has proven a fertile ground for the discovery of novel chemistry. Herein we review the progress made in elucidating the biosynthetic pathways of phosphonate and phosphinate natural products such as the antibacterial compounds dehydrophos and fosfomycin, the herbicidal phosphinothricin-containing peptides, and the antimalarial compound FR-900098. In each case, investigation of the pathway has yielded unusual, and often unprecedented, biochemistry. Likewise, recent investigations have uncovered novel ways to cleave the CP bond to yield phosphate under phosphorus starvation conditions. These include the discovery of novel oxidative cleavage of the CP bond catalyzed by PhnY and PhnZ as well as phosphonohydrolases that liberate phosphate from phosphonoacetate. Perhaps the crown jewel of phosphonate catabolism has been the recent resolution of the longstanding problem of the C-P lyase responsible for reductively cleaving the CP bond of a number of different phosphonates to release phosphate. Taken together, the strides made on both metabolic and catabolic fronts illustrate an array of fascinating biochemistry. PMID:23870698

  15. Lysosomes from rabbit type II cells catabolize surfactant lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, E D; Ikegami, M; Pinkerton, K E; Peake, J L; Jobe, A H

    2000-01-01

    The role of a lysosome fraction from rabbit type II cells in surfactant dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) catabolism was investigated in vivo using radiolabeled DPPC and dihexadecylphosphatidylcholine (1, 2-dihexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; DEPC), a phospholipase A(1)- and A(2)-resistant analog of DPPC. Freshly isolated type II cells were gently disrupted by shearing, and lysosomes were isolated with Percoll density gradients (density range 1.0591-1.1457 g/ml). The lysosome fractions were relatively free of contaminating organelles as determined by electron microscopy and organelle marker enzymes. After intratracheal injection of rabbits with [(3)H]DPPC and [(14)C]DEPC associated with a trace amount of natural rabbit surfactant, the degradation-resistant DEPC accumulated 16-fold compared with DPPC in lysosome fractions at 15 h. Lysosomes can be isolated from freshly isolated type II cells, and lysosomes from type II cells are the primary catabolic organelle for alveolar surfactant DPPC following reuptake by type II cells in vivo. PMID:10645892

  16. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    people are ‘staging themselves’ (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between ‘being staged’ (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the ‘mobile staging’ of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging mobilities is about the fact that mobility is...

  17. Functional genomics by NMR spectroscopy. Phenylacetate catabolism in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Wael; El-Said Mohamed, Magdy; Wanner, Barry L; Datsenko, Kirill A; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Rohdich, Felix; Bacher, Adelbert; Fuchs, Georg

    2003-07-01

    Aerobic metabolism of phenylalanine in most bacteria proceeds via oxidation to phenylacetate. Surprisingly, the further metabolism of phenylacetate has not been elucidated, even in well studied bacteria such as Escherichia coli. The only committed step is the conversion of phenylacetate into phenylacetyl-CoA. The paa operon of E. coli encodes 14 polypeptides involved in the catabolism of phenylacetate. We have found that E. coli K12 mutants with a deletion of the paaF, paaG, paaH, paaJ or paaZ gene are unable to grow with phenylacetate as carbon source. Incubation of a paaG mutant with [U-13C8]phenylacetate yielded ring-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydrophenylacetyl lactone as shown by NMR spectroscopy. Incubation of the paaF and paaH mutants with phenylacetate yielded delta3-dehydroadipate and 3-hydroxyadipate, respectively. The origin of the carbon atoms of these C6 compounds from the aromatic ring was shown using [ring-13C6]phenylacetate. The paaG and paaZ mutants also converted phenylacetate into ortho-hydroxyphenylacetate, which was previously identified as a dead end product of phenylacetate catabolism. These data, in conjunction with protein sequence data, suggest a novel catabolic pathway via CoA thioesters. According to this, phenylacetyl-CoA is attacked by a ring-oxygenase/reductase (PaaABCDE proteins), generating a hydroxylated and reduced derivative of phenylacetyl-CoA, which is not re-oxidized to a dihydroxylated aromatic intermediate, as in other known aromatic pathways. Rather, it is proposed that this nonaromatic intermediate CoA ester is further metabolized in a complex reaction sequence comprising enoyl-CoA isomerization/hydration, nonoxygenolytic ring opening, and dehydrogenation catalyzed by the PaaG and PaaZ proteins. The subsequent beta-oxidation-type degradation of the resulting CoA dicarboxylate via beta-ketoadipyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA appears to be catalyzed by the PaaJ, PaaF and PaaH proteins. PMID:12846838

  18. Identification of a modular pathogenicity island that is widespread among urease-producing uropathogens and shares features with a diverse group of mobile elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Erika L; Mody, Lona; Mobley, Harry L T

    2009-11-01

    Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) are a specific group of genomic islands that contribute to genomic variability and virulence of bacterial pathogens. Using a strain-specific comparative genomic hybridization array, we report the identification of a 94-kb PAI, designated ICEPm1, that is common to Proteus mirabilis, Providencia stuartii, and Morganella morganii. These organisms are highly prevalent etiologic agents of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (caUTI), the most common hospital acquired infection. ICEPm1 carries virulence factors that are important for colonization of the urinary tract, including a known toxin (Proteus toxic agglutinin) and the high pathogenicity island of Yersinia spp. In addition, this PAI shares homology and gene organization similar to the PAIs of other bacterial pathogens, several of which have been classified as mobile integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs). Isolates from this study were cultured from patients with caUTI and show identical sequence similarity at three loci within ICEPm1, suggesting its transfer between bacterial genera. Screening for the presence of ICEPm1 among P. mirabilis colonizing isolates showed that ICEPm1 is more prevalent in urine isolates compared to P. mirabilis strains isolated from other body sites (P<0.0001), further suggesting that it contributes to niche specificity and is positively selected for in the urinary tract. PMID:19687197

  19. Intrinsic and induced isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catabolic activity with respect to the systemic herbicide isoproturon was determined in soil samples by 14C-radiorespirometry. The first experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples that represented three dissimilar soil series under arable cultivation. Results showed average extents of isoproturon mineralisation (after 240 h assay time) in the three soil series to be low. A second experiment assessed the impact of addition of isoproturon (0.05 μg kg-1) into these soils on the levels of catabolic activity following 28 days of incubation. Increased catabolic activity was observed in all three soils. A third experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples representing a single soil series managed under either conventional agricultural practice (including the use of isoproturon) or organic farming practice (with no use of isoproturon). Results showed higher (and more consistent) levels of isoproturon mineralisation in the soil samples collected from conventional land use. The final experiment assessed the impact of isoproturon addition on the levels of inducible catabolic activity in these soils. The results showed no significant difference in the case of the conventional farm soil samples while the induction of catabolic activity in the organic farm soil samples was significant. - Dissimilar levels of isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use influence inferred risk

  20. Catabolic effects of muramyl dipeptide on rabbit chondrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramyl dipeptide, an essential structure for the diverse biologic activities of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan, inhibited the synthesis of glycosaminoglycan/proteoglycan in cultured rabbit costal chondrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Muramyl dipeptide, as well as lipopolysaccharide and interleukin-1 alpha, also enhanced the release of 35S-sulfate-prelabeled glycosaminoglycan/proteoglycan from the cell layer, which seems to reflect, at least partially, the increasing degradation of glycosaminoglycan/proteoglycan. Five synthetic analogs of muramyl dipeptide known to be adjuvant active or adjuvant inactive were tested for their potential to inhibit synthesis of glycosaminoglycan/proteoglycan and to enhance the release of glycosaminoglycan/proteoglycan in chondrocytes. The structural dependence of these synthetic analogs on chondrocytes was found to parallel that of immunoadjuvant activity. These results suggest that muramyl dipeptide is a potent mediator of catabolism in chondrocytes

  1. Catabolism and safety of supplemental L-arginine in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenlong; Hou, Yongqing; Hu, Shengdi; Bazer, Fuller W; Meininger, Cynthia J; McNeal, Catherine J; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-07-01

    L-arginine (Arg) is utilized via multiple pathways to synthesize protein and low-molecular-weight bioactive substances (e.g., nitric oxide, creatine, and polyamines) with enormous physiological importance. Furthermore, Arg regulates cell signaling pathways and gene expression to improve cardiovascular function, augment insulin sensitivity, enhance lean tissue mass, and reduce obesity in humans. Despite its versatile roles, the use of Arg as a dietary supplement is limited due to the lack of data to address concerns over its safety in humans. Data from animal studies are reviewed to assess arginine catabolism and the safety of long-term Arg supplementation. The arginase pathway was responsible for catabolism of 76-85 and 81-96 % Arg in extraintestinal tissues of pigs and rats, respectively. Dietary supplementation with Arg-HCl or the Arg base [315- and 630-mg Arg/(kg BW d) for 91 d] had no adverse effects on male or female pigs. Similarly, no safety issues were observed for male or female rats receiving supplementation with 1.8- and 3.6-g Arg/(kg BW d) for at least 91 d. Intravenous administration of Arg-HCl to gestating sheep at 81 and 180 mg Arg/(kg BW d) is safe for at least 82 and 40 d, respectively. Animals fed conventional diets can well tolerate large amounts of supplemental Arg [up to 630-mg Arg/(kg BW d) in pigs or 3.6-g Arg/(kg BW d) in rats] for 91 d, which are equivalent to 573-mg Arg/(kg BW d) for humans. Collectively, these results can help guide studies to determine the safety of long-term oral administration of Arg in humans. PMID:27156062

  2. Changes in DNA methylation and transgenerational mobilization of a transposable element (mPing by the Topoisomerase II inhibitor, Etoposide, in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xuejiao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Etoposide (epipodophyllotoxin is a chemical commonly used as an anti-cancer drug which inhibits DNA synthesis by blocking topoisomerase II activity. Previous studies in animal cells have demonstrated that etoposide constitutes a genotoxic stress which may induce genomic instability including mobilization of normally quiescent transposable elements (TEs. However, it remained unknown whether similar genetically mutagenic effects could be imposed by etoposide in plant cells. Also, no information is available with regard to whether the drug may cause a perturbation of epigenetic stability in any organism. Results To investigate whether etoposide could generate genetic and/or epigenetic instability in plant cells, we applied etoposide to germinating seeds of six cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L. genotypes including both subspecies, japonica and indica. Based on the methylation-sensitive gel-blotting results, epigenetic changes in DNA methylation of three TEs (Tos17, Osr23 and Osr36 and two protein-encoding genes (Homeobox and CDPK-related genes were detected in the etoposide-treated plants (S0 generation in four of the six studied japonica cultivars, Nipponbare, RZ1, RZ2, and RZ35, but not in the rest japonica cultivar (Matsumae and the indica cultivar (93-11. DNA methylation changes in the etoposide-treated S0 rice plants were validated by bisulfite sequencing at both of two analyzed loci (Tos17 and Osr36. Transpositional activity was tested for eight TEs endogenous to the rice genome in both the S0 plants and their selfed progenies (S1 and S2 of one of the cultivars, RZ1, which manifested heritable phenotypic variations. Results indicated that no transposition occurred in the etoposide-treated S0 plants for any of the TEs. Nonetheless, a MITE transposon, mPing, showed rampant mobilization in the S1 and S2 progenies descended from the drug-treated S0 plants. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that etoposide imposes a similar

  3. Characterization and evolution of dissolved organic matter in acidic forest soil and its impact on the mobility of major and trace elements (case of the Strengbach watershed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Sophie; Stille, Peter; Pierret, Marie-Claire; Weber, Tiphaine; Chabaux, François

    2014-04-01

    aspects of the behavior of trace elements in soil solutions and in the soil profile but, also the competition between trace elements in complexation with DOC. The results of this study are important for the understanding of the mobility and the migration of pollutants (as heavy metals or radionuclides) as well as nutrients in natural ecosystems. WE PrN/YbN is constant between 3 and 16 cm depth whereas SS PrN/YbN slightly decreases from 0.80 at 5 cm depth to 0.74 at 10 cm depth. This results from Pr (LREE) enrichment in the soil solution of the upper soil compartment caused by vegetation controlled LREE recycling and/or atmospheric depositions (see above). WE PrN/YbN and SS PrN/YbN show similar depth dependent distributions including the enrichment at 30 cm depth. It results from Yb depletion at this depth and enrichment in the deeper soil compartment compared to Pr. Similar to Marsac et al. (2012, 2013) one might suggest that there is competition between Fe3+, Al3+ and REE for the binding with DOC. They have a high affinity with the same organic functional groups which is confirmed by the classification scheme (Fig. 8). The studies of Marsac et al. suggest that at acidic pH and low metal/DOC ratios, Fe3+and Al3+ compete more with HREE than LREE; moreover, at high metal/DOC ratios and acidic pH, Al3+ competes with LREE. The Fig. 13 showing the variations of WECEN for Al and Fe in function of WECEN LREE and HREE confirms Marsac et al.’s observations. The slope of the extrapolation line resulting from WECEN Al and HREE values remains rather unchanged for the OM depleted and enriched soil compartments; thus, the change in the metal/DOC ratio in the soil does not change the extraction behavior of Al and HREE. However, the WECEN Fe strongly increase compared to the corresponding HREE values in the OM enriched compartment pointing to the competition between Fe and HREE. Alternatively, one observes that the WECEN Fe and LREE values in the OM enriched compartment plot on the

  4. Mobile Cranes Models Review

    OpenAIRE

    Škaloud, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with mobile cranes with a lifting capacity of 50 tonnes. The introduction describes the basic concepts related to these machines. Followed by a general cranes overview. This thesis focuses on a brief description of wheeled and tracked mobile cranes. It describes the undercarriage of the wheeled cranes and undercarriage of the tracked crane and crawler crane with it’s basic elements. After that is described the structure of the upper rotating wheel and track mobile truck crane...

  5. Inactivity amplifies the catabolic response of skeletal muscle to cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Stuart, C. A.; Sheffield-Moore, M.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1999-01-01

    Severe injury or trauma is accompanied by both hypercortisolemia and prolonged inactivity or bed rest (BR). Trauma and BR alone each result in a loss of muscle nitrogen, albeit through different metabolic alterations. Although BR alone can result in a 2-3% loss of lean body mass, the effects of severe trauma can be 2- to 3-fold greater. We investigated the combined effects of hypercortisolemia and prolonged inactivity on muscle protein metabolism in healthy volunteers. Six males were studied before and after 14 days of strict BR using a model based on arteriovenous sampling and muscle biopsy. Fractional synthesis and breakdown rates of skeletal muscle protein were also directly calculated. Each assessment of protein metabolism was conducted during a 12-h infusion of hydrocortisone sodium succinate (120 microg/kg x h), resulting in blood cortisol concentrations that mimic severe injury (approximately 31 microg/dL). After 14 days of strict BR, hypercortisolemia increased phenylalanine efflux from muscle by 3-fold (P muscle protein breakdown (P muscle protein synthesis. Muscle efflux of glutamine and alanine increased significantly after bed rest due to a significant increase in de novo synthesis (P skeletal muscle to the catabolic effects of hypercortisolemia. Furthermore, these effects on healthy volunteers are analogous to those seen after severe injury.

  6. Tryptophan and tyrosine catabolic pattern in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar A

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Catabolism of tryptophan and tyrosine in relation to the isoprenoid pathway was studied in neurological and psychiatric disorders. The concentration of trytophan, quinolinic acid, kynurenic acid, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid was found to be higher in the plasma of patients with all these disorders; while that of tyrosine, dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine was lower. There was increase in free fatty acids and decrease in albumin (factors modulating tryptophan transport in the plasma of these patients. Concentration of digoxin, a modulator of amino acid transport, and the activity of HMG CoA reductase, which synthesizes digoxin, were higher in these patients; while RBC membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity showed a decrease. Concentration of plasma ubiquinone (part of which is synthesised from tyrosine and magnesium was also lower in these patients. No morphine could be detected in the plasma of these patients except in MS. On the other hand, strychnine and nicotine were detectable. These results indicate hypercatabolism of tryptophan and hypocatabolism of tyrosine in these disorders, which could be a consequence of the modulating effect of hypothalamic digoxin on amino acid transport.

  7. A product of heme catabolism modulates bacterial function and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Nobles

    Full Text Available Bilirubin is the terminal metabolite in heme catabolism in mammals. After deposition into bile, bilirubin is released in large quantities into the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI tract. We hypothesized that intestinal bilirubin may modulate the function of enteric bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of bilirubin on two enteric pathogens; enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, a Gram-negative that causes life-threatening intestinal infections, and E. faecalis, a Gram-positive human commensal bacterium known to be an opportunistic pathogen with broad-spectrum antibiotic resistance. We demonstrate that bilirubin can protect EHEC from exogenous and host-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS through the absorption of free radicals. In contrast, E. faecalis was highly susceptible to bilirubin, which causes significant membrane disruption and uncoupling of respiratory metabolism in this bacterium. Interestingly, similar results were observed for other Gram-positive bacteria, including B. cereus and S. aureus. A model is proposed whereby bilirubin places distinct selective pressure on enteric bacteria, with Gram-negative bacteria being protected from ROS (positive outcome and Gram-positive bacteria being susceptible to membrane disruption (negative outcome. This work suggests bilirubin has differential but biologically relevant effects on bacteria and justifies additional efforts to determine the role of this neglected waste catabolite in disease processes, including animal models.

  8. Increase in sphingolipid catabolic enzyme activity during aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santosh J SACKET; Hae-young CHUNG; Fumikazu OKAJIMA; Dong-soon IM

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To understand the contribution of sphingolipid metabolism and its metabolites to development and aging.Methods: A systemic analysis on the changes in activity of sphingolipid metabolic enzymes in kidney, liver and brain tissues during development and aging was conducted. The study was conducted using tissues from 1-day-old to 720-day-old rats.Results: Catabolic enzyme activities as well as the level of sphingomyelinase (SMase) and ceramidase (CDase) were higher than that of anabolic enzyme activities, sphingomyelin synthase and ceramide synthase. This suggested an accumulation of ceramide and sphingosine during development and aging. The liver showed the highest neutral-SMase activity among the tested enzymes while the kidney and brain exhibited higher neutral-SMase and ceramidase activities, indicating a high production of ceramide in liver and ceramide/sphingosine in the kidney and brain. The activities of sphingolipid metabolic enzymes were significantly elevated in all tested tissues during development and aging, although the onset of significant increase in activity varied on the tissue and enzyme type. During aging, 18 out of 21 enzyme activities were further increased on day 720 compared to day 180.Conclusion: Differential increases in sphingolipid metabolic enzyme activities suggest that sphingolipids including ceramide and sphingosine might play important and dynamic roles in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis during development and aging.

  9. Hyaluronan Synthesis, Catabolism, and Signaling in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry S. Sherman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA, a component of the extracellular matrix, has been implicated in regulating neural differentiation, survival, proliferation, migration, and cell signaling in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS. HA is found throughout the CNS as a constituent of proteoglycans, especially within perineuronal nets that have been implicated in regulating neuronal activity. HA is also found in the white matter where it is diffusely distributed around astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Insults to the CNS lead to long-term elevation of HA within damaged tissues, which is linked at least in part to increased transcription of HA synthases. HA accumulation is often accompanied by elevated expression of at least some transmembrane HA receptors including CD44. Hyaluronidases that digest high molecular weight HA into smaller fragments are also elevated following CNS insults and can generate HA digestion products that have unique biological activities. A number of studies, for example, suggest that both the removal of high molecular weight HA and the accumulation of hyaluronidase-generated HA digestion products can impact CNS injuries through mechanisms that include the regulation of progenitor cell differentiation and proliferation. These studies, reviewed here, suggest that targeting HA synthesis, catabolism, and signaling are all potential strategies to promote CNS repair.

  10. 移动多媒体隐性服务要素组合优化研究%Research on Optimizing the Combination of Implicit Service Elements of Mobile Multimedia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉清; 程岩

    2012-01-01

    Mobile multimedia, being based on the portable equipment, is a new kind of multimedia service. Its ability of offering mobile service enables users to experience multimedia services in a variety of contexts. However,consumers have different needs of implicit service elements in different context,which in turn require suppliers to design different combinations of mobile multimedia implicit service elements according to the given context This paper explores consumers' preference sequence for different virtual service and the differences of the weight of mobile multimedia's implicit service elements in different context using conjoint analysis. According to the analysis results, we suggest the optimal combination of implicit service elements under the different combination of control variables. These findings can help the suppliers to design the mobile multimedia service elements combination scientifically and optimize their marketing strategies.%移动多媒体是一种以便携设备为载体的新型媒体服务,其所具有的移动服务能力使得用户可在多种不同情境下接受多媒体服务.但是,消费者在不同的情境下对隐性服务要素有不同的要求,这就要求供应商在服务设计中需依情境不同提供不同的移动多媒体隐性服务要素组合.本文采用联合分析方法探究客户对不同虚拟服务的偏好次序,分析移动多媒体各种隐性服务要素在不同服务情境下重要性权重的变化,进而给出不同控制变量组合下的最优隐性服务要素组合,分析结果可以帮助供应商科学地设计移动多媒体隐性服务要素组合并优化其营销策略.

  11. Reassessment of the Listeria monocytogenes pan-genome reveals dynamic integration hotspots and mobile genetic elements as major components of the accessory genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuenne Carsten

    2013-01-01

    supports observations of a differential distribution of trans-encoded RNA, hinting at a diverse range of adaptations and regulatory impact. Conclusions This study determined commonly occurring hyper variable hotspots and mobile elements as primary effectors of quantitative gene-scale evolution of species L. monocytogenes, while gene decay and SNPs seem to represent major factors influencing long-term evolution. The discovery of common and disparately distributed genes considering lineages, serogroups, serotypes and strains of species L. monocytogenes will assist in diagnostic, phylogenetic and functional research, supported by the comparative genomic GECO-LisDB analysis server (http://bioinfo.mikrobio.med.uni-giessen.de/geco2lisdb.

  12. Factors controlling the chemical composition of colloidal and dissolved fractions in soil solutions and the mobility of trace elements in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Sophie; Stille, Peter; Schmitt, Anne-Désirée; Chabaux, François

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the processes and physico-chemical conditions that affect the composition of the soil solutions of a forest soil and to elucidate their impact on the transport of major and trace elements through the colloidal (0.2 μm to 5 kDa) and dissolved (soil. All experiments were performed with soil solutions obtained using lysimeter plates situated on an experimental spruce parcel of the Strengbach catchment (Northeastern France). The surface samples filtered at 0.2 μm facilitated the examination of the influence of litter decomposition on the chemical composition of the upper soil solutions. The impact of the soils biogeochemical conditions (pH, moisture, temperature, oxic or anoxic conditions) on litter decomposition was also examined. More particularly, the increase in NH4+ and NO2- compounds in some of the soil solutions points to denitrification processes in an anoxic environment. Thus, under anoxic conditions, the soil solution is enriched in Ca, P, Mn and Zn, whereas under oxic conditions it is enriched in Al and Fe. The physico-chemical conditions are more seasonally dependent in the upper soil horizons than in the deeper ones and have an impact on the variability of the chemical composition of the soil solutions. The colloidal and dissolved fractions of the soil solutions were obtained by tangential flow ultra-filtration. The experimental results reveal that nutrients, such as NO3- and P, are primarily in the dissolved fraction and consequently bioavailable; secondary minerals may be dissolved and/or precipitate in the colloidal fraction, such as pyromorphite (Pb5(PO4)3(OH, Cl, F)). The results further indicate that microbial activity influences the composition of the colloidal and dissolved fractions, and possibly enriches the colloidal fraction in Ca, Mn and P, diminishes the concentrations of Pb, V, Cr and Fe in the dissolved fraction, and changes the structure of organic carbon (OC). These results are important

  13. Aerobic bacterial catabolism of persistent organic pollutants - potential impact of biotic and abiotic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Baldrian, Petr; Schmidt, Stefan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Several aerobic bacteria possess unique catabolic pathways enabling them to degrade persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The catabolic activity of aerobic bacteria employed for removal of POPs in the environment may be modulated by several biotic (i.e. fungi, plants, algae, earthworms, and other bacteria) and abiotic (i.e. zero-valent iron, advanced oxidation, and electricity) agents. This review describes the basic biochemistry of the aerobic bacterial catabolism of selected POPs and discusses how biotic and abiotic agents enhance or inhibit the process. Solutions allowing biotic and abiotic agents to exert physical and chemical assistance to aerobic bacterial catabolism of POPs are also discussed. PMID:26851837

  14. Irritability rather than depression during interferon treatment is linked to increased tryptophan catabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, S; Kema, IP; Haagsma, EB; Boon, JC; Willemse, PHB; Den Boer, JA; De Vries, EGE; Korf, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Treatment with recombinant interferon is associated with high rates of psychiatric comorbidity. We investigated the relation between catabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan, being rate-limiting of peripheral and cerebral serotonin formation, and psychiatric symptoms in patients

  15. Prokaryotic homologs of Argonaute proteins are predicted to function as key components of a novel system of defense against mobile genetic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Oost John

    2009-08-01

    horizontal transfer of pAgo genes, and their common, statistically significant over-representation in genomic neighborhoods enriched in genes encoding proteins involved in the defense against phages and/or plasmids, we hypothesize that pAgos are key components of a novel class of defense systems. The PAZ-domain containing pAgos are predicted to directly destroy virus or plasmid nucleic acids via their nuclease activity, whereas the apparently inactivated, PAZ-lacking pAgos could be structural subunits of protein complexes that contain, as active moieties, the putative nucleases that we predict to be co-expressed with these pAgos. All these nucleases are predicted to be DNA endonucleases, so it seems most probable that the putative novel phage/plasmid-defense system targets phage DNA rather than mRNAs. Given that in eukaryotic RNAi systems, the PAZ domain binds a guide RNA and positions it on the complementary region of the target, we further speculate that pAgos function on a similar principle (the guide being either DNA or RNA, and that the uncharacterized domain found in putative operons with the short forms of pAgos is a functional substitute for the PAZ domain. Conclusion The hypothesis that pAgos are key components of a novel prokaryotic immune system that employs guide RNA or DNA molecules to degrade nucleic acids of invading mobile elements implies a functional analogy with the prokaryotic CASS and a direct evolutionary connection with eukaryotic RNAi. The predictions of the hypothesis including both the activities of pAgos and those of the associated endonucleases are readily amenable to experimental tests. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Daniel Haft, Martijn Huynen, and Chris Ponting.

  16. Morphine enhances purine nucleotide catabolism in rive and in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang LIU; Jian-kai LIU; Mu-jie KAN; Lin GAO; Hai-ying FU; Hang ZHOU; Min HONG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect and mechanism of morphine on purine nucleotide catabolism. Methods: The rat model of morphine dependence and withdrawal and rat C6 glioma cells in culture were used. Concentrations of uric acid in the plasma were measured by the uricase-rap method, adenosine deaminase (ADA) and xan- thine oxidase (XO) in the plasma and tissues were measured by the ADA and XO test kit. RT-PCR and RT-PCR-Southern blotting were used to examine the relative amount of ADA and XO gene transcripts in tissues and C6 cells. Results: (i) the concentration of plasma uric acid in the morphine-administered group was signifi-cantly higher (P<0.05) than the control group; (ii) during morphine administration and withdrawal periods, the ADA and XO concentrations in the plasma increased significantly (P<0.05); (iii) the amount of ADA and XO in the parietal lobe, liver, small intestine, and skeletal muscles of the morphine-administered groups increased, while the level of ADA and XO in those tissues of the withdrawal groups decreased; (iv) the transcripts of the ADA and XO genes in the parietal lobe, liver, small intestine, and skeletal muscles were higher in the morphine-administered group. The expression of the ADA and XO genes in those tissues returned to the control level during morphine withdrawal, with the exception of the skeletal muscles; and (v) the upregulation of the expression of the ADA and XO genes induced by morphine treatment could be reversed by naloxone. Conclusion: The effects of morphine on purine nucleotide metabolism might be an important, new biochemical pharmacological mechanism of morphine action.

  17. Youths on labour market.Features. Particularities. Pro-mobility factors for graduates. Elements of a balanced policy for labour migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina VASILE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The youths’ labour market, and especially insertion employment has a series of particularities defined by aspects such as: flexibility, efficient employment, interest for career but also informal employment, external mobility, including brain drain, segmentation, employment precariousness, income disadvantages, etc. Therefore, also the labour market policy and particularly managing labour mobility especially through the economic and social effects that might be triggered on the local labour market in the origin country, presents a special importance under the conditions of the economic turnaround stage, by promoting new and sustainable jobs, based on knowledge and competences. In the present paper an analysis is made about the youths’ labour market features, and the outcomes of an empirical analysis about graduates’ migration propensity are presented. Suggestions are made for developing a balanced policy for youths’ labour mobility to the benefit of the country of origin.

  18. Imbalanced protein expression patterns of anabolic, catabolic, anti-catabolic and inflammatory cytokines in degenerative cervical disc cells: new indications for gene therapeutic treatments of cervical disc diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demissew S Mern

    Full Text Available Degenerative disc disease (DDD of the cervical spine is common after middle age and can cause loss of disc height with painful nerve impingement, bone and joint inflammation. Despite the clinical importance of these problems, in current publications the pathology of cervical disc degeneration has been studied merely from a morphologic view point using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, without addressing the issue of biological treatment approaches. So far a wide range of endogenously expressed bioactive factors in degenerative cervical disc cells has not yet been investigated, despite its importance for gene therapeutic approaches. Although degenerative lumbar disc cells have been targeted by different biological treatment approaches, the quantities of disc cells and the concentrations of gene therapeutic factors used in animal models differ extremely. These indicate lack of experimentally acquired data regarding disc cell proliferation and levels of target proteins. Therefore, we analysed proliferation and endogenous expression levels of anabolic, catabolic, ant-catabolic, inflammatory cytokines and matrix proteins of degenerative cervical disc cells in three-dimensional cultures. Preoperative MRI grading of cervical discs was used, then grade III and IV nucleus pulposus (NP tissues were isolated from 15 patients, operated due to cervical disc herniation. NP cells were cultured for four weeks with low-glucose in collagen I scaffold. Their proliferation rates were analysed using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Their protein expression levels of 28 therapeutic targets were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. During progressive grades of degeneration NP cell proliferation rates were similar. Significantly decreased aggrecan and collagen II expressions (P<0.0001 were accompanied by accumulations of selective catabolic and inflammatory cytokines (disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4

  19. Mobile Learning Using Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The participation in mobile learning programs is conditioned by having/using mobile communication technology. Those who do not have or use such technology cannot participate in mobile learning programs. This study evaluates who are the most likely participants of mobile learning programs by examining the demographic profile and mobile phone usage…

  20. Activation of lipid catabolism by the water-soluble fraction of petroleum in the crustacean Macrobrachium borellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavarías, S; Pollero, R J; Heras, H

    2006-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF) on lipid metabolism in invertebrates. The effect of the WSF on the triacylglycerol (TAG) mobilization, fatty acid activation and degradation was evaluated in the decapod Macrobrachium borellii, exposing adult and eggs at different stages of development for 7 days to a sublethal concentration of WSF. Using radioactive tracers, mitochondrial palmitoyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), triacylglycerol lipase (TAG-lipase) and fatty acid beta-oxidation system activities were assayed. Before studying the effect of WSF, the kinetic parameters of ACS were determined in purified mitochondria. Its optimal temperature and pH were 32 degrees C and 8.0, respectively, the apparent K(m) 2.48 micromol l(-1), and its V(max) of 1.93 nmol min(-1) mg protein(-1). These kinetic parameters differed significantly from this shrimp's microsomal isoform. After 7 days exposure to a sublethal concentration of WSF (0.6 mg/l), changes were observed in the enzymatic activity of all enzymes or enzymatic system assayed in adult midgut gland as well as in stage 5 eggs, a period of active organogenesis. An increase in the mobilization of energy stores was detected as early as stage 4, where TAG-lipase activity increased by 27% in exposed eggs. The increase was even more marked in exposed eggs at stage 5 where a three-fold rise (154%) was determined. Exposed adult shrimp also showed an augmented lipase activity by 38%. Fatty acid beta-oxidation increased by 51.0 and 35.5% in midgut gland and eggs at stage 5, respectively, but no changes were observed at less-developed stages. Mitochondrial fatty acid activation by ACS also increased in adults and stage 5 eggs by 7.4 and 52.0%, respectively. A similar response of the lipid catabolic pathways to WSF contamination in both adult and eggs, suggests that the exposure to this pollutant causes an increase in the energy needs of this shrimp. When validated by field studies, these catabolic

  1. Activation of lipid catabolism by the water-soluble fraction of petroleum in the crustacean Macrobrachium borellii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little is known about the effect of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF) on lipid metabolism in invertebrates. The effect of the WSF on the triacylglycerol (TAG) mobilization, fatty acid activation and degradation was evaluated in the decapod Macrobrachium borellii, exposing adult and eggs at different stages of development for 7 days to a sublethal concentration of WSF. Using radioactive tracers, mitochondrial palmitoyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), triacylglycerol lipase (TAG-lipase) and fatty acid β-oxidation system activities were assayed. Before studying the effect of WSF, the kinetic parameters of ACS were determined in purified mitochondria. Its optimal temperature and pH were 32 oC and 8.0, respectively, the apparent K m 2.48 μmol l-1, and its V max of 1.93 nmol min-1 mg protein-1. These kinetic parameters differed significantly from this shrimp's microsomal isoform. After 7 days exposure to a sublethal concentration of WSF (0.6 mg/l), changes were observed in the enzymatic activity of all enzymes or enzymatic system assayed in adult midgut gland as well as in stage 5 eggs, a period of active organogenesis. An increase in the mobilization of energy stores was detected as early as stage 4, where TAG-lipase activity increased by 27% in exposed eggs. The increase was even more marked in exposed eggs at stage 5 where a three-fold rise (154%) was determined. Exposed adult shrimp also showed an augmented lipase activity by 38%. Fatty acid β-oxidation increased by 51.0 and 35.5% in midgut gland and eggs at stage 5, respectively, but no changes were observed at less-developed stages. Mitochondrial fatty acid activation by ACS also increased in adults and stage 5 eggs by 7.4 and 52.0%, respectively. A similar response of the lipid catabolic pathways to WSF contamination in both adult and eggs, suggests that the exposure to this pollutant causes an increase in the energy needs of this shrimp. When validated by field studies, these catabolic enzymes could be

  2. Mobile Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phones are ubiquitous and have completely transformed the way we live, work, learn and conduct our everyday activities. Mobile phones have also changed the way users access lexicographic data. In fact, it can be argued that mobile phones and lexicography are not yet compatible. Modern users...... are already mobile – but lexicography is not yet fully ready for the mobile challenge, mobile users and mobile user situations. The article is based on empirical data from two surveys comprising 10 medical doctors, who were asked to look up five medical substances with the medical dictionary app...... mobile lexicography....

  3. Evaluation of LINE-1 mobility in neuroblastoma cells by in vitro retrotransposition reporter assay: FACS analysis can detect only the tip of the iceberg of the inserted L1 elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Re, Brunella, E-mail: brunella.delre@unibo.it [Department of Evolutionary Experimental Biology, University of Bologna, via Selmi 3, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Inter-departmental Center ' L. Galvani' , via Selmi 3, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Marcantonio, Pamela [Department of Evolutionary Experimental Biology, University of Bologna, via Selmi 3, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Capri, Miriam [Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Bologna, via S. Giacomo 8, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Inter-departmental Center ' L. Galvani' , via Selmi 3, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Giorgi, Gianfranco [Department of Evolutionary Experimental Biology, University of Bologna, via Selmi 3, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Inter-departmental Center ' L. Galvani' , via Selmi 3, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-12-10

    Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (L1) are retroelements generally repressed in most differentiated somatic cells. Their activity has been observed in some undifferentiated and tumour cells and could be involved in tumour onset and progression. Growing evidences show that the L1 activation can occur in neuronal precursor cells during differentiation process. Neuroblastoma is a tumour originating from neuronal precursor cells, and, although the molecular basis of its progression is still poorly understood, the implication of L1 activation has not yet been investigated. In this study L1 mobility in neuroblastoma BE(2)C cells was assessed using the in vitro retrotransposition assay consisting in an episomal EGFP-tagged L1{sub RP} element, whose mobility can be evaluated by cytofluorimetric analysis (FACS) of EGFP expression. FACS results have shown a low retrotransposition activity. To detect L1{sub RP} integrated in transcriptionally repressed genomic sites, both a cell treatment with a stimulator of reporter gene promoter, and a quantitative Real-Time PCR analysis were performed. A retrotransposition activity ten and one thousand times that of FACS was found, respectively. These results point out that the real rate of L1 retrotransposition events in tumour cells might be considerably higher than that reported so far by evaluating only the reporter gene expression.

  4. Key genetic elements and regulation systems in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haihong; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2012-11-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), popularly known as a type of superbug, has been a serious challenge for animal and human health. S. aureus has developed methicillin resistance mainly by expression of β-lactamase and PBP2a, which is regulated by the blaZ-blaI-blaR1 and mecA-mecI-mecRI systems. Other genetic elements, including murE and femA, also participate in expression of methicillin resistance, but the mechanism remains unclear. The evolution of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec determines the epidemiological risk of MRSA. The plasmid-located gene cfr might contribute to multiresistance and transmission of MRSA. Some virulence factors, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin, phenol-soluble modulin, arginine catabolic mobile element and other toxin elements enhance the pathogenesis and fitness of MRSA. Two-component regulation systems (agr, saeRS and vraRS) are closely associated with pathogenesis and drug resistance of MRSA. The systematic exploration of key genetic elements and regulation systems involved in multidrug resistance/pathogenesis/transmission of MRSA is conclusively integrated into this review, providing fundamental information for the development of new antimicrobial agents and the establishment of reasonable antibiotic stewardship to reduce the risk of this superbug. PMID:23075449

  5. Children's velo-mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable mobilities play a dominate role in low carbon futures and cycling is an integral element. Children are heirs of transport cultures and crucial for future sustainable mobility. Moreover cycling is important for children’s independent mobility and geographical experience. Dominating...... approaches in transport research, including cycling, understand travel behaviour individualistic and lack to grasp the relational complexities, which are inevitable when considering children’s mobilities. Furthermore has children’s cycling largely been studied as independent mobility and active school travel....... How cycling is learned and constituted, and how cycling skills are consolidated, extended and turned into a stabilized practice remains unstudied. Drawing on in-depth interview data from the region of Copenhagen, Denmark, among families with children (N=20) the paper provides new insights into how...

  6. The catabolism of glucose, glutamate, pyruvate and acetate in neisseria elongata subsp. glycolytica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities corresponding to the enzymes glucokinase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, pyridine nucleotide independent malate dehydrogenase, and glutamate dehydrogenase were found in cell free extracts from Neisseria elongata subsp. glycolytica. Activities corresponding to 6-phosphogluconate dehydrase and 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase were not found. Glucose was catabolized only via the pentose phosphate pathway. The radiorespirometric findings suggest an extensive recycling of the triose and fructose phosphates. There was no evidence for formation of pyruvate from glucose. Glutamate was oxidized via the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Pyruvate and acetate were obviously catabolized by the glyoxylic and tricarboxylic acid cycle, as in N. elongata. (author)

  7. Oxygen-dependent catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egebo, L A; Nielsen, S V; Jochimsen, B U

    1991-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Examination of this catabolism in strain 110 by in vivo experiments has revealed an enzymatic activity catalyzing the degradation of IAA and 5-hydroxy-indole-3-acetic acid. The activity requires...... oxygen-consuming opening of the indole ring analogous to the one catalyzed by tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. The pattern of metabolite usage by known tryptophan-auxotrophic mutants and studies of metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography indicate that anthranilic acid is a terminal degradation...

  8. Catabolism of pyrimidines in yeast: A tool to understand degradation of anticancer drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gorm; Merico, A.; Bjornberg, O.; Andersen, Birgit; Schnackerz, K.D.; Dobritzsch, D.; Piskur, Jure; Compagno, C.

    The pyrimidine catabolic pathway is of crucial importance in cancer patients because it is involved in degradation of several chemotherapeutic drugs, such as 5-fluorouracil; it also is important in plants, unicellular eukaryotes, and bacteria for the degradation of pyrimidine-based biocides....../antibiotics. During the last decade we have developed a yeast species, Saccharomyces kluyveri, as a model and tool to study the genes and enzymes of the pyrimidine catabolic pathway. In this report, we studied degradation of uracil and its putative degradation products in 38 yeasts and showed that this pathway was...

  9. Isolation of a mutation resulting in constitutive synthesis of L-fucose catabolic enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bartkus, J M; Mortlock, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    A ribitol-positive transductant of Escherichia coli K-12, JM2112, was used to facilitate the isolation and identification of mutations affecting the L-fucose catabolic pathway. Analysis of L-fucose-negative mutants of JM2112 enabled us to confirm that L-fucose-1-phosphate is the apparent inducer of the fucose catabolic enzymes. Plating of an L-fuculokinase-negative mutant of JM2112 on D-arabinose yielded an isolate containing a second fucose mutation which resulted in the constitutive synthes...

  10. Phytochemicals that modulate amino acid and peptide catabolism by caprine rumen microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Microbe-derived ionophores and macrolide antibiotics are often added to ruminant diets, and growth promotion and feed efficiency are among the benefits. One mechanism is inhibition of microbes that catabolize amino acids or peptides and produce ammonia. Plants also produce antimicrobial ...

  11. Comparing how land use change impacts soil microbial catabolic respiration in Southwestern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetto, Andre Mancebo; Feigl, Brigitte Josefine; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Land use changes strongly impact soil functions, particularly microbial biomass diversity and activity. We hypothesized that the catabolic respiration response of the microbial biomass would differ depending on land use and that these differences would be consistent at the landscape scale. In the present study, we analyzed the catabolic response profile of the soil microbial biomass through substrate-induced respiration in different land uses over a wide geographical range in Mato Grosso and Rondônia state (Southwest Amazon region). We analyzed the differences among native areas, pastures and crop areas and within each land use and examined only native areas (Forest, Dense Cerrado and Cerrado), pastures (Nominal, Degraded and Improved) and crop areas (Perennial, No-Tillage, Conventional Tillage). The metabolic profile of the microbial biomass was accessed using substrate-induced respiration. Pasture soils showed significant responses to amino acids and carboxylic acids, whereas native areas showed higher responses to malonic acid, malic acid and succinic acid. Within each land use category, the catabolic responses showed similar patterns in both large general comparisons (native area, pasture and crop areas) and more specific comparisons (biomes, pastures and crop types). The results showed that the catabolic responses of the microbial biomass are highly correlated with land use, independent of soil type or climate. The substrate induced respiration approach is useful to discriminate microbial communities, even on a large scale. PMID:26887228

  12. Experimental studies on porcine protein catabolism after thermic traumas using 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within studies on protein metabolism extensive third-degree burns were produced in pigs. During burn disease protein catabolism was determined by means of parenterally applied 15N-glycine and the improvement of the negative total N balance as well as modes of application of amino acids and proteins especially albumins are discussed

  13. Ornithine-δ-aminotransferase is essential for Arginine Catabolism but not for Proline Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadelhofer Bettina

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like many other plant species, Arabidopsis uses arginine (Arg as a storage and transport form of nitrogen, and proline (Pro as a compatible solute in the defence against abiotic stresses causing water deprivation. Arg catabolism produces ornithine (Orn inside mitochondria, which was discussed controversially as a precursor for Pro biosynthesis, alternative to glutamate (Glu. Results We show here that ornithine-δ-aminotransferase (δOAT, At5g46180, the enzyme converting Orn to pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C, is localised in mitochondria and is essential for Arg catabolism. Wildtype plants could readily catabolise supplied Arg and Orn and were able to use these amino acids as the only nitrogen source. Deletion mutants of δOAT, however, accumulated urea cycle intermediates when fed with Arg or Orn and were not able to utilize nitrogen provided as Arg or Orn. Utilisation of urea and stress induced Pro accumulation were not affected in T-DNA insertion mutants with a complete loss of δOAT expression. Conclusion Our findings indicate that δOAT feeds P5C exclusively into the catabolic branch of Pro metabolism, which yields Glu as an end product. Conversion of Orn to Glu is an essential route for recovery of nitrogen stored or transported as Arg. Pro biosynthesis occurs predominantly or exclusively via the Glu pathway in Arabidopsis and does not depend on Glu produced by Arg and Orn catabolism.

  14. Ornithine-δ-aminotransferase is essential for Arginine Catabolism but not for Proline Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funck, Dietmar; Stadelhofer, Bettina; Koch, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Background Like many other plant species, Arabidopsis uses arginine (Arg) as a storage and transport form of nitrogen, and proline (Pro) as a compatible solute in the defence against abiotic stresses causing water deprivation. Arg catabolism produces ornithine (Orn) inside mitochondria, which was discussed controversially as a precursor for Pro biosynthesis, alternative to glutamate (Glu). Results We show here that ornithine-δ-aminotransferase (δOAT, At5g46180), the enzyme converting Orn to pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), is localised in mitochondria and is essential for Arg catabolism. Wildtype plants could readily catabolise supplied Arg and Orn and were able to use these amino acids as the only nitrogen source. Deletion mutants of δOAT, however, accumulated urea cycle intermediates when fed with Arg or Orn and were not able to utilize nitrogen provided as Arg or Orn. Utilisation of urea and stress induced Pro accumulation were not affected in T-DNA insertion mutants with a complete loss of δOAT expression. Conclusion Our findings indicate that δOAT feeds P5C exclusively into the catabolic branch of Pro metabolism, which yields Glu as an end product. Conversion of Orn to Glu is an essential route for recovery of nitrogen stored or transported as Arg. Pro biosynthesis occurs predominantly or exclusively via the Glu pathway in Arabidopsis and does not depend on Glu produced by Arg and Orn catabolism. PMID:18419821

  15. Transcriptional Analysis of Prebiotic Uptake and Catabolism by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Joakim Mark; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Abou Hachem, Maher; Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Goh, Yong-Jun; Svensson, Birte; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract can be positively modulated by dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates. Here differential transcriptomics and functional genomics were used to identify genes in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM involved in the uptake and catabolism of 11 potential prebiotic compounds consisting of α- and β- linked galactosides and glucosides. These oligosaccharides induced genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosph...

  16. Comparing how land use change impacts soil microbial catabolic respiration in Southwestern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Mancebo Mazzetto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Land use changes strongly impact soil functions, particularly microbial biomass diversity and activity. We hypothesized that the catabolic respiration response of the microbial biomass would differ depending on land use and that these differences would be consistent at the landscape scale. In the present study, we analyzed the catabolic response profile of the soil microbial biomass through substrate-induced respiration in different land uses over a wide geographical range in Mato Grosso and Rondônia state (Southwest Amazon region. We analyzed the differences among native areas, pastures and crop areas and within each land use and examined only native areas (Forest, Dense Cerrado and Cerrado, pastures (Nominal, Degraded and Improved and crop areas (Perennial, No-Tillage, Conventional Tillage. The metabolic profile of the microbial biomass was accessed using substrate-induced respiration. Pasture soils showed significant responses to amino acids and carboxylic acids, whereas native areas showed higher responses to malonic acid, malic acid and succinic acid. Within each land use category, the catabolic responses showed similar patterns in both large general comparisons (native area, pasture and crop areas and more specific comparisons (biomes, pastures and crop types. The results showed that the catabolic responses of the microbial biomass are highly correlated with land use, independent of soil type or climate. The substrate induced respiration approach is useful to discriminate microbial communities, even on a large scale.

  17. Regulation and control of L-arabinose catabolism in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de M.J.L.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes studies on the biochemical properties and regulation of L-arabinose metabolism and arabinan degrading enzymes of Aspergillus niger. We focused on the investigation of the catabolic pathway, firstly by isolating pathway specific regulatory mutants using a newly developed selecti

  18. Comparing how land use change impacts soil microbial catabolic respiration in Southwestern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetto, Andre Mancebo; Feigl, Brigitte Josefine; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Land use changes strongly impact soil functions, particularly microbial biomass diversity and activity. We hypothesized that the catabolic respiration response of the microbial biomass would differ depending on land use and that these differences would be consistent at the landscape scale. In the present study, we analyzed the catabolic response profile of the soil microbial biomass through substrate-induced respiration in different land uses over a wide geographical range in Mato Grosso and Rondônia state (Southwest Amazon region). We analyzed the differences among native areas, pastures and crop areas and within each land use and examined only native areas (Forest, Dense Cerrado and Cerrado), pastures (Nominal, Degraded and Improved) and crop areas (Perennial, No-Tillage, Conventional Tillage). The metabolic profile of the microbial biomass was accessed using substrate-induced respiration. Pasture soils showed significant responses to amino acids and carboxylic acids, whereas native areas showed higher responses to malonic acid, malic acid and succinic acid. Within each land use category, the catabolic responses showed similar patterns in both large general comparisons (native area, pasture and crop areas) and more specific comparisons (biomes, pastures and crop types). The results showed that the catabolic responses of the microbial biomass are highly correlated with land use, independent of soil type or climate. The substrate induced respiration approach is useful to discriminate microbial communities, even on a large scale. PMID:26887228

  19. Mechanical ventilation induces myokine expression and catabolism in peripheral skeletal muscle in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endotoxin (LPS)-induced sepsis increases circulating cytokines which have been associated with skeletal muscle catabolism. During critical illness, it has been postulated that muscle wasting associated with mechanical ventilation (MV) occurs due to inactivity. We hypothesize that MV and sepsis promo...

  20. Branched-chain amino acid catabolism fuels adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Courtney R; Wallace, Martina; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Phillips, Susan A; Murphy, Anne N; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Metallo, Christian M

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays important roles in regulating carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis, but less is known about the regulation of amino acid metabolism in adipocytes. Here we applied isotope tracing to pre-adipocytes and differentiated adipocytes to quantify the contributions of different substrates to tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolism and lipogenesis. In contrast to proliferating cells, which use glucose and glutamine for acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) generation, differentiated adipocytes showed increased branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic flux such that leucine and isoleucine from medium and/or from protein catabolism accounted for as much as 30% of lipogenic AcCoA pools. Medium cobalamin deficiency caused methylmalonic acid accumulation and odd-chain fatty acid synthesis. Vitamin B12 supplementation reduced these metabolites and altered the balance of substrates entering mitochondria. Finally, inhibition of BCAA catabolism compromised adipogenesis. These results quantitatively highlight the contribution of BCAAs to adipocyte metabolism and suggest that BCAA catabolism has a functional role in adipocyte differentiation. PMID:26571352

  1. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Conse...

  2. A role for TNFα in intervertebral disc degeneration: A non-recoverable catabolic shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► TNFα induced catabolic changes similar to human intervertebral disc degeneration. ► The metabolic shift induced by TNFα was sustained following removal. ► TNFα induced changes suggestive of cell senescence without affecting cell viability. ► Interventions are required to stimulate anabolism and increase cell proliferation. -- Abstract: This study examines the effect of TNFα on whole bovine intervertebral discs in organ culture and its association with changes characteristic of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) in order to inform future treatments to mitigate the chronic inflammatory state commonly found with painful IDD. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα contribute to disc pathology and are implicated in the catabolic phenotype associated with painful IDD. Whole bovine discs were cultured to examine cellular (anabolic/catabolic gene expression, cell viability and senescence using β-galactosidase) and structural (histology and aggrecan degradation) changes in response to TNFα treatment. Control or TNFα cultures were assessed at 7 and 21 days; the 21 day group also included a recovery group with 7 days TNFα followed by 14 days in basal media. TNFα induced catabolic and anti-anabolic shifts in the nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF) at 7 days and this persisted until 21 days however cell viability was not affected. Data indicates that TNFα increased aggrecan degradation products and suggests increased β-galactosidase staining at 21 days without any recovery. TNFα treatment of whole bovine discs for 7 days induced changes similar to the degeneration processes that occur in human IDD: aggrecan degradation, increased catabolism, pro-inflammatory cytokines and nerve growth factor expression. TNFα significantly reduced anabolism in cultured IVDs and a possible mechanism may be associated with cell senescence. Results therefore suggest that successful treatments must promote anabolism and cell proliferation in

  3. Detection of catabolic genes in indigenous microbial consortia isolated from a diesel-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation is often used for in situ remediation of petroleum-contaminated sites. The primary focus of this study was on understanding the indigenous microbial community which can survive in contaminated environment and is responsible for the degradation. Diesel, toluene and naphthalene-degrading microbial consortia were isolated from diesel-contaminated soil by growing on selective hydrocarbon substrates. The presence and frequency of the catabolic genes responsible for aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation (xylE, ndoB) within the isolated consortia were screened using polymerase chain reaction PCR and DNA-DNA colony hybridization. The diesel DNA-extract possessed both the xylE catabolic gene for toluene, and the nah catabolic gene for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. The toluene DNA-extract possessed only the xylE catabolic gene, while the naphthalene DNA-extract only the ndoB gene. Restriction enzyme analysis with HaeIII indicated similar restriction patterns for the xylE gene fragment between toluene DNA-extract and a type strain, Pseudomonas putida ATCC 23973. A substantial proportion (74%) of the colonies from the diesel-consortium possessed the xylE gene, and the ndoB gene (78%), while a minority (29%) of the toluene-consortium harbored the xylE gene. 59% of the colonies from the naphthalene-consortium had the ndoB gene, and did not have the xylE gene. These results indicate that the microbial population has been naturally enriched in organisms carrying genes for aromatic hydrocarbon degradation and that significant aromatic biodegradative potential exists at the site. Characterization of the population genotype constitutes a molecular diagnosis which permits the determination of the catabolic potential of the site to degrade the contaminant present. (author)

  4. Diversity and Mobility of Integrative and Conjugative Elements in Bovine Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, and S. uberis▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Haenni, Marisa; Saras, Estelle; Bertin, Stéphane; Leblond, Pierre; Madec, Jean-Yves; Payot, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Bovine isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 76), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (n = 32), and Streptococcus uberis (n = 101) were analyzed for the presence of different integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) and their association with macrolide, lincosamide, and tetracycline resistance. The diversity of the isolates included in this study was demonstrated by multilocus sequence typing for S. agalactiae and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for S. dysgalactiae and S. u...

  5. Applied Estimation of Mobile Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Weekly, Kevin Pu

    2014-01-01

    For many research problems, controlling and estimating the position of the mobile elements within an environment is desired. Realistic mobile environments are unstructured, but share a set of common features, such as position, speed, and constraints on mobility. To estimate within these real-world environments requires careful selection of the best-suited estimation tools and software and hardware technologies. This dissertation discusses the design and implementation of applied estimation...

  6. Contributing to mobile gamer loyalty with game design

    OpenAIRE

    Nenonen, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of the study: As many mobile games are generally considered as somewhat temporary fads, and only a small percentage of mobile gamers is actually willing to spend money in mobile gaming, the main objective of the study was to find out how to improve mobile gamer loyalty with game design, and which gaming elements bring value to customers. Answers are sought from both mobile gamers and mobile gaming professionals, who shed light on their current means to maximize mobile gamer loy...

  7. Mobile payment

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Paying with mobile devices such as mobile phones or smart phones will expand worldwide in the coming years. This development provides opportunities for various industries (banking, telecommunications, credit card business, manufacturers, suppliers, retail) and for consumers.

  8. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Švarc, Ondřej

    2010-01-01

    The goal of bachelor's thesis on the theme "Mobile marketing" is to outline its development and why is this new phenomen so important for all modern companies around the world. The work is not about simple description of mobile marketing media but it vividly informs about the latest trends and news from the world of mobile apps and games. It presents the most successful mobile apps which registered more than billion downloads and from their unique characteristics it unveils great potential of...

  9. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  10. Mobility Network and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Galderisi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobility network is crucial for ensuring territorial safety with respect to natural and technological hazards. They represent a basic support to community’s everyday life although being exposed elements often characterized by high vulnerability to different hazards and, in the meanwhile, strategic equipments for emergency management. Physical damages or the lack in functioning of those networks may greatly increase the loss of human lives caused by hazardous events as well as produce relevant economic damages at medium and long term. Although the relevance of the mobility networks in assuring territorial safety is at present largely recognized, risk analyses have been long focused on buildings’ vulnerability or, even where they have paid attention to mobility network, they have been mainly focused on the physical damages that a given hazard could may induce on individual elements of such network. It is recent the awareness that mobility network represents a system, characterized by relevant interdependences both among its elements and among network infrastructures and urban systems. Based on these assumptions, this paper points out the heterogeneous aspects of the mobility network vulnerability and their relevance in increasing the overall territorial or urban vulnerability to hazardous events. Therefore, an in-depth investigation of the concept of mobility network vulnerability is provided, in order to highlight the aspects mostly investigated and more recent research perspectives. Finally, a case study in the Campania Region is presented in order to point out how traditional risk analyses, generally referred to individual hazards, can sometimes led to invest in the mobility network improvement or development which, targeted to increase the security of a territory result, on the opposite, in an increase of the territorial vulnerability.

  11. Lattice distortion in a zircon population and its effects on trace element mobility and U-Th-Pb isotope systematics: examples from the Lewisian Gneiss Complex, northwest Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John M.; Wheeler, John; Harley, Simon L.; Mariani, Elisabetta; Goodenough, Kathryn M.; Crowley, Quentin; Tatham, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Zircon is a key mineral in geochemical and geochronological studies in a range of geological settings as it is mechanically and chemically robust. However, distortion of its crystal lattice can facilitate enhanced diffusion of key elements such as U and Pb. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis of ninety-nine zircons from the Lewisian Gneiss Complex (LGC) of northwest Scotland has revealed five zircons with lattice distortion. The distortion can take the form of gradual bending of the lattice or division of the crystal into subgrains. Zircon lattices are distorted because of either post-crystallisation plastic distortion or growth defects. Three of the five distorted zircons, along with many of the undistorted zircons in the population, were analysed by ion microprobe to measure U and Pb isotopes, Ti and REEs. Comparison of Th/U ratio, 207Pb/206Pb age, REE profile and Ti concentration between zircons with and without lattice distortion suggests that the distortion is variably affecting the concentration of these trace elements and isotopes within single crystals, within samples and between localities. REE patterns vary heterogeneously, sometimes relatively depleted in heavy REEs or lacking a Eu anomaly. Ti-in-zircon thermometry records temperatures that were either low (~700 °C) or high (>900 °C) relative to undistorted zircons. One distorted zircon records apparent 207Pb/206Pb isotopic ages (-3.0 to +0.3 % discordance) in the range of ~2,420-2,450 Ma but this does not correlate with any previously dated tectonothermal event in the LGC. Two other distorted zircons give discordant ages of 2,331 ± 22 and 2,266 ± 40 Ma, defining a discordia lower intercept within error of a late amphibolite-facies tectonothermal event. This illustrates that Pb may be mobilised in distorted zircons at lower metamorphic grade than in undistorted zircons. These differences in trace element abundances and isotope systematics in distorted zircons relative to undistorted

  12. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact that...

  13. Coupling microbial catabolic actions with abiotic redox processes: a new recipe for persistent organic pollutant (POP) removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Nam, In-Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The continuous release of toxic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment has raised a need for effective cleanup methods. The tremendous natural diversity of microbial catabolic mechanisms suggests that catabolic routes may be applied to the remediation of POP-contaminated fields. A large number of the recalcitrant xenobiotics have been shown to be removable via the natural catabolic mechanisms of microbes, and detailed biochemical studies of the catabolic methods, together with the development of sophisticated genetic engineering, have led to the use of synthetic microbes for the bioremediation of POPs. However, the steric effects of substituted halogen moieties, microbe toxicity, and the low bioavailability of POPs still deteriorate the efficiency of removal strategies based on natural and synthetic catabolic mechanisms. Recently, abiotic redox processes that induce rapid reductive dehalogenation, hydroxyl radical-based oxidation, or electron shuttling have been reasonably coupled with microbial catabolic actions, thereby compensating for the drawbacks of biotic processes in POP removal. In this review, we first compare the pros and cons of individual methodologies (i.e., the natural and synthetic catabolism of microbes and the abiotic processes involving zero-valent irons, advanced oxidation processes, and small organic stimulants) for POP removal. We then highlight recent trends in coupling the biotic-abiotic methodologies and discuss how the processes are both feasible and superior to individual methodologies for POP cleanup. Cost-effective and environmentally sustainable abiotic redox actions could enhance the microbial bioremediation potential for POPs. PMID:23153459

  14. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

    In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting...... as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Consequently, not only the content of the data but also the ways in which data was delivered and handled......, provided a valuable dimension for investigating mobile use. The data was collected at the same time as design activities took place and the collective data was analysed based on user experience goals and cognitive processes from interaction design and mobile learning. The mobile probe increased the...

  15. Redox-sensitive element mobility in mid-Miocene clays from Unit II of Hole M0027A, the New Jersey Shallow Shelf (IODP Expedition 313)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, A. G.; Inwood, J.; Morgan, S.; Davies, S.; Foster, H.

    2012-12-01

    The geochemistry of an unusual seven metre interval of distinctive color-banded clays of Serravallian age has been analysed. This interval is from Hole M0027A, the most landward of the three holes cored during IODP Expedition 313. The clays lie immediately above a key surface (the m4.1 reflector), with the available age constraints indicating deposition of the clays during a time of global cooling and major sea level change. The behaviour of major and trace elements from this interval will help to elucidate the paleoenvironmental conditions and nature of shelf sedimentation during this time. Conventional XRF analysis reveals enrichments in the redox-sensitive trace elements As, Co, Sc, V, Cr, the LREEs La, Ce and Nd, and also Ba and Cs throughout this interval. The enrichment of Co, Sc and V is particularly notable, being much higher than both average New Jersey clay and North Atlantic Average Shale Composition (NASC). Examination of cut cores from Unit II reveals that the enriched zone consists of a sequence of cm- to metre-scale packages of banded clays, alternating with thinner, paler homogeneous clays. The cm-scale color-bands are interpreted to represent diagenetic features due to the mobilisation and relocation of redox-sensitive elements in the sediments during, or shortly after, deposition. Manganese and iron peaks likely reflect previous locations of the manganese redox boundary in the sediment - i.e. they represent relict or paleo-redox fronts. The dark bands are very organic rich, show little bioturbation and contain pyrite or possibly authigenic greigite. They also consistently correspond to peaks in magnetic susceptibility. The homogeneous clays are extensively mottled due to bioturbation, contain little organic matter and generally correspond to lows in magnetic susceptibility. The dark bands are organic-rich clays that are cyclically intercalated with organic-poor lighter colored sediments. The degradation and oxidation of organic matter likely

  16. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  17. Editorial: Mobile (March 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kunz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Open source software and hardware has become an accepted way of developing new and interesting applications in many information and communication technology domains: operating systems, databases, Web infrastructure, and applications. It's not surprising that with the increasing popularity of mobile handheld devices, users and researchers have explored the power of open approaches to providing innovative new applications and services in this domain. However, unlike personal computers and the Internet, mobile handsets were tightly controlled by mobile network operators (MNOs who developed a vertical ecosystem by integrating the communication infrastructure, the handheld device hardware, and often the applications installed on those devices. The software and protocols running the mobile communications infrastructure and devices are often standardized by membership-only bodies, where large MNOs and manufacturers have a predominant influence. These players invest significant financial resources into shaping the industry along their vision to gain a competitive advantage. A current example is the ongoing battle about the dominant radio access technology for 4G cellular systems: LTE vs. Wimax. These trends have changed recently. Companies such as Google, Nokia, or Openmoko and Industry Alliances such as the Open Handset Alliance are providing the core building blocks, both in hardware as well as software, of increasingly open mobile devices. This issue of the OSBR reviews the relevant trends in the open mobile platform space from a number of perspectives. As the articles in these issue show, there is a lot of exciting ongoing work that brings the power of open source development to the mobile space. This trend is not just confined to the mobile devices as there are also efforts in the development of open mobile infrastructure elements and whole systems.

  18. Amino acid catabolism by Lactobacillus helveticus in cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kananen, Soila Kaarina

    Amino acid catabolism is the final step in the conversion of caseins to flavour compounds and a part of a complex combination of biochemical pathways in cheese flavour formation. Lactobacillus helveticus is a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium that is used in cheese manufacture as a primary starter...... culture or as an adjunct culture. It has shown high proteolytic activities in conversion of caseins to peptides and further to amino acids and flavour compounds. Better understanding of the enzyme activity properties and the influence of different properties on final cheese flavour is favourable for...... developing new cheese products with enhanced flavour. The aim of this Ph.D. study was to investigate the importance of strain variation of Lb. helveticus in relation flavour formation in cheese related to amino acid catabolism. Aspects of using Lb. helveticus as starter as well as adjunct culture in cheese...

  19. Invasive Acacia longifolia induce changes in the microbial catabolic diversity of sand dunes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise; Struwe, Sten;

    2008-01-01

    Acacia longifolia is one of the main plant species invading Portuguese dune ecosystems. Areas invaded by this exotic tree have reduced plant diversity and altered soil microbial processes and nutrient pools, but the impacts on microbial functional diversity in the soil have been little explored...... of invasion, carbon (C) content, nitrogen (N) content, C/N ratio, pH, and litter quantity explained 39.6% of the variance of catabolic responses. It is concluded that invasion by A. longifolia has substantial effects on the catabolic diversity of the soil microbial communities. These effects may have wider...... implications for nutrient cycling and ecosystem-level processes and for the invasibility of the system....

  20. Transcriptional Analysis of Prebiotic Uptake and Catabolism by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Joakim Mark; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Abou Hachem, Maher;

    2012-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract can be positively modulated by dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates. Here differential transcriptomics and functional genomics were used to identify genes in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM involved in the uptake...... and catabolism of 11 potential prebiotic compounds consisting of α- and β- linked galactosides and glucosides. These oligosaccharides induced genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase systems (PTS), galactoside pentose hexuronide (GPH) permease, and ATP-binding cassette......1 6-phospho-β-glucosidases implicated in the catabolism of gentiobiose and cellobiose. These findings highlight the broad oligosaccharide metabolic repertoire of L. acidophilus NCFM and establish a platform for selection and screening of both probiotic bacteria and prebiotic compounds that may...

  1. Amino acid catabolism and generation of volatiles by lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Tavaria, F. K.; Dahl, S.; Carballo, F. J.; Malcata, F. X.

    2002-01-01

    Twelve isolates of lactic acid bacteria, belonging to the Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, and Enterococcus genera, were previously isolated from 180- d-old Serra da Estrela cheese, a traditional Portuguese cheese manufactured from raw milk and coagulated with a plant rennet. These isolates were subsequently tested for their ability to catabolize free amino acids, when incubated independently with each amino acid in free form or with a mixture thereof. Attempts...

  2. Elevated serine catabolism is associated with the heat shock response in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, R G; Neidhardt, F C

    1989-01-01

    The biochemical events associated with the heat shock response are not well understood in any organism, nor have the signals that initiate the induction of heat shock protein synthesis been identified. In this work, we demonstrate that the rate of serine catabolism of Escherichia coli cells grown in glucose minimal medium supplemented with serine is elevated three- to sevenfold when the growth temperature is shifted from 37 to 44 degrees C. Elevations in growth temperature and mutations or tr...

  3. Microbial catabolic activities are naturally selected by metabolic energy harvest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cabaleiro, Rebeca; Ofiţeru, Irina D; Lema, Juan M; Rodríguez, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    The fundamental trade-off between yield and rate of energy harvest per unit of substrate has been largely discussed as a main characteristic for microbial established cooperation or competition. In this study, this point is addressed by developing a generalized model that simulates competition between existing and not experimentally reported microbial catabolic activities defined only based on well-known biochemical pathways. No specific microbial physiological adaptations are considered, growth yield is calculated coupled to catabolism energetics and a common maximum biomass-specific catabolism rate (expressed as electron transfer rate) is assumed for all microbial groups. Under this approach, successful microbial metabolisms are predicted in line with experimental observations under the hypothesis of maximum energy harvest rate. Two microbial ecosystems, typically found in wastewater treatment plants, are simulated, namely: (i) the anaerobic fermentation of glucose and (ii) the oxidation and reduction of nitrogen under aerobic autotrophic (nitrification) and anoxic heterotrophic and autotrophic (denitrification) conditions. The experimentally observed cross feeding in glucose fermentation, through multiple intermediate fermentation pathways, towards ultimately methane and carbon dioxide is predicted. Analogously, two-stage nitrification (by ammonium and nitrite oxidizers) is predicted as prevailing over nitrification in one stage. Conversely, denitrification is predicted in one stage (by denitrifiers) as well as anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation). The model results suggest that these observations are a direct consequence of the different energy yields per electron transferred at the different steps of the pathways. Overall, our results theoretically support the hypothesis that successful microbial catabolic activities are selected by an overall maximum energy harvest rate. PMID:26161636

  4. Formaldehyde catabolism is essential in cells deficient for the Fanconi anemia DNA-repair pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Ivan V; Langevin, Frédéric; Crossan, Gerry P; Takata, Minoru; Patel, Ketan J

    2011-12-01

    Metabolism is predicted to generate formaldehyde, a toxic, simple, reactive aldehyde that can damage DNA. Here we report a synthetic lethal interaction in avian cells between ADH5, encoding the main formaldehyde-detoxifying enzyme, and the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA-repair pathway. These results define a fundamental role for the combined action of formaldehyde catabolism and DNA cross-link repair in vertebrate cell survival. PMID:22081012

  5. Naphthalene and Donor Cell Density Influence Field Conjugation of Naphthalene Catabolism Plasmids

    OpenAIRE

    Hohnstock, A. M.; Stuart-Keil, K G; Kull, E. E.; Madsen, E. L.

    2000-01-01

    We examined transfer of naphthalene-catabolic genes from donor microorganisms native to a contaminated site to site-derived, rifampin-resistant recipient bacteria unable to grow on naphthalene. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) was demonstrated in filter matings using groundwater microorganisms as donors. Two distinct but similar plasmid types, closely related to pDTG1, were retrieved. In laboratory-incubated sediment matings, the addition of naphthalene stimulated HGT. However, recipient bacter...

  6. Diversifying and Stabilizing Selection of Sialidase and N-Acetylneuraminate Catabolism in Mycoplasma synoviae▿ §

    OpenAIRE

    May, Meghan; Brown, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    Sialidase activity varies widely among strains and tends to correlate with strain virulence in the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae. To characterize the forms of selection acting on enzymes required for sialic acid scavenging and catabolism, the ratios of nonsynonymous (Ka) to synonymous (Ks) mutation frequency were calculated for codons in the sialidase gene of 16 strains of M. synoviae and for its nearly identical homolog in four strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The Ka/Ks (ω) values f...

  7. Genetic Variation in Sialidase and Linkage to N-acetylneuraminate Catabolism in Mycoplasma synoviae

    OpenAIRE

    May, Meghan; Brown, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    We explored the genetic basis for intraspecific variation in mycoplasmal sialidase activity that correlates with virulence, and its potentially advantageous linkage to nutrient catabolism. Polymorphism in N-acetylneuraminate scavenging and degradation genes (sialidase, N-acetylneuraminate lyase, N-acetylmannosamine kinase, N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate epimerase, N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase, and glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase) was evident among eight strains of the avian ...

  8. Functional metagenomics to mine the human gut microbiome for dietary fiber catabolic enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Tasse, Lena; Bercovici, Juliette; Pizzut-Serin, Sandra; Robe, Patrick; Tap, Julien; Klopp, Christophe; Cantarel, Brandi L; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; Leclerc, Marion; Doré, Joël; Monsan, Pierre; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Potocki-Veronese, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    The human gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem composed mainly of uncultured bacteria. It plays an essential role in the catabolism of dietary fibers, the part of plant material in our diet that is not metabolized in the upper digestive tract, because the human genome does not encode adequate carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes). We describe a multi-step functionally based approach to guide the in-depth pyrosequencing of specific regions of the human gut metagenome encoding the CAZymes invo...

  9. Transcriptional analysis of prebiotic uptake and catabolism by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Joakim Mark; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Hachem, Maher Abou; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Goh, Yong-Jun; Svensson, Birte; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2012-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract can be positively modulated by dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates. Here differential transcriptomics and functional genomics were used to identify genes in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM involved in the uptake and catabolism of 11 potential prebiotic compounds consisting of α- and β-linked galactosides and glucosides. These oligosaccharides induced genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase systems (PTS), galactoside pentose hexuronide (GPH) permease, and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. PTS systems were upregulated primarily by di- and tri-saccharides such as cellobiose, isomaltose, isomaltulose, panose and gentiobiose, while ABC transporters were upregulated by raffinose, Polydextrose, and stachyose. A single GPH transporter was induced by lactitol and galactooligosaccharides (GOS). The various transporters were associated with a number of glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 4, 13, 32, 36, 42, and 65, involved in the catabolism of various α- and β-linked glucosides and galactosides. Further subfamily specialization was also observed for different PTS-associated GH1 6-phospho-β-glucosidases implicated in the catabolism of gentiobiose and cellobiose. These findings highlight the broad oligosaccharide metabolic repertoire of L. acidophilus NCFM and establish a platform for selection and screening of both probiotic bacteria and prebiotic compounds that may positively influence the gastrointestinal microbiota. PMID:23028535

  10. Effects of Zinc Magnesium Aspartate (ZMA Supplementation on Training Adaptations and Markers of Anabolism and Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almada Anthony

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined whether supplementing the diet with a commercial supplement containing zinc magnesium aspartate (ZMA during training affects zinc and magnesium status, anabolic and catabolic hormone profiles, and/or training adaptations. Forty-two resistance trained males (27 ± 9 yrs; 178 ± 8 cm, 85 ± 15 kg, 18.6 ± 6% body fat were matched according to fat free mass and randomly assigned to ingest in a double blind manner either a dextrose placebo (P or ZMA 30–60 minutes prior to going to sleep during 8-weeks of standardized resistance-training. Subjects completed testing sessions at 0, 4, and 8 weeks that included body composition assessment as determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, 1-RM and muscular endurance tests on the bench and leg press, a Wingate anaerobic power test, and blood analysis to assess anabolic/catabolic status as well as markers of health. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results indicated that ZMA supplementation non-significantly increased serum zinc levels by 11 – 17% (p = 0.12. However, no significant differences were observed between groups in anabolic or catabolic hormone status, body composition, 1-RM bench press and leg press, upper or lower body muscular endurance, or cycling anaerobic capacity. Results indicate that ZMA supplementation during training does not appear to enhance training adaptations in resistance trained populations.

  11. The control of chlorophyll catabolism and the status of yellowing as a biomarker of leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ougham, H; Hörtensteiner, S; Armstead, I; Donnison, I; King, I; Thomas, H; Mur, L

    2008-09-01

    The pathway of chlorophyll catabolism during leaf senescence is known in a fair amount of biochemical and cell biological detail. In the last few years, genes encoding a number of the catabolic enzymes have been characterized, including the key ring-opening activities, phaeophorbide a oxygenase (PaO) and red chlorophyll catabolite reductase (RCCR). Recently, a gene that modulates disassembly of chlorophyll-protein complexes and activation of pigment ring-opening has been isolated by comparative mapping in monocot species, positional cloning exploiting rice genomics resources and functional testing in Arabidopsis. The corresponding gene in pea has been identified as Mendel's I locus (green/yellow cotyledons). Mutations in this and other chlorophyll catabolic genes have significant consequences, both for the course of leaf senescence and senescence-like stress responses, notably hypersensitivity to pathogen challenge. Loss of chlorophyll can occur via routes other than the PaO/RCCR pathway, resulting in changes that superficially resemble senescence. Such 'pseudosenescence' responses tend to be pathological rather than physiological and may differ from senescence in fundamental aspects of biochemistry and regulation. PMID:18721307

  12. Mobility Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    coordination necessary in cooperative work, but focuses, we argue, mainly on the temporal aspects of cooperative work. As a supplement, the concept of mobility work focuses on the spatial aspects of cooperative work. Whereas actors seek to diminish the amount of articulation work needed in collaboration by......We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts of...... constructing Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs), actors minimise mobility work by constructing Standard Operation Configurations (SOCs). We apply the concept of mobility work to the ethnography of hospital work, and argue that mobility arises because of the need to get access to people, places, knowledge and...

  13. Expression of the Escherichia coli Catabolic Threonine Dehydratase in Corynebacterium glutamicum and Its Effect on Isoleucine Production

    OpenAIRE

    Guillouet, S.; Rodal, A. A.; An, G.-H.; Lessard, P. A.; Sinskey, A J

    1999-01-01

    The catabolic or biodegradative threonine dehydratase (E.C. 4.2.1.16) of Escherichia coli is an isoleucine feedback-resistant enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of threonine to α-ketobutyrate, the first reaction of the isoleucine pathway. We cloned and expressed this enzyme in Corynebacterium glutamicum. We found that while the native threonine dehydratase of C. glutamicum was totally inhibited by 15 mM isoleucine, the heterologous catabolic threonine dehydratase expressed in the same stra...

  14. Mobile Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter aims to understand the mobile condition of contemporary life with a particular view to the signifying dimension of the environment and its ‘readability’. The chapter explores the potentials of semiotics and its relationship to the new mobilities literature. What takes place is a...... ‘mobile sense making’ where signs and materially situated meanings connect to the moving human body and thus create particular challenges and complexities of making sense of the world. The chapter includes notions of mobility systems and socio-technical networks in order to show how a ‘semiotic layer’ may...

  15. Mobil marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Engelová, Kateřina

    2006-01-01

    Mobil marketing - reklama a podpora prodeje prostřednictvím mobilních telefonů. Technologické a kulturní předpoklady vzniku tohoto odvětví. Mobil marketing a marketingový mix, možnosti synergie. Nástroje mobil marketingu - reklamní SMS a MMS, lokační služby, soutěže, ankety a hlasování, věrnostní systémy, mobilní obsah. Subjekty mobil marketingu. M-komerce. Využití pro podnikové aplikace.

  16. Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    A mobile cloud is a cooperative arrangement of dynamically connected communication nodes sharing opportunistic resources. In this book, authors provide a comprehensive and motivating overview of this rapidly emerging technology. The book explores how distributed resources can be shared by mobile...... examples of mobile clouds applications, based on both existing commercial initiatives as well as proof-of-concept test-beds. Visions and prospects are also discussed, paving the way for further development. As mobile networks and social networks become more and more reliant on each other, the concept of...

  17. Insulin resistance is a two-sided mechanism acting under opposite catabolic and anabolic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartsburd, Polina

    2016-04-01

    The survival of multi-cellular organisms depends on the organism ability to maintain glucose homeostasis for time of low/high nutrient availability or high energy needs, and the ability to fight infections or stress. These effects are realized through the insulin controlled transport of blood glucose into the insulin-responsive cells such as muscle, fat and liver cells. Reduction in the ability of these cells to take glucose from the blood in response to normal circulating levels of insulin is known as insulin resistance (IR). Chronic IR is a key pathological feature of obesity, type 2 diabetes, sepsis and cancer cachexia, however temporal IR are widely met in fasting/ hibernation, pregnancy, anti-bacterial immunity, exercise and stress. Paradoxically, a certain part of the IR-cases is associated with catabolic metabolism, whereas the other is related to anabolic pathways. How can this paradoxical IR-response be explained? What is the metabolic basis of this IR variability and its physiological and pathological impacts? An answer to these questions might be achieved through the hypothesis in which IR is considered as a two-sided mechanism acting under opposite metabolic conditions (catabolism and anabolism) but with the common aim to sustain glucose homeostasis in a wide metabolic range. To test this hypothesis, I examined the main metabolic distinctions between the varied IR-cases and their dependence on the blood glucose concentration, level of the IR-threshold, and catabolic/anabolic activation. On the basis of the established interrelations, a simple model of IR-distribution has been developed. The model revealed the «U-type distribution» form with separation into two main IR-groups, each determined in the catabolic or anabolic conditions with one exception - type 2 diabetes and its paradoxical catabolic activation in anabolic conditions. The dual opposing (or complementary) role for the IR opens a new possibility for better understanding the cause and

  18. Role of AMP catabolism enzymes in the energetic status of erythrocytes under conditions of glucose depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Dotsenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The adenylate metabolism determines the value of energy charge, adenylate pool and ATP concentration, with its level strongly differing in various cell types. The reasons of such differences are still not clear, moreover, role of adenylate metabolism in the regulation of intracellular ATP concentration is not fully known. Hypotheses about mechanisms of adenylate pool stabilization are based on results of mathematical modeling and require the experimental verification. It is known that AMP catabolism enzymes such as AMP-desaminase and 5’-nucleotidase are directly involved in the processes of adenylate charge and pool regulation and their activity depends on the concentration of this metabolite. It is considered that switching from AMP-desaminase pathway of AMP catabolism to 5’-nucleotidase pathway and vice versa may contribute to stabilization of adenylate charge and pool under increased energy load that leads to the reduction of ATP content. The objective of this study consisted in the experimental investigation of mechanisms of adenylate metabolism regulation in human erythrocytes as well as principles of adenylate and energy metabolism interaction in erythrocytes with varied energy charge. Сhanges in activities of catabolism enzymes such as AMP-membrane-bound (eN and cytosolic (cN-IA 5’-nucleotidase, AMP-desaminase (AMPDA of erythrocytes under conditions of glucose depletion and under vibration effect on cells in the range of frequencies of 8–32 Hz, step of 4 Hz, and the amplitude of 0,5 ±0,04 mmhave been studied. Antiphase change of cN-IA and AMPDA activities in erythrocytes incubated in the medium without glucose was shown. Processes of switching of two ways of AMP catabolism create the conditions for the stabilization of energy charge and the ATP concentration stabilization though at a level below the initial one. In the erythrocytes in the medium without glucose and under vibration the antiphase change of enzyme activity was

  19. Mobile Semiotics - signs and mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper is about how to comprehend the mobile condition of contemporary life with a particular view to the signifying dimension of the environment and its ‘readability’. The paper explores the potentials of semiotics and its relationship to the new mobilities literature. The theoretical scope is...... therefore an attempt to mobilize semiotics by drawing on a central body of theory within and adjacent to the discipline. For instance the founding works of C. S. Peirce will be related to the contemporary notions of ‘geosemiotics’ by Scollon & Scollon. The paper’s theoretical claim is that semiotics hold a...... potential for mobilities studies if the awareness of seeing the environment as a semiotic layer and system can be sensitized to the insights of the ‘mobilities turn’. Empirically the paper tentatively explores the usefulness of a mobile semiotics approach to cases such as street signage, airport design, and...

  20. Mobile phones and mobile communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard; Donner, Jonathan

    With staggering swiftness, the mobile phone has become a fixture of daily life in almost every society on earth. In 2007, the world had over 3 billion mobile subscriptions. Prosperous nations boast of having more subscriptions than people. In the developing world, hundreds of millions of people who...... could never afford a landline telephone now have a mobile number of their own. With a mobile in our hand many of us feel safer, more productive, and more connected to loved ones, but perhaps also more distracted and less involved with things happening immediately around us. Written by two leading...... researchers in the field, this volume presents an overview of the mobile telephone as a social and cultural phenomenon. Research is summarized and made accessible though detailed descriptions of ten mobile users from around the world. These illustrate popular debates, as well as deeper social forces at work...

  1. Diversity, metabolic properties and arsenic mobilization potential of indigenous bacteria in arsenic contaminated groundwater of West Bengal, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj Paul

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As mobilization in alluvial aquifers is caused by a complex interplay of hydro-geo-microbiological activities. Nevertheless, diversity and biogeochemical significance of indigenous bacteria in Bengal Delta Plain are not well documented. We have deciphered bacterial community compositions and metabolic properties in As contaminated groundwater of West Bengal to define their role in As mobilization. Groundwater samples showed characteristic high As, low organic carbon and reducing property. Culture-independent and -dependent analyses revealed presence of diverse, yet near consistent community composition mostly represented by genera Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Brevundimonas, Polaromonas, Rhodococcus, Methyloversatilis and Methylotenera. Along with As-resistance and -reductase activities, abilities to metabolize a wide range carbon substrates including long chain and polyaromatic hydrocarbons and HCO3, As3+ as electron donor and As5+/Fe3+ as terminal electron acceptor during anaerobic growth were frequently observed within the cultivable bacteria. Genes encoding cytosolic As5+ reductase (arsC and As3+ efflux/transporter [arsB and acr3(2] were found to be more abundant than the dissimilatory As5+ reductase gene arrA. The observed metabolic characteristics showed a good agreement with the same derived from phylogenetic lineages of constituent populations. Selected bacterial strains incubated anaerobically over 300 days using natural orange sand of Pleistocene aquifer showed release of soluble As mostly as As3+ along with several other elements (Al, Fe, Mn, K, etc.. Together with the production of oxalic acid within the biotic microcosms, change in sediment composition and mineralogy indicated dissolution of orange sand coupled with As/Fe reduction. Presence of arsC gene, As5+ reductase activity and oxalic acid production by the bacteria were found to be closely related to their ability to mobilize sediment bound As. Overall observations

  2. Diversity, metabolic properties and arsenic mobilization potential of indigenous bacteria in arsenic contaminated groundwater of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Dhiraj; Kazy, Sufia K; Gupta, Ashok K; Pal, Taraknath; Sar, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) mobilization in alluvial aquifers is caused by a complex interplay of hydro-geo-microbiological activities. Nevertheless, diversity and biogeochemical significance of indigenous bacteria in Bengal Delta Plain are not well documented. We have deciphered bacterial community compositions and metabolic properties in As contaminated groundwater of West Bengal to define their role in As mobilization. Groundwater samples showed characteristic high As, low organic carbon and reducing property. Culture-independent and -dependent analyses revealed presence of diverse, yet near consistent community composition mostly represented by genera Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Brevundimonas, Polaromonas, Rhodococcus, Methyloversatilis and Methylotenera. Along with As-resistance and -reductase activities, abilities to metabolize a wide range carbon substrates including long chain and polyaromatic hydrocarbons and HCO3, As3+ as electron donor and As5+/Fe3+ as terminal electron acceptor during anaerobic growth were frequently observed within the cultivable bacteria. Genes encoding cytosolic As5+ reductase (arsC) and As3+ efflux/transporter [arsB and acr3(2)] were found to be more abundant than the dissimilatory As5+ reductase gene arrA. The observed metabolic characteristics showed a good agreement with the same derived from phylogenetic lineages of constituent populations. Selected bacterial strains incubated anaerobically over 300 days using natural orange sand of Pleistocene aquifer showed release of soluble As mostly as As3+ along with several other elements (Al, Fe, Mn, K, etc.). Together with the production of oxalic acid within the biotic microcosms, change in sediment composition and mineralogy indicated dissolution of orange sand coupled with As/Fe reduction. Presence of arsC gene, As5+ reductase activity and oxalic acid production by the bacteria were found to be closely related to their ability to mobilize sediment bound As. Overall observations suggest that

  3. Mobile phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost the entire Norwegian population has cell phone. The usefulness of the cell phone is great, but can use a mobile phone to health or discomfort? How can exposure be reduced? NRPA follows research and provides advice on mobile phone use. (AG)

  4. Restricted Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    exclusion and stratification mechanisms. In conclusion the article therefore suggests that future urban research and planning also needs a mobile understanding of spaces in the cities and how different mobility systems play an important role to sustain the exclusiveness that often characterises the private......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...... communities and shopping centres through mobility lenses. The article shows how different mobility systems enable and restrict the public access to private-public spaces, and it points out that proprietary communities create an unequal potential for human movement and access in the city. The main argument in...

  5. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we identify the nexus between design (architecture, urban design, service design, etc.) and mobilities as a new and emerging research field. In this paper, we apply a “situational mobilities” perspective and take point of departure in the pragmatist question: “What design decisions...... and interventions affords this particular mobile situation?” The paper presents the contours of an emerging research agenda within mobilities research. The advent of “mobilities design” as an emerging research field points towards a critical interest in the material as well as practical consequences...... well as policy-making. The paper proposes that increased understanding of the material affordances facilitated through design provides important insight to planning and policymaking that at times might be in risk of becoming too detached from the everyday life of the mobile subject within contemporary...

  6. Intensive mobilities:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper explores the intensities of long distance commuting journeys as a way of exploring how bodily sensibilities are being changed by the mobilities that they undertake. The context of this paper is that many people are travelling further to work than ever before owing to a variety of factors...... which relate to transport, housing and employment. Yet we argue that the experiential dimensions of long distance mobilities have not received the attention that they deserve within geographical research on mobilities. This paper combines ideas from mobilities research and contemporary social theory...... with fieldwork conducted in Canada, Denmark and Australia to develop our understanding of the experiential politics of long distance workers. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this...

  7. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    How is the width of the pavement shaping the urban experience? How is the material design of transport infrastructure and mobile technology affording social interaction in everyday life spaces? How do people inhabit these spaces with their bodies and in accordance to social and cultural norms......? These are some of the questions that this book raises in order to explore how the design of mobile sites and situations affect people's everyday life. The book takes point of departure in the author's book 'Staging Mobilities' (Routledge, 2013) in which it is argued that mobility is much more than...... mundane acts of moving in the city. 'Designing Mobilities' is based on more than a decade of academic research by Professor of Urban Theory, Ole B. Jensen and a must-read for students and scholars with an interest in urban studies, urban design, architecture, urban planning, transport planning and...

  8. The Bacillus subtilis conjugative transposon ICEBs1 mobilizes plasmids lacking dedicated mobilization functions

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Catherine A.; Thomas, Jacob; Grossman, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs, also known as conjugative transposons) are mobile elements that are found integrated in a host genome and can excise and transfer to recipient cells via conjugation. ICEs and conjugative plasmids are found in many bacteria and are important agents of horizontal gene transfer and microbial evolution. Conjugative elements are capable of self-transfer and also capable of mobilizing other DNA elements that are not able to self-transfer. Plasmids that ca...

  9. It Is Not All about Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms: Comparison of Mobile Genetic Elements and Deletions in Listeria monocytogenes Genomes Links Cases of Hospital-Acquired Listeriosis to the Environmental Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinning; Holmes, Nadine; Martinez, Elena; Howard, Peter; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2015-11-01

    The control of food-borne outbreaks caused by Listeria monocytogenes in humans relies on the timely identification of food or environmental sources and the differentiation of outbreak-related isolates from unrelated ones. This study illustrates the utility of whole-genome sequencing for examining the link between clinical and environmental isolates of L. monocytogenes associated with an outbreak of hospital-acquired listeriosis in Sydney, Australia. Comparative genomic analysis confirmed an epidemiological link between the three clinical and two environmental isolates. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis showed that only two SNPs separated the three human outbreak isolates, which differed by 19 to 20 SNPs from the environmental isolates and 71 to >10,000 SNPs from sporadic L. monocytogenes isolates. The chromosomes of all human outbreak isolates and the two suspected environmental isolates were syntenic. In contrast to the genomes of background sporadic isolates, all epidemiologically linked isolates contained two novel prophages and a previously unreported clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) locus subtype sequence. The mobile genetic element (MGE) profile of these isolates was distinct from that of the other serotype 1/2b reference strains and sporadic isolates. The identification of SNPs and clonally distinctive MGEs strengthened evidence to distinguish outbreak-related isolates of L. monocytogenes from cocirculating endemic strains. PMID:26311854

  10. Mobility and Well-being in Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    This study, using focus group material, explored how independent mobility and personal wellbeing in old age are interconnected and which elements of mobility are the most essential for well-being by examining the way seniors talk about mobility and adapting to age-related mobility restrictions...

  11. Extractability of risk elements and nutrition elements from ash

    OpenAIRE

    Hrma, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    The thesis „Extractability of risk elements and nutrition elements from ash“ studies the determination of physicochemical properties of ash and compares the mobility of heavy metals and nutrition elements in various samples. The aim of the study was to determine the extractability of heavy metals and nutrition elements from biomass ash and their chemical speciation using sequential extraction procedure based upon Tessier which was modified for given matrix. The results permit to classify m...

  12. User Experience of Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raptis, Dimitrios

    that the overall physical form of a mobile device has a significant effect on the perceived usability of an application: the more attractive the physical form, the higher the perceived usability. The other study validated the effect of a particular physical form element on usability and showed that the screen size......This thesis focuses on mobile devices and it specifically investigates the effect of their physical form on two perceived user experience qualities, usability and coolness. With the term mobile devices, I refer to interactive products that users interact with while being on the move......, and with the term physical form I refer to the physical elements that constitute a mobile device as a whole, such as weight, size and materials. The selected research area was addressed through two research questions, one focusing on effects of physical form on usability and the other on effects on coolness...

  13. Resistance training minimizes catabolic effects induced by sleep deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mônico-Neto, Marcos; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Lee, Kil Sun; Phillips, Stuart M; Giampá, Sara Quaglia de Campos; Souza, Helton de Sá; Dáttilo, Murilo; Medeiros, Alessandra; de Moraes, Wilson Max; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2015-11-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) can induce muscle atrophy. We aimed to investigate the changes underpinning SD-induced muscle atrophy and the impact of this condition on rats that were previously submitted to resistance training (RT). Adult male Wistar EPM-1 rats were randomly allocated into 1 of 5 groups: control, sham, SD (for 96 h), RT, and RT+SD. The major outcomes of this study were muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), anabolic and catabolic hormone profiles, and the abundance of select proteins involved in muscle protein synthesis and degradation pathways. SD resulted in muscle atrophy; however, when SD was combined with RT, the reduction in muscle fiber CSA was attenuated. The levels of IGF-1 and testosterone were reduced in SD animals, and the RT+SD group had higher levels of these hormones than the SD group. Corticosterone was increased in the SD group compared with the control group, and this increase was minimized in the RT+SD group. The increases in corticosterone concentrations paralleled changes in the abundance of ubiquitinated proteins and the autophagic proteins LC3 and p62/SQSTM1, suggesting that corticosterone may trigger these changes. SD induced weight loss, but this loss was minimized in the RT+SD group. We conclude that SD induced muscle atrophy, probably because of the increased corticosterone and catabolic signal. High-intensity RT performed before SD was beneficial in containing muscle loss induced by SD. It also minimized the catabolic signal and increased synthetic activity, thereby minimizing the body's weight loss. PMID:26513007

  14. Endocannabinoid Catabolic Enzymes Play Differential Roles in Thermal Homeostasis in Response to Environmental or Immune Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Sara R; Long, Jonathan Z; Schlosburg, Joel E; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H; Kinsey, Steven G

    2015-06-01

    Cannabinoid receptor agonists, such as Δ(9)-THC, the primary active constituent of Cannabis sativa, have anti-pyrogenic effects in a variety of assays. Recently, attention has turned to the endogenous cannabinoid system and how endocannabinoids, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, regulate multiple homeostatic processes, including thermoregulation. Inhibiting endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes, monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) or fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), elevates levels of 2-AG or anandamide in vivo, respectively. The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes function to maintain thermal homeostasis in response to hypothermic challenge. In separate experiments, male C57BL/6J mice were administered a MAGL or FAAH inhibitor, and then challenged with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 2 mg/kg ip) or a cold (4 °C) ambient environment. Systemic LPS administration caused a significant decrease in core body temperature after 6 h, and this hypothermia persisted for at least 12 h. Similarly, cold environment induced mild hypothermia that resolved within 30 min. JZL184 exacerbated hypothermia induced by either LPS or cold challenge, both of which effects were blocked by rimonabant, but not SR144528, indicating a CB1 cannabinoid receptor mechanism of action. In contrast, the FAAH inhibitor, PF-3845, had no effect on either LPS-induced or cold-induced hypothermia. These data indicate that unlike direct acting cannabinoid receptor agonists, which elicit profound hypothermic responses on their own, neither MAGL nor FAAH inhibitors affect normal body temperature. However, these endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes play distinct roles in thermoregulation following hypothermic challenges. PMID:25715681

  15. Going Mobile?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tallon, Loic; Froes, Isabel Cristina G.

    2011-01-01

    If the future is mobile, how is the museum community developing within that future? What are the challenges museums face within it? In which directions should we be seeking to evolve our collective knowledge share? It was to gain observations on questions such as these that the 2011 Museums & Mob...... & Mobile survey was developed: 660 museum professionals responded. In this paper the authors highlight nine survey observations that they believe are important to the museum community’s increased understanding of and continued progress within mobile interpretation....

  16. Mobile museology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Rikke Haller

    selection of blog posts from the research project blog with three research articles: ‘Museum metamorphosis à la mode’, proposing a fashion perspective on ongoing museum developments; ‘Augmenting the agora: media and civic engagement in museums’, questioning the idea of social media holding a vital potential...... fashionable, the ephemeral, and towards an (ideal) state of change and changeability. This orientation is characterised with the triplet concepts of mobile, mobility, and mobilisation, as related to mobile media and movability; to ‘trans - museal’ mediation; and to the mobilisation of collections, audiences...

  17. Mobile Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Users are already mobile, but the question is to which extent knowledge-based dictionary apps are designed for the mobile user situation. The objective of this article is to analyse the characteristics of the mobile user situation and to look further into the stationary user situation and the...... looked up the same five medical terms while walking around a hospital bed. The data collected during the two tests include external and internal recordings, think-aloud data and interview data. The data were analysed by means of the information scientific star model, cf. (Simonsen 2011:565), and it was...

  18. Regulation of fructose uptake and catabolism by succinate in Azospirillum brasilense.

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, A; S. Ghosh

    1987-01-01

    Fructose uptake and catabolism in Azospirillum brasilense is dependent on three fructose-inducible enzymes (fru-enzymes): (i) enzyme I and (ii) enzyme II of the phosphoenolpyruvate:fructose phosphotransferase system and (iii) 1-phosphofructokinase. In minimal medium containing 3.7 mM succinate and 22 mM fructose as sources of carbon, growth of A. brasilense was diauxic, succinate being utilized in the first phase of growth and fructose in the second phase with a lag period between the two gro...

  19. Developmental and hormonal regulation of gibberellin biosynthesis and catabolism in pea fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozga, Jocelyn A; Reinecke, Dennis M; Ayele, Belay T; Ngo, Phuong; Nadeau, Courtney; Wickramarathna, Aruna D

    2009-05-01

    In pea (Pisum sativum), normal fruit growth requires the presence of the seeds. The coordination of growth between the seed and ovary tissues involves phytohormones; however, the specific mechanisms remain speculative. This study further explores the roles of the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and catabolism genes during pollination and fruit development and in seed and auxin regulation of pericarp growth. Pollination and fertilization events not only increase pericarp PsGA3ox1 message levels (codes for GA 3-oxidase that converts GA(20) to bioactive GA(1)) but also reduce pericarp PsGA2ox1 mRNA levels (codes for GA 2-oxidase that mainly catabolizes GA(20) to GA(29)), suggesting a concerted regulation to increase levels of bioactive GA(1) following these events. 4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-Cl-IAA) was found to mimic the seeds in the stimulation of PsGA3ox1 and the repression of PsGA2ox1 mRNA levels as well as the stimulation of PsGA2ox2 mRNA levels (codes for GA 2-oxidase that mainly catabolizes GA(1) to GA(8)) in pericarp at 2 to 3 d after anthesis, while the other endogenous pea auxin, IAA, did not. This GA gene expression profile suggests that both seeds and 4-Cl-IAA can stimulate the production, as well as modulate the half-life, of bioactive GA(1), leading to initial fruit set and subsequent growth and development of the ovary. Consistent with these gene expression profiles, deseeded pericarps converted [(14)C]GA(12) to [(14)C]GA(1) only if treated with 4-Cl-IAA. These data further support the hypothesis that 4-Cl-IAA produced in the seeds is transported to the pericarp, where it differentially regulates the expression of pericarp GA biosynthesis and catabolism genes to modulate the level of bioactive GA(1) required for initial fruit set and growth. PMID:19297588

  20. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of a Ureidoglycine Aminotransferase in the Klebsiella pneumoniae Uric Acid Catabolic Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell)

    2010-09-03

    Many plants, fungi, and bacteria catabolize allantoin as a mechanism for nitrogen assimilation. Recent reports have shown that in plants and some bacteria the product of hydrolysis of allantoin by allantoinase is the unstable intermediate ureidoglycine. While this molecule can spontaneously decay, genetic analysis of some bacterial genomes indicates that an aminotransferase may be present in the pathway. Here we present evidence that Klebsiella pneumoniae HpxJ is an aminotransferase that preferentially converts ureidoglycine and an {alpha}-keto acid into oxalurate and the corresponding amino acid. We determined the crystal structure of HpxJ, allowing us to present an explanation for substrate specificity.

  1. Mobile Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Enache

    2016-01-01

    Mobile commerce, or m-commerce, refers to the use of wireless digital devices to enable transactions on the Web. Described more fully in Chapter 3, m-commerce involves the use of wireless networks to connect cell phones, handheld devices such Blackberries, and personal computers to the Web. Once connected, mobile consumers can conduct transactions, including stock trades, in-store price comparisons, banking, travel reservations, and more.

  2. The genomes of the South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) encode a more complete purine catabolic pathway than placental mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Keebaugh, Alaine C.; Thomas, James W.

    2009-01-01

    The end product of purine catabolism varies amongst vertebrates and is a consequence of independent gene inactivation events that have truncated the purine catabolic pathway. Mammals have traditionally been grouped into two classes based on their end product of purine catabolism: most mammals, whose end product is allantoin due to an ancient loss of allantoinase (ALLN), and the hominoids, whose end product is uric acid due to recent inactivations of urate oxidase (UOX). However little is know...

  3. The genomes of the South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) encode a more complete purine catabolic pathway than placental mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keebaugh, Alaine C; Thomas, James W

    2009-09-01

    The end product of purine catabolism varies amongst vertebrates and is a consequence of independent gene inactivation events that have truncated the purine catabolic pathway. Mammals have traditionally been grouped into two classes based on their end product of purine catabolism: most mammals, whose end product is allantoin due to an ancient loss of allantoinase (ALLN), and the hominoids, whose end product is uric acid due to recent inactivations of urate oxidase (UOX). However little is known about purine catabolism in marsupials and monotremes. Here we report the results of a comparative genomics study designed to characterize the purine catabolic pathway in a marsupial, the South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica), and a monotreme, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). We found that both genomes encode a more complete set of genes for purine catabolism than do eutherians and conclude that a near complete purine catabolic pathway was present in the common ancestor of all mammals, and that the loss of ALLN is specific to placental mammals. Our results therefore provide a revised history for gene loss in the purine catabolic pathway and suggest that marsupials and monotremes represent a third class of mammals with respect to their end products of purine catabolism. PMID:20161190

  4. Genetic analysis of phenylacetic acid catabolism in Arthrobacter oxydans CECT386.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Llorens, Juana María; Drzyzga, Oliver; Perera, Julián

    2008-07-01

    Arthrobacter oxydans CECT386 is a Gram-positive bacterium able to use either phenylacetic acid or phenylacetaldehyde as the sole carbon and energy source for aerobic growth. Genes responsible for the catabolism of these compounds have been located at two chromosomal regions and were organized in one isolated paaN gene and two putative paa operons, one consisting of the paaD, paaF, tetR and prot genes, and one consisting of the paaG, paaH, paaI, paaJ, paaK and paaB genes. The identity of the paaF and paaN genes was supported by functional complementation experiments. A comparison with the paa catabolic genes and/or gene clusters of other bacteria that degrade these aromatic compounds is presented. The results of this study broaden the knowledge regarding the range of metabolic potential of this strain and eventually make it attractive for environmental applications. PMID:18437357

  5. Empagliflozin, via Switching Metabolism Toward Lipid Utilization, Moderately Increases LDL Cholesterol Levels Through Reduced LDL Catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, François; Mayoux, Eric; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Burr, Noémie; Urbain, Isabelle; Costard, Clément; Mark, Michael; Sulpice, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    In clinical trials, a small increase in LDL cholesterol has been reported with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. The mechanisms by which the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin increases LDL cholesterol levels were investigated in hamsters with diet-induced dyslipidemia. Compared with vehicle, empagliflozin 30 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks significantly reduced fasting blood glucose by 18%, with significant increase in fasting plasma LDL cholesterol, free fatty acids, and total ketone bodies by 25, 49, and 116%, respectively. In fasting conditions, glycogen hepatic levels were further reduced by 84% with empagliflozin, while 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and total cholesterol hepatic levels were 31 and 10% higher, respectively (both P empagliflozin. Importantly, none of these parameters were changed by empagliflozin in fed conditions. Empagliflozin significantly reduced the catabolism of (3)H-cholesteryl oleate-labeled LDL injected intravenously by 20%, indicating that empagliflozin raises LDL levels through reduced catabolism. Unexpectedly, empagliflozin also reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption in vivo, which led to a significant increase in LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion (both P empagliflozin, by switching energy metabolism from carbohydrate to lipid utilization, moderately increases ketone production and LDL cholesterol levels. Interestingly, empagliflozin also reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, which in turn promotes LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion. PMID:27207551

  6. Acetone formation in the Vibrio family: a new pathway for bacterial leucine catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemecek-Marshall, M; Wojciechowski, C; Wagner, W P; Fall, R

    1999-12-01

    There is current interest in biological sources of acetone, a volatile organic compound that impacts atmospheric chemistry. Here, we determined that leucine-dependent acetone formation is widespread in the Vibrionaceae. Sixteen Vibrio isolates, two Listonella species, and two Photobacterium angustum isolates produced acetone in the presence of L-leucine. Shewanella isolates produced much less acetone. Growth of Vibrio splendidus and P. angustum in a fermentor with controlled aeration revealed that acetone was produced after a lag in late logarithmic or stationary phase of growth, depending on the medium, and was not derived from acetoacetate by nonenzymatic decarboxylation in the medium. L-Leucine, but not D-leucine, was converted to acetone with a stoichiometry of approximately 0.61 mol of acetone per mol of L-leucine. Testing various potential leucine catabolites as precursors of acetone showed that only alpha-ketoisocaproate was efficiently converted by whole cells to acetone. Acetone production was blocked by a nitrogen atmosphere but not by electron transport inhibitors, suggesting that an oxygen-dependent reaction is required for leucine catabolism. Metabolic labeling with deuterated (isopropyl-d(7))-L-leucine revealed that the isopropyl carbons give rise to acetone with full retention of deuterium in each methyl group. These results suggest the operation of a new catabolic pathway for leucine in vibrios that is distinct from the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A pathway seen in pseudomonads. PMID:10601206

  7. The ygeW encoded protein from Escherichia coli is a knotted ancestral catabolic transcarbamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yongdong; Jin, Zhongmin; Yu, Xiaolin; Allewell, Norma M.; Tuchman, Mendel; Shi, Dashuang (Maryland); (GWU); (Georgia)

    2012-06-28

    Purine degradation plays an essential role in nitrogen metabolism in most organisms. Uric acid is the final product of purine catabolism in humans, anthropoid apes, birds, uricotelic reptiles, and almost all insects. Elevated levels of uric acid in blood (hyperuricemia) cause human diseases such as gout, kidney stones, and renal failure. Although no enzyme has been identified that further degrades uric acid in humans, it can be oxidized to produce allantoin by free-radical attack. Indeed, elevated levels of allantoin are found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, chronic lung disease, bacterial meningitis, and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In other mammals, some insects and gastropods, uric acid is enzymatically degraded to the more soluble allantoin through the sequential action of three enzymes: urate oxidase, 5-hydroxyisourate (HIU) hydrolase and 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline (OHCU) decarboxylase. Therefore, an elective treatment for acute hyperuricemia is the administration of urate oxidase. Many organisms, including plants, some fungi and several bacteria, are able to catabolize allantoin to release nitrogen, carbon, and energy. In Arabidopsis thaliana and Eschrichia coli, S-allantoin has recently been shown to be degraded to glycolate and urea by four enzymes: allantoinase, allantoate amidohydrolase, ureidoglycine aminohydrolase, and ureidoglycolate amidohydrolase.

  8. Induced superficial chondrocyte death reduces catabolic cartilage damage in murine posttraumatic osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minjie; Mani, Sriniwasan B; He, Yao; Hall, Amber M; Xu, Lin; Li, Yefu; Zurakowski, David; Jay, Gregory D; Warman, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    Joints that have degenerated as a result of aging or injury contain dead chondrocytes and damaged cartilage. Some studies have suggested that chondrocyte death precedes cartilage damage, but how the loss of chondrocytes affects cartilage integrity is not clear. In this study, we examined whether chondrocyte death undermines cartilage integrity in aging and injury using a rapid 3D confocal cartilage imaging technique coupled with standard histology. We induced autonomous expression of diphtheria toxin to kill articular surface chondrocytes in mice and determined that chondrocyte death did not lead to cartilage damage. Moreover, cartilage damage after surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus of the knee was increased in mice with intact chondrocytes compared with animals whose chondrocytes had been killed, suggesting that chondrocyte death does not drive cartilage damage in response to injury. These data imply that chondrocyte catabolism, not death, contributes to articular cartilage damage following injury. Therefore, therapies targeted at reducing the catabolic phenotype may protect against degenerative joint disease. PMID:27427985

  9. Argininosuccinate synthetase regulates hepatic AMPK linking protein catabolism and ureagenesis to hepatic lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiraju, Anila K; Alves, Tiago; Zhao, Xiaojian; Cline, Gary W; Zhang, Dongyan; Bhanot, Sanjay; Samuel, Varman T; Kibbey, Richard G; Shulman, Gerald I

    2016-06-14

    A key sensor of cellular energy status, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), interacts allosterically with AMP to maintain an active state. When active, AMPK triggers a metabolic switch, decreasing the activity of anabolic pathways and enhancing catabolic processes such as lipid oxidation to restore the energy balance. Unlike oxidative tissues, in which AMP is generated from adenylate kinase during states of high energy demand, the ornithine cycle enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) is a principle site of AMP generation in the liver. Here we show that ASS regulates hepatic AMPK, revealing a central role for ureagenesis flux in the regulation of metabolism via AMPK. Treatment of primary rat hepatocytes with amino acids increased gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis and, despite nutrient excess, induced both AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation. Antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of hepatic ASS1 expression in vivo decreased liver AMPK activation, phosphorylation of ACC, and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Taken together these studies demonstrate that increased amino acid flux can activate AMPK through increased AMP generated by ASS, thus providing a novel link between protein catabolism, ureagenesis, and hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:27247419

  10. Characterization of a Unique Pathway for 4-Cresol Catabolism Initiated by Phosphorylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Ma, Li; Qi, Feifei; Zheng, Xianliang; Jiang, Chengying; Li, Ailei; Wan, Xiaobo; Liu, Shuang-Jiang; Li, Shengying

    2016-03-18

    4-Cresol is not only a significant synthetic intermediate for production of many aromatic chemicals, but also a priority environmental pollutant because of its toxicity to higher organisms. In our previous studies, a gene cluster implicated to be involved in 4-cresol catabolism, creCDEFGHIR, was identified in Corynebacterium glutamicum and partially characterized in vivo. In this work, we report on the discovery of a novel 4-cresol biodegradation pathway that employs phosphorylated intermediates. This unique pathway initiates with the phosphorylation of the hydroxyl group of 4-cresol, which is catalyzed by a novel 4-methylbenzyl phosphate synthase, CreHI. Next, a unique class I P450 system, CreJEF, specifically recognizes phosphorylated intermediates and successively oxidizes the aromatic methyl group into carboxylic acid functionality via alcohol and aldehyde intermediates. Moreover, CreD (phosphohydrolase), CreC (alcohol dehydrogenase), and CreG (aldehyde dehydrogenase) were also found to be required for efficient oxidative transformations in this pathway. Steady-state kinetic parameters (Km and kcat) for each catabolic step were determined, and these results suggest that kinetic controls serve a key role in directing the metabolic flux to the most energy effective route. PMID:26817843

  11. Extracellular nucleotide catabolism in human B and T lymphocytes. The source of adenosine production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracellular nucleotide degradation was studied in intact human B and T lymphocyte subpopulations and in lymphoblastoid cell lines. Cells of B lymphocyte lineage showed high nucleotide degrading activity, whereas T lymphocytes were unable to degrade extracellular nucleotides. The external surface of B cells contained active sites of ecto-triphosphonucleotidase (ecto-ATPase), ecto-diphosphonucleotidase (ecto-ADPase), and ecto-monophosphonucleotidase (ecto-AMPase). The expression of all three ectoenzyme activities seemed closely associated with B cell development. ATPase and ADPase activities increase continuously during B cell maturation, ecto-AMPase activity, on the other hand, reaches maximal activity in late pre-B cells. These results combined with our previous studies of intracellular ATP catabolism provide evidence that extracellular ATP catabolism may represent exclusive source for adenosine in lymphocytes. It is suggested that adenosine may serve as a means of communication between B and T cells in lymphoid organs, B lymphocytes being the sole producers of adenosine and T lymphocytes being the recipients of this signal

  12. Use of tritiated prostaglandins in metabolism studies. II: Kinetic isotope effect: an useful tool to investigate catabolizing sequence of prostaglandins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that prostaglandin catabolism involves sequential actions of a 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, a 15-keto-prostaglandin delta 13-reductase and a 15-ketoprostaglandin reductase. This pathway must be confirmed in never investigated tissues before any enzyme assay is carried out. We have developed a new, simple, rapid and reliable method to investigate catabolizing sequence of prostaglandins based on the tritium kinetic isotope effect which occurs during the oxidation of the 15-hydroxyl group of the prostaglandin into a 15-keto group

  13. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    practices. Everyday life mobilities take place in complex socio-technical systems where the over-layering of hard infrastructures, with design codes and protocols shapes the ‘mobile biotopes’ of the everyday life. By exploring the very tangible and concrete designs of for example everyday life transit...... spaces, mobilitiy technologies or urban sites of movement we get much closer to understanding the meaning of mobilities to social interaction and culture. The cases are still representing work-in-progress but will be reported in the book ‘Designing Mobilites’ (Jensen 2013b) and will cover the four cases...... of: motorway ecologies, bicycle systems design, urban shopping malls and a train transit hub....

  14. Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Březinová; Michael Rost

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with one of the modern trends in marketing communication, which is mobile marketing. Towards the end of 2008, several projects which use mobile phones for target marketing communication were launched. Commercial SMS´s are sent on the base of agreement or registration of the consumers on special websites, for example hellomobil.cz. The benefit for the consumers is the bonus which can have more forms - not only sending money to the account, free SMS´s/MMS´s and minutes but al...

  15. Mobile Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Semerád, David

    2011-01-01

    The mobile app market is one of the fastest growing in the world. The Apple company has become the most valuated company in the world, mainly due to its App Store. Considering the fact, that nearly all the trends from abroad are soon or later adapted in the Czech Republic, there is quite a big potential value for all the projects on mobile apps including the local market specifics. The subject of this thesis is to consider whether such an app could be successful in such an old school environm...

  16. A mass spectrometric method to determine activities of enzymes involved in polyamine catabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Shunsuke; Iwasaki, Kaori [Department of Molecular Medicine, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kami-kitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Samejima, Keijiro, E-mail: samejima-kj@igakuken.or.jp [Department of Molecular Medicine, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kami-kitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Takao, Koichi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, 1-1 Keyakidai, Sakado, Saitama 350-0295 (Japan); Kohda, Kohfuku [Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Musashino University, 1-1-20 Shinmachi, Nishitokyo, Tokyo 202-8585 (Japan); Hiramatsu, Kyoko; Kawakita, Masao [Department of Molecular Medicine, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kami-kitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan)

    2012-10-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds in polyamine catabolic pathway were determined by a column-free ESI-TOF MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sup 1}- and N{sup 8}-acetylspermidine were determined by a column-free ESI-MS/MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method was applied to determine activities of APAO, SMO, and SSAT in the pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay method contained stable isotope-labeled natural substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is applicable to biological samples containing natural substrate and product. - Abstract: An analytical method for the determination of three polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) and five acetylpolyamines [N{sup 1}-acetylspermidine (N{sup 1}AcSpd), N{sup 8}-acetylspermidine (N{sup 8}AcSpd), N{sup 1}-acetylspermine, N{sup 1},N{sup 8}-diacetylspermidine, and N{sup 1},N{sup 12}-diacetylspermine] involved in the polyamine catabolic pathway has been developed using a hybrid tandem mass spectrometer. Heptafluorobutyryl (HFB) derivatives of these compounds and respective internal standards labeled with stable isotopes were analyzed simultaneously by TOF MS, based on peak areas appearing at appropriate m/z values. The isomers, N{sup 1}AcSpd and N{sup 8}AcSpd were determined from their fragment ions, the acetylamidopropyl and acetylamidobutyl groups, respectively, using MS/MS with {sup 13}C{sub 2}-N{sup 1}AcSpd and {sup 13}C{sub 2}-N{sup 8}AcSpd which have the {sup 13}C{sub 2}-acetyl group as an internal standard. The TOF MS method was successfully applied to measure the activity of enzymes involved in polyamine catabolic pathways, namely N{sup 1}-acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO), spermine oxidase (SMO), and spermidine/spermine N{sup 1}-acetyltransferase (SSAT). The following natural substrates and products labeled with stable isotopes considering the application to biological samples were identified; for APAO, [4,9,12-{sup 15}N{sub 3}]-N{sup 1}-acetylspermine and [1,4,8-{sup 15}N{sub 3

  17. Mobile Router Developed and Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2002-01-01

    subnetworks. This is essential in many wireless networks. A mobile router, unlike a mobile IP node, allows entire networks to roam. Hence, a device connected to the mobile router does not need to be a mobile node because the mobile router provides the roaming capabilities. There are three basic elements in the mobile IP: the home agent, the foreign agent, and the mobile node. The home agent is a router on a mobile node's home network that tunnels datagrams for delivery to the mobile node when it is away from home. The foreign agent is a router on a remote network that provides routing services to a registered mobile node. The mobile node is a host or router that changes its point of attachment from one network or subnetwork to another. In mobile routing, virtual communications are maintained by the home agent, which forwards all packets for the mobile networks to the foreign agent. The foreign agent passes the packets to the mobile router, which then forwards the packets to the devices on its networks. As the mobile router moves, it will register with its home agent on its whereabouts via the foreign agent to assure continuous connectivity.

  18. Relationships between PSII-independent hydrogen bioproduction and starch metabolism as evidenced from isolation of starch catabolism mutants in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochois, Vincent; Constans, Laure; Beyly, Audrey; Soliveres, Melanie; Peltier, Gilles; Cournac, Laurent [CEA, DSV, IBEB, Laboratoire de Bioenergetique et Biotechnologie des Bacteries and Microalgues, Saint Paul Lez Durance, F-13108 (France); CNRS, UMR Biologie Vegetale and Microbiologie Environnementales, Saint Paul lez Durance, F-13108 (France); Aix-Marseille Universite, Saint Paul lez Durance, F-13108 (France); Dauvillee, David; Ball, Steven [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, UGSF, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); CNRS, UMR 8576, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-10-15

    Sulfur deprivation, which is considered as an efficient way to trigger long-term hydrogen photoproduction in unicellular green algae has two major effects: a decrease in PSII which allows anaerobiosis to be reached and carbohydrate (starch) storage. Starch metabolism has been proposed as one of the major factors of hydrogen production, particularly during the PSII-independent (or indirect) pathway. While starch biosynthesis has been characterized in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, little remains known concerning starch degradation. In order to gain a better understanding of starch catabolism pathways and identify those steps likely to limit the starch-dependent hydrogen production, we have designed a genetic screening procedure aimed at isolating mutants of the green alga C. reinhardtii affected in starch mobilization. Using two different screening protocols, the first one based on aerobic starch degradation in the dark and the second one on anaerobic starch degradation in the light, eighteen mutants were isolated among a library of 15,000 insertion mutants, eight (std1-8) with the first screen and ten (sda1-10) with the second. Most of the mutant strains isolated in this study showed a reduction or a delay in the PSII-independent hydrogen production. Further characterization of these mutants should allow the identification of molecular determinants of starch-dependent hydrogen production and supply targets for future biotechnological improvements. (author)

  19. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part of th...

  20. Sustainable Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Aslak Aamot

    This paper combines strands of mobilities theory and planning theory, and develops a qualitative approach to look across emerging planning practices. By actively following 8 Danish urban and transport planners, over the course of 2 years, we learn how their practices have changed, inspired by mob...

  1. Mobil nationalisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    2006-01-01

    , varer, mennesker og kapital men derimod en integreret del af disse tendenser. Gennem begrebet mobil nationalisme argumenteres der for en analytisk optik, hvor nationalisme forstås som en proces hvorigennem skiftende relationer og bevægelser mellem forskellige socio-rumlige skalaer som kroppen...

  2. Bioaugmentation of DDT-contaminated soil by dissemination of the catabolic plasmid pDOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunming Gao; Xiangxiang Jin; Jingbei Ren; Hua Fang; Yunlong Yu

    2015-01-01

    A plasmid transfer-mediated bioaugmentation method for the enhancement of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) degradation in soil was developed using the catabolic plasmid pDOD from Sphingobacterium sp.D-6.The pDOD plasmid could be transferred to soil bacteria,such as members of Cellulomonas,to form DDT degraders and thus accelerate DDT degradation.The transfer efficiency of pDOD was affected by the donor,temperature,moisture,and soil type.Approximately 50.7% of the DDT in the contaminated field was removed 210 days after the application of Escherichia coli TG Ⅰ (pDOD-gfp).The results suggested that seeding pDOD into soil is an effective bioaugmentation method for enhancing the degradation of DDT.

  3. Role of Myofibrillar Protein Catabolism in Development of Glucocorticoid Myopathy: Aging and Functional Activity Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seene, Teet; Kaasik, Priit

    2016-01-01

    Muscle weakness in corticosteroid myopathy is mainly the result of the destruction and atrophy of the myofibrillar compartment of fast-twitch muscle fibers. Decrease of titin and myosin, and the ratio of nebulin and MyHC in myopathic muscle, shows that these changes of contractile and elastic proteins are the result of increased catabolism of the abovementioned proteins in skeletal muscle. Slow regeneration of skeletal muscle is in good correlation with a decreased number of satellite cells under the basal lamina of muscle fibers. Aging causes a reduction of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity as the result of the reduced function of the mitochondrial compartment. AMPK activity increases as a result of increased functional activity. Resistance exercise causes anabolic and anticatabolic effects in skeletal muscle: muscle fibers experience hypertrophy while higher myofibrillar proteins turn over. These changes are leading to the qualitative remodeling of muscle fibers. As a result of these changes, possible maximal muscle strength is increasing. Endurance exercise improves capillary blood supply, increases mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle oxidative capacity, and causes a faster turnover rate of sarcoplasmic proteins as well as qualitative remodeling of type I and IIA muscle fibers. The combination of resistance and endurance exercise may be the fastest way to prevent or decelerate muscle atrophy due to the anabolic and anticatabolic effects of exercise combined with an increase in oxidative capacity. The aim of the present short review is to assess the role of myofibrillar protein catabolism in the development of glucocorticoid-caused myopathy from aging and physical activity aspects. PMID:27187487

  4. Role of Myofibrillar Protein Catabolism in Development of Glucocorticoid Myopathy: Aging and Functional Activity Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teet Seene

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle weakness in corticosteroid myopathy is mainly the result of the destruction and atrophy of the myofibrillar compartment of fast-twitch muscle fibers. Decrease of titin and myosin, and the ratio of nebulin and MyHC in myopathic muscle, shows that these changes of contractile and elastic proteins are the result of increased catabolism of the abovementioned proteins in skeletal muscle. Slow regeneration of skeletal muscle is in good correlation with a decreased number of satellite cells under the basal lamina of muscle fibers. Aging causes a reduction of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity as the result of the reduced function of the mitochondrial compartment. AMPK activity increases as a result of increased functional activity. Resistance exercise causes anabolic and anticatabolic effects in skeletal muscle: muscle fibers experience hypertrophy while higher myofibrillar proteins turn over. These changes are leading to the qualitative remodeling of muscle fibers. As a result of these changes, possible maximal muscle strength is increasing. Endurance exercise improves capillary blood supply, increases mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle oxidative capacity, and causes a faster turnover rate of sarcoplasmic proteins as well as qualitative remodeling of type I and IIA muscle fibers. The combination of resistance and endurance exercise may be the fastest way to prevent or decelerate muscle atrophy due to the anabolic and anticatabolic effects of exercise combined with an increase in oxidative capacity. The aim of the present short review is to assess the role of myofibrillar protein catabolism in the development of glucocorticoid-caused myopathy from aging and physical activity aspects.

  5. Designed Inhibitors of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Regulate the Catabolism and Activity of Insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leissring, Malcolm A.; Malito, Enrico; Hedouin, Sabrine; Reinstatler, Lael; Sahara, Tomoko; Abdul-Hay, Samer O.; Choudhry, Shakeel; Maharvi, Ghulam M.; Fauq, Abdul H.; Huzarska, Malwina; May, Philip S.; Choi, Sungwoon; Logan, Todd P.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Manolopoulou, Marika; Tang, Wei-Jen; Stein, Ross L.; Cuny, Gregory D.; Selkoe, Dennis J. (Harvard-Med); (BWH); (Yale-MED); (Scripps); (UC); (Mayo)

    2010-09-20

    Insulin is a vital peptide hormone that is a central regulator of glucose homeostasis, and impairments in insulin signaling cause diabetes mellitus. In principle, it should be possible to enhance the activity of insulin by inhibiting its catabolism, which is mediated primarily by insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a structurally and evolutionarily distinctive zinc-metalloprotease. Despite interest in pharmacological inhibition of IDE as an attractive anti-diabetic approach dating to the 1950s, potent and selective inhibitors of IDE have not yet emerged. We used a rational design approach based on analysis of combinatorial peptide mixtures and focused compound libraries to develop novel peptide hydroxamic acid inhibitors of IDE. The resulting compounds are {approx} 10{sup 6} times more potent than existing inhibitors, non-toxic, and surprisingly selective for IDE vis-a-vis conventional zinc-metalloproteases. Crystallographic analysis of an IDE-inhibitor complex reveals a novel mode of inhibition based on stabilization of IDE's 'closed,' inactive conformation. We show further that pharmacological inhibition of IDE potentiates insulin signaling by a mechanism involving reduced catabolism of internalized insulin. Conclusions/Significance: The inhibitors we describe are the first to potently and selectively inhibit IDE or indeed any member of this atypical zinc-metalloprotease superfamily. The distinctive structure of IDE's active site, and the mode of action of our inhibitors, suggests that it may be possible to develop inhibitors that cross-react minimally with conventional zinc-metalloproteases. Significantly, our results reveal that insulin signaling is normally regulated by IDE activity not only extracellularly but also within cells, supporting the longstanding view that IDE inhibitors could hold therapeutic value for the treatment of diabetes.

  6. The coupling of the plant and microbial catabolisms of phenanthrene in the rhizosphere of Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratova, Anna; Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Golubev, Sergey; Grinev, Vyacheslav; Chernyshova, Marina; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2015-09-01

    We studied the catabolism of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene by four rhizobacterial strains and the possibility of enzymatic oxidation of this compound and its microbial metabolites by the root exudates of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in order to detect the possible coupling of the plant and microbial metabolisms under the rhizospheric degradation of the organic pollutant. A comparative study of phenanthrene degradation pathways in the PAH-degrading rhizobacteria Ensifer meliloti, Pseudomonas kunmingensis, Rhizobium petrolearium, and Stenotrophomonas sp. allowed us to identify the key metabolites from the microbial transformation of phenanthrene, including 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, 2-carboxybenzaldehyde, and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic, salicylic, and o-phthalic acids. Sterile alfalfa plants were grown in the presence and absence of phenanthrene (0.03 g kg(-1)) in quartz sand under controlled environmental conditions to obtain plant root exudates. The root exudates were collected, concentrated by ultrafiltration, and the activity of oxidoreductases was detected spectrophotometrically by the oxidation rate for various substrates. The most marked activity was that of peroxidase, whereas the presence of oxidase and tyrosinase was detected on the verge of the assay sensitivity. Using alfalfa root exudates as a crude enzyme preparation, we found that in the presence of the synthetic mediator, the plant peroxidase could oxidize phenanthrene and its microbial metabolites. The results indicate the possibility of active participation of plants in the rhizospheric degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their microbial metabolites, which makes it possible to speak about the coupling of the plant and microbial catabolisms of these contaminants in the rhizosphere. PMID:26398627

  7. Volatile sulphur compounds and pathways of L-methionine catabolism in Williopsis yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amelia W J; Lee, Pin-Rou; Seow, Yi-Xin; Ong, Peter K C; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2012-08-01

    Volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) are important to the food industry due to their high potency and presence in many foods. This study assessed for the first time VSC production and pathways of L: -methionine catabolism in yeasts from the genus Williopsis with a view to understanding VSC formation and their potential flavour impact. Five strains of Williopsis saturnus (var. saturnus, var. subsufficiens, var. suavolens, var. sargentensis and var. mrakii) were screened for VSC production in a synthetic medium supplemented with L: -methionine. A diverse range of VSCs were produced including dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanal (methional), 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol (methionol), 3-(methylthio)-1-propene, 3-(methylthio)-1-propyl acetate, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanoic acid (methionic acid) and ethyl 3-(methylthio)-1-propanoate, though the production of these VSCs varied between yeast strains. W. saturnus var. saturnus NCYC22 was selected for further studies due to its relatively high VSC production. VSC production was characterised step-wise with yeast strain NCYC22 in coconut cream at different L: -methionine concentrations (0.00-0.20%) and under various inorganic sulphate (0.00-0.20%) and nitrogen (ammonia) supplementation (0.00-0.20%), respectively. Optimal VSC production was obtained with 0.1% of L: -methionine, while supplementation of sulphate had no significant effect. Nitrogen supplementation showed a dramatic inhibitory effect on VSC production. Based on the production of VSCs, the study suggests that the Ehrlich pathway of L: -methionine catabolism is operative in W. saturnus yeasts and can be manipulated by adjusting certain nutrient parameters to control VSC production. PMID:22370952

  8. Improving Urban Mobility by Understanding its Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Urban mobility systems are composed multiple elements with strong interactions, i.e. their future is co-determined by the state of other elements. Thus, studying components in isolation, i.e. using a reductionist approach, is inappropriate. I propose five recommendations to improve urban mobility based on insights from the scientific study of complex systems: use adaptation over prediction, regulate interactions to avoid friction, use sensors to recover real time information, develop adaptive...

  9. White-to-brite conversion in human adipocytes promotes metabolic reprogramming towards fatty acid anabolic and catabolic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barquissau

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Conversion of human white fat cells into brite adipocytes results in a major metabolic reprogramming inducing fatty acid anabolic and catabolic pathways. PDK4 redirects glucose from oxidation towards triglyceride synthesis and favors the use of fatty acids as energy source for uncoupling mitochondria.

  10. Oxidised low density lipoprotein causes human macrophage cell death through oxidant generation and inhibition of key catabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katouah, Hanadi; Chen, Alpha; Othman, Izani; Gieseg, Steven P

    2015-10-01

    Oxidised low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is thought to be a significant contributor to the death of macrophage cells observed in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Using human-derived U937 cells we have examined the effect of cytotoxic oxLDL on oxidative stress and cellular catabolism. Within 3h of the addition of oxLDL, there was a rapid, concentration dependent rise in cellular reactive oxygen species followed by the loss of cellular GSH, and the enzyme activity of both glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and aconitase. The loss of these catabolic enzymes was accompanied by the loss of cellular ATP and lower lactate generation. Addition of the macrophage antioxidant 7,8-dihydroneopterin inhibited the ROS generation, glutathione loss and catabolic inactivation. NOX was shown to be activated by oxLDL addition while apocynin inhibited the loss of GSH and cell viability. The data suggests that oxLDL triggers an excess of ROS production through NOX activation, and catabolic failure through thiol oxidation resulting in cell death. PMID:26255116

  11. Catabolism of Phenol and Its Derivatives in Bacteria: Genes, Their Regulation, and Use in the Biodegradation of Toxic Pollutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nešvera, Jan; Rucká, Lenka; Pátek, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 2015 (2015), s. 107-160. ISSN 0065-2164 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA04021212 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Biodegradation * Bioremediation * Phenol catabolism Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.737, year: 2014

  12. Repression of nitrogen catabolic genes by ammonia and glutamine in nitrogen-limited continuous cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Schure, E G; Silljé, H H; Vermeulen, E E; Kalhorn, J W; Verkleij, A J; Boonstra, J; Verrips, C T

    1998-01-01

    Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on ammonia and glutamine decreases the expression of many nitrogen catabolic genes to low levels. To discriminate between ammonia- and glutamine-driven repression of GAP1, PUT4, GDH1 and GLN1, a gln1-37 mutant was used. This mutant is not able to convert ammonia in

  13. CATABOLISM OF AROMATIC BIOGENIC AMINES BY 'PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA' PA01 VIA META CLEAVAGE OF HOMOPROTOCATECHUIC ACID (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas aruginosa PA01 catabolized the aromatic amines tyramine and octopamine through 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPA). Meta ring cleavage was mediated by 3-4-dihydroxyphenylacetate 2,3-dioxygenase (HPADO), producing 2-hydroxy-5-carboxymeth...

  14. Simple generic model for dynamic experiments with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in continuous culture. Decoupling between anabolism and catabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duboc, Philippe Jean; von Stockar, U.; Villadsen, John

    1998-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of a continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to a sudden increase in the dilution rate has been successfully modelled for anaerobic growth on glucose, and for aerobic growth on acetate, on ethanol, and on glucose. The catabolism responded by an immediate jump...

  15. Catabolic and anabolic energy for chemolithoautotrophs in deep-sea hydrothermal systems hosted in different rock types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Jan P.; McCollom, Thomas M.; Hentscher, Michael; Bach, Wolfgang

    2011-10-01

    Active deep-sea hydrothermal vents are hosted by a range of different rock types, including basalt, peridotite, and felsic rocks. The associated hydrothermal fluids exhibit substantial chemical variability, which is largely attributable to compositional differences among the underlying host rocks. Numerical models were used to evaluate the energetics of seven inorganic redox reactions (potential catabolisms of chemolithoautotrophs) and numerous biomolecule synthesis reactions (anabolism) in a representative sampling of these systems, where chemical gradients are established by mixing hydrothermal fluid with seawater. The wide ranging fluid compositions dictate demonstrable differences in Gibbs energies (Δ G r) of these catabolic and anabolic reactions in three peridotite-hosted, six basalt-hosted, one troctolite-basalt hybrid, and two felsic rock-hosted systems. In peridotite-hosted systems at low to moderate temperatures (10), hydrogen oxidation yields the most catabolic energy, but the oxidation of methane, ferrous iron, and sulfide can also be moderately exergonic. At higher temperatures, and consequent SW:HF mixing ratios biomass synthesis yielded up to ˜900 J per g dry cell mass. The energetics of anabolism in basalt- and felsic rock-hosted systems were far less favorable. The results suggest that in peridotite-hosted (and troctolite-basalt hybrid) systems, compared with their basalt (and felsic rock) counterparts, microbial catabolic strategies—and consequently variations in microbial phylotypes—may be far more diverse and some biomass synthesis may yield energy rather than imposing a high energetic cost.

  16. Wounding of potato tubers induces increases in ABA biosynthesis and catabolism and alters expression of ABA metabolic genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of physical wounding on ABA biosynthesis and catabolism and expression of genes encoding key ABA metabolic enzymes were determined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. An increase in ABA and ABA metabolite content was observed 48 h after wounding and remained elevated through 96 h. ...

  17. Mobile-to-mobile wireless channels

    CERN Document Server

    Zajic, Alenka

    2013-01-01

    Present-day mobile communications systems can be classified as fixed-to-mobile because they allow mobility on only one end (e.g. the mobile phone to a fixed mobile operator's cell tower). In answer to the consumer demand for better coverage and quality of service, emerging mobile-to-mobile (M-to-M) communications systems allow mobile users or vehicles to directly communicate with each other. This practical book provides a detailed introduction to state-of-the-art M-to-M wireless propagation. Moreover, the book offers professionals guidance for rapid implementation of these communications syste

  18. Mobile Customer Relationship Management and Mobile Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanayei, Ali; Mirzaei, Abas

    The purpose of this study is twofold. First, in order to guarantee a coherent discussion about mobile customer relationship management (mCRM), this paper presents a conceptualization of mCRM delineating its unique characteristics because of Among the variety of mobile services, considerable attention has been devoted to mobile marketing and in particular to mobile customer relationship management services. Second, the authors discusses the security risks in mobile computing in different level(user, mobile device, wireless network,...) and finally we focus on enterprise mobile security and it's subgroups with a series of suggestion and solution for improve mobile computing security.

  19. Sialic acid transport and catabolism are cooperatively regulated by SiaR and CRP in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Jason W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transport and catabolism of sialic acid, a critical virulence factor for nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, is regulated by two transcription factors, SiaR and CRP. Results Using a mutagenesis approach, glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6P was identified as a co-activator for SiaR. Evidence for the cooperative regulation of both the sialic acid catabolic and transport operons suggested that cooperativity between SiaR and CRP is required for regulation. cAMP was unable to influence the expression of the catabolic operon in the absence of SiaR but was able to induce catabolic operon expression when both SiaR and GlcN-6P were present. Alteration of helical phasing supported this observation by uncoupling SiaR and CRP regulation. The insertion of one half-turn of DNA between the SiaR and CRP operators resulted in the loss of SiaR-mediated repression of the transport operon while eliminating cAMP-dependent induction of the catabolic operon when GlcN-6P was present. SiaR and CRP were found to bind to their respective operators simultaneously and GlcN-6P altered the interaction of SiaR with its operator. Conclusions These results suggest multiple novel features for the regulation of these two adjacent operons. SiaR functions as both a repressor and an activator and SiaR and CRP interact to regulate both operons from a single set of operators.

  20. Ghrelin improves body weight loss and skeletal muscle catabolism associated with angiotensin II-induced cachexia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Masako; Yamaki, Akira; Furuya, Mayumi; Inomata, Norio; Minamitake, Yoshiharu; Ohsuye, Kazuhiro; Kangawa, Kenji

    2012-10-10

    Ghrelin is a gastric peptide that regulates energy homeostasis. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to induce body weight loss and skeletal muscle catabolism through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In this study, we investigated the effects of ghrelin on body weight and muscle catabolism in mice treated with Ang II. The continuous subcutaneous administration of Ang II to mice for 6 days resulted in cardiac hypertrophy and significant decreases in body weight gain, food intake, food efficiency, lean mass, and fat mass. In the gastrocnemius muscles of Ang II-treated mice, the levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were decreased, and the levels of mRNA expression of catabolic factors were increased. Although the repeated subcutaneous injections of ghrelin (1.0mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days) did not affect cardiac hypertrophy, they resulted in significant body weight gains and improved food efficiencies and tended to increase both lean and fat mass in Ang II-treated mice. Ghrelin also ameliorated the decreased IGF-1 levels and the increased mRNA expression levels of catabolic factors in the skeletal muscle. IGF-1 mRNA levels in the skeletal muscle significantly decreased 24h after Ang II infusion, and this was reversed by two subcutaneous injections of ghrelin. In C2C12-derived myocytes, the dexamethasone-induced mRNA expression of atrogin-1 was decreased by IGF-1 but not by ghrelin. In conclusion, we demonstrated that ghrelin improved body weight loss and skeletal muscle catabolism in mice treated with Ang II, possibly through the early restoration of IGF-1 mRNA in the skeletal muscle and the amelioration of nutritional status. PMID:22750276

  1. Mobile Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryana, Bijan; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a country specific comparative mobile usability study is presented, using Iran and Turkey as the two chosen emerging/emergent nation exemplars of smartphone usage and adoption. In a focus group study, three mobile applications were selected by first-time users of smartphones....... In both countries, the music player application was tested, wherein common patterns of accessing and sorting songs emerged. Whereas the Iranian users appeared to be more interested in social networking via use of an SMS service, the Turkish users tended to prefer to apply hierarchies to their own daily...... personal contacts. The results and analysis establish the existence of country specific issues and concerns, as well as reveal generic usability issues. The article concludes that the source of these issues is most likely due to a combination of certain contextual features endemic to both Iran and Turkey...

  2. Mobile Misfortune

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman

    2015-01-01

    termination of the mobility it enables. This article, thus, looks at the motives and manners in which young men in Bissau become caught up in transnational flows of cocaine. It shows how motion is emotively anchored and affectively bound: tied to and directed toward a feeling of worth and realisation of being......, and how migration from the global South often has negative potentiality as an end-point via the ascription of illegality and condition of deportability that shade it....

  3. The African Mobile Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book identifies the factors that has enabled the growth of mobile telephony in Africa. The book covers the regulatory factors, the development and usage of mobile application, mobile security and sustainable power source for mobile networks......This book identifies the factors that has enabled the growth of mobile telephony in Africa. The book covers the regulatory factors, the development and usage of mobile application, mobile security and sustainable power source for mobile networks...

  4. Mobile culture among children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard; Bertel, Troels Fibæk

    2013-01-01

    The mobile phone has become a taken for granted part of teens’ lives. In many countries the vast majority of adolescents have a mobile phone and use it to coordinate, as a safety link and to weave their social networks and interact with their parents. Teens have used the mobile phone as an element...... in the development of teen culture and they have led the way when it comes to texting. In addition, the mobile phone has also been associated with less positive behaviors such as sexting, bullying and distracted driving....

  5. Mobile Payments : Comparison of Mobile Wallet Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Srikant

    2013-01-01

    Mobile payments are an emerging trend and an alternative to traditional payment methods. Mobile payments involve the usage of the mobile phone to handle credit transfers during purchase of goods and peer to peer money transfers referred to as mobile wallet service, instead of depending on bank cards and cash. In this scenario, while the mobile wallet industry still being in its infancy there exist a few drivers of mobile wallet solutions aiming to create a de-facto standard in the mobile mark...

  6. Mobile DNA can drive lineage extinction in prokaryotic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D J; Bichsel, M; Wagner, A

    2010-11-01

    Natural selection ultimately acts on genes and other DNA sequences. Adaptations that are good for the gene can have adverse effects at higher levels of organization, including the individual or the population. Mobile genetic elements illustrate this principle well, because they can self-replicate within a genome at a cost to their host. As they are costly and can be transmitted horizontally, mobile elements can be seen as genomic parasites. It has been suggested that mobile elements may cause the extinction of their host populations. In organisms with very large populations, such as most bacteria, individual selection is highly effective in purging genomes of deleterious elements, suggesting that extinction is unlikely. Here we investigate the conditions under which mobile DNA can drive bacterial lineages to extinction. We use a range of epidemiological and ecological models to show that harmful mobile DNA can invade, and drive populations to extinction, provided their transmission rate is high and that mobile element-induced mortality is not too high. Population extinction becomes more likely when there are more elements in the population. Even if elements are costly, extinction can still occur because of the combined effect of horizontal gene transfer, a mortality induced by mobile elements. Our study highlights the potential of mobile DNA to be selected at the population level, as well as at the individual level. PMID:20860700

  7. Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Luengo Cascudo, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este proyecto es explicar y entender la importancia del Mobile Marketing como nueva herramienta de negocio en el Marketing empresarial. Para ello, el primer objetivo es entender los dos factores que para mí son la clave de su importancia: la evolución del entorno tecnológico y el cambio en los hábitos del consumidor. Debido a la novedad de esta nueva forma de Marketing y al hecho de que está en constante definición, es básico exponer de la forma más cla...

  8. Robotique Mobile

    OpenAIRE

    Filliat, David

    2011-01-01

    1 Introduction I Les bases de la navigation 2 Les différents types de navigation 3 Les sources d'information 4 Matériels courants en robotique mobile II Navigation réactive 5 Navigation vers un but 6 Évitement d'obstacles 7 Apprentissage par renforcement III Navigation utilisant une carte 8 Localisation, Cartographie et Planification 9 Les représentations de l'environne 10 Localisation 11 Cartographie 12 Planification École d'ingénieur

  9. Factors influence customer satisfaction in mobile commerce : a research on Vietnamese mobile users

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Phuong Anh

    2015-01-01

    Mobile commerce – a relative new commerce mode, has become a major topic for many researchers. Along with it, measuring customer satisfaction in m- commerce is important for a wide range of firms, for it is a key element to ensure firms’ success. This thesis seeks to elucidate mobile customer’s perceptions regarding mobile commerce in Vietnam. The thesis provides an explanation on whether these customers are satisfied with m-commerce. In addition, features and challenges of m-commerce are...

  10. Transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors introduce this volume of historical and research papers on the transuranium elements by reviewing the period of discovery of elements 93 and beyond. Then the authors highlight the research achievements that focus on the unique properties of the 5f elements. Finally, the authors outline the technology and applications of transuranium elements and their radiobiology

  11. Mobility Impact on Performance of Mobile Grids

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Nandeppanavar,; M. N. Birje,; S. S. Manvi,; Shridhar

    2010-01-01

    Wireless mobile grids are one of the emerging grid types, which help to pool the resources of several willing and cooperative mobile devices to resolve a computationally intensive task. The mobile grids exhibit stronger challenges like mobility management of devices, providing transparent access to grid resources, task management and handling of limited resources so that resources are shared efficiently. Task execution on these devices should not be affected by their mobility. The proposed wo...

  12. Optimum Mobility Performance with Mobile IP & SIP

    OpenAIRE

    B. Naresh Kumar; DR. R. V. KRISHNAIAH

    2013-01-01

    Mobility will place an efficient role in now days in the wireless communications. Mobile IP andSIP provide the mobility service to the handset users. The problems in Mobile IP and SIP s are triangular,handoff, Intra domain problems. These problems create signal lose and improper signalling to the user. Toovercome these we provide add of service to the Mobile IP and SIP with the integration of the two services.This service provides optimum performance of the system.

  13. Mobilization of mercury from lean tissues during simulated migratory fasting in a model songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewagen, Chad L; Cristol, Daniel A; Gerson, Alexander R

    2016-01-01

    The pollutant methylmercury accumulates within lean tissues of birds and other animals. Migrating birds catabolize substantial amounts of lean tissue during flight which may mobilize methylmercury and increase circulating levels of this neurotoxin. As a model for a migrating songbird, we fasted zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) that had been dosed with 0.0, 0.1, and 0.6 parts per million (ppm) dietary methylmercury and measured changes in blood total mercury concentrations (THg) in relation to reductions in lean mass. Birds lost 6-16% of their lean mass during the fast, and THg increased an average of 12% and 11% in the 0.1 and 0.6 ppm treatments, respectively. Trace amounts of THg in the 0.0 ppm control group also increased as a result of fasting, but remained extremely low. THg increased 0.4 ppm for each gram of lean mass catabolized in the higher dose birds. Our findings indicate that methylmercury is mobilized from lean tissues during protein catabolism and results in acute increases in circulating concentrations. This is a previously undocumented potential threat to wild migratory birds, which may experience greater surges in circulating methylmercury than demonstrated here as a result of their greater reductions in lean mass. PMID:27173605

  14. Mobilization of mercury from lean tissues during simulated migratory fasting in a model songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewagen, Chad L.; Cristol, Daniel A.; Gerson, Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    The pollutant methylmercury accumulates within lean tissues of birds and other animals. Migrating birds catabolize substantial amounts of lean tissue during flight which may mobilize methylmercury and increase circulating levels of this neurotoxin. As a model for a migrating songbird, we fasted zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) that had been dosed with 0.0, 0.1, and 0.6 parts per million (ppm) dietary methylmercury and measured changes in blood total mercury concentrations (THg) in relation to reductions in lean mass. Birds lost 6–16% of their lean mass during the fast, and THg increased an average of 12% and 11% in the 0.1 and 0.6 ppm treatments, respectively. Trace amounts of THg in the 0.0 ppm control group also increased as a result of fasting, but remained extremely low. THg increased 0.4 ppm for each gram of lean mass catabolized in the higher dose birds. Our findings indicate that methylmercury is mobilized from lean tissues during protein catabolism and results in acute increases in circulating concentrations. This is a previously undocumented potential threat to wild migratory birds, which may experience greater surges in circulating methylmercury than demonstrated here as a result of their greater reductions in lean mass. PMID:27173605

  15. Open Mobile API: Accessing the UICC on Android Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Roland, Michael; Hölzl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This report gives an overview of secure element integration into Android devices. It focuses on the Open Mobile API as an open interface to access secure elements from Android applications. The overall architecture of the Open Mobile API is described and current Android devices are analyzed with regard to the availability of this API. Moreover, this report summarizes our efforts of reverse engineering the stock ROM of a Samsung Galaxy S3 in order to analyze the integration of the Open Mobile ...

  16. Mobile Security with Smartcards

    OpenAIRE

    Kilian-Kehr, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Mobility in conjunction with communication facilities in the form of mobile telephony seems to be one of the major technology trends observed throughout the last decade. Many experts and analysts expect that the arrival of mobile services such as mobile commerce, location-based services, multi-media messaging, and mobile gaming in the third generation of mobile networks will be the next step in this success story. However, protecting service providers from fraud and mobile users from new thre...

  17. Application of DNA-DNA colony hybridization to the detection of catabolic genotypes in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of preexisting DNA hybridization techniques was investigated for potential in determining populations of specific gene sequences in environmental samples. Cross-hybridizations among two degradative plasmids, TOL and NAH, and two cloning vehicles, pLAFR1 and RSF1010, were determined. The detection limits for the TOL plasmid against a nonhomologous plasmid-bearing bacterial background was ascertained. The colony hybridization technique allowed detection of one colony containing TOL plasmid among 10(6) Escherichia coli colonies of nonhomologous DNA. Comparisons between population estimates derived from growth on selective substrates and from hybridizations were examined. Findings indicated that standard sole carbon source enumeration procedures for degradative populations lead to overestimations due to nonspecific growth of other bacteria on the microcontaminant carbon sources present in the media. Population estimates based on the selective growth of a microcosm population on two aromatic substrates (toluene and naphthalene) and estimates derived from DNA-DNA colony hybridizations, using the TOL or NAH plasmid as a probe, corresponded with estimates of substrate mineralization rates and past exposure to environmental contaminants. The applications of such techniques are hoped to eventually allow enumeration of any specific gene sequences in the environment, including both anabolic and catabolic genes. In addition, this procedure should prove useful in monitoring recombinant DNA clones released into environmental situations

  18. FGF21 Lowers Plasma Triglycerides by Accelerating Lipoprotein Catabolism in White and Brown Adipose Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlein, Christian; Talukdar, Saswata; Heine, Markus; Fischer, Alexander W; Krott, Lucia M; Nilsson, Stefan K; Brenner, Martin B; Heeren, Joerg; Scheja, Ludger

    2016-03-01

    FGF21 decreases plasma triglycerides (TGs) in rodents and humans; however, the underlying mechanism or mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, we examined the role of FGF21 in production and disposal of TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in mice. Treatment with pharmacological doses of FGF21 acutely reduced plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), liver TG content, and VLDL-TG secretion. In addition, metabolic turnover studies revealed that FGF21 facilitated the catabolism of TRL in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). FGF21-dependent TRL processing was strongly attenuated in CD36-deficient mice and transgenic mice lacking lipoprotein lipase in adipose tissues. Insulin resistance in diet-induced obese and ob/ob mice shifted FGF21 responses from WAT toward energy-combusting BAT. In conclusion, FGF21 lowers plasma TGs through a dual mechanism: first, by reducing NEFA plasma levels and consequently hepatic VLDL lipidation and, second, by increasing CD36 and LPL-dependent TRL disposal in WAT and BAT. PMID:26853749

  19. Catabolism of Branched Chain Amino Acids Supports Respiration but Not Volatile Synthesis in Tomato Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrej Kochevenko; Wagner L.Araújo; Gregory S.Maloney; Denise M.Tieman; Phuc Thi Do; Mark G.Taylor; Harry J.Klee; Alisdair R.Fernie

    2012-01-01

    The branched-chain amino acid transaminases (BCATs) have a crucial role in metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids leucine,isoleucine,and valine.These enzymes catalyze the last step of synthesis and the initial step of degradation of these amino acids.Although the biosynthetic pathways of branched chain amino acids in plants have been extensively investigated and a number of genes have been characterized,their catabolism in plants is not yet completely understood.We previously characterized the branched chain amino acid transaminase gene family in tomato,revealing both the subcellular localization and kinetic properties of the enzymes encoded by six genes.Here,we examined possible functions of the enzymes during fruit development.We further characterized transgenic plants differing in the expression of branched chain amino acid transaminases 1 and 3,evaluating the rates of respiration in fruits deficient in BCAT1 and the levels of volatiles in lines overexpressing either BCAT1 or BCAT3.We quantitatively tested,via precursor and isotope feeding experiments,the importance of the branched chain amino acids and their corresponding keto acids in the formation of fruit volatiles.Our results not only demonstrate for the first time the importance of branched chain amino acids in fruit respiration,but also reveal that keto acids,rather than amino acids,are the likely precursors for the branched chain flavor volatiles.

  20. Characterization of the Erwinia chrysanthemi Gan locus, involved in galactan catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delangle, Aurélie; Prouvost, Anne-France; Cogez, Virginie; Bohin, Jean-Pierre; Lacroix, Jean-Marie; Cotte-Pattat, Nicole Hugouvieux

    2007-10-01

    beta-1,4-Galactan is a major component of the ramified regions of pectin. Analysis of the genome of the plant pathogenic bacteria Erwinia chrysanthemi revealed the presence of a cluster of eight genes encoding proteins potentially involved in galactan utilization. The predicted transport system would comprise a specific porin GanL and an ABC transporter made of four proteins, GanFGK(2). Degradation of galactans would be catalyzed by the periplasmic 1,4-beta-endogalactanase GanA, which released oligogalactans from trimer to hexamer. After their transport through the inner membrane, oligogalactans would be degraded into galactose by the cytoplasmic 1,4-beta-exogalactanase GanB. Mutants affected for the porin or endogalactanase were unable to grow on galactans, but they grew on galactose and on a mixture of galactotriose, galactotetraose, galactopentaose, and galactohexaose. Mutants affected for the periplasmic galactan binding protein, the transporter ATPase, or the exogalactanase were only able to grow on galactose. Thus, the phenotypes of these mutants confirmed the functionality of the gan locus in transport and catabolism of galactans. These mutations did not affect the virulence of E. chrysanthemi on chicory leaves, potato tubers, or Saintpaulia ionantha, suggesting an accessory role of galactan utilization in the bacterial pathogeny. PMID:17644603

  1. Novel Insights into the Diversity of Catabolic Metabolism from Ten Haloarchaeal Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain; Scheuner, Carmen; Goker, Markus; Mavromatis, Kostas; Hooper, Sean D.; Porat, Iris; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2011-05-03

    The extremely halophilic archaea are present worldwide in saline environments and have important biotechnological applications. Ten complete genomes of haloarchaea are now available, providing an opportunity for comparative analysis. We report here the comparative analysis of five newly sequenced haloarchaeal genomes with five previously published ones. Whole genome trees based on protein sequences provide strong support for deep relationships between the ten organisms. Using a soft clustering approach, we identified 887 protein clusters present in all halophiles. Of these core clusters, 112 are not found in any other archaea and therefore constitute the haloarchaeal signature. Four of the halophiles were isolated from water, and four were isolated from soil or sediment. Although there are few habitat-specific clusters, the soil/sediment halophiles tend to have greater capacity for polysaccharide degradation, siderophore synthesis, and cell wall modification. Halorhabdus utahensis and Haloterrigena turkmenica encode over forty glycosyl hydrolases each, and may be capable of breaking down naturally occurring complex carbohydrates. H. utahensis is specialized for growth on carbohydrates and has few amino acid degradation pathways. It uses the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway instead of the oxidative pathway, giving it more flexibility in the metabolism of pentoses. These new genomes expand our understanding of haloarchaeal catabolic pathways, providing a basis for further experimental analysis, especially with regard to carbohydrate metabolism. Halophilic glycosyl hydrolases for use in biofuel production are more likely to be found in halophiles isolated from soil or sediment.

  2. Serum and urinary lipoproteins in the human nephrotic syndrome: evidence for renal catabolism of lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, V.G.; Forte, T.; Licht, H.; Lewis, S.B.

    1982-03-01

    The urinary excretion of lipoproteins and the possibility of catabolic alterations on glomerular filtration were investigated in four nephrotic subjects difering in etiology, serum lipoprotein profile, and 24 hr urinary output of protein and lipids. The apolipoproteins and lipoproteins of urine were compared with those of serum with respect to distribution profile, physical properties, and composition. As expected from molecular sieving effects during glomerular filtration, the urinary HDL were more abundant than the lower density lipoproteins even when the plasma LDL was elevated markedly. Intact apolipoproteins were not found in the concentrated urinary fraction isolated by ultrafiltration between the limits of 10/sup 4/ and 5 x 10/sup 4/ daltons. On the basis of immunoreactivity, gel electrophoresis, and amino acid composition, apolipoproteins B and AI are the major and minor proteins, respectively, of urinary LDL, and apo B is the major protein of the urinary IDL and VLDL. Apolipoproteins AI, AII, CI, CIII, and possibly AIV were isolated from the urinary HDL. As much as 20% of the protein moiety of the urinary HDL appeared to be large apolipoprotien fragments with molecular weights and isoelectric points similar to those of apo CII and apo CIII. The lower density classes of urinary lipoproteins also appeared to have lost apo E and apo C's and to have undergone partial proteolysis.

  3. Playful Mobility Choices: Motivating informed mobility decision making by applying game mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Millonig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivating people to change their mobility behaviour patterns towards more sustainable forms of mobility is one of the major challenges regarding climate change and quality of life. Recently, an increasing amount of attempts to use gamification for triggering such behavioural changes can be observed. However, little is known about the actual impact of using game elements. This contribution describes a concept for systematically analysing the group-specific effects of different game mechanics on mobility decision processes (e.g. mode and route choice. Based on theoretical findings concerning player types and mobility styles we developed a framework for identifying effective game mechanics motivating users to explore mobility alternatives and take more informed and more sustainable mode or route choice decisions. The results will form the basis for implementing game mechanics in mobility information services motivating users to explore unfamiliar but more sustainable mobility options.

  4. Experimental evidence of a xylose-catabolic pathway on the pAO1 megaplasmid of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Mihasan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The pAO1 megaplasmid of A. nicotinovorans consists of 165 ORF's related mainly to nicotine degradation, uptake and utilization of carbohydrates, amino acids and sarcosine. A putative sugar catabolic pathway consisting of 11 ORF's organized as a single operon were previously described. The current work brings experimental data supporting the existence of a D-Xylose catabolic pathway on the pAO1 megaplasmid. When grown on D-xylose containing media, the cells harboring the pAO1 megaplasmid grow to higher cell densities and also express the OxRe protein coded by the megaplasmid. A putative pathway similar to Weimberg pentose pathway is postulated, in which D-xylose is transported in the cell by the ABC-type transport system and then transformed using the putative sugar-dehidrogenase OxRe to D-xylonate, which is further degrated to 2-ketoglutarate and integrated into the general metabolism of the cell

  5. Separation and partial characterization of the enzymes of the toluene-4-monooxygenase catabolic pathway in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1.

    OpenAIRE

    Whited, G M; Gibson, D T

    1991-01-01

    The route of toluene degradation by Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 was studied by separating or purifying from toluene-grown cells the catabolic enzymes responsible for oxidation of p-cresol through the ring cleavage step. Enzymatic transformations corresponding to each of the metabolic steps in the proposed degradative pathway were conducted with cell-free preparations. p-Cresol was metabolized by the enzyme p-cresol methylhydroxylase to p-hydroxybenzaldehyde. p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde was further ox...

  6. Cytosolic re-localization and optimization of valine synthesis and catabolism enables inseased isobutanol production with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Brat Dawid; Weber Christian; Lorenzen Wolfram; Bode Helge B; Boles Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The branched chain alcohol isobutanol exhibits superior physicochemical properties as an alternative biofuel. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae naturally produces low amounts of isobutanol as a by-product during fermentations, resulting from the catabolism of valine. As S. cerevisiae is widely used in industrial applications and can easily be modified by genetic engineering, this microorganism is a promising host for the fermentative production of higher amounts of isobut...

  7. Cytosolic re-localization and optimization of valine synthesis and catabolism enables increased isobutanol production with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Brat, Dawid; Weber, Christian; Lorenzen, Wolfram; Bode, Helge Björn; Boles, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    Background: The branched chain alcohol isobutanol exhibits superior physicochemical properties as an alternative biofuel. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae naturally produces low amounts of isobutanol as a by-product during fermentations, resulting from the catabolism of valine. As S. cerevisiae is widely used in industrial applications and can easily be modified by genetic engineering, this microorganism is a promising host for the fermentative production of higher amounts of isobutanol. ...

  8. Mobile shearography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalms, Michael; Jueptner, Werner

    2005-04-01

    By reason of their sensitivity, accuracy and non-contact as well as non-destructive characteristics, modern optical methods such as digital speckle shearography have found an increasing interest for NDT applications on the factory floor. With new carbon filter technologies and other lightweight constructions in aircraft and automotive manufacturing, adapted examination designs and especially developed testing methods are necessary. Shearography as a coherent optical method has been widely accepted as an useful NDT tool. It is a robust interferometric method to determine locations with maximum stress on various material structures. However, limitations of this technique can be found in the bulky equipment components, the interpretation of the complex sherographic result images and at the work with non-cooperative surfaces (dark absorber, bright shining reflectors). We report a mobile shearography system that was especially designed for investigations at aircraft and automotive constructions.

  9. Mobile video with mobile IPv6

    CERN Document Server

    Minoli, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Increased reliance on mobile devices and streaming of video content are two of the most recent changes that have led those in the video distribution industry to be concerned about the shifting or erosion of traditional advertising revenues. Infrastructure providers also need to position themselves to take advantage of these trends. Mobile Video with Mobile IPv6provides an overview of the current mobile landscape, then delves specifically into the capabilities and operational details of IPv6. The book also addresses 3G and 4G services, the application of Mobile IPv6 to streaming and other mobil

  10. Effects of vegetation type on soil microbial community structure and catabolic diversity assessed by polyphasic methods in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soil microbes play a major role in ecological processes and are closely associated with the aboveground plant community. In order to understand the effects of vegetation type on the characteristics of soil microbial communities, the soil microbial communities were assessed by plate counts, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and Biolog microplate techniques in five plant communities, i.e., soybean field (SF), artificial turf (AT), artificial shrub (AS), natural shrub (NS), and maize field (MF) in Jinan, Shandong Province, North China. The results showed that plant diversity had little discernible effect on microbial biomass but a positive impact on the evennessof utilized substrates in Biolog microplate. Legumes could significantly enhance the number of cultural microorganisms, microbial biomass, and community catabolic diversity. Except for SF dominated by legumes, the biomass of fungi and the catabolic diversity of microbial community were higher in less disturbed soil beneath NS than in frequently disturbed soils beneath the other vegetation types. These results confirmed that high number of plant species, legumes, and natural vegetation types tend to support soil microbial communities with higher function. The present study also found a significant correlation between the number of cultured bacteria and catabolic diversity of the bacterial community. Different research methods led to varied results in this study. The combination of several approaches is recommended for accurately describing the characteristics of microbial communities in many respects.

  11. The Homogentisate Pathway: a Central Catabolic Pathway Involved in the Degradation of l-Phenylalanine, l-Tyrosine, and 3-Hydroxyphenylacetate in Pseudomonas putida

    OpenAIRE

    Arias-Barrau, Elsa; Olivera, Elías R.; Luengo, José M.; Fernández, Cristina; Galán, Beatriz; García, José L.; Díaz, Eduardo; Miñambres, Baltasar

    2004-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida metabolizes Phe and Tyr through a peripheral pathway involving hydroxylation of Phe to Tyr (PhhAB), conversion of Tyr into 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (TyrB), and formation of homogentisate (Hpd) as the central intermediate. Homogentisate is then catabolized by a central catabolic pathway that involves three enzymes, homogentisate dioxygenase (HmgA), fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (HmgB), and maleylacetoacetate isomerase (HmgC), finally yielding fumarate and acetoacetate. Wherea...

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of the d-Amino Acid Catabolism Bacterium Phaeobacter sp. Strain JL2886, Isolated from Deep Seawater of the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yingnan; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Zilian; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2016-01-01

    Phaeobacter sp. strain JL2886, isolated from deep seawater of the South China Sea, can catabolize d-amino acids. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Phaeobacter sp. JL2886. It comprises ~4.06 Mbp, with a G+C content of 61.52%. A total of 3,913 protein-coding genes and 10 genes related to d-amino acid catabolism were obtained. PMID:27587825

  13. Micro Mobility Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosbond, Jens Henrik; Skov, Mikael B.

    2008-01-01

    Mobile marketing refers to marketing of services or goods using mobile technology and mobile marketing holds potentially great economical opportunities. Traditionally, mobile marketing has been viewed as mobility in the large taking place virtually anywhere, anytime. Further, research shows...... similarities and differences between micro mobility marketing and the traditional mobile marketing in the large. Finally, we suggest areas for further study.Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing (2007) 16, 68-77. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jt.5750058; published online 24 December 2007...... considerable number of studies on push-based SMS mobile marketing campaigns. This paper explores a related yet different form of mobile marketing namely micro mobility marketing. Micro mobility marketing denotes mobility in the small, meaning that promotion of goods takes place within a circumscribed location...

  14. Mobile OS Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Jyothy; K, Shinto Kurian

    2013-01-01

    In the fast growing mobile revolutionary era, many operating systems are playing vital role in present market. This study is intending to identify the apt and secure mobile based on mobile operating systems capability and user requirements.

  15. Mobile Inquiry Based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Specht, M. (2012, 8 November). Mobile Inquiry Based Learning. Presentation given at the Workshop "Mobile inquiry-based learning" at the Mobile Learning Day 2012 at the Fernuniversität Hagen, Hagen, Germany.

  16. High Efficiency and Light Mobile Electronic Business System Based on Mobile Agent Middleware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yunyong; LIU Jinde

    2004-01-01

    Mobile Network technology has been being the research focus during the 1990's.The middleware technology is imported for the sake of running distributed transaction smoothly.In this paper,a mobile agent based middleware high efficiency mobile electronic business oriented middleware (HEMEBOM) is designed and implemented based on the requirement and background of collaborative electronic business.Its architecture,elements and excellent properties are mainly focused.Then high efficiency mobile electronic business systemμMcommerce is built using HEMEBOM.

  17. Molecular and population analyses of a recombination event in the catabolic plasmid pJP4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraín-Linton, Juanita; De la Iglesia, Rodrigo; Melo, Francisco; González, Bernardo

    2006-10-01

    Cupriavidus necator JMP134(pJP4) harbors a catabolic plasmid, pJP4, which confers the ability to grow on chloroaromatic compounds. Repeated growth on 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CB) results in selection of a recombinant strain, which degrades 3-CB better but no longer grows on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D). We have previously proposed that this phenotype is due to a double homologous recombination event between inverted repeats of the multicopies of this plasmid within the cell. One recombinant form of this plasmid (pJP4-F3) explains this phenotype, since it harbors two copies of the chlorocatechol degradation tfd gene clusters, which are essential to grow on 3-CB, but has lost the tfdA gene, encoding the first step in degradation of 2,4-D. The other recombinant plasmid (pJP4-FM) should harbor two copies of the tfdA gene but no copies of the tfd gene clusters. A molecular analysis using a multiplex PCR approach to distinguish the wild-type plasmid pJP4 from its two recombinant forms, was carried out. Expected PCR products confirming this recombination model were found and sequenced. Few recombinant plasmid forms in cultures grown in several carbon sources were detected. Kinetic studies indicated that cells containing the recombinant plasmid pJP4-FM were not selectable by sole carbon source growth pressure, whereas those cells harboring recombinant plasmid pJP4-F3 were selected upon growth on 3-CB. After 12 days of repeated growth on 3-CB, the complete plasmid population in C. necator JMP134 apparently corresponds to this form. However, wild-type plasmid forms could be recovered after growing this culture on 2,4-D, indicating that different plasmid forms can be found in C. necator JMP134 at the population level. PMID:16980481

  18. Functional metagenomics to mine the human gut microbiome for dietary fiber catabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasse, Lena; Bercovici, Juliette; Pizzut-Serin, Sandra; Robe, Patrick; Tap, Julien; Klopp, Christophe; Cantarel, Brandi L; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; Leclerc, Marion; Doré, Joël; Monsan, Pierre; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Potocki-Veronese, Gabrielle

    2010-11-01

    The human gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem composed mainly of uncultured bacteria. It plays an essential role in the catabolism of dietary fibers, the part of plant material in our diet that is not metabolized in the upper digestive tract, because the human genome does not encode adequate carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes). We describe a multi-step functionally based approach to guide the in-depth pyrosequencing of specific regions of the human gut metagenome encoding the CAZymes involved in dietary fiber breakdown. High-throughput functional screens were first applied to a library covering 5.4 × 10(9) bp of metagenomic DNA, allowing the isolation of 310 clones showing beta-glucanase, hemicellulase, galactanase, amylase, or pectinase activities. Based on the results of refined secondary screens, sequencing efforts were reduced to 0.84 Mb of nonredundant metagenomic DNA, corresponding to 26 clones that were particularly efficient for the degradation of raw plant polysaccharides. Seventy-three CAZymes from 35 different families were discovered. This corresponds to a fivefold target-gene enrichment compared to random sequencing of the human gut metagenome. Thirty-three of these CAZy encoding genes are highly homologous to prevalent genes found in the gut microbiome of at least 20 individuals for whose metagenomic data are available. Moreover, 18 multigenic clusters encoding complementary enzyme activities for plant cell wall degradation were also identified. Gene taxonomic assignment is consistent with horizontal gene transfer events in dominant gut species and provides new insights into the human gut functional trophic chain. PMID:20841432

  19. Mobile Search and Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Lovitskii, Vladimir; McCaffery, Colin; Thrasher, Michael; Traynor, David; Wright, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Mobile advertising is a rapidly growing sector providing brands and marketing agencies the opportunity to connect with consumers beyond traditional and digital media and instead communicate directly on their mobile phones. Mobile advertising will be intrinsically linked with mobile search, which has transported from the internet to the mobile and is identified as an area of potential growth. The result of mobile searching show that as a general rule such search result exceed 1...

  20. Trends in Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Chocholová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    The principal aim of this thesis is to assess the state of the mobile marketing as of the first quarter of 2011 and to discuss various scenarios of the future development. This thesis defines the terms "mobile marketing" and "mobile advertising" and identifies the main players in the industry. It explores the main categories of mobile advertising such as mobile messaging, in-content and mobile internet advertising. Later, it analyzes the latest trends in the industry and describes in detail t...

  1. Mobile Schools for a Mobile World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Overwhelmingly, independent schools are embracing mobile devices--laptops, iPads or other tablets, and smartphones--to enhance teaching and learning. This article describes the results of the "NAIS 2012 Mobile Learning Survey." Among its findings were that 75 percent of NAIS-member schools currently use mobile learning devices in at…

  2. Mobile Traffic Management System Test Deployment

    OpenAIRE

    Gerfen, Jeffrey Brian

    2005-01-01

    The Mobile TMC and various field elements were developed for Caltrans Division of Research and Innovation (DRI) between 1994 and 2002. These systems were all designed to operate independent of one another to provide on-site traffic data collection, video surveillance, and traffic management functions to support Caltrans TMC operations. Cal Poly researchers integrated these systems and an off-the-shelf changeable message sign into a Mobile Transportation Management System (MTMS). This new and ...

  3. Mobile Traffic Management System Test Deployment

    OpenAIRE

    Gerfen, Jeffrey Brian

    2005-01-01

    The Mobile TMC and various field elements were developed for Caltrans Division of Research and Innovation (DRI) between 1994 and 2002. These systems were all designed to operate independent of one another to provide on-site traffic data collection, video surveillance, and traffic management functions to support Caltrans TMC operations. Cal Poly researchers integrated these systems and an off-the-shelf changeable message sign into a Mobile Transportation Management System (MTMS). This ...

  4. Transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that neutron irradiation of uranium, beginning in 1934, led to the reported discovery of such transuranium elements as eka-rhenium. After a few years of investigation these were correctly identified, in December 1938, as fission products. The first real transuranium elements, with atomic numbers 93 and 94 (neptumiun and plutionium), were discovered in 1940-1941. Plutomiun-239 was shown to be fission-able with slow neutrons, and chemical methods for its separation in quantity were developed. Not until it was recognized that transuranium elements should be part of a 14-member actinide series could elements 95 and 96 (americium and curium) be chemically identified after their nuclear synthesis. This new view was the key to the synthesis and identified after their nuclear synthesis. This new view was the key to the synthesis and identification of the next seven transuranium elements, resulting in the completion of the actinide series at element 103 in 1961. The transactinide elements could, according to the actinide concept, also be correctly placed in the periodic table, and the chemical properties of the first transactinide elements, elements 104 and 105 (rutherfordium and hafnium), confirm this point of view. Transuranium elements through number 109 are now known

  5. Cross platform Mobile Applications Development: Mobile Apps Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Redda, Yonathan Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the mobile computing sector has been having quite a revolution.Mobile computing devices have shed loads of weight, gone slim, achieved mass popularityand a great market penetration. But one of the challenges that has been part ofmobile computing is technology and device fragmentation leaving application developersfor mobile phones bewildered. Platform developers, device manufacturers comewith so many features and functionalities that it has been dicult to provide developerswi...

  6. Mobile commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Παπαδανιήλ, Βασίλειος

    2014-01-01

    Η συνεχής ανάπτυξη των mobile συσκευών και συστημάτων, η εκτεταμένη χρήση του Διαδικτύου, οι ραγδαίες εξελίξεις στις ασύρματες τεχνολογίες, η αυξημένη ζήτηση για υψηλής ταχύτητας διαδραστικές υπηρεσίες πολυμέσων καθώς και η αυξανόμενη ανάγκη για ασφαλή ασύρματη επικοινωνία, οδήγησε στην ανάπτυξη του mobile commerce και στην καθιέρωση του στον επιχειρηματικό κόσμο. Η συνεχής βελτίωση των ασύρματων τεχνολογιών, ιδιαίτερα ως προς την ευελιξία και την ευχρηστία, οδήγησε στην παροχή διαφόρων υπηρε...

  7. Mobile Operating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kamboj

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are used by every people in today’s life. We use mobile phones without knowing the different factors that a mobile used including its technology, operating system, CPU ,RAM etc. Many types of operating system are used by different mobile. Every operating system has their advantage

  8. TYPOLOGIES OF MOBILE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Ivan; Alin Zamfiroiu2; Dragoş Palaghiţă3

    2013-01-01

    Mobile applications and their particularities are analyzed. Mobile application specific characteristics are defined. Types of applications are identified and analyzed. The paper established differences between mobile applications and mobile application categories. For each identified type the specific structures and development model are identified.

  9. Mobile Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vipin Kamboj; Hitesh Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phones are used by every people in today’s life. We use mobile phones without knowing the different factors that a mobile used including its technology, operating system, CPU ,RAM etc. Many types of operating system are used by different mobile. Every operating system has their advantage

  10. T cells stimulate catabolic gene expression by the stromal cells from giant cell tumor of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Robert W. [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada); Juravinski Cancer Centre, 699 Concession St., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8V 5C2 (Canada); Ghert, Michelle [Juravinski Cancer Centre, 699 Concession St., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8V 5C2 (Canada); Department of Surgery, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada); Singh, Gurmit, E-mail: gurmit.singh@jcc.hhsc.ca [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada); Juravinski Cancer Centre, 699 Concession St., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8V 5C2 (Canada)

    2012-03-23

    results suggest that T cells may potentiate the catabolic effect of GCT.

  11. CYP24, the enzyme that catabolizes the antiproliferative agent vitamin D, is increased in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Robert A; Egorin, Merrill J; Kanterewicz, Beatriz; Taimi, Mohammed; Petkovich, Martin; Lew, April M; Chuang, Samuel S; Nichols, Mark; El-Hefnawy, Talal; Hershberger, Pamela A

    2006-10-15

    1Alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) displays potent antiproliferative activity in a variety of tumor model systems and is currently under investigation in clinical trials in cancer. Studies were initiated to explore its potential in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as effective approaches to the treatment of that disease are needed. In evaluating factors that may affect activity in NSCLC, the authors found that CYP24 (25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase), the enzyme that catabolizes 1,25D3, is frequently expressed in NSCLC cell lines but not in the nontumorigenic bronchial epithelial cell line, Beas2B. CYP24 expression by RT-PCR was also detected in 10/18 primary lung tumors but in only 1/11 normal lung tissue specimens. Tumor-specific CYP24 upregulation was confirmed at the protein level via immunoblot analysis of patient-matched normal lung tissue and lung tumor extracts. Enzymatically active CYP24 is expected to desensitize NSCLC cells to 1,25D3. The authors therefore implemented a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) assay for 1,25D3 and its CYP24-generated metabolites to determine whether NSCLC cells express active enzyme. Analysis of NSCLC cell cultures revealed time-dependent loss of 1,25D3 coincident with the appearance of CYP24-generated metabolites. MK-24(S)-S(O)(NH)-Ph-1, a specific inhibitor of CYP24, slowed the loss of 1,25D3 and increased 1,25D3 half-life. Furthermore, combination of 1,25D3 with MK-24(S)-S(O)(NH)-Ph-1 resulted in a significant decrease in the concentration of 1,25D3 required to achieve maximum growth inhibition in NSCLC cells. These data suggest that increased CYP24 expression in lung tumors restricts 1,25D3 activity and support the preclinical evaluation of CYP24 inhibitors for lung cancer treatment. PMID:16708384

  12. Targeting Bone Alleviates Osteoarthritis in Osteopenic Mice and Modulates Cartilage Catabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funck-Brentano, Thomas; Lin, Hilène; Hay, Eric; Ah Kioon, Marie-Dominique; Schiltz, Corinne; Hannouche, Didier; Nizard, Rémy; Lioté, Frédéric; Orcel, Philippe; de Vernejoul, Marie-Christine; Cohen-Solal, Martine Esther

    2012-01-01

    Objective Subchondral bone modifications occur early in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). The level of bone resorption might impact cartilage remodeling. We therefore assessed the in vivo and in vitro effects of targeting bone resorption in OA and cartilage metabolism. Methods OA was induced by meniscectomy (MNX) in ovariectomized osteopenic mice (OP) treated with estradiol (E2), pamidronate (PAM), or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 6 weeks. We assessed the subchondral bone and cartilage structure and the expression of cartilage matrix proteases. To assess the involvement of bone soluble factors in cartilage metabolism, supernatant of human bone explants pre-treated with E2 or PAM were transferred to cartilage explants to assess proteoglycan release and aggrecan cleavage. OPG/RANKL mRNA expression was assessed in bone explants by real-time quantitative PCR. The role of osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the bone-cartilage crosstalk was tested using an OPG neutralizing antibody. Results Bone mineral density of OP mice and osteoclast number were restored by E2 and PAM (p<0.05). In OP mice, E2 and PAM decreased ADAMTS-4 and -5 expression, while only PAM markedly reduced OA compared to PBS (2.0±0.63 vs 5.2±0.95; p<0.05). OPG/RANKL mRNA was increased in human bone explants treated with both drugs (2.2–3.7-fold). Moreover, supernatants from bone explants cultured with E2 or PAM reduced aggrecan cleavage and cartilage proteoglycan release (73±8.0% and 80±22% of control, respectively, p<0.05). This effect was reversed with osteoprotegerin blockade. Conclusion The inhibition of bone resorption by pamidronate in osteopenic mice alleviates the histological OA score with a reduction in the expression of aggrecanases. Bone soluble factors, such as osteoprotegerin, impact the cartilage response to catabolic factors. This study further highlights the importance of subchondral bone in the regulation of joint cartilage damage in OA. PMID:22432033

  13. Improvement of cellulose catabolism in Clostridium cellulolyticum by sporulation abolishment and carbon alleviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yongchao [ORNL; Xu, Tao [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL; He, Zhili [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium cellulolyticum can degrade lignocellulosic biomass, and ferment the soluble sugars to produce valuable chemicals such as lactate, acetate, ethanol and hydrogen. However, the cellulose utilization efficiency of C. cellulolyticum still remains very low, impeding its application in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels production. In this study, two metabolic engineering strategies were exploited to improve cellulose utilization efficiency, including sporulation abolishment and carbon overload alleviation. Results The spo0A gene at locus Ccel_1894, which encodes a master sporulation regulator was inactivated. The spo0A mutant abolished the sporulation ability. In a high concentration of cellulose (50 g/l), the performance of the spo0A mutant increased dramatically in terms of maximum growth, final concentrations of three major metabolic products, and cellulose catabolism. The microarray and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses showed that the valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis pathways were up-regulated in the spo0A mutant. Based on this information, a partial isobutanol producing pathway modified from valine biosynthesis was introduced into C. cellulolyticum strains to further increase cellulose consumption by alleviating excessive carbon load. The introduction of this synthetic pathway to the wild-type strain improved cellulose consumption from 17.6 g/l to 28.7 g/l with a production of 0.42 g/l isobutanol in the 50 g/l cellulose medium. However, the spo0A mutant strain did not appreciably benefit from introduction of this synthetic pathway and the cellulose utilization efficiency did not further increase. A technical highlight in this study was that an in vivo promoter strength evaluation protocol was developed using anaerobic fluorescent protein and flow cytometry for C. cellulolyticum. Conclusions In this study, we inactivated the spo0A gene and introduced a heterologous synthetic pathway to manipulate the stress

  14. Next generation mobile broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Barquero, David

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Mobile Broadcasting provides an overview of the past, present, and future of mobile multimedia broadcasting. The first part of the book-Mobile Broadcasting Worldwide-summarizes next-generation mobile broadcasting technologies currently available. This part covers the evolutions of the Japanese mobile broadcasting standard ISDB-T One-Seg, ISDB-Tmm and ISDB-TSB; the evolution of the South Korean T-DMB mobile broadcasting technology AT-DMB; the American mobile broadcasting standard ATSC-M/H; the Chinese broadcasting technologies DTMB and CMMB; second-generation digital terrestrial

  15. A forward genetic approach in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a strategy for exploring starch catabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Hande Tunçay; Justin Findinier; Thierry Duchêne; Virginie Cogez; Charlotte Cousin; Gilles Peltier; Ball, Steven G; David Dauvillée

    2013-01-01

    A screen was recently developed to study the mobilization of starch in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This screen relies on starch synthesis accumulation during nitrogen starvation followed by the supply of nitrogen and the switch to darkness. Hence multiple regulatory networks including those of nutrient starvation, cell cycle control and light to dark transitions are likely to impact the recovery of mutant candidates. In this paper we monitor the specificity of this m...

  16. Improving Urban Mobility by Understanding its Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Urban mobility systems are composed multiple elements with strong interactions, i.e. their future is co-determined by the state of other elements. Thus, studying components in isolation, i.e. using a reductionist approach, is inappropriate. I propose five recommendations to improve urban mobility based on insights from the scientific study of complex systems: use adaptation over prediction, regulate interactions to avoid friction, use sensors to recover real time information, develop adaptive algorithms to exploit that information, and deploy agents to act on the urban environment.

  17. Location and PCR analysis of catabolic genes in a novel Streptomyces sp. DUT_AHX capable of degrading nitrobenzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Haixin; ZHOU Jiti; LV Hong; WANG Jing; GUO Jianbo; LIU Guangfei; QU Yuanyuan

    2008-01-01

    A novel strain of Streptomyces sp. DUT_AHX was isolated from sludge contaminated with nitrobenzene and identified on the basis of physiological and biochemical tests and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis. The optimal degradation conditions were as follows: temperature 30℃, pH 7.0-8.0, shaking speed 150-180 r/min and inocula 10% (V/V). The strain, which possessed a partial reductive pathway with the release of ammonia, was also able to grow on mineral salts basal (MSB) medium plates with 2-aminophenol, phenol, or toluene as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, the enzyme activity tests showed crude extracts of nitrobenzene-grown DUT_AHX contained 2-aminophenol 1,6-dioxygenase activity. The 17-kb plasmid was isolated by the modified alkaline lysis method and was further cured by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) together with 37℃. As a result, the cured derivative strain DUT_AHX-4 lost the 2-aminophenol 1,6-dioxygenase activity. The results suggested that the catabolic genes encoding the nitrobenzene-degrading enzymes were plasmid-associated. Moreover, the plasmid DNA was amplified with degenerate primers by touchdown PCR and an expected size fragment (471 bp) was generated. The Blast results revealed that the gene encoding a 157 amino acid polypeptide was 39% to 76% identical to YHS domain protein. The further examination of the plasmid would demonstrate the molecular basis of nitrobenzene catabolism in Streptomyces, such as regulation and genetic organization of the catabolic genes.

  18. Handling and inspection of nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention provides improvements in the handling and inspection of nuclear fuel elements. A mobile bridge is mounted astraddle over a water tank, and from said bridge is suspended and immersed insulating plate capable of vertically receiving a fuel element and of taking a horizontal position for inspecting the latter. This can be applied to nuclear power stations

  19. Mobile platform security

    CERN Document Server

    Asokan, N; Dmitrienko, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Recently, mobile security has garnered considerable interest in both the research community and industry due to the popularity of smartphones. The current smartphone platforms are open systems that allow application development, also for malicious parties. To protect the mobile device, its user, and other mobile ecosystem stakeholders such as network operators, application execution is controlled by a platform security architecture. This book explores how such mobile platform security architectures work. We present a generic model for mobile platform security architectures: the model illustrat

  20. Tenured Public Servant Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Pauron

    2003-01-01

    The mobility of tenured public servants is studied from three points of view: geographic mobility (defined by a change of regional study and planning area (ZEAT) or department within a ZEAT), socio-economic mobility (change of socio-economic group) and structural mobility (change of ministry or service within a ministry). Geographic mobility is the most frequent, concerning an average 4.2% of staff every year. Not including upgrading (from grade D to grade C and from primary school teacher to...

  1. ON MOBILE MESH NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Namiot, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    With the advances in mobile computing technologies and the growth of the Net, mobile mesh networks are going through a set of important evolutionary steps. In this paper, we survey architectural aspects of mobile mesh networks and their use cases and deployment models. Also, we survey challenging areas of mobile mesh networks and describe our vision of promising mobile services. This paper presents a basic introductory material for Masters of Open Information Technologies Lab, interested in m...

  2. MOBILE MARKETING FUTURE TRENDS

    OpenAIRE

    CĂTOIU, Iacob; GÂRDAN, Daniel Adrian; GÂRDAN, Doru Lucian

    2010-01-01

    The present article proposes an introspection into the field of a new marketing specialization – mobile marketing. The concept mainly refers to all marketing activities related to the new communication channel – Short Message Service, Multimedia Messaging Service, and internet access from mobile phone. The article provides, at the same time, a marketing perspective about future trends of mobile marketing and mobile media, and also a technical perspective related to the future mobile communica...

  3. Factors affecting blind mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Clark-Carter, David

    1985-01-01

    This thesis contains a survey of the mobility problems of blind people, experimental analysis and evaluation of these problems and suggestions for ways in which the evaluation of mobility performance and the design of mobility aids may be improved. The survey revealed a low level of mobility among blind people, with no significant improvement since a comparable survey in 1967. A group of self taught cane users were identified and their mobility was shown to be poor or potentially dangero...

  4. Crocin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects on rat intervertebral discs by suppressing the activation of JNK

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kang; Li, Yan; MA, ZHENJIANG; Zhao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    As intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration has been proven to contribute to low back pain (LBP), drug treatment aiming at attenuating IVD degeneration may prove to be benefiical. Crocin, a bioactive component of saffron, has been found to exert anti-inflammatory effects on cartilage. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects of crocin on rat IVDs were analyzed in vitro and ex vivo. Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were isolated from the lumbar IVDs of Sprague-Dawley rat...

  5. Acute local inflammation alters synthesis, distribution, and catabolism of third component of complement (C3) in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Manthei, U; Strunk, R. C.; Giclas, P. C.

    1984-01-01

    In order to evaluate the basis for changes in plasma concentrations of the third component of complement (C3) during inflammation, we injected purified radiolabeled C3 into normal New Zealand White rabbits and into rabbits with turpentine-induced pleurisy. In the normal animals, C3 was distributed between the intravascular compartment (75%) and the extravascular space (25%), with an exchange rate of 1.8 +/- 0.1% of the plasma pool per hour. The fractional catabolic rate (FCR) was 2.7 +/- 0.3%...

  6. The influence of environmental parameters on the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids by Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2004-01-01

    ionization detection (GC/FID). Main volatile catabolic products of leucine, isoleucine and valine were 3-methylbutanoic, 2-methylbutanoic and 2-methylpropanoic acids, respectively. The generation of branched flavour compounds was influenced significantly by most of the investigated environmental parameters....... The environmental conditions studied were temperature (12-28degreesC), NaCl concentration (4.0-12.0% (w/w)) acidity (pH 4.8-5.8) and addition of manganese (0-2.5mg Mn/kg). Flavour compounds were sampled by automatic static headspace collection and separated/quantified using gas chromatography/flame...

  7. Alternative route for biosynthesis of amino sugars in Escherichia coli K-12 mutants by means of a catabolic isomerase.

    OpenAIRE

    Vogler, A P; Trentmann, S.; Lengeler, J W

    1989-01-01

    By inserting a lambda placMu bacteriophage into gene glmS encoding glucosamine 6-phosphate synthetase (GlmS), the key enzyme of amino sugar biosynthesis, a nonreverting mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 that was strictly dependent on exogenous N-acetyl-D-glucosamine or D-glucosamine was generated. Analysis of suppressor mutations rendering the mutant independent of amino sugar supply revealed that the catabolic enzyme D-glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase (deaminase), encoded by gene nagB of the ...

  8. Genetic Analysis of the Upper Phenylacetate Catabolic Pathway in the Production of Tropodithietic Acid by Phaeobacter gallaeciensis

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Martine; Brock, Nelson L.; Liesegang, Heiko; Dogs, Marco; Preuth, Ines; Simon, Meinhard; Dickschat, Jeroen S.; Brinkhoff, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Production of the antibiotic tropodithietic acid (TDA) depends on the central phenylacetate catabolic pathway, specifically on the oxygenase PaaABCDE, which catalyzes epoxidation of phenylacetyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Our study was focused on genes of the upper part of this pathway leading to phenylacetyl-CoA as precursor for TDA. Phaeobacter gallaeciensis DSM 17395 encodes two genes with homology to phenylacetyl-CoA ligases (paaK1 and paaK2), which were shown to be essential for phenylacetate cat...

  9. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and implications in catabolic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Björn

    1997-01-01

    This thesis has studied the regulation of IGFBP-1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1), which is one factor regulating the bioavailability of IGF-I with special interest how IGFBP-1 is regulated in vitro and in humans, especially in diabetes and catabolic conditions. The IGFBP-1 cDNA was cloned and used for studies in human hepatoma cells, HepG2, which showed that both insulin and IGF-I could decrease IGFBP-1 in the cell conditioned medium. IGF-I inhibited also IGF...

  10. Distribution and Biochemical Properties of an M1-family Aminopeptidase in Plasmodium falciparum Indicate a Role in Vacuolar Hemoglobin Catabolism*

    OpenAIRE

    Ragheb, Daniel; Dalal, Seema; Bompiani, Kristin M.; Ray, W. Keith; Klemba, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aminopeptidases catalyze N-terminal peptide bond hydrolysis and occupy many diverse roles across all domains of life. Here we present evidence that an M1-family aminopeptidase, PfA-M1, has been recruited to specialized roles in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PfA-M1 is abundant in two subcellular compartments in asexual intraerythrocytic parasites; that is, the food vacuole, where the catabolism of host hemoglobin takes place, and the nucleus. A unique N-terminal extension c...

  11. Mobile Notes: Mobile Devices in Creative Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Lars; Juarez, Guillermo; Hoppe, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    The trendy notion of "mobile learning" has different connotations: On the one hand, it can be understood as "learning on the move" - often referred to as "learning any time anywhere". Of course this interpretation relies on specific kinds of technological enabling, but the definition aims at the general setting of learning activities. Particularly, it includes informal learning settings (cf. [1]). A second interpretation sees mobile learning somewhat more pragmatically as learning with mobile...

  12. MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES AND MOBILE HEALTH DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Meghisan; Georgeta-Madalina Meghisan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the potential of mobile health devices with a positive impact on the public health care system from Romania. More people monitoring their health situation with the help of mobile health applications could lead to less money spent by the public health sector with treating more advanced diseases. Approach/ methodology. The analysis of the Romanian mobile telecommunications market and health situation of the population from Romania was based on s...

  13. Abrechnung mobiler Dienste im Mobile-Payment-Referenzmodell

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze mobile payments in the mobile commerce scenario. Therefore, we first classify the mobile payment in the mobile commerce scenario by explaining general offer models, charging concepts, and intermediaries. Second, we describe the mobile payment reference model, especially, the mobile payment reference organization model and different mobile payment standard types. Finally, we conclude our findings.

  14. Mobile glasses-free 3D using compact waveguide hologram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exploding mobile communication devices make 3D data available anywhere anytime. However, to record and reconstruct 3D, the huge number of optical components is often required, which makes overall device size bulky and image quality degraded due to the error-prone tuning. In addition, if additional glass is required, then user experience of 3D is exhausting and unpleasant. Holography is the ultimate 3D that users experience natural 3D in every direction. For mobile glasses-free 3D experience, it is critical to make holography device that can be as compact and integrated as possible. For reliable and economical mass production, integrated optics is needed as integrated circuits in semiconductor industry. Thus, we propose mobile glasses-free 3D using compact waveguide hologram in terms of overall device sizes, quantity of elements and combined functionality of each element. The main advantages of proposed solution are as follows: First, this solution utilizes various integral optical elements, where each of them is a united not adjustable optical element, replacing separate and adjustable optical elements with various forms and configurations. Second, geometrical form of integral elements provides small sizes of whole device. Third, geometrical form of integral elements allows creating flat device. And finally, absence of adjustable elements provide rigidly of whole device. The usage of integrated optical means based on waveguide holographic elements allows creating a new type of compact and high functional devices for mobile glasses-free 3D applications such as mobile medical 3D data visualization.

  15. Mobile Scientific Calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdulrahim Hamdi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The mobile and wireless industry is entering an exciting time. Demand for mobile technology is growing at a tremendous rate. Corporations are deploying mobile applications that provide substantial business benefits, and consumers are readily adopting mobile data applications. We present scientific application for mobile phone in steps of software engineering project starting from data gathering, data analysis, designing, coding, packaging, testing and deploying, Mobile Scientific Calculator (MSC enable user to compute any mathematical operation by using this application in mobile phone without needing to use the calculator. Scientific calculator offers three keys the four mathematic operations, the four systems of digits and offering many of functions such as angles functions, power, factorial and other functions. Scientific calculator is suitable for many mobile phones which don t have scientific calculator in its applications, it provide simple design for dealing with its functions for all users. It operated on more than one mobile phone model.

  16. Biodegradation Ability and Catabolic Genes of Petroleum-Degrading Sphingomonas koreensis Strain ASU-06 Isolated from Egyptian Oily Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Latif Hesham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are serious pollutants and health hazards. In this study, 15 PAHs-degrading bacteria were isolated from Egyptian oily soil. Among them, one Gram-negative strain (ASU-06 was selected and biodegradation ability and initial catabolic genes of petroleum compounds were investigated. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain ASU-06 to published sequences in GenBank database as well as phylogenetic analysis identified ASU-06 as Sphingomonas koreensis. Strain ASU-06 degraded 100, 99, 98, and 92.7% of 100 mg/L naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene within 15 days, respectively. When these PAHs present in a mixed form, the enhancement phenomenon appeared, particularly in the degradation of pyrene, whereas the degradation rate was 98.6% within the period. This is the first report showing the degradation of different PAHs by this species. PCR experiments with specific primers for catabolic genes alkB, alkB1, nahAc, C12O, and C23O suggested that ASU-06 might possess genes for aliphatic and PAHs degradation, while PAH-RHDαGP gene was not detected. Production of biosurfactants and increasing cell-surface hydrophobicity were investigated. GC/MS analysis of intermediate metabolites of studied PAHs concluded that this strain utilized these compounds via two main pathways, and phthalate was the major constant product that appeared in each day of the degradation period.

  17. Catabolic and regulatory systems in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 involved in electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eKouzuma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that respires using a variety of inorganic and organic compounds. MR-1 is also capable of utilizing extracellular solid materials, including anodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs, as electron acceptors, thereby enabling electricity generation. As MFCs have the potential to generate electricity from biomass waste and wastewater, MR-1 has been extensively studied to identify the molecular systems that are involved in electricity generation in MFCs. These studies have demonstrated the importance of extracellular electron-transfer pathways that electrically connect the quinone pool in the cytoplasmic membrane to extracellular electron acceptors. Electricity generation is also dependent on intracellular catabolic pathways that oxidize electron donors, such as lactate, and regulatory systems that control the expression of genes encoding the components of catabolic and electron-transfer pathways. In addition, recent findings suggest that cell-surface polymers, e.g., exopolysaccharides, and secreted chemicals, which function as electron shuttles, are also involved in electricity generation. Despite these advances in our knowledge on the extracellular electron-transfer processes in MR-1, further efforts are necessary to fully understand the underlying intra- and extra-cellular molecular systems for electricity generation in MFCs. We suggest that investigating how MR-1 coordinates these systems to efficiently transfer electrons to electrodes and conserve electrochemical energy for cell proliferation is important for establishing the biological bases for MFCs.

  18. Biodegradation ability and catabolic genes of petroleum-degrading Sphingomonas koreensis strain ASU-06 isolated from Egyptian oily soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesham, Abd El-Latif; Mawad, Asmaa M M; Mostafa, Yasser M; Shoreit, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are serious pollutants and health hazards. In this study, 15 PAHs-degrading bacteria were isolated from Egyptian oily soil. Among them, one Gram-negative strain (ASU-06) was selected and biodegradation ability and initial catabolic genes of petroleum compounds were investigated. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain ASU-06 to published sequences in GenBank database as well as phylogenetic analysis identified ASU-06 as Sphingomonas koreensis. Strain ASU-06 degraded 100, 99, 98, and 92.7% of 100 mg/L naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene within 15 days, respectively. When these PAHs present in a mixed form, the enhancement phenomenon appeared, particularly in the degradation of pyrene, whereas the degradation rate was 98.6% within the period. This is the first report showing the degradation of different PAHs by this species. PCR experiments with specific primers for catabolic genes alkB, alkB1, nahAc, C12O, and C23O suggested that ASU-06 might possess genes for aliphatic and PAHs degradation, while PAH-RHDαGP gene was not detected. Production of biosurfactants and increasing cell-surface hydrophobicity were investigated. GC/MS analysis of intermediate metabolites of studied PAHs concluded that this strain utilized these compounds via two main pathways, and phthalate was the major constant product that appeared in each day of the degradation period. PMID:25177681

  19. Monotropein exerts protective effects against IL-1β-induced apoptosis and catabolic responses on osteoarthritis chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Wu, Longhuo; Li, Linfu; Chen, Siyi

    2014-12-01

    Osteoarthritis, characterized by a loss of articular cartilage accompanied with inflammation, is the most common age-associated degenerative disease. Monotropein, an iridoids glycoside isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis How, has been demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, monotropein was firstly to exhibit cartilage protective activity by down regulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines in the knee synovial fluid in vivo. The anti-apoptotic and anti-catabolic effects of monotropein on rat OA chondrocytes treated by IL-1β were investigated in vitro. In cultured chondrocytes, monotropein attenuated apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in response to IL-1β stimulation. Moreover, treatment with monotropein, the expressions of MMP-3 and MMP-13 were significantly decreased, the expression of COL2A1 was increased. Taken together, these findings suggested that monotropein exerted anti-apoptosis and anti-catabolic activity in chondrocytes, which might support its possible therapeutic role in OA. PMID:25466264

  20. Acetate catabolism by Methanosarcina barkeri: evidence for involvement of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, methyl coenzyme M, and methylreductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathway of acetate catabolism in Methanosarcina barkeri strain MS was studied by using a recently developed assay for methanogenesis from acetate by soluble enzymes in cell extracts. Extracts incubated with [2-14C]acetate, hydrogen, and ATP formed 14CH4 and [14C]methyl coenzyme M as products. The apparent Km for acetate conversion to methane was 5 mM. In the presence of excess acetate, both the rate and duration of methane production was dependent on ATP. Acetyl phosphate replaced the cell extract methanogenic requirement for both acetate and ATP (the Km for ATP was 2 mM). Low concentrations of bromoethanesulfonic acid and cyanide, inhibitors of methylreductase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, respectively, greatly reduced the rate of methanogenesis. Precipitation of CO dehydrogenase in cell extracts by antibodies raised to 95% purified enzyme inhibited both CO dehydrogenase and acetate-to-methane conversion activity. The data are consistent with a model of acetate catabolism in which methylreductase, methyl coenzyme M, CO dehydrogenase, and acetate-activating enzymes are components. These results are discussed in relation to acetate uptake and rate-limiting transformation mechanisms in methane formation

  1. Mobile Portal Implementation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Ping; Damsgaard, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Mobile portal plays an important role in mobile commerce market. Current literature focuses on static analysis on the value chain of mobile portals. This article provides a dynamic perspective on mobile portal strategy. Drawing upon network economics, we describe mobile portal implementation...... as a fourphase process. In different phase, a portal provider has various challenges to overcome and adopt diverse strategies, and correspondingly the regulator has different foci. The conceptual framework proposed in this article offers a basis for further analyses on the market dynamics of mobile commerce...

  2. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  3. Mobile Router Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Shell, Dan; Leung, Kent

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems and NASA have been performing joint research on mobile routing technology under a NASA Space Act Agreement. Cisco developed mobile router technology and provided that technology to NASA for applications to aeronautic and space-based missions. NASA has performed stringent performance testing of the mobile router, including the interaction of routing and transport-level protocols. This paper describes mobile routing, the mobile router, and some key configuration parameters. In addition, the paper describes the mobile routing test network and test results documenting the performance of transport protocols in dynamic routing environments.

  4. A New Perspective on Mobility Management Scenarios and Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Condeixa, Tiago; de Matos, Ricardo; Matos, Alfredo; Sargento, Susana; Sofia, Rute

    2010-01-01

    Currently and in the future, users demand for ubiquitous network connection to interact with the world. Moreover, the mobile devices are increasingly widespread and are better equipped in terms of access connections and services support. Mobility management is therefore an intrinsic feature of mobile networks; however, it is not yet ready to support the so called User-provided networks (UPNs), where the network elements can be devices controlled by regular users, or providers, and share subsc...

  5. Mobilization of mercury out of dental amalgam sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mobilization of mercury and other heavy metals out of dental amalgam sludge sedimented in different liquid-phase disinfectants and cleansing agents has been studied. Using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), multi-element measurements were performed. (orig.)

  6. Analysis of roles and position of mobile network operators in mobile payment infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Markendahl, Jan; Smith, Mark; Andersson, Per

    2010-01-01

    A number of different mobile payment solutions have been presented the last decade. The phone subscription with its security mechanisms are used for user identification and payments. This is the case for SMS based payment and ticketing systems that are getting more and more popular. However, there are other ways to implement a Trusted Element (TE) , where a SIM card architecture is only one. It can be in the mobile phone, as a separate integrated circuit, as an optional customer deployed plug...

  7. Playful Mobility Choices: Motivating informed mobility decision making by applying game mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    A. Millonig; K. Mitgutsch

    2014-01-01

    Motivating people to change their mobility behaviour patterns towards more sustainable forms of mobility is one of the major challenges regarding climate change and quality of life. Recently, an increasing amount of attempts to use gamification for triggering such behavioural changes can be observed. However, little is known about the actual impact of using game elements. This contribution describes a concept for systematically analysing the group-specific effects of different game mechanics ...

  8. A Framework for Sustainable Mobile Learning in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan; Nicholas, Howard

    2013-01-01

    While there are studies that have looked at the implementation of mobile learning in educational institutions, particularly the identification of issues encountered, few studies have explored holistically the elements that sustain mobile learning. This study dissects the findings of a longitudinal study of a secondary school adopting a personal…

  9. Exploring the Mobility of Mobile Phone Users

    CERN Document Server

    Csáji, Balázs Cs; Traag, V A; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Huens, Etienne; Van Dooren, Paul; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Blondel, Vincent D

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phone datasets allow for the analysis of human behavior on an unprecedented scale. The social network, temporal dynamics and mobile behavior of mobile phone users have often been analyzed independently from each other using mobile phone datasets. In this article, we explore the connections between various features of human behavior extracted from a large mobile phone dataset. Our observations are based on the analysis of communication data of 100000 anonymized and randomly chosen individuals in a dataset of communications in Portugal. We show that clustering and principal component analysis allow for a significant dimension reduction with limited loss of information. The most important features are related to geographical location. In particular, we observe that most people spend most of their time at only a few locations. With the help of clustering methods, we then robustly identify home and office locations and compare the results with official census data. Finally, we analyze the geographic spread ...

  10. Mobile Phones on Campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴春宝

    2007-01-01

    After entering the 21st century, more and more people have mobile phones in China. At the end of 2002, there were 20 million mobile phone users. By the year 2005 the number has reached up to 30 million.

  11. Tandem mobile robot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  12. Ion mobility sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  13. Mobile Multilayer IPsec protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Gayathri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A mobile user moves around and switches between wireless cells, subnets and domains, it needs to maintain the session continuity. At the same time security of signaling and transport media should not be compromised. A multi-layer security framework involving user authentication, packet based encryption and access control mechanism can provide the desired level of security to the mobile users. Supporting streaming traffic in a mobile wireless Internet is faced with several challenges due to continuous handoff experienced by a mobile user. These challenges include dynamic binding, location management, quality of service and end-to-end security for signaling and transport. Mobile users will use heterogeneous radio access networking technologies. Mobile multilayer IPsec protocol (MML IPSec extends ML-IPSec to deal with mobility and make it suitable for wireless networks. MML-IPSec is integration of ML-IPSec and mobile IP.

  14. Mobile Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Börner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Börner, D. (2009). Mobile Informal Learning. Presented at Mobile Learning in Context Symposium at the Open University of the Netherlands. September, 11, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  15. Configuring Mobile Commerce Portals for Business Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dholakia, Nikhilesh; Rask, Morten

    2004-01-01

    aggregators who act as gateways to a variety of mobile services. As the experience of the iMode platform of NTT DoCoMo has already shown, the ability to connect end customers and service providers through an m-portal is a key element for the success of m-commerce. To be commercially viable, such m...

  16. Automated mobility-classified-aerosol detector

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Lynn M.; Flagan, Richard C.; Zhang, Shou-Hua

    2001-01-01

    An aerosol detection system for measuring particle number distribution with respect to particle dimension in an aerosol sample. The system includes an alternating dual-bag sampler, a radially classified differential mobility analyzer, and a condensation nucleus counter. Pressure variations in sampling are compensated by feedback control of volumetric flow rates using a plurality of flow control elements.

  17. Between Fit and Misfit – Small Contractors Using Mobile Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Tambo, Torben; Buser, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of information systems with mobile computing elements in small contractors. Statistical material on ICT-developments in construction reveals a quite scattered and patterned picture of coexistence of generic and dedicated systems and considerable lagging behind other...... spanning between various location and mobilities on site, the site management office, one or more headquarters of construction firms and the mobile space of in between these multiple locations. The qualitative empirical study cover three constellations of small general and craft contractors, their mobile...... technology use and their IT-suppliers. The cases demonstrate a fit with the dedicated mobile technology, spanning all the types of mobility. The work rhythm and placement of the mobile technology with the craftsmen‟s work procedures seems to be a proper fit. Moreover, designing a system to the craftsmen not...

  18. Undergraduate Attitudes and Expectations for Mobile Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanudin Amin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the undergraduate students' willingness on adopting the usage of mobile phone in banking transaction' focusing on Islamic banking in FT, Labuan. Research has been conducted to analyze the students' attitudes and expectations toward mobile banking. Furthermore, students' socio-demographic elements were also studied and analyzes in relations with the study. As noted, sample was taken from students of Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Labuan International Campus. A total of 615 students were approached using convenience sampling modes. And, the finding illustrate that students tend to learn and adopt mobile banking in their banking transactions. In addition, the results also demonstrate students' attitudes and expectations to be the most consistent explanatory factors in predicting their willingness on adopting mobile banking usage in the future. In the nutshell, the findings were in-line with the previous study conducted by Howcroft, Hamilton and Hewer (2002, Sivanand, Geeta and Suleep (2004 and Laforet and Li (2005.

  19. Test for mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Li Kheng

    2014-01-01

    Mobile application testing is a process by which application software developed for mobile devices is tested, in aspects as functionality, usability and consistency. These applications can be pre-installed or installed from distribution platforms for mobile software. Due mobile devices have witnessed of a phenomenal growth in recent years (a study by Yankee Group predicted to generate $ 4.2 billion in revenue for 2013 through 7000 million downloads of applications the U.S.), it is necesary te...

  20. PSiS Mobile

    OpenAIRE

    Anacleto, Ricardo; Luz, Nuno; Figueiredo, Lino

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a state of the art on applications of mobile devices to support decision of a tourist running on a trip. We focus on two types of applications, tourism recommendation and tourism guide, making a brief description of the main characteristics of each one of them. We also refer the main problems encountered on the development of applications for mobile devices, and present PSiS (Personalized Sightseeing Tours Recommendation System) Mobile, our proposal to a mobile recom...

  1. Mobile internet protocol analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brachfeld, Lawrence J.

    1999-01-01

    Mobile Internet Protocol (IP) is a proposed standard that builds on the current Internet Protocol by making the fact that a user is mobile transparent to applications and higher level protocols such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet while maintaining any current conne...

  2. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  3. Mobile social gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Coulton, Paul; Čopič Pucihar, Klen; Bamford, William

    2008-01-01

    After ten years of game design practices routed within traditional PC and console development aimed at hardcore gamers, the mobile games industry has embraced the realization that these have limited value for mobile, and new approaches need to be considered. In particular the greater utilization of social factors within games would embrace the social practices in which mobile phones often engage. Whilst this has led some to propose MMOGs for mobile, the behavior of players of these games sugg...

  4. Mobile connections : curator's statement.

    OpenAIRE

    Hemment, Drew

    2004-01-01

    The Mobile Connections exhibition at the Futuresonic 2004 festival explored how mobile and locative media reconfigure social, cultural and information space. It looked beyond computing in its current form, towards the social and cultural possibilities opened by a new generation of networked, location-aware media. It sought an art of mobile communications: asking, are there any forms of expression that are intrinsic or unique to mobile and locative media?

  5. Focus on personal mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Harms, Peter Jorritsma, Nelly Kalfs

    2011-01-01

    Focus on personal mobilityVarious important societal trends, including aging, immigration, individualization and re-urbanization, influence the mobility of Dutch people. In future, these trends will lead to further (yet slowing) growth in car use, to public transport being used less in rural regions and more in urban areas, and to bicycle use claiming a smaller share of total mobility. In 'Focus on personal mobility', the Kim Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy Analysis focuses on the ...

  6. Mobile Marketing in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Noah H. N. Lynn; Paul D. Berger

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the state of mobile marketing in Japan. We consider the various aspects of mobile marketing in Japan and what has led to the overwhelming adoption by Japanese youth, and to a degree Japanese society as a whole, of social media and associated activities. This growth of mobile marketing has dramatic, positive implications for marketing, in general, as well as for the sale of selected product classes. We also consider markers for suggesting what the future of mobile mar...

  7. Mobile Services Adoption Model

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Ghannam, Bashar

    2011-01-01

    This research presents an explanatory model for consumers' adoption of mobile services. This model uses the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology presented by Venkatesh in 2003 as a baseline and integrates the Perceived Enjoyment, Mobile Affinity, Perceived Price of Service and the Frequency of Mobile Usage as to investigate the Attitude and the Intention to Use mobile services. The proposed model was empirically tested using data collected from a field survey where 1095 responde...

  8. Ion mobility spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eiceman, GA

    2005-01-01

    Key Developments for Faster, More Precise Detection Capabilities Driven by the demand for the rapid and advanced detection of explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and narcotics, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) undergone significant refinements in technology, computational capabilities, and understanding of the principles of gas phase ion chemistry and mobility. Beginning with a thorough discussion of the fundamental theories and physics of ion mobility, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Second Edition describes the recent advances in instrumentation and newly

  9. Complete nucleotide sequence of the self-transmissible TOL plasmid pD2RT provides new insight into arrangement of toluene catabolic plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jutkina, Jekaterina; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Li, Lili; Heinaru, Eeva; Vedler, Eve; Jõesaar, Merike; Heinaru, Ain

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the toluene catabolic plasmid pD2RT of Pseudomonas migulae strain D2RT isolated from Baltic Sea water. The pD2RT is 129,894 base pairs in size with an average G+ C content of 53.75%. A total of 135 open reading frames (ORFs) were ...... predicted to encode proteins, among them genes for catabolism of toluene, plasmid replication, maintenance and conjugative transfer. ORFs encoding proteins with putative functions in stress response, transposition and site- ...

  10. Mean transit times and the sites of synthesis and catabolism of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in young subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M; Petersen, K R; Vinberg, N; Jespersen, J; Gram, J; Tønnesen, K H

    2001-01-01

    .8 min. No net extraction of PAI-1 antigen took place in the splanchnic circulation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that active t-PA and t-PA antigen are catabolized and active PAI-1 produced in the splanchnic circulation in young healthy subjects during steady state. Furthermore, our data show that......Using an invasive technique, we studied the mean transit time, the net quantitative turnover rate, and the sites of synthesis and catabolism of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in healthy young volunteers in the fasting, steady state. Blood was...

  11. Isolation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant in ABA 8′-hydroxylase gene: effect of reduced ABA catabolism on germination inhibition under field condition

    OpenAIRE

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawakami, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8′-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8′OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 o...

  12. Mobile Student Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  13. Mobile Collocated Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés; Clawson, James; Lyons, Kent;

    2015-01-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets were originally conceived and have traditionally been utilized for individual use. Research on mobile collocated interactions has been looking at situations in which collocated users engage in collaborative activities using their mobile devices, thus...

  14. PELTIER ELEMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Tani, Laurits

    2015-01-01

    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  15. MOBILE BUSINESS APPROACH BASED ON MOBILE AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Aloui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Users today want the opportunity to make (or manage a businesses in anytime and anywhere via their mobile devices. This paper proposes the architecture with mobile agent for the mobile businesses (m-business. M-business appeared as the promising approach to drive the vague following one of electronic business (e-business. Most of the e-busines [9] applications uses the traditional model client/server in which a commercial operation requires generally a link of stable communication being established between the customer and the server, and the traditional approach client/server [8] constitutes an obstacle to the development of application of m-business. The proposed architecture introduces several advantages: in the first place, allow the consumers to manage their commercial business driven by types of mobile devices (phones, PDAs, etc. .... at any time and wherever. Secondly, minimize the waiting time of the customer, and the quantity of transferring information. Third, this architecture addresses the problem of time limited and expensive connection for mobile users. The Mobile agents will be used on a single level: research agent. Every research mobile agent will be used to visit the target server site of the application to collect the information’s for his client, which allows it to interact locally with a server, and so to reduce the traffic on the network by transmitting only the useful data.

  16. The atu and liu Clusters Are Involved in the Catabolic Pathways for Acyclic Monoterpenes and Leucine in Pseudomonas aeruginosa†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Zavala, A. N.; Díaz-Pérez, C.; Cervantes, C.; Díaz-Pérez, A. L.; Campos-García, J.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 gnyRDBHAL cluster, which is involved in acyclic isoprenoid degradation (A. L. Díaz-Pérez, N. A. Zavala-Hernández, C. Cervantes, and J. Campos-García, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5102-5110, 2004), corresponds to the liuRABCDE cluster (B. Hoschle, V. Gnau, and D. Jendrossek, Microbiology 151:3649-3656, 2005). A liu (leucine and isovalerate utilization) homolog cluster was found in the PAO1 genome and is related to the catabolism of acyclic monoterpenes of the citronellol family (AMTC); it was named the atu cluster (acyclic terpene utilization), consisting of the atuCDEF genes and lacking the hydroxymethyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (CoA) lyase (HMG-CoA lyase) homolog. Mutagenesis of the atu and liu clusters showed that both are involved in AMTC and leucine catabolism by encoding the enzymes related to the geranyl-CoA and the 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA pathways, respectively. Intermediary metabolites of the acyclic monoterpene pathway, citronellic and geranic acids, were accumulated, and leucine degradation rates were affected in both atuF and liuD mutants. The alpha subunit of geranyl-CoA carboxylase and the alpha subunit of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (α-MCCase), encoded by the atuF and liuD genes, respectively, were both induced by citronellol, whereas only the α-MCCase subunit was induced by leucine. Both citronellol and leucine also induced a LacZ transcriptional fusion at the liuB gene. The liuE gene encodes a probable hydroxy-acyl-CoA lyase (probably HMG-CoA lyase), an enzyme with bifunctional activity that is essential for both AMTC and leucine degradation. P. aeruginosa PAO1 products encoded by the liuABCD cluster showed a higher sequence similarity (77.2 to 79.5%) with the probable products of liu clusters from several Pseudomonas species than with the atuCDEF cluster from PAO1 (41.5%). Phylogenetic studies suggest that the atu cluster from P. aeruginosa could be the result of horizontal transfer from

  17. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic elements are disclosed having first and second silver halide emulsion layers comprised of a dispersing medium and radiation-sensitive silver halide grains, and a support interposed between said silver halide emulsion layers capable of transmitting radiation to which said second silver halide emulsion layer is responsive. These elements are characterized in that at least said first silver halide emulsion layer contains tabular silver halide grains and spectral sensitizing dye adsorbed to the surface of the grains. Crossover can be improved in relation to the imaging characteristics. (author)

  18. Distributed mobility management - framework & analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebsch, M.; Seite, P.; Karagiannis, G.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile operators consider the distribution of mobility anchors to enable offloading some traffic from their core network. The Distributed Mobility Management (DMM) Working Group is investigating the impact of decentralized mobility management to existing protocol solutions, while taking into account

  19. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  20. Do we value mobility?

    OpenAIRE

    Amiel, Yoram; Bernasconi, Michele; Cowell, Frank; Dardanoni, Valentino

    2015-01-01

    Is there a trade-off between people's preference for income equality and income mobility? Testing for the existence of such a trade-off is difficult because mobility is a multifaceted concept. We analyse results from a questionnaire experiment based on simple precise concepts of income inequality and income mobility. We fnd no direct trade-off in preference between mobility and equality, but an indirect trade-off, applying when more income mobility can only be obtained at the expense of some ...

  1. Mobile intention recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Kiefer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Intention Recognition addresses problems of practical relevance for mobile system engineers: how can we make mobile assistance systems more intelligent? How can we model and recognize patterns of human behavior which span more than a limited spatial context? This text provides an overview on plan and intention recognition, ranging from the late 1970s to very recent approaches. This overview is unique as it discusses approaches with respect to the specificities of mobile intention recognition. This book covers problems from research on mobile assistance systems using methods from artific

  2. Lens Antenna For Mobile/Satellite Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, D. G.; Rainer, B. K.

    1988-01-01

    Flat, compact antenna made of stripline elements aimed at fixed elevation angle but steered electronically in azimuth. Design simplified by maintaining fixed elevation and relying on width of beam to cover desired elevation range. Need for phase shifter at each radiating element eliminated by arranging elements in circles and feeding through stripline disks called "R-KR lenses". Used in Mobile/Satellite Service, antenna mounted on top of vehicle on Earth and used to keep transmitted and received antenna beams aimed approximately toward communication satellite.

  3. Mobility Charters and Manifestos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explore a number of different cases of articulating notions of ‘correct’ mobility behavior and practice by looking into charters, manifestos and codes of mobility regulation. Within such discourses of ‘correct mobility’ more or less subtle expressions of power as well as normative and...... ethical positions on mobility prevail. Such ‘imagined correct mobility behavior’ are drawing on larger issues of societal change that need to be brought out in a critical analysis and discussion reflecting the attempts to control, design and orchestrate mobility patterns. The paper therefore argues within...... 2007, the English ‘Highway Code Booklets’ from the 1930’s, 40’s and 50’s, the ‘City Slow Charter’, the ‘New Urbanism Charter’ as attempts to codify and order mobility and mobile practices....

  4. Catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid and 4- and 5-chloroindole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Egsgaard, H; Van Onckelen, H;

    1995-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 4-chloro-IAA (4-Cl-IAA), and 5-Cl-IAA were metabolized to different extents by strains 61A24 and 110. Metabolites were isolated and analyzed by high-performance liquid...... chromatography and conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods, including MS-mass spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography-MS. The identified products indicate a novel metabolic pathway in which IAA is metabolized via dioxindole-3-acetic acid, dioxindole, isatin, and 2......-aminophenyl glyoxylic acid (isatinic acid) to anthranilic acid, which is further metabolized. Degradation of 4-Cl-IAA apparently stops at the 4-Cl-dioxindole step in contrast to 5-Cl-IAA which is metabolized to 5-Cl-anthranilic acid. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Oct...

  5. Quantitative relationship between naphthalene catabolic gene frequency and expression in predicting PAH degradation in soils at town gas manufacturing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inability to monitor in situ expression of biodegradative genes to predict rates of pollutant degradation or to evaluate the efficacy of engineering applications of bioremediation in complex environments such as contaminated soils has limited the routine acceptance of this technology in hazardous waste management. To overcome this limitation, an approach has been developed to measure catabolic gene expression in PAH-contaminated soils. In soils populated with as few as 106 naphthalene degradative bacteria g-1, in situ isolation and quantitation of mRNA levels was achieved for the NAH7 naphthalene dioxygenase (nahA) gene. NahA transcript levels correlated positively with [14C]naphthalene mineralization rates, soil naphthalene concentration, and nahA gene frequency. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. The putrescine biosynthesis pathway in Lactococcus lactis is transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolic repression, mediated by CcpA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M; del Río, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Martín, María Cruz; Fernández, María; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2013-07-01

    Lactococcus lactis is the lactic acid bacterium most widely used by the dairy industry as a starter for the manufacture of fermented products such as cheese and buttermilk. However, some strains produce putrescine from agmatine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. The proteins involved in this pathway, including those necessary for agmatine uptake and conversion into putrescine, are encoded by the aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC genes, which together form an operon. This paper reports the mechanism of regulation of putrescine biosynthesis in L. lactis. It is shown that the aguBDAC operon, which contains a cre site at the promoter of aguB (the first gene of the operon), is transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolic repression (CCR) mediated by the catabolite control protein CcpA. PMID:23688550

  7. Association of a high normalized protein catabolic rate and low serum albumin level with carpal tunnel syndrome in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Lee, Meng

    2016-06-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common mononeuropathy in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The association between chronic inflammation and CTS in hemodialysis (HD) patients has rarely been investigated. HD patients with a high normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) and low serum albumin level likely have adequate nutrition and inflammation. In this study, we assume that a low serum albumin level and high nPCR is associated with CTS in HD patients. We recruited 866 maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients and divided them into 4 groups according to their nPCR and serum albumin levels: (1) nPCR MHD patients, nPCR ≥1.29 g/kg/d and serum albumin 7.5 years were associated with CTS. A high nPCR and low serum albumin level, which likely reflect adequate nutrition and inflammation, were associated with CTS in MHD patients. PMID:27368039

  8. Effects of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons on vitamin A catabolism and the regulation of vitamin A homeostasis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAH) are known to adversely affect vitamin A status resulting in the hepatic depletion and enhanced excretion of vitamin A. Increased renal and serum vitamin A content occurs subsequent to these PHAH-related alterations. Vitamin A, a highly regulated system, appears to undergo rapid compensatory changes to maintain homeostasis in response to nutritional, metabolic, or toxicologic conditions. The present study was undertaken in order to elucidate the mechanism(s) responsible for these PHAH-related effects on vitamin A homeostasis. To this end, the toxin prototype of the PHAH class 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and the 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexabromo- or hexachloro-biphenyls were used in this study. Results presented in this study indirectly showed that PHAH caused enhanced hepatic and extrahepatic catabolism of intravenously administered 3H-retinol-retinol binding protein-transthyretin as evidenced by increased inactive polar retinoids in liver, kidney, bile, and excreta. These polar retinoids were isolated from tissues and bile and are thought to represent oxidized and/or glucuronidated, elimination metabolites of vitamin A. PHAH increased the microsomal activity of cytochrome P-450 MFO and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase toward retinoic acid (RA), enzyme systems that are also known to be coordinately induced by PHAH. Increased serum and kidney vitamin A is likely a homeostatic response to PHAH-related increased target tissue catabolism. For serum, this was shown directly by the finding that PHAH caused decreased liver esterification of retinol recycled from the extrahepatic tissues and indirectly by the administration of the active target tissue metabolite, RA. After RA, both control and PHAH-treated rats lowered their serum vitamin A

  9. Catabolism of (64)Cu and Cy5.5-labeled human serum albumin in a tumor xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Choong Mo; Kim, Hyunjung; Koo, Hyun-Jung; Park, Jin Won; An, Gwang Il; Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung-Han; Kim, Byung-Tae; Choe, Yearn Seong

    2016-07-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in blood plasma, has been used as a drug carrier for the last few decades. Residualizingly radiolabeled serum albumin has been reported to be avidly taken up by tumors of sarcoma-bearing mice and to most likely undergo lysosomal degradation. In this study, we prepared (64)Cu-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N″,N'″-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and Cy5.5-conjugated HSA (dual probe), and evaluated its tumor uptake and catabolism. Two dual probes were prepared using different DOTA conjugation sites of HSA (one via Lys residues and the other via the Cys residue). (64)Cu-DOTA-Lys-HSA-Cy5.5 (dual probe-Lys) exhibited higher uptake by RR1022 sarcoma cells in vitro than (64)Cu-DOTA-Cys-HSA-Cy5.5 (dual probe-Cys). In RR1022 tumor-bearing mice, the two dual probes showed a similar level of tumor uptake, but uptake of dual probe-Lys was reduced in the liver and spleen compared to dual probe-Cys, probably because of the presence of a higher number of DOTA molecules in the former. At 24 and 48 h after injection, dual probe-Lys was intact or partially degraded in blood, liver, kidney, and tumor samples, but (64)Cu-DOTA-Lys was observed in the urine using radioactivity detection. Similarly, Cy5.5-Lys was observed in the urine using fluorescence detection. These results indicate that dual probe-Lys may be useful for predicting the catabolic fate of drug-HSA conjugates. PMID:27098932

  10. In situ, real-time catabolic gene expression: Extraction and characterization of naphthalene dioxygenase mRNA transcripts from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors developed procedures for isolating and characterizing in situ-transcribed mRNA from groundwater microorganisms catabolizing naphthalene at a coal tar waste-contaminated site. Groundwater was pumped through 0.22-microm-pore-size filters, which were then frozen to dry ice-ethanol. RNA was extracted from the frozen filters by boiling sodium dodecyl sulfate lysis and acidic phenol-chloroform extraction. Transcript characterization was performed with a series of PCR primers designed to amplify nahAc homologs. Several primer pairs were found to amplify nahAc homologs representing the entire diversity of the naphthalene-degrading genes. The environmental RNA extract was reverse transcribed, and the resultant mixture of cDNAs was amplified by PCR. A digoxigenin-labeled probe mixture was produced by PCR amplification of groundwater cDNA. This probe mixture hybridized under stringent conditions with the corresponding PCR products from naphthalene-degrading bacteria carrying a variety of nahAc homologs, indicating that diverse dioxygenase transcripts had been retrieved from groundwater. Diluted and undiluted cDNA preparations were independently amplified, and 28 of the resulting PCR products were cloned and sequenced. Sequence comparisons revealed two major groups related to the dioxygenase genes ndoB and dntAc, previously cloned from Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9816-4 and Burkholderia sp. strain DNT, respectively. A distinctive subgroup of sequences was found only in experiments performed with the undiluted cDNA preparation. To the authors' knowledge, these results are the first to directly document in situ transcription of genes encoding naphthalene catabolism at a contaminated site by indigenous microorganisms. The retrieved sequences represent greater diversity than has been detected at the study site by culture-based approaches

  11. Inulin-125I-tyramine, an improved residualizing label for studies on sites of catabolism of circulating proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residualizing labels for protein, such as dilactitol-125I-tyramine (125I-DLT) and cellobiitol-125I-tyramine, have been used to identify the tissue and cellular sites of catabolism of long-lived plasma proteins, such as albumin, immunoglobulins, and lipoproteins. The radioactive degradation products formed from labeled proteins are relatively large, hydrophilic, resistant to lysosomal hydrolases, and accumulate in lysosomes in the cells involved in degradation of the carrier protein. However, the gradual loss of the catabolites from cells (t1/2 approximately 2 days) has limited the usefulness of residualizing labels in studies on longer lived proteins. We describe here a higher molecular weight (Mr approximately 5000), more efficient residualizing glycoconjugate label, inulin-125I-tyramine (125I-InTn). Attachment of 125I-InTn had no effect on the plasma half-life or tissue sites of catabolism of asialofetuin, fetuin, or rat serum albumin in the rat. The half-life for hepatic retention of degradation products from 125I-InTn-labeled asialofetuin was 5 days, compared to 2.3 days for 125I-DLT-labeled asialofetuin. The whole body half-lives for radioactivity from 125I-InTn-, 125I-DLT-, and 125I-labeled rat serum albumin were 7.5, 4.3, and 2.2 days, respectively. The tissue distribution of degradation products from 125I-InTn-labeled proteins agreed with results of previous studies using 125I-DLT, except that a greater fraction of total degradation products was recovered in tissues. Kinetic analyses indicated that the average half-life for retention of 125I-InTn degradation products in tissues is approximately 5 days and suggested that in vivo there are both slow and rapid routes for release of degradation products from cells

  12. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Amit V., E-mail: amit@pandeylab.org [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH-3004 Bern (Switzerland); Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E. [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH-3004 Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  13. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. → POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. → POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. → Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. → POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  14. Anabolic and catabolic hormones and energy balance of the male bodybuilders during the preparation for the competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäestu, Jarek; Eliakim, Alon; Jürimäe, Jaak; Valter, Ivo; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate simultaneous effects of energy balance, caloric intake, and the hormonal anabolic-catabolic balance in bodybuilders prior to competition. Fourteen male bodybuilders took part in an 11-week energy-restricted period to reduce body fat. The subjects were divided into the energy-restricted group (ERG) (n = 7), who were preparing for the competition, or the control group (CG) (n = 7) who continued to train regularly and did not change their dietary or training pattern. Participants were tested at 11 weeks (T1), 5 weeks (T2), and 3 days (T3) before competition for diet, body composition, and fasting hormonal assessment. Body mass and body fat percentage of ERG were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased during the study period. In ERG, insulinlike growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin decreased significantly during the 11-week weight-reduction period (p < 0.05). Testosterone was decreased only from week 11 to week 5 (from 20.3 +/- 6.0 to 18.0 +/- 6.8 nmol/L). Changes in IGF-I concentration were significantly related to changes in insulin (r = 0.741), fat mass (r = 0.705), lean body mass (r = 0.696), and body mass (r = 0.652). Changes in insulin concentrations were significantly related to changes in fat mass (r = 0.630) and lean body mass (r = 0.725). These data indicate that severe energy restriction to extremely low body energy reserves decreases significantly the concentrations of 3 anabolic pathways despite high protein intake. Monitoring of insulin and IGF-1 concentration is suggested to prevent losses in muscle mass in energy-restricted conditions. Other nutritional strategies might be needed to prevent possible catabolic effect during preparation of bodybuilders to competition. PMID:20300017

  15. Platelet-Rich Plasma Increases the Levels of Catabolic Molecules and Cellular Dedifferentiation in the Meniscus of a Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Rim; Shon, Oog-Jin; Park, Se-Il; Kim, Han-Jun; Kim, Sukyoung; Ahn, Myun-Whan; Do, Sun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Despite the susceptibility to frequent intrinsic and extrinsic injuries, especially in the inner zone, the meniscus does not heal spontaneously owing to its poor vascularity. In this study, the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), containing various growth factors, on meniscal mechanisms was examined under normal and post-traumatic inflammatory conditions. Isolated primary meniscal cells of New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were incubated for 3, 10, 14 and 21 days with PRP(−), 10% PRP (PRP(+)), IL(+) or IL(+)PRP(+). The meniscal cells were collected and examined using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Culture media were examined by immunoblot analyses for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) catabolic molecules. PRP containing growth factors improved the cellular viability of meniscal cells in a concentration-dependent manner at Days 1, 4 and 7. However, based on RT-PCR, meniscal cells demonstrated dedifferentiation, along with an increase in type I collagen in the PRP(+) and in IL(+)PRP(+). In PRP(+), the aggrecan expression levels were lower than in the PRP(−) until Day 21. The protein levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3 were higher in each PRP group, i.e., PRP(+) and IL(+)PRP(+), at each culture time. A reproducible 2-mm circular defect on the meniscus of NZW rabbit was used to implant fibrin glue (control) or PRP in vivo. After eight weeks, the lesions in the control and PRP groups were occupied with fibrous tissue, but not with meniscal cells. This study shows that PRP treatment of the meniscus results in an increase of catabolic molecules, especially those related to IL-1α-induced inflammation, and that PRP treatment for an in vivo meniscus injury accelerates fibrosis, instead of meniscal cartilage. PMID:26784189

  16. Evidence for the importance of 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine catabolism in humans from 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malet-Martino, M C; Armand, J P; Lopez, A; Bernadou, J; Béteille, J P; Bon, M; Martino, R

    1986-04-01

    The use of a new methodology, 19F nuclear magnetic resonance, has allowed detection of all the fluorinated metabolites in the biofluids of patients treated with 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-dFUrd) injected i.v. at a dose of 10 g/m2 over 6 h. This technique, which requires no labeled drug, allows a direct study of the biological sample with no need for extraction or derivatization and a simultaneous identification and quantitation of all the different fluorinated metabolites. As well as the already known metabolites, unmetabolized 5'-dFUrd, 5-fluorouracil, and 5,6-dihydro-5-fluorouracil, the presence of alpha-fluoro-beta-ureidopropionic acid, alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine (FBAL), N-carboxy-alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine, and the fluoride anion F- is reported. The catabolic pathway proposed for 5'-dFUrd is analogous to that of 5-fluorouracil, completed with FBAL----F- step, and the plasmatic equilibrium of FBAL with N-carboxy-alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine, its N-carboxy derivative. The quantitative analysis of the different metabolites found in plasma and urine emphasizes the significance of the catabolic pathway. High concentrations of alpha-fluoro-beta ureidopropionic acid and FBAL are recovered in plasma from 3 h after the beginning of the perfusion to 1 h after its end. The global urinary excretion results show that there is a high excretion of 5'-dFUrd and metabolites. Unchanged 5'-dFUrd and FBAL are by far the major excretory products and are at nearly equal rates. The protocol followed in this study produces relatively low but persistent plasmatic concentrations of 5-fluorouracil throughout the perfusion. PMID:2936452

  17. Catabolism of biomass-derived sugars in fungi and metabolic engineering as a tool for organic acid production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivistoinen, O.

    2013-11-01

    The use of metabolic engineering as a tool for production of biochemicals and biofuels requires profound understanding of cell metabolism. The pathways for the most abundant and most important hexoses have already been studied quite extensively but it is also important to get a more complete picture of sugar catabolism. In this thesis, catabolic pathways of L-rhamnose and D-galactose were studied in fungi. Both of these hexoses are present in plant biomass, such as in hemicellulose and pectin. Galactoglucomannan, a type of hemicellulose that is especially rich in softwood, is an abundant source of D-galactose. As biotechnology is moving from the usage of edible and easily metabolisable carbon sources towards the increased use of lignocellulosic biomass, it is important to understand how the different sugars can be efficiently turned into valuable biobased products. Identification of the first fungal L-rhamnose 1-dehydrogenase gene, which codes for the first enzyme of the fungal catabolic L-rhamnose pathway, showed that the protein belongs to a protein family of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases. Sugar dehydrogenases oxidising a sugar to a sugar acid are not very common in fungi and thus the identification of the L-rhamnose dehydrogenase gene provides more understanding of oxidative sugar catabolism in eukaryotic microbes. Further studies characterising the L-rhamnose cluster in the yeast Scheffersomyces stipitis including the expression of the L-rhamnonate dehydratase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae finalised the biochemical characterisation of the enzymes acting on the pathway. In addition, more understanding of the regulation and evolution of the pathway was gained. D-Galactose catabolism was studied in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. Two genes coding for the enzymes of the oxido-reductive pathway were identified. Galactitol dehydrogenase is the second enzyme of the pathway converting galactitol to L-xylo-3-hexulose. The galactitol dehydrogenase encoding

  18. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degrading bacteria contain mosaics of catabolic genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulthorpe, R R; McGowan, C; Maltseva, O V; Holben, W E; Tiedje, J M

    1995-01-01

    DNA from 32 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-degrading bacteria from diverse locations was probed with the first three genes of the well-known 2,4-D degradation pathway found in Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134(pJP4). The majority of strains did not show high levels of homology to the first three genes of the 2,4-D degradation pathway, tfdA, -B, and -C. Most strains showed combinations of tfdA-, B-, and C-like elements that exhibited various degrees of homology to the gene probes. Strains h...

  19. Microbial transformations in phosphonate biosynthesis and catabolism, and their importance in nutrient cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jason P; McGrath, John W; Quinn, John P

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus cycling in the biosphere has traditionally been thought to involve almost exclusively transformations of the element in its pentavalent oxidation state. Recent evidence, however, suggests that a significant fraction of environmental phosphorus may exist in a more reduced form. Most abundant of these reduced phosphorus compounds are the phosphonates, with their direct carbon-phosphorus bonds, and striking progress has recently been made in elucidating the biochemistry of microbial phosphonate transformations. These advances are now presented in the context of their contribution to our understanding of phosphorus biogeochemistry and of such diverse fields as the productivity of the oceans, marine methanogenesis and the discovery of novel microbial antimetabolites. PMID:26836350

  20. Nucleotide sequence, organization and characterization of the (halo)aromatic acid catabolic plasmid pA81 from Achromobacter xylosoxidans A8

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jenčová, V.; Strnad, Hynek; Chodora, Zdeněk; Ulbrich, Pavel; Vlček, Čestmír; Hickey, W. J.; Pačes, Václav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 2 (2008), s. 118-127. ISSN 0923-2508 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : megaplasmid * haloaromatic acid * catabolism Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.055, year: 2008

  1. Mean transit times and the sites of synthesis and catabolism of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in young subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M; Petersen, K.R.; Vinberg, N; Jespersen, J; Gram, Jørgen Brodersen; Tønnesen, K H

    2001-01-01

    sampled simultaneously from a large hepatic vein, an artery and the inferior caval vein, while measuring the splanchnic plasma flow rate and the plasma volume. We found that the catabolism of active t-PA and t-PA antigen took place in the splanchnic circulation with net rates of 7.2 and 6.3 pmol...

  2. In Vivo Determination of Site and Rate of Insulin Catabolism Using the Double Tracer Technique with 51Cr And 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double labelling of a peptide with 51Cr and 125(131)I results in an isotopic ratio that changes when and where the molecule in vivo is catabolized. Intracellular hydrolysis of the peptide liberates the iodine into the iodine pool, whereas the chromium by virtue of being a multivalent ion enters a new linkage at the site of breakdown. The isotopic ratio at the site of breakdown alters concomitantly with the hydrolysis rate. Experiments with 51Cr- and 125I-labelled insulin in mice in vivo and in vitro showed the liver (not muscle), bone (including marrow) and thyroid gland to be the major site of insulin catabolism with a half-life of approximately 10 min. In eight normal persons and diabetic patients insulin catabolism was analysed by the whole body counter following an iv injection of 0.77-0.95 μg insulin labelled with 51Cr and 131I. Counts were taken simultaneously from the area of the liver, thyroid, thigh and posterior pelvis. Again, the.data indicated the liver as the site of insulin catabolism, the normal half-life being approximately 20 min. Iodine- labelled insulin was commercially supplied. 51Cr-labelled insulin, prepared according to the methods of Kavai and Kesztyüs, was analysed by immune precipitation and Sephadex G200 chromatography. In the countercurrent distribution the 51Cr insulin showed enhanced water solubility. (author)

  3. ApoA-II HDL Catabolism and Its Relationships With the Kinetics of ApoA-I HDL and of VLDL1, in Abdominal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergès, Bruno; Adiels, Martin; Boren, Jan; Barrett, Peter Hugh; Watts, Gerald F; Chan, Dick; Duvillard, Laurence; Söderlund, Sanni; Matikainen, Niina; Kahri, Juhani; Lundbom, Nina; Lundbom, Jesper; Hakkarainen, Antti; Aho, Serge; Simoneau-Robin, Isabelle; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2016-04-01

    We study the associations between apoA-II fractional catabolic rate (FCR) and the kinetics of VLDL subspecies and apoA-I and show that, in abdominally obese individuals, apoA-II FCR is positively and independently associated with both apoA-I FCR and VLDL1-TG indirect FCR. PMID:26835543

  4. Mechanism of decline in rat brain 5-hydroxytryptamine after induction of liver tryptophan pyrrolase by hydrocortisone: roles of tryptophan catabolism and kynurenine synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Simon N.

    1981-01-01

    1 Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain the decline in brain tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) after administration of hydrocortisone and the subsequent induction of liver pyrrolase. These are depletion of tryptophan by high rates of tryptophan catabolism and inhibition of tryptophan uptake by elevated levels of the tryptophan catabolite, kynurenine.

  5. The N-acetylglucosamine catabolic gene cluster in Trichoderma reesei is controlled by the Ndt80-like transcription factor RON1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Lisa; Gaderer, Romana; Flipphi, Michel; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena

    2016-02-01

    Chitin is an important structural constituent of fungal cell walls composed of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) monosaccharides, but catabolism of GlcNAc has not been studied in filamentous fungi so far. In the yeast Candida albicans, the genes encoding the three enzymes responsible for stepwise conversion of GlcNAc to fructose-6-phosphate are clustered. In this work, we analysed GlcNAc catabolism in ascomycete filamentous fungi and found that the respective genes are also clustered in these fungi. In contrast to C. albicans, the cluster often contains a gene for an Ndt80-like transcription factor, which we named RON1 (regulator of N-acetylglucosamine catabolism 1). Further, a gene for a glycoside hydrolase 3 protein related to bacterial N-acetylglucosaminidases can be found in the GlcNAc gene cluster in filamentous fungi. Functional analysis in Trichoderma reesei showed that the transcription factor RON1 is a key activator of the GlcNAc gene cluster and essential for GlcNAc catabolism. Furthermore, we present an evolutionary analysis of Ndt80-like proteins in Ascomycota. All GlcNAc cluster genes, as well as the GlcNAc transporter gene ngt1, and an additional transcriptional regulator gene, csp2, encoding the homolog of Neurospora crassa CSP2/GRHL, were functionally characterised by gene expression analysis and phenotypic characterisation of knockout strains in T. reesei. PMID:26481444

  6. Mobile VLE vs. Mobile PLE: How Informal is Mobile Learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wen-Pin; Millard, David; Wills, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Mobile Learning Systems are often described as supporting informal learning; as such they are a good fit to the idea of Personal Learning Environments (PLEs), software systems that users choose and tailor to fit their own learning preferences. This paper explores the question of whether existing m-learning research is more in the spirit of PLEs or Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs). To do this we survey the mobile learning systems presented at M-Learn 2007 in order to see if they might be r...

  7. Mobile healthcare informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siau, Keng; Shen, Zixing

    2006-06-01

    Advances in wireless technology give pace to the rapid development of mobile applications. The coming mobile revolution will bring dramatic and fundamental changes to our daily life. It will influence the way we live, the way we do things, and the way we take care of our health. For the healthcare industry, mobile applications provide a new frontier in offering better care and services to patients, and a more flexible and mobile way of communicating with suppliers and patients. Mobile applications will provide important real time data for patients, physicians, insurers, and suppliers. In addition, it will revolutionalize the way information is managed in the healthcare industry and redefine the doctor - patient communication. This paper discusses different aspects of mobile healthcare. Specifically, it presents mobile applications in healthcare, and discusses possible challenges facing the development of mobile applications. Obstacles in developing mobile healthcare applications include mobile device limitations, wireless networking problems, infrastructure constraints, security concerns, and user distrust. Research issues in resolving or alleviating these problems are also discussed in the paper. PMID:16777784

  8. Social mobility and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasarda, J D; Billy, J O

    1985-01-01

    This review examines 4 possible causal links between social mobility and fertility: 1) fertility affects social mobility; 2) social mobility affects fertility; 3) fertility and social mobility simultaneously affect each other; and 4) social mobility and fertility are unrelated. Due to the lack of systematic theory guiding the research, conceptualizations and measures of social mobility and fertility vary markedly from study to study, leading to inconsistent findings. The review focuses on theoretical perspectives underpinning the research, causal operators proposed to interpret observed associations, and analytical methods used. The selectivity perspective is based on the contention that a family must be small in order to rise on the social scale. This has found little support, however. In fact, studies suggest that children induce slightly higher levels of status achievement and family responsibilities may stimulate the energy and ambition of some so that they achieve more than they would have done without a family. Most studies have concerned the hypothesis that social mobility affects fertility. 4 theoretical perspectives have emerged: status enhancement; relative economic status; social isolation; and stress and disorientation. At any time in a couple's reproductive life cycle the decision or actual experience of either social mobility or fertility may influence the decision or actual experience of the other variable. Mobility-fertility research has defined an individual's or couple's position in terms of income, education, or occupation with occupation used most often as a single index of social class and indexes of social mobility developed by comparing persons' changes in occupational position. A common theme in much of the research literature is that the existence of an effect of social mobility on fertility depends on the societal conditions of a given population. Most studies through the mid-60s used a common measurement method to assess whether a

  9. Geo-based Mobility Control for Mobile Traffic Simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlström, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Most mobile traffic simulators of today depend on the user to supply the mobility behavior of the simulated UEs. This becomes a problem when certain wanted mobility characteristics are to be tested, since the user have to go trough a trial-and-error procedure to come up with the proper mobility behavior. This thesis presents two approaches to mobility control, where the aim is to control UE mobility based on certain mobility characteristics supplied by the end user. The first approach introdu...

  10. HipH Catalyzes the Hydroxylation of 4-Hydroxyisophthalate to Protocatechuate in 2,4-Xylenol Catabolism by Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 9866.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hong-Jun; Chen, Yan-Fei; Fang, Ti; Xu, Ying; Huang, Wei E; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2016-01-01

    In addition to growing on p-cresol, Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 9866 is the only reported strain capable of aerobically growing on 2,4-xylenol, which is listed as a priority pollutant by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Several enzymes involved in the oxidation of the para-methyl group, as well as the corresponding genes, have previously been reported. The enzyme catalyzing oxidation of the catabolic intermediate 4-hydroxyisophthalate to the ring cleavage substrate protocatechuate was also purified from strain NCIMB 9866, but its genetic determinant is still unavailable. In this study, the gene hipH, encoding 4-hydroxyisophthalate hydroxylase, from strain NCIMB 9866 was cloned by transposon mutagenesis. Purified recombinant HipH-His6 was found to be a dimer protein with a molecular mass of approximately 110 kDa. HipH-His6 catalyzed the hydroxylation of 4-hydroxyisophthalate to protocatechuate with a specific activity of 1.54 U mg(-1) and showed apparent Km values of 11.40 ± 3.05 μM for 4-hydroxyisophthalate with NADPH and 11.23 ± 2.43 μM with NADH and similar Km values for NADPH and NADH (64.31 ± 13.16 and 72.76 ± 12.06 μM, respectively). The identity of protocatechuate generated from 4-hydroxyisophthalate hydroxylation by HipH-His6 has also been confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Gene transcriptional analysis, gene knockout, and complementation indicated that hipH is essential for 2,4-xylenol catabolism but not for p-cresol catabolism in this strain. This fills a gap in our understanding of the gene that encodes a critical step in 2,4-xylenol catabolism and also provides another example of biochemical and genetic diversity of microbial catabolism of structurally similar compounds. PMID:26567311

  11. Retromer in Osteoblasts Interacts With Protein Phosphatase 1 Regulator Subunit 14C, Terminates Parathyroid Hormone's Signaling, and Promotes Its Catabolic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lei; Xia, Wen-Fang; Tang, Fu-Lei; Pan, Jin-Xiu; Mei, Lin; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays critical, but distinct, roles in bone remodeling, including bone formation (anabolic response) and resorption (catabolic response). Although its signaling and function have been extensively investigated, it just began to be understood how distinct functions are induced by PTH activating a common receptor, the PTH type 1 receptor (PTH1R), and how PTH1R signaling is terminated. Here, we provide evidence for vacuolar protein sorting 35 (VPS35), a major component of retromer, in regulating PTH1R trafficking, turning off PTH signaling, and promoting its catabolic function. VPS35 is expressed in osteoblast (OB)-lineage cells. VPS35-deficiency in OBs impaired PTH(1-34)-promoted PTH1R translocation to the trans-Golgi network, enhanced PTH(1-34)-driven signaling, and reduced PTH(1-34)'s catabolic response in culture and in mice. Further mechanical studies revealed that VPS35 interacts with not only PTH1R, but also protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 14C (PPP1R14C), an inhibitory subunit of PP1 phosphatase. PPP1R14C also interacts with PTH1R, which is necessary for the increased endosomal PTH1R signaling and decreased PTH(1-34)'s catabolic response in VPS35-deficient OB-lineage cells. Taken together, these results suggest that VPS35 deregulates PTH1R-signaling likely by its interaction with PTH1R and PPP1R14C. This event is critical for the control of PTH(1-34)-signaling dynamics, which may underlie PTH-induced catabolic response and adequate bone remodeling. PMID:27333042

  12. Aero particles characterization emitted by mobile sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our country, the mobile sources that conform most of the emissions at the atmosphere, are concentrated on the urban areas. For the present work, samples coming from the escapes of terrestrial transport were obtained, such as: passenger buses, load transport and particular vehicles of the Metropolitan area of the Toluca valley. The material was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy of low vacuum and X-ray diffraction. The objective was to characterize the emitted particles by mobile sources, morphological and chemically to know the structure, size and elements that compose them. (Author)

  13. Meeting Report for Mobile DNA 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaconas George

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An international conference on mobile DNA was held 24-28 April 2010 in Montreal, Canada. Sponsored by the American Society for Microbiology, the conference's goal was to bring together researchers from around the world who study transposition in diverse organisms using multiple experimental approaches. The meeting drew over 190 attendees and most contributed through poster presentations, invited talks and short talks selected from poster abstracts. The talks were organized into eight scientific sessions, which ranged in topic from the evolutionary dynamics of mobile genetic elements to transposition reaction mechanisms. Here we present highlights from the platform sessions with a focus on talks presented by the invited speakers.

  14. Embodied Cultures of Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    particular emphasis is put on how mobilities produce and re-produce norms, meanings and cultures in relation to the Everyday life perspective. By looking into walking, running, cycling, driving and mass transit mobilities different modes of embodied mobility is identified. The theoretical framework is based...... material artifacts. The paper target the complex relationship between the moving, sensing body and the material and built environment of infrastructures and mobility modes in order to explore what norms, and meanings, and everyday life mobility cultures are being produced and re-produced in this process. A...... and interaction (Lynch). The argument is thus that understanding embodied cultures of mobilities from the vantage point of this paper lend is self to new interpretations, explorations and understandings of what it means to move within and between other social agents in particular material and physical...

  15. Making Everyday Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Simon

    Based upon a qualitative PhD study of 11 families everyday mobility, this paper inquiries into the everyday mobility of families with children in the Greater Copenhagen Area and the role mobility plays in contributing to coping in the families’ everyday life. Drawing on Mobilities theory (Jensen...... 2013; Urry 2007) and family theory (Holdsworth 2013; Morgan 2011), it is argued that family mobility is far from only an instrumental phenomenon, displacing family members back and forth between activities and doings, but also a type of family practice (Morgan, 2011) carrying social and emotional...... practices. Specific heterogeneous configurations in mobility practices facilitate instrumental movement of family members, but can also engender care, quality time of togetherness, recreational and productive in-betweens, as well as sensorial and emotional experiences through the orchestration of affective...

  16. CERN Mobility Survey

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Shipping and Transport of the University of the Aegean and the National Technical University of Athens are partners with CERN in a study of mobility patterns between and within the CERN sites and to that effect have realized a mobility survey dedicated to the CERN community.         The study aims to understand: How you presently get around the CERN sites; What problems you encounter regarding mobility; What your needs are; What improvements you’d like to see; What measures you would like to see implemented most. The replies we receive will enable us to define a general policy promoting the diversity of mobility at CERN and to establish and quantify the strategic actions to be implemented for both the short and medium term. The objectives of the transport mobility plans are to: Facilitate mobility within and between the CERN sites by identifying adequate solutions in response to individual ...

  17. Understanding pastoral mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    Based on a case study from Sahelian Senegal, this paper analyses how various actors perceive the importance of pastoral mobility and presents issues of importance for understanding the use of mobility among Fulani of Ferlo. One knowledge system is a scientific one, the 'new rangeland paradigm......'. According to this, pastoral mobility is a means to balance variability in dryland resources; hence, 'nature' is the point of departure. Another knowledge system is local pastoral knowledge. For the pastoralists, the well-being of their animals is the point of departure and mobility is used to ensure that...... the livestock are in good condition. The paper shows that it is important to distinguish between mobility of pastoralists and of their herd; even though the pastoralists of northern Senegal have become semi-sedentary, their herds are still quite mobile. The pastoralists are willing to move around...

  18. Understanding pastoral mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    Based on a case study from Sahelian Senegal, this paper analyses how various actors perceive the importance of pastoral mobility and presents issues of importance for understanding the use of mobility among Fulani of Ferlo. One knowledge system is a scientific one, the 'new rangeland paradigm......'. According to this, pastoral mobility is a means to balance variability in dryland resources; hence, 'nature' is the point of departure. Another knowledge system is local pastoral knowledge. For the pastoralists, the well-being of their animals is the point of departure and mobility is used to ensure that...... within a small territory, which they consider their place, but are unwilling to employ large-scale mobility themselves. Mobility is not of importance for their ethnic identity and some use paid herders to care for their livestock. By looking at both knowledge systems, we achieve a better understanding of...

  19. The interplay of StyR and IHF regulates substrate-dependent induction and carbon catabolite repression of styrene catabolism genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens ST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoni Livia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pseudomonas fluorescens ST, the promoter of the styrene catabolic operon, PstyA, is induced by styrene and is subject to catabolite repression. PstyA regulation relies on the StyS/StyR two-component system and on the IHF global regulator. The phosphorylated response regulator StyR (StyR-P activates PstyA in inducing conditions when it binds to the high-affinity site STY2, located about -40 bp from the transcription start point. A cis-acting element upstream of STY2, named URE, contains a low-affinity StyR-P binding site (STY1, overlapping the IHF binding site. Deletion of the URE led to a decrease of promoter activity in inducing conditions and to a partial release of catabolite repression. This study was undertaken to assess the relative role played by IHF and StyR-P on the URE, and to clarify if PstyA catabolite repression could rely on the interplay of these regulators. Results StyR-P and IHF compete for binding to the URE region. PstyA full activity in inducing conditions is achieved when StyR-P and IHF bind to site STY2 and to the URE, respectively. Under catabolite repression conditions, StyR-P binds the STY1 site, replacing IHF at the URE region. StyR-P bound to both STY1 and STY2 sites oligomerizes, likely promoting the formation of a DNA loop that closes the promoter in a repressed conformation. We found that StyR and IHF protein levels did not change in catabolite repression conditions, implying that PstyA repression is achieved through an increase in the StyR-P/StyR ratio. Conclusion We propose a model according to which the activity of the PstyA promoter is determined by conformational changes. An open conformation is operative in inducing conditions when StyR-P is bound to STY2 site and IHF to the URE. Under catabolite repression conditions StyR-P cellular levels would increase, displacing IHF from the URE and closing the promoter in a repressed conformation. The balance between the open and the closed

  20. Mobile Learning Project Report

    OpenAIRE

    Folley, Susan; Jabbar, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Mobile learning is not a new concept, learning whilst on the move or away from formal educational settings has been happening a long time with the use of books, journal articles, television, radio etc. However what is new is the vast array of devices now available to access learning and to take advantage of being mobile but still being able to capture information and share, collaborate and upload it to a worldwide audience. Mobile learning (mlearning) is a growing area of pedagogic res...

  1. Mobile Exergaming Heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Monk, Monika Patrice

    2014-01-01

    An alarming number of adolescents experience obesity and related health issues, in part because of a lack of exercise. Increased mobile technology availability can have negative effects on amount of exercise, but they can have positive effects as well. Leveraging mobile technology to encourage and motivate exercise has potential to decrease unhealthy lifestyles, especially among young people. Mobile exergaming is an emerging field that has the potential to motivate users to exercise while als...

  2. Crossword solving mobile application

    OpenAIRE

    Pencelj, Andraž

    2013-01-01

    The thesis describes development of crossword solving mobile application with PhoneGap framework. The emphasis is on application development for Android platform. Thesis describes only application which runs on mobile devices without server-side part. First part of thesis describes crosswords and their history. It also describes technologies which were used. Emphasis is on describing PhoneGap framework and mobile web browsers. PhoneGap framework is used to develop native applications for m...

  3. Inequality and Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    John Hassler; José Vicente Rodríguez Mora; Joseph Zeira

    2003-01-01

    We use a general equilibrium OLG model to analyse the relation between intergenerational social mobility and wage inequality. We show that the correlation between mobility and inequality depends on which factor caused the change in inequality. The model can thus help discriminate between different competing explanations of the recent rise in US wage inequality. Under reasonable assumptions, skill-biased technical change tends to increase upward mobility, thereby causing a positive correlation...

  4. Inequality and Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Mora, Sevi; Hassler, John; Zeira, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    We use a general equilibrium OLG model to analyse the relation between intergenerational social mobility and wage inequality. We show that the correlation between mobility and inequality depends on which factor caused the change in inequality. The model can thus help discriminate between different competing explanations of the recent rise in US wage inequality. Under reasonable assumptions, skill-biased technical change tends to increase upward mobility, thereby causing a positive correlation...

  5. Mobile computing for radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffermann, William F; Chetlen, Alison L; Sharma, Arjun; Colucci, Andrew T; DeQuesada, Ivan M; Grajo, Joseph R; Kung, Justin W; Loehfelm, Thomas W; Sherry, Steven J

    2013-12-01

    The rapid advances in mobile computing technology have the potential to change the way radiology and medicine as a whole are practiced. Several mobile computing advances have not yet found application to the practice of radiology, while others have already been applied to radiology but are not in widespread clinical use. This review addresses several areas where radiology and medicine in general may benefit from adoption of the latest mobile computing technologies and speculates on potential future applications. PMID:24200475

  6. Mobile learning in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkan Güllüoüǧlu, Sabri

    2013-03-01

    This paper outlines the main infrastructure for implicating mobile learning in medicine and present a sample mobile learning application for medical learning within the framework of mobile learning systems. Mobile technology is developing nowadays. In this case it will be useful to develop different learning environments using these innovations in internet based distance education. M-learning makes the most of being on location, providing immediate access, being connected, and acknowledges learning that occurs beyond formal learning settings, in places such as the workplace, home, and outdoors. Central to m-learning is the principle that it is the learner who is mobile rather than the device used to deliver m learning. The integration of mobile technologies into training has made learning more accessible and portable. Mobile technologies make it possible for a learner to have access to a computer and subsequently learning material and activities; at any time and in any place. Mobile devices can include: mobile phone, personal digital assistants (PDAs), personal digital media players (eg iPods, MP3 players), portable digital media players, portable digital multimedia players. Mobile learning (m-learning) is particularly important in medical education, and the major users of mobile devices are in the field of medicine. The contexts and environment in which learning occurs necessitates m-learning. Medical students are placed in hospital/clinical settings very early in training and require access to course information and to record and reflect on their experiences while on the move. As a result of this paper, this paper strives to compare and contrast mobile learning with normal learning in medicine from various perspectives and give insights and advises into the essential characteristics of both for sustaining medical education.

  7. Mobile Trillium Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muhammad Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Mobile trillium engine development, integration and deployment in clustered environment“The air transport industry has a constantly growing mobile workforce and a complex, dynamic workflow that requires workers to access and act on the real time information. Rapid mobilization and automation of the key workflow process will allow air transport industry to reduce business cost, better management and improved customer services.” [1]The aim of this thesis is to develop a backend system that inte...

  8. Perancangan Dashboard Mobil Pedesaan Multiguna

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Madinah; I Made Londen Batan

    2013-01-01

    Mobil GEA yang merupakan mobil nasional akan dikembangkan menjadi mobil pedesaan multiguna. Salah satu bagian dalam mobil GEA yang menjadi perhatian adalah dashboard. Selama ini dashboard mobil GEA diproduksi secara manual, yaitu menggunakan proses wet lay-up dengan bahan komposit. Rencana ke depan produksi mobil pedesaan multiguna adalah produksi massa. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan tersebut dirancang proses cetakan injeksi plastik (injection molding) untuk pembuatan dashboard mobil pedesaan mult...

  9. Mobility decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna Regina; Rantanen, Taina

    2013-01-01

    Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways to pro...... promote mobility in old age.......Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways to...

  10. Designing for social play in co-located mobile games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, William; Garner, Jayden; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore how mobile devices and co-location in mobile contexts contribute social play in game design, addressing the limited understanding of social interactivity in mobile games. Using the Mechanics-Dynamics-Aesthetics (MDA) framework, we code four games illustrating effective use...... of mobile, social, and colocated elements. Subsequently, we analyse and discuss this data to identify generalisability in these games. In our discussion we identify how these findings address game design problems of designing collaborative games. Furthermore, we contribute to theory of designing for...... social play from the perspectives of co-located mobile contexts in game design by identifying how mobility: (1) affords co-locating with other players in public spaces, (2) supports physical interactions using spatial context and players bodies, extending games beyond their formal system, (3) supports...

  11. Exploring the mobility of mobile phone users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáji, Balázs Cs.; Browet, Arnaud; Traag, V. A.; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Huens, Etienne; Van Dooren, Paul; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Blondel, Vincent D.

    2013-03-01

    Mobile phone datasets allow for the analysis of human behavior on an unprecedented scale. The social network, temporal dynamics and mobile behavior of mobile phone users have often been analyzed independently from each other using mobile phone datasets. In this article, we explore the connections between various features of human behavior extracted from a large mobile phone dataset. Our observations are based on the analysis of communication data of 100,000 anonymized and randomly chosen individuals in a dataset of communications in Portugal. We show that clustering and principal component analysis allow for a significant dimension reduction with limited loss of information. The most important features are related to geographical location. In particular, we observe that most people spend most of their time at only a few locations. With the help of clustering methods, we then robustly identify home and office locations and compare the results with official census data. Finally, we analyze the geographic spread of users’ frequent locations and show that commuting distances can be reasonably well explained by a gravity model.

  12. Trust in Mobile Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Kounelis, Ioannis; Loeschner, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how a citizen, in our case a user of a mobile phone, is confronted with several aspects of trust when he/she uses different mobile commercial objects in a digital world. In particular, the topic of m-commerce and how a client mitigates trust all the way from his/her mobile device to the merchant is dealt with. To assess the trust chain, especially in respect to privacy and data protection, objects (for example a voucher) are used to model the mobile commerce domain.

  13. Programming the Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Firtman, Maximiliano

    2010-01-01

    Today's market for mobile apps goes beyond the iPhone to include BlackBerry, Nokia, Windows Phone, and smartphones powered by Android, webOS, and other platforms. If you're an experienced web developer, this book shows you how to build a standard app core that you can extend to work with specific devices. You'll learn the particulars and pitfalls of building mobile apps with HTML, CSS, and other standard web tools. You'll also explore platform variations, finicky mobile browsers, Ajax design patterns for mobile, and much more. Before you know it, you'll be able to create mashups using Web 2.

  14. Test for mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile application testing is a process by which application software developed for mobile devices is tested, in aspects as functionality, usability and consistency. These applications can be pre-installed or installed from distribution platforms for mobile software. Due mobile devices have witnessed of a phenomenal growth in recent years (a study by Yankee Group predicted to generate $ 4.2 billion in revenue for 2013 through 7000 million downloads of applications the U.S., it is necesary test engineers increasingly specialize. In this article are described the types of applications, the challenges of testing, and its automation.

  15. Mobile sentiment analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, L.; Tromp, E.; Pechenizkiy, M.; M. Gaber

    2012-01-01

    Mobile devices play a significant part in a user’s communication methods and much data that they read and write is received and sent via mobile phones, for instance SMS messages, e-mails, Twitter tweets and social media networking feeds. One of the main goals is to make people aware of how much negative and positive content they read and write via their mobile phones. Existing sentiment analysis applications perform sentiment analysis on downloaded data from mobile phones or use an applicatio...

  16. Mobile Test Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  17. Mobile computing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ilyas, Mohammad

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND APPLICATIONS OF MOBILE COMPUTING Wearable Computing,A. Smailagic and D.P. Siewiorek Developing Mobile Applications: A Lime Primer,G.P. Picco, A.L. Murphy, and G.-C. Roman Pervasive Application Development: Approaches and Pitfalls,G. Banavar, N. Cohen, and D. Soroker ISAM, Joining Context-Awareness and Mobility to Building Pervasive Applications,I. Augustin, A. Corrêa Yamin, J.L. Victória Barbosa, L. Cavalheiro da Silva, R. Araújo Real, G. Frainer, G.G. Honrich Cavalheiro, and C.F. Resin Geyer Integrating Mobile Wireless Devices into the Computational Grid,T. Phan, L. Huan

  18. Doctors going mobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Ron; Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Having a Web page and a blog site are the minimum requirements for an Internet presence in the new millennium. However, a Web page that loads on a personal computer or a laptop will be ineffective on a mobile or cellular phone. Today, with more existing and potential patients having access to cellular technology, it is necessary to reconfigure the appearance of your Web site that appears on a mobile phone. This article discusses mobile computing and suggestions for improving the appearance of your Web site on a mobile or cellular phone. PMID:25807610

  19. Secure Mobile Identities

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekaran, Varun; Amjad, Fareeha; Sharma, Ashlesh; Subramanian, Lakshminarayanan

    2016-01-01

    The unique identities of every mobile user (phone number,IMSI) and device (IMEI) are far from secure and are increasingly vulnerable to a variety of network-level threats. The exceedingly high reliance on the weak SIM authentication layer does not present any notion of end-to-end security for mobile users. We propose the design and implementation of Secure Mobile Identities (SMI), a repetitive key-exchange protocol that uses this weak SIM authentication as a foundation to enable mobile users ...

  20. Guest Editorial ~ Mobile Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ally

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This special IRRODL issue on mobile learning is timely because of the proliferation of mobile technology in society, globalization, and the need to re-examine how learning materials are designed and delivered for the new generation of learners. In today’s world, people are on the move and are demanding access to learning materials and information anytime and anywhere. At the same time, there is increasing use of mobile technology in different sectors of society to meet the needs of people on the move. In business, there is increasing use of mobile technologies for individuals to conduct their business anywhere and anytime. In healthcare, medical staff are using mobile technologies to access just-in-time information and to enter information in real time. People working in the field away from the central office use mobile technologies to access information and to communicate with other workers. Also, younger generations of learners are using mobile technologies for entertainment and socialization. These learners are using mobile devices to access information and multimedia materials and to communicate with friends. These new generations of learners do not see technology as something foreign. They readily accept technology and consider technology to be part of their lives. Moreover, the use of mobile technology is a 21st Century skill that students and workers must have to function in society.

  1. Disability and mobile Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Goggin, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    As the World Wide Web turns 25, it is an appropriate time to ask: where are we are now with disability and the Internet? A good place to look is in the burgeoning area of Internet and mobile technology. Accordingly, this paper explores the issues and prospect for disability and mobile Internet. It provides a brief history of the entwined nature of the rise of disability and the Internet, discusses the emergence of mobile Internets, and then turns to a discussion of mobile Web accessibility. I...

  2. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi;

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data......-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web...

  3. Practical mobile forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Bommisetty, Satish; Mahalik, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The book is an easy-to-follow guide with clear instructions on various mobile forensic techniques. The chapters and the topics within are structured for a smooth learning curve, which will swiftly empower you to master mobile forensics. If you are a budding forensic analyst, consultant, engineer, or a forensic professional wanting to expand your skillset, this is the book for you. The book will also be beneficial to those with an interest in mobile forensics or wanting to find data lost on mobile devices. It will be helpful to be familiar with forensics in general but no prior experience is re

  4. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic elements are disclosed comprised of first and second silver halide emulsion layers separated by an interposed support capable of transmitting radiation to which the second image portion is responsive. At least the first imaging portion contains a silver halide emulsion in which thin tubular silver halide grains of intermediate aspect ratios (from 5:1 to 8:1) are present. Spectral sensitizing dye is adsorbed to the surface of the tubular grains. Increased photographic speeds can be realized at comparable levels of crossover. (author)

  5. Bioinformatic evaluation of L-arginine catabolic pathways in 24 cyanobacteria and transcriptional analysis of genes encoding enzymes of L-arginine catabolism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pistorius Elfriede K

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far very limited knowledge exists on L-arginine catabolism in cyanobacteria, although six major L-arginine-degrading pathways have been described for prokaryotes. Thus, we have performed a bioinformatic analysis of possible L-arginine-degrading pathways in cyanobacteria. Further, we chose Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 for a more detailed bioinformatic analysis and for validation of the bioinformatic predictions on L-arginine catabolism with a transcript analysis. Results We have evaluated 24 cyanobacterial genomes of freshwater or marine strains for the presence of putative L-arginine-degrading enzymes. We identified an L-arginine decarboxylase pathway in all 24 strains. In addition, cyanobacteria have one or two further pathways representing either an arginase pathway or L-arginine deiminase pathway or an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway. An L-arginine amidinotransferase pathway as a major L-arginine-degrading pathway is not likely but can not be entirely excluded. A rather unusual finding was that the cyanobacterial L-arginine deiminases are substantially larger than the enzymes in non-photosynthetic bacteria and that they are membrane-bound. A more detailed bioinformatic analysis of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 revealed that three different L-arginine-degrading pathways may in principle be functional in this cyanobacterium. These are (i an L-arginine decarboxylase pathway, (ii an L-arginine deiminase pathway, and (iii an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway. A transcript analysis of cells grown either with nitrate or L-arginine as sole N-source and with an illumination of 50 μmol photons m-2 s-1 showed that the transcripts for the first enzyme(s of all three pathways were present, but that the transcript levels for the L-arginine deiminase and the L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase were substantially higher than that of the three isoenzymes of L-arginine decarboxylase. Conclusion The evaluation of 24

  6. Mezinárodní marketingová strategie společnosti ExxonMobil

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlářová, Alena

    2011-01-01

    Master thesis ExxonMobil International Marketing Strategy deals mainly with brand management and communication strategy of ExxonMobil Corporation and its selected competitors (Royal Dutch Shell plc, BP p.l.c.). Elements of these strategies are compared and based on the SWOT analysis strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats of ExxonMobil strategy are identified. In conclusion, the thesis introduces recommendations for possible changes in ExxonMobil marketing strategy. The work itself is ...

  7. Modular Responsive Web Design using Element Queries

    OpenAIRE

    Wiener, Lucas; Ekholm, Tomas; Haller, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Responsive Web Design (RWD) enables web applications to adapt to the characteristics of different devices such as screen size which is important for mobile browsing. Today, the only W3C standard to support this adaptability is CSS media queries. However, using media queries it is impossible to create applications in a modular way, because responsive elements then always depend on the global context. Hence, responsive elements can only be reused if the global context is exactly the same, sever...

  8. Diversity of integrating conjugative elements in actinobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bordeleau, Eric; Ghinet, Mariana Gabriela; Burrus, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Conjugation is certainly the most widespread and promiscuous mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria. During conjugation, DNA translocation across membranes of two cells forming a mating pair is mediated by two types of mobile genetic elements: conjugative plasmids and integrating conjugative elements (ICEs). The vast majority of conjugative plasmids and ICEs employ a sophisticated protein secretion apparatus called type IV secretion system to transfer to a recipient cell. Yet anoth...

  9. Superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, S

    1999-01-01

    The outstanding aim of experimental investigations of heavy nuclei is the exploration of spherical 'SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). On the basis of the nuclear shell model, the next double magic shell-closure beyond sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb is predicted at proton numbers between Z=114 and 126 and at neutron number N=184. All experimental efforts aiming at identifying SHEs (Z>=114) were negative so far. A highly sensitive search experiment was performed in November-December 1995 at SHIP. The isotope sup 2 sup 9 sup 0 116 produced by 'radiative capture' was searched for in the course of a 33 days irradiation of a sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb target with sup 8 sup 2 Se projectiles, however, only cross-section limits were measured. Positive results were obtained in experiments searching for elements from 110 to 112 using cold fusion and the 1n evaporation channel. The produced isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of alpha-alpha correlations. Not fission, but alpha emission is the dominant decay mode. The measurement ...

  10. Predictors of Social Mobilization Speed

    CERN Document Server

    Alstott, Jeff; Velu, Chander

    2013-01-01

    Mobilization across social networks is becoming increasingly influential, but little is known about what traits of individuals and their relationships affect their speed of mobilization between them. We ran a global social mobilization contest and recorded personal traits of the participants and those they mobilized. We examined how those traits influenced the speed of mobilization. Individuals mobilized faster when they heard about the contest directly from the contest organization, and decreased in speed when hearing from less personal source types (e.g. family vs. media). Mobilization was faster when the mobilizer and the mobilized heard about the contest through the same source type, and slower when both individuals were in different countries. Females mobilized other females faster than males mobilized other males. Mobilization was faster with young recruiters and old recruits, and slower with old recruiters and young recruits. These findings suggest ways to optimize the speed of social mobilization.

  11. Unraveling the Skilled Mobility for Sustainable Development Mantra: An Analysis of China-EU Academic Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggi W.H. Leung

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the name of sustainable development, skilled persons including scholars, researchers and students have become incorporated in the “sustainable development” visions and strategies of institutions, city centers and nation-states near and far from where these potentially mobile brains are. Policies and programs have widely been implemented to foster move-in move-out mobility of these talents sans frontières who should contribute to the competitiveness of their affiliated institutions and structures in the global knowledge economy. This paper unravels this emergent academic mobility for sustainable development mantra. It unpacks the meanings of “sustainable development” and “sustainability” as used in relation to temporary (often circulatory mobility of students and academics in different contexts. An analysis of European and specifically China-EU academic mobility initiatives illustrates the multi-fold meanings of sustainability in this policy terrain. Zooming into the Chinese-German case, the paper highlights the common dominance of economic and environmental elements in the current “academic mobility for sustainability” construct that sidelines important social components such as equity and diversity. Statistical data and narratives will be provided to illustrate the stark gender and disciplinary bias in the Chinese-German staff academic mobility field. The paper argues for conscious, affirmative efforts by policy-makers and funding agencies to correct existing imbalances.

  12. Mobilizing community energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What explains the galvanising of communities to participate actively in energy projects? How do groups mobilize to overcome the often formidable barriers highlighted in the existing literature? Drawing on original qualitative research of 100 community energy groups in Scotland, including six in-depth case studies, we explain how effective mobilization occurs and the political dynamics surrounding such mobilization. To capture these dynamics, we adapt theories offered by literature on social movements, with a particular focus on resource mobilization theories. Applying our adapted framework, we identify two particular sets of resources shaping community energy mobilization: (i) structural resources, which refer to the broad political context structuring and constraining opportunities for community energy mobilization; and (ii) symbolic resources—less tangible resources used to galvanise participants. We investigate to what extent our case study groups were able to draw upon and exploit these resources. We find that structural resources can either facilitate or hinder mobilization; what matters is how state resources are exploited and constraints mitigated. The use of symbolic resources was highly effective in aiding mobilization. Each of the groups examined – despite their considerable variation – effectively exploited symbolic resources such as shared identity or desire for strong, self reliant communities. - Highlights: ► Explains how/why community energy groups mobilize and the political dynamics surrounding it. ► Draws on original qualitative research of 100 community energy groups in Scotland. ► Identifies two particular sets of resources (structural and symbolic) and their importance. ► Explains how these resources shape community energy mobilization in Scotland. ► Provides an original application of resource mobilization theory to the field of energy studies.

  13. a Multidisciplinary Analytical Framework for Studying Active Mobility Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, D.; Hermida, C.; Osorio, P.

    2016-06-01

    Intermediate cities are urged to change and adapt their mobility systems from a high energy-demanding motorized model to a sustainable low-motorized model. In order to accomplish such a model, city administrations need to better understand active mobility patterns and their links to socio-demographic and cultural aspects of the population. During the last decade, researchers have demonstrated the potential of geo-location technologies and mobile devices to gather massive amounts of data for mobility studies. However, the analysis and interpretation of this data has been carried out by specialized research groups with relatively narrow approaches from different disciplines. Consequently, broader questions remain less explored, mainly those relating to spatial behaviour of individuals and populations with their geographic environment and the motivations and perceptions shaping such behaviour. Understanding sustainable mobility and exploring new research paths require an interdisciplinary approach given the complex nature of mobility systems and their social, economic and environmental impacts. Here, we introduce the elements for a multidisciplinary analytical framework for studying active mobility patterns comprised of three components: a) Methodological, b) Behavioural, and c) Perceptual. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by analysing mobility patterns of cyclists and pedestrians in an intermediate city integrating a range of techniques, including: GPS tracking, spatial analysis, auto-ethnography, and perceptual mapping. The results demonstrated the existence of non-evident spatial behaviours and how perceptual features affect mobility. This knowledge is useful for developing policies and practices for sustainable mobility planning.

  14. 耐药大肠埃希菌β-内酰胺类、氨基糖苷类获得性耐药基因与可移动遗传元件研究%Investigation of acquired resistance genes to β-lactams, aminoglycosides and mobile genetic elements in multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建明; 万长标; 钱玮和; 程建平; 金跃

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查多药耐药大肠埃希菌β-内酰胺类、氨基糖苷类获得性耐药基因与可移动遗传元件的存在情况.方法 收集医院2007年1-12月患者标本中分离的20株多药耐药大肠埃希菌,采用聚合酶链反应(PCR)的方法,分析42种β-内酰胺类、氨基糖苷类获得性耐药基因以及10种可移动遗传元件的遗传标记;并对上述检测结果做样本聚类分析.结果20 株多药耐药大肠埃希菌检出β-内酰胺类获得性耐药基因TEM-1及CTX-M-55,检出率为80.0%、50.0%,氨基糖苷类获得性耐药基因aac(3)-Ⅱ、aac(6’)-Ⅰb、ant(3")-Ⅰ、aadA5、aph(3’)-Ⅰ,检出率分别为45.0%、5.0%、10.0%、45.0%、5.0%,可移动遗传元件检出intⅠ 1、tnp513、IS26、ISEcp1、traA、trbC,检出率分别为55.0%、25.0%、90.0%、65.0%、80.0%、75.0%;其他39种基因未检出.结论 20株多药耐药大肠埃希菌耐β-内酰胺类、氨基糖苷类药物与细菌产2种β-内酰胺类获得性耐药基因、5种氨基糖苷类获得性耐药基因相关;可移动遗传元件的水平转移使细菌的耐药性在同种细菌菌株之间甚至不同种细菌菌株之间得以快速传播;样本聚类分析提示,该组多药耐药大肠埃希菌尚无克隆传播.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution of acquired resistance genes to [3-lactams, aminoglycosides and mobile genetic elements in multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli (E. Coli). METHODS From Jan 2007 to Dec 2007, 20 strains of E. Coli were collected from The Second People's Hospital of Huaian. Then, 42 kinds of acquired resistance genes to β-lactams, aminoglycosides and 10 kinds of genetic markers of mobile genetic elements were analyzed by PCR. In addition, sample cluster analysis was performed. RESULTS In 20 strains of multidrug-resistant E. Coli, acquired resistance genes to β-actams: TEM-1, CTX-M-55, acquired resistance genes to aminoglycosides! Aac(3)-II , aac(6')-I b, ant(3")-I

  15. Regulation and characterization of the dadRAX locus for D-amino acid catabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weiqing; Li, Congran; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2011-05-01

    D-amino acids are essential components for bacterial peptidoglycan, and these natural compounds are also involved in cell wall remodeling and biofilm disassembling. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the dadAX operon, encoding the D-amino acid dehydrogenase DadA and the amino acid racemase DadX, is essential for D- and L-Ala catabolism, and its expression requires a transcriptional regulator, DadR. In this study, purified recombinant DadA alone was sufficient to demonstrate the proposed enzymatic activity with very broad substrate specificity; it utilizes all D-amino acids tested as substrates except D-Glu and D-Gln. DadA also showed comparable k(cat) and K(m) values on D-Ala and several D-amino acids. dadRAX knockout mutants were constructed and subjected to analysis of their growth phenotypes on amino acids. The results revealed that utilization of L-Ala, L-Trp, D-Ala, and a specific set of D-amino acids as sole nitrogen sources was abolished in the dadA mutant and/or severely hampered in the dadR mutant while growth yield on D-amino acids was surprisingly improved in the dadX mutant. The dadA promoter was induced by several L-amino acids, most strongly by Ala, and only by D-Ala among all tested D-amino acids. Enhanced growth of the dadX mutant on D-amino acids is consistent with the finding that the dadA promoter was constitutively induced in the dadX mutant, where exogenous D-Ala but not L-Ala reduced the expression. Binding of DadR to the dadA regulatory region was demonstrated by electromobility shift assays, and the presence of L-Ala but not D-Ala increased affinity by 3-fold. The presence of multiple DadR-DNA complexes in the dadA regulatory region was demonstrated in vitro, and the formation of these nucleoprotein complexes exerted a complicated impact on promoter activation in vivo. In summary, the results from this study clearly demonstrate DadA to be the enzyme solely responsible for the proposed D-amino acid dehydrogenase activity of broad substrate

  16. Increasing mobile radiography productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Edward; Lung, Ngan Tsz; Ng, Kris; Jeor, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Mobile radiography using computed radiography (CR) cassettes is a common equipment combination with a workflow bottleneck limited by location of CR readers. Advent of direct digital radiography (DDR) mobile x-ray machines removes this limitation by immediate image review and quality control. Through the use of key performance indicators (KPIs), the increase in efficiency can be quantified. PMID:23986937

  17. Global Mobile Communication System

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The Global Mobile Communications System is a satellite-based, wireless personal communications network designed to permit any type of telephone transmission -- voice, data, fax, paging -- to reach its destination anywhere on earth, at any time. It is bringing a new dimension of capability to the commercial, rural and mobile sectors by providing universal, portable service.

  18. Security for Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Buchholtz, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    We show how to use static analysis to provide information about security issues related to mobility. First the syntax and semantics of Mobile Ambients is reviewed and we show how to obtain a so-called 0CFA analysis that can be implemented in polynomial time. Next we consider discretionary access...

  19. Mobile banking in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Ho

    2010-01-01

    Technology has transformed the banking industry with the introduction of mobile banking services that offer unprecedented convenience and accessibility to customers. This Asia Focus report describes the various approaches to mobile banking in Asia, and examines how particular countries have addressed regulatory issues.

  20. Staging interrail mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This article applies the multiscalar ‘staging mobilities’ framework from the emergent subfield of mobilities design to analyse an enduring European rail travel phenomenon, interrail. This discussion extends and contributes to tourism mobilities research. Second, the article enriches previous stud...