Sample records for cat subretrofacial nucleus

  1. Lateral cervical nucleus projections to periaqueductal gray matter in cat. (United States)

    Mouton, Leonora J; Klop, Esther-Marije; Broman, Jonas; Zhang, Mengliang; Holstege, Gert


    The midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) integrates the basic responses necessary for survival of individuals and species. Examples are defense behaviors such as fight, flight, and freezing, but also sexual behavior, vocalization, and micturition. To control these behaviors the PAG depends on strong input from more rostrally located limbic structures, as well as from afferent input from the lower brainstem and spinal cord. Mouton and Holstege (2000, J Comp Neurol 428:389-410) showed that there exist at least five different groups of spino-PAG neurons, each of which is thought to subserve a specific function. The lateral cervical nucleus (LCN) in the upper cervical cord is not among these five groups. The LCN relays information from hair receptors and noxious information and projects strongly to the contralateral ventroposterior and posterior regions of thalamus and to intermediate and deep tectal layers. The question is whether the LCN also projects to the PAG. The present study in cat, using retrograde and anterograde tracing techniques, showed that neurons located in the lateral two-thirds of the LCN send fibers to the lateral part of the PAG, predominantly at rostrocaudal levels A0.6-P0.2. This part of the PAG is known to be involved in flight behavior. A concept is put forward according to which the LCN-PAG pathway alerts the animal about the presence of cutaneous stimuli that might represent danger, necessitating flight. J. Comp. Neurol. 471:434-445, 2004. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Efferent connections of the anterior hypothalamic nucleus: a biocytin study in the cat. (United States)

    Kanemaru, H; Nakamura, H; Isayama, H; Kawabuchi, M; Tashiro, N


    The efferent connections of the anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AH) were examined using biocytin as anterograde tracer in the cat. The results provide several new findings in addition to confirming earlier observations. In the hypothalamus, the AH projections terminated mainly in the medial regions which are related to the defensive, reproductive and feeding behaviors, and autonomic functions. Moreover, we found dense patches of the AH terminals in the medial preoptic area and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, which suggests the existence of modular connections between sub-regions of each nucleus. In addition, the AH projected to regions which may be related to the emotional and autonomic responses, i.e., such regions in the amygdala, midline thalamus, septum, subthalamus, and midbrain. The data suggest that the AH may play an important role in the autonomic functions and behaviors between animals, and thus may play a key role in the defensive behavior elicited in the medial preoptic area and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus.

  3. A comparative neuroanatomical study of the red nucleus of the cat, macaque and human.

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    Satoru Onodera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human red nucleus (Nr is comparatively less well-studied than that of cats or monkeys. Given the functional importance of reticular and midbrain structures in control of movement and locomotion as well as from an evolutionary perspective, we investigated the nature and extent of any differences in Nr projections to the olivary complex in quadrupedal and bipedal species. Using neuroanatomical tract-tracing techniques we developed a "neural sheet" hypothesis allowing us to propose how rubro-olivary relations differ among the three species. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase staining supports findings that the cat's nucleus accessories medialis of Bechtrew (NB projects mainly to the lateral bend of the principal olive. We clarified boundaries among nucleus of Darkschewitsch (ND, NB and parvicellular red nucleus (pNr of the cat's neural sheet. The macaque's ND-medial accessory olivary projection is rostro-caudally organized and the dorsomedial and ventrolateral parts of the macaque's pNr may project to the principal olive's rostral and caudal dorsal lamella; in cat it projects as well to pNr. Myelin- and Nissl-stained sections show that a well-developed dorsomedial part of the human Nr consists of densely packed cells, deriving small myelinated fibers that continue into the medial central tegmental tract. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings we suggest there are distinct bipedal-quadrupedal differences for Nr projections to the olivary complex. We propose the Nr of cats and monkeys comprise the ND, NB and pNr in a zonal sheet-like structure, retaining clear nuclear boundaries and an isolated, well-developed mNr. The human NB may be distinguished from its more specialised ND (ND lies alongside a well-developed pNr in the human central gray. Phylogenetically, the NB may have been translocated into a roll-shaped Nr in the reticular formation, the dorsomedial portion of which might correspond to the cat

  4. Vestibular nucleus neurons respond to hindlimb movement in the decerebrate cat. (United States)

    Arshian, Milad S; Hobson, Candace E; Catanzaro, Michael F; Miller, Daniel J; Puterbaugh, Sonya R; Cotter, Lucy A; Yates, Bill J; McCall, Andrew A


    The vestibular nuclei integrate information from vestibular and proprioceptive afferents, which presumably facilitates the maintenance of stable balance and posture. However, little is currently known about the processing of sensory signals from the limbs by vestibular nucleus neurons. This study tested the hypothesis that limb movement is encoded by vestibular nucleus neurons and described the changes in activity of these neurons elicited by limb extension and flexion. In decerebrate cats, we recorded the activity of 70 vestibular nucleus neurons whose activity was modulated by limb movements. Most of these neurons (57/70, 81.4%) encoded information about the direction of hindlimb movement, while the remaining neurons (13/70, 18.6%) encoded the presence of hindlimb movement without signaling the direction of movement. The activity of many vestibular nucleus neurons that responded to limb movement was also modulated by rotating the animal's body in vertical planes, suggesting that the neurons integrated hindlimb and labyrinthine inputs. Neurons whose firing rate increased during ipsilateral ear-down roll rotations tended to be excited by hindlimb flexion, whereas neurons whose firing rate increased during contralateral ear-down tilts were excited by hindlimb extension. These observations suggest that there is a purposeful mapping of hindlimb inputs onto vestibular nucleus neurons, such that integration of hindlimb and labyrinthine inputs to the neurons is functionally relevant. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Neurochemically defined cell columns in the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi of the cat and monkey. (United States)

    Baizer, Joan S; Baker, James F


    Many studies have shown that the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (PH) participates with the vestibular nuclear complex, the cerebellum and the oculomotor nuclei in the control of eye movements. We have looked at the neurochemical organization of PH in the cat and monkey using a recently developed antibody, 8B3, that recognizes a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. In the cat, immunoreactivity to 8B3 labels a set of cells in PH. On frontal sections, these cells form a cluster that is seen over the entire anterior-posterior (A-P) extent of PH, but the number of cells in the cluster changes with A-P level. Earlier studies have identified an A-P cell column in PH of the cat whose neurons synthesize nitric oxide. We have used both single- and double-label protocols to investigate the relation between the two cell groups. Single-label studies show spatial overlap but that the cells immunoreactive to nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) are more numerous than cells immunoreactive to 8B3. Double-label studies show that all cells immunoreactive to 8B3 were also immunoreactive to nNOS, but, as suggested by the single-label data, there are many nNOS-immunoreactive cells not immunoreactive to 8B3. Populations of 8B3 and nNOS-immunoreactive cells are also found in PH of squirrel and macaque monkeys. The results suggest that nNOS-immunoreactive cells in PH may consist of two functionally different populations.

  6. State-dependency of neuronal slow dynamics during sleep observed in cat lateral geniculate nucleus. (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Yamamoto, M; Takahashi, K; Nakao, M; Mizutani, Y; Katayama, N; Kodama, T


    From the accumulated results, we hypothesize that neurons in the central processor systems of the brain generally exhibit a common state-dependency in slow dynamics of their spontaneous activities during sleep. In this paper, activities of relay cells in the cat's lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) were studied to see if our hypothesis can be applied in this thalamic region. Data segments in polygraphically steady states were strictly extracted in order to sample the activities whose stationarity was guaranteed in a statistical sense. During slow wave sleep (SWS), the discharge pattern was characterized by short bursts. In contrast, the rather tonic discharge pattern was observed to prevail during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Spectral analyses showed white noise-like spectra in the low frequency range of 0.04-1.0 Hz during SWS, and 1/f noise-like spectra in the same frequency range during REM sleep. This state-dependency of the slow dynamics was consistently characterized by the other statistical parameters concerning the second-order moment as well. In contrast, the fast dynamics over 1.0 Hz tended to exhibit neuron-specific changes associated with the sleep state in terms of the Markovian dependency analysis. Consequently, our working hypothesis was not rejected for the LGN relay cells. The result here extends the possibility that the state-dependency of the slow dynamics we found is a general rule concerning single neuronal dynamics in widespread areas of the brain during sleep. The state-dependency of the slow dynamics of the LGN relay cells could be understood according to the proposed mechanism that a state-associated alteration in the global biasing input to a neural network during sleep induces the phenomenon with which we are concerned. The slow dynamics of neuronal activities might provide a novel framework defining SWS and REM sleep states instead of the polygraphic characteristics.

  7. Response properties of single units in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus of decerebrate cats. (United States)

    Davis, Kevin A; Lomakin, Oleg; Pesavento, Michael J


    The dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) receives afferent inputs from many brain stem nuclei and, in turn, is a major source of inhibitory inputs to the inferior colliculus (IC). The goal of this study was to characterize the monaural and binaural response properties of neurons in the DNLL of unanesthetized decerebrate cat. Monaural responses were classified according to the patterns of excitation and inhibition observed in contralateral and ipsilateral frequency response maps. Binaural classification was based on unit sensitivity to interaural level differences. The results show that units in the DNLL can be grouped into three distinct types. Type v units produce contralateral response maps that show a wide V-shaped excitatory area and no inhibition. These units receive ipsilateral excitation and exhibit binaural facilitation. The contralateral maps of type i units show a more restricted I-shaped region of excitation that is flanked by inhibition. Type o maps display an O-shaped island of excitation at low stimulus levels that is bounded by inhibition at higher levels. Both type i and type o units receive ipsilateral inhibition and exhibit binaural inhibition. Units that produce type v maps have a low best frequency (BF), whereas type i and type o units have high BFs. Type v and type i units give monotonic rate-level responses for both BF tones and broadband noise. Type o units are inhibited by tones at high levels, but are excited by high-level noise. These results show that the DNLL can exert strong, differential effects in the IC.

  8. Cough-related neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius of decerebrate cats. (United States)

    Haji, A; Ohi, Y; Kimura, S


    This study was carried out on decerebrate, paralyzed and artificially ventilated cats to investigate the central regulatory mechanism for cough reflex. Fictive cough was induced by repetitive stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) or the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and characterized by an increased inspiratory discharge in the phrenic nerve (stage 1 of cough; S1C) and large burst discharge in the iliohypogastric nerve (stage 2 of cough; S2C). Membrane potential was recorded from the neurons located in the cough-inducible sites of the NTS. Seven augmenting inspiratory (aug-I), 25 inspiratory-modulated (I-mod) and 16 non-respiratory (non-R) neurons were encountered, all of which showed short-latency (7.5 ± 1.6 ms, n=48) waves of excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs and IPSPs) in response to single pulse stimulation of the SLN. Out of these, all 7 aug-I and 12 I-mod neurons depolarized during the S1C and hyperpolarized during the S2C (DH-type response). Three I-mod and five non-R neurons showed membrane hyperpolarization during both stages (HH-type response). Ten I-mod and three non-R neurons displayed membrane depolarization during the S1C and S2C (DD-type response). The remaining eight non-R neurons showed no response during the fictive cough (NN-type response) but a long-lasting EPSP wave to single SLN stimulation. The NTS neurons recorded here were divided into three groups. Group I neurons with the NN-type response may be the second-order relay neurons. Group II neurons with the DD-type response may integrate the tussigenic afferent information and send a gate signal to the cough pattern generator. Group III neurons with either DH-type or HH-type response may constitute the network of cough pattern generation or modulatory circuits recruited during the cough reflex. The present study suggests that Group II neurons may play a gating role in generating the cough reflex. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. Enhancement and distortion in the temporal representation of sounds in the ventral cochlear nucleus of chinchillas and cats. (United States)

    Recio-Spinoso, Alberto


    A subset of neurons in the cochlear nucleus (CN) of the auditory brainstem has the ability to enhance the auditory nerve's temporal representation of stimulating sounds. These neurons reside in the ventral region of the CN (VCN) and are usually known as highly synchronized, or high-sync, neurons. Most published reports about the existence and properties of high-sync neurons are based on recordings performed on a VCN output tract--not the VCN itself--of cats. In other species, comprehensive studies detailing the properties of high-sync neurons, or even acknowledging their existence, are missing.Examination of the responses of a population of VCN neurons in chinchillas revealed that a subset of those neurons have temporal properties similar to high-sync neurons in the cat. Phase locking and entrainment--the ability of a neuron to fire action potentials at a certain stimulus phase and at almost every stimulus period, respectively--have similar maximum values in cats and chinchillas. Ranges of characteristic frequencies for high-sync neurons in chinchillas and cats extend up to 600 and 1000 Hz, respectively. Enhancement of temporal processing relative to auditory nerve fibers (ANFs), which has been shown previously in cats using tonal and white-noise stimuli, is also demonstrated here in the responses of VCN neurons to synthetic and spoken vowel sounds.Along with the large amount of phase locking displayed by some VCN neurons there occurs a deterioration in the spectral representation of the stimuli (tones or vowels). High-sync neurons exhibit a greater distortion in their responses to tones or vowels than do other types of VCN neurons and auditory nerve fibers.Standard deviations of first-spike latency measured in responses of high-sync neurons are lower than similar values measured in ANFs' responses. This might indicate a role of high-sync neurons in other tasks beyond sound localization.

  10. Enhancement and distortion in the temporal representation of sounds in the ventral cochlear nucleus of chinchillas and cats.

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    Alberto Recio-Spinoso

    Full Text Available A subset of neurons in the cochlear nucleus (CN of the auditory brainstem has the ability to enhance the auditory nerve's temporal representation of stimulating sounds. These neurons reside in the ventral region of the CN (VCN and are usually known as highly synchronized, or high-sync, neurons. Most published reports about the existence and properties of high-sync neurons are based on recordings performed on a VCN output tract--not the VCN itself--of cats. In other species, comprehensive studies detailing the properties of high-sync neurons, or even acknowledging their existence, are missing.Examination of the responses of a population of VCN neurons in chinchillas revealed that a subset of those neurons have temporal properties similar to high-sync neurons in the cat. Phase locking and entrainment--the ability of a neuron to fire action potentials at a certain stimulus phase and at almost every stimulus period, respectively--have similar maximum values in cats and chinchillas. Ranges of characteristic frequencies for high-sync neurons in chinchillas and cats extend up to 600 and 1000 Hz, respectively. Enhancement of temporal processing relative to auditory nerve fibers (ANFs, which has been shown previously in cats using tonal and white-noise stimuli, is also demonstrated here in the responses of VCN neurons to synthetic and spoken vowel sounds.Along with the large amount of phase locking displayed by some VCN neurons there occurs a deterioration in the spectral representation of the stimuli (tones or vowels. High-sync neurons exhibit a greater distortion in their responses to tones or vowels than do other types of VCN neurons and auditory nerve fibers.Standard deviations of first-spike latency measured in responses of high-sync neurons are lower than similar values measured in ANFs' responses. This might indicate a role of high-sync neurons in other tasks beyond sound localization.

  11. Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on the cochlear nucleus in cats deafened as neonates. (United States)

    Kandathil, Cherian K; Stakhovskaya, Olga; Leake, Patricia A


    Many previous studies have shown significant neurotrophic effects of intracochlear delivery of BDNF in preventing degeneration of cochlear spiral ganglion (SG) neurons after deafness in rodents and our laboratory has shown similar results in developing cats deafened prior to hearing onset. This study examined the morphology of the cochlear nucleus (CN) in a group of neonatally deafened cats from a previous study in which infusion of BDNF elicited a significant improvement in survival of the SG neurons. Five cats were deafened by systemic injections of neomycin sulfate (60 mg/kg, SQ, SID) starting one day after birth, and continuing for 16-18 days until auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing demonstrated profound bilateral hearing loss. The animals were implanted unilaterally at about 1 month of age using custom-designed electrodes with a drug-delivery cannula connected to an osmotic pump. BDNF (94 μg/ml; 0.25 μl/hr) was delivered for 10 weeks. The animals were euthanized and studied at 14-23 weeks of age. Consistent with the neurotrophic effects of BDNF on SG survival, the total CN volume in these animals was significantly larger on the BDNF-treated side than on the contralateral side. However, total CN volume, both ipsi- and contralateral to the implants in these deafened juvenile animals, was markedly smaller than the CN in normal adult animals, reflecting the severe effects of deafness on the central auditory system during development. Data from the individual major CN subdivisions (DCN, Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus; PVCN, Posteroventral Cochlear Nucleus; AVCN, Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus) also were analyzed. A significant difference was observed between the BDNF-treated and control sides only in the AVCN. Measurements of the cross-sectional areas of spherical cells showed that cells were significantly larger in the AVCN ipsilateral to the implant than on the contralateral side. Further, the numerical density of spherical cells was significantly lower in

  12. Evidence for monosynaptic projections from the nucleus retroambiguous to hindlimb motoneurons in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderHorst, VGJM; deWeerd, H; Holstege, G


    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) is a group of premotor neurons at the transition between brainstem and spinal cord. It projects to certain motoneuronal cell groups, among which is a distinct set of motoneurons in the lumbar enlargement innervating muscles including iliopsoas, adductor longus, and

  13. Vestibular nucleus neurons respond to hindlimb movement in the conscious cat (United States)

    Miller, Derek M.; DeMayo, William M.; Bourdages, George H.


    The limbs constitute the sole interface with the ground during most waking activities in mammalian species; it is therefore expected that somatosensory inputs from the limbs provide important information to the central nervous system for balance control. In the decerebrate cat model, the activity of a subset of neurons in the vestibular nuclei (VN) has been previously shown to be modulated by hindlimb movement. However, decerebration can profoundly alter the effects of sensory inputs on the activity of brain stem neurons, resulting in epiphenomenal responses. Thus, before this study, it was unclear whether and how somatosensory inputs from the limb affected the activity of VN neurons in conscious animals. We recorded brain stem neuronal activity in the conscious cat and characterized the responses of VN neurons to flexion and extension hindlimb movements and to whole body vertical tilts (vestibular stimulation). Among 96 VN neurons whose activity was modulated by vestibular stimulation, the firing rate of 65 neurons (67.7%) was also affected by passive hindlimb movement. VN neurons in conscious cats most commonly encoded hindlimb movement irrespective of the direction of movement (n = 33, 50.8%), in that they responded to all flexion and extension movements of the limb. Other VN neurons overtly encoded information about the direction of hindlimb movement (n = 27, 41.5%), and the remainder had more complex responses. These data confirm that hindlimb somatosensory and vestibular inputs converge onto VN neurons of the conscious cat, suggesting that VN neurons integrate somatosensory inputs from the limbs in computations that affect motor outflow to maintain balance. PMID:27440244

  14. Cats (United States)

    ... make great companions and are credited with promoting socialization among the elderly and physically or mentally disabled ... 56(51):1337-40. Update: Recall of Dry Dog and Cat Food Products Associated with Human Salmonella ...

  15. Effects of sleep deprivation on serotonergic neuronal activity in the dorsal raphe nucleus of the freely moving cat. (United States)

    Gardner, J P; Fornal, C A; Jacobs, B L


    Total sleep deprivation (TSD) for one or more nights produces a rapid antidepressant response in humans. Since most pharmacological treatments for depression increase brain serotonin neurotransmission, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether TSD increases the activity of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in cats. Cats were prevented from sleeping by the experimenter, who monitored the behavioral state of each animal on a polygraph. Firing rates during quiet waking (QW) and active waking (AW) were obtained throughout a 24-h sleep deprivation period and subsequent 6-h recovery period. During the experiments, unit activity was also recorded during exposure to loud white noise, which elicited strong behavioral arousal. The inhibitory response of serotonergic DRN neurons to systemic administration of the selective 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) was determined before and after TSD to assess possible changes in 5-HT1A autoreceptor sensitivity. TSD increased mean firing rates by as much as 18% during both AW and white noise exposure. Maximal effects were observed after 15 h of TSD for AW, and after 18 h for white noise. QW firing rates also tended to be elevated throughout TSD. Firing rates for all conditions during the recovery period were not significantly different from baseline. The neuronal inhibition produced by 8-OH-DPAT was significantly diminished after TSD. Overall, these results indicate that TSD increases the firing rate of serotonergic DRN neurons during AW and arousal. This effect may be attributable to a decrease in the sensitivity of 5-HT1A autoreceptors. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that TSD exerts its antidepressant action, at least in part, through an activation of brain serotonergic neurons.

  16. Non-dominant suppression in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat: laminar differences and class specificity. (United States)

    Wang, C; Dreher, B; Burke, W


    Binocular non-dominant suppression (NDS) in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) of the cat was studied by recording from single neurons in the LGNd of anaesthetized, paralysed cats while stimulating the non-dominant eye with a moving light bar. The maintained discharge rate of LGNd neurons was varied by stimulating the dominant eye in various ways: by varying the size or contrast of a flashed spot, by varying the inner diameter of a flashed annulus of large outer diameter, by varying the velocity of a moving light bar, and by covering the eye. Non-dominant suppression was quantified either as the decrease in the maintained discharge rate (the "dip"), expressed as spikes per second, or as the ratio of the dip to the maintained discharge rate (the "dip ratio"). At low maintained discharge rates the dip, although low in value, frequently approached the maintained rate, i.e. the dip ratio approached unity. As the maintained discharge rate increased the dip value also increased, but more slowly than the maintained discharge rate, i.e. the dip ratio decreased. At maintained discharge rates above about 30 spikes/s, in many neurons the dip appeared to be approaching a constant value. This strong dependence of NDS on the maintained discharge rate of the LGNd neuron suggests that the inhibitory input to the cell arises from a region of the brain that receives an input both from the non-dominant eye and from the LGNd cell. Reasons are given for thinking that this region is the perigeniculate nucleus. Because of the strong dependence of dip and dip ratio on the maintained discharge rate, it was necessary to adopt stringent criteria when comparing NDS in two different sets of neurons or of the same set of neurons in different conditions. We recognized a significant difference in NDS between two classes of neurons or between two states only if: (1) there was no significant difference between the maintained discharge rates, and (2) there was a significant difference for

  17. Effects of age at onset of deafness and electrical stimulation on the developing cochlear nucleus in cats. (United States)

    Stakhovskaya, Olga; Hradek, Gary T; Snyder, Russell L; Leake, Patricia A


    This study examined the effects of deafness and intracochlear electrical stimulation on the anatomy of the cochlear nucleus (CN) after a brief period of normal auditory development early in life. Kittens were deafened by systemic ototoxic drug injections either as neonates or starting at postnatal day 30. Total CN volume, individual CN subdivision volumes, and cross-sectional areas of spherical cell somata in the anteroventral CN (AVCN) were compared in neonatally deafened and 30-day deafened groups at 8 weeks of age and in young adults after approximately 6 months of electrical stimulation initiated at 8 weeks of age. Both neonatal and early acquired hearing loss resulted in a reduction in CN volume as compared to normal hearing cats. Comparison of 8- and 32-week old groups indicated that the CN continued to grow in both deafened groups despite the absence of auditory input. Preserving normal auditory input for 30 days resulted in a significant increase in both total CN volume and cross-sectional areas of spherical cell somata, as compared to neonatally deafened animals. Restoring auditory input in these developing animals by unilateral intracochlear electrical stimulation did not elicit any difference in CN volume between the two sides, but resulted in 7% larger spherical cell size on the stimulated side. Overall, the brief period of normal auditory development and subsequent electrical stimulation maintained CN volume at 80% of normal and spherical cell size at 86% of normal ipsilateral to the implant as compared to 67% and 74%, respectively, in the neonatally deafened group.

  18. Effect of electrical stimulation of the central amygdaloid nucleus on the nociceptive neuron of the cortex (SI) in the cat. (United States)

    Kawarada, K; Kamata, K; Matsumoto, N


    The effect of conditioning stimulation of the central amygdaloid nucleus (ACE) on the response of tooth pulp-driven (TPD) neurons in the first somatosensory cortex (SI) was investigated in cats anesthetized with N2O-O2 (2:1) and 0.5% halothane. The tooth pulp test stimulus was a single 30-450 microA rectangular pulse, and the conditioning stimuli of the ACE were trains of 33 pulses (300 microA) delivered at 330 Hz. The ACE conditioning stimulation markedly suppressed the response of the slow-type neurons with latencies of more than 20 ms without any effect on the discharges of fast-type TPD neurons and spontaneous discharges. This inhibition was 68.9 +/- 24.7% (mean +/- SD) of the control. These findings suggest that there are at least two pathways for the ascending pulpal (nociceptive) information to the SI, and that the ACE modulates the transmission of impulses in one of the pathways.

  19. Anatomical and pharmacological relationship between acetylcholine and nitric oxide in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus of the cat: functional implications for eye-movement control. (United States)

    Márquez-Ruiz, Javier; Morcuende, Sara; Navarro-López, Juan De Dios; Escudero, Miguel


    The prepositus hypoglossi (PH) nucleus has been proposed as a pivotal structure for horizontal eye-position generation in the oculomotor system. Recent studies have revealed that acetylcholine (ACh) in the PH nucleus could mediate the persistent activity necessary for this process, although the origin of this ACh remains unknown. It is also known that nitric oxide (NO) in the PH nucleus plays an important role in the control of velocity balance, being involved in a negative feedback control of tonic signals arriving at the PH nucleus. As it could be expected that neurons taking part in eye-position generation must control their tonic background inputs, the existence of a relationship between nitrergic and cholinergic neurons is hypothesized. In the present study we analyzed the distribution, size, and morphology of choline acetyltransferase-positive neurons, and their relationship with neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the PH nucleus of the cat. As presumed, some 96% of cholinergic neurons were also nitrergic in the PH nucleus, suggesting that NO is regulating the level of ACh released by cholinergic PH neurons. Furthermore, we studied the alterations induced by muscarinic-receptor agonists and antagonists on spontaneous and vestibularly induced eye movements in the alert cat and compared them with those induced in previous studies by modification of NO levels in the same animal preparation. The results suggest that ACh is necessary for the generation of saccadic and vestibular eye-position signals, whereas the NO is stabilizing the eye-position generator by controlling background activity reaching cholinergic neurons in the PH nucleus.

  20. Premotor circuits controlling eyelid movements in conjunction with vertical saccades in the cat: II. interstitial nucleus of Cajal. (United States)

    Chen, Bingzhong; May, Paul J


    Vertical saccadic eye movements are accompanied by concurrent eyelid movements in the same direction. The interstitial nucleus of Cajal (InC) controls eye position for vertical eye movements and may also control saccade-related lid position as well. This study investigates whether the InC serves as a premotor center for eyelid saccades, by employing dual-tracer methods in cats to label both the projections of the InC and the motoneurons supplying the levator palpebrae superioris (LPS) muscle, which lie in the caudal central subdivision (CCS) of the oculomotor complex. Injections of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the InC anterogradely labeled axons that terminated bilaterally throughout the CCS and in the oculomotor nuclei proper. Labeled terminals lay in close association with labeled LPS motoneurons, which were retrogradely labeled following injections of wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) into the muscle. Ultrastructural investigation revealed that most terminals contained spherical vesicles and formed asymmetric synaptic contacts with the labeled motoneurons. These results strongly suggest that the InC monosynaptically controls lid movements in conjunction with vertical eye movements, including saccades. To identify the neurons of origin for this pathway, WGA-HRP injections were centered in the CCS. These experiments indicate that lid and eye motoneurons may share a common source of bilateral InC input. Thus, a common vertical position signal may be employed to maintain the lid and eye at appropriate elevations during fixation, such that the lid sits just above the pupil, allowing unobstructed vision, but at the ready to protect the cornea. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Inactivation of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis suppresses the innate fear responses of rats induced by the odor of cat urine. (United States)

    Xu, H-Y; Liu, Y-J; Xu, M-Y; Zhang, Y-H; Zhang, J-X; Wu, Y-J


    In this study, we investigated whether two brain regions, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA), affected male rats' (Rattus norvigicus) ability to innately discriminate between a predator odor (cat urine) and female rat urine. Muscimol, a GABAa receptor agonist, was bilaterally microinjected into either the BNST or BLA of rats through implanted stainless-steel guide cannulas to temporarily inactivate these brain nuclei. The behavioral responses of the treated rats to female rat urine and cat urine were then tested in an experimental arena. Compared to a saline infusion control, the injection of muscimol into the BNST strongly reversed the innate aversion of rats to cat urine but the injection of muscimol into the BLA had no effect. Furthermore, intra-BNST infusion of muscimol caused rats to be equally attracted to urine from cats and female rats but intra-BLA infusion did not stop rats manifesting fear on exposure to cat urine and exploratory behavior on exposure to female rat urine. We conclude that the BNST plays a more crucial role in modulating innate fear responses in rats than the BLA. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Electrical Stimulation of the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract on Electroencephalographic Spectral Power and the Sleep-Wake Cycle in Freely Moving Cats. (United States)

    Martínez-Vargas, D; Valdés-Cruz, A; Magdaleno-Madrigal, V M; Fernández-Mas, R; Almazán-Alvarado, S

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) plays a determinant role in the antiepileptic effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). One mechanism underlying the efficacy of VNS is the induction of cortical changes, detected by electroencephalogram (EEG), which can be mediated by the NTS through its projections to the cerebral nuclei responsible for modulating cortical activity. The effect of the electrical stimulation of the nucleus of the solitary tract (ENTS) on EEG activity and sleep states in freely moving animals is unknown. This study aims to analyze the effects of ENTS on the EEG spectral power and sleep-wake cycle in freely moving cats. EEG was performed on the left amygdala and both pre-frontal cortices for 23 hours under baseline conditions and with ENTS in freely moving cats. The changes induced by ENTS on the EEG spectral power and the architecture of the sleep-wake cycle were analyzed. ENTS increased the theta and beta band power for 12 hours. Furthermore, an increase in wakefulness occurred in the first six hours, followed by an increase in the total time of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. ENTS produces a long-lasting increase in the theta and beta band power, which favors wakefulness and REM sleep in freely moving cats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibitory effect of the nucleus reticularis pontis oralis on the pontine micturition center and pontine urine storage center in decerebrate cats. (United States)

    Sugaya, Kimio; Nishijima, Saori; Miyazato, Minoru; Oda, Masami; Ogawa, Yoshihide


    The influence of the nucleus reticularis pontis oralis (PoO) on the pontine micturition center (PMC) and pontine urine storage center (PUSC) was examined in decerebrate cats by electrical and chemical stimulations of the PMC, PUSC or PoO. Microinjection of carbachol into the rostral and dorsolateral part of the PoO rapidly inhibited reflex micturition and external urethral sphincter (EUS) activity. After confirming the inhibition of reflex micturition and EUS activity by microinjection of carbachol into the PoO, intravenous injection of atropine sulfate or its microinjection into the PoO recovered both reflex micturition and EUS activity. Microinjection of carbachol into the PMC evoked micturition and then inhibited reflex micturition, but intravenous injection of atropine or its microinjection into the PoO recovered reflex micturition. After confi rming the inhibition of reflex micturition and EUS activity by microinjection of carbachol into the PoO, electrical stimulation of the PUSC enhanced EUS activity, but electrical stimulation of the PMC failed to evoke micturition. However, electrical stimulation of the PMC evoked micturition after microinjection of atropine into the PoO. These results suggest that the PoO strongly inhibits the PMC and less strongly inhibits the PUSC. Therefore, the PoO seems to be the pontine micturition inhibitory area.

  4. The projection from the lateral geniculate nucleus onto the visual cortex in the cat. A quantitative study with horseradish-peroxidase. (United States)

    Holländer, H; Vanegas, H


    Horseradish-peroxidase (HRP) was injected (9-18 microng in 0.03-0.06 micronl) into cortical areas 17, 18 or 19 of 11 adult cats. After survival times of 17 hours to 7 days, the thalamus was examined for retrogradely HRP labelled nerve cells in serial transverse sections. From these sections, the percentage of labelled cells occurring in each subdivision of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) was calculated for each animal. One case each for injections in areas 17, 18, and 19 was then chosen for nerve cell size measurements in each LGNd subdivision. The perikaryal area of each labelled cell (N=689), and of representative samples of unlabelled cells (N=1137), was measured by planimetry. Size distribution histograms, mean values, standard deviation, and statistical significance levels were obtained by computer. It was found that area 17 receives a projection almost exclusively from laminae A and Al, and that the projecting cells belong to all cell size classes. Area 18 receives a projection mainly from laminae C and Al, and from the medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN). The projecting cells belong mainly to the large cell size classes. Area 19 receives a projection largely from MIN, and also from the C-laminae and extrageniculate cell groups. The projecting cells belong to all cell size classes, with some emphasis on the large cells of lamina C. A significant projection was found to exist from the parvocellular laminae of LGNd onto area 19 and, to a lesser degree, area 18. In conclusion, as one goes from area 17 and 18 and to 19 the projection source shifts from the A-lamine through the C-laminae on to MIN and extrageniculate cell groups. The cells which project to area 18 are on the whole larger than those which project to areas 17 and 19. A significant proportion of the contralateral visual input to area 18 is relayed via lamina C. These results provide a quantitative confirmation and extension of previous anatomical findings, and are in close relationship

  5. Effects of conditioning stimulation of the central amygdaloid nucleus on tooth pulp-driven neurons in the cat somatosensory cortex (SI). (United States)

    Kawarada, K; Kamata, K i; Matsumoto, N


    To study the limbic control of nociception, we examined the effect of conditioning stimulation of the central amygdaloid nucleus (ACE) on tooth pulp-driven (TPD) neurons in the first somatosensory cortex (SI). Cats were anesthetized with N(2)O-O(2) (2:1) and 0.5% halothane, and immobilized with tubocurarine chloride. The tooth pulp test stimulus was applied by a single rectangular pulse (0.5 ms in duration and 3-5 times the threshold intensity for the jaw-opening reflex). Conditioning stimuli to the ACE consisted of trains of 33 pulses (300 microA) delivered at 330 Hz at intervals of 8-10 s. In 35 out of 61 of the slow (S)-type TPD neurons with latencies of more than 20 ms, conditioning stimulation in the ACE, especially in the medial division, markedly reduced the firing response to the pulpal stimulation. The inhibition of the firing rate in the S-type neurons was 74% of the control. In these S-type neurons, the neurons that were inhibited had significantly longer latencies compared to the non-inhibited neurons (45.0 +/- 17.6 ms, n = 32 vs. 34.8 +/- 10.5 ms, n = 26). In contrast, the ACE conditioning stimulation affected only one out of 18 fast-type TPD neurons with latencies of less than 20 ms. In addition, ACE stimulation had no effect on the spontaneous discharges of either S-type or F-type neurons. The ACE inhibitory effect on S-type neurons was not diminished by naloxone administration (1 mg/kg, I.V. ), while the blockade of histamine H(1)-receptor by diphenhydramine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg, I.V.) partially reversed the inhibitory effect. These results suggest that the ACE inhibits ascending nociceptive information to the SI and that this inhibition is mediated in part by histamine (H(1)) receptors. It seems likely that the antinociceptive effect is a neurophysiological basis for stress-induced analgesia (SIA).

  6. Cat's Claw (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Cat's Claw Share: On This Page Background How Much ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about cat’s claw—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources ...

  7. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 49-62



    Images Cat. 50 Cat. 51 Cat. 53 Cat. 54 Cat. 55 (a) Cat. 55 (b) Cat. 56 Cat. 57: 1 Cat. 57: 2 Cat. 57: 3 Cat. 57: 4 Cat. 59: 1 Cat. 59: 2 Cat. 59: 3 Cat. 59: 4 Cat. 60 Cat. 61 Cat. 62: 1 (a) Cat. 62: 1 (b) Cat. 62: 2 (a) Cat. 62: 2 (b)

  8. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 26-48



    Images Cat. 26: 1 (a) Cat. 26: 1 (b) Cat. 26: 2 (a) Cat. 26: 2(b) Cat. 27: 1 (a) Cat. 27: 1 (b) Cat. 27: 2 (a) Cat. 27: 2 (b) Cat. 28 Cat. 29: 2 (a) Cat. 29: 2 (b) Cat. 30: 1 Cat. 30: 2 Cat. 30: 3 Cat. 33 Cat. 34: 1 Cat. 34: 2 Cat. 35: 1 Cat. 35: 2 Cat. 35: 3 Cat. 36 Cat. 37 Cat. 38: 1 Cat. 38: 2 Cat. 40 Cat. 42 Cat. 43 Cat. 44 Cat. 45: 1 Cat. 45: 2 Cat. 46 Cat. 47: 1 Cat. 47: 2 Cat. 47: 3 Cat. 48: 1 Cat. 48: 2 Cat. 48: 3

  9. Cat scratch disease (image) (United States)

    ... with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of chronic lymph node swelling in children.

  10. Multifractal analysis of nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, K.; Cherry, M.L.; Jones, W.V.; Wefel, J.P. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)); Dabrowska, A.; Holynski, R.; Jurak, A.; Olszewski, A.; Szarska, M.; Trzupek, A.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K. (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kawiory 26 A, 30-055, Krakow (Poland)); Freier, P.S.; Waddington, C.J. (School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)); (KLM Collaboration)


    We have performed a multifractal ([ital G]-moment) analysis of 14.6--200 GeV/nucleon nucleus-nucleus and 200--800 GeV proton-nucleus interactions from KLM and Fermilab E-90 and E-508 emulsion data, including explicit corrections for the finite statistical sample. The corrected slopes of the [ital G] moments for protons, [sup 16]O, [sup 28]Si, and [sup 32]S nuclei show only slight evidence for departures from random behavior, while the normalized entropies appear to show a more consistent departure from randomness, particularly for protons. Given the size of the uncertainties, the results of the fractal analysis are not consistent either with results of intermittency analyses for nucleus-nucleus collisions or with the nonrandom behavior previously reported for leptonic and hadronic collisions. However, because of the effects of statistical noise, the fractal analysis is not as sensitive as the intermittency analysis for detecting nonrandom fluctuations.

  11. Onuf's nucleus X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D


    The first, second and third sacral segments of 59 human spinal cords were examined in order to localize and describe Onuf's nucleus X. The nucleus was found to be situated in the ventral horn of the segments S2 and S3; only in very few spinal cords did it extend into S1. A significant variation...... in the length of the nucleus was observed. Based on the cytoarchitecture the nucleus could be divided in three parts, a cranial, a dorsomedial and a ventrolateral. All parts of the nucleus consisted of chromatin-rich medium-sized neurons, and apparent direct appositions between different cells bodies as well...... as between cell bodies and large dendrites were observed. Characteristic findings in the neuropil surrounding the nucleus were the sparsity of myelinated fibers and the presence of dendritic bundles. The present observations are compared to the descriptions of a morphologically similar nucleus...

  12. The central nervous system control of micturition in cats and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, BFM; Holstege, G

    Recent findings concerning the central control of micturition in cats are compared to findings obtained from dynamic imaging studies in humans. In the cat, three areas in the brainstem and diencephalon are specifically implicated in the control of micturition: (1) Barrington's nucleus or the pontine

  13. Acquired cervical spinal arachnoid diverticulum in a cat. (United States)

    Adams, R J; Garosi, L; Matiasek, K; Lowrie, M


    A one-year-old, female entire, domestic, shorthair cat presented with acute onset non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging was consistent with a C3-C4 acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion and the cat was treated conservatively. The cat was able to walk after 10 days and was normal 2 months after presentation. The cat was referred five and a half years later for investigation of an insidious onset 3-month history of ataxia and tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine was repeated, demonstrating a spinal arachnoid diverticulum at C3 causing marked focal compression of the spinal cord. This was treated surgically with hemilaminectomy and durectomy. The cat improved uneventfully and was discharged 12 days later. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. Cat Scratch Disease (United States)

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  15. Quantum Cheshire Cats


    Aharonov, Yakir; Popescu, Sandu; Rohrlich, Daniel; Skrzypczyk, Paul


    In this paper we present a quantum Cheshire Cat. In a pre- and post-selected experiment we find the Cat in one place, and its grin in another. The Cat is a photon, while the grin is its circular polarization.

  16. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 1-10



    Images Cat. 1 Cat. 2 (a) Cat. 2 (b) Cat. 2 (c) Cat. 2 (d) Cat. 2 (e) Cat. 2 (f) Cat. 3: 1 (a) Cat. 3: 1 (b) Cat. 3: 2 (a) Cat. 3: 2 (b) Cat. 4: 1 Cat. 4: 2 Cat. 6: 1 (a) Cat. 6: 1 (b) Cat. 6: 2 (a) Cat. 6: 2 (b) Cat. 7: 1 (a) Cat. 7: 1 (b) Cat. 7: 2 (a) Cat. 7: 2 (b) Cat. 8: 1 Cat. 9: 1 Cat. 9: 2 Cat. 10: 1 Cat. 10: 2

  17. Lateral cervical nucleus projections to periaqueductal gray matter in cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, LJ; Klop, EM; Broman, J; Zhang, ML; Holstege, G; Zhang, Mengliang


    The midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) integrates the basic responses necessary for survival of individuals and species. Examples are defense behaviors such as fight, flight, and freezing, but also sexual behavior, vocalization, and micturition. To control these behaviors the PAG depends on

  18. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 11-25



    Images Cat. 11 (a) Cat. 11 (b) Cat. 11 (c) Cat. 11 (d) Cat. 12: 1 (a) Cat. 12: 1 (b) Cat. 12: 2 (a) Cat. 12: 2 (b) Cat. 13 Cat. 14 (a) Cat. 14 (b) Cat. 14 (c) Cat. 15 (a) Cat. 15 (b) Cat. 17: 1 Cat. 17: 2 Cat. 18: 1 Cat. 18: 2 Cat. 19: 1 (a) Cat. 19: 1 (b) Cat. 19: 2 (a) Cat. 19: 2 (b) Cat. 20: 1 Cat. 20: 2 (a) Cat. 20: 2 (b) Cat. 21 (a) Cat. 21 (b) Cat. 21 (c) Cat. 21 (d) Cat. 21 (e) Cat. 22 Cat. 24: 1 and 2 Cat. 25: 1 Cat. 25: 2 Cat. 25: 3 Cat. 25: 4

  19. That Fat Cat (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist


    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  20. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease. (United States)

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine


    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P cats than in healthy cats (P cats suffering from systemic disease (P cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  1. Cat-scratch neuroretinitis. (United States)

    Lombardo, J


    Cat-scratch disease is a subacute regional lymphadenitis, usually preceded by a history of a cat scratch or exposure to kittens. The disease is caused by Bartonella henselae, and possibly Bartonella quintana, pleomorphic gram-negative rods formerly known as Rochalimaea henselae and Rochalimaea quintana. Ocular involvement is rare and typically manifests as either Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome or neuroretinitis. Patients with neuroretinitis resulting from cat-scratch disease may be asymptomatic or experience mild-to-severe vision loss. The clinical features, angiographic appearance, differential diagnosis, and management of cat-scratch neuroretinitis are discussed. A 30-year-old white woman reported to the eye clinic with painless, decreased vision in the right eye. A diagnosis of cat scratch neuroretinitis was made on the basis of the history of cat scratch, clinical appearance, and angiographic findings. Treatment with oral ciprofloxacin restored vision to normal in 4 weeks. Painless vision loss associated with optic nerve swelling and macular star exudate should alert suspicion of systemic disease. Additional findings--including positive history of a cat scratch, lymphadenopathy, and flu-like symptoms--may indicate Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana infection. While treatment remains controversial, appropriate serology testing may aid in the diagnosis and management of the underlying infection.

  2. Cervicothalamic tract termination: a reexamination and comparison with the distribution of monoclonal antibody Cat-301 immunoreactivity in the cat. (United States)

    Zhang, M; Broman, J


    The distribution of cervicothalamic tract (CTT) terminations, labeled with anterogradely transported tracers (WGA-HRP or biotinylated dextran amine) injected into the lateral cervical nucleus of cats, was compared with the distribution of immunoreactivity for a cell-surface antigen detected with the monoclonal antibody Cat-301. The most abundant CTT termination is present in the ventrobasal complex (VB), mainly in its lateral part (VPL) and only sparsely in its medial part (VPM). In the VPL, the CTT preferentially terminates in a Cat-301-sparse peripheral rim of the nucleus and in between its lateral and medial subdivisions (VPLI and VPLm). CTT terminations are sparse in the central Cat-301-dense parts of the VPL. In the ventral periphery of VB (VBvp), situated in between the VPL/VPM and the external medullary lamina, thin CTT fibers with spaced varicosities is seen among the large fibers of passage. The VBvp is essentially devoid of Cat-301 immunoreactivity. Scattered clusters of CTT termination are also seen caudal and dorsal to the VB in the medial division of the posterior complex (POm), which is virtually devoid of Cat-301 immunoreactivity. In the caudal thalamus, dense and focused CTT termination is present in the medial extension of the magnocellular medial geniculate nucleus (MGmc) but absent from its main lateral part. The termination in the MGmc is centered upon clusters of cells displaying dense Cat-301 immunoreactivity. The present study demonstrates previously unrecognized or unconfirmed CTT terminations in the VPM and in the VBvp, and confirm previously described projections to the VPL, POm and MGmc. The preferential termination of the CTT in the Cat-301-sparse peripheral region of the VPL demonstrates that the CTT is related to a chemically defined VPL compartment. In the light of previous data, this observation suggests that the CTT is related to one or more thalamocortical channels that are partly or completely separate from that (those) activated

  3. StreamCat (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  4. IndexCat (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  5. Cat tongue Velcro (United States)

    Noel, Alexis; Martinez, Andrea; Jung, Hyewon; Tsai, Ting-Wen; Hu, David


    A cat's tongue is covered in an array of spines called papillae. These spines are thought to be used in grooming and rasping meat from bones of prey, although no mechanism has been given. We use high-speed video to film a cat removing cat food deeply wedged into a 3-D printed fur mat. We show that the spines on the tongue act as Velcro for particles. The tongue itself is highly elastic. As the cat presses it against a substrate, the tongue flattens and the spines separate. When the tongue is removed from the substrate the spines come together, wedging particles between them. This elasticity-driven entrapment permits the surface of the tongue to act as a carrier for hard to reach particles, and to increase the efficacy of grooming and feeding.

  6. Study of Relativistic Nucleus - Nucleus Collisions

    CERN Multimedia


    The aim of the experiment is to survey the reaction mechanisms involved in the collision of 60~GeV/nucleon and 200~GeV/nucleon light ions ($^{16}$0 and $^{32}$S provided by a new GSI-LBL injector) with different nuclei, to determine the stopping power of nuclear matter and to search for evidence of the formation of quark matter by comparison to hadron-nucleus reactions at the same incident energies. \\\\ The experimental set-up consists of a 2 m Streamer Chamber in the Vertex Magnet used to detect all the charged particles emerging from the interaction as well as the neutral strange particles that decay inside the chamber. The high energy of the forward-going particles are detected by four sets of calorimeters. A highly segmented Photon Position Detector (PPD) backed up by a 240 segment Ring Calorimeter will cover one unit of rapidity around mid-rapidity. An Intermediate Calorimeter will cover the rest of the forward phase space except for the region around beam rapidity, where a Veto Calorimeter will detect be...

  7. A pomeron approach to hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus 'soft' interaction at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Bondarenko, S; Levin, E; Maor, U


    We formulate a generalization of the Glauber formalism for hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions based on the pomeron approach to high-energy interaction. Our treatment is based on two physical assumptions (i.e. two small parameters): (i) that only sufficiently small distances contribute to the pomeron structure; and (ii) the triple-pomeron vertex G sub 3 sub P /g sub P sub N <<1 (where g sub P sub N is the pomeron-nucleon vertex) is small. A systematic method is developed for calculating the total, elastic and diffractive dissociation cross sections as well as the survival probability of large rapidity gap processes and inclusive observables, both for hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Our approach suggests saturation of the density of the produced hadrons in nucleus-nucleus collisions, the value of the saturation density turns out to be large.

  8. Quantitative autoradiography of TRH receptors and radioimmunoassay of TRH in the cat central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogin, R.M.; Kreider, M.S.; Caine, S.B.; Pack, A.I.; Winokur, A.


    In the cat, microinjection of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) into certain areas of the central nervous system (CNS) changes ventilation and cardiovascular variables. To initiate a more systematic investigation of these effects, they undertook a study to determine the location of TRH and its receptors in the cat CNS. Using techniques previously described from the laboratory, quantitative autoradiograms for TRH receptors of the cat brain were produced; additional specimens were dissected, and radioimmunoassay for TRH was performed. Heterogeneous distribution of receptors was observed in the cat brain. In the forebrain, large quantities of TRH receptors were found in amygdala, hippocampus, claustrum, pyriform nucleus, and tuberculum olfactorium. In the brainstem, high concentrations were localized to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the hypoglossal nucleus, and the periaqueductal grey. The cerebellum contained few receptors. The largest quantities of the TRH tripeptide were noted in the hypothalamus and septum, with substantial amounts also obtained from the olfactory bulb, corpus striatum, and thalamus. The results demonstrate that the distribution of TRH and TRH receptors in the cat brain is very similar to that previously described in the rat and human brain. They provide a basis for exploring the physiological and pharmacological effects of TRH in cats.

  9. Analysis of responses to noise in the ventral cochlear nucleus using Wiener kernels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Recio-Spinoso, Alberto; van Dijk, Pim


    Responses to noise were recorded in ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) neurons of anesthetized chinchillas and cats, then analyzed using Wiener-kernel theory. First-order kernels, which are proportional to reverse-correlation functions, of primary-like (PL) and primary-like with notch (PLN) neurons

  10. Nucleus retroambiguus-spinal pathway in the mouse : Localization, gender differences, and effects of estrogen treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderHorst, VGJM


    Nucleus retroambiguus (NRA)-motoneuronal projections are species-specific and serve expiration, Valsalva maneuvers, vocalization, and sexual behavior. In cat and monkey, estrogen induces sprouting of NRA-spinal axons. This pathway may thus serve as a model to study mechanisms through which estrogen

  11. Nucleus-Nucleus Collision as Superposition of Nucleon-Nucleus Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlova, G.I.; Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Andreeva, N.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Basova, E.S.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhasin, A.; Bhatia, V.S.; Bradnova, V.; Bubnov, V.I.; Cai, X.; Chasnikov, I.Y.; Chen, G.M.; Chernova, L.P.; Chernyavsky, M.M.; Dhamija, S.; Chenawi, K.El; Felea, D.; Feng, S.Q.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Ganssauge, E.R.; Garpman, S.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Grote, J.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Henjes, U.; Jakobsson, B.; Kanygina, E.K.; Karabova, M.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Krasnov, S.A.; Kumar, V.; Larionova, V.G.; Li, Y.X.; Liu, L.S.; Lokanathan, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Lu, Y.; Luo, S.B.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manhas, I.; Mittra, I.S.; Musaeva, A.K.; Nasyrov, S.Z.; Navotny, V.S.; Nystrand, J.; Otterlund, I.; Peresadko, N.G.; Qian, W.Y.; Qin, Y.M.; Raniwala, R.; Rao, N.K.; Roeper, M.; Rusakova, V.V.; Saidkhanov, N.; Salmanova, N.A.; Seitimbetov, A.M.; Sethi, R.; Singh, B.; Skelding, D.; Soderstrem, K.; Stenlund, E.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Svensson, T.; Tawfik, A.M.; Tothova, M.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Trofimova, T.P.; Tuleeva, U.I.; Vashisht, Vani; Vokal, S.; Vrlakova, J.; Wang, H.Q.; Wang, X.R.; Weng, Z.Q.; Wilkes, R.J.; Yang, C.B.; Yin, Z.B.; Yu, L.Z.; Zhang, D.H.; Zheng, P.Y.; Zhokhova, S.I.; Zhou, D.C


    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in {sup 16}O and {sup 32}S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b{sub NA}, that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus.

  12. Neutrino-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, H.; /Tufts U.; Garvey, G.; /Los Alamos; Zeller, G.P.; /Fermilab


    The study of neutrino oscillations has necessitated a new generation of neutrino experiments that are exploring neutrino-nuclear scattering processes. We focus in particular on charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, a particularly important channel that has been extensively investigated both in the bubble-chamber era and by current experiments. Recent results have led to theoretical reexamination of this process. We review the standard picture of quasi-elastic scattering as developed in electron scattering, review and discuss experimental results, and discuss additional nuclear effects such as exchange currents and short-range correlations that may play a significant role in neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  13. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian


    : the extra X chromosome of a 39,XXY karyotype introduces the possibility of an orange and a non-orange allele which produce the mixture of orange and non-orange coat spotting known as tortoiseshell. We analyzed the chromosome complement of a fibroblast culture and did histological examinations of testicular...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells...

  14. [Declawing in cats?]. (United States)

    de Jonge, I


    Those forms of behaviour in which cats use their claws are reviewed. Forms of undesirable use of the claws and possible solutions to this problem are discussed. An inquiry among veterinary practitioners showed that nearly fifty per cent of these practitioners refused to declaw cats on principle. Approximately seventy-five per cent of the veterinarians taking part in the inquiry advocated that the Royal Netherlands Veterinary Association should state its position with regard to declawing. It is concluded by the present author that declawing is unacceptable for ethical and ethological reasons.

  15. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (United States)

    Norbury, John W.


    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  16. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Help a Child Cope With a Parent's Suicide? Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A What's in ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  17. Role of the cerebellum and the vestibular apparatus in regulation of orthostatic reflexes in the cat (United States)

    Doba, N.; Reis, D. J.


    The contribution of the fastigial nucleus and the vestibular nerves (eighth cranial nerves) to the orthostatic reflexes in anesthetized, paralyzed cats was studied. Bilateral lesions of the rostral fastigial nucleus resulted in impairment of the reflex changes in blood pressure, femoral arterial flow, and resistance evoked by head-up tilting to 30 deg or 60 deg. The rostral fastigial nucleus, which might be triggered by the vestibular apparatus, appears to participate in concert with the baroreceptors in the initiation and possibly the maintenance of the orthostatic reflexes.

  18. Cat-Scratch Disease (United States)

    ... and Her Guinea Pig Busy Ferrets Take Commitment Dogs and Boys Build Character Together Rescued Bears Get a Second Chance Like Magic, Everyone is Equal On the Back of a Horse Chickens in the City Diseases Cat-Scratch Disease E. coli Infection Ringworm Salmonella ...

  19. Cat and Dog Bites (United States)

    ... coyotes. If you know the owner of the cat or dog that bit you, ask for their health records. They will show the pet’s vaccination records. It may be a good idea to isolate the pet and monitor it ...

  20. Rescattering effects and intermittent exponents in nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajares, C. (Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Particulas Elementales)


    It is shown that the rescattering in nucleus-nucleus collisions provides a natural branching mechanism which explains the dependence of the intermittent exponents on the energy, projectile and target. The possibility of finding some new coherent phenomena by studying the dependence of the intermittent exponents on the number of collisions is discussed. (orig.).


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The effects of electrical stimulation within the midbrain on fusimotor output to the jaw elevator muscles were studied in anaesthetized cats. Muscle spindle afferents recorded in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus were categorised as primary or secondary by their responses to succinylcholine

  2. The intercalatus nucleus of Staderini. (United States)

    Cascella, Marco


    Rutilio Staderini was one of the leading Italian anatomists of the twentieth century, together with some scientists, such as Giulio Chiarugi, Giovanni Vitali, and others. He was also a member of a new generation of anatomists. They had continued the tradition of the most famous Italian scientists, which started from the Renaissance up until the nineteenth century. Although he carried out important studies of neuroanatomy and comparative anatomy, as well as embryology, his name is rarely remembered by most medical historians. His name is linked to the nucleus he discovered: the Staderini nucleus or intercalated nucleus, a collection of nerve cells in the medulla oblongata located lateral to the hypoglossal nucleus. This article focuses on the biography of the neuroanatomist as well as the nucleus that carries his name and his other research, especially on comparative anatomy and embryology.

  3. Ptosis, miosis and cats. (United States)

    Espí Rito Santo, Rita; Salgado, Catarina; Prata, Filipa; Mouzinho, Ana


    Horner's syndrome (HS) is caused by a disruption in the oculosympathetic pathway. Both congenital and acquired HS are unusual in children. Acquired HS can be caused by trauma, surgical intervention, tumours, vascular malformations or infection.We describe the case of a 6-year-old boy who was brought to our emergency department with ptosis, miosis, painful cervical lymphadenopathy and a cat scratch on a hand. The diagnosis of a cat scratch disease was confirmed by serology. A full recovery was observed on antibiotic treatment and cervical lymphadenomegaly reduction 3 weeks later. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Cheap Auroral Tomographical System (CATS)


    Garlick, Dean; Goldfinger, Andrew


    The Cheap Auroral Tomographical System (CATS) consists of a large constellation of small, disposable satellites in a near polar orbit. CATS is designed to collect stereoscopic views of the earth environment that will be used for tomographical and earth environmental research. Each satellite will be identical and constructed of high-grade commercial parts, thus significantly reducing the cost of design, fabrication and components. The CATS constellation will be a significant step toward the de...

  5. The subthalamic nucleus, Part I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marani, Enrico; Heida, Tjitske; Lakke, Egbert A.J.F.; Usunoff, Kamen G.


    Part I. Development, cytology, topography and connections. This monograph on the subthalamic nucleus accentuates in Part I the gap between experimental animal and human information concerning subthalamic development, cytology, topography and connections. The light and electron microscopical cytology

  6. Heavy flavors in nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardi Marzia


    Full Text Available A multi-step setup for heavy-flavor studies in high-energy nucleus-nucleus (AA and proton-nucleus (pA collisions is presented. The propagation of the heavy quarks in the medium is described in a framework provided by the relativistic Langevin equation, here solved using weak-coupling transport coefficients. Successively, the heavy quarks hadronize in the medium. We compute the nuclear modification factor and the elliptic flow parameter of the final Dmesons both in AA and in pA collisions and compare our results to experimental data.

  7. Input-output organization of inhibitory neurons in the interstitial nucleus of Cajal projecting to the contralateral trochlear and oculomotor nucleus. (United States)

    Sugiuchi, Y; Takahashi, M; Shinoda, Y


    Neurons in the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) that are known to be involved in eye and head movements are excitatory. We investigated the input-output organization of inhibitory INC neurons involved in controlling vertical saccades. Intracellular recordings were made in INC neurons activated antidromically by stimulation of the contralateral trochlear or oculomotor nucleus, and their synaptic input properties from the superior colliculi (SCs) and the contralateral INC were analyzed in anesthetized cats. Many INC neurons projected to the contralateral trochlear nucleus, Forel's field H, INC, and oculomotor nucleus, and mainly received monosynaptic excitation followed by disynaptic inhibition from the ipsi- and contralateral SCs. After sectioning the commissural connections between the SCs, these neurons received monosynaptic excitation from the ipsilateral medial SC and disynaptic inhibition via the INC from the contralateral lateral SC. Another group of INC neurons were antidromically activated from the contralateral oculomotor nucleus, INC and Forel's field H, but not from the trochlear nucleus, and received monosynaptic excitation from the ipsilateral lateral SC and disynaptic inhibition from the contralateral medial SC. The former group was considered to inhibit contralateral trochlear and inferior rectus motoneurons in upward saccades, whereas the latter was considered to inhibit contralateral superior rectus and inferior oblique motoneurons in downward saccades. The mutual inhibition existed between these two groups of INC neurons for upward saccades on one side and downward saccades on the other. This pattern of input-output organization of inhibitory INC neurons suggests that the basic neural circuits for horizontal and vertical saccades are similar.

  8. On Parallel Streams through the Mouse Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eDenman


    Full Text Available The mouse visual system is an emerging model for the study of cortical and thalamic circuit function. To maximize the usefulness of this model system, it is important to analyze the similarities and differences between the organization of all levels of the murid visual system with other, better studied systems (e.g., non-human primates and the domestic cat. While the understanding of mouse retina and cortex has expanded rapidly, less is known about mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN. Here, we study whether parallel processing streams exist in mouse dLGN. We use a battery of stimuli that have been previously shown to successfully distinguish parallel streams in other species: electrical stimulation of the optic chiasm, contrast-reversing stationary gratings at varying spatial phase, drifting sinusoidal gratings, dense noise for receptive field reconstruction, and frozen contrast-modulating noise. As in the optic nerves of domestic cats and non-human primates, we find evidence for multiple conduction velocity groups after optic chiasm stimulation. As in so-called ‘visual mammals’, we find a subpopulation of mouse dLGN cells showing non-linear spatial summation. However, differences in stimulus selectivity and sensitivity do not provide sufficient basis for identification of clearly distinct classes of relay cells. Nevertheless, consistent with presumptively homologous status of dLGNs of all mammals, there are substantial similarities between response properties of mouse dLGN neurons and those of cats and primates.

  9. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners (United States)

    ... role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, ... an infected cat may have defecated. What is toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a microscopic ...

  10. Systemic Cat Scratch Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Liao


    Full Text Available Systemic cat scratch disease (CSD is often associated with prolonged fever and microabscesses in the liver and/or spleen. We report a case of systemic CSD with hepatic, splenic and renal involvement in an aboriginal child in Taiwan. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl had an intermittent fever for about 17 days, and complained of abdominal pain, headache and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple tiny hypodense nodular lesions in the spleen and both kidneys. Laparotomy revealed multiple soft, whitishtan lesions on the surface of the liver and spleen. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the spleen showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells and occasional Langhans' giant cells, strongly suggestive of Bartonella henselae infection. History revealed close contact with a cat. B. henselae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the tissue specimen, and the single antibody titer against B. henselae was greater than 1:2048. These results confirmed the diagnosis of visceral CSD caused by B. henselae. The patient's symptoms resolved after treatment with rifampin and tetracycline. This case illustrates the need for inclusion of systemic CSD in patients with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain.

  11. College Students and Their Cats (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph


    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…


    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  13. Descending pathways to the cutaneus trunci muscle motoneuronal cell group in the cat (United States)

    Holstege, Gert; Blok, Bertil F.


    Pathways involved in the cutaneous trunci muscle (CTM) reflex in the cat were investigated. Experimental animals were injected with tritium-labeled L-leucine into their spinal cord, brain stem, or diencephalon and, after six weeks, perfused with 10-percent formalin. The brains and spinal cords were postfixed in formalin and were cut into transverse 25-micron-thick frozen sections for autoradiography. Results based on injections in the C1, C2, C6, and C8 segments suggest that propriospinal pathways to the CTM motor nucleus originating in the cervical cord do no exist, although these propriospinal projections are very strong to all other motoneuronal cell groups surrounding the CTM motor nucleus. The results also demonstrate presence of specific supraspinal projections to the CTM motor nucleus, originating in the contralateral nucleus retroambiguous and the ipsilateral dorsolateral pontine tegmentum.

  14. Nuclear transfer of synchronized African wild cat somatic cells into enucleated domestic cat oocytes (United States)

    Gomez, M.C.; Jenkins, J.A.; Giraldo, A.; Harris, R.F.; King, A.; Dresser, B.L.; Pope, C.E.


    were synchronized by serum starvation (83.0%) than after roscovitine (80.0%) or contact-inhibition (80.0%). The fusion efficiency of in vivo and in vitro matured oocytes used as recipient cytoplasts of AWC donor nuclei (86.6% vs. 85.2%) was similar to the rates obtained with DSH donor nuclei, 83.7% vs. 73.0%, respectively. The only significant effect of source of donor nucleus (AWC vs. DSH) was on the rate of blastocyst formation in vitro. A higher percentage of the embryos derived from AWC nuclei developed to the blastocyst stage than did embryos produced from DSH nuclei, 24.2% vs. 3.3%, respectively (P calcium in the fusion medium on induction of oocyte activation and development of AWC-DSH-cloned embryos was determined. The presence of calcium in the fusion medium induced a high incidence of cleavage of DSH oocytes (54.3%), while oocyte cleavage frequency was much lower in the absence of calcium (16.6%). The presence or absence of calcium in the fusion medium did not affect the fusion, cleavage, and blastocyst development of AWC-DSH-cloned embryos. In experiment 5, AWC-DSH-cloned embryos were transferred to the uteri of 11 synchronized domestic cat recipients on Day 6 or 7 after oocyte aspiration. Recipients were assessed by ultrasonography on Day 21 postovulation, but no pregnancies were observed. In the present study, after NT, AWC donor nuclei were able to dedifferentiate in DSH cytoplasts and support high rates of blastocyst development in vitro. Incomplete reprogramming of the differentiated nucleus may be a major constraint to the in vivo developmental potential of the embryos.

  15. Is there a medial nucleus of the trapezoid body in humans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Norris, B E; Fullerton, B C


    The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) appears to be a prominent auditory structure in many mammals. However, the presence of an MNTB in the human brain has not been clearly established. One of the most characteristic features of the cat MNTB is the presence of large somatic endings...... with multiple synaptic sites, the calyces of Held. We examined adult human brains at both light and electron microscopic levels and found neurons with unusually large endings in a location that is similar to that for the MNTB in other animals. Moreover, the sizes and shapes of some cells in this area...... are similar to the principal cells of the cat MNTB. These observations support the idea that humans have cells that resemble MNTB neurons in other species. It has been suggested that the cat MNTB may be involved in the generation of wave 3 of its brainstem auditory evoked potentials, so the presence...

  16. Like herding cats. (United States)

    Muller-Smith, P


    In an effort to be a good manager, it is easy to lose sight of the fact that knowledge workers require a unique approach from their manager. Because nurses are independent and capable individuals that prosper in an environment that recognizes them as knowledge workers, nurse managers often find that traditional management techniques are not sufficient. Trying to manage all of the nurses on a unit as a single group is much like trying to herd cats. It might be less frustrating for the nurse manager to lead gently rather than manage with a firm hand. Warren Bennis suggests that this approach may provide a valuable key to successfully managing in a world of constant change.

  17. Toxoplasmosis : Beware of Cats !!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Kumari Baithalu


    Full Text Available Anthropozoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes widespread human and animal diseases, mostly involving central nervous system. Human acquires toxoplasmosis from cats, from consuming raw or undercooked meat and from vertical transmission to the fetus through placenta from mother during pregnancy. Socio-epidemiological as well as unique environmental factors also plays a significant role in transmission of this infection. Preventive measures should be taken into account the importance of culture, tradition, and beliefs of people in various communities more than solving poverty and giving health education. Therefore the focus of this article is to create public awareness regarding sense of responsibility of looking after pets to prevent such an important zoonotic disease. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 247-249

  18. NGC6543: Cat's Eye and Bull's Eye (United States)

    Balick, B.; Wilson, J. M.


    Deep Hubble images of NGC 6543 reveal a series of regularly spaced circular concentric ``rings'' that surround the famous Cat's Eye nebula. The rings seen in the lines of Hα , [O III], and [N II] but not the continuum. These photoionized rings are almost certainly the result of periodic spherical mass pulsations by the nucleus before the Cat's Eye formed. A good fit to the observed Hα surface brightness distribution is obtained if the bubbles were ejected with constant mass, thickness, and ejection velocity. The model can be used to estimate the total mass of the rings, ~ 0.1M⊙ , which lies between that of the core ( ~ 0.05 M⊙ ) and the surrounding halo ( ~ 0.5 M⊙ ). Assuming an ejection speed of 10 km s-1 the interpulse period is 1500 +/- 300 y, the same as the expansion age of the core itself. Hubble images of other planetaries displayed on the poster, IC 418, NGC 7027, and Hubble 5 (a bipolar) show similar sets of multiple concentric rings. Hence, it appears, regular isotropic AGB mass pulses often precede the formation of brighter and more complex PN cores. However, the interpulse time scale, ~ 103 y, is a serious problem for extant models of core thermal pulses and surface pulsations. The cores of PNe seem to form in an abrupt change of mode of mass loss, as predicted by disrputive binary companion merger models. A preprint is available from Financial support from NASA/STScI grant GO 7501 is very gratefully acknowledged.

  19. Sonography of cat scratch disease. (United States)

    Melville, David M; Jacobson, Jon A; Downie, Brian; Biermann, J Sybil; Kim, Sung Moon; Yablon, Corrie M


    To characterize the sonographic features of cat scratch disease and to identify features that allow differentiation from other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. After Institutional Review Board approval was obtained, patients who underwent sonography for a medial epitrochlear mass or lymph node were identified via the radiology information system. Patients were divided into 2 groups: cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease, based on pathologic results and clinical information. Sonograms were retrospectively reviewed and characterized with respect to dimension, shape (round, oval, or lobular), symmetry, location (subcutaneous or intramuscular), multiplicity, echogenicity (anechoic, hypoechoic, isoechoic, hyperechoic, or mixed), hyperechoic hilum (present or absent), adjacent anechoic or hypoechoic area, hyperemia (present or absent), pattern of hyperemia if present (central, peripheral, or mixed), increased posterior through-transmission (present or absent), and shadowing (present or absent). Sonographic findings were compared between the patients with and without cat scratch disease. The final patient group consisted of 5 cases of cat scratch disease and 16 cases of other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. The 2 sonographic findings that were significantly different between the cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease cases included mass asymmetry (P = .0062) and the presence of a hyperechoic hilum (P = .0075). The other sonographic findings showed no significant differences between the groups. The sonographic finding of an epitrochlear mass due to cat scratch disease most commonly is that of a hypoechoic lobular or oval mass with central hyperemia and a possible adjacent fluid collection; however, the presence of asymmetry and a hyperechoic hilum differentiate cat scratch disease from other etiologies. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  20. Fast mixing condensation nucleus counter


    Flagan, Richard C.; Wang, Jian


    A fast mixing condensation nucleus counter useful for detecting particles entrained in a sample gas stream is provided. The fast mixing condensation nucleus counter comprises a detector and a mixing condensation device having a mixing chamber adapted to allow gas to flow from an inlet to an outlet, wherein the outlet directs the gas flow to the detector. The mixing chamber has an inlet for introducing vapor-laden gas into the chamber and at least one nozzle for introducing a sample gas having...

  1. Functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor (United States)

    Pines, Alexander; Wemmer, David E.; Spence, Megan; Rubin, Seth


    A functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor that selectively associates with one or more target species, and a method for assaying and screening for one or a plurality of target species utilizing one or a plurality of functionalized active-nucleus complexes with at least two of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes having an attraction affinity to different corresponding target species. The functionalized active-nucleus complex has an active-nucleus and a targeting carrier. The method involves functionalizing an active-nucleus, for each functionalized active-nucleus complex, by incorporating the active-nucleus into a macromolucular or molecular complex that is capable of binding one of the target species and then bringing the macromolecular or molecular complexes into contact with the target species and detecting the occurrence of or change in a nuclear magnetic resonance signal from each of the active-nuclei in each of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes.

  2. Cat Island NWR Biological Review (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A summary report describing the discussion and recommendations resulting from a multidisciplinary review of the biological program at Cat Island NWR.

  3. Heavy-ion nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M A; Haque, S


    Heavy ion-nucleus scattering is an excellent laboratory to probe high spin phenomena, exotic nuclei and for the analysis of various exit channels. The Strong Absorption Model or the generalized diffraction models, which are semi-classical in nature, have been employed in the description of various heavy ion-nucleus scattering phenomena with reasonable success. But one needs to treat the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically in the Wave Mechanical picture for the appropriate description of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering phenomena. We have brought the mathematics for the cross-section of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering to an analytic expression taking account of the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically. sup 9 Be, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 0 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 S heavy-ion beams elastic scattering from sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 4 sup 0 Ca target nuclei at various projectile energies over the range 20-151 MeV have been analysed in terms of the 2-paramet...

  4. The nucleus retroambiguus control of respiration. (United States)

    Subramanian, Hari H; Holstege, Gert


    The role of the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) in the context of respiration control has been subject of debate for considerable time. To solve this problem, we chemically (using d, l-homocysteic acid) stimulated the NRA in unanesthetized precollicularly decerebrated cats and studied the respiratory effect via simultaneous measurement of tracheal pressure and electromyograms of diaphragm, internal intercostal (IIC), cricothyroid (CT), and external oblique abdominal (EO) muscles. NRA-stimulation 0-1 mm caudal to the obex resulted in recruitment of IIC muscle and reduction in respiratory frequency. NRA-stimulation 1-3 mm caudal to the obex produced vocalization along with CT activation and slight increase in tracheal pressure, but no change in respiratory frequency. NRA-stimulation 3-5 mm caudal to the obex produced CT muscle activation and an increase in respiratory frequency, but no vocalization. NRA-stimulation 5-8 mm caudal to the obex produced EO muscle activation and reduction in respiratory frequency. A change to the inspiratory effort was never observed, regardless of which NRA part was stimulated. The results demonstrate that NRA does not control eupneic inspiration but consists of topographically separate groups of premotor interneurons each producing detailed motor actions. These motor activities have in common that they require changes to eupneic breathing. Different combination of activation of these premotor neurons determines the final outcome, e.g., vocalization, vomiting, coughing, sneezing, mating posture, or child delivery. Higher brainstem regions such as the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) decides which combination of NRA neurons are excited. In simple terms, the NRA is the piano, the PAG one of the piano players.

  5. Schrodinger's cat: much ado about nothing

    CERN Document Server

    Ionicioiu, Radu


    In this note I briefly discuss the Schrodinger's cat Gedankenexperiment. By analysing the information flow in the system I show that no entanglement exists between the atom and the cat. The atom and the cat are connected only through a classical information channel (detector clicks $\\rightarrow$ poison is released $\\rightarrow$ cat is dead). No amount of local operations and classical communication can entangle the atom and the cat. Consequently, the paradox disappears.

  6. Cat eye syndrome. (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi


    A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08 kg. Antenatal scan at 31 weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Survival of a feline isolate of Tritrichomonas foetus in water, cat urine, cat food and cat litter. (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Ripley, Allyson; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Blagburn, Byron L; Grant, David C; Lindsay, David S


    Feline intestinal trichomoniasis caused by Tritrichomonas foetus is associated with large bowel diarrhea in cats from many parts of the world. It has long been recognized as an economically important sexually transmitted disease that causes early abortion in cattle. Isolates of T. foetus from cattle are infectious for the large intestine of cats and isolates of T. foetus from cats are infectious for the reproductive system of cattle. The parasite is maintained by fecal-oral transmission in cats. The present study was conducted to examine the survival of a feline isolate of T. foetus, AUTf-12, under various conditions that are relevant to fecal-oral transmission in cats. Trophozoites were grown in TYM medium and then exposed to water, cat urine, dry cat food, canned cat food, clumping cat litter, or filter paper for various lengths of time and then re-cultured in TYM medium. Trophozoites survived exposure to distilled or tap water for 30 but not 60 min, while they survived for at least 180 min in urine. Trophozoites survived for 30 min on dry cat food but survived for 120-180 min in canned cat food. No survival of trophozoites was observed on cat litter but trophozoites survived for 15 min when placed on filter paper. Our results indicate that T. foetus can survive and be potentially infectious in water, urine, dry cat food and canned cat food. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Input/output properties of the lateral vestibular nucleus (United States)

    Boyle, R.; Bush, G.; Ehsanian, R.


    This article is a review of work in three species, squirrel monkey, cat, and rat studying the inputs and outputs from the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). Different electrophysiological shock paradigms were used to determine the synaptic inputs derived from thick to thin diameter vestibular nerve afferents. Angular and linear mechanical stimulations were used to activate and study the combined and individual contribution of inner ear organs and neck afferents. The spatio-temporal properties of LVN neurons in the decerebrated rat were studied in response to dynamic acceleration inputs using sinusoidal linear translation in the horizontal head plane. Outputs were evaluated using antidromic identification techniques and identified LVN neurons were intracellularly injected with biocytin and their morphology studied.

  9. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    Full Text Available People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding, revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01. All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05 and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist

  10. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships. (United States)

    Turner, Dennis C


    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Renal pelvic and ureteral ultrasonographic characteristics of cats with chronic kidney disease in comparison with normal cats, and cats with pyelonephritis or ureteral obstruction. (United States)

    Quimby, Jessica M; Dowers, Kristy; Herndon, Andrea K; Randall, Elissa K


    Objectives The objective was to describe ultrasonographic characteristics of cats with stable chronic kidney disease (CKD) and determine if these were significantly different from cats with pyelonephritis (Pyelo) and ureteral obstruction (UO), to aid in clinical assessment during uremic crisis. Methods Sixty-six cats with stable CKD were prospectively enrolled, as well as normal control cats (n = 10), cats with a clinical diagnosis of Pyelo (n = 13) and cats with UO confirmed by surgical resolution (n = 11). Renal ultrasound was performed and routine still images and cine loops were obtained. Analysis included degree of pelvic dilation, and presence and degree of ureteral dilation. Measurements were compared between groups using non-parametric one-way ANOVA with Dunn's post-hoc analysis. Results In total, 66.6% of CKD cats had measurable renal pelvic dilation compared with 30.0% of normal cats, 84.6% of Pyelo cats and 100% of UO cats. There was no statistically significant difference in renal pelvic widths between CKD cats and normal cats, or CKD cats and Pyelo cats. On almost all measurement categories, UO cats had significantly greater renal pelvic widths compared with CKD cats and normal cats ( P cats. Six percent of stable CKD cats had measurable proximal ureteral dilation on one or both sides vs 46.2% of Pyelo cats and 81.8% of UO cats. There was no statistically significant difference in proximal ureteral width between normal and CKD cats, or between Pyelo and UO cats. There was a statistically significant difference in proximal ureteral width between CKD and Pyelo cats, CKD and UO cats, normal and UO cats, and normal and Pyelo cats. Conclusions and relevance No significant difference in renal pelvic widths between CKD cats and Pyelo cats was seen. These data suggest CKD cats should have a baseline ultrasonography performed so that abnormalities documented during a uremic crisis can be better interpreted.

  12. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne


    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner “gatekeepers” could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats. PMID:26218243

  13. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats. (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C


    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats.

  14. Spatial Stream Segregation by Cats. (United States)

    Javier, Lauren K; McGuire, Elizabeth A; Middlebrooks, John C


    Listeners can perceive interleaved sequences of sounds from two or more sources as segregated streams. In humans, physical separation of sound sources is a major factor enabling such stream segregation. Here, we examine spatial stream segregation with a psychophysical measure in domestic cats. Cats depressed a pedal to initiate a target sequence of brief sound bursts in a particular rhythm and then released the pedal when the rhythm changed. The target bursts were interleaved with a competing sequence of bursts that could differ in source location but otherwise were identical to the target bursts. This task was possible only when the sources were heard as segregated streams. When the sound bursts had broad spectra, cats could detect the rhythm change when target and competing sources were separated by as little as 9.4°. Essentially equal levels of performance were observed when frequencies were restricted to a high, 4-to-25-kHz, band in which the principal spatial cues presumably were related to sound levels. When the stimulus band was restricted from 0.4 to 1.6 kHz, leaving interaural time differences as the principal spatial cue, performance was severely degraded. The frequency sensitivity of cats in this task contrasts with that of humans, who show better spatial stream segregation with low- than with high-frequency sounds. Possible explanations for the species difference includes the smaller interaural delays available to cats due to smaller sizes of their heads and the potentially greater sound-level cues available due to the cat's frontally directed pinnae and higher audible frequency range.

  15. Neurochemical organization of the nucleus paramedianus dorsalis in the human. (United States)

    Baizer, Joan S; Baker, James F; Haas, Kristin; Lima, Raquel


    We have characterized the neurochemical organization of a small brainstem nucleus in the human brain, the nucleus paramedianus dorsalis (PMD). PMD is located adjacent and medial to the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (PH) in the dorsal medulla and is distinguished by the pattern of immunoreactivity of cells and fibers to several markers including calcium-binding proteins, a synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide (neuronal nitric oxide synthase, nNOS) and a nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein (antibody SMI-32). In transverse sections, PMD is oval with its long axis aligned with the dorsal border of the brainstem. We identified PMD in eight human brainstems, but found some variability both in its cross-sectional area and in its A-P extent among cases. It includes calretinin immunoreactive large cells with oval or polygonal cell bodies. Cells in PMD are not immunoreactive for either calbindin or parvalbumin, but a few fibers immunoreactive to each protein are found within its central region. Cells in PMD are also immunoreactive to nNOS, and immunoreactivity to a neurofilament protein shows many labeled cells and fibers. No similar region is identified in atlases of the cat, mouse, rat or monkey brain, nor does immunoreactivity to any of the markers that delineate it in the human reveal a comparable region in those species. The territory that PMD occupies is included in PH in other species. Since anatomical and physiological data in animals suggest that PH may have multiple subregions, we suggest that the PMD in human may be a further differentiation of PH and may have functions related to the vestibular control of eye movements.

  16. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan


    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  17. The novel CALM interactor CATS influences the subcellular localization of the leukemogenic fusion protein CALM/AF10. (United States)

    Archangelo, L Fröhlich; Gläsner, J; Krause, A; Bohlander, S K


    The Clathrin Assembly Lymphoid Myeloid leukemia gene (CALM or PICALM) was first identified as the fusion partner of AF10 in the t(10;11)(p13;q14) translocation, which is observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and malignant lymphoma. The CALM/AF10 fusion protein plays a crucial role in t(10;11)(p13;q14) associated leukemogenesis. Using the N-terminal half of CALM as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, a novel protein named CATS (CALM interacting protein expressed in thymus and spleen) was identified. Multiple tissue Northern blot analysis showed predominant expression of CATS in thymus, spleen and colon. CATS codes for two protein isoforms of 238 and 248 amino acids (aa). The interaction between CALM and CATS could be confirmed using pull down assays, co-immunoprecipitation and colocalization experiments. The CATS interaction domain of CALM was mapped to aa 221-335 of CALM. This domain is contained in the CALM/AF10 fusion protein. CATS localizes to the nucleus and shows a preference for nucleoli. Expression of CATS was able to markedly increase the nuclear localization of CALM and of the leukemogenic fusion protein CALM/AF10. The possible implications of these findings for CALM/AF10-mediated leukemogenesis are discussed.

  18. Absence of jet quenching in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions (United States)

    Loizides, Constantin; Morsch, Andreas


    Medium effects on the production of high-pT particles in nucleus-nucleus (AA) collisions are generally quantified by the nuclear modification factor (RAA), defined to be unity in absence of nuclear effects. Modeling particle production including a nucleon-nucleon impact parameter dependence, we demonstrate that RAA at midrapidity in peripheral AA collisions can be significantly affected by event selection and geometry biases. Even without jet quenching and shadowing, these biases cause an apparent suppression for RAA in peripheral collisions, and are relevant for all types of hard probes and all collision energies. Our studies indicate that calculations of jet quenching in peripheral AA collisions should account for the biases, or else they will overestimate the relevance of parton energy loss. Similarly, expectations of parton energy loss in light-heavy collision systems based on comparison with apparent suppression seen in peripheral RAA should be revised. Our interpretation of the peripheral RAA data would unify observations for lighter collision systems or lower energies where significant values of elliptic flow are observed despite the absence of strong jet quenching.

  19. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feeling Too Tall or Too Short Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  20. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I Help a Kid Who's Bullied? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  1. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You Go to School? Breast Cancer Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  2. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... With Stepparents Be a Green Kid Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  3. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids) (United States)

    ... Too Tall or Too Short Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for ... what's going on inside your body. The scan itself is painless. All you'll need to ...

  4. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Too Tall or Too Short Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for ... what's going on inside your body. The scan itself is painless. All you'll need to ...

  5. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to School? Breast Cancer Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that ...

  6. Religiosidad catódica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ignacio Sierra G.


    Full Text Available Estos apuntes se refieren a que en estos últimos tiempos ha habido un resurgimiento del fenómeno religioso de diversas maneras, incluso sorprendentes. Al aproximarse el tercer milenio, la posmodernidad religiosa disputa parte de la pantalla electrónica con el melodrama religioso: hoy estamos viviendo una religiosidad mediática, una religiosidad catódica.

  7. Lessons from the Cheshire Cat (United States)

    Tinberg, Donna


    "If you don't know where you're going, any road will take you there." This oft-cited but not-quite-accurate quote is from the Lewis Carroll's classic children's tale, Alice in Wonderland. In Carroll's altered reality, the conversation between the disoriented Alice and the mysterious Cheshire Cat actually went like this: "Would you…

  8. A strange cat in Dublin (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac


    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  9. The Development and Activity-Dependent Expression of Aggrecan in the Cat Visual Cortex (United States)

    Sengpiel, F.; Beaver, C. J.; Crocker-Buque, A.; Kelly, G. M.; Matthews, R. T.; Mitchell, D. E.


    The Cat-301 monoclonal antibody identifies aggrecan, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the cat visual cortex and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). During development, aggrecan expression increases in the dLGN with a time course that matches the decline in plasticity. Moreover, examination of tissue from selectively visually deprived cats shows that expression is activity dependent, suggesting a role for aggrecan in the termination of the sensitive period. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the onset of aggrecan expression in area 17 also correlates with the decline in experience-dependent plasticity in visual cortex and that this expression is experience dependent. Dark rearing until 15 weeks of age dramatically reduced the density of aggrecan-positive neurons in the extragranular layers, but not in layer IV. This effect was reversible as dark-reared animals that were subsequently exposed to light showed normal numbers of Cat-301-positive cells. The reduction in aggrecan following certain early deprivation regimens is the first biochemical correlate of the functional changes to the γ-aminobutyric acidergic system that have been reported following early deprivation in cats. PMID:22368089

  10. Autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in the cat during hypoxemia. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Robert S; Dehghani, Gholam Abbas; Kiihl, Samara


    This study aimed to determine the roles played by the autonomic interoreceptors, the carotid bodies (cbs) and the aortic bodies (abs) in anesthetized, paralyzed, artificially ventilated cats' response to systemic hypoxemia. Four 15min challenges stimulated each of 15 animals: (1) hypoxic hypoxia (10%O₂ in N₂; HH) in the intact (int) cat where both abs and cbs sent neural traffic to the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS); (2) carbon monoxide hypoxia (30%O₂ in N₂ with the addition of CO; COH) in the intact cat where only the abs sent neural traffic to the NTS; (3) HH in the cat after transection of both aortic depressor nerves, resecting the aortic bodies (HHabr), where only the cbs sent neural traffic to the NTS; (4) COH to the abr cat where neither abs nor cbs sent neural traffic to the NTS. Cardiac output (C.O.), contractility (dP/dt(MAX)), systolic/diastolic pressures, aortic blood pressure, total peripheral resistance, pulmonary arterial pressure, and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were measured. When both cbs and abs were active the maximum increases were observed except for PVR which decreased. Some variables showed the cbs to have a greater effect than the abs. The abs proved to be important during some challenges for maintaining blood pressure. The data support the critically important role for the chemoreceptor-sympathetic nervous system connection during hypoxemia for maintaining viable homeostasis, with some differences between the cbs and the abs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Audiogenic reflex seizures in cats (United States)

    Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent


    Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687

  12. Haemoplasmas: lessons learnt from cats. (United States)

    Barker, E; Tasker, S


    The haemotropic mycoplasmas (haemoplasmas) are a group of bacteria that can induce anaemia in a wide variety of mammals, including domestic cats and wild felids. Different feline haemoplasma species of varying pathogenicity exist, with the more pathogenic Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) capable of inducing severe haemolytic anaemia, whilst 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (CMhm) and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' (CMt) are infrequently associated with clinical disease. Chronic haemoplasma infections are common and cats are frequently infected by two or more haemoplasmas, complicating the clinical picture. The natural route of transmission of haemoplasma infection between cats has not yet been determined; however, experimental transmission has been demonstrated via both oral and parenteral administration of infected blood. To date the haemoplasmas have been unable to be cultured in vitro, and accurate diagnosis is currently reliant on detection of bacterial DNA using PCR assays. Treatment of clinical haemoplasmosis is focussed on supportive care in combination with empirical treatment with antimicrobials (tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones). A significant number of asymptomatic cats are positive for haemoplasma infection. These cats may play a role in the maintenance of haemoplasma infection within a population, and need to be considered when choosing potential blood donors. Use of PCR assays has provided an accurate method of diagnosing haemoplasma infection and quantifying response to therapy, including in non-feline host animals, as presumed zoonotic haemoplasma infections are now being documented. Recent advances in genome sequencing techniques have allowed the whole genome sequences of the feline haemoplasmas Mhf and CMhm to be derived, as well as a number of non-feline haemoplasma species. These data have aided the identification of antigens for use in the development of serological tests, allowed the proteomic study of haemoplasmas and provided clues as to

  13. Determination of Coil Inductances Cylindrical Iron Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeddine Mazouz


    Full Text Available The paper describes the investigation and development of a structure and performance characteristics of a coil iron nucleus cylindrical (C.I.N.C. The coil iron nucleus cylindrical is a nonlinear electro radio in which the moving of the nucleus in a sense or in other causes change in inductance and can reach extreme values at the superposition of nucleus and coil centers. The variation of the inductance and the degree of freedom of movement of the nucleus can lead to a device with electromechanical conversion The aim of this paper is the determination and visualization of self inductance and mutual of the (C.I.N.C based on geometric dimensions and the displacement of the nucleus.  

  14. Brain circuits for mating behavior in cats and brain activations and de-activations during sexual stimulation and ejaculation and orgasm in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, Gert; Huynh, Hieu K.

    In cats, there exists a descending system that controls the posture necessary for mating behavior. A key role is played by the mesencephalic periaqueductal gray (PAG), which maintains strong specific projections to the nucleus retroambiguus located laterally in the most caudal medulla. The NRA, in

  15. Subcortical connections of an 'oculomotor' region in the ventral bank of the anterior ectosylvian sulcus in the cat. (United States)

    Tamai, Y; Miyashita, E


    Subcortical connections of an 'oculomotor' region in the ventral bank of the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (AESo), where eye movements were evoked by intracortical microstimulation, were studied in cats using a wheatgerm agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) tracing method. Following injection of WGA-HRP into the AESo, both anterogradely-labeled terminals and retrogradely-labeled cells were found with the highest concentration in the suprageniculate nucleus and the medial zone of the lateroposterior nucleus of the thalamus. In the brainstem, anterogradely-labeled terminals were found in the superior colliculus, the pontine reticular formation, the pontine tegmental reticular formation and the pontine nuclei.

  16. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  17. Different sources of nitric oxide mediate neurovascular coupling in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen De Labra


    Full Text Available Understanding the link between neuronal responses and metabolic signals is fundamental to our knowledge of brain function and it is a milestone in our efforts to interpret data from modern non invasive optical techniques such as fMRI, which are based on the close coupling between metabolic demand of active neurons and local changes in blood flow. The challenge is to unravel the link. Here we show, using spectrophotometry to record oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb and metahemoglobin (MetHb (surrogate markers of cerebral flow and nitric oxide levels respectively together with extracellular neuronal recordings in vivo and applying a multiple polynomial regression model, that the markers are able to predict up about 80% of variability in neuronal response. Furthermore, we show that the coupling between blood flow and neuronal activity is heavily influenced by nitric oxide (NO. While neuronal responses show the typical saturating response, blood flow shows a linear behaviour during contrast-response curves, with nitric oxide from different sources acting differently for low and high intensity.

  18. Serum and urinary cystatin C in cats with feline immunodeficiency virus infection and cats with hyperthyroidism. (United States)

    Ghys, Liesbeth Fe; Paepe, Dominique; Taffin, Elien Rl; Vandermeulen, Eva; Duchateau, Luc; Smets, Pascale My; Delanghe, Joris; Daminet, Sylvie


    The objective of this study was to investigate serum cystatin C (sCysC) and urinary cystatin C (uCysC) in cats with hyperthyroidism and cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Thirty cats with FIV, 26 hyperthyroid cats and 28 healthy cats were included. sCysC and uCysC:creatinine (uCysC/uCr) ratio were measured with a human particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay, previously validated for feline CysC measurement. Routine renal variables (serum creatinine [sCr], urine specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio [UPC]) were also measured in the three groups. Cats with hyperthyroidism had significantly higher sCysC and higher uCysC/uCr ratio, lower sCr and a higher UPC than healthy cats. Cats with FIV infection did not show a significantly higher sCysC concentration but had a significantly higher sCr and UPC than healthy cats. uCysC could be detected in only four of them. This study demonstrated that sCysC is increased in cats with hyperthyroidism, in contrast with sCr, but not in cats with FIV. Many hyperthyroid cats, but only four cats with FIV, had an elevated uCysC/uCr ratio. Further studies may reveal if uCysC might be a valuable marker for tubular dysfunction in cats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Hadron-nucleus bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, T


    A new type of nuclear spectroscopy to study hadron-nucleus bound states is described. The first successful experiment was to search for deeply bound pi sup - states in heavy nuclei using the sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb(d, sup 3 He) reaction at GSI, in which a narrow peak arising from the 2p pi sup - orbital coupled with the neutron-hole states was observed at 135 MeV excitation energy. An improved experiment has just been carried out to separately identify the 1s and 2p pi sup - states. These experiments provide important information on the local potential strength, from which the effective mass of pi sup - is deduced to be 20 MeV. This method will be extended to search for eta and omega bound states as well as for K sup - bound states. The advantage of the bound-state spectroscopy versus invariant mass spectroscopy is emphasized.

  20. Differences between vocalization evoked by social stimuli in feral cats and house cats. (United States)

    Yeon, Seong C; Kim, Young K; Park, Se J; Lee, Scott S; Lee, Seung Y; Suh, Euy H; Houpt, Katherine A; Chang, Hong H; Lee, Hee C; Yang, Byung G; Lee, Hyo J


    To investigate how socialization can affect the types and characteristics of vocalization produced by cats, feral cats (n=25) and house cats (n=13) were used as subjects, allowing a comparison between cats socialized to people and non-socialized cats. To record vocalization and assess the cats' responses to behavioural stimuli, five test situations were used: approach by a familiar caretaker, by a threatening stranger, by a large doll, by a stranger with a dog and by a stranger with a cat. Feral cats showed extremely aggressive and defensive behaviour in most test situations, and produced higher call rates than those of house cats in the test situations, which could be attributed to less socialization to other animals and to more sensitivity to fearful situations. Differences were observed in the acoustic parameters of feral cats in comparison to those of house cats. The feral cat produced significantly higher frequency in fundamental frequency, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, 3rd quartile frequency of growls and hisses in agonistic test situations. In contrast to the growls and hisses, in meow, all acoustic parameters like fundamental frequency, first formant, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, and 3rd quartile frequency of house cats were of significantly higher frequency than those of feral cats. Also, house cats produced calls of significantly shorter in duration than feral cats in agonistic test situations. These results support the conclusion that a lack of socialization may affect usage of types of vocalizations, and the vocal characteristics, so that the proper socialization of cat may be essential to be a suitable companion house cat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of amantadine in cats. (United States)

    Siao, K T; Pypendop, B H; Stanley, S D; Ilkiw, J E


    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in cats, after both i.v. and oral administration. Six healthy adult domestic shorthair female cats were used. Amantadine HCl (5 mg/kg, equivalent to 4 mg/kg amantadine base) was administered either intravenously or orally in a crossover randomized design. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to amantadine administration, and at various times up to 1440 min following intravenous, or up to 2880 min following oral administration. Plasma amantadine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and plasma amantadine concentration-time data were fitted to compartmental models. A two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment best described the disposition of amantadine administered intravenously in cats, and a one-compartment model best described the disposition of oral amantadine in cats. After i.v. administration, the apparent volume of distribution of the central compartment and apparent volume of distribution at steady-state [mean ± SEM (range)], and the clearance and terminal half-life [harmonic mean ± jackknife pseudo-SD (range)] were 1.5 ± 0.3 (0.7-2.5) L/kg, 4.3 ± 0.2 (3.7-5.0) L/kg, 8.2 ± 2.1 (5.9-11.4) mL·min/kg, and 348 ± 49 (307-465) min, respectively. Systemic availability [mean ± SEM (range)] and terminal half-life after oral administration [harmonic mean ± jackknife pseudo-SD (range)] were 130 ± 11 (86-160)% and 324 ± 41 (277-381) min, respectively. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Ototoxicity in dogs and cats. (United States)

    Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E; Schacht, Jochen


    A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of ototoxicity in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows one to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct transmission of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) between cats exhibiting social behaviour


    Franc, Michel; Bouhsira, ?milie; Beugnet, Fr?d?ric


    A study design was created to assess the potential for fleas to infest cats directly from other cats. In the first experiment, six cats were infested with 100 fleas each and then immediately put in contact with six flea-free cats for 24?h. After removal of all fleas the study was repeated and the contact between cats lasted 48?h. The total numbers of fleas recovered out of the 600 fleas deposited on the 6 donor cats after each infestation were 499 and 486 at 24?h and 48?h respectively. At 1?h...

  4. Schroedinger's Cat is not Alone

    CERN Document Server

    Gato, Beatriz


    We introduce the `Complete Wave Function' and deduce that all living beings, not just Schroedinger's cat, are actually described by a superposition of `alive' and `dead' quantum states; otherwise they would never die. Therefore this proposal provides a quantum mechanical explanation to the world-wide observation that we all pass away. Next we consider the Measurement problem in the framework of M-theory. For this purpose, together with Schroedinger's cat we also place inside the box Rasputin's cat, which is unaffected by poisson. We analyse the system identifying its excitations (catons and catinos) and we discuss its evolution: either to a classical fight or to a quantum entanglement. We also propose the $BSV\\Psi$ scenario, which implements the Complete Wave Function as well as the Big Bang and the String Landscape in a very (super)natural way. Then we test the gravitational decoherence of the entangled system applying an experimental setting due to Galileo. We also discuss the Information Loss paradox. For ...

  5. Action potentials: to the nucleus and beyond. (United States)

    Saha, Ramendra N; Dudek, Serena M


    The neuronal nucleus is now widely accepted as playing a vital role in maintaining long-term changes in synaptic effectiveness. To act, however, the nucleus must be appropriately relayed with information regarding the latest round of synaptic plasticity. Several constraints of doing so in a neuron pertain to the often significant spatial distance of synapses from the nucleus and the number of synapses required for such a signal to reach functional levels in the nucleus. Largely based on the sensitivity of transcriptional responses to NMDA receptor antagonists, it has been postulated that the signals are physically relayed by biochemical messengers from the synapse to the nucleus. Alternatively, a second, less often considered but equally viable method of signal transduction may be initiated by action potentials generated proximal to the nucleus, wherefrom the signal can be relayed directly by calcium or indirectly by biochemical second messengers. We consider action potential-dependent signaling to the nucleus to have its own computational advantages over the synapse-to-nucleus signal for some functions. This minireview summarizes the logic and experimental support for these two modes of signaling and attempts to validate the action potential model as playing an important role in transcriptional regulation relating specifically to long-term synaptic plasticity.

  6. Nitric oxide facilitates GABAergic neurotransmission in the cat oculomotor system: a physiological mechanism in eye movement control. (United States)

    Moreno-López, Bernardo; Escudero, Miguel; Estrada, Carmen


    Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by prepositus hypoglossi (PH) neurons is necessary for the normal performance of horizontal eye movements. We have previously shown that unilateral injections of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors into the PH nucleus of alert cats produce velocity imbalance without alteration of the eye position control, both during spontaneous eye movements and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). This NO effect is exerted on the dorsal PH neuropil, whose fibres increase their cGMP content when stimulated by NO. In an attempt to determine whether NO acts by modulation of a specific neurotransmission system, we have now compared the oculomotor effects of NOS inhibition with those produced by local blockade of glutamatergic, GABAergic or glycinergic receptors in the PH nucleus of alert cats. Both glutamatergic antagonists used, 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) and 2,3-dihydro-6-nitro-7-sulphamoyl-benzo quinoxaline (NBQX), induced a nystagmus contralateral to that observed upon NOS inhibition, and caused exponential eye position drift. In contrast, bicuculline and strychnine induced eye velocity alterations similar to those produced by NOS inhibitors, suggesting that NO oculomotor effects were due to facilitation of some inhibitory input to the PH nucleus. To investigate the anatomical location of the putative NO target neurons, the retrograde tracer Fast Blue was injected in one PH nucleus, and the brainstem sections containing Fast Blue-positive neurons were stained with double immunohistochemistry for NO-sensitive cGMP and glutamic acid decarboxylase. GABAergic neurons projecting to the PH nucleus and containing NO-sensitive cGMP were found almost exclusively in the ipsilateral medial vestibular nucleus and marginal zone. The results suggest that the nitrergic PH neurons control their own firing rate by a NO-mediated facilitation of GABAergic afferents from the ipsilateral medial vestibular nucleus. This self-control mechanism could play an important role

  7. Serologic and urinary PCR survey of leptospirosis in healthy cats and in cats with kidney disease. (United States)

    Rodriguez, J; Blais, M-C; Lapointe, C; Arsenault, J; Carioto, L; Harel, J


    Although there is serologic evidence of exposure of cats to Leptospira spp., clinical disease is rarely reported in cats. To compare the seropositivity and urinary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) status for Leptospira spp. between healthy (H) cats and cats with kidney disease (KD), to investigate the serovars potentially involved, and to evaluate potential risk factors. Two hundred and forty client-owned cats. Cats were prospectively recruited and classified based on physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemistry profile, and urinalysis (125 H and 115 KD cats). Leptospira spp. serology (titers ≥1 : 100 considered positive) and urinary PCR were performed in all cats. Data assessing risk factors, obtained from a questionnaire, were evaluated using logistic regression models. Seropositivity for Leptospira spp. was statistically different between groups: 7.2% (9/125) and 14.9% (17/114) in the H and KD, respectively (P = .05). The proportion of PCR-positive cats was not. The most common serovars detected serologically were Pomona (n = 16) and Bratislava (n = 8). Risk factors for seropositivity included outdoor and hunting lifestyles (P = .03 and P cat in the household (P cats, suggesting that the role of Leptospira spp. in KD in cats should be further investigated. The detection of urinary shedding of leptospires in several cats identifies a potential role in the transmission of the organism. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Stray Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Arbabi


    Full Text Available Background: Cat as definitive host of Toxoplasma gondii is important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The object of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii as well as parasite isolation from faeces and brain tissues of stray cats in Kashan, central Iran. Methods: The prevalence of T. gondii was determined in serum, feces and brain tissue of 50 stray cats. IgG specific antibody to T. gondii was assessed by indirect fluorecent antibody test (IFAT. Results: Overall infection rate was 86% in 1:20 to1:640 titers. The highest percentage (22% was for 1:160 and the least (6% were for 1: 640. T. gondii tissue cyst isolated from 2(4% cats by bioassay in mice. No oocysts detected from cat stool by direct and concentration methods. Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of T. gondii in stray cats is high in Kashan region.

  9. The dolphin cochlear nucleus: topography, histology and functional implications. (United States)

    Malkemper, E P; Oelschläger, H H A; Huggenberger, S


    Despite the outstanding auditory capabilities of dolphins, there is only limited information available on the cytology of the auditory brain stem nuclei in these animals. Here, we investigated the cochlear nuclei (CN) of five brains of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and La Plata dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) using cell and fiber stain microslide series representing the three main anatomical planes. In general, the CN in dolphins comprise the same set of subnuclei as in other mammals. However, the volume ratio of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) in relation to the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of dolphins represents a minimum among the mammals examined so far. Because, for example, in cats the DCN is necessary for reflexive orientation of the head and pinnae towards a sound source, the massive restrictions in head movability in dolphins and the absence of outer ears may be correlated with the reduction of the DCN. Moreover, the same set of main neuron types were found in the dolphin CN as in other mammals, including octopus and multipolar cells. Because the latter two types of neurons are thought to be involved in the recognition of complex sounds, including speech, we suggest that, in dolphins, they may be involved in the processing of their communication signals. Comparison of the toothed whale species studied here revealed that large spherical cells were present in the La Plata dolphin but absent in the common dolphin. These neurons are known to be engaged in the processing of low-frequency sounds in terrestrial mammals. Accordingly, in the common dolphin, the absence of large spherical cells seems to be correlated with a shift of its auditory spectrum into the high-frequency range above 20 kHz. The existence of large spherical cells in the VCN of the La Plata dolphin, however, is enigmatic asthis species uses frequencies around 130 kHz. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Judith L. Stella; Candace C. Croney


      Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats...

  11. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at a...

  12. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats. (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta


    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rank rigidity for CAT(0) cube complexes


    Caprace, Pierre-Emmanuel; Sageev, Michah


    We prove that any group acting essentially without a fixed point at infinity on an irreducible finite-dimensional CAT(0) cube complex contains a rank one isometry. This implies that the Rank Rigidity Conjecture holds for CAT(0) cube complexes. We derive a number of other consequences for CAT(0) cube complexes, including a purely geometric proof of the Tits Alternative, an existence result for regular elements in (possibly non-uniform) lattices acting on cube complexes, and a characterization ...

  14. Music and the nucleus accumbens. (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N


    Music is a universal feature of human societies over time, mainly because it allows expression and regulation of strong emotions, thus influencing moods and evoking pleasure. The nucleus accumbens (NA), the most important pleasure center of the human brain (dominates the reward system), is the 'king of neurosciences' and dopamine (DA) can be rightfully considered as its 'crown' due to the fundamental role that this neurotransmitter plays in the brain's reward system. Purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding the relation between music and the NA. Studies have shown that reward value for music can be coded by activity levels in the NA, whose functional connectivity with auditory and frontal areas increases as a function of increasing musical reward. Listening to music strongly modulates activity in a network of mesolimbic structures involved in reward processing including the NA. The functional connectivity between brain regions mediating reward, autonomic and cognitive processing provides insight into understanding why listening to music is one of the most rewarding and pleasurable human experiences. Musical stimuli can significantly increase extracellular DA levels in the NA. NA DA and serotonin were found significantly higher in animals exposed to music. Finally, passive listening to unfamiliar although liked music showed activations in the NA.

  15. Controlled Archaeological Test Site (CATS) Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CATS facility is at the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), Champaign, IL. This 1-acre test site includes a variety of subsurface features carefully...

  16. Isolation of Dermatophilus congolensis from a cat. (United States)

    Kaya, O; Kirkan, S; Unal, B


    Dermatophilus congolensis was isolated from a cat with dermatitis. The isolate was sensitive to oxytetracyclin, streptomycin and penicillin but resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamycin and cefoperazone.

  17. Proteinuria in dogs and cats (United States)

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy


    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  18. EUROmediCAT signal detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given, Joanne E; Loane, Maria; Luteijn, Johannes Michiel


    and levonorgestrel/ethinylestradiol (OR 4.10, 95% CI 1.70-8.53; congenital heart disease/pulmonary valve stenosis and nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (OR 5.01, 95% CI 1.99-14.20/OR 28.20, 95% CI 4.63-122.24); complete absence of a limb and pregnen (4) derivatives (OR 6.60, 95% CI 1......AIMS: To evaluate congenital anomaly (CA)-medication exposure associations produced by the new EUROmediCAT signal detection system and determine which require further investigation. METHODS: Data from 15 EUROCAT registries (1995-2011) with medication exposures at the chemical substance (5th level...

  19. EUROmediCAT signal detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given, Joanne E; Loane, Maria; Luteijn, Johannes Michiel


    AIMS: To evaluate congenital anomaly (CA)-medication exposure associations produced by the new EUROmediCAT signal detection system and determine which require further investigation. METHODS: Data from 15 EUROCAT registries (1995-2011) with medication exposures at the chemical substance (5th level...... and levonorgestrel/ethinylestradiol (OR 4.10, 95% CI 1.70-8.53; congenital heart disease/pulmonary valve stenosis and nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (OR 5.01, 95% CI 1.99-14.20/OR 28.20, 95% CI 4.63-122.24); complete absence of a limb and pregnen (4) derivatives (OR 6.60, 95% CI 1...

  20. Study of Hadron Production in Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    Selyuzhenkov, I; Klochkov, V; Herve, A E; Kowalski, S; Kaptur, E A; Kowalik, K L; Dominik, W M; Matulewicz, T N; Krasnoperov, A; Feofilov, G; Vinogradov, L; Kovalenko, V; Johnson, S R; Mills, G B; Planeta, R J; Rubbia, A; Marton, K; Messerly, B A; Puzovic, J; Bogomilov, M V; Bravar, A; Renfordt, R A E; Deveaux, M; Engel, R R; Grzeszczuk, A; Davis, N; Kuich, M; Lyubushkin, V; Kondratev, V; Kadija, K; Diakonos, F; Slodkowski, M A; Rauch, W H; Pistillo, C; Laszlo, A; Nakadaira, T; Hasegawa, T; Sadovskiy, A; Morozov, S; Petukhov, O; Mathes, H; Roehrich, D; Marcinek, A J; Marino, A D; Grebieszkow, K; Wlodarczyk, Z; Rybczynski, M A; Wojtaszek-szwarc, A; Nirkko, M C; Sakashita, K; Golubeva, M; Kurepin, A; Manic, D; Kolev, D I; Kisiel, J E; Koziel, M E; Rondio, E; Larsen, D T; Czopowicz, T R; Seyboth, P; Turko, L; Guber, F; Marin, V; Busygina, O; Strikhanov, M; Taranenko, A; Cirkovic, M; Roth, M A; Pulawski, S M; Aduszkiewicz, A M; Bunyatov, S; Vechernin, V; Nagai, Y; Anticic, T; Dynowski, K M; Mackowiak-pawlowska, M K; Stefanek, G; Pavin, M; Fodor, Z P; Nishikawa, K; Tada, M; Blondel, A P P; Stroebele, H W; Posiadala, M Z; Kolesnikov, V; Andronov, E; Zimmerman, E D; Antoniou, N; Majka, Z; Di luise, S; Veberic, D; Dumarchez, J; Naskret, M; Ivashkin, A; Tsenov, R V; Koziel, M G; Schmidt, K J; Melkumov, G; Popov, B; Panagiotou, A; Richter-was, E M; Ereditato, A; Paolone, V; Damyanova, A; Gazdzicki, M; Unger, M T; Wilczek, A G; Stepaniak, J M; Seryakov, A; Susa, T; Staszel, P P; Brzychczyk, J; Maksiak, B; Tefelski, D B


    The NA61/SHINE (SHINE = SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) experiment is a large acceptance hadron spectrometer at the CERN SPS for the study of the hadronic final states produced in interactions of various beam particles (pions, protons, C, S and In) with a variety of fixed targets at the SPS energies. The main components of the current detector were constructed and used by the NA49 experiment. The physics program of NA61/SHINE consists of three main subjects. In the first stage of data taking (2007-2009) measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus interactions needed for neutrino (T2K) and cosmic-ray (Pierre Auger and KASCADE) experiments will be performed. In the second stage (2009-2011) hadron production in proton-proton and proton-nucleus interactions needed as reference data for a better understanding of nucleus-nucleus reactions will be studied. In the third stage (2009-2013) energy dependence of hadron production properties will be measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as in p+p a...

  1. Nucleus accumbens surgery for addiction. (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xue-lian; Chang, Chong-wang; Ge, Shun-nan; Gao, Li; Wu, He-ming; Zhao, Hai-kang; Geng, Ning; Gao, Guo-dong


    Opiate addiction remains intractable in a large percentage of patients, and relapse is the biggest hurdle to recovery because of psychological dependence. Multiple studies identify a central role of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in addiction; several studies note decreased addictive behavior after interventions in this area. Based on animal experiments, our institute started the clinical trial for the treatment of drug addicts' psychological dependence by making lesions in the bilateral NAc with stereotactic surgery from July 2000. The short-term outcomes were encouraging and triggered rapid application of this treatment in China from 2003 to 2004. However, lack of long-term outcomes and controversy eventually led to halting the surgery for addiction by the Ministry of Health of China in November 2004 and a nationwide survey about it later. Our institute had performed this surgery in 272 patients with severe heroin addiction. The follow-up study showed that the 5-year nonrelapse rate was 58% and the quality of life was significantly improved. Patients had several kinds of side effects, but the incidence rate was relatively low. The patients gradually recovered more than 5 years after the surgery. The side effects did not severely influence an individual's life or work. Nationwide surgery showed that the nonrelapse rate was 50% in the sample of 150 cases, from 1167 patients overall who underwent stereotactic surgery in China. Although sometimes accompanied by neuropsychological adverse events, stereotactic ablation of NAc may effectively treat opiate addiction. Lesion location has a significant impact on treatment efficacy and requires further study. Because ablation is irreversible, the NAc surgery for addiction should be performed with cautiousness, and deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an ideal alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy. (United States)

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato


    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views.

  3. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European

  4. Overweight adult cats have significantly lower voluntary physical activity than adult lean cats. (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria Rc; Shoveller, Anna K


    Objectives The objectives of the current pilot study were to evaluate whether body condition score (BCS) and body weight are significantly related to physical activity counts, and to evaluate potential interaction between BCS and voluntary physical activity measured over a 14 day period. Methods Ten (five lean, five overweight), neutered, adult American Shorthair cats were selected for this study (median age 4 ± 0.5 years). Cats with a BCS of ⩽3.0 were considered lean, whereas cats with a BCS >3.0 were considered overweight, using a 5-point scale. Cats were housed in a free-living environment with indoor/outdoor access and were individually fed once daily a commercially available dry extruded diet and allowed 1 h to eat. Voluntary physical activity was measured consecutively for 14 days using the Actical Activity Monitors that were worn parallel to the ribs and attached via a harness. Results Lean cats had a greater mean total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0059), and a greater voluntary physical activity during light ( P = 0.0023) and dark ( P = 0.0446) periods, with overweight cats having 60% of the physical activity of lean cats. Lean cats were more active before feeding and during animal care procedures. These data suggest that lean cats have a greater anticipatory physical activity prior to feeding and are more eager to have social interaction with humans than overweight cats. A significant interaction was observed between day of physical activity measurement and BCS for total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0133) and activity during the light period ( P = 0.0016) where lean cats were consistently more active than overweight cats. In general, cats were more active during weekdays vs weekends. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that overweight cats are less active than lean cats and that voluntary physical activity level appears to be influenced by social interaction with humans.

  5. Cutaneous and serological responses to cat allergen in adults exposed or not to cats. (United States)

    Liccardi, Gennaro; Martín, Santiago; Lombardero, Manuel; D'Amato, Maria; Barber, Domingo; D'Amato, Gennaro; Cazzola, Mario


    The relationship between pet ownership and the risk of developing respiratory allergic sensitization to pet allergens is still controversial. To determine the degree of cutaneous immediate hypersensitivity and the levels of specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies to cat allergen in cat sensitized patients directly or indirectly exposed to this animal. We studied 112 adolescents and adults sensitized to cat allergens (43 with and 69 without a cat at home). There were also 52 control subjects, 27 atopic non-sensitized to cat and 25 non-atopic. The degree of immediate hypersensitivity was assessed by using, in duplicate, skin prick test with four five-fold dilutions of cat hair allergen extract with the content of its major allergen Fel d 1 quantified in micrograms plus positive (10 mg/ml histamine chlorhydrate) and negative (saline solution) controls. The resulting wheal areas were analysed by means of Parallel Line Assay. A blood sample was collected from every patient and control subjects for the evaluation of serological cat specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies. Patients with cat at home had a lower cutaneous response than patients without this pet. The difference in the skin sensitivity was estimated in 3.4 times (Presponse to cat allergenic extract, assessed by SPT and compared with indirect exposure. In patients with cat at home mean levels of specific IgE are statistically comparable whereas the levels of IgG4 are higher in comparison with subjects not exposed to cats. The role of indirect exposure to cat allergens in airways sensitization also in adults is emphasized. Moreover, patients with cat at home show a cutaneous and serological sensitization to cat allergen not higher in comparison with subjects not exposed to cats.

  6. Innervation of periesophageal region of cat's diaphragm - Implication for studies of control of vomiting (United States)

    Tan, L. K.; Miller, A. D.


    The extent of the region of the diaphragm around the esophagus that displays greatly reduced activity during the expulsive phase of vomiting was determined from electromyographic studies in cats to be about 0.75-1.0 cm from the esophagus. Horseradish peroxidase injected into this region retrogradely labeled motoneurons throughout most of the rostral-caudal extent of the phrenic nucleus, with the exception of caudal C6 and rostral C7. This widespread intermingling of motoneurons that innervate the region of reduced activity with other phrenic motoneurons creates a difficulty for needed follow-up studies of diaphragmatic control during vomiting.

  7. Large philipsite crystal as ferromanganese nodule nucleus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    We report here the occurrence of, to date, the largest (21 x 10 x 8 mm) phillipsite crystal forming the nucleus of a diagenetically formed ferromanganese nodule from the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB). Assuming an average rate of ferromanganese...

  8. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Cannon


    Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  9. Testing string dynamics in lepton nucleus reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulassy, M.; Pluemer, M.


    The sensitivity of nuclear attenuation of 10-100 GeV lepton nucleus ({ell}A) reactions to space-time aspects of hadronization is investigated within the context of the Lund string model. We consider two mechanisms for attenuation in a nucleus: final state cascading and string flip excitations. Implications for the evolution of the energy density in nuclear collisions are discussed. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Advances in hard nucleus cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cui


    Full Text Available Security and perfect vision and fewer complications are our goals in cataract surgery, and hard-nucleus cataract surgery is always a difficulty one. Many new studies indicate that micro-incision phacoemulsification in treating hard nucleus cataract is obviously effective. This article reviews the evolution process of hard nuclear cataract surgery, the new progress in the research of artificial intraocular lens for microincision, and analyse advantages and disadvantages of various surgical methods.

  11. Criptococose em felino Cryptococcosis in cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J.F. Sant’Ana


    Full Text Available A case of cryptococcosis in a cat refferred to the Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco is described. The cat was euthanized and the microscopic examination of a firm mass observed in the nasal cavity was accomplished. Cryptococcus sp. and a chronic inflammatory process was observed throughout the tissue.

  12. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Does Eating Turkey ... CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  13. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía ...

  14. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds (United States)

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren


    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  15. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art. (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist


    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  16. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Charge of ... CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  17. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading How to Be ... CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  18. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Should You Fight ... CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  19. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Is an Intellectual Disability? Movie: Endocrine System Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía ...

  20. Tear-film osmolarity in normal cats and cats with conjunctivitis. (United States)

    Davis, Kyshia; Townsend, Wendy


    To compare the tear-film osmolarity of normal cats and cats with conjunctivitis. The population consisted of shelter, research, and privately owned cats. Cats were classified as normal or having conjunctivitis. An ophthalmic examination including Schirmer tear test (STT), fluorescein staining, tear-film break-up time (TFBUT), intraocular pressure (IOP), and slit-lamp biomicroscopy of the anterior segment was performed. The severity of conjunctivitis was graded and assigned a numerical score. The Tear Lab(TM) Osmolarity System was utilized to determine the tear-film osmolarity. Unpaired t-tests were used to compare tear-film osmolarity, TFBUT, IOP, and STT of the two groups. A total of 93 cats (186 eyes) were examined. There were 37 normal cats (74 eyes) and 39 conjunctivitis cats (78 eyes). The mean age was 2.34 years. There was no statistical difference (P = 0.2065) between the median tear-film osmolarity of normal cats (328.5 ± 17.94 mOsms/L) and conjunctivitis cats (325.0 ± 24.84 mOsms/L). Cats with conjunctivitis had an accelerated TFBUT (P conjunctivitis did not cause a statistically significant change in tear-film osmolarity. The Tear Lab(TM) Osmolarity System was easily used and well tolerated by the cats in the study. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  1. Suspected bentonite toxicosis in a cat from ingestion of clay cat litter. (United States)

    Hornfeldt, C S; Westfall, M L


    A 2 1/2-y-old spayed female cat was presented for lethargy and weakness. The cat was hypokalemic (3.1 m Eq K/L) and severely anemic (60% PVC, 1.3 g hemoglobin/dL). The cat was known to ingest bentonite-containing cat litter. It recovered with treatment of i.v. fluids, electrolytes and whole blood transfusion and was discharged. Two months later the cat was presented again with signs similar to those seen previously. This occurred 1 mo after the owner resumed the use of bentonite-containing cat litter. The signs were remarkably similar to those reported in humans from the chronic ingestion of bentonite clays. Bentonite toxicosis is suggested by the coexistence of hypokalemia hypochromic anemia in cats presented with lethargy and muscle weakness.

  2. Assessment of Clicker Training for Shelter Cats (United States)

    Kogan, Lori


    Simple Summary Living conditions in animal shelters can be stressful for cats. Clicker training might be able to alleviate this stress, by giving cats an opportunity to learn new behaviors and interact with humans. In this study, we assessed the initial ability of 100 shelter cats to perform four cued behaviors: touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five. Each cat completed 15, five-min training sessions over a two-week span. At the end of the program, we assessed the cats’ ability to perform the same behaviors. On average, the cats performed better on all four behaviors after clicker training, suggesting that the cats could learn to perform specific behaviors on cue. Individual cats with a higher level of interest in food showed greater gains in learning for two of the behaviors (high-five and touching a target). Cats with a bolder temperament at post-assessment demonstrated greater gains in learning than those classified as shy. We suggest that clicker training can be used to enhance cats’ well-being while they are housed in shelters, and that the learned behaviors might make them more desirable to adopters. Abstract Clicker training has the potential to mitigate stress among shelter cats by providing environmental enrichment and human interaction. This study assessed the ability of cats housed in a shelter-like setting to learn new behaviors via clicker training in a limited amount of time. One hundred shelter cats were enrolled in the study. Their baseline ability to perform four specific behaviors touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five was assessed, before exposing them to 15, five-min clicker training sessions, followed by a post-training assessment. Significant gains in performance scores were found for all four cued behaviors after training (p = 0.001). A cat’s age and sex did not have any effect on successful learning, but increased food motivation was correlated with greater gains in learning for two of the

  3. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus) Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K.; Bruce, Stephanie J.; Dale, Arnja R.


    Simple Summary The need to balance the benefits of cat ownership with the prevention of wildlife predation in New Zealand evokes strong and opposing views. This paper evaluates public concern for wildlife predation by four categories of cats; owned cats, managed-stray cats, unmanaged-stray cats, and feral cats. In addition, public support for a National Cat Management Strategy and a range of management techniques are investigated. Although the participants expressed concern regarding wildlife predation by all four categories of cats, the highest levels of concern were predation by feral cats, followed by unmanaged stray cats, then managed stray cats, and finally owned cats. The large majority of participants were found to support the implementation of a National Cat Management Strategy. Management techniques for owned cats that obtained public support included; cat exclusion zones, limits on ownership numbers, microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing. Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) was the favoured management technique for managed stray cats, while TNR and lethal management techniques were equally favoured for unmanaged stray cats. Lethal control methods were favoured for feral cats. The findings presented in this paper will be useful to consider during the development of legislation relating to cat management and predation in New Zealand. Abstract Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively

  4. The Near Eastern Origin of Cat Domestication (United States)

    Driscoll, Carlos A.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L.; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E.; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H.; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C.; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Macdonald, David W.


    The world’s domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors—Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)—indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance. PMID:17600185

  5. Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer (United States)

    Leu, Ming-Taun


    An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main

  6. Changes in systolic blood pressure over time in healthy cats and cats with chronic kidney disease. (United States)

    Bijsmans, E S; Jepson, R E; Chang, Y M; Syme, H M; Elliott, J


    Hypertension is a common problem in older cats, most often associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cross-sectional studies have suggested that blood pressure in cats increases with age. To determine whether blood pressure in cats increases with age and whether this occurs independently of the presence of CKD. To investigate risk factors for developing hypertension. Two hundred and sixty-five cats with CKD and 133 healthy cats ≥9 years were retrospectively identified. Four groups were created according to status at initial evaluation (CKD or healthy) and blood pressure at the last included visit (normotensive [NT] or developed hypertension [DH]): Healthy-NT, Healthy-DH, CKD-NT and CKD-DH. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) over time slopes were compared with 0 and between groups. Risk factors for the development of hypertension were investigated, and associations of biochemical and clinical variables with SBP were examined. Cats that were hypertensive at CKD diagnosis (n = 105) were not included in further analyses. Twenty-seven cats with CKD and 9 healthy cats developed hypertension ≥3 months after diagnosis of CKD or their first visit. Systolic blood pressure significantly increased with age in all cats (P cats were at less risk than cats with CKD to become hypertensive (hazard ratio 0.2, P cats in this study shows the importance of monitoring of SBP in elderly cats, and in particular in cats with CKD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Bacterial microbiome in the nose of healthy cats and in cats with nasal disease. (United States)

    Dorn, Elisabeth S; Tress, Barbara; Suchodolski, Jan S; Nisar, Tariq; Ravindran, Prajesh; Weber, Karin; Hartmann, Katrin; Schulz, Bianka S


    Traditionally, changes in the microbial population of the nose have been assessed using conventional culture techniques. Sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the human nose is inhabited by a rich and diverse bacterial microbiome that cannot be detected using culture-based methods. The goal of this study was to describe the nasal microbiome of healthy cats, cats with nasal neoplasia, and cats with feline upper respiratory tract disease (FURTD). DNA was extracted from nasal swabs of healthy cats (n = 28), cats with nasal neoplasia (n = 16), and cats with FURTD (n = 15), and 16S rRNA genes were sequenced. High species richness was observed in all samples. Rarefaction analysis revealed that healthy cats living indoors had greater species richness (observed species p = 0.042) and Shannon diversity (p = 0.003) compared with healthy cats living outdoors. Higher species richness (observed species p = 0.001) and Shannon diversity (pcats in comparison to healthy cats in different age groups. Principal coordinate analysis revealed separate clustering based on similarities in bacterial molecular phylogenetic trees of 16S rRNA genes for indoor and outdoor cats. In all groups examined, the most abundant phyla identified were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. At the genus level, 375 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. In healthy cats and cats with FURTD, Moraxella spp. was the most common genus, while it was unclassified Bradyrhizobiaceae in cats with nasal neoplasia. High individual variability was observed. This study demonstrates that the nose of cats is inhabited by much more variable and diverse microbial communities than previously shown. Future research in this field might help to develop new diagnostic tools to easily identify nasal microbial changes, relate them to certain disease processes, and help clinicians in the decision process of antibiotic selection for individual patients.

  8. Presumed primary intraocular chondrosarcoma in cats. (United States)

    Beckwith-Cohen, Billie; Teixeira, Leandro B C; Dubielzig, Richard R


    Following unilateral enucleation, 4 Domestic Shorthair cats with an average age of 12.5 years (range: 9-16 years) were histologically diagnosed with a presumed primary intraocular chondrosarcoma at the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin (Madison, Wisconsin). Medical records and follow-up were available for 3 of the 4 cats. Clinically, only 1 eye was affected in each cat; a mass lesion was noted in 2 cats, and a neoplasm was suspected in the other 2 cats. Grossly, 3 tumors presented as coalescing, poorly demarcated, white, friable masses filling the vitreous and intraocular chambers; 1 tumor presented as a solitary, well-demarcated, tan mass involving the iris and ciliary body. Histologically, all 4 neoplasms were composed of haphazardly arranged plump neoplastic spindle cells surrounded by irregular islands and thick trabeculae of abundant, variably basophilic, and Alcian blue-positive chondromatous matrix. None of the cats presented histologically or clinically with signs suggestive of feline posttraumatic ocular sarcoma. Two cats are still alive and healthy 6 months and 3 years following enucleation. One cat died 6 months following enucleation; however, this cat suffered from poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, and the cause of death is undetermined. No other tumors or skeletal lesions were identified that could suggest a metastatic tumor to the eye. The origin of primary intraocular chondrosarcoma is unclear, but is presumed to be ocular multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Four cases of intraocular chondrosarcoma in cats not associated with the posttraumatic sarcoma complex of intraocular tumors are described. © 2014 The Author(s).

  9. Feline Epitheliotropic Mastocytic Conjunctivitis in 15 Cats. (United States)

    Beckwith-Cohen, B; Dubielzig, R R; Maggs, D J; Teixeira, L B C


    Mast cell infiltration occurs in malignant, inflammatory (eg, allergic, infectious), and idiopathic disease processes in humans and animals. Here, we describe the clinical and histological features of a unique proliferative conjunctivitis occurring in 15 cats. Ocular specimens were examined histologically, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) was performed on ocular tissues obtained from 10 cats. Cats had a median age of 8 years (range: 7 months-17.5 years). The known median duration of ocular lesions prior to biopsy was 4 months (range: 1 week-3 years). Ocular disease was unilateral in 12 cats, and 9 cats had coexisting corneal disease. Clinically and histologically, proliferative or nodular conjunctival lesions were noted in 13 cats. The nictitating membrane was affected in 10 cats. Histologically, lesions were characterized by mixed inflammatory infiltrates with an abundance of Giemsa-positive and toluidine blue-positive intraepithelial and subepithelial mast cells, marked edema, and papillary epithelial hyperplasia. Feline herpesvirus 1 was demonstrated by PCR in 1 of 10 cats tested. Follow-up information was available for 14 cats: 8 had no recurrence during a median follow-up period of 17.5 months (range: 4.5-30 months), 2 underwent orbital exenteration, 3 had recurrence that was medically managed, and 1 cat had diffuse conjunctivitis at the time of biopsy and recurrence was deemed irrelevant. Various ocular medications were administered before and after surgical biopsy. This condition was designated as feline epitheliotropic mastocytic conjunctivitis, with intraepithelial mast cells being an essential feature and papillary epithelial proliferation being characteristic but not diagnostic alone. The condition appears to be uncommon and benign. Although the cause is unknown, an allergic component is possible.

  10. EUROmediCAT signal detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luteijn, Johannes Michiel; Morris, Joan K; Garne, Ester


    CAT database data for 14 950 malformed foetuses/babies with first trimester medication exposures in 1995-2011 were analyzed. The odds of a specific medication exposure (coded according to chemical substance or subgroup) for a specific anomaly were compared with the odds of that exposure for all other anomalies...... for 40 385 medication anomaly combinations in the data. Simes multiple testing procedure with a 50% false discovery rate (FDR) identified associations least likely to be due to chance and those associations with more than two cases with the exposure and the anomaly were selected for further investigation....... The methodology was evaluated by considering the detection of well-known teratogens. RESULTS: The most common exposures were genitourinary system medications and sex hormones (35.2%), nervous system medications (28.0%) and anti-infectives for systemic use (25.7%). Fifty-two specific medication anomaly...

  11. Corneal hemangiosarcoma in a cat. (United States)

    Cazalot, G; Regnier, A; Deviers, A; Serra, F; Lucas, M N; Etienne, C L; Letron, I Raymond


    A 10 year-old castrated male Domestic Short-hair cat with a history of chronic bilateral keratitis was referred for assessment of a red, elevated mass involving the left cornea. The rapid growth of the mass, over a month period in combination with pronounced vascularization and invasion of the corneal surface suggested an aggressive inflammatory or neoplastic process. Following keratectomy, the lesion was diagnosed histopathologically as a hemangiosarcoma. The tumor recurred locally within 3 weeks and enucleation was performed. Histopathologic examination of the globe confirmed the diagnosis and did not reveal infiltration of the limbus and conjunctiva. No signs of local recurrence or metastatic disease have been observed 18 months following enucleation. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case of primary corneal hemangiosarcoma described in the feline species. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  12. Target neurons of floccular middle zone inhibition in medial vestibular nucleus. (United States)

    Sato, Y; Kanda, K; Kawasaki, T


    Unitary activities of 288 neurons were recorded extracellularly in the medial vestibular nucleus (MV) in anesthetized cats. In 19 neurons, located in the rostral part of the MV adjacent to the stria acustica, floccular middle zone stimulation resulted in cessation of spontaneous discharges. Systematic microstimulation in the brainstem during recording of 16 of 19 target neurons of floccular middle zone inhibition revealed that the target neurons projected to the ipsilateral abducens nucleus (ABN), and not to the contralateral ABN nor the oculomotor nucleus. The conjugate ipsilateral horizontal eye movement elicited by middle zone stimulation may be mediated by this pathway to motoneurons and internuclear neurons in the ipsilateral ABN. In additional experiments, the MV neurons responding antidromically to ipsilateral ABN stimulation and orthodromically to ipsilateral 8 nerve stimulation were recorded extracellularly. In only 7 of 36 recorded neurons, middle zone stimulation depressed the orthodromic and spontaneous activities. Many neurons were free of floccular inhibition. As to the route of floccular inhibitory control over the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during visual-vestibular stimulation, we propose that the interaction of target and VOR relay neurons takes place at the ipsilateral ABN and modulates the VOR, in addition to well known Ito's proposal that the interaction of the floccular output and the VOR takes place at secondary vestibular neurons and modulates the VOR.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for patent Toxocara infections in cats and cat owners' attitude towards deworming. (United States)

    Nijsse, R; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A; Mughini-Gras, L


    The prevalence of and risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs in cats older than 6 months were determined by examining 670 faecal samples collected in 4 cross-sectional studies in the Netherlands. Additionally, cat owners provided information on their attitude towards routine deworming. Samples were examined using the centrifugal sedimentation flotation method. Overall Toxocara prevalence was 7.2 %. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that young age and living in rural areas were significant risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs. Moreover, the more time a cat was allowed to roam outdoors, the higher was its risk to shed Toxocara as compared to cats with no outdoor access at all. For 199 cats (81.6 % of cats subjected to a deworming regimen) owners provided the reason for treatment. The main reason for routine deworming (80.4 %) concerned the cat's health and only 10.6 % of the cats were treated for public health reasons. Moreover, the generally advocated four-times-a-year deworming advice was applied on only 24.5 % of cats. We concluded that free roaming is a key factor in the acquisition of patent Toxocara infections leading to the environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs. Additionally, the knowledge of cat owners is still insufficient to expect them to make sound decisions on routine deworming.

  14. Evaluation of a CAT Database and Expert Appraisal of CATs Developed by Students. (United States)

    Kasch, Cindy; Haimerl, Peggy; Heuwieser, Wolfgang; Arlt, Sebastian

    Five steps have been recommended to provide evidence-based patient care: formulating a clinical question, searching for literature, evaluating the validity and applicability of results, implementing results into practice, and assessing if the new evidence has led to improved health care. Students can be trained in these steps by the development of knowledge summaries such as critically appraised topics (CATs). The aim of the present project was the development, use, and evaluation of a German-language CAT database and an appraisal of the quality of CATs developed by students. A total of 153 fifth-year veterinary medical students (in 21 groups) were enrolled in the project. Each group developed a CAT and most students participated in a survey. To learn more about the quality of the CATs, we asked experts to appraise the texts written by the students. The CATs were indexed with key words and assigned to specific fields corresponding to the European Colleges of Veterinary Specialisation. Currently, 57 CATs have been developed. The majority of students stated that writing CATs is a good exercise and that "it is important to teach the assessment of scientific information." In total, 13 experts completed the questionnaires, out of which 9 graded the CAT they appraised as good. In addition to English-language CAT databases, German tools should also be available for students and practitioners.

  15. A-Dependence of $\\pi^0$-Meson Production in Proton-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Tokarev, M V; Dedovich, T G


    The A-dependence of pi^0-meson production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at a high transverse momentum is studied. The concept of z-scaling reflecting the general features of particle interactions is developed for the description of pi^0-meson production. Experimental data on the cross section obtained at ISR, SpS and Tevatron are usen in the analysis. The A-dependence of scale transformation z to alpha cdot z, psi to alpha^-1 cdot psi is established. An indication of the power law, psi (z) approx z^-beta, at high p_T > 4 GeV/c is found. Based on the properties of z-scaling, the dependence of the cross section of pi^0-mesons produced in pA and AA collisions on transverse momentum over the central rapidity range at RHIC energies is predicted.

  16. The CATS Service: An Astrophysical Research Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Verkhodanov


    Full Text Available We describe the current status of CATS (astrophysical CATalogs Support system, a publicly accessible tool maintained at Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS ( allowing one to search hundreds of catalogs of astronomical objects discovered all along the electromagnetic spectrum. Our emphasis is mainly on catalogs of radio continuum sources observed from 10 MHz to 245 GHz, and secondly on catalogs of objects such as radio and active stars, X-ray binaries, planetary nebulae, HII regions, supernova remnants, pulsars, nearby and radio galaxies, AGN and quasars. CATS also includes the catalogs from the largest extragalactic surveys with non-radio waves. In 2008 CATS comprised a total of about 109 records from over 400 catalogs in the radio, IR, optical and X-ray windows, including most source catalogs deriving from observations with the Russian radio telescope RATAN-600. CATS offers several search tools through different ways of access, e.g. via Web-interface and e-mail. Since its creation in 1997 CATS has managed about 105requests. Currently CATS is used by external users about 1500 times per day and since its opening to the public in 1997 has received about 4000 requests for its selection and matching tasks.

  17. Light microscopical study of nitric oxide synthase I-positive neurons, including fibres in the vestibular nuclear complex of the cat. (United States)

    Papantchev, Vassil; Paloff, Adrian; Christova, Tatiana; Hinova-Palova, Dimka; Ovtscharoff, Wladimir


    Nitric oxide is a gaseous neurotransmitter that is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase I (NOS I). At present, little is known of NOS I-positive neurons in the vestibular nuclear complex of the cat (VNCc). The aim of the present study was to examine the morphology, distribution patterns and interconnections of NOS I-positive neurons, including fibres in the VNCc. Five adult cats were used as experimental animals. All cats were anaesthetized and perfused transcardially. Brains were removed, postfixed, cut on a freezing microtome and stained in three different ways. Every third section was treated with the Nissl method, other sections were stained either histochemically for NADPH diaphorase or immunohistochemically for NOS I. The atlas of Berman (1928) was used for orientation in the morphometric study. NOS I-positive neurons and fibres were found in all parts of VNCc: medial vestibular nucleus (MVN); lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN); superior vestibular nucleus (SVN); inferior vestibular nucleus (IVN); X, Y, Z groups and Cajal's nucleus. The NOS I-positive neurons were classified according to their size (small, medium-sized, large neurons type I and type II) and their shape (oval, fusiform, triangular, pear-shaped, multipolar and irregular). In every nucleus, a specific neuronal population was observed. In SVN, a large number of interconnections between NOS I-positive neurons were identified. In MVN, chain-like rolls of small neurons were found. Tiny interconnections between MVN and mesencephalic reticular formation were present. Our data provide information on the morphology, distribution patterns and interconnections of NOS I-positive neurons in the VNCc and can be extrapolated to other mammals.

  18. Open heavy-flavour production in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischke, A.


    Heavy quarks (charm and bottom) provide sensitive penetrating probes of hot quark matter produced in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Due to their large mass, heavy quarks are believed to be predominantly produced in the initial state of the collision by gluon fusion processes. The study

  19. Observation of high energy gamma rays in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beard, K.B.; Benenson, W.; Bloch, C.; Kashy, E.; Stevenson, J.; Morrissey, D.J.; Plicht, J. van der; Sherrill, B.; Winfield, J.S.


    High energy electrons and positrons observed in medium energy nucleus-nucleus collisions are shown to be primarily due to the external conversion of high energy gamma rays. The reaction 14N+Cu was studied at E/A=40 MeV, and a magnetic spectrograph was used with a specially constructed multiwire

  20. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed. (United States)

    Must, Kärt; Hytönen, Marjo K; Orro, Toomas; Lohi, Hannes; Jokelainen, Pikka


    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is relevant for veterinary and public health. The domestic cat, the definitive host species with the largest worldwide population, has become evolutionarily and epidemiologically the most important host of T. gondii. The outcome of T. gondii infection is influenced by congenital and acquired host characteristics. We detected differences in T. gondii seroprevalence by cat breed in our previous studies. The aims of this study were to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence in selected domestic cat breeds, and to evaluate whether being of a certain breed is associated with T. gondii seropositivity, when the age and lifestyle of the cat are taken into account. The studied breeds were the Birman, British Shorthair, Burmese, Korat, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ocicat, Persian, and Siamese. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with a commercial direct agglutination test at dilution 1:40. The samples were accompanied by owner-completed questionnaires that provided background data on the cats. Overall, 41.12% of the 1121 cats tested seropositive, and the seroprevalence increased with age. The Burmese had the lowest seroprevalence (18.82%) and the Persian had the highest (60.00%). According to the final multivariable logistic regression model, the odds to test seropositive were four to seven times higher in Birmans, Ocicats, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Persians when compared with the Burmese, while older age and receiving raw meat were also risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. This study showed that T. gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed and identified being of certain breeds, older age, and receiving raw meat as risk factors for seropositivity.

  1. Structural dynamics of the cell nucleus (United States)

    Wiegert, Simon; Bading, Hilmar


    Neuronal morphology plays an essential role in signal processing in the brain. Individual neurons can undergo use-dependent changes in their shape and connectivity, which affects how intracellular processes are regulated and how signals are transferred from one cell to another in a neuronal network. Calcium is one of the most important intracellular second messengers regulating cellular morphologies and functions. In neurons, intracellular calcium levels are controlled by ion channels in the plasma membrane such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and certain α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) as well as by calcium exchange pathways between the cytosol and internal calcium stores including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Synaptic activity and the subsequent opening of ligand and/or voltage-gated calcium channels can initiate cytosolic calcium transients which propagate towards the cell soma and enter the nucleus via its nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the nuclear envelope. We recently described the discovery that in hippocampal neurons the morphology of the nucleus affects the calcium dynamics within the nucleus. Here we propose that nuclear infoldings determine whether a nucleus functions as an integrator or detector of oscillating calcium signals. We outline possible ties between nuclear mophology and transcriptional activity and discuss the importance of extending the approach to whole cell calcium signal modeling in order to understand synapse-to-nucleus communication in healthy and dysfunctional neurons. PMID:21738832

  2. Cell Biology of the Caenorhabditis elegans Nucleus. (United States)

    Cohen-Fix, Orna; Askjaer, Peter


    Studies on the Caenorhabditis elegans nucleus have provided fascinating insight to the organization and activities of eukaryotic cells. Being the organelle that holds the genetic blueprint of the cell, the nucleus is critical for basically every aspect of cell biology. The stereotypical development of C. elegans from a one cell-stage embryo to a fertile hermaphrodite with 959 somatic nuclei has allowed the identification of mutants with specific alterations in gene expression programs, nuclear morphology, or nuclear positioning. Moreover, the early C. elegans embryo is an excellent model to dissect the mitotic processes of nuclear disassembly and reformation with high spatiotemporal resolution. We review here several features of the C. elegans nucleus, including its composition, structure, and dynamics. We also discuss the spatial organization of chromatin and regulation of gene expression and how this depends on tight control of nucleocytoplasmic transport. Finally, the extensive connections of the nucleus with the cytoskeleton and their implications during development are described. Most processes of the C. elegans nucleus are evolutionarily conserved, highlighting the relevance of this powerful and versatile model organism to human biology. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  3. The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0093 TITLE: The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Carpenter, MD RECIPIENT...Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0093 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Laura Carpenter...provides a description of the Year 2 progress made and plans for Year 3 for the project entitled “The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS).” The goal of

  4. Cytogenetic investigation of cat-eye syndrome. (United States)

    Walknowska, J; Peakman, D; Weleber, R G


    Using multiple chromosomal banding techniques, we studied a child with typical cat-eye syndrome and ocular retraction syndrome. Although the mother was was chromosomally normal, other maternal relatives showed features of the cat-eye syndrome, suggesting the basic abnormality is heritable. The abnormal chromosome in our case was most likely the product of reciprocal translocation where short arm plus centromeric chromatin from two separate acrocentric chromosomes fused together. The chromosomes involved were probably No. 22 and either Nos. 13 or 14. The basic underlying defect in cat-eye syndrome may be a heritable fragile site or some other predisposition leading to complex chromosomal interchange.

  5. Adverse food reactions in dogs and cats. (United States)

    Gaschen, Frédéric P; Merchant, Sandra R


    Adverse food reactions (AFR) are a common problem that may cause cutaneous and/or gastrointestinal signs in dogs and cats. They comprise food intolerance, food intoxication, and food allergy. Response to a dietary elimination trial and recurrence of signs during dietary provocation remain the centerpiece of diagnosis and management of dogs and cats with AFR. Response to an elimination trial is frequently observed in dogs and cats with chronic idiopathic enteropathies. However, only a fraction of them relapse after a dietary challenge. These animals may have mild to enteritis and/or colitis and benefit from various additional properties of the elimination diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nasopharyngeal turbinates in brachycephalic dogs and cats. (United States)

    Ginn, Jennifer A; Kumar, M S A; McKiernan, Brendan C; Powers, Barbara E


    This retrospective study reports the presence and incidence of nasal turbinates in the nasopharynx (nasopharyngeal turbinates) in a population of brachycephalic dogs and cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease. Medical records were reviewed for 53 brachycephalic dogs and 10 brachycephalic cats undergoing upper airway endoscopy. Nasopharyngeal turbinates were identified in 21% of brachycephalic animals, including 21% of dogs and 20% of cats. Pugs accounted for 32% of all dogs in the study population and 82% of dogs with nasopharyngeal turbinates. The presence of nasopharyngeal turbinates may play a role in upper airway obstruction in the brachycephalic airway syndrome.

  7. Borna disease virus infection in cats. (United States)

    Wensman, Jonas Johansson; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin; Holst, Bodil Ström; Berg, Mikael


    Bornaviruses are known to cause neurological disorders in a number of animal species. Avian Bornavirus (ABV) causes proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in birds and Borna disease virus (BDV) causes Borna disease in horses and sheep. BDV also causes staggering disease in cats, characterised by ataxia, behavioural changes and loss of postural reactions. BDV-infection markers in cats have been reported throughout the world. This review summarizes the current knowledge of Borna disease viruses in cats, including etiological agent, clinical signs, pathogenesis, epidemiology and diagnostics, with comparisons to Bornavirus infections in other species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pain and adverse behavior in declawed cats. (United States)

    Martell-Moran, Nicole K; Solano, Mauricio; Townsend, Hugh Gg


    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the impact of onychectomy (declawing) upon subsequent development of back pain and unwanted behavior in cohorts of treated and control cats housed in two different locations. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study. In total, there was 137 declawed and 137 non-declawed cats, of which 176 were owned cats (88 declawed, 88 non-declawed) and 98 were shelter cats (49 declawed and 49 non-declawed). All cats were physically examined for signs of pain and barbering. The previous 2 years of medical history were reviewed for documented unwanted behavior such as inappropriate elimination and biting with minimal provocation and aggression. All declawed cats were radiographed for distal limb abnormalities, including P3 (third phalanx) bone fragments. The associations of declaw surgery with the outcomes of interest were examined using χ 2 analysis, two sample t-tests and manual, backwards, stepwise logistic regression. Results Significant increases in the odds of back pain (odds ratio [OR] 2.9), periuria/perichezia (OR 7.2), biting (OR 4.5) and barbering (OR 3.06) occurred in declawed compared with control cats. Of the 137 declawed cats, 86 (63%) showed radiographic evidence of residual P3 fragments. The odds of back pain (OR 2.66), periuria/perichezia (OR 2.52) and aggression (OR 8.9) were significantly increased in declawed cats with retained P3 fragments compared with those declawed cats without. Optimal surgical technique, with removal of P3 in its entirety, was associated with fewer adverse outcomes and lower odds of these outcomes, but operated animals remained at increased odds of biting (OR 3.0) and undesirable habits of elimination (OR 4.0) compared with non-surgical controls. Conclusions and relevance Declawing cats increases the risk of unwanted behaviors and may increase risk for developing back pain. Evidence of inadequate surgical technique was common in the study population. Among declawed cats, retained P3

  9. Salinomycin-induced polyneuropathy in cats: Morphologic and epidemiologic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde-Sipman, J.S. van der; Inch, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Nes, J.J. van; Verhagen, H.; Kersten, J.G.T.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Plekkringa, R.


    In April 1996, an outbreak of toxic polyneuropathy in cats occurred in the Netherlands. All cats had been fed one of two brands of dry cat food from one manufacturer. Chemical analyses of these foods, stomach contents, and liver and kidney of affected cats revealed contamination with the ionophor

  10. Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) Urine Odour as a Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cat urine odour extract on rodent pest species to reduce crop losses. Cat urine from the captured cats was drawn using cat catcher. Urinary catheter was inserted into the urethra up to the urinary bladder and a syringe attached to the urinary catheter was used to draw ...

  11. Prevalence of feline haemoplasma in cats in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenqvist, Maja Benedicte; Meilstrup, Ann-Katrine Helene; Larsen, Jesper


    cats in different age groups. The presence was detected by a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay on blood samples as well as by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Results The study revealed a prevalence of 14.9% Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum positive cats and 1.5% Mycoplasma haemofelis...... positive cats. No cats were found positive for Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. The results showed a statistically significant higher prevalence in older (>8 years) cats compared to younger cats and a higher prevalence among domestic cats compared to purebred cats. As part of this study, we developed...... a cloning strategy to obtain Danish positive controls of haemoplasma 16S rRNA. Conclusion From convenience-sampled cats in Denmark, we found that 16.4% were carriers of feline haemotropic mycoplasmas. Haemoplasma was mostly found in older and domestic cats. The prevalence found in Denmark is similar...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Agüero, M. P. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, and CONICET (Argentina); Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M. [Gemini Observatory, AURA (United States); Bosch, G., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (CONICET-UNLP) (Argentina)


    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  13. Decoding calcium signaling across the nucleus. (United States)

    Oliveira, André G; Guimarães, Erika S; Andrade, Lídia M; Menezes, Gustavo B; Fatima Leite, M


    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is an important multifaceted second messenger that regulates a wide range of cellular events. A Ca(2+)-signaling toolkit has been shown to exist in the nucleus and to be capable of generating and modulating nucleoplasmic Ca(2+) transients. Within the nucleus, Ca(2+) controls cellular events that are different from those modulated by cytosolic Ca(2+). This review focuses on nuclear Ca(2+) signals and their role in regulating physiological and pathological processes. ©2014 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  14. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries (United States)

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.


    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  15. Morphological identification of nitric oxide sources and targets in the cat oculomotor system. (United States)

    Moreno-López, B; Escudero, M; De Vente, J; Estrada, C


    Nitric oxide (NO) production by specific neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi (PH) nucleus is necessary for the correct performance of eye movements in alert cats. In an attempt to characterize the morphological substrate of this NO function, the distribution of nitrergic neurons and NO-responding neurons has been investigated in different brainstem structures related to eye movements. Nitrergic neurons were stained by either immunohistochemistry for NO synthase I or histochemistry for reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) diaphorase. The NO targets were identified by cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) immunohistochemistry in animals treated with a NO donor immediately before fixation of the brain. Connectivity between cells of the NO-cGMP pathway was analyzed by injections of the retrograde tracers horseradish peroxidase or fast blue in different structures. The motor nuclei commanding extraocular muscles did not contain elements of the NO-cGMP pathway, except for some scattered nitrergic neurons in the most caudal part of the abducens nucleus. The PH nucleus contained the largest number of nitrergic cell bodies and a rich neuropil, distributed in two groups in medial and lateral positions in the caudal part, and one central group in the rostral part of the nucleus. An abundant cGMP positive neuropil was the only NO-sensitive element in the PH nucleus, where no cGMP-producing neuronal cell bodies were observed. The opposite disposition was found in the marginal zone between the PH and the medial vestibular nuclei, with a large number of NO-sensitive cGMP-producing neurons and almost no nitrergic cells. Both nitrergic and NO-sensitive cell bodies were found in the medial and inferior vestibular nuclei and in the superior colliculus, whereas the lateral geniculate nucleus contained nitrergic neuropil and a large number of NO-sensitive cell bodies. Some of the cGMP-positive neurons in the marginal zone and medial vestibular nucleus projected

  16. Supraspinal control of motoneurons innervating the striated muscles of the pelvic floor including urethral and anal sphincters in the cat. (United States)

    Holstege, G; Tan, J


    The nucleus of Onuf (ON) in mammals contains motoneurons innervating the pelvic floor muscles including the external urethral and anal sphincters. Recently, direct pathways from the dorsolateral pons to the ON, probably involved in supraspinal micturition control, have been reported (Holstege et al., 1986). Since the pelvic floor muscles are involved not only in micturition but also in various other functions (e.g., coughing, vomiting, defaecation, parturition), an attempt has been made to establish whether, in the cat, there exist other direct brainstem pathways to the ON motoneurons. Our results indicate that specific projections to the ON are derived from 3 different areas: (1) the ipsilateral paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus; (2) the ipsilateral caudal pontine lateral reticular formation; and (3) the contralateral caudal nucleus retroambiguus. More diffuse projections (to all motoneuronal cell groups in the spinal cord including the ON) are derived from (1) neurons in the area of the nucleus subcoeruleus in the dorsolateral pontine reticular formation, (2) the nucleus raphe pallidus, and (3) the ventral part of the medullary medial reticular formation. Possible functional implications of these pathways are discussed.

  17. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Andrade


    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.

  18. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in two cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulou, Maria; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Nielsen, Dorte Hald


    Two three-month-old, intact female Abyssinian cats were presented with a history of lameness, constipation and ataxia. The cats had been fed a diet composed almost exclusively of meat. Both showed severe osteopenia and multiple pathological fractures on radiography. Following euthanasia of the more...... severely affected cat, postmortem examination revealed changes consistent with nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism and fibrous osteodystrophy, such as cortical thinning, massive connective tissue invasion in the diaphysis of long bones, and hypertrophy of the chief cells in both parathyroid glands....... After introducing a balanced commercial diet to the surviving cat, bone mineralisation improved from the baseline value, and at subsequent examinations at three, six and 22 weeks later, as indicated by bone mineral density measurements obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and compute tomography....

  19. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.


    Contents: Cats are animals with highly efficient reproduction, clearly pointing to a need for suppression of fertility. Although surgical contraception is highly effective, it is not always the method of choice. This is predominantly because it is cost-intensive, time-consuming and irreversible......, with the latter being of major importance for cat breeders. This article reviews the use of progestins, scleroting agents, immunocontraception, melatonin, GnRH antagonists and finally, GnRH agonists, in adult male and female cats in detail, according to the present state of the art. By now, various scientific...... and clinical options are available for the suppression of fertility in adult cats and the decision as to which should be chosen - independent of the legal registration of any state - depends on different facts: (i) feral or privately owned animal? (ii) temporary or permanent suppression of fertility wanted...

  20. Cat Island NWR Recreational Hunting Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A natural resource management plan describing the regulations and decision processes for sport hunting at Cat Island NWR. This plan has been replaced by a more...

  1. A cross-species alignment tool (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao


    BACKGROUND: The main two sorts of automatic gene annotation frameworks are ab initio and alignment-based, the latter splitting into two sub-groups. The first group is used for intra-species alignments, among which are successful ones with high specificity and speed. The other group contains more...... sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web...... at CONCLUSIONS: Examined from different angles, CAT outperforms other extant alignment tools. Tested against all available mouse-human and zebrafish-human orthologs, we demonstrate that CAT combines the specificity and speed of the best intra-species algorithms, like BLAT...

  2. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For ...

  3. SWMM-CAT User’s Guide (United States)

    The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).

  4. Anal sac adenocarcinoma in a Siamese cat. (United States)

    Mellanby, R J; Foale, R; Friend, E; Woodger, N; Herrtage, M E; Dobson, J D


    A 12-year-old male neutered Siamese cat presented with a history of inappetance and lethargy and an enlarged left anal sac. The anal sac was surgically excised and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of anal sac adenocarcinoma. Perianal tumours are rare in the cat and anal sac adenocarcinoma has not been previously reported. This is in contrast to the dog where anal sac adenocarcinoma is a well recognised albeit uncommon tumour.

  5. Second order Horner's syndrome in a cat. (United States)

    De Risio, Luisa; Fraser McConnell, James


    This case report describes the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 3.5-year-old, male neutered, domestic shorthair cat with second order Horner's syndrome as the only clinical abnormality. The neuroanatomical pathway of the sympathetic innervation to the eye, differential diagnoses for Horner's syndrome in cats, and the interpretation of pharmacological testing are reviewed. The unusual MRI findings and the value of fat-suppressed MRI sequences are discussed.

  6. Plasma Cell Pododermatitis in a Cat


    Drolet, R; Bernard, J,


    Plasma cell pododermatitis, an uncommon disease of unknown etiology, is described in a six year old male domestic short-haired cat. The cat was referred with a history of lameness associated with swelling, softness and ulceration of the foot pads. The history suggested a seasonal occurrence of the condition. The dermis and subcutis of the foot pads were infiltrated by inflammatory cells which were mainly plasma cells. The large number of plasma cells present in the lesions suggests an immunol...

  7. [Acute herpesvirus-gastritis in a cat]. (United States)

    Breuer, W; Hermanns, W


    Gastritis in cats is caused, among other things, by infectious agents, like bacteria, metazoic parasites or viruses. Herpesvirus-gastritis has not as yet been documented in cats. Therefore in this paper such a case will be described. In this case the mucous membrane of the stomach shows multifocal acute necroses with evidence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells of the gastric glands. By means of electron microscopy the causative virus can be specified as herpesvirus.

  8. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?


    Adronie Verbrugghe; Myriam Hesta


    The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient ...

  9. Risk of obesity in the neutered cat. (United States)

    Larsen, Jennifer A


    Surgical neutering is one of the most common procedures performed on pets in the USA among other countries. There are known effects of neutering on the physiology and behavior of the cat that predispose to obesity, which is the most significant sequela from a nutritional perspective. Increased food intake is the most likely factor influencing weight gain in the neutered cat. Proactively addressing these changes with nutritional management strategies can help prevent weight gain and associated negative consequences.

  10. Constitutive expression of catABC genes in the aniline-assimilating bacterium Rhodococcus species AN-22: production, purification, characterization and gene analysis of CatA, CatB and CatC (United States)

    Matsumura, Eitaro; Sakai, Masashi; Hayashi, Katsuaki; Murakami, Shuichiro; Takenaka, Shinji; Aoki, Kenji


    The aniline-assimilating bacterium Rhodococcus sp. AN-22 was found to constitutively synthesize CatB (cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerase) and CatC (muconolactone isomerase) in its cells growing on non-aromatic substrates, in addition to the previously reported CatA (catechol 1,2-dioxygenase). The bacterium maintained the specific activity of the three enzymes at an almost equal level during cultivation on succinate. CatB and CatC were purified to homogeneity and characterized. CatB was a monomer with a molecular mass of 44 kDa. The enzyme was activated by Mn2+, Co2+ and Mg2+. Native CatC was a homo-octamer with a molecular mass of 100 kDa. The enzyme was stable between pH 7.0 and 10.5 and was resistant to heating up to 90 °C. Genes coding for CatA, CatB and CatC were cloned and named catA, catB and catC respectively. The catABC genes were transcribed as one operon. The deduced amino acid sequences of CatA, CatB and CatC showed high identities with those from other Gram-positive micro-organisms. A regulator gene such as catR encoding a regulatory protein was not observed around the cat gene cluster of Rhodococcus sp. AN-22, but a possible relic of catR was found in the upstream region of catA. Reverse transcriptase-PCR and primer extension analyses showed that the transcriptional start site of the cat gene cluster was located 891 bp upstream of the catA initiation codon in the AN-22 strain growing on both aniline and succinate. Based on these data, we concluded that the bacterium constitutively transcribed the catABC genes and translated its mRNA into CatA, CatB and CatC. PMID:16156722

  11. Direct projection from the suprachiasmatic nucleus to hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus demonstrated...

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, N.; Larsen, P.J.; Mikkelsen, J.D.


    Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry......Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry...

  12. Fatal toxoplasmosis in sand cats (Felis margarita). (United States)

    Pas, An; Dubey, J P


    The sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid occurring in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The sand cat captive-breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in Sharjah, UAE, has until recently been severely compromised by very high newborn mortality rates. Two different pairs of sand cats gave birth, respectively, to one and two litters (with a total of eight kittens) between 1999 and 2006. Seven out of eight kittens died between the third and 21st wk of life. Toxoplasmosis was confirmed as the cause of death in these two litters. Adult cats had high antibody titers to Toxoplasma gondii before pregnancy, suggesting that maternal immunity did not protect the kittens against infection with T. gondii and that maternal immunity might not have prevented transplacental transmission of the parasite. This observation contrasts with what is seen in domestic cats. To date, this is the first report on confirmed fatal toxoplasmosis and prevalence of T. gondii in sand cats.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ions carry strong electromagnetic and nuclear fields. Interactions between these fields in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions can probe many interesting physics topics. This presentation will focus on coherent two-photon and photonuclear processes at RHIC. The rates for these interactions will be high. The coherent coupling of all the protons in the nucleus enhances the equivalent photon flux by a factor Z{sup 2} up to an energy of {approx} 3 GeV. The plans for studying coherent interactions with the STAR experiment will be discussed. Experimental techniques for separating signal from background will be presented.

  14. Two-photon physics in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystrand, J.; Klein, S.


    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ions carry strong electromagnetic and nuclear fields. Interactions between these fields in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions can probe many interesting physics topics. This presentation will focus on coherent two-photon and photonuclear processes at RHIC. The rates for these interactions will be high. The coherent coupling of all the protons in the nucleus enhances the equivalent photon flux by a factor Z{sup 2} up to an energy of {approx} 3 GeV. The plans for studying coherent interactions with the STAR experiment will be discussed. Experimental techniques for separating signal from background will be presented.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The subcellular morphology of the mesencephalic trigeminal (Me5) nucleus in the rat was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Most neurons in the thin rostral as well as in the major caudal part of Me5 appeared as large (40-50-mu-m), round-to ovoid-shaped unipolar cells. A few neurons

  16. Resonances in η-light nucleus systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de los Andes, Bogota, Colombia. E-mail: Abstract. We locate resonances in η-light nucleus elastic scattering using the time delay method. We solve few-body equations within the finite rank approximation in order to calculate the t-matrices and hence ...

  17. Oral alprazolam acutely increases nucleus accumbens perfusion


    Wolf, Daniel H.; Pinkham, Amy E.; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Ruparel, Kosha; Elliott, Mark A.; Valdez, Jeffrey; Smith, Mark A.; Detre, John A.; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.


    Benzodiazepines treat anxiety, but can also produce euphoric effects, contributing to abuse. Using perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, we provide the first direct evidence in humans that alprazolam (Xanax) acutely increases perfusion in the nucleus accumbens, a key reward-processing region linked to addiction.

  18. Resonances in η-light nucleus systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We locate resonances in -light nucleus elastic scattering using the time delay method. We solve few-body equations within the finite rank approximation in order to calculate the -matrices and hence the time delay for the - 3He and - 4He systems. We find a resonance very close to the threshold in - 3 He elastic ...

  19. The Checkerboard Model of the Nucleus (United States)

    Lach, Theodore


    The Checker Board Model (CBM) of the nucleus and the associated extended standard model predicts that nature has 5 generations of quarks not 3 and that Nucleus is 2 dimensional. The CBM theory began with an insight into the structure of the He nucleus around the year 1989. Details of how this theory evolved which took many years, and is found on my web site ( or in the following references One independent check of this model is that the wavelength of the ``up'' quark orbiting inside the proton at 84.8123% the speed of light (around the ``dn'' quark in the center of the proton) turns out to be exactly one de Broglie wavelength something determined after the mass and speed of the up quark were determined by other means. This theory explains the mass of the proton and neutron and their magnetic moments and this along with the beautiful symmetric 2D structure of the He nucleus led to the evolution of this theory. When this theory was first presented at Argonne in 1996, it was the first time that anyone had predicted the quarks orbited inside the proton at relativistic speeds and it was met with skepticism.

  20. Compound nucleus studies withy reverse kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto, L.G.


    Reverse kinematics reactions are used to demonstrate the compound nucleus origin of intermediate mass particles at low energies and the extension of the same mechanism at higher energies. No evidence has appeared in our energy range for liquid-vapor equilibrium or cold fragmentation mechanisms. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Evaluation of skin test reactivity to environmental allergens in healthy cats and cats with atopic dermatitis. (United States)

    Schleifer, Sebastian G; Willemse, Ton


    To evaluate skin test reactivity to environmental allergens in healthy cats and in cats with atopic dermatitis (AD). 10 healthy cats and 10 cats with AD. 10 allergens in serial dilutions were injected ID on the lateral aspect of the thorax of sedated cats. Histamine (0.01% solution) and buffer solutions were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Immediately after the last injection, 10% fluorescein solution was administered IV. Skin test results were evaluated with ultraviolet light after 15 to 30 minutes and at 4 and 6 hours by 2 independent observers. In the control group, skin tests were repeated after 6 weeks. Skin test reactivity and the nature of the immunoglobulin involved were investigated by use of the Prausnitz-Küstner test with untreated and heat-treated cat sera. Intertest and interobserver agreement were high when measurement of the diameter of the fluorescent wheal was used to evaluate skin test responses, compared with assessment of its intensity. In both groups of cats, immediate skin test reactivity was observed as an IgE-mediated reaction, as an IgG-mediated reaction, and as a result of nonspecific mast cell degranulation. There was no correlation between allergen concentration and the type of reaction observed. Skin test reactivity in cats should be evaluated after IV administration of 10% fluorescein solution by means of a Prausnitz-Küstner test to differentiate among IgE-mediated, IgG-mediated, and nonspecific reactions.

  2. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Interaction with the Arcuate Nucleus; Essential for Organizing Physiological Rhythms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Frederik N.; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; León-Mercado, Luis; Basualdo, Mari Carmen; Escobar, Carolina; Kalsbeek, Andries; Buijs, Ruud M.


    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is generally considered the master clock, independently driving all circadian rhythms. We recently demonstrated the SCN receives metabolic and cardiovascular feedback adeptly altering its neuronal activity. In the present study, we show that microcuts effectively

  3. Nonequilibrium distribution functions of nucleons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Anchishkin


    Full Text Available The collision smearing of the nucleon momenta about their initial values during relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is investigated. To a certain degree, our model belongs to the transport type, and we investigate the evolution of the nucleon system created at a nucleus-nucleus collision. However, we parameterize this development by the number of collisions of every particle during evolution rather than by the time variable. It is assumed that the group of nucleons which leave the system after the same number of collisions can be joined in a particular statistical ensemble. The nucleon nonequilibrium distribution functions are derived which depend on a certain number of collisions of a nucleon before a freeze-out.

  4. The production of strangeness and charmonium in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Geiss, J


    The aim of the present theis is to study the space-time evolution of highly relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in a microscopic purely hadronic transport theory. Especially the production of strangeness in nucleus-nucleus collisions over a large energy range from SIS- (E sub l sub a sub b =1-2 A.GeV) up to SPS-energies (E sub l sub a sub b +200 A.GeV) for many different systems are studied, whereby for the elementary production cross sections as conservative assumptions as possible are made. The aim is to obtain an excitation function for the production of strangeness over the whole energy range. Furthermore the production of J/psi particles at SPS energies is studied for different systems, whereby a new absorption mechanism of the c anti c pairs is tested.

  5. Hypothermia in Uremic Dogs and Cats. (United States)

    Kabatchnick, E; Langston, C; Olson, B; Lamb, K E


    The prevalence of uremic hypothermia (UH) and the effects of improving uremia on body temperature have not been determined in veterinary patients. To determine the prevalence of UH and correlations between uremia and body temperature in patients undergoing intermittent hemodialysis (IHD). Uremic dogs (n = 122) and cats (n = 79) treated by IHD at the Bobst Hospital of the Animal Medical Center from 1997 to 2013. Retrospective review of medical records. The prevalence of hypothermia was 38% in azotemic cats and 20.5% in azotemic dogs. Statistically significant temperature differences were observed between uremic and nonuremic dogs (nonuremic: mean, 100.8°F; range, 91.2-109.5°F; uremic: mean, 99.9°F; range, 95.6-103.8°F; P cats (nonuremic: mean, 100.6°F; range, 94.0-103.8°F; uremic: mean, 99.3°F; range, 92.3-103.4°F; P dog dialysis patients, significant models included (1) timing (pre-dialysis versus post-dialysis) with weight class (small [P dogs), (2) timing with serum creatinine concentration (P = .021), and (3) timing with BUN concentration (P cat dialysis patients, there was a significant interaction between timing and weight as a categorical variable (cats and dogs. Uremic patients are hypothermic compared to ill nonuremic patients and body temperatures increase when uremia is corrected with IHD in dogs and in cats >5 kg. In cats, UH seems to be a more prevalent phenomenon driven by uremia. Uremic hypothermia does occur in dogs, but body weight is a more important predictor of body temperature. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Prevalence of Bartonella species infections in cats in Southern Germany. (United States)

    Bergmann, M; Englert, T; Stuetzer, B; Hawley, J R; Lappin, M R; Hartmann, K


    Bartonella species are zoonotic pathogens, and infections in cats are common. However, prevalence in cats in Southern Germany is still unknown. Therefore, prevalence of Bartonella species DNA in blood of 479 Southern German cats was determined using a previously published conventional PCR targeting a fragment of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. Associations between Bartonella bacteraemia, housing conditions, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) status, including progressive, regressive and abortive FeLV infection, were evaluated using Fisher's exact test. Prevalence of Bartonella species bacteraemia was 2.5 per cent (12/479; CI 0.01-0.04 per cent). Bartonella henselae DNA was amplified in 11 of the 12 cats. One cat was positive for Bartonella clarridgeiae DNA. Of the infected cats, 2/12 cats were ill; 6/12 cats had thrombocytopenia. There was a significantly higher risk of Bartonella species infection in young and shelter cats, but not in FIV-infected or FeLV-infected cats. Prevalence of Bartonella species bacteraemia is low in Southern German cats, but there is still a risk of zoonotic transmission associated with ownership of young cats. Most of the infected cats did not show clinical signs. Thrombocytopenia was common in Bartonella species-infected cats and further studies are required to define its clinical relevance. British Veterinary Association.

  7. Bone-Invasive Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Cats: Pathology and Expression of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein (United States)

    Martin, C. K.; Tannehill-Gregg, S. H.; Wolfe, T. D.; Rosol, T. J.


    Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common oral tumor in cats. There is no effective treatment, and the average duration of survival after diagnosis is only 2 months. Feline OSCC is frequently associated with osteolysis; however, the mechanisms responsible are unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and pathology of bone-invasive OSCC in cats and to determine the expression of select bone resorption agonists. In sum, 451 cases of feline OSCC were evaluated. There was no sex or breed predisposition, although there were more intact cats in the OSCC group compared to the control group. Gingiva was the most common site, followed by the sublingual region and tongue. Cats with lingual OSCC were younger (mean, 11.9 years) compared to cats with gingival OSCC (mean, 13.6 years). In addition to osteolysis, there was periosteal new bone formation, osseous metaplasia of tumor stroma, and direct apposition of OSCC to fragments of bone, suggestive of bone-binding behavior. Eighty-two cases were selected for immunohistochemical detection of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Specimens with osteolysis had increased PTHrP expression and nuclear localization, compared to OSCC without osteolysis. Thirty-eight biopsies of OSCC with osteolysis were evaluated for tumor necrosis factor α expression, and only 4 biopsies had such expression in a small proportion of tumor cells. Increased tumor expression of PTHrP and increased localization of PTHrP to the nucleus were associated with osteolysis and may play an important role in bone resorption and tumor invasion in cats with OSCC. PMID:20940448

  8. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus) Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand. (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K; Bruce, Stephanie J; Dale, Arnja R


    Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively), followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively), managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively), and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively). Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%), and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%). Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.

  9. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment. (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J


    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Walker


    Full Text Available Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support; (b concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats; (c the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively, followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively, managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively, and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively. Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%, and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%. Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.

  11. Tetrathyridiosis in a domestic shorthair cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Dahlem


    Full Text Available Case summary This report describes the clinical and parasitological findings in a domestic shorthair cat with isolated thoracic tetrathyridiosis. The cat was a stray from Malta that had lived in Germany for several years since as an indoor-only cat. Therefore, the process of infection remains very unusual. In this case it must be considered that the cat had been infected years previously while in Malta, and had lived at least 4 years without any clinical signs. It was possible to diagnose this uncommon disease and initiate an effective treatment with fenbendazole, praziquantel and supportive care. Clinical signs, as well as radiographic findings, were regressive with this treatment. Relevance and novel information Tetrathyridiosis is a rare finding in cats, especially in Germany, but it seems to be a potential differential diagnosis of pleural effusion. Mesocestoides corti , which was the causative parasite in this case, has not previously been isolated in Germany. Because tetrathyridiosis is only diagnosed post mortem in most cases, little is known about effective therapeutic options. Furthermore, clinical signs of this disease can be absent for several years and can potentially be triggered by neoplastic conditions or immunosuppression. Tetrathyridiosis seems to be a treatable disease that can be controlled by adequate antiparasitic therapy.

  12. Septic pericarditis in a cat with pyometra. (United States)

    Majoy, Sean B; Sharp, Claire R; Dickinson, Amy E; Cunningham, Suzanne M


    To describe a unique cause of septic pericarditis in a cat and detail the successful case management strategy. A 6-year-old sexually intact female Ragdoll cat was evaluated for a 7-day history of progressive lethargy, anorexia, and vaginal discharge. Thoracic radiographs revealed a markedly globoid cardiac silhouette and pleural effusion while the initial echocardiogram showed moderate volume pericardial effusion. Following pericardiocentesis, cytologic evaluation of the pericardial effusion revealed septic suppurative inflammation with intra- and extracellular Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria. Abdominal ultrasound demonstrated a moderate amount of echogenic uterine fluid accumulation with a right-sided uterine horn mass. After stabilization with pericardiocentesis, IV fluid therapy and IV antimicrobials, the cat underwent ovariohysterectomy and partial pericardiectomy. Histopathology confirmed a diagnosis of pyometra and septic pericarditis. Uterine and pericardial fluid bacterial culture yielded Escherichia coli with identical antimicrobial sensitivity spectrums. Septic pericarditis is a rare cause of pericardial effusion in the cat. Previous reported cases have either suggested the cause to be secondary to transient bacteremia resulting from a local infection seeding the pericardium or for the cause to remain unknown. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first veterinary report of septic pericarditis resulting from hematogeneously spread bacteria originating from a urogenital infection. It is also the first report of successful surgical management of septic pericarditis in the cat. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  13. Co-infection by Tritrichomonas foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in asymptomatic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Spitz dos Santos


    Full Text Available Abstract: Tritrichomonas foetus, a parasite well known for its significance as a venereally transmitted pathogen in cattle, has been identified as a cause of chronic large bowel diarrhea in domestic cats in many countries of the world. In Brazil, several studies on the diagnosis of bovine trichomoniasis have been performed, but until now, no study was made regarding feline trichomoniasis. Thus, this is the first study to report the occurrence of T. foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in cats using morphological and molecular analysis. Feces from 77 cats were examined, four of which (5.2% were positive for the presence of parabasalids. Morphological analysis of stained smears revealed piriform trophozoites showing the three anterior flagella, elongated nucleus and axostyle ending abruptly in fillet, characteristic of T. foetus. In scanning and transmission electron microscopy, identification characters similar to those previously reported for T. foetus were observed. The cultures containing trophozoites were submitted for molecular analysis, which resulted positive for T. foetus DNA using specific primers (TFR3 and TFR4, and all samples were positive and subjected to sequencing in which they showed 99.7-100% similarity with another isolate sequencing of T. foetus (JX960422. Although no trophozoite with consistent morphology of P. hominis has been visualized in the samples, differential diagnosis was performed using specific primers for P. hominis (TH3 and TH5 amplicon. In three of the four samples (3.89% sequencing revealed 100% similarity when compared with another sequence of P. hominis deposited in Genbank (KC623939. Therefore, the present study revealed through the diagnostic techniques employed the simultaneous infection by T. foetus and P. hominis in the feces of cats. However, it was necessary to use more than one technique for the diagnosis of the co-infection. These results demonstrate the importance of a correct diagnosis to allow an

  14. Description Between Cats Exposure with Toxoplasmosis Disease on Cats Owner and Not- Cats Owner in Mulyorejo Subdistrict, Surabaya City


    Agustin, Prayuani Dwi; Mukono, J


    Abstract: Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by  Toxoplasma gondii that transmitted from  animals  to humans. Actually, the symptoms of toxoplasmosis are asymptomatic with non-spesific and  similar to other diseases. Cats  are definite  host  of Toxoplasma gondii.  The  feces from  infected cat  contains million oocysts and  infective  to humans. Detection of toxoplasmosis in human  can be done with a serological test to see the levels of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G...

  15. Strangeness production in antiproton-nucleus annihilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosel U.


    Full Text Available The results of the microscopic transport calculations of p¯ $ar p$-nucleus interactions within a GiBUU model are presented. The dominating mechanism of hyperon production is the strangeness exchange processes K¯N $ar KN$ → γπ and K¯N $ar KN$ → ΞK. The calculated rapidity spectra of Ξ hyperons are significantly shifted to forward rapidities with respect to the spectra of S = −1 hyperons. We argue that this shift should be a sensitive test for the possible exotic mechanisms of p¯ $ar p$-nucleus annihilation. The production of the double Λ-hypernuclei by Ξ− interaction with a secondary target is calculated.

  16. Protein quality control in the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie V.; Poulsen, Esben Guldahl; Rebula, Caio A.


    to aggregate, cells have evolved several elaborate quality control systems to deal with these potentially toxic proteins. First, various molecular chaperones will seize the misfolded protein and either attempt to refold the protein or target it for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system...... to be particularly active in protein quality control. Thus, specific ubiquitin-protein ligases located in the nucleus, target not only misfolded nuclear proteins, but also various misfolded cytosolic proteins which are transported to the nucleus prior to their degradation. In comparison, much less is known about...... these mechanisms in mammalian cells. Here we highlight recent advances in our understanding of nuclear protein quality control, in particular regarding substrate recognition and proteasomal degradation....

  17. Cell Biology of the Plant Nucleus. (United States)

    Meier, Iris; Richards, Eric J; Evans, David E


    The eukaryotic nucleus is enclosed by the nuclear envelope, which is perforated by the nuclear pores, the gateways of macromolecular exchange between the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. The nucleoplasm is organized in a complex three-dimensional fashion that changes over time and in response to stimuli. Within the cell, the nucleus must be viewed as an organelle (albeit a gigantic one) that is a recipient of cytoplasmic forces and capable of morphological and positional dynamics. The most dramatic reorganization of this organelle occurs during mitosis and meiosis. Although many of these aspects are less well understood for the nuclei of plants than for those of animals or fungi, several recent discoveries have begun to place our understanding of plant nuclei firmly into this broader cell-biological context.

  18. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gregory [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Kulkarni, Gourihar [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States)


    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70°C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  19. Systematics of $\\alpha$--nucleus optical potentials


    Mohr, P; Abele, H.; Atzrott, U.; Staudt, G.; Bieber, R; Grün, K.; Oberhummer, H.; Rauscher, T.; Somorjai, E.


    Double--folded optical $\\alpha$--nucleus potentials can be used to calculate elastic scattering cross sections in a wide mass-- and energy region. Because of the systematic behavior of the potential parameters we are able to obtain reliable optical potentials for astrophysically relevant reactions even without scattering data in low--energy region. As example we analyze the capture reaction ${^{144}{\\rm Sm}}(\\alpha,\\gamma){^{148}{\\Gd}}$.

  20. Improved Neuroimaging Atlas of the Dentate Nucleus. (United States)

    He, Naying; Langley, Jason; Huddleston, Daniel E; Ling, Huawei; Xu, Hongmin; Liu, Chunlei; Yan, Fuhua; Hu, Xiaoping P


    The dentate nucleus (DN) of the cerebellum is the major output nucleus of the cerebellum and is rich in iron. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) provides better iron-sensitive MRI contrast to delineate the boundary of the DN than either T2-weighted images or susceptibility-weighted images. Prior DN atlases used T2-weighted or susceptibility-weighted images to create DN atlases. Here, we employ QSM images to develop an improved dentate nucleus atlas for use in imaging studies. The DN was segmented in QSM images from 38 healthy volunteers. The resulting DN masks were transformed to a common space and averaged to generate the DN atlas. The center of mass of the left and right sides of the QSM-based DN atlas in the Montreal Neurological Institute space was -13.8, -55.8, and -36.4 mm, and 13.8, -55.7, and -36.4 mm, respectively. The maximal probability and mean probability of the DN atlas with the individually segmented DNs in this cohort were 100 and 39.3%, respectively, in contrast to the maximum probability of approximately 75% and the mean probability of 23.4 to 33.7% with earlier DN atlases. Using QSM, which provides superior iron-sensitive MRI contrast for delineating iron-rich structures, an improved atlas for the dentate nucleus has been generated. The atlas can be applied to investigate the role of the DN in both normal cortico-cerebellar physiology and the variety of disease states in which it is implicated.

  1. CATS Aerosol Typing and Future Directions (United States)

    McGill, Matt; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Palm, Stephen; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Nowottnick, Ed; Selmer, Patrick; Kupchock, Andrew; Midzak, Natalie; hide


    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.

  2. Central tarsal bone fracture in a cat. (United States)

    Cinti, Filippo; Pisani, Guido; Penazzi, Claudio; Carusi, Umberto; Vezzoni, Luca; Vezzoni, Aldo


    Fracture of the central tarsal bone is an uncommon injury in dogs and occurs predominantly in racing Greyhounds. To the authors' knowledge, this type of fracture has not been described previously in cats. This case report describes a five-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat referred to the Centro Veterinario Luni Mare because of lameness, swelling and signs of pain in the right hindlimb caused by trauma. Clinical examination and diagnostic imaging revealed a right central tarsal bone fracture. Open reduction and internal fixation with a 2.0 mm position screw and two 0.8 mm Kirschner wires were carried out. The last follow-up examination three years postoperatively found the cat in good health with normal range of motion and function, and no signs of lameness in the right hindlimb.

  3. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat. (United States)

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J


    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  4. Direct and indirect pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat (United States)

    Holstege, Gert


    The pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat were traced using horse-radish-peroxidase (HRP) and autoradiographic techniques. The HRP results indicated that several neuronal cell groups in the brain stem and hypothalamus project to the spinal cord throughout its total length. The autoradiographic tracing results demonstrated that the strongest projections to lamina I are derived from the following four areas: the caudal nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the ventral part of the caudal pontine and NRM, the contralaterally projecting lateral pontine or paralemniscal tegmentum, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a limited, especially at lumbosacral levels, distinct projection to lamina I was found to originate in the most caudal part of the medullary tegmentum.

  5. Projections from the rostral mesencephalic reticular formation to the spinal cord - An HRP and autoradiographical tracing study in the cat (United States)

    Holstege, G.; Cowie, R. J.


    Horseradish peroxidase was injected, or implanted unilaterally, into various levels of the spinal cord of anesthetized cats, to trace the distribution of projections to the spinal cord, of neurons in Field H of Forel, including the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF), and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal with adjacent reticular formation (INC-RF). Results indicate that, unlike the neurons projecting to the extraocular muscle motoneurons, the major portion of the spinally projecting neurons are not located in the riMLF or INC proper, but in adjacent areas, i.e., the ventral and lateral parts of the caudal third of the Field H of Forel and in the INC-RF. Neurons in caudal Field H of Forel, project, via the ventral part of the ventral funicululs, to the lateral part of the upper cervical ventral horn.

  6. Astaxanthin uptake in domestic dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimino Stefan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment. Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body weight were fed a single dose of 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4, 2, 5, or 10 mg astaxanthin and blood taken (n = 8/treatment at the same interval. Results Both dogs and cats showed similar biokinetic profiles. Maximal astaxanthin concentration in plasma was approximately 0.14 μmol/L in both species, and was observed at 6 h post-dosing. The plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 9 to 18 h. Astaxanthin was still detectable by 24 h in both species. In a subsequent study, dogs and cats were fed similar doses of astaxanthin daily for 15 to 16 d and astaxanthin uptake by plasma, lipoproteins, and leukocytes studied. In both species, plasma astaxanthin concentrations generally continued to increase through d 15 or 16 of supplementation. The astaxanthin was mainly associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL. In blood leukocytes, approximately half of the total astaxanthin was found in the mitochondria, with significant amounts also associated with the microsomes and nuclei. Conclusion Dogs and cats absorb astaxanthin from the diet. In the blood, the astaxanthin is mainly associated with HDL, and is taken up by blood leukocytes, where it is distributed to all subcellular organelles. Certain aspects of the biokinetic uptake of astaxanthin in dogs and cats are similar to that in humans.

  7. Parathyroid adenocarcinoma in a nephropathic Persian cat. (United States)

    Cavana, Paola; Vittone, Valentina; Capucchio, Maria T; Farca, Anna M


    This report describes an uncommon clinical case of cystic parathyroid adenocarcinoma. A 17-year-old male Persian cat was presented for evaluation of a ventral cervical mass. The cat was inappetent and showed weight loss, polydipsia and vomiting. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed moderate hypercalcaemia, a mild increase of creatinine, isosthenuria and proteinuria. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-agarose gel electrophoresis showed a mixed tubular proteinuric pattern, in accordance with histological examination that revealed interstitial nephritis and glomerulonephritis. Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was based on histopathological findings.

  8. Septic lens implantation syndrome in a cat. (United States)

    Dalesandro, Nicole; Stiles, Jean; Miller, Margaret


    A 13-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was presented initially for a change in the appearance of the left eye. On initial examination, a small penetrating wound was suspected as the cause for a corneal scar, an anterior cortical incipient cataract and mild iritis. The cat was not re-presented until 1 year later at which time ocular pain was marked. Severe anterior uveitis and glaucoma were diagnosed and the eye enucleated. Histopathology documented intralenticular coccoid bacteria and septic lens implantation syndrome. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  9. Idiopathic epilepsy in dogs and cats. (United States)

    Thomas, William B


    Idiopathic epilepsy is the most common brain disease in dogs and also occurs in cats. Optimal management entails an accurate diagnosis and appropriate drug therapy. In dogs, either phenobarbital or bromide is appropriate as initial therapy. Phenobarbital is the drug of choice for cats. Several other drugs including zonisamide and levetiracetam have the advantage of fewer side effects and are being increasingly used in veterinary medicine. Treatment is successful in most cases, allowing the pet and client to enjoy a good quality of life.

  10. Plasma cell pododermatitis in a cat. (United States)

    Drolet, R; Bernard, J


    Plasma cell pododermatitis, an uncommon disease of unknown etiology, is described in a six year old male domestic short-haired cat. The cat was referred with a history of lameness associated with swelling, softness and ulceration of the foot pads. The history suggested a seasonal occurrence of the condition. The dermis and subcutis of the foot pads were infiltrated by inflammatory cells which were mainly plasma cells. The large number of plasma cells present in the lesions suggests an immunological basis for the condition.

  11. Intestinal epidermoid cyst in a cat. (United States)

    Niederhäuser, S; Schaffartzik, A; Tschuor, F; Baeumlin, Y; Kühn, N; Glaus, T


    A 3-year-old cat was presented with anorexia and vomiting. Palpation revealed a caudal abdominal mass. Ultrasound and explorative abdominal surgery revealed a cystic mass in the jejunum. Histopathologic findings were consistent with an epidermoid cyst. The cyst was likely of congenital origin, since the cat had not undergone previous abdominal surgery, and gradually grew to reach a size that caused intestinal obstruction. Extrapolating from findings in people, intestinal epidermoid cysts are considered benign with a good long-term prognosis when completely excised.

  12. Hypochloremia in cats - prevalence and associated diseases. (United States)

    Zeugswetter, Florian K; Pagitz, Maximilian; Friedrich, Mona Sarah


    To describe the prevalence and possible causes of hypochloremia in the local hospital cat population. Retrospective study consisting of two parts. Data were collected from the local electronic medical records database using the search terms "chloride" and "cats" (part A), and "blood gas analysis" and "cats" (part B). The medical records of the hypochloremic cats were then reviewed to determine prior treatment or infusions and to identify major underlying disease processes. Part A included an age and gender matched non-hypochloremic control group, whereas in part B acid-base status was assessed. Hypochloremia was detected in 367 (27%) of 1363 blood samples. The application of a correction formula to adjust for free water changes decreased the number of hypochloremic cats to 253 (19%). Only a minority had received glucocorticoids or loop diuretics and the prevalence of vomiting was 44%. Common associated disorders were gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases, as well as azotemia and diabetes mellitus. Polyuria/polydipsia, dehydration, prednisolone or furosemide pretreatment, azotemia and diabetes mellitus increased, whereas fluid therapy and the diagnosis of neoplasia decreased the prevalence of hypochloremia. An inverse correlation was found between corrected chloride and standardized base excess (rs = -0.597, p = 0.001) as well as anion gap (rs = -0.4, p = 0.026). 99% of the hypochloremic cats had derangements of acid-base balance. Hypochloremia is a common electrolyte disorder in the local cat population. The correction formula is necessary to adjust for changes in plasma osmolality. Although associated with metabolic alkalosis, most of the hypochloremic cats have a normal or decreased pH. The inverse correlation of chloride and anion gap als well as the high proportion of azotemic or diabetic animals support the concept of compensatory acidosis induced hypochloremia. Hypochloremia should prompt the clinician to performe blood-gas analysis. Diabetes

  13. Low P sub T hadron-nucleus interactions (United States)

    Holynski, R.; Wozniak, K.


    The possibility of describing hadron-nucleus (hA) interactions is discussed in terms of a number of independent collisions of the projectile inside the target nucleus. This multiple rescattering may occur on a particle or quark parton level. To investigate the characteristics of hA interactions as a function of antineutrinos advantage is taken of the correlation between the average number antineutrinos of collisions of the projectile inside the nucleus and the number Ng of fast protons ejected from the struck nucleus. The relation antineutrinos vs Ng obtained in antineutrinos was used. For a given target nucleus this allows the selection of interactions occurring at different impact parameters.

  14. Prevalence of parasitic infections of stray cats in Jammu, India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Stray cats are afflicted with various parasitic infestations and the infective stages of these parasites may spread infection to other .... Plate V: Photomicrograph of isospora isolated from faecal sample of .... of Intestinal parasites in dogs and cats.

  15. Cat wars: the devastating consequences of a cuddly killer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marra, Peter P; Santella, Chris


    ... of the explosion of these cat populations. This compelling book traces the historical and cultural ties between humans and cats from early domestication to the current boom in pet ownership, along the way accessibly explaining the science...

  16. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter. (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive


    The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  17. Electrophysiological study of supraspinal input and spinal output of cat's subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Velo

    Full Text Available This work addressed the study of subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD neurons in relation to their supraspinal input and the spinal terminating sites of their descending axons. SRD extracellular unitary recordings from anesthetized cats aimed to specifically test, 1 the rostrocaudal segmental level reached by axons of spinally projecting (SPr neurons collateralizing or not to or through the ipsilateral nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NRGc, 2 whether SPr fibers bifurcate to the thalamus, and 3 the effects exerted on SRD cells by electrically stimulating the locus coeruleus, the periaqueductal grey, the nucleus raphe magnus, and the mesencephalic locomotor region. From a total of 191 SPr fibers tested to cervical 2 (Ce2, thoracic 5 (Th5 and lumbar5 (Lu5 stimulation, 81 ended between Ce2 and Th5 with 39 of them branching to or through the NRGc; 21/49 terminating between Th5 and Lu5 collateralized to or through the same nucleus, as did 34/61 reaching Lu5. The mean antidromic conduction velocity of SPr fibers slowed in the more proximal segments and increased with terminating distance along the cord. None of the 110 axons tested sent collaterals to the thalamus; instead thalamic stimulation induced long-latency polysynaptic responses in most cells but also short-latency, presumed monosynaptic, in 7.9% of the tested neurons (18/227. Antidromic and orthodromic spikes were elicited from the locus coeruleus and nucleus raphe magnus, but exclusively orthodromic responses were observed following stimulation of the periaqueductal gray or mesencephalic locomotor region. The results suggest that information from pain-and-motor-related supraspinal structures converge on SRD cells that through SPr axons having conduction velocities tuned to their length may affect rostral and caudal spinal cord neurons at fixed delays, both directly and in parallel through different descending systems. The SRD will thus play a dual functional role by simultaneously

  18. Concurrent diseases and conditions in cats with renal infarcts. (United States)

    Hickey, M C; Jandrey, K; Farrell, K S; Carlson-Bremer, D


    Renal infarcts identified without definitive association with any specific disease process. Determine diseases associated with diagnosis of renal infarcts in cats diagnosed by sonography or necropsy. 600 cats underwent abdominal ultrasonography, necropsy, or both at a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Information obtained from electronic medical records. Cats classified as having renal infarct present based on results of sonographic evaluation or necropsy. Time-matched case-controls selected from cats that underwent the next scheduled diagnostic procedure. 309 of 600 cats having diagnosis of renal infarct and 291 time-matched controls. Cats 7-14 years old were 1.6 times (odds ratio, 95% CI: 1.03-2.05, P = .03) more likely to have renal infarct than younger cats but no more likely to have renal infarct than older cats (1.4, 0.89-2.25, P = .14). All P = .14 are statistically significant. Cats with renal infarcts were 4.5 times (odds ratio, 95% CI: 2.63-7.68, P cats without renal infarcts. Cats with renal infarcts were 0.7 times (odds ratio, 95% CI: 0.51-0.99, P = .046) less likely to have diagnosis of neoplasia compared to cats without renal infarcts. Cats with diagnosis of hyperthyroidism did not have significant association with having renal infarct. Cats with renal infarcts were 8 times (odds ratio, 95% CI: 2.55-25.40, P ≤ .001) more likely to have diagnosis of distal aortic thromboembolism than cats without renal infarcts. Cats with renal infarcts identified on antemortem examination should be screened for occult cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. J/$\\psi$ production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, M C; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Ataian, M R; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Ducroux, L; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N


    The NA38 and NA50 experiments at the CERN SPS have measured charmonium production in different colliding systems with the aim of observing a phase transition from ordinary hadronic matter towards a state in which quarks and gluons are deconfined (quark-gluon plasma, QGP). This experimental research is based on the prediction that the J/ psi yield should be suppressed in deconfined matter. The analysis of the data collected by the NA50 experiment with Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon shows that the J/ psi is anomalously suppressed with respect to the pattern observed in proton-nucleus and light ion reactions. (9 refs).

  20. Eye Movements and Abducens Motoneuron Behavior after Cholinergic Activation of the Nucleus Reticularis Pontis Caudalis (United States)

    Márquez-Ruiz, Javier; Escudero, Miguel


    Study Objectives: The aim of this work was to characterize eye movements and abducens (ABD) motoneuron behavior after cholinergic activation of the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis (NRPC). Methods: Six female adult cats were prepared for chronic recording of eye movements (using the scleral search-coil technique), electroencephalography, electromyography, ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves in the lateral geniculate nucleus, and ABD motoneuron activities after microinjections of the cholinergic agonist carbachol into the NRPC. Results: Unilateral microinjections of carbachol in the NRPC induced tonic and phasic phenomena in the oculomotor system. Tonic effects consisted of ipsiversive rotation to the injected side, convergence, and downward rotation of the eyes. Phasic effects consisted of bursts of rhythmic rapid eye movements directed contralaterally to the injected side along with PGO-like waves in the lateral geniculate and ABD nuclei. Although tonic effects were dependent on the level of drowsiness, phasic effects were always present and appeared along with normal saccades when the animal was vigilant. ABD motoneurons showed phasic activities associated with ABD PGO-like waves during bursts of rapid eye movements, and tonic and phasic activities related to eye position and velocity during alertness. Conclusion The cholinergic activation of the NRPC induces oculomotor phenomena that are somewhat similar to those described during REM sleep. A precise comparison of the dynamics and timing of the eye movements further suggests that a temporal organization of both NRPCs is needed to reproduce the complexity of the oculomotor behavior during REM sleep. Citation: Márquez-Ruiz J; Escudero M. Eye movements and abducens motoneuron behavior after cholinergic activation of the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis. SLEEP 2010;33(11):1517-1527. PMID:21102994

  1. Experimental pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection of cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. van den Brand (Judith); K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)


    textabstractTo demonstrate that pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus may cause respiratory disease in cats, we intratracheally infected cats. Diffuse alveolar damage developed. Seroconversion of sentinel cats indicated cat-to-cat virus transmission. Unlike in cats infected with highly pathogenic avian

  2. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...

  3. Toxocara cati infections in domestic cats from two communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey was undertaken to study the prevalence and intensity of infection with Toxocara cati in some selected domestic cats from two communities in south-western Nigeria. Faecal samples of 200 cats were collected through a direct rectal swab using a long forceps from households with cat from Ode Irele ...

  4. The effect of cat Felis catus predation on three breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding success of Pterodroma macroptera, Procellaria aequinoctialis and Pachyptila vittata salvini in three cat-free and three control areas were used to evaluate the effects of cat Felis catus predation on the avifauna of Marion Island. Breeding success of all three species was significantly higher in the combined cat-free ...

  5. Population genetic analysis of cat populations from Mexico ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the points of introduction of mutant alleles for cat coat phenotypes from Europe into Latin America,; the heterozygosity levels at these loci in the current Latin American cat populations,; the level of genetic heterogeneity among Latin American cat populations, and how this compares with levels found in North American and ...

  6. Accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines. (United States)

    Stewart, Sarah A; Gaunt, Matthew C; Taylor, Susan M; Snead, Elizabeth C R


    Two clinical cases of accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines are described. One cat died the day after presentation as a result of aspiration pneumonia and head trauma, despite supportive care. The second cat survived with supportive treatment, but developed dermatologic complications 10 d later.

  7. Results of thyroidectomy in 101 cats with hyperthyroidism. (United States)

    Naan, Elaine C; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Kooistra, Hans S; Peeters, Marijke E


    To describe outcome after thyroidectomy in hyperthyroid cats, with emphasis on peri- and postsurgical complications and recurrence. Retrospective study. One hundred and one hyperthyroid cats. Diagnostic work-up included preoperative measurement of plasma calcium, sodium, potassium, urea, and creatinine concentrations, and thyroid scintigraphy. A modified intracapsular dissection technique was performed. Postoperatively, parathyroid gland function was evaluated by measuring plasma calcium concentration several times daily. Outcome was obtained by standard telephone questionnaire. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed ectopic hyperplastic thyroid tissue (EHTT) in 9 cats. Preoperatively, 29 of 91 cats had hypokalemia. Two cats died within 3 days after surgery and 5 of 86 cats developed postoperative transient hypocalcemia. On histologic examination, thyroid carcinoma was identified in 3 of 88 cats. Hyperthyroidism recurred in 5 cats between 3 and 59 months; 4 of these cats had EHTT preoperatively. The difference in recurrence rate between hyperthyroid cats with and without EHTT was significant (P<.001). Complications were uncommon after thyroidectomy performed by an experienced surgeon when combined with an anesthetic regimen associated with minimal adverse cardiovascular effects. Hyperthyroid cats with EHTT had a significantly higher chance of recurrence. Thyroidectomy is associated with a low incidence of surgical complications and is an effective treatment for hyperthyroid cats when radioactive iodine therapy is not available. Preoperative thyroid scintigraphy is advised. Surgery is not recommended when EHTT is present, because of a higher chance of developing recurrent disease.

  8. The effect of keeping pet dogs and cats on Toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    esmaeel Fallah


    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, much of the dogs and cats owners were exposed to parasite. Training of dogs and cats owners, promotion of their awareness about various ways of transmission and examination of the infections in dogs and cats and prevention of these infections are recommended.

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka (United States)

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...

  10. Purified natural and recombinant Fel d 1 and cat albumin in in vitro diagnostics for cat allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Bulder, I.; Bond, J.; Aalberse, R. C.


    Current diagnostics and therapeutics for cat allergy are based on cat epithelial extracts originating from highly variable source materials. This gives rise to several problems: variability of allergen composition, contamination with house dust mite allergens, and potential transfer of pathogenic

  11. Limited sampling pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous ondansetron in healthy geriatric cats, cats with chronic kidney disease, and cats with liver disease. (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, R L; Wittenburg, L A; Hansen, R J; Gustafson, D L; Quimby, J M


    Ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, is an effective anti-emetic in cats. The purpose of this study was to compare pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous (SQ) ondansetron in healthy geriatric cats to cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or liver disease using a limited sampling strategy. 60 cats participated; 20 per group. Blood was drawn 30 and 120 min following one 2 mg (mean 0.49 mg/kg, range 0.27-1.05 mg/kg) SQ dose of ondansetron. Ondansetron concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Drug exposure represented as area under the curve (AUC) was predicted using a limited sampling approach based on multiple linear regression analysis from previous full sampling studies, and clearance (CL/F) estimated using noncompartmental methods. Kruskal-Wallis anova was used to compare parameters between groups. Mean AUC (ng/mL·h) of subcutaneous ondansetron was 301.4 (geriatric), 415.2 (CKD), and 587.0 (liver). CL/F (L/h/kg) of SQ ondansetron was 1.157 (geriatric), 0.967 (CKD), and 0.795 (liver). AUC was significantly higher in liver and CKD cats when compared to geriatric cats (P cats was significantly decreased (P cats. In age-matched subset analysis, AUC and CL/F in liver cats remained significantly different from geriatric cats. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Katkor cat litter, a non-invasive method of collecting cat urine for phosphate determination. (United States)

    Delport, P C; Fourie, L J


    This study was done to compare the collection of cat urine, for phosphate concentration determination, by catheterisation with that via a proprietary cat litter (Katkor). The passage of urine through the litter or its retention in the litter for a period of 2 hours did not affect the concentration of phosphates compared with that of the original sample. Apart from a small volume of urine trapped in the litter by capillary action, and some urine adhering to the funnel in which the litter was placed, the litter proved to be an excellent medium for routine urine collection from cats, and more especially as an alternative to catheterisation when regular collection from a particular cat is required.


    Abstract Since the introduction of brominated flame retardants (such as the PBDEs), increases in feline hyperthyroidism have been observed. We hypothesized that PBDE exposure was linked to the increased occurrence of hyperthyroidism in cats. Herein, PBDEs in serum of pet ...

  14. Meson-nucleus potentials and the search for meson-nucleus bound states (United States)

    Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Paryev, E. Ya.


    Recent experiments studying the meson-nucleus interaction to extract meson-nucleus potentials are reviewed. The real part of the potentials quantifies whether the interaction is attractive or repulsive while the imaginary part describes the meson absorption in nuclei. The review is focused on mesons which are sufficiently long-lived to potentially form meson-nucleus quasi-bound states. The presentation is confined to meson production off nuclei in photon-, pion-, proton-, and light-ion induced reactions and heavy-ion collisions at energies near the production threshold. Tools to extract the potential parameters are presented. In most cases, the real part of the potential is determined by comparing measured meson momentum distributions or excitation functions with collision model or transport model calculations. The imaginary part is extracted from transparency ratio measurements. Results on K+ ,K0 ,K- , η ,η‧ , ω, and ϕ mesons are presented and compared with theoretical predictions. The interaction of K+ and K0 mesons with nuclei is found to be weakly repulsive, while the K- , η ,η‧ , ω and ϕ meson-nucleus potentials are attractive, however, with widely different strengths. Because of meson absorption in the nuclear medium the imaginary parts of the meson-nucleus potentials are all negative, again with a large spread. An outlook on planned experiments in the charm sector is given. In view of the determined potential parameters, the criteria and chances for experimentally observing meson-nucleus quasi-bound states are discussed. The most promising candidates appear to be the η and η‧ mesons.

  15. Mammary Hypertrophy in an Ovariohysterectomized Cat


    Pukay, B.P.; Stevenson, D.A.


    A four year old ovariohysterectomized domestic short-haired cat under treatment for behavioral urine spraying and idiopathic alopecia developed mammary gland hypertrophy following treatment with megestrol acetate. Withdrawal of the progestin and treatment with androgen failed to cause regression of the hypertrophy. The affected mammary gland was surgically excised and recovery was uneventful.

  16. Design of a Competency Administration Toolset (CAT) (United States)


    email, SharePoint , printed reports, etc.) p. Is there a documented process that the CAT team can review to better understand the interactions with...schedule, task statement, etc.) i. What tools are used to create those deliverables? ii. Where and how are those deliverables stored? SharePoint

  17. Schrödinger's Cat States

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 2. Schrödinger's Cat States. A N Maheshwari V P Srivastava. Research News Volume 3 Issue 2 February 1998 pp 79-82. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  18. Nutrition and oxalate metabolism in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.


    Over the past 30 years, a progressive increase in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith prevalence is reported in cats and dogs diagnosed with urolithiasis. This increase in prevalence appears to have occurred since dietary modifications were introduced to address magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

  19. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire (United States)

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen


    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of…

  20. Phenotypic variability of cat-eye syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, MJW; Tan-Sindhunata, G; Leegte, B; Van Essen, AJ


    Cat-Eye syndrome (CES) is a disorder with a variable pattern of multiple congenital anomalies of which coloboma of the iris and anal atresia are the best known. CES is cyogenetically characterised by the presence of an extra bisatellited marker chromosome, which represents an inverted dicentric

  1. Dermatophilus congolensis in a feral cat. (United States)

    Barger, Anne M; Weedon, G Robert; Maddox, Carol W; Galloway, Kimberly A


    A young adult feral cat presented to the Champaign County Humane Society with a subcutaneous mass near the stifle. The mass was aspirated. Chains of paired cocci organisms were identified, consistent with Dermatophilus congolensis. The identity of these organisms was confirmed by culture and polymerase chain reaction. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  2. Benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin A Villamizar-Martinez


    Full Text Available Case summary A 10-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented for assessment of a gingival mass surrounding the left maxillary third and fourth premolar teeth. The mass was surgically removed by means of a marginal rim excision, and the tissue was submitted for histological assessment. It was identified as a benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma. There was proliferation of mineralized eosinophilic material with multiple irregularly placed lacunae and reversal lines, reminiscent of cementum. The cat recovered uneventfully from the anesthesia, and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence 6 months after surgery. Relevance and novel information Cementoblastomas (true cementomas in domestic animals are rare, with just a few reports in ruminants, monogastric herbivores and rodents. Cementoblastoma is considered a benign tumor that arises from the tooth root. The slow, expansive and constant growth that characterizes these masses may be accompanied by signs of oral discomfort and dysphagia. This case report is intended to increase knowledge regarding this tumor in cats and also highlights the importance of complete excision of the neoplasm. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports in the literature of cementoblastoma in the cat.

  3. Experimental Salmonella-associated conjunctivitis in cats.


    Fox, J G; Beaucage, C M; Murphy, J C; Niemi, S M


    Cats were infected experimentally with Salmonella typhimurium via the conjunctiva. Clinical signs consisted of lacrimation, conjunctivitis, blepharospasm, prominent nictitating membrane and scleral injection. These signs were accompanied by an absolute neutrophilia and conjunctival smears indicative of moderate to severe suppurative inflammation. Ocular signs disappeared by day 6 postinfection. Salmonella typhimurium was cultured intermittently from the inoculated conjunctivae and rectal swab...

  4. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading About Recipes for Kids With Diabetes Can ... Do I Help a Kid Who's Bullied? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a ...

  5. The antihypertensive effect of amlodipine in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Morar,


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of amlodipine on blood pressure and renal function in cats with arterial hypertension secondary to chronic renal failure. The research was conducted on 11 cats, aged between 7 and 14.5 years, diagnosed with arterial hypertension secondary to chronic renal failure. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MBP and pulse rate were determined by oscillometric method, before and after 7, 30 or 120 days of treatment with amlodipine. At the beginning of treatment, all cats were receiving 0.625 mg amlodipine once daily and after 7 days oftreatment, in five cats, the dose was increased to 1.25 mg amlodipine, once daily. Before amlodipine administration the mean values of SBP/DBP were 175 ± 13.2 mmHg/119 ± 7.2 mmHg and after 30 days of treatment, the mean values of the SBP/DBP were reduced by 27.9/25.4 mmHg (p<0,001. After 120 days of treatment with amlodipine mean values of SBP/DBP were lower with 32/31 mmHg compared with baseline values (p<0.001. The treatment with amlodipine did not significantly affect the values of blood biochemical parameters of renal profile.

  6. A cross-species alignment tool (CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Liang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main two sorts of automatic gene annotation frameworks are ab initio and alignment-based, the latter splitting into two sub-groups. The first group is used for intra-species alignments, among which are successful ones with high specificity and speed. The other group contains more sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. Results Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool. It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web at Conclusions Examined from different angles, CAT outperforms other extant alignment tools. Tested against all available mouse-human and zebrafish-human orthologs, we demonstrate that CAT combines the specificity and speed of the best intra-species algorithms, like BLAT and sim4, with the sensitivity of the best inter-species tools, like GeneWise.

  7. CT findings in two cats with broncholithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Byrne


    Full Text Available Case series summary Chronic inflammatory airway disease with secondary broncholithiasis was diagnosed in two cats from CT and bronchoalveolar lavage cytological findings. In one cat with progressively worsening lower respiratory tract signs, more than 80 discrete, highly attenuating endobronchial opacities were detected on thoracic CT. The broncholiths were distributed throughout the right middle, and left and right caudal lung lobes, and the caudal part of the left cranial and accessory lobes. In the other cat broncholithiasis was an incidental finding on thoracic radiographs taken during diagnostic investigation of inappetence. On thoracic CT, 25 calcified endobronchial opacities were detected in the left caudal lung lobe in secondary and tertiary bronchi. CT features of chronic inflammatory airway disease were present in both cases, including bronchiectasis, atelectasis, flattening of the diaphragm and bronchial wall thickening. Relevance and novel information This is the first report to document CT features of broncholithiasis in cats. Feline broncholithiasis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in any case where calcified endobronchial material is evident on thoracic radiographs or CT.

  8. Benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma) in a cat. (United States)

    Villamizar-Martinez, Lenin A; Reiter, Alexander M; Sánchez, Melissa D; Soltero-Rivera, Maria M


    A 10-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented for assessment of a gingival mass surrounding the left maxillary third and fourth premolar teeth. The mass was surgically removed by means of a marginal rim excision, and the tissue was submitted for histological assessment. It was identified as a benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma). There was proliferation of mineralized eosinophilic material with multiple irregularly placed lacunae and reversal lines, reminiscent of cementum. The cat recovered uneventfully from the anesthesia, and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence 6 months after surgery. Cementoblastomas (true cementomas) in domestic animals are rare, with just a few reports in ruminants, monogastric herbivores and rodents. Cementoblastoma is considered a benign tumor that arises from the tooth root. The slow, expansive and constant growth that characterizes these masses may be accompanied by signs of oral discomfort and dysphagia. This case report is intended to increase knowledge regarding this tumor in cats and also highlights the importance of complete excision of the neoplasm. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports in the literature of cementoblastoma in the cat.

  9. Aspects of Coulomb dissociation and interference in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystrand, Joakim; Baltz, Anthony; Klein, Spencer R.


    Coherent vector meson production in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. These interactions may occur for impact parameters much larger than the sum of the nuclear radii. Since the vector meson production is always localized to one of the nuclei, the system acts as a two-source interferometer in the transverse plane. By tagging the outgoing nuclei for Coulomb dissociation it is possible to obtain a measure of the impact parameter and thus the source separation in the interferometer. This is of particular interest since the life-time of the vector mesons are generally much shorter than the impact parameters of the collisions.

  10. Cat admissions to RSPCA shelters in Queensland, Australia: description of cats and risk factors for euthanasia after entry. (United States)

    Alberthsen, C; Rand, J S; Bennett, P C; Paterson, M; Lawrie, M; Morton, J M


    A lack of information limits understanding of the excess cat problem and development of effective management strategies. This study describes cats entering Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Queensland shelters and identifies risk factors for euthanasia. Data for cats entering relevant shelters (July 2006-June 2008) were obtained from the RSPCA's electronic database. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for euthanasia. Of 33,736 cats admitted, 46% were adult cats (≥3 months) and 54% were kittens (<3 months). The most common reason for admission was stray (54%), followed by owner surrender (44%). Euthanasia was the most common outcome (65%), followed by adoption (30%). The odds of euthanasia were lower for kittens and for cats that were desexed prior to admission. Of the strays, 8% had been desexed. For cats of similar age, sex, desexed and feral status, stray cats were more likely to be adopted than owner-surrenders. Strategies are needed to reduce numbers of cats admitted and euthanased. Given the high proportion of admissions that were kittens, reducing the incidence of delayed sterilisation of owned cats may be an important strategy for reducing the number of unwanted kittens. Many cats admitted as strays were rehomable, but given the high proportion of admissions that are strays, further research on stray populations is needed. Future studies of cats entering shelters would be enhanced if data collection definitions, categories and methods were standardised. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. Evaluating Sucralfate as a Phosphate Binder in Normal Cats and Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease. (United States)

    Quimby, Jessica; Lappin, Michael


    Control of hyperphosphatemia is an important part of the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of sucralfate as a phosphate binder in normal cats and normophosphatemic CKD cats. A 500 mg sucralfate slurry was administered orally q 8 hr for 2 wk, and serum phosphorus, urine fractional excretion of phosphorus, and fecal phosphorus concentrations were measured. In normal cats treated with sucralfate, significant changes in serum phosphorus concentration or urinary excretion of phosphorus were not detected, and vomiting occurred after 14.7% of administrations. Of the five normophosphatemic cats with CKD treated with sucralfate, three experienced clinical decompensation, including vomiting, anorexia, constipation, and increased azotemia. Administration of sucralfate did not result in significant changes in fecal phosphorus concentration in these cats. The effects of sucralfate administration on serum phosphorus concentration and urinary excretion of phosphorus in CKD cats was difficult to determine because of dehydration and worsening azotemia associated with decompensation. Due to side effects and the apparent lack of efficacy of the medication, the study was discontinued. This study was unable to confirm efficacy of this sucralfate formulation as a phosphate binder, and side effects were problematic during the study.

  12. An experimental study on cerebral paragonimiasis using cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seon Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Han, Moon Hee; Shin, Yong Moon; Choo, Sung Wook; Yu, In Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seung Yull; Kong, Yoon [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    It is important to diagnosis paragonimiasis in early active because it can be dared by chemotherapy. However, it is difficult to make a correct diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis in the early active stage, and the radiographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis have been rarely reported. Thus, this experimental study was designed to produce early active cerebral paragonimiasis and to demonstrate radiologic-pathologic correlations. In 8 cats, 7-8 metacercariae of Paragonimus Westermani were directly introduced into brain parenchyma of each cat's after trephination of the skull. In another 16 cats, the juvenile worms and the adult worms that had developed for varying periods (2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks) in the lunges of another cats were introduced into the brain parenchyma of each cat's with the same procedure described above. Follow -up MR images and chest radiographs were obtained at 2 days, 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after inoculation. The autopsies and histopathological examinations of the cat's brain were undertaken in 22 cats. In 9 cats that were suspected with pulmonary lesion on chest radiograph, the soft tissue radiographs of inflated-fixed lungs were obtained. In one cat with inoculation of adult worm, acute suppurative inflammation of the brain parenchyma was demonstrated. But the other cats with inoculation of adult worm or juvenile worm and the cats with intentional of metacercaris did not reveal any evidence of acute cerebral paragonimiasis. More than half of the introduce metacercariae (5 out of 8 cats) were found in the lung parenchyma, while only 25% (4 out of 16 cats) of the adult worm inoculated cats were. Acute suppurative inflammation suggesting acute stage cerebral paragonimiasis was obtained in one case of adult worm inoculated cat. Most of the inoculated metacercariae and some of the juvenile worms or adult worms were migrated to the lungs.

  13. An exceptionally bright, compact starburst nucleus (United States)

    Margon, Bruce; Anderson, Scott F.; Mateo, Mario; Fich, Michel; Massey, Philip


    Observations are reported of a remarkably bright (V about 13) starburst nucleus, 0833 + 652, which has been detected at radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths. Despite an observed flux at each of these wavelengths which is comparable to that of NGC 7714, often considered the 'prototypical' example of the starburst phenomenon, 0833 + 652 appears to be a previously uncataloged object. Its ease of detectability throughout the electromagnetic spectrum should make it useful for a variety of problems in the study of compact emission-line galaxies.

  14. Lectures on the theory of the nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Sitenko, Aleksej Grigorevich


    Provides an advanced and up-to-date account of the theory of nuclear structure and discusses in considerable detail both the superfluid and collective models of the nucleus, in addition to earlier complementary models and theories. The book also examines other important topics such as the rotational and vibrational spectra of nuclei which have not previously been treated in such depth. To summarize, it covers a large amount of theoretical ground in one volume and attempts to fill a serious gap in the literature. Many problems are included

  15. Contemporary models of the atomic nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Nemirovskii, P E


    Contemporary Models of the Atomic Nucleus discusses nuclear structure and properties, expounding contemporary theoretical concepts of the low-energy nuclear processes underlying in nuclear models. This book focuses on subjects such as the optical nuclear model, unified or collective model, and deuteron stripping reaction. Other topics discussed include the basic nuclear properties; shell model; theoretical analysis of the shell model; and radiative transitions and alpha-decay. The deuteron theory and the liquid drop nuclear model with its application to fission theory are also mentioned, but o

  16. Experimental Infection of Cats and Dogs with West Nile Virus


    Austgen, Laura E.; Bowen, Richard A.; Bunning, Michel L.; Davis, Brent S.; Mitchell, Carl J.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.


    Domestic dogs and cats were infected by mosquito bite and evaluated as hosts for West Nile virus (WNV). Viremia of low magnitude and short duration developed in four dogs but they did not display signs of disease. Four cats became viremic, with peak titers ranging from 103.0 to 104.0 PFU/mL. Three of the cats showed mild, non-neurologic signs of disease. WNV was not isolated from saliva of either dogs or cats during the period of viremia. An additional group of four cats were exposed to WNV o...

  17. Subcutaneous hemangiosarcoma induced by a foreign body (steel staple) in a cat. (United States)

    Tan, Rommel Max; Singh, Kuldeep; Sandman, Kristi


    An 8-year-old, female domestic shorthair cat was presented with a ventral abdominal subcutaneous mass. A radiograph showed that the center of the mass contained what appeared to be steel sutures, presumed to be from an ovariohysterectomy performed 7 years earlier. The excised mass was irregular and contained numerous pockets filled with friable necrotic material and hemorrhages that were dissected by fibrous connective tissue bands. Multiple tangled and fragmented pieces of steel staples were deeply embedded within the mass. Histologically, the mass was non-encapsulated, densely cellular, and infiltrative. Neoplastic cells lined caverns and channels and were factor VIII-positive by immunohistochemistry. The neoplastic cells were oval to round with granular cytoplasm and vesicular nucleus and exhibited moderate cellular and nuclear pleomorphism. A diagnosis of subcutaneous hemangiosarcoma was made. To our knowledge, this is the first report of foreign body associated hemangiosarcoma and the first case of steel staple associated neoplasm in domestic animals.

  18. Anatomical study of the final common pathway for vocalization in the cat (United States)

    Holstege, Gert


    Results are presented of an anatomical study of the neuronal pathways in the cat, via which the periaqueductal gray (PAG) produces excitation of motoneurons involved in vocalization. It is shown that a specific cell group in the lateral part of the caudal PAG and in the tegmentum just lateral to it projects bilaterally to the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) in the caudal medulla oblongata. Neurons in the NRA in turn project, via a contralateral pathway through the ventral funiculus of the spinal cord, to the motoneuronal cell groups innervating intercostal and abdominal muscles. In the brainstem, the NRA neurons project to the motoneuronal cell groups innervating mouth-opening and perioral muscles as well as to motoneurons innervating the pharynx, soft palate, and tongue. These results indicate that the projections from PAG via NRA to vocalization motoneurons form the final common pathway in vocalization.

  19. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nils Peterson

    Full Text Available Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs and bird conservation professionals (BCPs across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators. Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.

  20. Post-anesthetic cortical blindness in cats: twenty cases. (United States)

    Stiles, J; Weil, A B; Packer, R A; Lantz, G C


    The medical records of 20 cats with post-anesthetic cortical blindness were reviewed. Information collected included signalment and health status, reason for anesthesia, anesthetic protocols and adverse events, post-anesthetic visual and neurological abnormalities, clinical outcome, and risk factors. The vascular anatomy of the cat brain was reviewed by cadaver dissections. Thirteen cats were anaesthetised for dentistry, four for endoscopy, two for neutering procedures and one for urethral obstruction. A mouth gag was used in 16/20 cats. Three cats had had cardiac arrest, whereas in the remaining 17 cases, no specific cause of blindness was identified. Seventeen cats (85%) had neurological deficits in addition to blindness. Fourteen of 20 cats (70%) had documented recovery of vision, whereas four (20%) remained blind. Two cats (10%) were lost to follow up while still blind. Ten of 17 cats (59%) with neurological deficits had full recovery from neurological disease, two (12%) had mild persistent deficits and one (6%) was euthanased as it failed to recover. Four cats (23%) without documented resolution of neurological signs were lost to follow up. Mouth gags were identified as a potential risk factor for cerebral ischemia and blindness in cats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Toggle rod stabilisation of coxofemoral luxation in 14 cats. (United States)

    Pratesi, A; Grierson, J; Moores, A P


    To describe the surgical technique and to report outcomes in cats with coxofemoral luxation treated with open reduction and toggle rod stabilisation. Retrospective study of cats with coxofemoral luxation stabilised via the toggle rod method. Short-term follow-up included clinical examination and radiographs. Long-term follow-up was via owner questionnaire. Fourteen cats were included. All of the cats had reported unilateral craniodorsal hip luxation. Nine cats (64·3%) had additional orthopaedic injuries. Luxations were stabilised with a 3·2-mm toggle rod (2·7-mm toggle rod in one cat) and two loops of four-metric polydioxanone (five-metric polydioxanone in one cat and three loops of four-metric polydioxanone in two cats). Success rate, in terms of maintenance of reduction, was 86%. Reluxation occurred in two cats (14%), both of which had multiple limb injuries. Eleven owner questionnaires (mean follow-up time 15·5 months) reported a functional outcome of "very good" to "excellent". Although the diameter of the pelvic canal was reduced by the presence of the toggle rod (mean narrowing 16.2%), none of the cats had defaecatory issues. Toggle rod stabilisation is an effective method for the treatment of coxofemoral luxation in cats. Injuries to multiple limbs may be a risk factor for reluxation. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Sensitivity of fecal occult blood testing in the cat. (United States)

    Rudinsky, Adam J; Guillaumin, Julien; Gilor, Chen


    Objectives The impact of dietary factors on fecal occult blood (FOB) testing has been previously evaluated in cats, but the analytical sensitivity of this point-of-care test remains unexamined. The primary goal of this study was to assess the analytical sensitivity of the FOB test in cats. Methods Five cats were used in a repeated measures study. Following oral administration of blood, feces were collected and tested every 12 h for FOB and melena. All cats were fed an animal protein-free diet starting the week before entry into the study. Blood was administered on a milligram of hemoglobin per kilogram of body weight basis, and dosed at 1.5, 3, 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg hemoglobin in series with a wash-out period between each trial. Results FOB was detected in one cat at 1.5 mg/kg hemoglobin, three cats at 3 mg/kg hemoglobin and in all five cats at 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg hemoglobin. Melena was noted in one cat at 30 mg/kg and four cats at 45 mg/kg, but not at lower doses. Conclusions and relevance Administration of 15 mg/kg hemoglobin (equivalent to about 1.5 ml blood) was sufficient for positive results in all cats. However, detection occurred with as little as 1.5 mg/kg hemoglobin. Thus, FOB has good analytical sensitivity in cats under appropriate clinical situations.

  3. [Spontaneous pneumothorax in cats: two case reports and literature review]. (United States)

    Manchi, George; Jarolmasjed, Seyedhosein; Brunnberg, Mathias; Shahid, Muhammad; Rehbein, Sina; Stein, Silke; Gruber, Achim D; Brunnberg, Leo


    Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) is a non-traumatic accumulation of air in the pleural cavity. This case report describes a cat with SP as a result of primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma. A second cat was diagnosed with primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma and asthma. A thoracostomy tube was inserted in the first cat while in the second cat a thoracostomy tube was placed and lobectomy of the right cranial and middle lung lobes was performed. Both cats died following treatment. The current literature reviewed here covers the comparative etiologies of SP as well as clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, therapy and prognosis in cats. A total of 64 cases of cats with secondary spontaneous pneumothorax reported in nine articles are discussed. To our knowledge, there has been no previous description in the literature regarding primary SP in cats. Based on prior case reports, surgery was performed in 16% (10 cats) of SP cases. The current review demonstrates that depending on the underlying lung disease, cats with SP have a careful short-term prognosis because 39 of 64 cats (60%) were discharged.

  4. Comparative serological investigation between cat and tiger blood for transfusion. (United States)

    Thengchaisri, Naris; Sinthusingha, Chayakrit; Arthitwong, Surapong; Sattasathuchana, Panpicha


    Evidence suggests that non-domesticated felids inherited the same AB-erythrocyte antigens as domestic cats. To study the possible compatibility of tiger blood with that of other endangered felidae, blood samples from captive tigers and domestic cats were subjected to an in vitro study. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify whether the captive tigers had blood type AB and (2) determine the compatibility between the blood of captive tigers and that of domestic cats with a similar blood type. The anti-coagulated blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid of 30 tigers was examined to determine blood type, and a crossmatching test was performed between tiger and cat blood. All 30 tigers had blood type A. Tube agglutination tests using tiger plasma with cat erythrocytes resulted in 100% agglutination (n=30) with type B cat erythrocytes and 76.7% agglutination (n=23) with type A cat erythrocytes. The 80% of major and 60% of minor compatibilities between blood from 10 tigers and 10 domestic cats with blood type A were found to pass compatibility tests. Interestingly, 3/10 of the tigers' red blood cell samples were fully compatible with all cat plasmas, and 1/10 of the tiger plasma samples were fully compatible with the type A red cells of domestic cats. Although the result of present findings revealed type-A blood group in the surveyed tigers, the reaction of tiger plasma with Type-A red cell from cats suggested a possibility of other blood type in tigers.

  5. Probable vasovagal reaction following cystocentesis in two cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesola Odunayo


    Full Text Available Case summary This case report describes an acute reaction, thought to be vagally mediated, in two cats immediately following cystocentesis. Both cats were being evaluated for feline idiopathic cystitis and developed bradycardia, hypersalivation, urination and weakness after a blind cystocentesis. Both cats recovered uneventfully with supportive care. Relevance and novel information A vagally mediated response may occur in cats after cystocentesis, which is a common procedure performed by veterinary professionals in cats. This response may be very profound and dramatic. Affected cats will likely make an uneventful recovery. This vagally mediated response to cystocentesis, though reported by word of mouth among veterinarians, has not been described in the literature. This is the first documentation of its occurrence in cats.

  6. Hypoglycemia associated with refeeding syndrome in a cat. (United States)

    DeAvilla, Marisa D; Leech, Elizabeth B


    To describe the clinical presentation and biochemical abnormalities occurring during the successful treatment of refeeding syndrome in a cat. A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat presented after having been missing for 12 weeks. The cat had clinical signs of severe starvation. Common complications developed during refeeding (eg, hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hemolytic anemia). The cat also developed hypoglycemia, a complication common in people but not previously reported in a cat. Hypoglycemia and electrolyte deficiencies were managed with intravenous supplementation. The cat was successfully treated and was discharged alive 7 days after presentation. Hypoglycemia has not been reported previously as a complication of refeeding in a cat. Frequent monitoring of electrolyte, mineral, and blood glucose concentrations is essential to successful management of refeeding syndrome. The ideal refeeding strategy is unknown at this time. Evidence suggests that a diet low in carbohydrate decreases the likelihood of metabolic derangements commonly associated with refeeding. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  7. The cat fur mite, Lynxacarus radovskyi Tenorio, 1974 (Acarina: Astigmata: Listrophoridae) from cat, Felis catus in peninsular Malaysia. (United States)

    Jeffery, J; Norhidayu, S; Mohd Zain, S N; Noor Hayati, M I; Nurazila, B


    The cat fur mite, Lynxacarus radovskyi Tenorio, 1974 (Acarina: Astigmata: Listrophoridae) is reported from cats, Felis catus from three sites in peninsular Malaysia. The first site is a Malay village, Kampong Menteri in Taiping, Perak, where the mites were found on local pet cats. The other two sites are urban cities of Kuala Lumpur, in the Federal Territory and Georgetown, in the island of Penang. Mites from the urban areas were collected from stray cats. Although several ectoparasites (fleas, mites, ticks and lice) have been previously reported, L. radovskyi is recorded herein for the first time on cats from peninsular Malaysia.

  8. Routine kidney variables, glomerular filtration rate and urinary cystatin C in cats with diabetes mellitus, cats with chronic kidney disease and healthy cats. (United States)

    Paepe, Dominique; Ghys, Liesbeth Fe; Smets, Pascale; Lefebvre, Hervé P; Croubels, Siska; Daminet, Sylvie


    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a frequent and serious complication in human diabetic patients, but data are limited in cats. This study was undertaken to assess whether diabetic cats are susceptible to DKD. Kidney function was compared between 36 cats with diabetes mellitus (DM), 10 cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 10 age-matched healthy cats by measuring routine kidney variables (serum creatinine [sCreat], serum urea [sUrea], urine specific gravity [USG], urinary protein:creatinine ratio [UPC]), urinary cystatin C:creatinine ratio and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Urinary cystatin C (uCysC) was measured with a human particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay, validated to measure feline cystatin C, in all but two diabetic cats. GFR was evaluated by exo-iohexol clearance in 17 diabetic cats, all cats with CKD and all healthy cats. Diabetic cats had significantly (mean ± SD) lower sCreat (123 ± 38 vs 243 ± 80 µmol/l), sUrea (11 ± 3 vs 18 ± 7 mmol/l) and urinary cystatin C:creatinine ratio (6 ± 31 vs 173 ± 242 mg/mol), and a significantly higher USG (1.033 ± 0.012 vs 1.018 ± 0.006) and GFR (2.0 ± 0.7 vs 0.8 ± 0.3 ml/min/kg) compared with cats with CKD. Compared with healthy cats, diabetic cats only had significantly lower USG (1.033 ± 0.012 vs 1.046 ± 0.008). Proteinuria (UPC >0.4) was present in 39% of diabetic cats, in 30% of cats with CKD and in none of the healthy cats. However, the UPC did not differ statistically between the three groups. Based on evaluation of routine kidney variables, GFR and uCysC as a tubular marker at a single time point, a major impact of feline DM on kidney function could not be demonstrated. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  9. Neurochemical organization of the nucleus paramedianus dorsalis in the human


    Baizer, Joan S.; Baker, James F.; Haas, Kristin; Lima, Raquel


    We have characterized the neurochemical organization of a small brainstem nucleus in the human brain, the nucleus paramedianus dorsalis (PMD). PMD is located adjacent and medial to the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (PH) in the dorsal medulla, and is distinguished by the pattern of immunoreactivity of cells and fibers to several markers including calcium-binding proteins, a synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide (neuronal nitric oxide synthase, nNOS) and a nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein (a...

  10. A comparison of cat-related risk perceptions and tolerance for outdoor cats in Florida and Hawaii. (United States)

    Wald, Dara M; Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Jacobson, Susan K; Cox, Linda J


    Risk perceptions and attitudes toward animals often explain tolerance for wildlife and management preferences. However, little is understood about how these relationships vary across different geographic regions and stakeholder groups. To address this gap in knowledge, we compared differences in acceptance capacity, risk perceptions, perceived enjoyment from outdoor cats, and experiences with outdoor cats among 3 groups (general public, conservation community, and animal-welfare community) in Hawaii and Florida, two states with large conservation challenges. We combined independently collected data from Florida and Hawaii, to determine how perception of the risks presented by outdoor cats, group membership, and state of residence influenced people's tolerance for outdoor cats. Florida respondents were significantly more tolerant of outdoor cats and less concerned about cat-related risks than Hawaii respondents (p < 0.05). In both states, animal-welfare group members reported greater enjoyment seeing cats and perceived a smaller increase in the cat population and lower levels of risk than other groups (p < 0.05). All groups exhibited similar relationships between acceptance capacity and enjoyment and the perceived increase in the cat population. Our results suggest public tolerance for cats varied due to the influence of local or geographical concerns, but that strongly held beliefs, risk perceptions, and feelings about cats explained more of the variance in stakeholder tolerance. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Matrix vaccination guidelines: 2015 ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries. (United States)

    Hosie, Margaret J; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin


    In 2013, the ABCD published 'Matrix vaccination guidelines: ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries' in a Special Issue of the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (Volume 15, Issue 7, pages 540-544). The ABCD's vaccination recommendations were presented in tabulated form, taking into account that there is no universal vaccination protocol for all cats. To support the veterinarian's decision making, recommendations for four lifestyles were made: for cats with outdoors access, cats kept solely indoors, rescue shelter cats and cats in breeding catteries. This update article follows the same approach, offering current and, where relevant, expanded recommendations. © Published by SAGE on behalf of ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  12. Electromyographic responses from the hindlimb muscles of the decerebrate cat to horizontal support surface perturbations. (United States)

    Honeycutt, Claire F; Gottschall, Jinger S; Nichols, T Richard


    The sensory and neural mechanisms underlying postural control have received much attention in recent decades but remain poorly understood. Our objectives were 1) to establish the decerebrate cat as an appropriate model for further research into the sensory mechanisms of postural control and 2) to observe what elements of the postural response can be generated by the brain stem and spinal cord. Ten animals were decerebrated using a modified premammillary technique, which consists of a premammillary decerebration that is modified with a vertical transection near the subthalamic nucleus to eliminate spontaneous locomotion. Horizontal support surface perturbations were applied to all four limbs and electromyographic recordings were collected from 14 muscles of the right hindlimb. Muscle activation was quantified with tuning curves, which compared increases and decreases in muscle activity to background and graphed the difference against perturbation direction. Parallels were drawn between these tuning curves, which were further quantified with a principal direction and breadth (range of directions of muscle activation), and data collected by other researchers from the intact animal. We found a strong similarity in the direction and breadth of the tuning curves generated in the decerebrate and intact cat. These results support our hypothesis that directionally specific tuning of muscles in response to support surface perturbations does not require the cortex, further indicating a strong role for the brain stem and spinal cord circuits in mediating directionally appropriate muscle activation patterns.

  13. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.

  14. ColCat: integrar para facilitar


    Bento, Filipe Manuel dos Santos


    ColCat ( sistema de pesquisa meta-bibliográfica distribuída; pesquisa simultânea e integrada nos catálogos de várias bibliotecas nacionais e estrangeiras de referência.Os motores de pesquisa na web têm a informação nas suas bases de dados limitada à web superficial (visible web), conjunto de páginas estáticas ou páginas cujo conteúdo é sempre o mesmo para uma determinada URL. Os diferentes conteúdos que uma página dinâmica pode ter, que variam de acordo com uma pesquisa o...

  15. Eigenvalue spacings for quantized cat maps

    CERN Document Server

    Gamburd, A; Rockmore, D


    According to one of the basic conjectures in quantum chaos, the eigenvalues of a quantized chaotic Hamiltonian behave like the spectrum of the typical member of the appropriate ensemble of random matrices. We study one of the simplest examples of this phenomenon in the context of ergodic actions of groups generated by several linear toral automorphisms - 'cat maps'. Our numerical experiments indicate that for 'generic' choices of cat maps, the unfolded consecutive spacing distribution in the irreducible components of the Nth quantization (given by the N-dimensional Weil representation) approaches the GOE/GSE law of random matrix theory. For certain special 'arithmetic' transformations, related to the Ramanujan graphs of Lubotzky, Phillips and Sarnak, the experiments indicate that the unfolded consecutive spacing distribution follows Poisson statistics; we provide a sharp estimate in that direction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhamad Fakhrul Ulum


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate Indonesian stray cat (KLI eyes by transpalpebrae B-mode ultrasound imaging. Eight healthy adult stray cats with 3.0-4.0 kg body weight were underwent of eyes ultrasound scanning without anesthesia or sedation. Linear ultrasound transducer with 7.5-15 MHz of frequency and ultrasound-gel were adhered directly to palpebral on the closed eyes. The results showed that the internal architecture of eyes was visible in different echogenicity according to the constituent of eyes structure. The sonograms with hypoechoic to hyperechoic parts of eyes were cornea, iris, cilliary body, suspensor ligament, sclera, and lens capsule. Moreover, anechoic parts of sonograms that having aqueous constituent were anterior chamber, posterior chamber, and vitreous humor. Based on the result, it can be concluded that B-mode ultrasound was able to assess the eyes through transpalpebral scanning.

  17. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado


    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  18. The contribution of cat owners' attitudes and behaviours to the free-roaming cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel. (United States)

    Finkler, Hilit; Terkel, Joseph


    The attitudes and behaviours of cat owners in regard to treatment of cats may have a cumulative effect on the food availability, reproduction, density and welfare of the free-roaming cat population and thus also on the extent of cat overpopulation. Understanding this is thus a vital step in the a priori planning of cat management programs on any scale, as well as in developing public education programs on this issue. Although recent years have seen an accumulation of knowledge in regard to cat owners' attitudes and behaviours, the findings vary among countries and locations and in Israel this has never been investigated systematically. Using a questionnaire provided to cat owners in veterinary clinics, this study aimed at identifying those attitudes and behaviours that may be contributing to cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel, and at exploring the socio-economic factors that influence this problem. The findings show that the influential factors can be predicted from the cat owners' socio-economic status, mainly education and income, as well as gender and age. A consistency in those cat owner behaviours that contribute to cat overpopulation was also uncovered, revealing a sub-population of individuals who persist in the undesirable behaviours. Finally, a strong relationship between attitude and consequent behaviour was demonstrated, indicating the importance of education and targeted publicity as a means to influence attitudes and thereby change behaviours in this respect. We propose several measures by which to reduce the current extent of cat owners' contribution to the cat overpopulation: discouraging unwanted owner behaviours such as abandonment of their cats and allowing them to breed; promoting awareness of the neutering option among cat caretakers; and increasing pre-adoption neutering rates in shelters. Regional and national laws promoting responsible pet ownership need to be enacted. By improving the current level of knowledge and awareness among cat

  19. Nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in 3D cell migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lingling, E-mail:; Luo, Qing, E-mail:; Sun, Jinghui, E-mail:; Song, Guanbin, E-mail:


    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Currently, accumulating data suggest that cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) environments show well-defined differences compared to their well-established two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. During 3D migration, the cell body and nucleus must deform to allow cellular passage through the available spaces, and the deformability of the relatively rigid nucleus may constitute a limiting step. Here, we highlight the key evidence regarding the role of the nuclear mechanics in 3D migration, including the molecular components that govern the stiffness of the nucleus and review how the nuclear dynamics are connected to and controlled by cytoskeleton-based migration machinery. Intriguingly, nuclear movement must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading and trailing edges, which in turn impact the cytoplasmic dynamics that affect the migration efficiency. Thus, we suggest that alterations in the nuclear structure may facilitate cellular reorganizations that are necessary for efficient migration. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representations of a cell migrating on a 2D substrate and a cell migrating in a 3D extracellular matrix environment. (A) Nucleus-cytoskeleton connections are essential to 3D migration. Mechanical signals are transduced by integrins at the cell surface and channeled to cytoskeletal proteins, which generates prestress. The nucleus-cytoskeleton connections can either act as a stable skeleton to anchor the nuclei or provide active force to move the nuclei. The LINC complex is responsible for the nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling. Nesprins connect the cytoskeletal proteins to the inner nuclear membrane proteins SUN1 and SUN2. The SUN proteins connect to the lamins that form the lamina, which attaches to the chromatin. This physical connectivity transmits the mechanical signals from receptors at

  20. Cefazolin pharmacokinetics in cats under surgical conditions. (United States)

    Albarellos, Gabriela A; Montoya, Laura; Passini, Sabrina M; Lupi, Martín P; Lorenzini, Paula M; Landoni, María F


    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the plasma pharmacokinetic profile, tissue concentrations and urine elimination of cefazolin in cats under surgical conditions after a single intravenous dose of 20 mg/kg. Methods Intravenous cefazolin (20 mg/kg) was administered to nine young mixed-breed cats 30 mins before they underwent surgical procedures (ovariectomy or orchiectomy). After antibiotic administration, samples from blood, some tissues and urine were taken. Cefazolin concentrations were determined in all biological matrices and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Results Initial plasma concentrations were high (Cp(0), 134.80 ± 40.54 µg/ml), with fast and moderately wide distribution (distribution half-life [t½(d)] 0.16 ± 0.15 h; volume of distribution at steady state [V(d[ss])] 0.29 ± 0.10 l/kg) and rapid elimination (body clearance [ClB], 0.21 ± 0.06 l/h/kg; elimination half-life [t½], 1.18 ± 0.27 h; mean residence time 1.42 ± 0.36 h). Thirty to 60 mins after intravenous administration, cefazolin tissue concentrations ranged from 9.24 µg/ml (subcutaneous tissue) to 26.44 µg/ml (ovary). The tissue/plasma concentration ratio ranged from 0.18 (muscle) to 0.58 (ovary). Cefazolin urine concentrations were high with 84.2% of the administered dose being eliminated in the first 6 h postadministration. Conclusions and relevance Cefazolin plasma concentrations remained above a minimum inhibitory concentration of ⩽2 µg/ml up to 4 h in all the studied cats. This suggests that a single intravenous dose of 20 mg/kg cefazolin would be adequate for perioperative prophylactic use in cats.

  1. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna S. Nagel


    Full Text Available A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C, had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  2. Mycobacterial panniculitis caused by in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Vishkautsan


    Full Text Available Case summary A domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for chronic, bilateral, ulcerative dermatitis affecting the inguinal region and lateral aspects of both pelvic limbs. Histopathologic examination of skin biopsies collected throughout the course of disease revealed chronic pyogranulomatous ulcerative dermatitis. Aerobic bacterial skin cultures yielded growth of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium amycolatum . Upon referral the clinical findings were suggestive of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species infection. Previously obtained skin cultures failed to yield growth of mycobacterial organisms. A deep skin biopsy was collected and submitted for mycobacterial culture. At 5 weeks of incubation Mycobacterium thermoresistibile was isolated. In previous reports, M thermoresistibile has been isolated after 2–4 days of incubation, suggesting that this strain may have been a slower growing variant, or other factors (such as prior antimicrobial therapy inhibited rapid growth of this isolate. The cat was hospitalized for intravenous antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement of wounds, vacuum-assisted wound closure therapy and reconstruction procedures. The wounds were ultimately primarily closed and the cat was discharged to the owner after 50 days of hospitalization. Seven months after hospitalization, the ulcerative skin lesions had healed. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, only two cases of M thermoresistibile panniculitis have been reported in cats. In the only detailed report of feline M thermoresistibile panniculitis, treatment was not attempted. The second case only reported detection of M thermoresistibile by PCR without a clinical description of the case. In our case report, severe chronic skin infection with M thermoresistibile was addressed using prolonged specific antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement and reconstructions, and treatment of secondary bacterial infections.

  3. Coastal Area Tactical-mapping System (CATS) (United States)


    in CATS and their roles WORK COMPLETED / RESULTS Shutter implementation: Previously, a protective film was placed over the face of the...maintain the tube’s sensitivity and extend the lifetime of the instrument. The removal of the protective film was, however, a time-consuming process as...for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Annual Conference (ASPRS) in Tampa, FL entitled “Receiver Design for a Photon-Counting Airborne Laser Swath

  4. Dogs and cats as environmental fall hazards. (United States)

    Stevens, Judy A; Teh, S L; Haileyesus, Tadesse


    Falls are the leading cause of non-fatal injuries in the United States. This study assessed the prevalence of fall injuries associated with cats and dogs in the United States and describes the types of injuries sustained, the location, activity, and circumstances under which they occurred. Data were from a nationally representative sample of emergency department visits from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2006, available through the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP). Based on 7,456 cases, an estimated 86,629 fall injuries each year were associated with cats and dogs, for an injury rate of 29.7. There were 7.5 times as many injuries involving dogs as cats and females were 2.1 times more likely to be injured than males. Injury rates were highest among people aged >/=75, but pets were a fall hazard for all ages. Fractures and contusions or abrasions were the most common injuries; the highest rates were for injuries to the extremities. About 66.4% of falls associated with cats and 31.3 % of falls associated with dogs were caused by falling or tripping over the pet. An additional 21.2% of falls related to dogs were caused by being pushed or pulled. Although pets were associated with fall injuries, this risk can be reduced by increasing public awareness about situations that can lead to falls, such as dog-walking and chasing pets, and by calling attention to the importance of obedience training for dogs to minimize hazardous behaviors such as pulling and pushing. Fall injuries represent a burden to individuals, our society and our health care system. Increasing public awareness and implementing basic prevention strategies can help people of all ages enjoy their pets, reduce their chances of experiencing pet-related falls, and lessen the impact of fall injuries on our health care system. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Endocrine emergencies in dogs and cats. (United States)

    Koenig, Amie


    Success in treatment of endocrine emergencies is contingent on early recognition and treatment. Many endocrine diseases presenting emergently have nonspecific signs and symptoms. In addition, these endocrine crises are often precipitated by concurrent disease, further making early identification difficult. This article concentrates on recognition and emergency management of the most common endocrine crises in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma) in a cat


    Lenin A Villamizar-Martinez; Reiter, Alexander M; Sánchez, Melissa D.; Soltero-Rivera, Maria M


    Case summary A 10-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented for assessment of a gingival mass surrounding the left maxillary third and fourth premolar teeth. The mass was surgically removed by means of a marginal rim excision, and the tissue was submitted for histological assessment. It was identified as a benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma). There was proliferation of mineralized eosinophilic material with multiple irregularly placed lacunae and reversal lines, reminis...

  7. Topical flurbiprofen toxicosis in a cat. (United States)

    Yi, Elizabeth M; Leech, Elizabeth


    To describe the clinical presentation and treatment of a cat with flurbiprofen toxicosis due to topical cream exposure. A 3-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat presented to an emergency and referral center for acute lethargy, hematemesis, and anemia. Severe azotemia was observed on serum biochemistry panel. The patient's anemia was treated with packed RBC transfusion, and treatment with crystalloid fluids, famotidine, pantoprazole, ampicillin, and sucralfate were begun on presentation. Anemia became intractable and the patient received multiple packed RBC and whole blood transfusions. Severe gastric ulcerations and duodenal perforation were confirmed via gastroduodenoscopy, and the patient was treated with surgical excision and repair of duodenal perforation. Azotemia resolved with IV fluid therapy, and anemia resolved following surgery. The patient recovered and was discharged after 9 days of hospitalization. The patient had likely been exposed to the owner's compounded pain relief cream containing 10% flurbiprofen. There was confirmation of flurbiprofen exposure via acid extraction urine analysis at a university toxicology laboratory. This is the first described case of flurbiprofen toxicosis due to topical cream exposure in a cat. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  8. Is Schrödinger's Cat Alive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani L. Bhaumik


    Full Text Available Erwin Schrödinger is famous for presenting his wave equation of motion that jump-started quantum mechanics. His disenchantment with the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics led him to unveil the Schrödinger's cat paradox, which did not get much attention for nearly half a century. In the meantime, disappointment with quantum mechanics turned his interest to biology facilitating, albeit in a peripheral way, the revelation of the structure of DNA. Interest in Schrödinger's cat has recently come roaring back making its appearance conspicuously in numerous scientific articles. From the arguments presented here, it would appear that the legendary Schrödinger's cat is here to stay, symbolizing a profound truth that quantum reality exists at all scales; but we do not observe it in our daily macroscopic world as it is masked for all practical purposes, most likely by environmental decoherence with irreversible thermal effects. Quanta 2017; 6: 70–80.

  9. Vitiligo susceptibility and catalase gene (CAT) polymorphisms in sicilian population. (United States)

    Caputo, Valentina; Niceta, Marcello; Fiorella, Santi; La Vecchia, Marco; Bastonini, Emanuela; Bongiorno, Maria R; Pistone, Giuseppe


    Catalase gene (CAT) polymorphisms were analyzed as responsible for the deficiency of catalase enzyme activity and concomitant accumulation of excessive hydrogen peroxide in Vitiligo patients. Catalase is a well known oxidative stress regulator that could play an important role in the pathogenesis of Vitiligo. This study was conducted to evaluate three CAT gene polymorphisms (-89A/T, 389C/T, 419C/T) and their association with Vitiligo susceptibility in Sicilian population. 60 out of 73 Sicilian patients with Vitiligo were enrolled and submitted to CAT gene analysis. Contrary to the Northern part of Europe but likewise to the Mediterranean area, the frequency of the CAT genotypes in Sicily is equally distributed. Out of all CAT genotypes, only CAT -89 T/T frequency was found to be significantly higher amongst Vitiligo patients than controls. Despite the involvement of the CAT enzyme in the pathogenesis of Vitiligo, the biological significance of CAT gene polymorphisms is still controversial. With the only exception for CAT variant -89A/T, the other studied CAT gene polymorphisms (389C/T and 419C/T) might not to be associated with Vitiligo in Sicilian population.

  10. Screening of ragdoll cats for kidney disease: a retrospective evaluation. (United States)

    Paepe, D; Saunders, J H; Bavegems, V; Paes, G; Peelman, L J; Makay, C; Daminet, S


    To assess the prevalence of renal abnormalities in ragdoll cats. Ragdoll breeders often warn clients to watch for future renal problems, mainly due to chronic interstitial nephritis and polycystic kidney disease. Therefore, ragdoll screening by abdominal ultrasonography, measurement of serum creatinine and urea concentrations and genetic testing is often performed without documented scientific evidence of increased risk of renal disease. Retrospective evaluation of ragdoll screening for renal disease at one institution over an eight-year period. Renal ultrasonography was performed in 244 healthy ragdoll cats. Seven cats were positive for polycystic kidney disease, 21 were suspected to have chronic kidney disease, 8 had abnormalities of unknown significance and 2 cats had only one visible kidney. Cats suspected to have chronic kidney disease were significantly older and had significantly higher serum urea and creatinine concentrations than cats with normal renal ultrasonography. All 125 genetically tested cats were negative for polycystic kidney disease. However, only one of the seven ultrasonographically positive cats underwent genetic testing for polycystic kidney disease. Ultrasonographic findings compatible with chronic kidney disease were observed in almost 10% of cats, and polycystic kidney disease occurred at a low prevalence (cats are predisposed to chronic kidney disease. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  11. Synaptic Contributions to Receptive Field Structure and Response Properties in the Rodent Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of the Thalamus. (United States)

    Suresh, Vandana; Çiftçioğlu, Ulaş M; Wang, Xin; Lala, Brittany M; Ding, Kimberly R; Smith, William A; Sommer, Friedrich T; Hirsch, Judith A


    Comparative physiological and anatomical studies have greatly advanced our understanding of sensory systems. Many lines of evidence show that the murine lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has unique attributes, compared with other species such as cat and monkey. For example, in rodent, thalamic receptive field structure is markedly diverse, and many cells are sensitive to stimulus orientation and direction. To explore shared and different strategies of synaptic integration across species, we made whole-cell recordings in vivo from the murine LGN during the presentation of visual stimuli, analyzed the results with different computational approaches, and compared our findings with those from cat. As for carnivores, murine cells with classical center-surround receptive fields had a "push-pull" structure of excitation and inhibition within a given On or Off subregion. These cells compose the largest single population in the murine LGN (∼40%), indicating that push-pull is key in the form vision pathway across species. For two cell types with overlapping On and Off responses, which recalled either W3 or suppressed-by-contrast ganglion cells in murine retina, inhibition took a different form and was most pronounced for spatially extensive stimuli. Other On-Off cells were selective for stimulus orientation and direction. In these cases, retinal inputs were tuned and, for oriented cells, the second-order subunit of the receptive field predicted the preferred angle. By contrast, suppression was not tuned and appeared to sharpen stimulus selectivity. Together, our results provide new perspectives on the role of excitation and inhibition in retinothalamic processing. We explored the murine lateral geniculate nucleus from a comparative physiological perspective. In cat, most retinal cells have center-surround receptive fields and push-pull excitation and inhibition, including neurons with the smallest (highest acuity) receptive fields. The same is true for thalamic relay cells

  12. Risk factors of different hemoplasma species infections in cats. (United States)

    Bergmann, Michèle; Englert, Theresa; Stuetzer, Bianca; Hawley, Jennifer R; Lappin, Michael R; Hartmann, Katrin


    Hemoplasma species (spp.) commonly cause infections in cats worldwide. However, data on risk factors for infections are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hemoplasma spp. infections in cats in Southern Germany and to assess risk factors associated with infection. DNA was extracted from blood samples of 479 cats presented to different veterinary hospitals for various reasons. DNA of feline hemoplasmas was amplified by use of a previously reported PCR assay. Direct sequencing was used to confirm all purified amplicons and compared to hemoplasma sequences reported in GenBank. Results were evaluated in relation to the age, sex, housing conditions, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) status of the cats. The overall hemoplasma prevalence rate was 9.4% (45/479; 95% CI: 7.08-12.36). 'Candidatus Mycoplasma (M.) haemominutum' (Mhm) DNA was amplified from 42 samples, M. haemofelis from 2, and M. haemocanis from 1 sample. There was a significantly higher risk of hemoplasma infection in cats from multi-cat households, in outdoor cats, as well as in cats with FIVinfection and in cats with abortive FeLV infection, but not in cats with progressive or regressive FeLV infection. Mhm infection is common in cats in Southern Germany. Higher prevalence in multi-cat households and associations with FeLV infection likely reflect the potential for direct transmission amongst cats. Outdoor access, male gender, and FIV infection are additional risk factors that might relate to aggressive interactions and exposure to vectors.

  13. Development of the cat-owner relationship scale (CORS). (United States)

    Howell, Tiffani J; Bowen, Jonathan; Fatjó, Jaume; Calvo, Paula; Holloway, Anna; Bennett, Pauleen C


    Characteristics of the human-animal bond can be influenced by both owner-related and pet-related factors, which likely differ between species. Three studies adapted the Monash Dog-Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) to permit assessment of human-cat interactions as perceived by the cat's owner. In Study 1293 female cat owners completed a modified version of the MDORS, where 'dog' was replaced with 'cat' for all items. Responses were compared with a matched sample of female dog owners. A partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed systematic differences between cat and dog owners in the Dog (Cat)-Owner Interaction subscale (MDORS subscale 1), but not for Perceived Emotional Closeness or Perceived Costs (Subscales 2 and 3). Study 2 involved analysis of free-text descriptions of cat-owner interactions provided by 61 female cat owners. Text mining identified key words which were used to create additional questions for a new Cat-Owner Interaction subscale. In Study 3, the resulting cat-owner relationship scale (CORS) was tested in a group of 570 cat owners. The main psychometric properties of the scale, including internal consistency and factor structure, were evaluated. We propose that this scale can be used to accurately assess owner perceptions of their relationship with their cat. A modified scale, combining items from the CORS and MDORS (a C/DORS), is also provided for when researchers would find it desirable to compare human-cat and human-dog interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Iron Status of Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease. (United States)

    Gest, J; Langston, C; Eatroff, A


    Iron deficiency is a proposed mechanism for the anemia that occurs in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Minimal research investigating the iron status of these cats has been performed. To compare indicators of iron status in cats with CKD versus healthy cats and cats with nonrenal illness (NRI). To compare indicators of iron status in anemic versus nonanemic cats with CKD. Thiry-nine client or employee owned healthy cats, 40 cats with CKD and 34 cats with NRI included. Exclusion criteria included prior iron or erythropoiesis stimulating agent administration, blood transfusion, or concurrent CKD and NRI. Complete blood counts, serum chemistries, serum iron concentrations, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and ferritin concentrations were measured and percent transferrin saturation (TSAT) calculated on all cats. Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistical testing. No statistically significant differences were detected among groups for iron concentration (P = .50), ferritin concentration (P = .47), or TSAT (P = .19). TIBC was significantly lower in CKD (median 262 μg/dL; IQR 233-302; range 165-488) versus healthy cats (median 316 μg/dL; IQR 272-345, range 196-464); (P = .0030). When comparing anemic (hemoglobin <9.5 g/dL) versus nonanemic cats with CKD, TSAT was significantly lower (P = .033) in anemic (median 20.2%; IQR 17.8-34.5; range 17.6-35.9) compared to nonanemic (median 29.0%; IQR 25.5-44.1; range 11.5-94.4). No statistically significant differences found for ferritin concentration (P = .94), iron concentration (P = .21) or TIBC (P = .97). These results indicate that an iron deficient state exists in anemic cats with CKD and is more likely functional rather than absolute. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Lateral bias and temperament in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris). (United States)

    McDowell, Louise J; Wells, Deborah L; Hepper, Peter G; Dempster, Martin


    Research points to a relationship between lateralization and emotional functioning in humans and many species of animal. The present study explored the association between paw preferences and emotional functioning, specifically temperament, in a species thus far overlooked in this area, the domestic cat. Thirty left-pawed, 30 right-pawed, and 30 ambilateral pet cats were recruited following an assessment of their paw preferences using a food-reaching challenge. The animals' temperament was subsequently assessed using the Feline Temperament Profile (FTP). Cats' owners also completed a purpose-designed cat temperament (CAT) scale. Analysis revealed a significant relationship between lateral bias and FTP and CAT scale scores. Ambilateral cats had lower positive (FTP+) scores, and were perceived as less affectionate, obedient, friendly, and more aggressive, than left or right-pawed animals. Left and right pawed cats differed significantly on 1 trait on the CAT scale, namely playfulness. The strength of the cats' paw preferences was related to the animals' FTP and CAT scores. Cats with a greater strength of paw preference had higher FTP+ scores than those with a weaker strength of paw preference. Animals with stronger paw preferences were perceived as more confident, affectionate, active, and friendly than those with weaker paw preferences. Results suggest that motor laterality in the cat is strongly related to temperament and that the presence or absence of lateralization has greater implications for the expression of emotion in this species than the direction of the lateralized bias. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P. (eds.)


    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta, has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  17. Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus. (United States)


    High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (4He), also known as the anti-α (α), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = -4). It has not been observed previously, although the α-particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B antimatter nuclei and a benchmark for possible future observations of 4He in cosmic radiation.

  18. Calcium microdomains in mitochondria and nucleus. (United States)

    Alonso, María Teresa; Villalobos, Carlos; Chamero, Pablo; Alvarez, Javier; García-Sancho, Javier


    Endomembranes modify the progression of the cytosolic Ca(2+) wave and contribute to generate Ca(2+) microdomains, both in the cytosol and inside the own organella. The concentration of Ca(2+) in the cytosol ([Ca(2+)](C)), the mitochondria ([Ca(2+)](M)) and the nucleus ([Ca(2+)](N)) are similar at rest, but may become very different during cell activation. Mitochondria avidly take up Ca(2+) from the high [Ca(2+)](C) microdomains generated during cell activation near Ca(2+) channels of the plasma membrane and/or the endomembranes and prevent propagation of the high Ca(2+) signal to the bulk cytosol. This shaping of [Ca(2+)](C) signaling is essential for independent regulation of compartmentalized cell functions. On the other hand, a high [Ca(2+)](M) signal is generated selectively in the mitochondria close to the active areas, which tunes up respiration to the increased local needs. The progression of the [Ca(2+)](C) signal to the nucleus may be dampened by mitochondria, the nuclear envelope or higher buffering power inside the nucleoplasm. On the other hand, selective [Ca(2+)](N) signals could be generated by direct release of stored Ca(2+) into the nucleoplasm. Ca(2+) release could even be restricted to subnuclear domains. Putative Ca(2+) stores include the nuclear envelope, their invaginations inside the nucleoplasm (nucleoplasmic reticulum) and nuclear microvesicles. Inositol trisphosphate, cyclic ADP-ribose and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate have all been reported to produce release of Ca(2+) into the nucleoplasm, but contribution of these mechanisms under physiological conditions is still uncertain.

  19. Contribution of the lateral lemniscus to the control of swallowing in decerebrate cats. (United States)

    Ota, R; Takakusaki, K; Katada, A; Harada, H; Nonaka, S; Harabuchi, Y


    Lateral lemniscus, a relay nucleus of auditory sensation, is involved in the control of phonatory movements such as human speech and vocalization of animals. The present study was designed to test whether neurons in the lateral lemniscus contributed to the control of swallowing, one of non-phonic oro-pharyngolaryngeal movements. In acutely decerebrated cats (n=15), swallowing was induced by electrical stimulation (20-80μA at 10Hz for 20s with rectangular pulses of 0.2ms duration) delivered to the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN). Repetitive electrical stimulation (30-50μA at 50Hz for 10-20s) applied to the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (LLD) increased the number and reduced the latency to the onset of the SLN-induced swallowing. On the other hand, stimulation of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and the paralemniscal area, corresponding to the ventrolateral part of the parabrachial nucleus and the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus, often suppressed the SLN-induced swallowing. Microinjection of NMDA (0.1-0.15μl, 5.0-10mM) into the LLD through a stereotaxically placed glass micropipette facilitated the SLN-induced swallowing, i.e., the number was increased and the latency of swallowing was reduced. We also injected muscimol (a gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA)A receptor agonist), bicuculline (a GABAA receptor antagonist) and baclofen (a GABAB receptor agonist) into the LLD (0.1-0.15μl and 5.0mM for each substance). It was observed that an injection of muscimol suppressed the SLN-induced swallowing. However, an injection of bicuculline facilitated the swallowing. An injection of baclofen did not alter the swallowing. These results suggest the presence of functional topography in the lateral lemniscus and the paralemniscal area in relation to the control of swallowing. The facilitatory LLD-effects on swallowing are modulated by glutamatergic and GABAergic receptors on neurons in the LLD. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive


    Simple Summary Commonly, more adult cats than kittens are euthanized in animal shelters. We surveyed 382 cat adopters to assess adoption outcomes and potential determinants of adopters’ choice of cat age group and price. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and responsible ownership requirements. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive in all age and adoption price groups. This study provides evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. Abstract The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for

  1. Experimental and phenomenological investigations of QCD matter in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronic, Anton


    This thesis is heterogeneous, comprising experimental papers at low energies (SIS-18 at GSI) and at the LHC, papers on phenomenology of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, and papers on detectors. The overview covers the experimental papers and those on phenomenology. I have chosen to write it in a general manner, intended to be accessible to non-experts. It emphasizes recent measurements and their understanding at the LHC. The detector papers, which address many principle aspects of gaseous detectors, are summarized and placed in context in the review I co-wrote and which closes the stack. The detector papers included here are the outcome of an R and D program for the Transition Radiation Detector of ALICE.

  2. Dynamical and statistical aspects in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamain, B.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Assenard, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees; Auger, G.; Benlliure, J. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Bacri, C.O.; Borderie, B. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Bisquer, E. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire] [and others


    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at low incident energy are mainly governed by statistical dissipative processes, fusion and deep inelastic reactions being the most important ones. Conversely, in the relativistic energy regime, dynamical effects play a dominant role and one should apply a participant-spectator picture in order to understand the data. In between, the intermediate energy region is a transition one in which it is necessary to disentangle dynamics from statistical effects. Moreover, the Fermi energy region corresponds to available energies comparable with nuclear binding energies and one may except to observe phase transition effects. Experiments performed recently with 4{pi} devices have given quite new data and a much better insight into involved mechanisms and hot nuclear matter properties. INDRA data related to reaction mechanisms and multifragmentation are presented. (author) 53 refs.

  3. A versatile dielectron trigger for nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Schicker, R; Tsertos, H


    A novel approach for a versatile first level dielectron trigger is presented. This trigger operates in the low multiplicity environment of nucleon-nucleon reactions as well as in the high multiplicity situation of nucleus-nucleus collisions. For optimal trigger performance, time of flight conditions for the two fastest particles of the event are combined with event multiplicity requirements. The dielectron trigger efficiency is given. The event reduction factor of such a trigger approach is studied for a low, a medium and a high multiplicity environment. The impact parameter dependence of the event reduction is given. The timing properties of the trigger signal are described. The losses due to deadtime are specified. Finally, the first level trigger rate is reported.

  4. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito


    Full Text Available The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  5. New quasibound states of the compound nucleus in α -particle capture by the nucleus (United States)

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P.; Zhang, Peng-Ming; Zou, Li-Ping


    We generalize the theory of nuclear decay and capture of Gamow that is based on tunneling through the barrier and internal oscillations inside the nucleus. In our formalism an additional factor is obtained, which describes distribution of the wave function of the the α particle inside the nuclear region. We discover new most stable states (called quasibound states) of the compound nucleus (CN) formed during the capture of α particle by the nucleus. With a simple example, we explain why these states cannot appear in traditional calculations of the α capture cross sections based on monotonic penetrabilities of a barrier, but they appear in a complete description of the evolution of the CN. Our result is obtained by a complete description of the CN evolution, which has the advantages of (1) a clear picture of the formation of the CN and its disintegration, (2) a detailed quantum description of the CN, (3) tests of the calculated amplitudes based on quantum mechanics (not realized in other approaches), and (4) high accuracy of calculations (not achieved in other approaches). These peculiarities are shown with the capture reaction of α +44Ca . We predict quasibound energy levels and determine fusion probabilities for this reaction. The difference between our approach and theory of quasistationary states with complex energies applied for the α capture is also discussed. We show (1) that theory does not provide calculations for the cross section of α capture (according to modern models of the α capture), in contrast with our formalism, and (2) these two approaches describe different states of the α capture (for the same α -nucleus potential).

  6. The Confined Hydrogen Atom with a Moving Nucleus (United States)

    Fernandez, Francisco M.


    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first-order perturbation theory and show that it is greater than that for the case in which the nucleus is clamped…

  7. Lateral geniculate nucleus histopathology in the rat experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although trypanosomosis has a well knownaetiology, histopathological studies on brain regions involved in the control of circadian rhythms are scanty. Lateral geniculate nucleus works in conjunction with the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master circadian rhythm pacemaker, in regulating circadian rhythms. The purpose of ...

  8. Survey of 52 fractures of the patella in 34 cats. (United States)

    Langley-Hobbs, S J


    Stress fractures of the patella were diagnosed in 34 cats with a mean age of two years and five months. Eighteen of the cats had bilateral fractures with a median interval of three months between fractures. All the fractures were transverse and occurred in the proximal aspect or base of the patella with no evidence of trauma. In 43 of the patellae there was radiographic evidence of sclerosis. Repairs with a pin and tension band in 18 cats resulted in a further fracture or failure of fixation in 86 per cent of the cases that were followed up. Ten of the cats had suffered fractures of other bones at different times to the patellae fractures. In the majority of the cats the fracture formed a functional non-union but some cats remained stiff and lame.

  9. Ultrastructural myocardial changes in seven cats with spontaneous hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Hyttel, Poul


    OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats and shares clinical and pathological characteristics with human HCM. Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms underlying development of spontaneous feline HCM. ANIMALS: The study population consisted...... of seven cats diagnosed with HCM and eight age-matched cats with no evidence of cardiac disease. METHODS: Fresh myocardial biopsies taken from the middle of the left ventricular posterior free wall were obtained and examined with transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Electron microscopic examination...... showed ultrastructural aberrations of the myocardial cytoarchitecture and of the interstitium in the seven cats with HCM. In the most severely affected cats the myofibrils were disorganized and subsarcolemmal mitochondria were depleted. In control cats, contraction band artifacts were commonly seen...

  10. Development of an operational specific CAT risk (SCATR) index (United States)

    Keller, J. L.; Haines, P. A.; Luers, J. K.


    The original formulations of Roach (1970) and Oard (1974) for the calculation of clear air turbulence (CAT) potential from synoptic scale data were extended. An index which gives a measure of the specific risk of encountering CAT - the specific clear air turbulence risk (SCATR) index - was defined. This index takes into account both the locally and advected contributions to the energy necessary for CAT. The advected contribution is associated with the role of atmospheric gravity waves. The SCATR index was calculated for a number of cases where documented encounters with CAT occurred. Of particular interest were those made for cases involving severe CAT. The results for the two severe CAT cases run were quite impressive and elicited considerable interest from operational aviation meteorologists.

  11. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Mammary Gland in Domestic Cat


    Filgueira,Kilder Dantas; Reche Junior,Archivaldo


    Background: In the feline species, 80% to 93% of neoplasias in the mammary gland are malignant, being the majority carcinomas. Among them, there is the mammary squamous cell carcinoma, which amounts to a very rare neoplasm in the domestic cat, with considerable potential for malignancy. This study aimed to report a case of squamous cell mammary carcinoma in the feline species. Case: A female cat, mixed breed, ten years old, presented history of skin lesion. The cat had been spayed two years b...

  12. Resistive index for kidney evaluation in normal and diseased cats. (United States)

    Tipisca, Vlad; Murino, Carla; Cortese, Laura; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Auletta, Luigi; Vulpe, Vasile; Meomartino, Leonardo


    The objectives were to determine the resistive index (RI) in normal cats and in cats with various renal diseases, and to evaluate the effect of age on RI. The subjects were cats that had ultrasonography (US) of the urinary tract and RI measurement at our centre between January 2003 and April 2014. Based on clinical evaluation, biochemical and haematological tests, urinalysis and US, the cats were classified as healthy or diseased. RI measurements were made from the interlobar or arcuate arteries. Data were analysed for differences between the right and the left kidney, the two sexes, different age groups in healthy cats, and between healthy and diseased cats. A total of 116 cats (68 males, 48 females) were included: 24 healthy and 92 diseased. In the healthy cats, RI (mean ± SD) differed significantly (P = 0.02) between the right kidney (0.54 ± 0.07) and the left kidney (0.59 ± 0.08). For the left kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.73 ± 0.12) and acute kidney injury (0.72 ± 0.08) (P = 0.0008). For the right kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.72 ± 0.11), acute kidney injury (0.74 ± 0.08), polycystic kidney disease (0.77 ± 0.11) and renal tumour (0.74 ± 0.001) (P cats, useful in the differential diagnosis of diffuse renal diseases. While it does not change with the age of the cat, ultrasonographers should be aware that RI may differ between the two kidneys. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  13. Guidelines for vaccination of dogs and cats in Korea


    Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, H. T.; Yoo, Han Sang; Youn, Hwa-Young


    This guideline contains the recommended vaccination schedules of dogs and cats from World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) and American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA). In 2010, WSAVA published guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. And, in 2011, AAHA also published guidelines for vaccination of dogs. In Korea, there is no published guideline for vaccination of dogs and cats yet. Therefore, the plane of vaccination also reports the present situation of vaccination sche...

  14. Health and behavioral survey of over 8000 Finnish cats


    Katariina Vapalahti; Anna-Maija Virtala; Joensuu, Tara A.; Katriina Tiira; Jaana Tähtinen; Hannes Lohi


    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalences of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases with a prevalence of 28% and dental calculus and gingivitis (21% and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception...

  15. RadCat 2.0 User Guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Mills, George Scott; Hamp, Steve C.; O' Donnell, Brandon, M.; Orcutt, David J.; Heames, Terence J.; Hinojosa, Daniel


    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 2.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN 5.5 code. The differences between RadCat 2.0 and RadCat 1.0 can be attributed to the differences between RADTRAN 5 and RADTRAN 5.5 as well as clarification for some of the input parameters. 3

  16. Haemostatic abnormalities in cats with naturally occurring liver diseases. (United States)

    Dircks, Brigitte; Nolte, Ingo; Mischke, Reinhard


    Alterations in the haemostatic system were characterized in cats with different naturally occurring liver diseases. The study looked at 44 healthy cats and 45 cats with different liver diseases confirmed histologically or cytologically (neoplasia, n=9; inflammation, n=12; hepatic lipidosis, n=13; other degenerative liver diseases, n=11). The following parameters were evaluated: platelet count; prothrombin time; activated partial thromboplastin time; thrombin time; factor (F) II, FV, FVII, FX, and FXIII activities; fibrinogen concentration; activities of antithrombin, protein C, plasminogen, and α(2)-plasmin inhibitor, and D-dimer concentration. In cats with liver diseases, 44/45 (98%) had one or more abnormalities of the coagulation parameters measured. In cats with inflammatory liver diseases, increased D-dimer concentrations and decreased FXIII activity were the most consistent abnormalities and were found in 83% and 75% of cats, respectively. The most common abnormality in cats with neoplastic liver disease was FXIII deficiency (78%). The most consistent abnormalities in cats with hepatic lipidosis were increased FV activity and D-dimer concentration with 54% of cats having values above the reference range for both parameters. Cats with miscellaneous degenerative liver disease most frequently showed FXIII deficiency (64%). The results of this study show that alterations of single haemostatic components are a frequent finding in cats with liver disease. Activation of haemostasis with subsequent consumptive coagulopathy (rather than decreased synthesis) seems to be responsible for these alterations. Increased blood levels of different haemostatic components in cats with inflammatory lesions may be related to an acute phase reaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Susceptibility of domestic cats to chronic wasting disease. (United States)

    Mathiason, Candace K; Nalls, Amy V; Seelig, Davis M; Kraft, Susan L; Carnes, Kevin; Anderson, Kelly R; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hoover, Edward A


    Domestic and nondomestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), almost certainly caused by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat. Because domestic and free-ranging nondomestic felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in areas affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD), we evaluated the susceptibility of the domestic cat (Felis catus) to CWD infection experimentally. Cohorts of 5 cats each were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or orally (p.o.) with CWD-infected deer brain. At 40 and 42 months postinoculation, two i.c.-inoculated cats developed signs consistent with prion disease, including a stilted gait, weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors, head and tail tremors, and ataxia, and the cats progressed to terminal disease within 5 months. Brains from these two cats were pooled and inoculated into cohorts of cats by the i.c., p.o., and intraperitoneal and subcutaneous (i.p./s.c.) routes. Upon subpassage, feline CWD was transmitted to all i.c.-inoculated cats with a decreased incubation period of 23 to 27 months. Feline-adapted CWD (Fel(CWD)) was demonstrated in the brains of all of the affected cats by Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities in clinically ill cats, which included multifocal T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal hyperintensities, ventricular size increases, prominent sulci, and white matter tract cavitation. Currently, 3 of 4 i.p./s.c.- and 2 of 4 p.o. secondary passage-inoculated cats have developed abnormal behavior patterns consistent with the early stage of feline CWD. These results demonstrate that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to the domestic cat, thus raising the issue of potential cervid-to-feline transmission in nature.

  18. Concurrent Diseases and Conditions in Cats with Renal Infarcts


    Hickey, M. C.; Jandrey, K.; Farrell, K.S.; Carlson?Bremer, D.


    Background Renal infarcts identified without definitive association with any specific disease process. Objective Determine diseases associated with diagnosis of renal infarcts in cats diagnosed by sonography or necropsy. Animals 600 cats underwent abdominal ultrasonography, necropsy, or both at a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Methods Information obtained from electronic medical records. Cats classified as having renal infarct present based on results of sonographic evaluation or necro...

  19. Evaluation of facial expression in acute pain in cats.


    Holden, E.; Calvo, G.; Collins, M.; Bell, A.; Reid, J.; Scott, E M.; Nolan, Andrea M.


    OBJECTIVESTo describe the development of a facial expression tool differentiating pain-free cats from those in acute pain.METHODSObservers shown facial images from painful and pain-free cats were asked to identify if they were in pain or not. From facial images, anatomical landmarks were identified and distances between these were mapped. Selected distances underwent statistical analysis to identify features discriminating pain-free and painful cats. Additionally, thumbnail photographs were r...

  20. Retinopathy associated with ivermectin toxicosis in five cats. (United States)

    Meekins, Jessica M; Guess, Sarah C; Rankin, Amy J


    5 cats from the same household were examined because of a sudden onset of tremors, obtundation, blindness, and dilated pupils. Approximately 12 hours prior to evaluation, the owner had attempted to treat the cats for suspected ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestation by aural administration of a dose of an ivermectin paste intended for oral administration to horses (approx 22 mg/cat; half of the dose was administered into each ear canal). None of the cats had a menace response; all cats had dilated pupils and decreased pupillary light reflexes. Findings of fundic examination were unremarkable. Electroretinography was performed for 4 cats, and b-wave responses were identified as diminished. Toxicological assay results for serum samples from 2 cats confirmed the presence of ivermectin (450 and 610 μg/L). All 5 cats made a complete recovery. Neurologic abnormalities resolved, electroretinographic responses improved, and vision was restored with no residual pathological changes detected during fundic examination. To the authors' knowledge, the information reported here provided the first description of ophthalmic and electroretinographic findings in cats with ivermectin toxicosis resulting from transdermal administration. Clinical signs, including blindness, resolved with time, without additional medical intervention.

  1. Investigating medetomidine-buprenorphine as preanaesthetic medication in cats. (United States)

    Grint, N J; Burford, J; Dugdale, A H A


    The objective of this study was to investigate medetomidine-buprenorphine preanaesthetic medication in cats. Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I female cats were enrolled in this prospective, blinded, clinical study. Cats were randomised into one of four groups: group M30 were injected intramuscularly with 30 microg/kg medetomidine, groups M10+B, M30+B and M50+B received 10, 30 and 50 microg/kg of medetomidine, respectively, each in combination with 20 microg/kg buprenorphine. After 30 minutes, a sedation score was allocated. Anaesthesia was induced using intravenous propofol and maintained using isoflurane in oxygen, while cats underwent ovariohysterectomy. Heart rate, respiratory rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin were recorded. Atipamezole was administered intramuscularly at volatile agent discontinuation. Time taken to lift their head, sit in sternal and stand were recorded along with quality of recovery. M30+B cats required significantly less isoflurane compared with M30 cats. Heart rate and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin were significantly lower in M50+B cats than in M30 cats. All M+B groups experienced significantly better recoveries compared with the medetomidine only M30 control group. The addition of buprenorphine to medetomidine preanaesthetic medication in cats reduces volatile agent vaporiser setting and improves the quality of recovery from anaesthesia.

  2. Plasma cell pododermatitis with chronic footpad hemorrhage in two cats. (United States)

    Taylor, J E; Schmeitzel, L P


    Plasma cell pododermatitis was diagnosed in 2 cats with enlargement of the metacarpal and metatarsal footpads, ulceration of one of the affected footpads, and a history of chronic hemorrhage from the ulcerations. One cat was anemic (PCV, 14.6%). The ulcers were debrided and sutured to control hemorrhage, and the cats were treated with immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids. Both cats had considerable reduction in footpad size after 3 to 4 weeks of treatment. Although there is evidence to suggest that plasma cell pododermatitis might be immune-mediated, or perhaps an allergic disease, the cause has yet to be determined.

  3. Cats are not small dogs: the emergence of feline medicine. (United States)

    Lynn, Amy


    Cats have finally garnered the attention they deserve in veterinary medicine, however, there is still much to learn about this unique species and new challenges surface daily. For example, at the time of writing, avian influenza in cats is being closely monitored by world veterinary and health officials. Controversial topics, such as how to manage the homeless cat population, declawing, and cloning will continue to spark active debate. However, the future appears promising for cats as more veterinarians, researchers, and organizations increase their focus on felines.

  4. Fibrinous pericarditis secondary to bacterial infection in a cat. (United States)

    Tagawa, Michihito; Kurashima, Chihiro; Shimbo, Genya; Omura, Hiroshi; Koyama, Kenji; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Kawamoto, Keiko; Miyahara, Kazuro


    A three-year-old spayed domestic short-haired cat presented for evaluation of weight loss, cardiomegaly and pleural effusion. Echocardiographic examination demonstrated a thickened pericardium with mild pericardial effusion and a large volume of pleural effusion characterized by exudate. Although the cat was treated with antibiotics, the clinical symptoms did not improve. The cat developed dyspnea and died on day 7. Necropsy revealed a large amount of modified transudates ascites, pleural effusion and markedly dilated pericardium. Histopathological examination revealed severe exudation of fibrin and granulation tissue in a thick layer of the epicardium. The cat was diagnosed with fibrinous pericarditis secondary to bacterial infection.

  5. Psychometric Validation of a General Health Quality of Life Tool for Cats Used to Compare Healthy Cats and Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease. (United States)

    Bijsmans, E S; Jepson, R E; Syme, H M; Elliott, J; Niessen, S J M


    Numerous validated psychometric tools are available to assess impact of disease on a human's quality of life (QoL). To date, no psychometrically validated general health-related QoL tool exists for cats. To develop and validate a tool for assessment of owner-perceived QoL in cats (CatQoL) and to use this tool to compare QoL between healthy cats and those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Total of 204 owners of young healthy cats (YH, n = 99; cats (OH, n = 35), and cats diagnosed with CKD (CKD, n = 70) completed the CatQoL. Discussions with a focus group and 2 pilot surveys informed design of 16 QoL questions grouped into 4 domains. Each item scored according to frequency and importance, and item-weighted-impact-scores were calculated. The validity of the tool was assessed using principal components analysis and Cronbach's α. The average item-weighted-impact-score (AWIS) was compared among groups and domains. Sixteen-item CatQoL showed good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α, 0.77) and unidimensionality with significant loadings (0.2-0.7) and communalities (>0.3). Young healthy cats had significantly higher AWIS (median [IQR], 1.25 [0.63, 1.88]) than OH (0.56 [-0.06, 1.00]) and CKD cats (-0.06 [-0.81, 0.88]), P cats had significantly lower AWIS for eating domain (YH: 2.00 [1.00, 3.00]; OH: 2.00 [0.67, 3.00]; CKD : 1.00 [0.00, 2.67]) when compared with the YH group and OH group, and all groups differed significantly in their management domain (YH: -0.50 [-1.00, 0.00]; OH: -1.00 [-1.88, -0.50]; CKD : -1.50 [-2.50, -1.00], P cats, and can be used as additional assessment parameter in clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Scriptaid and 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine enhanced expression of pluripotent genes and in vitro developmental competence in interspecies Black-footed cat cloned embryos (United States)

    Gómez, M. C.; Biancardi, M.N.; Jenkins, J.A.; Dumas, C.; Galiguis, J.; Wang, G.; Earle Pope, C.


    Somatic cell nuclear transfer offers the possibility of preserving endangered species including the black-footed cat, which is threatened with extinction. The effectiveness and efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) depends on a variety of factors, but 'inappropriate epigenetic reprogramming of the transplanted nucleus is the primary cause of the developmental failure of cloned embryos. Abnormal epigenetic events such as DNA methylation and histone modifications during SCNT perturb the expression of imprinted and pluripotent-related genes that, consequently, may result in foetal and neonatal abnormalities. We have demonstrated that pregnancies can be established after transfer of black-footed cat cloned embryos into domestic cat recipients, but none of the implanted embryos developed to term and the foetal failure has been associated to aberrant reprogramming in cloned embryos. There is growing evidence that modifying the epigenetic pattern of the chromatin template of both donor cells and reconstructed embryos with a combination of inhibitors of histone deacetylases and DNA methyltransferases results in enhanced gene reactivation and improved in vitro and in vivo developmental competence. Epigenetic modifications of the chromatin template of black-footed cat donor cells and reconstructed embryos with epigenetic-modifying compounds enhanced in vitro development, and regulated the expression of pluripotent genes, but these epigenetic modifications did not improve in vivo developmental competence.

  7. Experimental oncornavirus vaccines in the cat. (United States)

    Yohn, D S; Olsen, R G; Schaller, J P; Hoover, E A; Mathes, L E; Heding, L; Davis, G W


    An experimental approach to the immunoprophylatic control of feline oncornavirus-mediated diseases has included induction of antivirus immunity and antibodies to the feline oncornavirus-associated membrane (tumor) antigens. A suitable model for exploring the effectiveness of killed oncornavirus vaccines in the cat has been provided by the use of feline sarcoma virus. Immunization of seven pregnant queens over a 6-week period with ultraviolet light-inactivated Gardner-Arnstein feline sarcoma virus resulted in significant protection among 12 kittens challenged with a tumor-forming Dose 90 at 7 days of age. This immunity was not present in kittens challenged at 35 days of age. Among 12 kittens born of queens immunized during pregnancy with ultraviolet light-inactivated Kawakami-Theilen feline leukemia virus and challenged with the same live virus at 4 days of age, significant protection was noted, ranging from prolongation of survival time to complete protection in 3 kittens. In general, the higher the antibody titer in the mother, the more effective the protection afforded the kittens. Immunization of 43 kittens during their first 5 weeks of life with the same vaccines used in adult cats did not immunize sufficiently to protect against feline sarcoma virus challenge at 5 weeks of age. Neutralizing antibody responses in these kittens were significantly lower than in pregnant queens. That kittens of this age are immunologically responsive was established, since complete protection of 9 kittens to feline sarcoma virus was obtained by immunization with a crude tumor extract inactivated with 5 to 7 megarads of gamma-irradiation. All these kittens developed feline oncornavirus-associated membrane antibodies while 3 developed demonstrable levels of virus-neutralizing antibodies. The results of these studies are believed indicative that killed virus vaccines and tumor vaccines can be effective immunoprophylatic measures in the control of RNA tumor virus oncogenesis in the

  8. Medical management of gastrinoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lane


    Full Text Available Case summary A 7-year-old male castrated domestic short-haired cat was evaluated for a 4 week history of intermittent vomiting, ptyalism, lethargy and weight loss. Serum biochemistry revealed mild mixed hepatopathy. Abdominal ultrasonography identified multiple heterogeneous hepatic masses and a linear, hyperechoic focus with associated reverberation artifact in the wall of the stomach consistent with a gastric ulcer. Serum gastrin concentrations were markedly increased. Cytologic interpretation of a fine-needle aspirate of the hepatic masses was consistent with neuroendocrine neoplasia, and a diagnosis of gastrinoma was established. Deterioration of the cat’s condition, despite at-home acid-suppressant therapy, led to hospitalization. The cat was initially stabilized with intravenous crystalloid fluid therapy, maropitant, pantoprazole and octreotide. A continuous radiotelemetric intragastric pH monitoring system was used to monitor the response of intragastric pH to therapy. Long-term therapy was continued with omeprazole (orally q12h, octreotide (subcutaneously q8h and thrice-weekly toceranib administered orally. Toceranib therapy led to gastrointestinal upset and was discontinued. Gastric ulceration resolved within 8 weeks, and palliation of clinical signs was achieved for approximately 5 months. Relevance and novel information Including this report, only six cases of feline gastrinoma have been reported in the veterinary literature. Little is known regarding non-surgical therapy, and octreotide has not been previously reported for medical management of feline gastrinoma. Results of intragastric pH monitoring and clinical improvement suggest that medical therapy using octreotide and proton pump inhibitors represents a novel therapeutic option for cats with gastrinoma where surgical excision is not feasible.

  9. Cat keratoplasty wound healing and corneal astigmatism. (United States)

    Tripoli, N K; Cohen, K L; Proia, A D


    A major contributor to postkeratoplasty astigmatism may be donor/recipient disparity. Deficient or excess cornea at the wound is thought to influence the directions of the steep and flat meridians. Using an established model of penetrating keratoplasty in the cat, this study evaluated the morphometry of histopathologic wound features in the steep and flat meridians. Thirteen cats had successful penetrating keratoplasties after intentionally misshapen donor corneas were misaligned in misshapen recipient beds. At 9.50 +/- 0.32 (mean +/- 1 SEM) months after keratoplasty, photokeratography was performed and analyzed, corneas were sectioned along the steep and flat meridians, and four histologic sections were processed. Features of the wounds were measured using a Zeiss Videoplan. The relationships between the morphometry of each feature and every other feature, between the morphometry of each feature and eccentricity, and between the steep and flat section morphometry of each feature were statistically evaluated. Epithelial thickness, area of lamellar alteration, length of Descemet's membrane produced postoperatively, and the depth that preoperative Descemet's membrane was embedded in the stroma were correlated with eccentricity (corneal astigmatism). Stromal thickness and the presence or absence of folded and fragmented Descemet's membrane were not correlated with eccentricity. Wound morphometry at the steep meridians was neither correlated with nor significantly different from wound morphometry at the flat meridians. Differences between healing at the steep and flat meridians were not likely contributors to astigmatism. Disproportionate availability of tissue in wound regions may have affected healing throughout the entire wound over time. The absence of Bowman's layer in cats restricts application of our results to understanding the etiology of corneal astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty in humans.

  10. CATS Deliverable 2.2 : CATS car-to-cyclist accident parameters and test scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Montfort, S. van


    This report summarizes the work conducted within work package (WP) 2 "Test scenario definition" of the CATS project. It describes relevant accident parameters for the 5 most dominant accidents scenarios defined in WP1. The objective of this WP2 is to construct car-to-cyclist accident test scenarios

  11. CATS Deliverable 1.2 : CATS car-to-cyclist accident scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Rodarius, C.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den


    This report summarizes the work conducted within work package (WP) 1 "accident analysis" of the CATS project. It describes the collection of data, the analyses as well as the final accident scenarios. The objective of this WP was to analyse car-to-cyclist accident scenarios in the EU, mainly

  12. Scotopic electroretinography in fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) and leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). (United States)

    Sussadee, Metita; Vorawattanatham, Narathip; Pinyopummin, Anuchai; Phavaphutanon, Janjira; Thayananuphat, Aree


    To establish baseline normal scotopic electroretinograpic (ERG) parameters for two wild cat species: fishing cats (FC) and leopard cats (LC). Twelve normal, FC and eight LC kept in the Chiang Mai Night Safari Zoo, Thailand. The mean ages of FC and LC were 7.08 and 5.00 years, respectively. All animals were studied using a standard scotopic protocol of a portable, handheld, multi-species electroretinography (HMsERG). There were significant differences in the means of ERG b-wave amplitude of the rod response (Rod, 0.01 cd.s/m(2) ), a- and b-wave amplitudes of standard light intensity of rod and cone response (Std R&C, 3 cd.s/m(2) ) and b-wave amplitude of high light intensity of rod and cone response (Hi-int R&C, 10 cd.s/m(2) ) with LC having higher amplitudes than FC. There was no significant difference in a- and b- wave implicit time except for the b-wave of Hi-int (P=0.03). No significant differences were observed in b/a amplitude ratios. Data from this report provides reference values for scotopic ERG measurements in these two wild cat species. It showed that the normal scotopic ERG responses have some differences between the two species which might be due to the skull conformation, eye size or physiology of the retina. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  13. Cat eye syndrome with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. (United States)

    Masukawa, H; Ozaki, T; Nogimori, T


    A 17-year-old male diagnosed as having Cat Eye Syndrome (CES) with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism showed short stature and no development of secondary sex characteristics. Exogeneous gonadotropin replacement therapy combining human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) was started. As a result, the short stature and androgen deficiency were relieved. The critical region of CES was tetrasomy of 22 pter-->q11. Abnormalities of other chromosomes which cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may exist, thus further investigation is needed.

  14. Prostatic abscess in a neutered cat. (United States)

    Mordecai, Adam; Liptak, Julius M; Hofstede, Tamara; Stalker, Margaret; Kruth, Stephen


    A 6-year-old, male castrated domestic shorthair cat was presented for evaluation of lethargy, vomiting, anorexia, and constipation. Physical examination revealed an elevated body temperature and an extramural colonic mass. Abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated a hypoechoic mass measuring 2.2 cm in maximum dimension immediately caudal to the bladder. Cytological evaluation of a fine-needle aspirate confirmed the mass was a prostatic abscess. Abdominal celiotomy and prostatic omentalization were successful in resolving clinical abnormalities. Feline prostatic abscessation is a rare condition that has not been previously reported and may have a good outcome if treated early and appropriately.

  15. Nutritional care for aging cats and dogs. (United States)

    Laflamme, D P


    Veterinarians need to be prepared to provide nutritional advice for healthy pets as well as for pets that are ill. Before instituting a dietary change in any patient, especially an older dog or cat, a nutritional evaluation should be completed. This should include an evaluation of the patient, the current diet, and feeding management. Diets should be appropriate to the unique needs of the individual patient. Many diseases in senior pets are “diet-sensitive” meaning that diet can play a role in managing the effects of the disease. Common examples discussed include cognitive dysfunction of aging, osteoarthritis, and obesity.

  16. Functional network inference of the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, John H.; Meeker, Kirsten; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; St. John, Peter C.; Wang, Thomas J.; Bales, Benjamin B.; Doyle, Francis J.; Herzog, Erik D.; Petzold, Linda R.


    In the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), noisy cellular oscillators communicate within a neuronal network to generate precise system-wide circadian rhythms. Although the intracellular genetic oscillator and intercellular biochemical coupling mechanisms have been examined previously, the network topology driving synchronization of the SCN has not been elucidated. This network has been particularly challenging to probe, due to its oscillatory components and slow coupling timescale. In this work, we investigated the SCN network at a single-cell resolution through a chemically induced desynchronization. We then inferred functional connections in the SCN by applying the maximal information coefficient statistic to bioluminescence reporter data from individual neurons while they resynchronized their circadian cycling. Our results demonstrate that the functional network of circadian cells associated with resynchronization has small-world characteristics, with a node degree distribution that is exponential. We show that hubs of this small-world network are preferentially located in the central SCN, with sparsely connected shells surrounding these cores. Finally, we used two computational models of circadian neurons to validate our predictions of network structure.

  17. Subthalamic nucleus detects unnatural android movement. (United States)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Hirata, Masayuki; Kasaki, Masashi; Alimardani, Maryam; Matsushita, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi


    An android, i.e., a realistic humanoid robot with human-like capabilities, may induce an uncanny feeling in human observers. The uncanny feeling about an android has two main causes: its appearance and movement. The uncanny feeling about an android increases when its appearance is almost human-like but its movement is not fully natural or comparable to human movement. Even if an android has human-like flexible joints, its slightly jerky movements cause a human observer to detect subtle unnaturalness in them. However, the neural mechanism underlying the detection of unnatural movements remains unclear. We conducted an fMRI experiment to compare the observation of an android and the observation of a human on which the android is modelled, and we found differences in the activation pattern of the brain regions that are responsible for the production of smooth and natural movement. More specifically, we found that the visual observation of the android, compared with that of the human model, caused greater activation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). When the android's slightly jerky movements are visually observed, the STN detects their subtle unnaturalness. This finding suggests that the detection of unnatural movements is attributed to an error signal resulting from a mismatch between a visual input and an internal model for smooth movement.

  18. Control of nucleus accumbens activity with neurofeedback. (United States)

    Greer, Stephanie M; Trujillo, Andrew J; Glover, Gary H; Knutson, Brian


    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays critical roles in healthy motivation and learning, as well as in psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Thus, techniques that confer control of NAcc activity might inspire new therapeutic interventions. By providing second-to-second temporal resolution of activity in small subcortical regions, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can resolve online changes in NAcc activity, which can then be presented as "neurofeedback." In an fMRI-based neurofeedback experiment designed to elicit NAcc activity, we found that subjects could increase their own NAcc activity, and that display of neurofeedback significantly enhanced their ability to do so. Subjects were not as capable of decreasing their NAcc activity, however, and enhanced control did not persist after subsequent removal of neurofeedback. Further analyses suggested that individuals who recruited positive aroused affect were better able to increase NAcc activity in response to neurofeedback, and that NAcc neurofeedback also elicited functionally correlated activity in the medial prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that humans can modulate their own NAcc activity and that fMRI-based neurofeedback may augment their efforts. The observed association between positive arousal and effective NAcc control further supports an anticipatory affect account of NAcc function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparing Realistic Subthalamic Nucleus Neuron Models (United States)

    Njap, Felix; Claussen, Jens C.; Moser, Andreas; Hofmann, Ulrich G.


    The mechanism of action of clinically effective electrical high frequency stimulation is still under debate. However, recent evidence points at the specific activation of GABA-ergic ion channels. Using a computational approach, we analyze temporal properties of the spike trains emitted by biologically realistic neurons of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) as a function of GABA-ergic synaptic input conductances. Our contribution is based on a model proposed by Rubin and Terman and exhibits a wide variety of different firing patterns, silent, low spiking, moderate spiking and intense spiking activity. We observed that most of the cells in our network turn to silent mode when we increase the GABAA input conductance above the threshold of 3.75 mS/cm2. On the other hand, insignificant changes in firing activity are observed when the input conductance is low or close to zero. We thus reproduce Rubin's model with vanishing synaptic conductances. To quantitatively compare spike trains from the original model with the modified model at different conductance levels, we apply four different (dis)similarity measures between them. We observe that Mahalanobis distance, Victor-Purpura metric, and Interspike Interval distribution are sensitive to different firing regimes, whereas Mutual Information seems undiscriminative for these functional changes.

  20. Parity Measurements in the 70Ga Nucleus (United States)

    Venegas Vargas, D. C.; Haring-Kaye, R. A.; Jones, K. D.; Le, K. Q.; Harbin, B. L.; Döring, J.; Abromeit, B.; Dungan, R.; Lubna, R.; Tabor, S. L.; Tai, P.-L.; Tripati, Vandana; Vonmoss, J. M.; Morrow, S. I.


    The odd-odd 70Ga nucleus was studied at high spin after being produced at Florida State University using the 62Ni(14C,αpn) fusion-evaporation reaction at a beam energy of 50 MeV. The resulting γ rays were detected in coincidence using an array of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors consisting of three Clover detectors and seven single-crystal detectors. The linear polarizations of eight γ-ray transitions in 70Ga were measured by comparing their scattering yields within a Clover detector in the parallel and perpendicular directions relative to the beam axis, under the requirement that at least one other γ ray in 70Ga was recorded by a single-crystal detector in the array. As a result of these measurements, the parities of six states were confirmed and those of two other states were established for the first time based on a comparison of the experimental polarizations with the predicted ones determined from known spin assignments. The resulting level spectrum of 70Ga shows both similarities and differences with the predictions of previous shell-model calculations. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Ohio Wesleyan University Summer Science Research Program.

  1. Risk analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in Tsushima leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus) and domestic cats using a geographic information system. (United States)

    Hayama, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Hanae; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Hiyama, Tomotsugu; Murayama, Akira; Mori, Hiroshi; Sugitani, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Shin-ichi


    In this study, based on the data from FIV screening surveys of captive cats conducted by the Kyushu Veterinary Union and collaborators as part of the infection control program for Tsushima leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus), we elucidated the spatial distribution of FIV-positive individuals among leopard cats and domestic cats using a geographic information system. Data from FIV screening surveys carried out among 86 leopard cats (1996-2006) and 713 captive domestic cats (2001-2006) were used for analysis. The analysis results were then spatially layered with the population density of leopard cats and that of captive domestic cats estimated from the number of households and used for assessment of FIV infection risk in each area. The prevalence rates of FIV were 3% (3/86) in leopard cats in Kami-shima, 13.6% (38/280) in domestic cats in Kami-shima and 10.6% (46/433) in domestic cats in Shimo-shima. The distribution of FIV on Tsushima Island was not uniform; on Kami-shima Island, FIV-positive domestic cats were concentrated in particular areas. We also performed risk analysis based on the population density of leopard cats, the prevalence rate of FIV among domestic cats in each area and the estimated population density of captive domestic cats and identified high FIV infection risk areas. All FIV-positive leopard cats were found in the identified high FIV infection risk areas.

  2. Prevalence of external ear disorders in Belgian stray cats. (United States)

    Bollez, Anouck; de Rooster, Hilde; Furcas, Alessandra; Vandenabeele, Sophie


    Objectives Feline otitis externa is a multifactorial dermatological disorder about which very little is known. The objective of this study was to map the prevalence of external ear canal disorders and the pathogens causing otitis externa in stray cats roaming around the region of Ghent, Belgium. Methods One hundred and thirty stray cats were randomly selected during a local trap-neuter-return programme. All cats were European Shorthairs. This study included clinical, otoscopic and cytological evaluation of both external ears of each cat. Prospective data used as parameters in this study included the sex, age and body condition score of each cat, as well as the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge, and the results of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) Snap tests. Results Remarkably, very few (sub)clinical problems of the external ear canal were found in the stray cat population. Malassezia species was by far the most common organism found in the external ear canals of the 130 stray cats. A total of 96/130 (74%) cats were found to have Malassezia species organisms present in one or both ears based on the cytological examination. No correlation was found between the parameters of sex, age, body condition score, the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge and FIV and FeLV status, and the presence of parasites, bacteria or yeasts. Conclusions and relevance This study provides more information about the normal state of the external ear canal of stray cats. The ears of most stray cats are relatively healthy. The presence of Malassezia species organisms in the external ear canal is not rare among stray cats.

  3. Comparison of predation by two suburban cats in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flux John E. C.


    Full Text Available To study the effects domestic cats may have on surrounding wildlife, a complete list was made of 558 items caught in the garden or brought into the house by one cat over 17 years, from 1988 to 2005. The effect on prey populations was assessed by comparing their abundance with the previous 15 years’ population without a cat. On balance, this cat (Cat 1 was clearly beneficial to the native bird species by killing rodents and deterring mustelids. The diet of a second cat (Cat 2 was recorded in the same way from 2006 to 2016. This cat caught half the number of items 148:287, but in the same proportions: house mice (37.8:42.6; ship rats (12.8:12.1; European rabbits (all young (8.1:6.7; weasels (0.7:0.4; dunnock (12.8:9.2; house sparrow (2.0:3.1; blackbird (2.7:2.5; song thrush (1.4:1.3; European greenfinch (0.7:5.8; chaffinch (0.7:3.3; silvereye (10.1:8.3; New Zealand fantail (2.0:1.0; lizards (8.1:1.7. Despite this, there were significant differences: Cat 2 avoided finches (2:28, P = 0.004, and took a few more lizards (12:5. For both cats, birds apparently formed about a third of their diet: 33.4% and 34.5%, but comparison of the proportion of birds and rodents brought into the house (12:92 and found dead away from the house (49:45 implies that 320 rodent kills may have been missed, being far more difficult to find. As top predators, these cats were clearly beneficial to native birds, and proposed control or elimination may precipitate mesopredator release and a rabbit problem.

  4. Characteristics of ageing pets and their owners: dogs v. cats. (United States)

    Heuberger, Roschelle; Wakshlag, Joseph


    The purpose of the present cross-sectional, convenience sampled study was to ascertain differences in diet and lifestyle between cat (n 155) and dog (n 318) owners and their pets. Average cat ownership was 6.1 (SD 5) years and average cat's age was 6.9 (SD 5) years. Cats were reported to be overweight (14 %), fed ad libitum (87 %), given medication (11 %) and had health conditions (24 %). Cat's age was significantly and positively related to cat's weight, duration of illness, owner's BMI and some owners' dietary characteristics. Overweight in cats was significantly associated with overweight in older owners ( ≥ 60 years). Younger cat owners ( owner's BMI and cat's overweight. Cat's age was inversely correlated with cat's and owner's activity levels. Dogs were owned for 5.5 (SD 4) years and mean dog's age was 5.9 (SD 4) years. Dogs were reported to be overweight (18 %), fed ad libitum (49 %), given medication (31 %) and had health conditions (34 %). Dog's age was positively associated with duration of illness. Dog's age was inversely correlated with amount of food fed, dog's activity and owner's exercise and intake of fruit, vegetables and whole grains. Dog's age was positively correlated with the owner's BMI and frequency of added fat consumption. Overweight in dogs was associated with overweight in older owners ( ≥ 60 years) and was correlated with poorer health in both the dog and the owner. Younger dog owners were more likely to have an overweight dog if they themselves were obese. Similarities were found in owner's and pet's diet and lifestyle issues with ageing. Overweight was associated with ageing, dietary, lifestyle and health issues in this sample. Older owners who were overweight had overweight pets. Strategies should be targeted towards decreasing both owner's and pet's overweight. The use of exercise and dietary interventions should be encouraged.

  5. Bartonella infection in shelter cats and dogs and their ectoparasites. (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Lun; Lin, Chao-Chen; Chomel, Bruno B; Chuang, Shih-Te; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Wu, Wen-Jer; Huang, Chin-Gi; Yu, Jiann-Chung; Sung, Min-Hua; Kass, Philip H; Chang, Chao-Chin


    Mainly through vector transmission, domestic cats and dogs are infected by several Bartonella spp. and represent a large reservoir for human infections. This study investigated the relationship of prevalences of Bartonella infection in shelter dogs and cats and various ectoparasite species infesting them (fleas, ticks, and lice). Moreover, relationships between Bartonella infection and animal gender and age and presence of ectoparasites were analyzed. Blood samples were collected from 120 dogs and 103 cats. There were 386 ticks and 36 fleas harvested on these dogs, and 141 fleas, 4 ticks, and 2 lice harvested on these cats. Isolation/detection of Bartonella sp. was performed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and partial sequencing. Bartonella was isolated from 21 (20.4%) cats and detected by PCR from 20 (19.4%) cats, 2 (1.7%) dogs, 55 (39%) fleas collected from cats, 28 (10%) ticks DNA samples, and 1 (2.8%) flea collected from dogs. When combining culture and PCR data, 27 cats and 55 fleas collected on cats were positive for Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae, but none were coinfected. Approximately half of the B. henselae isolates from 21 cats were B. henselae type I. Moreover, B. henselae, Bartonella phoceensis, Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella rattimassiliensis, Bartonella elizabethae DNA was detected in ticks collected from dogs and one flea was B. clarridgeiae PCR positive. This is the first report of such a wide variety of Bartonella spp. detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Further studies are required to understand the relative importance of these ectoparasites to transmit Bartonella spp. in dogs and cats.

  6. Adrenal function in cats with cholestatic liver disease. (United States)

    Buckley, Faith I; Mahony, Orla; Webster, Cynthia R L


    Cats with cholestatic liver disease experience significant morbidity and mortality when they undergo invasive procedures under anesthesia. Although inadequate adrenal response might account for these outcomes, adrenal function in cats with cholestatic liver disease has not been documented, to our knowledge. The goal of our study was to describe adrenal function in these cats. Twenty-seven cats with a serum bilirubin >230 µmol/L (3 mg/dL) and serum alanine aminotransferase >2 times the upper limit of normal had pre- and 60-min post-adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) cortisol analysis after administration of 5 µg/kg cosyntropin intravenously. The change in cortisol concentrations (delta cortisol) was calculated. Pre- and post-ACTH cortisol concentrations were compared to reference values. Pre-ACTH, post-ACTH, and delta cortisol values were compared between cats surviving to discharge or for 30 d postdischarge. Mean pre-ACTH cortisol levels (205 ± 113 nmol/L [7.4 ± 4.2 µg/dL]) and post-ACTH cortisol levels (440 ± 113 nmol/L [15.9 ± 4.1 g/dL]) in cholestatic cats were significantly greater than reference values in clinically normal cats. There was no association of pre- or post-ACTH cortisol with survival. Cats with a delta cortisol cats with delta cortisol >179 nmol/L (6.5 µg/dL). Results indicate that cats with cholestasis have high basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol values. A delta cortisol cats that have decreased 30-d survival.

  7. Serum D-lactate concentrations in cats with gastrointestinal disease. (United States)

    Packer, R A; Moore, G E; Chang, C-Y; Zello, G A; Abeysekara, S; Naylor, J M; Steiner, J M; Suchodolski, J S; O'Brien, D P


    Increased D-lactate concentrations cause neurological signs in humans with gastrointestinal disease. To determine if serum D-lactate concentrations are increased in cats with gastrointestinal disease compared to healthy controls, and if concentrations correlate with specific neurological or gastrointestinal abnormalities. Systematically selected serum samples submitted to the Gastrointestinal Laboratory at Texas A&M University from 100 cats with clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and abnormal gastrointestinal function tests, and 30 healthy cats. Case-control study in which serum D- and L-lactate concentrations and retrospective data on clinical signs were compared between 30 healthy cats and 100 cats with gastrointestinal disease. Association of D-lactate concentration with tests of GI dysfunction and neurological signs was evaluated by multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. All 100 cats had a history of abnormal gastrointestinal signs and abnormal gastrointestinal function test results. Thirty-one cats had definitive or subjective neurological abnormalities. D-lactate concentrations of cats with gastrointestinal disease (median 0.36, range 0.04-8.33 mmol/L) were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (median 0.22, range 0.04-0.87 mmol/L; P = .022). L-lactate concentrations were not significantly different between the 2 groups of cats with gastrointestinal disease and healthy controls. D-lactate concentrations were not significantly associated with fPLI, fTLI, cobalamin, folate, or neurological abnormalities (P > .05). D-lactate concentrations can be increased in cats with gastrointestinal disease. These findings warrant additional investigations into the role of intestinal microbiota derangements in cats with gastrointestinal disease, and the association of D-lactate and neurological abnormalities. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. The prevalence and significance of hyperglycemia in hospitalized cats. (United States)

    Ray, Casey C; Callahan-Clark, Julie; Beckel, Nicole F; Walters, Patricia C


    To report the prevalence of hyperglycemia in cats admitted to a veterinary hospital and to determine if hyperglycemic cats had increased morbidity and mortality when compared with normoglycemic cats. DESIGN - Retrospective clinical study. Community-based referral hospital. Nondiabetic cats admitted to the hospital. None. The medical records of nondiabetic cats admitted to the hospital over a 1-year period were reviewed. There were 182 cats that met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Information obtained included signalment, length of hospitalization, initial and highest blood glucose measurement, diagnosis, treatment, and final disposition. Sixty-three percent of cats (116/182) were hyperglycemic at the time of presentation. Total incidence of hyperglycemia at any point during hospitalization was 64% (118/182). No association was found between hyperglycemia either initially or at any point during the hospitalization and mortality. However, a significant association was documented between the presence of hyperglycemia and increased length of hospitalization (LOH) (P=0.04). The duration of LOH was also significantly associated with the degree of hyperglycemia (P=0.01). A number of different disease processes were represented in the study population. However, the number of cats in each disease category was small and no association could be found between any of them and blood glucose affecting mortality and morbidity. The prevalence of hyperglycemia in feline patients admitted to a primary referral hospital was 64%. Cats with hyperglycemia had a longer LOH when compared with normoglycemic cats; however, presence of hyperglycemia did not impact mortality in this population of cats. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2009.

  9. Restoring Segmental Biomechanics Through Nucleus Augmentation: An In Vitro Study. (United States)

    Pelletier, Matthew H; Cohen, Charles S; Ducheyne, Paul; Walsh, William R


    In vitro biomechanical laboratory study. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a mechanical treatment to create a degenerative motion segment and the ability of nucleus augmentation to restore biomechanics. In cases with an intact annulus fibrosus, the replacement or augmentation of the nucleus pulposus alone may provide a less invasive option to restore normal biomechanics and disk height when compared with spinal fusion or total disk replacement. Laboratory testing allows these changes to be fully characterized. However, without preexisting pathology, nucleus augmentation therapies are difficult to evaluate in vitro. The present study evaluated pure moment bending and compressive biomechanics in 3 states (n=6): (1) intact, (2) after creep loading and nucleus disruption to induce degenerative biomechanical changes, and (3) after nucleus augmentation through an injectable polymer (DiscCell). Neutral zone and ROM were increased in all modes of bending after the degenerative treatment. The most sensitive mode of bending was lateral bending, with intact ROM (20.0±2.9 degrees) increased to 22.3±2.6 degrees after degenerative treatment and reduced to 18.4±1.6 degrees after injection of the polymer. All bending ROM and NZ changes induced by the degenerative treatment were reversed by nucleus augmentation. This material was shown to be effective at altering motion segment biomechanics and restoring disk height during time zero tests. This technique may provide a model to examine the time zero performance of a nucleus augmentation device/material.

  10. Quarkonium-nucleus bound states from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, S.  R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chang, E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cohen, S.  D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Detmold, W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lin, H. -W. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Orginos, K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Parreño, A. [Univ., de Barcelona, Marti Franques (Spain); Savage, M.  J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    Quarkonium-nucleus systems are composed of two interacting hadronic states without common valence quarks, which interact primarily through multi-gluon exchanges, realizing a color van der Waals force. We present lattice QCD calculations of the interactions of strange and charm quarkonia with light nuclei. Both the strangeonium-nucleus and charmonium-nucleus systems are found to be relatively deeply bound when the masses of the three light quarks are set equal to that of the physical strange quark. Extrapolation of these results to the physical light-quark masses suggests that the binding energy of charmonium to nuclear matter is B < 40 MeV.

  11. Systemic Trichosporon loubieri infection in a cat. (United States)

    Rissi, Daniel R; Kirby, Kerry D; Sanchez, Susan


    Our study describes a case of systemic Trichosporon loubieri infection in a cat with acute dyspnea, anorexia, and aggressiveness. Physical examination revealed multiple ulcerative cutaneous lesions on the abdomen, neck, and thorax. Thoracic radiographs and ultrasound showed multiple mediastinal nodules and marked pleural effusion, respectively. A cutaneous biopsy from the ulcerated wounds revealed necrogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis with numerous intralesional fungal hyphae. Fungal culture on fresh swab samples from the cutaneous lesions yielded growth of a fungal organism that was further identified as Trichosporon loubieri by PCR and DNA sequencing. The cat was subsequently euthanized and submitted to autopsy. Gross pathology changes consisted of multifocal to coalescing white nodules ranging from 5 to 10 mm in diameter that expanded the mediastinal fat, intrathoracic lymph nodes, lungs, and costal pleura. These lesions consisted of areas of necrogranulomatous inflammation with numerous intralesional fungal hyphae morphologically similar to those observed in the cutaneous biopsy sample. Gross and histologic changes were consistent with a systemic fungal infection, and the etiologic diagnosis was supported by fungal culture. Fungal identity was confirmed by DNA sequencing of D1-D2 and TS1 regions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. On the Trail of a Cosmic Cat (United States)


    ESO has just released a stunning new image of the vast cloud known as the Cat's Paw Nebula or NGC 6334. This complex region of gas and dust, where numerous massive stars are born, lies near the heart of the Milky Way galaxy, and is heavily obscured by intervening dust clouds. Few objects in the sky have been as well named as the Cat's Paw Nebula, a glowing gas cloud resembling the gigantic pawprint of a celestial cat out on an errand across the Universe. British astronomer John Herschel first recorded NGC 6334 in 1837 during his stay in South Africa. Despite using one of the largest telescopes in the world at the time, Herschel seems to have only noted the brightest part of the cloud, seen here towards the lower left. NGC 6334 lies about 5500 light-years away in the direction of the constellation Scorpius (the Scorpion) and covers an area on the sky slightly larger than the full Moon. The whole gas cloud is about 50 light-years across. The nebula appears red because its blue and green light are scattered and absorbed more efficiently by material between the nebula and Earth. The red light comes predominantly from hydrogen gas glowing under the intense glare of hot young stars. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy and has been extensively studied by astronomers. The nebula conceals freshly minted brilliant blue stars - each nearly ten times the mass of our Sun and born in the last few million years. The region is also home to many baby stars that are buried deep in the dust, making them difficult to study. In total, the Cat's Paw Nebula could contain several tens of thousands of stars. Particularly striking is the red, intricate bubble in the lower right part of the image. This is most likely either a star expelling large amount of matter at high speed as it nears the end of its life or the remnant of a star that already has exploded. This new portrait of the Cat's Paw Nebula was created from images taken with the Wide Field

  13. Nuisances and welfare of free-roaming cats in urban settings and their association with cat reproduction. (United States)

    Gunther, I; Raz, T; Berke, O; Klement, E


    Free roaming cats (FRC) are highly abundant in cities around the world. Increasing populations of these cats might result in impairment of cat welfare and cause nuisances and public health risks. In order to study the seasonal dynamics of FRC populations and its association with events of cat welfare impairment and nuisances, we analyzed a database of FRC-associated citizens' telephone complaint events, which were registered in five cities in Israel (total human population of 1.42 million residents) during the years 2007-2011. These complaint events were classified to the following six categories: cat's carcasses, kittens, parturition, aggressive behavior toward people, invasion to human facilities, and cat injuries and distress. Overall, 87,764 complaint events associated with these categories were registered in the five cities during the study period (123.2 complaint events per 10,000 citizens per year). Length of daylight was moderately correlated with the rate of complaints on kittens in the same month (r=0.64) and parturition in the previous month (r=0.54) (Pcat aggressiveness toward people, cat invasion to human facilities and cat injuries and distress. In most of the cities the rate of citizen complaints regarding carcasses, aggression, invasion and injuries were still significantly correlated with rate of complaints regarding kittens after omission of these joint complaints and remained significant after controlling for seasonality. These findings imply an association of cat welfare impairment and nuisances with FRC reproduction intensity. The current study revealed the high rate of nuisances and potential public health hazards related to FRC, as well as the impairment of cat welfare, which might be merely 'the tip of the iceberg' of the real welfare situation of these cats. Further studies should examine the effectiveness of FRC population control strategies for the reduction of the rate of nuisances and public health risks related to FRC, as well as for

  14. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.


    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  15. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen - Plantinga, Esther; Hendriks, Wouter; Bosch, Guido


    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  16. Simple nonparametric checks for model data fit in CAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.


    In this paper, the usefulness of several nonparametric checks is discussed in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) context. Although there is no tradition of nonparametric scalability in CAT, it can be argued that scalability checks can be useful to investigate, for example, the quality of item

  17. European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats (United States)

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but seems to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control ...

  18. A review on trypanosomosis in dogs and cats | Nwoha | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma congolense were initially thought to be the only species of trypanosomes capable of causing diseases in dogs and cats. However, dogs and cats are challenged by diverse species of trypanosomes with varying virulence and pathogenicity. Dogs may ...

  19. Bacteriology of the Anterior Genitalia of the Domestic House Cat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteriology of the anterior genitalia of the domestic house cat was determined using vaginal swabs collected from sixty apparently healthy female domestic cats (20 kittens, 20 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant adults). The swabs were streaked on blood agar, Mac Conkey agar and eosin methylene blue agar plates ...

  20. Investigations on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosje, Pieternella Janna


    The term atopic dermatitis (AD) is commonly used in cats. At present, however, there is little known about the pathogenesis of feline AD. The aim was to investigate various aspects of the immunopathogenesis in a defined group of cats with signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis and compare our

  1. The effect of cat Felis catus predation on three breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 8, 1987 ... Breeding success of Pterodroma macroptera, Procellaria aequinoctialis and Pachyptila vittata salvini in three cat-free and three control areas were used to evaluate the effects of cat Felis catus predation on the avifauna of Marion Island. Breeding success of all three species was significantly higher in the ...

  2. CatSper ion channels: Bioinformatics analysis in Homo sapiens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 17, 2011 ... Docking of CatSper protein family with calcium ion has been performed for structure validity. In future, Pocket identification and biomolecular docking of these predicted structures will help to know interactomics of the CatSper protein family with other proteins in different pathways. Biomolecular drug targets.

  3. The ethology of the human-cat relationship. (United States)

    Turner, D C


    Comparative behavioural observations were made in the home setting in order to analyze the ethology of the human-cat relationship. Factors postulated, and indeed, found to influence that relationship included marital status of the human (women living alone, with a partner or with a partner and children), housing conditions of the cat (indoor vs. outdoor access), number of cats kept (one vs. more than one), and to a very minor extent, pedigree of the cat (purebred vs. domestic mixture). Various measures of success at both the interactional, and the relationship level were examined and yielded the following results: 1) The more successful the person is in initiating interactions with the cat, the shorter, the total interaction time with the pet. 2) The higher the proportion of all successful intents to interact that were due to the cat, the more time spent interacting. 3) Willingness to comply with the partner's wishes to interact is positively correlated between the cat and the human over all pairs examined--which helps explain the widespread popularity of cats, as pets.

  4. Oral cobalamin supplementation in cats with hypocobalaminaemia: a retrospective study. (United States)

    Toresson, Linda; Steiner, Joerg M; Olmedal, Gunilla; Larsen, MajBritt; Suchodolski, Jan S; Spillmann, Thomas


    Objectives The objective of the study was to evaluate whether oral cobalamin supplementation can restore normocobal-aminaemia in cats with hypocobalaminaemia and clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease. Methods This was a retrospective study based on a computerised database search for client-owned cats treated at Evidensia Specialist Animal Hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden, during the period December 2013 to August 2016. Inclusion criteria were cats with clinical signs of chronic enteropathy, an initial serum cobalamin concentration ⩽250 pmol/l (reference interval 214-738 pmol/l) and oral treatment with cobalamin tablets. Results Twenty-five cats met the inclusion criteria. The cats were treated with 0.25 mg cyanocobalamin tablets once daily. Serum cobalamin concentration was rechecked 27-94 days after continuous oral cobalamin supplementation. All cats had serum cobalamin concentrations above the reference interval after oral cobalamin supplementation. Median (range) serum cobalamin concentration was 128 pmol/l (111-250 pmol/l) prior to treatment and 2701 pmol/l (738-16,359 pmol/l) after supplementation. This difference was statistically significant ( P cats with hypocobalaminaemia. Thus, oral cobalamin supplementation is a promising alternative to parenteral administration. Prospective comparative studies in cats being treated with parenteral vs oral cobalamin supplementation in a larger number of patients are warranted before oral supplementation can be recommended for routine use.

  5. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of the...

  6. Feline hepatic biotransformation of diazepam: Differences between cats and dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beusekom, Cyrina D; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Russel, Frans G M; Schrickx, Johannes A


    In contrast to humans and dogs, diazepam has been reported to induce severe hepatic side effects in cats, particularly after repeated dosing. With the aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this apparent sensitivity of cats to drug-induced liver injury, in a series of in vitro experiments, the

  7. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia. (United States)

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn


    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  8. The French CAT: An Assessment of Its Empirical Validity. (United States)

    Burston, Jack


    Investigates the empirical validity of the Monash-Melbourne computer adaptive test for French (French CAT). The article focuses on the accuracy of the French CAT as a tool for streaming incoming university students into three levels of a first-year (post-high school) French course. The test is demonstrated to be a good predictor of short-term…

  9. Bilateral extraluminal ectopic ureters in a Maine Coon cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Z. Crivellenti


    Full Text Available Ectopic ureters are rarely observed in cats. Therefore, for a better chance of success in the corrective surgical procedure and survival of the patient, diagnosis should be confirmed early. This report illustrates the occurrence of bilateral ectopic ureters in a seven month old Maine Coon cat and describes the medical and surgical management adopted for correction of the abnormality.

  10. Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Stock, O.; Nishida, T.; Meulemans, M.; van Bremen, A.


    The iCat is a user-interface robot with the ability to express a range of emotions through its facial features. This paper summarizes our research whether we can increase the believability and likability of the iCat for its human partners through the application of gaze behaviour. Gaze behaviour

  11. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the cat myostatin gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... MEF3, MTBF, PAX3, SMAD, HBOX, HOMF and TEAF motifs. Comparative analysis for some motifs showed both conservations and differences among cat, horse, porcine and human. Key words: Cat, myostatin 5'-regulatory region, molecular cloning, sequence analysis and comparison, transcription factor binding sites.

  12. Melanotroph pituitary adenoma in a cat with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, B.P.; Vlugt-Meijer, R.H. van der; Ingh, T.S. van den; Flik, G.; Rijnberk, A.


    A 13-year-old male, castrated, crossbred cat was referred for insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. The cat had a ravenous appetite and a dull coat. Basal urinary corticoid/creatinine ratios were normal. In the low-dose dexamethasone suppression test there was no suppression of the (nonelevated)

  13. Generalized AA-amyloidosis in Siamese and Oriental cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde-Sipman, van der J.S.; Niewold, T.A.; Tooten, P.C.J.; Neijs-Backer, de M.; Gruys, E.


    During a 7 year period (1987-1994), 194 Siamese cats including a colour variant designated Oriental cat, were presented for post-mortem examination. Twelve of these animals (6.2%) were diagnosed with amyloidosis. Major gross pathological findings included enlarged pale livers with haemorrhages, pale

  14. Intravenous lipid emulsion for treating permethrin toxicosis in a cat


    DeGroot, Whitney D.


    A 2-year-old cat was presented with acute onset seizures, tremors, and hypersalivation. Permethrin toxicity was diagnosed based on a history of recent flea treatment. Measures were taken to minimize further absorption of permethrin, and methocarbamol and intravenous lipid emulsion were used to control tremors. The cat recovered and was discharged within 42 h.

  15. Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Meulemans, M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Stock, O.; Nishida, T.


    The iCat is a user-interface robot with the ability to express a range of emotions through its facial features. This paper summarizes our research whether we can increase the believability and likability of the iCat for its human partners through the application of gaze behaviour. Gaze behaviour

  16. Population structure of Bartonella henselae in Algerian urban stray cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naouelle Azzag

    Full Text Available Whole blood samples from 211 stray cats from Algiers, Algeria, were cultured to detect the presence of Bartonella species and to evaluate the genetic diversity of B. henselae strains by multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA. Bartonella henselae was the only species isolated from 36 (17% of 211 cats. B. henselae genotype I was the predominant genotype (64%. MLVA typing of 259 strains from 30 bacteremic cats revealed 52 different profiles as compared to only 3 profiles using MLST. Of these 52 profiles, 48 (92.3% were identified for the first time. One-third of the cats harbored one MLVA profile only. As there was a correlation between the age of cats and the number of MLVA profiles, we hypothesized that the single profile in these cats was the profile of the initial infecting strain. Two-third of the cats harbored 2 to 6 MLVA profiles simultaneously. The similarity of MLVA profiles obtained from the same cat, neighbor-joining clustering and structure-neighbor clustering indicate that such a diversity likely results from two different mechanisms occurring either independently or simultaneously: independent infections and genetic drift from a primary strain.

  17. Evaluation of thromboelastography in two factor XII-deficient cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shauna L Blois


    Full Text Available Case summary The current report describes thromboelastography (TEG findings in two cats with factor XII (FXII deficiency. The first cat was diagnosed with bilateral perinephric pseudocysts; hemostatic testing was performed prior to performing renal aspirates. The second cat was healthy; hemostatic testing was performed prior to inclusion into a research project. Both cats had markedly prolonged partial thromboplastin times and hypocoagulable TEG tracings when samples were activated with kaolin. However, when tissue factor (TF was used to activate the sample, both cats had normal-to-hypercoagulable TEG tracings. The cats each had a subnormal FXII level. Relevance and novel information TEG is becoming widely used to investigate hemostasis in veterinary patients, and TEG results in cats with FXII deficiency have not been previously reported. FXII deficiency is the most common hereditary hemostatic defect in cats. While FXII deficiency does not lead to in vivo hemorrhagic tendencies, it can lead to marked prolongation in activated partial thromboplastin and activated clotting times, and cannot be differentiated from true hemorrhagic diatheses without measuring individual factor activity. With the increased use of TEG to evaluate hemostasis in veterinary patients, it is important to recognize the effects of FXII deficiency on this testing modality. The finding of a hypocoagulable kaolin-activated TEG tracing and a concurrent normal TF-activated TEG tracing in samples should prompt clinicians to consider ruling out FXII deficiency.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarno Winarno


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menghasilkan CAT menggunakan metode pohon segitiga keputusan dalam prosedur pemilihan item dan mengetahui kemampuan CAT dalam mengestimasi kemampuan peserta tes dengan tepat. Penelitian ini menggunakan Research and Development (R&D. Peng-ambilan data dengan observasi, dokumentasi, dan angket. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah teknik analisis deskriptif evaluatif dan teknik analisis deskriptif kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian adalah (1 CAT yang dikembangkan berdasar kebutuhan pemakai yaitu: berbasis internet, memiliki sistem ke-amanan, dan mudah diakses, (2 CAT dapat mengenali tiga pengguna, yaitu: administrator, guru, dan siswa, (3 CAT mampu memberikan butir-butir yang bersifat adaptif berdasarkan respon jawaban peserta tes. Secara keseluruhan kinerja CAT mampu melaksanakan tugas dengan baik untuk memilih butir tes dan mengukur kemampuan peserta tes dengan akurat dan tepat dilihat dari nilai korelasi antara hasil estimasi kemampuan (θ dengan nilai ulangan murni (NUM di sekolah siswa cukup tinggi yakni 0,67. Kata kunci: metode pohon segitiga keputusan, metode maximum likelihood ______________________________________________________________ DEVELOPING COMPUTERIZED ADAPTIVE TESTING (CAT BY USING THE TRIANGLE DECISION TREE METHOD Abstract This research aims at producing a CAT software that uses the tri-angle decision tree method in the test item selection procedure and detecting the CAT ability in estimating the test-takers’ ability accurately and correctly. This research used the research and development approach (R&D. The data were collected through observation, documentation, inquiry, and the data were analyzed descriptively and quantitatively. The findings are as follows. (1 The CAT developed is:based on users’ need, web-based, user-friendly, interactive, highly secured, and easily accessible. (2 The CAT can recognize three different users: school administrators, teachers, and students. (3 The CAT software is able

  19. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898) in Danish cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Caroline Salling; Willesen, Jakob; Pipper, Christian Bressen


    As Aelurostrongylus abstrusus has not previously received any attention in Denmark, the study investigated the occurrence of A. abstrusus amongst outdoor cats from three regions (Zealand, Møn and Falster). Faeces and lungs were collected from a total of 147 feral (n=125) and domesticated cats (n=22......) that were euthanized for reasons outside of this project. Using a modified Baermann technique 13.6% of the cats was found to be positive. A new lung digestion technique was developed to isolate eggs, L1 and adult worms from the lungs and this revealed a prevalence of 15.6% although with regional differences....... There was no difference between feral and domesticated cats just as sex and age did not appear to influence prevalence and worm burden. Lungs from 87% of the positive cats had the gross appearance compatible with A. abstrusus and the severity of lung damage was proportional to LPG and number of adult worms. Within...

  20. Should Dogs and Cats be Given as Gifts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hong


    Full Text Available Policies that state dogs and cats should not be adopted as gifts are prevalent at animal welfare organizations, despite the fact that this belief is unfounded. Denying adopters who intend to give the animals as gifts may unnecessarily impede the overarching goal of increasing the rate of live-releases of dogs and cats from our nations’ shelter system. The results of this brief survey show that receiving a dog or cat as a gift was neither significantly associated with impact on self-perceived love/attachment, nor was it associated with whether or not respondents still had the dog or cat in the home. The results from this survey add to a growing body of literature that suggests there is no increased risk of relinquishment for dogs and cats received as a gift.

  1. Dynamics of Action Potential Initiation in the GABAergic Thalamic Reticular Nucleus In Vivo (United States)

    Muñoz, Fabián; Fuentealba, Pablo


    Understanding the neural mechanisms of action potential generation is critical to establish the way neural circuits generate and coordinate activity. Accordingly, we investigated the dynamics of action potential initiation in the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) using in vivo intracellular recordings in cats in order to preserve anatomically-intact axo-dendritic distributions and naturally-occurring spatiotemporal patterns of synaptic activity in this structure that regulates the thalamic relay to neocortex. We found a wide operational range of voltage thresholds for action potentials, mostly due to intrinsic voltage-gated conductances and not synaptic activity driven by network oscillations. Varying levels of synchronous synaptic inputs produced fast rates of membrane potential depolarization preceding the action potential onset that were associated with lower thresholds and increased excitability, consistent with TRN neurons performing as coincidence detectors. On the other hand the presence of action potentials preceding any given spike was associated with more depolarized thresholds. The phase-plane trajectory of the action potential showed somato-dendritic propagation, but no obvious axon initial segment component, prominent in other neuronal classes and allegedly responsible for the high onset speed. Overall, our results suggest that TRN neurons could flexibly integrate synaptic inputs to discharge action potentials over wide voltage ranges, and perform as coincidence detectors and temporal integrators, supported by a dynamic action potential threshold. PMID:22279567

  2. Segregation of tactile input features in neurons of the cuneate nucleus. (United States)

    Jörntell, Henrik; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Geborek, Pontus; Spanne, Anton; Terekhov, Alexander V; Hayward, Vincent


    Our tactile perception of external objects depends on skin-object interactions. The mechanics of contact dictates the existence of fundamental spatiotemporal input features-contact initiation and cessation, slip, and rolling contact-that originate from the fact that solid objects do not interpenetrate. However, it is unknown whether these features are represented within the brain. We used a novel haptic interface to deliver such inputs to the glabrous skin of finger/digit pads and recorded from neurons of the cuneate nucleus (the brain's first level of tactile processing) in the cat. Surprisingly, despite having similar receptive fields and response properties, each cuneate neuron responded to a unique combination of these inputs. Hence, distinct haptic input features are encoded already at subcortical processing stages. This organization maps skin-object interactions into rich representations provided to higher cortical levels and may call for a re-evaluation of our current understanding of the brain's somatosensory systems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictive feedback can account for biphasic responses in the lateral geniculate nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneke F M Jehee


    Full Text Available Biphasic neural response properties, where the optimal stimulus for driving a neural response changes from one stimulus pattern to the opposite stimulus pattern over short periods of time, have been described in several visual areas, including lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, primary visual cortex (V1, and middle temporal area (MT. We describe a hierarchical model of predictive coding and simulations that capture these temporal variations in neuronal response properties. We focus on the LGN-V1 circuit and find that after training on natural images the model exhibits the brain's LGN-V1 connectivity structure, in which the structure of V1 receptive fields is linked to the spatial alignment and properties of center-surround cells in the LGN. In addition, the spatio-temporal response profile of LGN model neurons is biphasic in structure, resembling the biphasic response structure of neurons in cat LGN. Moreover, the model displays a specific pattern of influence of feedback, where LGN receptive fields that are aligned over a simple cell receptive field zone of the same polarity decrease their responses while neurons of opposite polarity increase their responses with feedback. This phase-reversed pattern of influence was recently observed in neurophysiology. These results corroborate the idea that predictive feedback is a general coding strategy in the brain.

  4. Quantitative analysis of the fusion cross sections using different microscopic nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel, A. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Majmaah University, Physics Department, College of Science, Al-Zulfi (Saudi Arabia); Alharbi, T. [Majmaah University, Physics Department, College of Science, Al-Zulfi (Saudi Arabia)


    The fusion cross sections for reactions involving medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems are investigated near and above the Coulomb barrier using the one-dimensional barrier penetration model. The microscopic nuclear interaction potential is computed by four methods, namely: the double-folding model based on a realistic density-dependent M3Y NN interaction with a finite-range exchange part, the Skyrme energy density functional in the semiclassical extended Thomas-Fermi approximation, the generalized Proximity potential, and the Akyuez-Winther interaction. The comparison between the calculated and the measured values of the fusion excitation functions indicates that the calculations of the DFM give quite satisfactory agreement with the experimental data, being much better than the other methods. New parameterized forms for the fusion barrier heights and positions are presented. Furthermore, the effects of deformation and orientation degrees of freedom on the distribution of the Coulomb barrier characteristics as well as the fusion cross sections are studied for the reactions {sup 16}O + {sup 70}Ge and {sup 28}Si + {sup 100}Mo. The calculated values of the total fusion cross sections are compared with coupled channel calculations using the code CCFULL and compared with the experimental data. Our results reveal that the inclusion of deformations and orientation degrees of freedom improves the comparison with the experimental data. (orig.)

  5. Formation and identification of Centauro and Strangelets in nucleus- nucleus collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Angelis, Aris L S; Bogolyubsky, M Yu; Filippov, S N; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Kharlov, Yu V; Kurepin, A B; Maevskaya, A I; Mavromanolakis, G; Panagiotou, A D; Sadovsky, S A; Stefanski, P; Wlodarczyk, Z


    We present a phenomenological model for the formation and decay of a cosmic ray Centauro fireball in the baryon-rich projectile fragmentation rapidity region in nucleus-nucleus interactions. Our model naturally incorporates the $9 possibility of strangelet formation, Strangelets being conjectured to be the "strongly penetrating component" observed in hadron-rich cosmic ray events. Based on this model we have performed Monte-Carlo simulations to study the $9 Centauro and strangelet dynamic and kinematic characteristics in central Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energies, as well as their identification by the detector system CASTOR. CASTOR is being developed for the ALICE heavy ion experiment at $9 the LHC and will probe the very forward pseudorapidity region 5.6

  6. EOS: A time projection chamber for the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Bevalac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, H.G.; Odyniec, G.; Rai, G.; Seidl, P.


    The conceptual design is presented for a detector to identify and measure ( approx. = 1%) most of the 200 or so mid-rapidity charged particles (p, d, t, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He, ..pi../sup + -/, K/sup + -/) produced in each central nucleus-nucleus collision (Au + Au) at Bevalac energies, as well as K/sub 3//sup 0/ and ..lambda../sup 0/. The beam particles and heavy spectator fragments are excluded from the detection volume by means of a central vacuum pipe. Particle identification is achieved by a combination of dE/dx measurements in the TPC, and of time-of-flight measurements in a scintillator array. The TPC is single-ended and its end cap is entirely covered with cathode pads (about 25,000 pads and about 1000 anode wires). A non-uniform pad distribution is proposed to accommodate the high multiplicity of particles emitted at forward angles. The performance of the detector is assessed with regard to multihit capability, tracking, momentum resolution, particle identification, ..lambda../sup 0/ reconstruction, space charge effects, field non-uniformity, dynamic range, data acquisition rate, and data analysis rate. 72 refs., 48 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in young adult and geriatric cats. (United States)

    Strain, George M; McGee, Kain A


    Recordings of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were taken from 15 geriatric cats (mean age ± standard deviation, SD, 13.6 ± 2.7 years; range 10.2-19.4 years) and 12 young adult control cats (mean ± SD 4.6 ± 0.5 years; range 3.4-5 years) to identify frequency-specific age-related changes in cochlear responses. Recordings were performed for primary frequencies from 2 to 12 kHz in 2 kHz increments. Cats were considered to be geriatric > 11.9 ± 1.9 years of age. Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) recordings were also made for subjective comparison with DPOAE responses. No differences in DPOAE response amplitudes were observed at any tested frequency in geriatric cats compared to control cats, reflecting an apparent absence of loss of cochlear outer hair cells along the length of the cochlea. No linear regression relationships were found for DPOAE response amplitude versus age in geriatric cats, despite the progressive nature of age-related hearing loss in other species. The absence of reductions in response at any of the tested frequencies in cats within the age span where cats are considered to be geriatric indicates that age-related hearing loss, if it does develop in cats, begins later in the life span of cats than in dogs or human beings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Validation of an electrophoretic method to detect albuminuria in cats. (United States)

    Ferlizza, Enea; Dondi, Francesco; Andreani, Giulia; Bucci, Diego; Archer, Joy; Isani, Gloria


    Objectives The aims of this study were to validate a semi-automated high-resolution electrophoretic technique to quantify urinary albumin in healthy and diseased cats, and to evaluate its diagnostic performance in cases of proteinuria and renal diseases. Methods Urine samples were collected from 88 cats (healthy; chronic kidney disease [CKD]; lower urinary tract disease [LUTD]; non-urinary tract diseases [OTHER]). Urine samples were routinely analysed and high-resolution electrophoresis (HRE) was performed. Within-assay and between-assay variability, linearity, accuracy, recovery and the lowest detectable and quantifiable bands were calculated. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was also performed. Results All coefficients of variation were cats, while profiles from diseased cats were variable. Albumin (mg/dl) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UAC) were significantly ( P cats. After ROC analysis, UAC values of 0.035 and 0.074 had a high sensitivity and high specificity, respectively, to classify proteinuria and identify borderline proteinuric cats. Moreover, a UAC of 0.017 had a high sensitivity in distinguishing between healthy and diseased cats. However, UAC was not able to distinguish between renal (CKD) and non-renal diseases (LUTD/OTHER), probably owing to the pathophysiology of CKD in cats, which is characterised by low-grade proteinuria and less glomerular involvement than in dogs. Conclusions and relevance HRE is an accurate and precise method that could be used to measure albuminuria in cats. UAC was useful to correctly classify proteinuria and to discriminate between healthy and diseased cats. HRE might also provide additional information on urine proteins with a profile of all proteins (albumin and globulins) to aid clinicians in the diagnosis of diseases characterised by proteinuria.

  9. Analgesic efficacy of tramadol in cats with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Monteiro, Beatriz P; Klinck, Mary P; Moreau, Maxim; Guillot, Martin; Steagall, Paulo V M; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Gauvin, Dominique; Del Castillo, Jérôme R E; Troncy, Eric


    This study aimed to (1) compare outcome assessments in normal and osteoarthritic cats and (2) evaluate the analgesic efficacy of tramadol in feline osteoarthritis (OA), in a prospective, randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Twenty cats were included after clinical examination, blood work and full body radiographs were performed. In Phase 1, outcome assessments aimed to differentiate normal (n = 5; i.e. exempt of any radiographic and clinical sign of OA) from OA (n = 15) cats. In Phase 2, OA cats were treated twice daily with a placebo (PG: cornstarch 15 mg) or tramadol (TG: 3 mg/kg) orally for 19 days, with a 3-month washout period between treatments. Evaluations were performed in normal and OA cats at baseline and consisted of: 1) peak vertical force (PVF) after staircase exercise; 2) telemetered night-time motor activity (NMA); and 3) response to mechanical temporal summation (RMTS). After treatment, PVF, NMA and RMTS evaluations were repeated in OA cats. Data were analysed with mixed model methods with an alpha-threshold of 5%. Phase 1: 1) PVF (% of body weight; mean ± SD) was higher in normal (59 ± 10.5) than in OA cats (50.6 ± 5.7) (p = 0.005); 2) NMA (no unit) was not different between groups; 3) RMTS (number of stimuli; median (range)) was higher in normal [29.5 (23.5-30)] than in OA cats [14 (8.5-28)] (p cats with tramadol treatment. Nociceptive hypersensitivity quantified by RMTS was evident in OA cats and was responsive to tramadol treatment.

  10. Molecular detection of Rickettsia typhi in cats and fleas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mercedes Nogueras

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsiatyphi is the etiological agent of murine typhus (MT, a disease transmitted by two cycles: rat-flea-rat, and peridomestic cycle. Murine typhus is often misdiagnosed and underreported. A correct diagnosis is important because MT can cause severe illness and death. Our previous seroprevalence results pointed to presence of human R. typhi infection in our region; however, no clinical case has been reported. Although cats have been related to MT, no naturally infected cat has been described. The aim of the study is to confirm the existence of R. typhi in our location analyzing its presence in cats and fleas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 221 cats and 80 fleas were collected from Veterinary clinics, shelters, and the street (2001-2009. Variables surveyed were: date of collection, age, sex, municipality, living place, outdoor activities, demographic area, healthy status, contact with animals, and ectoparasite infestation. IgG against R. typhi were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Molecular detection in cats and fleas was performed by real-time PCR. Cultures were performed in those cats with positive molecular detection. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thirty-five (15.8% cats were seropositive. There were no significant associations among seropositivity and any variables. R. typhi was detected in 5 blood and 2 cultures. High titres and molecular detection were observed in stray cats and pets, as well as in spring and winter. All fleas were Ctenocephalides felis. R. typhi was detected in 44 fleas (55%, from shelters and pets. Co-infection with R. felis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although no clinical case has been described in this area, the presence of R. typhi in cats and fleas is demonstrated. Moreover, a considerable percentage of those animals lived in households. To our knowledge, this is the first time R. typhi is detected in naturally infected cats.

  11. Intra-abdominal fungal pseudomycetoma in two cats. (United States)

    Bianchi, Matheus V; Laisse, Cláudio J M; Vargas, Thainã P; Wouters, Flademir; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Pavarini, Saulo P; Ferreiro, Laerte; Driemeier, David

    Pseudomycetomas are deep cutaneous to subcutaneous lesions caused by Microsporum canis mainly described in Persian cats, with few reports of intra-abdominal location. This report describes the clinical signs and lesions of intra-abdominal pseudomycetomas caused by M. canis in two Persian cats. Two Persian cats with a history of previous laparotomy (ovariohysterectomy and nephrostomy) and fecal impaction were examined. Cat #1 was euthanized and subjected to necropsy, histopathology and mycological evaluation. Cat #2 presented with chronic dermatophytosis, and an intra-abdominal mass, that was subjected to histopathology evaluation. Cat #1 presented at necropsy a white-grayish, firm mass (6cm×3.5cm×2.8cm) in the uterine cervix. Cat #2 presented a firm whitish mass (6.5cm×1.5cm×0.5cm) located close to the left kidney. Histologically, both masses contained multifocal granules with hyphae and spores surrounded by Splendore-Hoeppli reaction, with a pyogranulomatous inflammatory infiltrate and fibrous connective tissue proliferation in the periphery. Hyphae and spores exhibited marked Grocott and periodic acid-Schiff staining. M. canis was identified by fungal isolation in cat #1. Pseudomycetoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cats, especially in Persian cats presenting with an intra-abdominal mass. Entrance of the agent into the cavity can occur during laparotomy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Nucleus management in manual small incision cataract surgery by phacosection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra M


    Full Text Available Nucleus management is critical in manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS, as the integrity of the tunnel, endothelium and posterior capsule needs to be respected. Several techniques of nucleus management are in vogue, depending upon the specific technique of MSICS. Nucleus can be removed in toto or bisected or trisected into smaller segments. The pressure in the eye can be maintained at the desired level with the use of an anterior chamber maintainer or kept at atmospheric levels. In MSICS, unlike phacoemulsification, there is no need to limit the size of the tunnel or restrain the size of capsulorrhexis. Large well-structured tunnels and larger capsulorrhexis provide better control on the surgical maneuvers. Safety and simplicity of MSICS has made it extremely popular. The purpose of this article is to describe nucleus management by phacosection in MSICS.

  13. Matrix vaccination guidelines : 2015 ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosie, Margaret J; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    OVERVIEW: In 2013, the ABCD published 'Matrix vaccination guidelines: ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries' in a Special Issue of the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (Volume 15, Issue 7, pages 540-544). The ABCD's vaccination recommendations

  14. What's inside your cat's head? A review of cat (Felis silvestris catus) cognition research past, present and future. (United States)

    Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R; Udell, Monique A R


    The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) has shared an intertwined existence with humans for thousands of years, living on our city streets and in our homes. Yet, little scientific research has focused on the cognition of the domestic cat, especially in comparison with human's other companion, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). This review surveys the current status of several areas of cat cognition research including perception, object permanence, memory, physical causality, quantity and time discrimination, cats' sensitivity to human cues, vocal recognition and communication, attachment bonds, personality, and cognitive health. Although interest in cat cognition is growing, we still have a long way to go until we have an inclusive body of research on the subject. Therefore, this review also identifies areas where future research must be conducted. In addition to the scientific value of future work in this area, future research on cat cognition could have an important influence on the management and welfare of pet and free-roaming cats, leading to improved human-cat interactions.

  15. Estimation of the dietary nutrient profile of free-roaming feral cats: possible implications for nutrition of domestic cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.


    Cats are strict carnivores and in the wild rely on a diet solely based on animal tissues to meet their specific and unique nutritional requirements. Although the feeding ecology of cats in the wild has been well documented in the literature, there is no information on the precise nutrient profile to

  16. Reasons People Surrender Unowned and Owned Cats to Australian Animal Shelters and Barriers to Assuming Ownership of Unowned Cats. (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Morton, John; Vankan, Dianne; Paterson, Mandy; Bennett, Pauleen C; Rand, Jacquie; Phillips, Clive J C


    Most cats surrendered to nonhuman animal shelters are identified as unowned, and the surrender reason for these cats is usually simply recorded as "stray." A cross-sectional study was conducted with people surrendering cats to 4 Australian animal shelters. Surrenderers of unowned cats commonly gave surrender reasons relating to concern for the cat and his/her welfare. Seventeen percent of noncaregivers had considered adopting the cat. Barriers to assuming ownership most commonly related to responsible ownership concerns. Unwanted kittens commonly contributed to the decision to surrender for both caregivers and noncaregivers. Nonowners gave more surrender reasons than owners, although many owners also gave multiple surrender reasons. These findings highlight the multifactorial nature of the decision-making process leading to surrender and demonstrate that recording only one reason for surrender does not capture the complexity of the surrender decision. Collecting information about multiple reasons for surrender, particularly reasons for surrender of unowned cats and barriers to assuming ownership, could help to develop strategies to reduce the number of cats surrendered.

  17. Colour, albedo and nucleus size of Halley's comet (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Tholen, D. J.; Hartmann, W. K.


    Photometry of Halley's comet in the B, J, V, and K broadband filters during a time when the coma was very weak and presumed to contribute negligibly to the broadband photometry is reported. The V-J and J-K colors suggest that the color of the nucleus of Halley's comet is similar to that of the D-type asteroids, which in turn suggests that the surface of the nucleus has an albedo less than 0.1.

  18. The TLC: A Novel Auditory Nucleus of the Mammalian Brain


    Saldaña Fernández, Enrique; Viñuela, Antonio; Marshall, Allen F.; Fitzpatrick, Douglas C.; Aparicio Vaquero, María Auxiliadora


    [EN]We have identified a novel nucleus of the mammalian brain and termed it the tectal longitudinal column (TLC). Basic histologic stains, tract-tracing techniques and three-dimensional reconstructions reveal that the rat TLC is a narrow, elongated structure spanning themidbrain tectum longitudinally. This paired nucleus is located close to the midline, immediately dorsal to the periaqueductal gray matter.It occupies what has traditionally been considered the most medial region of the deep su...

  19. Ectoparasites of dogs and cats in Albania. (United States)

    Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimiter; Visser, Martin; Knaus, Martin; Lindner, Thomas; Rehbein, Steffen


    One hundred eighty-one dogs and 26 short-hair cats from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania were examined for ectoparasite infestation. The dogs were examined on several occasions from 2005 through 2009 representing three seasons: winter (December-February), spring (March-May), and summer (June-August); the cats were examined in late autumn (November). In addition, deep ear swab specimens of 30 dogs were examined for ear mites. The arthropod ectoparasite fauna of the dogs included two tick species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes ricinus), three mite species (Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis, Otodectes cynotis, and Demodex canis), three flea species (Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides felis, and Pulex irritans), and one louse species (Trichodectes canis). In the dogs, rates of infestation were 23.8% for R. sanguineus, 0.6% for I. ricinus, 4.4% for S. scabiei var. canis, 6.7% for O. cynotis, 0.6% for D. canis, 75.7% for C. canis, 5.0% for C. felis, 8.3% for P. irritans, and 6.6% for T. canis. Mixed infestation with two or three species of ectoparasites was recorded on 38.1% of the dogs. Fleas infested 75.7% dogs (geometric mean, 3.96; range, 1-80) and were observed in winter, spring, and summer with increasing prevalences of 64.3%, 75.9%, and 100%. Ticks parasitized 24.3% of the dogs (geometric mean, 0.41; range, 1-331). R. sanguineus ticks were recorded on 34.2% and 50% of the dogs examined in spring and summer, respectively, but were absent on the dogs during winter except for a single I. ricinus specimen observed. Prevalence of infestation with R. sanguineus, S. scabiei var. canis, C. felis, P. irritans, and T. canis did not differ between dogs dogs > 6 months of age; however, prevalence of infestation with C. canis was significantly (p dogs > 6 months old. There was no difference between the sexes for the prevalences of infestation with those parasites. The examination of the cats revealed infestation with only one species of ectoparasite, C. felis

  20. FCV-VBS isolated from cats with typical symptoms caused VSD in experimental cats. (United States)

    Ohe, Kyoko; Takahashi, Toshikazu; Hara, Daisuke; Hara, Motonobu


    Commercially available vaccines have been used widely to prevent feline calicivirus infection (FCI). However, with their widespread use, field strains, which are weakly cross-reactive with the live-virus vaccine strain F9, have posed the problem of vaccine breakdown. Recently the existence of FCV--associated virulent systemic disease (VSD) has been published. But their molecular diversity, antigenic mutations and physicochemical property have not been sufficiently clarified. Thus, we experimentally gave the vaccine breakdown strain (VBS) H10 to cats that had been inoculated with an F9 live vaccine. After the administration of strain H10, vaccinated cats (1 through 4) had no respiratory symptoms, whereas the non-vaccinated cat 5 showed clinical symptoms such as a fever of over 40 degrees C, loss of vitality, decreased appetite, diarrhea, and nasal discharge after receiving strain H10, and died. Lethal FCV is rare, and may be a virulent systemic disease (VSD)--inducing strain. This is the initial report on VSD in Japan. It has been reported that symptoms of VSD were similar in vaccinated and nonvaccinated cats on experimental infection. However, no VSD-like symptoms developed, and the incidence of the disease varied depending on the presence or absence of vaccination, suggesting that there are two mechanisms of vaccine breakdown: one is associated with the vaccine immunity level, and the other is not. The characteristics of the VBS revealed were: (1) the duration of virus excretion was short when the originally carried antibody titer before virus challenge was high, (2) the excreted viral molecular species varied daily, not being limited to a specific species with time, and (3) the acquired physicochemical properties did not persist, and altered daily. FCV-VBS alters the molecular species and physicochemical properties daily due to the reduction of host immunity, which may lead to VSD.

  1. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in domesticated and feral cats in eastern Australia. (United States)

    Shapiro, Amanda J; Bosward, Katrina L; Heller, Jane; Norris, Jacqueline M


    The seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) in cats in eastern Australia is unknown, and the risk of transmission from cats to humans is undetermined. This study aimed to determine the exposure of cats to C. burnetii in four distinct cat subpopulations. An indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used for detection of anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans were adapted, verified for use on feline serum, and compared. Cat serum samples (n=712) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [cattery-confined breeding cats, pet cats, feral cats and shelter cats]. The proportions of seropositive cats were; cattery-confined breeding cats (35/376, 9.3%), pets (2/198, 1%), feral cats (0/50), shelter cats (0/88). The significant variables in C. burnetii seropositivity were cattery-confined breeding cat subpopulation and sterilisation status, with infected cats 17.1 (CI 4.2-70.2; Pcats and 6.00 (CI 2.13-16.89; Pcats have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence of C. burnetii is seen amongst cattery-confined breeding cats. Cat breeders and veterinary personnel involved in feline reproductive procedures may be at higher risk of exposure to C. burnetii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Statistical mechanics of a cat's cradle (United States)

    Shen, Tongye; Wolynes, Peter G.


    It is believed that, much like a cat's cradle, the cytoskeleton can be thought of as a network of strings under tension. We show that both regular and random bond-disordered networks having bonds that buckle upon compression exhibit a variety of phase transitions as a function of temperature and extension. The results of self-consistent phonon calculations for the regular networks agree very well with computer simulations at finite temperature. The analytic theory also yields a rigidity onset (mechanical percolation) and the fraction of extended bonds for random networks. There is very good agreement with the simulations by Delaney et al (2005 Europhys. Lett. 72 990). The mean field theory reveals a nontranslationally invariant phase with self-generated heterogeneity of tautness, representing 'antiferroelasticity'.

  3. Physics Girl: Where Education meets Cat Videos (United States)

    Cowern, Dianna

    YouTube is usually considered an entertainment medium to watch cats, gaming, and music videos. But educational channels have been gaining momentum on the platform, some garnering millions of subscribers and billions of views. The Physics Girl YouTube channel is an educational series with PBS Digital Studios created by Dianna Cowern. Using Physics Girl as an example, this talk will examine what it takes to start a short-form educational video series, including logistics and resources. One benefit of video is that every failure is documented on camera and can, and will, be used in this talk as a learning tool. We will look at the channels demographical reach, discuss best practices for effective physics outreach, and survey how online media and technology can facilitate good and bad learning. The aim of this talk is to show how videos are a unique way to share science and enrich the learning experience, in and out of a classroom.

  4. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.


    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  5. The cat is out of the bag

    KAUST Repository

    Ananthanarayanan, Rajagopal


    In the quest for cognitive computing, we have built a massively parallel cortical simulator, C2, that incorporates a number of innovations in computation, memory, and communication. Using C2 on LLNL\\'s Dawn Blue Gene/P supercomputer with 147, 456 CPUs and 144 TB of main memory, we report two cortical simulations - at unprecedented scale - that effectively saturate the entire memory capacity and refresh it at least every simulated second. The first simulation consists of 1.6 billion neurons and 8.87 trillion synapses with experimentally-measured gray matter thalamocortical connectivity. The second simulation has 900 million neurons and 9 trillion synapses with probabilistic connectivity. We demonstrate nearly perfect weak scaling and attractive strong scaling. The simulations, which incorporate phenomenological spiking neurons, individual learning synapses, axonal delays, and dynamic synaptic channels, exceed the scale of the cat cortex, marking the dawn of a new era in the scale of cortical simulations. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  6. Massage therapy for dogs and cats. (United States)

    Corti, Lisa


    Massage is gaining recognition as a beneficial modality for the treatment of many ailments due to recent scientific research in humans. We can infer that these benefits apply to dogs and cats due to their similar physiology and anatomy. Defined as the therapeutic manipulation of soft tissues, massage has many effects on muscle, the circulatory system, the autonomic nervous system, and the mind. Various techniques are employed to achieve a desired effect in the treatment of many conditions, including but not limited to, swelling and edema, critical illness and prolonged recumbency, osteoarthritis and chronic pain, and palliative and hospice care. This article reviews the above topics and encourages the practitioner to seek out expert advice on massage in the care of companion animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MobiCat - a solar-electrical passenger boat; MobiCat solar-elektrisches Passagierschiff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minder, R.


    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of the 'MobiCat' project which included the design, construction and operation of a solar-electric powered passenger ship for inland waterways. The vessel is of a catamaran with a length of 33 m and a width of 11 m. The electrical energy is produced by a 20 kW{sub p} array of photovoltaic panels and stored in two 480 V lead-acid battery blocks rated at 240 Ah each. The ship is powered by two 81 kW industrial AC drives. With a passenger capacity of 150 persons MobiCat is the largest solar-powered ship world-wide. The report discusses the generally positive operational experience and the wide interest both by the public and the media that the project has attracted. The MobiCat has become the most popular charter ship on the lake of Biel/Bienne in Switzerland. The author states that the ultimate goals of the project - to demonstrate the feasibility of large solar-powered passenger ships and to present new sustainable mobility solutions on inland waterways - have been fully reached.

  8. Study of high energy densities over extended nuclear volumes via nucleus-nucleus collisions at the SPS

    CERN Multimedia


    This experiment examines in detail the characteristics of ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions using $^{16}$O beams of 200 GeV/A from the SPS. The experiment combines 4$\\pi$ calorimeter coverage with measurements of inclusive particle spectra, two-particle correlations, low and high-mass lepton pairs and photons. A multiwire active target allows maximum interaction rates with a minimum of secondary interactions. Additional data are taken with an emulsion target.

  9. The pharmacokinetics of intravenous fenoldopam in healthy, awake cats. (United States)

    O'Neill, K E; Labato, M A; Court, M H


    Fenoldopam is a selective dopamine-1 receptor agonist that improves diuresis by increasing renal blood flow and perfusion and causing peripheral vasodilation. Fenoldopam has been shown to induce diuresis and be well-tolerated in healthy cats. It is used clinically in cats with oliguric kidney injury at doses extrapolated from human medicine and canine studies. The pharmacokinetics in healthy beagle dogs has been reported; however, pharmacokinetic data in cats are lacking. The goal of this study was to determine pharmacokinetic data for healthy, awake cats receiving an infusion of fenoldopam. Six healthy, awake, client-owned cats aged 2-6 years old received a 120-min constant rate infusion of fenoldopam at 0.8 μg/kg/min followed by a 20-min washout period. Ascorbate stabilized plasma samples were collected during and after the infusion for the measurement of fenoldopam concentration by HPLC with mass spectrometry detection. This study showed that the geometric mean of the volume of distribution, clearance, and half-life (198 mL/kg, 46 mL/kg/min, and 3.0 mins) is similar to pharmacokinetic parameters for humans. No adverse events were noted. Fenoldopam at a constant rate infusion of 0.8 μg/kg per min was well tolerated in healthy cats. Based on the results, further evaluation of fenoldopam in cats with kidney disease is recommended. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Alternate-day dosing of itraconazole in healthy adult cats. (United States)

    Middleton, S M; Kubier, A; Dirikolu, L; Papich, M G; Mitchell, M A; Rubin, S I


    The current available formulations of itraconazole are not ideal for dosing in cats. The capsular preparation often does not allow for accurate dosing, the oral solution is difficult to administer and poorly tolerated, and the bioavailability of compounded formulations has been shown to be poor in other species. The aim of this study was to evaluate every other day dosing of 100 mg itraconazole capsule in healthy adult cats. Ten healthy adult cats received a 100 mg capsule of itraconazole orally every 48 h for 8 weeks. Peak and trough serum concentrations of itraconazole were measured weekly using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Physical examination, complete blood count (CBC), and chemistry profiles were performed weekly. The dosage regimen achieved average therapeutic trough concentrations (>0.5 μg/mL) within 3 weeks. The protocol yielded no adverse effects in 8 of the 10 study cats, with affected cats recovering fully with discontinuation of the drug and supportive care. At 8 weeks, an average peak concentration of 1.79 ± 0.952 μg/mL (95% CI: 0.996-2.588) and an average trough concentration of 0.761 ± 0.540 μg/mL (95% CI: 0.314-1.216) were achieved. Overall, a 100 mg every other day oral dosage regimen for itraconazole in cats yielded serum concentrations with minimal fluctuation and with careful monitoring may be considered for treatment of cats with systemic fungal disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Uterine torsion in a full-term pregnant cat. (United States)

    Kuroda, Kohei; Osaki, Tomohiro; Harada, Kazuki; Yamashita, Masamichi; Murahata, Yusuke; Azuma, Kazuo; Tsuka, Takeshi; Ito, Norihiko; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yoshiharu


    A 5-year-old intact female Maine Coon cat presented with a 2 day history of lethargy, anorexia and anaemia. The cat had bred 60 days previously and jumped from a height 3 days earlier, which was followed by a worsening of its condition. Ultrasonography revealed that two fetuses had died and one remained alive. Urgent surgical intervention was deemed necessary, and the cat underwent a blood transfusion and laparotomy. The right uterine horn was dark red in appearance and had rotated 360° in the clockwise direction at its base. Subsequently, an ovariohysterectomy and caesarean section were performed, and the fetus in the left uterine horn initially survived. Although the cat appeared to recover from anaemia and physical injury, the kitten died on postoperative day 1. In cases involving only one twisted uterine horn, the fetuses located in the contralateral horn could potentially survive; however, many such fetuses do not survive, and only a few reports have described fetal survival in a pregnant cat with uterine torsion. In the present case, early surgical intervention and blood transfusion allowed us to save the cat. Our findings demonstrate the life-saving abilities of initial support treatment and early surgical intervention for both the pregnant cat and fetuses in cases of acute abdomen caused by uterine torsion.

  12. Primary stabilisation for tail avulsion in 15 cats. (United States)

    Caraty, J; Hassoun, R; Meheust, P


    To evaluate the effects of a primary tail stabilisation technique in relieving pain and supporting nerve recovery in cats that have lost voluntary motor function and pain sensation in the tail without caudal nerve transection. Retrospective review of medical records and preoperative diagnostic tests, including clinical examination results and tail radiographs of cats suffering from tail avulsion with loss of pain perception in the tail between 2009 and 2015. Cats with open tail fracture, tail wounds that necessitated an amputation or caudal nerve root transection were excluded. Tail reconstruction was performed, after surgical exploration, with two nylon sutures. Fifteen cats were included, all of which had lost voluntary motor function in the tail and 8 of 15 were urinary incontinent. After surgery, 11 cats recovered voluntary tail function and pain sensation within 14 to 90 days (mean 39 days). Five of the eight previously incontinent cats recovered urinary continence within a month of surgery. The reported method of primary tail stabilisation is associated with recovery of lost function in the majority of cats presenting with tail avulsions, loss of pain sensation in the tail but without caudal nerve root transection. A comparison study is required to determine whether these results are superior to conservative management. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  13. Ileocolic junction resection in dogs and cats: 18 cases. (United States)

    Fernandez, Yordan; Seth, Mayank; Murgia, Daniela; Puig, Jordi


    There is limited veterinary literature about dogs or cats with ileocolic junction resection and its long-term follow-up. To evaluate the long-term outcome in a cohort of dogs and cats that underwent resection of the ileocolic junction without extensive (≥50%) small or large bowel resection. Medical records of dogs and cats that had the ileocolic junction resected were reviewed. Follow-up information was obtained either by telephone interview or e-mail correspondence with the referring veterinary surgeons. Nine dogs and nine cats were included. The most common cause of ileocolic junction resection was intussusception in dogs (5/9) and neoplasia in cats (6/9). Two dogs with ileocolic junction lymphoma died postoperatively. Only 2 of 15 animals, for which long-term follow-up information was available, had soft stools. However, three dogs with suspected chronic enteropathy required long-term treatment with hypoallergenic diets alone or in combination with medical treatment to avoid the development of diarrhoea. Four of 6 cats with ileocolic junction neoplasia were euthanised as a consequence of progressive disease. Dogs and cats undergoing ileocolic junction resection and surviving the perioperative period may have a good long-term outcome with mild or absent clinical signs but long-term medical management may be required.

  14. Locomotion in intact and in brain cortex-ablated cats. (United States)

    López Ruiz, José Roberto; Castillo Hernández, Luis; De la Torre Valdovinos, Braniff; Franco Rodríguez, Nancy Elizabeth; Dueñas Jiménez, Judith Marcela; Dueñas Jiménez, Alejandro; Rivas-Carrillo, Jorge David; Dueñas Jiménez, Sergio Horacio


    The current decerebration procedures discard the role of the thalamus in the motor control and decortication only rules out the brain cortex part, leaving a gap between the brain cortex and the subthalamic motor regions. In here we define a new preparation denominated Brain Cortex-Ablated Cat (BCAC), in which the frontal and parietal brain cortices as well as the central white matter beneath them were removed, this decerebration process may be considered as suprathalamic, since the thalamus remained intact. To characterize this preparation cat hindlimb electromyograms (EMG), kinematics and cutaneous reflexes (CR) produced by electrical stimulation of sural (SU) or saphenous (SAPH) nerves were analyzed during locomotion in intact and in BCAC. In cortex-ablated cats compared to intact cats, the hindlimb EMG amplitude was increased in the flexors, whereas in most extensors the amplitude was decreased. Bifunctional muscle EMGs presented complex and speed-dependent amplitude changes. In intact cats CR produced an inhibition of extensors, as well as excitation and inhibition of flexors, and a complex pattern of withdrawal responses in bifunctional muscles. The same stimuli applied to BCAC produced no detectable responses, but in some cats cutaneous reflexes produced by electrical stimulation of saphenous nerve reappeared when the locomotion speed increased. In BCAC, EMG and kinematic changes, as well as the absence of CR, imply that for this cat preparation there is a partial compensation due to the subcortical locomotor apparatus generating close to normal locomotion. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fluctuations and correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions within transport approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konchakovski, Volodymyr P.


    The current thesis is devoted to a systematic study of fluctuations and correlations in heavy-ion collisions, which might be considered as probes for the phase transition and the critical point in the phase diagram, within the Hadron-String- Dynamics (HSD) microscopic transport approach. This is a powerful tool to study nucleus-nucleus collisions and allows to completely simulate experimental collisions on an event-by-event basis. Thus, the transport model has been used to study fluctuations and correlations including the influence of experimental acceptance as well as centrality, system size and collision energy. The comparison to experimental data can separate the effects induced by a phase transition since there is no phase transition in the HSD version used here. Firstly the centrality dependence of multiplicity fluctuations has been studied. Different centrality selections have been performed in the analysis in correspondence to the experimental situation. For the fixed target experiment NA49 events with fixed numbers of the projectile participants have been studied while in the collider experiment PHENIX centrality classes of events have been defined by the multiplicity in certain phase space region. A decrease of participant number fluctuations (and thus volume fluctuations) in more central collisions for both experiments has been obtained. Another area of this work addresses to transport model calculations of multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions as a function of colliding energy and system size. This study is in full correspondence to the experimental program of the NA61 Collaboration at the SPS. Central C+C, S+S, In+In, and Pb+Pb nuclear collisions at Elab = 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 158 AGeV have been investigated. The expected enhanced fluctuations - attributed to the critical point and phase transition - can be observed experimentally on top of a monotonic and smooth 'hadronic background'. These findings should be helpful for the

  16. Comparison of rectal and axillary temperatures in dogs and cats. (United States)

    Goic, Joana B; Reineke, Erica L; Drobatz, Kenneth J


    To compare rectal versus axillary temperatures in dogs and cats. Prospective observational study. 94 dogs and 31 cats. Paired axillary and rectal temperatures were measured in random order with a standardized method. Animal signalment, initial complaint, blood pressure, blood lactate concentration, and variables associated with vascular perfusion and coat were evaluated for associations with axillary and rectal temperatures. Axillary temperature was positively correlated with rectal temperature (ρ = 0.75 in both species). Median axillary temperature (38.4°C [101.1°F] in dogs, and 38.4°C [101.2°F] in cats) was significantly different from median rectal temperature in dogs (38.9°C [102.0°F]) but not in cats (38.6°C [101.5°F]). Median rectal-axillary gradient (difference) was 0.4°C (0.7°F; range, -1.3° to 2.3°C [-2.4° to 4.1°F]) in dogs and 0.17°C (0.3°F; range -1.1° to 1.6°C [-1.9° to 3°F]) in cats. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of hyperthermia with axillary temperature were 57% and 100%, respectively, in dogs and 33% and 100%, respectively, in cats; sensitivity and specificity for detection of hypothermia were 86% and 87%, respectively, in dogs and 80% and 96%, respectively, in cats. Body weight (ρ = 0.514) and body condition score (ρ = 0.431) were correlated with rectal-axillary gradient in cats. Although axillary and rectal temperatures were correlated in dogs and cats, a large gradient was present between rectal temperature and axillary temperature, suggesting that axillary temperature should not be used as a substitute for rectal temperature.

  17. Prevention of infectious diseases in cat shelters: ABCD guidelines. (United States)

    Möstl, Karin; Egberink, Herman; Addie, Diane; Frymus, Tadeusz; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Truyen, Uwe; Hartmann, Katrin; Lutz, Hans; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Radford, Alan D; Lloret, Albert; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hosie, Margaret J; Marsilio, Fulvio; Thiry, Etienne; Belák, Sándor; Horzinek, Marian C


    Recommendations are given in relation to infectious diseases in rescue shelters. The ABCD recognises that there is a wide variation in the design and management of shelters, and that these largely reflect local pressures. These guidelines are written with this diverse audience in mind; they point to the ideal, and also provide for some level of compromise where this ideal cannot immediately be attained. In addition consideration should be given to general requirements in order to optimise overall health and wellbeing of cats within the shelter. HOUSING: Compartmentalisation of the shelter into at least three individual sections (quarantine area for incoming cats, isolation facilities for sick or potentially infectious cats, and accommodation for clinically healthy, retrovirus-negative cats) can facilitate containment of a disease outbreak, should it occur. STANDARD OF CARE: Incoming cats should receive a full health check by a veterinary surgeon, should be dewormed and tested for retrovirus infections (feline leukaemia virus [FeLV] and/or feline immunodeficiency virus [FIV]) in regions with high prevalence and in shelters that allow contact between cats. Cats which are not rehomed should receive a regular veterinary check-up at intervals recommended by their veterinarian. Each cat should be vaccinated as soon as possible against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline herpesvirus (FHV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV) infections. HYGIENE: Adequate hygiene conditions should ensure that contact between shedders of infectious agents and susceptible animals is reduced as efficiently as possible by movement control, hygiene procedures of care workers, barrier nursing, cleaning and disinfection. STRESS REDUCTION: Stress reduction is important for overall health and for minimising the risk of recrudescence and exacerbation of infectious diseases. In general, a special effort should be made to rehome cats as soon as possible.

  18. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012) (United States)

    Li, Bao-An; Natowitz, Joseph B.


    The 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012) was held from 27 May to 1 June 2012, in San Antonio, Texas, USA. It was jointly organized and hosted by The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University, College Station and The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University-Commerce. Among the approximately 300 participants were a large number of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. The Keynote Talk of the conference, 'The State of Affairs of Present and Future Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Science', was given by Dr Robert Tribble, University Distinguished Professor and Director of the TAMU Cyclotron Institute. During the conference a very well-received public lecture on neutrino astronomy, 'The ICEcube project', was given by Dr Francis Halzen, Hilldale and Gregory Breit Distinguished Professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The Scientific program continued in the general spirit and intention of this conference series. As is typical of this conference a broad range of topics including fundamental areas of nuclear dynamics, structure, and applications were addressed in 42 plenary session talks, 150 parallel session talks, and 21 posters. The high quality of the work presented emphasized the vitality and relevance of the subject matter of this conference. Following the tradition, the NN2012 International Advisory Committee selected the host and site of the next conference in this series. The 12th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2015) will be held 21-26 June 2015 in Catania, Italy. It will be hosted by The INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania and the Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia of the University of Catania. The NN2012 Proceedings contains the conference program and 165 articles organized into the following 10 sections 1. Heavy and Superheavy Elements 2. QCD and Hadron Physics 3. Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions 4. Nuclear Structure 5. Nuclear Energy and Applications of

  19. Minimum decoherence cat-like states in Gaussian noisy channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, A [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, G C Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); De Siena, S [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, G C Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Illuminati, F [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, G C Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Paris, M G A [ISIS ' A Sorbelli' , I-41026 Pavullo nel Frignano, MO (Italy)


    We address the evolution of cat-like states in general Gaussian noisy channels, by considering superpositions of coherent and squeezed coherent states coupled to an arbitrarily squeezed bath. The phase space dynamics is solved and decoherence is studied, keeping track of the purity of the evolving state. The influence of the choice of the state and channel parameters on purity is discussed and optimal working regimes that minimize the decoherence rate are determined. In particular, we show that squeezing the bath to protect a non-squeezed cat state against decoherence is equivalent to orthogonally squeezing the initial cat state while letting the bath be phase insensitive.

  20. [Associated brachial cleft anomalies in the cat eye syndrome]. (United States)

    Avior, Galit; Derowe, Ari; Fliss, Dan M; Leicear-Trejo, Leonor; Braverman, Itzhak


    The cat eye syndrome is a congenital malformation usually associated with anal atresia, ocular coloboma, downward slanting eyes, microphthalmia, hypertelorism, strabismus, preauricular tags or fistulas, congenital heart defect particularly septal defect, urinary tract abnormalities, skeletal anomalies and frequently mental and physical retardation. A small supernumerary chromosome (smaller than chromosome 21) is present, frequently has 2 centromeres, is bisatellited and represents an inv dup 22 (q11). A two years old female presented to our department with an association of cat eye syndrome with preauricular tags and a first branchial arch anomaly. This article discusses the surgical management and the association between the cat eye syndrome and first branchial cleft anomaly.

  1. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome and steroid hepatopathy in a cat. (United States)

    Schaer, M; Ginn, P E


    The distinguishing clinical features of Cushing's syndrome in the cat include very friable skin, a high incidence of diabetes mellitus, and the general absence of steroid hepatopathy. This case report describes a nine-year-old, spayed female domestic shorthair with triamcinolone-induced Cushing's syndrome. Unique to this cat were markedly elevated liver enzymes which prompted an expanded clinical evaluation. An ultrasonographic-guided liver biopsy demonstrated diffuse hepatocellular vacuolation that stained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive and was removed subsequently with diastase application, indicating glycogen accumulation. These findings are compatible with the rarely seen syndrome of steroid hepatopathy in the cat.

  2. Heterogeneous calretinin expression in the avian cochlear nucleus angularis. (United States)

    Bloom, S; Williams, A; MacLeod, K M


    Multiple calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) are expressed at high levels and in complementary patterns in the auditory pathways of birds, mammals, and other vertebrates, but whether specific members of the CaBP family can be used to identify neuronal subpopulations is unclear. We used double immunofluorescence labeling of calretinin (CR) in combination with neuronal markers to investigate the distribution of CR-expressing neurons in brainstem sections of the cochlear nucleus in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). While CR was homogeneously expressed in cochlear nucleus magnocellularis, CR expression was highly heterogeneous in cochlear nucleus angularis (NA), a nucleus with diverse cell types analogous in function to neurons in the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus. To quantify the distribution of CR in the total NA cell population, we used antibodies against neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN), a postmitotic neuron-specific nuclear marker. In NA neurons, NeuN label was variably localized to the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm, and the intensity of NeuN immunoreactivity was inversely correlated with the intensity of CR immunoreactivity. The percentage of CR + neurons in NA increased from 31 % in embryonic (E)17/18 chicks, to 44 % around hatching (E21), to 51 % in postnatal day (P) 8 chicks. By P8, the distribution of CR + neurons was uniform, both rostrocaudal and in the tonotopic (dorsoventral) axis. Immunoreactivity for the voltage-gated potassium ion channel Kv1.1, used as a marker for physiological type, showed broad and heterogeneous postsynaptic expression in NA, but did not correlate with CR expression. These results suggest that CR may define a subpopulation of neurons within nucleus angularis.

  3. High-efficiency particulate arrest-filter vacuum cleaners increase personal cat allergen exposure in homes with cats. (United States)

    Gore, Robin B; Durrell, Bethan; Bishop, Sophie; Curbishley, Lisa; Woodcock, Ashley; Custovic, Adnan


    On the basis of experimental chamber studies, vacuum cleaners with double-thickness bags and integral high-efficiency particulate arrest (HEPA) air filters are claimed to reduce airborne allergen levels and are currently recommended to allergic patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vacuum cleaning on personal inhaled cat allergen exposure in homes with cats. Five unused new vacuum cleaners were compared with an old non-HEPA filter vacuum cleaner. Each vacuum cleaner was tested in an experimental chamber and in 5 homes with cats. Inhaled cat allergen was measured by nasal air sampling. New vacuum cleaners failed to leak any allergen in the experimental chamber. There was a significant increase in inhaled cat allergen during vacuum cleaning in homes (F = 48.39, df = 1.4, P =.002) with no difference between the old vacuum cleaner and the unused new vacuum cleaners (5-fold and 3-fold increase compared to baseline, respectively; F = 0.005, df = 1.4, P =.95). The use of new HEPA-filter vacuum cleaners increases inhaled cat allergen in homes with cats. The use of HEPA-filter modern vacuum cleaners to reduce pet allergen exposure in the homes of pet owners should not be justified merely on the basis of experimental chamber data.

  4. Difficulties in administration of oral medication formulations to pet cats: an e-survey of cat owners. (United States)

    Sivén, M; Savolainen, S; Räntilä, S; Männikkö, S; Vainionpää, M; Airaksinen, S; Raekallio, M; Vainio, O; Juppo, A M


    The purpose here was to determine the problems cat owners encounter in medicating their cats with orally administered drugs at home. The study was carried out as an open e-questionnaire survey addressed to cat owners in which the authors focused on the oral administration route. A total of 46 completed questionnaires were included in the survey. In the study, 46 cats received 67 orally administered drugs. Approximately half of the drugs were registered for use in cats by the European Medicines Agency (54 per cent), and there were also off-label drugs registered for human (36 per cent) and canine medication (7.4 per cent) and an ex tempore drug (3.0 per cent). The owners were unable to give the doses as prescribed for their cats for one-fourth of the medications (16/67). Drugs that were registered for feline medication were significantly more palatable than drugs registered for other species (odds ratio (OR) 4.9), and liquid formulations were significantly more palatable than solid formulations (OR 4.8). However, most of the owners (22/38) preferred a solid dosage form, while few (4/38) chose a liquid formulation. The results indicate that there is still a need for more palatable and easily administered oral drugs for cats. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Measuring Negative and Positive Thoughts in Children: An Adaptation of the Children's Automatic Thoughts Scale (CATS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Wolters, Lidewij H.; Vervoort, Leentje; Prins, Pier J. M.; Boer, Frits; Kooij, Emelie; de Haan, Else


    The aim of this study is to describe the factor structure and psychometric properties of an extended version of the Children's Automatic Thoughts Scale (CATS), the CATS-Negative/Positive (CATS-N/P). The CATS was originally designed to assess negative self-statements in children and adolescents.

  6. Sickness behaviors in response to unusual external events in healthy cats and cats with feline interstitial cystitis. (United States)

    Stella, Judi L; Lord, Linda K; Buffington, C A Tony


    To compare sickness behaviors (SB) in response to unusual external events (UEE) in healthy cats with those of cats with feline interstitial cystitis (FIC). Prospective observational study. 12 healthy cats and 20 donated cats with FIC. Cats were housed in a vivarium. Sickness behaviors referable to the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, the skin, and behavior problems were recorded by a single observer for 77 weeks. Instances of UEE (eg, changes in caretakers, vivarium routine, and lack of interaction with the investigator) were identified during 11 of the 77 weeks. No instances of UEE were identified during the remaining 66 weeks, which were considered control weeks. An increase in age and exposure to UEE, but not disease status, significantly increased total number of SB when results were controlled for other factors. Evaluation of individual SB revealed a protective effect of food intake for healthy males. An increase in age conferred a small increase in relative risk (RR) for upper gastrointestinal tract signs (RR, 1.2) and avoidance behavior (1.7). Exposure to UEE significantly increased the RR for decreases in food intake (RR, 9.3) and for no eliminations in 24 hours (6.4). Exposure to UEE significantly increased the RR for defecation (RR, 9.8) and urination (1.6) outside the litter box. SB, including some of the most commonly observed abnormalities in client-owned cats, were observed after exposure to UEE in both groups. Because healthy cats and cats with FIC were comparably affected by UEE, clinicians should consider the possibility of exposure to UEE in cats evaluated for these signs.

  7. VISTA Captures Celestial Cat's Hidden Secrets (United States)


    The Cat's Paw Nebula, NGC 6334, is a huge stellar nursery, the birthplace of hundreds of massive stars. In a magnificent new ESO image taken with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, the glowing gas and dust clouds obscuring the view are penetrated by infrared light and some of the Cat's hidden young stars are revealed. Towards the heart of the Milky Way, 5500 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpius (the Scorpion), the Cat's Paw Nebula stretches across 50 light-years. In visible light, gas and dust are illuminated by hot young stars, creating strange reddish shapes that give the object its nickname. A recent image by ESO's Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the La Silla Observatory (eso1003) captured this visible light view in great detail. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy. VISTA, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope (eso0949). It works at infrared wavelengths, seeing right through much of the dust that is such a beautiful but distracting aspect of the nebula, and revealing objects hidden from the sight of visible light telescopes. Visible light tends to be scattered and absorbed by interstellar dust, but the dust is nearly transparent to infrared light. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 metres across and it is equipped with the largest infrared camera on any telescope. It shares the spectacular viewing conditions with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), which is located on the nearby summit. With this powerful instrument at their command, astronomers were keen to see the birth pains of the big young stars in the Cat's Paw Nebula, some nearly ten times the mass of the Sun. The view in the infrared is strikingly different from that in visible light. With the dust obscuring the view far less, they can learn much more about how these stars form and develop in their first

  8. The silicon concentration in cat urine and its relationship with other elements. (United States)

    Takahashi, Fumihito; Mochizuki, Mariko; Yogo, Takuya; Ishioka, Katsumi; Yumoto, Norio; Sako, Toshinori; Ueda, Fukiko; Tagawa, Masahiro; Tazaki, Hiroyuki


    To understand the effects of silicon (Si) in the urine with respect to the formation of urinary stones, the distribution of Si in urine was observed. Urine samples from cats with urolithiasis (n=10) and healthy cats (n=15) were used. The concentration of Si in the cats with urolithiasis was significantly higher (Purine of the healthy cats. The distribution of elements in the urine differed between the cats with urolithiasis and the healthy cats. The Si concentration and its relationship with other elements were suggested to be useful biomarkers for urolithiasis in cats.

  9. Calculated dynamical evolution of the nucleus of comet Hartley 2 (United States)

    Ksanfomality, Leonid


    The nucleus of comet Hartley 2 has a relatively regular dumbbell shape with unequal heads. The narrow part of elongated shape contains a relatively smooth region whose covering material is highly different in its shallow structure compared to other parts of this celestial body. The surface of crudely spherical parts of the nucleus is different from the surface of the "neck", which implies a hypothesis that the shape of the nucleus of Hartley 2 is indicative of destruction of this celestial body occurring in our days. The nucleus rotates around its axis passing through the center of mass, and centrifugal forces arise. This process is hindered by gravitation between parts of the nucleus and gradual slowing of rotation due to body lengthening because of the increase in the moment of inertia (proportional to R2) and due to friction losses in the neck material. We posed the task to determine centrifugal and gravitational forces in the neck (and, respectively, the strains of stretching and compression), the moment of inertia of the body and supply of its rotational energy E, the volume of the nucleus and its average density, and the position of the barycenter and center of rotation. It can be assumed that these forces cause slow but progressive lengthening of the neck which should eventually result in fragmentation of the nucleus. Centrifugal forces can be found as a result of summation of forces produced by parts of the body. According to the calculation model, the total stretching forces in the section passing through the narrowest cut of the neck are 1.21E6 N. The corresponding compression forces in the section passing through the narrow section are 1.04E6 N. The comparison of these values indicates a paradoxical result: stretching strains dominate in the neck, while compressions are dominant in the section passing through the common center of mass. The excess of stretching strains in the neck is 11%. The inference is as follows: the right part of the neck and the

  10. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed. (United States)

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A


    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. © 2014 The Authors. Animal Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  11. Qualitative analysis neurons in the adult human dentate nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Dušica


    Full Text Available Although many relevant findings regarding to the morphology and cytoarchitectural development of the dentate nucleus have been presented so far, very little qualitative information has been collected on neuronal morphology in the adult human dentate nucleus. The neurons were labelled by Golgi staining from thirty human cerebella, obtained from medico-legal forensic autopsies of adult human bodies and free of significant brain pathology. The human dentate neurons were qualitatively analyzed and these cells were classified into two main classes: the small and the large multipolar neurons. Considering the shape of the cell body, number of the primary dendrites, shape of the dendritic tree and their position within the dentate nucleus, three subclasses of the large multipolar neurons have been recognized. The classification of neurons from the human dentate nucleus has been qualitatively confirmed in fetuses and premature infants. This study represents the first qualitative analysis and classification of the large multipolar neurons in the dentate nucleus of the adult human.

  12. Classical cadherins control nucleus and centrosome position and cell polarity. (United States)

    Dupin, Isabelle; Camand, Emeline; Etienne-Manneville, Sandrine


    Control of cell polarity is crucial during tissue morphogenesis and renewal, and depends on spatial cues provided by the extracellular environment. Using micropatterned substrates to impose reproducible cell-cell interactions, we show that in the absence of other polarizing cues, cell-cell contacts are the main regulator of nucleus and centrosome positioning, and intracellular polarized organization. In a variety of cell types, including astrocytes, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells, calcium-dependent cadherin-mediated cell-cell interactions induce nucleus and centrosome off-centering toward cell-cell contacts, and promote orientation of the nucleus-centrosome axis toward free cell edges. Nucleus and centrosome off-centering is controlled by N-cadherin through the regulation of cell interactions with the extracellular matrix, whereas the orientation of the nucleus-centrosome axis is determined by the geometry of N-cadherin-mediated contacts. Our results demonstrate that in addition to the specific function of E-cadherin in regulating baso-apical epithelial polarity, classical cadherins control cell polarization in otherwise nonpolarized cells.

  13. Urine protein, urine protein to creatinine ratio and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase index in cats with idiopathic cystitis vs healthy control cats. (United States)

    Panboon, Isadee; Asawakarn, Sariya; Pusoonthornthum, Rosama


    Objectives The objective was to compare urine protein, urine protein to creatinine ratio (UPC) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) index between cats with idiopathic cystitis and clinically normal cats. Methods Urine and blood samples were collected from 19 clinically normal cats and 19 cats with idiopathic cystitis without azotaemia at the time of first presentation. Urine protein, urine creatinine and UPC were measured. Additionally, the urinary NAG concentration was measured using the colorimetric method, and the NAG index was calculated by dividing the urinary NAG concentration by the urine creatinine ratio. Results Urine protein concentration (mean ± SEM) was four times higher in cats with idiopathic cystitis (218.29 ± 58.95) than in clinically normal cats (56.13 ± 9.95) (P cats with idiopathic cystitis (0.70 ± 0.19) was also five times higher than that of clinically normal cats (0.14 ± 0.02) (P cats with idiopathic cystitis (4.79 ± 1.53 U/g) was two times higher than that in clinically normal cats (2.14 ± 0.48 U/g). The log UPC was positively correlated with the log NAG index in cats with idiopathic cystitis at moderate levels (r 2 = 0.512; P Cats with idiopathic cystitis had increased amounts of urine protein and an increased UPC. Further study is needed to address the role of urinary NAG and its relationship with glycosaminoglycan levels in cats with idiopathic cystitis.

  14. Evolutionary genomics reveals lineage-specific gene loss and rapid evolution of a sperm-specific ion channel complex: CatSpers and CatSperbeta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjiang Cai

    Full Text Available The mammalian CatSper ion channel family consists of four sperm-specific voltage-gated Ca2+ channels that are crucial for sperm hyperactivation and male fertility. All four CatSper subunits are believed to assemble into a heteromultimeric channel complex, together with an auxiliary subunit, CatSperbeta. Here, we report a comprehensive comparative genomics study and evolutionary analysis of CatSpers and CatSperbeta, with important correlation to physiological significance of molecular evolution of the CatSper channel complex. The development of the CatSper channel complex with four CatSpers and CatSperbeta originated as early as primitive metazoans such as the Cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. Comparative genomics revealed extensive lineage-specific gene loss of all four CatSpers and CatSperbeta through metazoan evolution, especially in vertebrates. The CatSper channel complex underwent rapid evolution and functional divergence, while distinct evolutionary constraints appear to have acted on different domains and specific sites of the four CatSper genes. These results reveal unique evolutionary characteristics of sperm-specific Ca2+ channels and their adaptation to sperm biology through metazoan evolution.

  15. Cochlear nucleus whole mount explants promote the differentiation of neuronal stem cells from the cochlear nucleus in co-culture experiments. (United States)

    Rak, Kristen; Völker, Johannes; Jürgens, Lukas; Völker, Christine; Frenz, Silke; Scherzad, Agmal; Schendzielorz, Philipp; Jablonka, Sibylle; Mlynski, Robert; Radeloff, Andreas; Hagen, Rudolf


    The cochlear nucleus is the first brainstem nucleus to receive sensory input from the cochlea. Depriving this nucleus of auditory input leads to cellular and molecular disorganization which may potentially be counteracted by the activation or application of stem cells. Neuronal stem cells (NSCs) have recently been identified in the neonatal cochlear nucleus and a persistent neurogenic niche was demonstrated in this brainstem nucleus until adulthood. The present work investigates whether the neurogenic environment of the cochlear nucleus can promote the survival of engrafted NSCs and whether cochlear nucleus-derived NSCs can differentiate into neurons and glia in brain tissue. Therefore, cochlear nucleus whole-mount explants were co-cultured with NSCs extracted from either the cochlear nucleus or the hippocampus and compared to a second environment using whole-mount explants from the hippocampus. Factors that are known to induce neuronal differentiation were also investigated in these NSC-explant experiments. NSCs derived from the cochlear nucleus engrafted in the brain tissue and differentiated into all cells of the neuronal lineage. Hippocampal NSCs also immigrated in cochlear nucleus explants and differentiated into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Laminin expression was up-regulated in the cochlear nucleus whole-mounts and regulated the in vitro differentiation of NSCs from the cochlear nucleus. These experiments confirm a neurogenic environment in the cochlear nucleus and the capacity of cochlear nucleus-derived NSCs to differentiate into neurons and glia. Consequently, the presented results provide a first step for the possible application of stem cells to repair the disorganization of the cochlear nucleus, which occurs after hearing loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Primary hyperaldosteronism in cats: expanding the diagnostic net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajadiningrat-Laanen, S.C.


    Primary hyperaldosteronism or low-renin hyperaldosteronism in cats is characterized by inappropriately high aldosterone secretion from one or both adrenal glands, with systemic arterial hypertension and hypokalemia as leading clinical manifestations. In this thesis, non-tumorous primary

  17. A case of tail self-mutilation in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Talamonti


    Full Text Available The present report describes a case of distal tail self-mutilation in a 5-year-old neutered male domestic short-hair cat. The cat started licking his tail few months before the behavioural visit. Because of the severity of the self-induced injuries, the veterinarian performed a surgical partial caudectomy. After 3 months, the excessive self-grooming of the tail recurred. Neurological and dermatological examinations, radiographs, urine and blood tests did not show any abnormalities. During the behavioural visit, through direct observation of the cat’s posture and behavioural history, the pet received a diagnosis of psychogenic alopecia. The cat was treated with clomipramine for 2 months (0.5 mg/kg/PO SID along with behaviour modification and environmental changes. After 1 month, the cat no longer showed excessive self-grooming. Even if no other systemic pathologies were identified, it is always recommended to address these patients with a multidisciplinary approach.

  18. Cutaneous metastases of a bronchial adenocarcinoma in a cat. (United States)

    Favrot, Claude; Degorce-Rubiales, Frederique


    This case report describes a cat with metastasis of a bronchial adenocarcinoma to the abdominal skin. The cat had been treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids for several episodes of coughing when it acutely developed erythema, pustules and plaques on the abdominal skin. Diagnosis was based on cytological examination of fine-needle aspirates of cutaneous pustules, X-ray examination of the thorax and histological examination of skin biopsy samples. As the prognosis was poor, the cat was euthanased. Necropsy findings confirmed the diagnosis. Cutaneous metastases of lung carcinoma are rare in cats but have been reported in the digits with underlying bone involvement. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of metastasis of a feline bronchial carcinoma to the ventral skin.

  19. U-Cat Roboterschildkröte aus Estland

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Tallinna Ülikooli teadlaste poolt merikilpkonna eeskujul konstrueeritud allveerobotist U-Cat. Konstrueerimisel on peetud silmas sukeldumist laevavrakkidesse. Robot konstrueeriti projekti Arrows (Archaeological Robot Systems for the World's Seas) raames

  20. Accuracy of microchip identification in dogs and cats. (United States)

    Sorensen, M A; Buss, M S; Tyler, J W


    A study was performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a commercially available microchip identification system approximately 1 year after implantation in dogs and cats. Thirty-three dogs and 16 cats in which a microchip had been implanted and 31 dogs and 18 cats in which a microchip had never been implanted were included in the study. In cats, sensitivity and specificity of microchip identification were 1.00. In dogs, sensitivity and specificity were 0.97 and 1.00, respectively. The chip had migrated in the 1 dog with a false-negative result, but the chip remained functional, and identification was established in this dog following closer physical examination and scanning.

  1. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2002 (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2002 through 12/31/2002. This dataset represents all data...

  2. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2008 (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2008 through 12/31/2008. This dataset represents all data...

  3. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2010 (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2010 through 12/31/2010. This dataset represents all data...

  4. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2007 (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2007 through 12/31/2007. This dataset represents all data...

  5. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2005 (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2005 through 12/31/2005. This dataset represents all data...

  6. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2004 (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2004 through 12/31/2004. This dataset represents all data...

  7. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2001 (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2001 through 12/31/2001. This dataset represents all data...

  8. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2003 (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2003 through 12/31/2003. This dataset represents all data...

  9. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2006 (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2006 through 12/31/2006. This dataset represents all data...

  10. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2009 (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2009 through 12/31/2009. This dataset represents all data...

  11. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2011 (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2011 through 12/31/2011. This dataset represents all data...

  12. Auditory lateralization of conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in cats. (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Laddago, Serena; Quaranta, Angelo


    Auditory lateralization in response to both conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations (dog vocalizations) was observed in 16 tabby cats (Felis catus). Six different vocalizations were used: cat "purring," "meowing" and "growling" and dog typical vocalizations of "disturbance," "isolation" and "play." The head-orienting paradigm showed that cats turned their head with the right ear leading (left hemisphere activation) in response to their typical-species vocalization ("meow" and "purring"); on the other hand, a clear bias in the use of the left ear (right hemisphere activation) was observed in response to vocalizations eliciting intense emotion (dogs' vocalizations of "disturbance" and "isolation"). Overall these findings suggest that auditory sensory domain seems to be lateralized also in cat species, stressing the role of the left hemisphere for intraspecific communication and of the right hemisphere in processing threatening and alarming stimuli.

  13. The Cat Cry Syndrome (5p-) in Adolescents and Adults (United States)

    Niebuhr, E.


    Summarized are clinical findings (including chromosome analysis and dermatoglyphics, as well as cytogenic findings in relatives) on five female and three male patients (age 15 years or older) with the cat cry or cri du chat syndrome. (KW)

  14. The CRISM Analysis Toolkit (CAT): Overview and Recent Updates (United States)

    Morgan, M. F.; Seelos, F. P.; Murchie, S. L.


    The CRISM Analysis Toolkit (CAT) is an IDL/ENVI-based software system for analyzing and displaying data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). We will describe CAT’s capabilities and discuss recent updates.

  15. variabilty in parasites' community structure and composition in cat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This study investigated the composition and structure of the parasite communities in Cat fish with respect to ... Reliable technologies for detection of ... these techniques are expensive and time ... is a satellite lake with a surface area of about.

  16. Haematology and coagulation profiles in cats with congenital portosystemic shunts. (United States)

    Tzounos, Caitlin E; Tivers, Michael S; Adamantos, Sophie E; English, Kate; Rees, Alan L; Lipscomb, Vicky J


    Objectives The objectives of this study were, first, to report the haematological parameters and coagulation times for cats with a congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS) and the influence of surgical shunt attenuation on these parameters; and, second, to identify any association between prolongation in coagulation profiles and incidence of perioperative haemorrhage. Methods This was a retrospective clinical study using client-owned cats with a CPSS. Signalment, shunt type (extra- or intrahepatic), degree of shunt attenuation (complete or partial), haematological parameters, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) test results, and occurrence of any perioperative clinical bleeding complications were recorded for cats undergoing surgical treatment of a CPSS at the Royal Veterinary College, UK, between 1994 and 2011. Results Forty-two cats were included. Thirty-six (85.7%) had an extrahepatic CPSS and six (14.3%) had an intrahepatic CPSS. Preoperatively, mean cell volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) were below the reference interval (RI) in 32 (76.2%) and 31 (73.8%) cats, respectively. Red blood cell count and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were above the RI in 10 (23.8%) and eight (19.1%) cats, respectively. Postoperatively, there were significant increases in haematocrit ( P = 0.044), MCV ( P = 0.008) and MCH ( P = 0.002). Despite the significant increase in MCV postoperatively, the median MCV postoperatively was below the RI, indicating persistence of microcytosis. Preoperatively, PT was above the upper RI in 14 cats (87.5%), and aPTT was above the upper RI in 11 cats (68.8%). No cat demonstrated a perioperative clinical bleeding complication. Conclusions and relevance Cats with a CPSS are likely to present with a microcytosis, but rarely present with anaemia, leukocytosis or thrombocytopenia. Surgical attenuation of the CPSS results in a significant increase in the HCT and MCV. Coagulation profiles in cats with a

  17. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats - clarification regarding genetic testing. (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Genova, Francesca; Beccaglia, Michela; Hopwood, John J; Longeri, Maria


    The release of new DNA-based diagnostic tools has increased tremendously in companion animals. Over 70 different DNA variants are now known for the cat, including DNA variants in disease-associated genes and genes causing aesthetically interesting traits. The impact genetic tests have on animal breeding and health management is significant because of the ability to control the breeding of domestic cats, especially breed cats. If used properly, genetic testing can prevent the production of diseased animals, causing the reduction of the frequency of the causal variant in the population, and, potentially, the eventual eradication of the disease. However, testing of some identified DNA variants may be unwarranted and cause undo strife within the cat breeding community and unnecessary reduction of gene pools and availability of breeding animals. Testing for mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI (MPS VI) in cats, specifically the genetic testing of the L476P (c.1427T>C) and the D520N (c.1558G>A) variants in arylsulfatase B (ARSB), has come under scrutiny. No health problems are associated with the D520N (c.1558G>A) variant, however, breeders that obtain positive results for this variant are speculating as to possible correlation with health concerns. Birman cats already have a markedly reduced gene pool and have a high frequency of the MPS VI D520N variant. Further reduction of the gene pool by eliminating cats that are heterozygous or homozygous for only the MPS VI D520N variant could lead to more inbreeding depression effects on the breed population. Herein is debated the genetic testing of the MPS VI D520N variant in cats. Surveys from different laboratories suggest the L476P (c.1427T>C) disease-associated variant should be monitored in the cat breed populations, particularly breeds with Siamese derivations and outcrosses. However, the D520N has no evidence of association with disease in cats and testing is not recommended in the absence of L476P genotyping. Selection

  18. Demographics, lifestyle and veterinary care of cats in Australia and New Zealand. (United States)

    Johnston, Laura; Szczepanski, Julia; McDonagh, Phillip


    Objectives The aim of this survey was to provide up-to-date information on the demographics, lifestyle and veterinary care of cats in Australia and New Zealand. Methods An online survey consisting of 19 questions was created using SurveyMonkey. Cat owners were invited to participate through advertisements in veterinary clinics and social media. Results The average number of cats in a household was two. The majority of cats lived in free-standing houses (78%) in the suburbs (66%). The majority of cats were desexed (94% [49% female neutered; 45% male neutered]). A total of 57% of cats had been strays or came from an animal shelter. A total of 40% of owners had intended not to let the cats outside when they first acquired them. A total of 63% of cats were described as indoor-outdoor cats. Although owners described 34% of cats as 'indoor only', 58% of those cats had access to the outdoors. The majority of respondents' cats were vaccinated annually (63%) and visited a vet at least annually (79%). The most common reasons to take a cat to the vet were vaccinations or the cat being unwell. The most common reasons not to regularly take the cat to the vet were that the cat was never unwell, cost or stress for the cat. Conclusions and relevance Consideration of the lifestyle of cats is important to optimise veterinary care. Cats across Australia and New Zealand have a variety of different and changing lifestyles. Therefore, careful owner questioning is required at each visit to maximise healthcare outcomes for cats.

  19. A Metastatic Lipid-Rich Carcinoma of the Mammary Gland in a Female Cat: Clinicopathological, Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Florin GAL


    Full Text Available Lipid-rich invasive human breast cancer is a rare enigmatic entity among special types of infiltrating duct carcinoma. Our paper reports a lipid-rich mammary carcinoma in a female cat with the gross, microscopic and immunohistochemical description of the tumor. A 13-year-old intact adult female, mixed-breed cat was presented by the owner to the Laboratory of Pathologic Anatomy from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania. A complete necropsy examination was performed in our laboratory. The tissue samples were collected and processed by paraffin technique for further histological, histochemical, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical examination. During the necropsy examination, a subcutaneous mass was discovered on the chest. Several variably sized, well-demarcated neoplasms were noted in the right axillary lymph node, right thoracic wall, pleura, lungs, liver, spleen and kidney. Histologically, the cells frequently formed tubuloacinar structures. The morphology of the described tumor showed features of a poorly differentiated mammary carcinoma. Numerous tumoral cells were large and polygonal, with abundant cytoplasm that showed foam-like cytoplasm. The tumoral cells contained either multiple small or large and solitary vacuoles that pushed the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. Intracytoplasmic vacuoles of the neoplastic cells were positive for Oil-Red-O and negatively with Periodic Acid–Schiff. As for immunofluorescence/immunohistochemistry, nonvacuolated and vacuolated neoplastic cells were positive for cytokeratin and negative for vimentin. Histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis support a diagnosis of lipid-rich mammary carcinoma. This is the second reliable record of a lipid-rich mammary carcinoma in female cat and the first one with internal metastases.

  20. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation. (United States)

    Hagen-Plantinga, E A; Bosch, G; Hendriks, W H


    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November 2011. In the collected samples, free felinine and creatinine concentrations were measured. Free felinine concentrations were expressed relative to the urinary creatinine concentration to compensate for possible variations in renal output. The mean (±SD) felinine:creatinine (Fel:Cr) ratio as measured over all cats was 0.702 (±0.265). Both the Abyssinian and Sphynx breeds showed the highest Fel:Cr ratio (0.878 ± 0.162 and 0.878 ± 0.341 respectively) which significantly differed from the ratios of the British Shorthairs (0.584 ± 0.220), Birmans (0.614 ± 0.266), Norwegian Forest cats (0.566 ± 0.296) and Siberian cats (0.627 ± 0.124). The Fel:Cr ratios of the Persians (0.792 ± 0.284) and Ragdolls (0.673 ± 0.256) showed no statistical difference with either of the other breeds. A significant proportion of the observed variation between the different feline breeds could be explained by hair growth, as both hair growth and felinine production compete for available cysteine. Shorthaired and hairless cat breeds generally showed a higher Fel:Cr ratio compared to longhaired cat breeds, with the exception of Persian cats. Further research is warranted to more closely study the effect of hair growth on felinine production. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.