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Sample records for cat spinal cord

  1. Investigations on spinal cord fMRI of cats under ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Adad, J; Hoge, R D; Leblond, H; Xie, G; Beaudoin, G; Song, A W; Krueger, G; Doyon, J; Benali, H; Rossignol, S

    2009-01-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the spinal cord has been the subject of intense research for the last ten years. An important motivation for this technique is its ability to detect non-invasively neuronal activity in the spinal cord related to sensorimotor functions in various conditions, such as after spinal cord lesions. Although promising results of spinal cord fMRI have arisen from previous studies, the poor reproducibility of BOLD activations and their characteristics remain a major drawback. In the present study we investigated the reproducibility of BOLD fMRI in the spinal cord of cats (N=9) by repeating the same stimulation protocol over a long period (approximately 2 h). Cats were anaesthetized with ketamine, and spinal cord activity was induced by electrical stimulation of cutaneous nerves of the hind limbs. As a result, task-related signals were detected in most cats with relatively good spatial specificity. However, BOLD response significantly varied within and between cats. This variability was notably attributed to the moderate intensity of the stimulus producing a low amplitude haemodynamic response, variation in end-tidal CO(2) during the session, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in spinal fMRI time series and animal-specific vascular anatomy. Original contributions of the present study are: (i) first spinal fMRI experiment in ketamine-anaesthetized animals, (ii) extensive study of intra- and inter-subject variability of activation, (iii) characterisation of static and temporal SNR in the spinal cord and (iv) investigation on the impact of CO(2) end-tidal level on the amplitude of BOLD response. PMID:18938251

  2. Tamoxifen Promotes Axonal Preservation and Gait Locomotion Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre Valdovinos, Braniff; Duenas Jimenez, Judith Marcela; Estrada, Ismael Jimenez; Banuelos Pineda, Jacinto; Franco Rodriguez, Nancy Elizabeth; Lopez Ruiz, Jose Roberto; Osuna Carrasco, Laura Paulina; Candanedo Arellano, Ahiezer; Duenas Jimenez, Sergio Horacio

    2016-01-01

    We performed experiments in cats with a spinal cord penetrating hemisection at T13-L1 level, with and without tamoxifen treatment. The results showed that the numbers of the ipsilateral and contralateral ventral horn neurons were reduced to less than half in the nontreated animals compared with the treated ones. Also, axons myelin sheet was preserved to almost normal values in treated cats. On the contrary, in the untreated animals, their myelin sheet was reduced to 28% at 30 days after injury (DAI), in both the ipsilateral and contralateral regions of the spinal cord. Additionally, we made hindlimb kinematics experiments to study the effects of tamoxifen on cat locomotion after the injury: at 4, 16, and 30 DAI. We observed that the ipsilateral hindlimb angular displacement (AD) of the pendulum-like movements (PLM) during gait locomotion was recovered to almost normal values in treated cats. Contralateral PLM acquired similar values to those obtained in intact cats. At 4 DAI, untreated animals showed a compensatory increment of PLM occurring in the contralateral hindlimb, which was partially recovered at 30 DAI. Our findings indicate that tamoxifen exerts a neuroprotective effect and preserves or produces myelinated axons, which could benefit the locomotion recovery in injured cats. PMID:27006979

  3. Tamoxifen Promotes Axonal Preservation and Gait Locomotion Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Cats

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    Braniff de la Torre Valdovinos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed experiments in cats with a spinal cord penetrating hemisection at T13-L1 level, with and without tamoxifen treatment. The results showed that the numbers of the ipsilateral and contralateral ventral horn neurons were reduced to less than half in the nontreated animals compared with the treated ones. Also, axons myelin sheet was preserved to almost normal values in treated cats. On the contrary, in the untreated animals, their myelin sheet was reduced to 28% at 30 days after injury (DAI, in both the ipsilateral and contralateral regions of the spinal cord. Additionally, we made hindlimb kinematics experiments to study the effects of tamoxifen on cat locomotion after the injury: at 4, 16, and 30 DAI. We observed that the ipsilateral hindlimb angular displacement (AD of the pendulum-like movements (PLM during gait locomotion was recovered to almost normal values in treated cats. Contralateral PLM acquired similar values to those obtained in intact cats. At 4 DAI, untreated animals showed a compensatory increment of PLM occurring in the contralateral hindlimb, which was partially recovered at 30 DAI. Our findings indicate that tamoxifen exerts a neuroprotective effect and preserves or produces myelinated axons, which could benefit the locomotion recovery in injured cats.

  4. Chondroitinase ABC Improves Basic and Skilled Locomotion in Spinal Cord Injured Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Tester, Nicole J.; Howland, Dena R.

    2007-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are upregulated in the central nervous system following injury. Chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (CS GAG) side chains substituted on this family of molecules contribute to the limited functional recovery following injury by restricting axonal growth and synaptic plasticity. In the current study, the effects of degrading CS GAGs with Chondroitinase ABC (Ch’ase ABC) in the injured spinal cords of adult cats were assessed. Three groups were evaluate...

  5. Expression of calcium channel CaV1.3 in cat spinal cord: light and electron microscopic immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mengliang; Møller, Morten; Broman, Jonas;

    2008-01-01

    in the cat spinal cord by light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry. The results show that Ca(V)1.3-like immunoreactivity is widely distributed in all segments of the spinal cord but that the distribution in the different laminae of the spinal gray matter varies, with the highest density of labeled...... associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum but some also with the plasma membrane. In dendrites, they were associated with both intracellular organelles, including microtubules and microchondria, and the plasma membrane. These results indicate that significant proportions of the neurons in cat spinal...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  8. Plasticity of Urinary Bladder Reflexes Evoked by Stimulation of Pudendal Afferent Nerves after Chronic Spinal Cord Injury in Cats

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    Tai, Changfeng; Chen, Mang; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Liu, Hailong; Roppolo, James R.; de Groat, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Bladder reflexes evoked by stimulation of pudendal afferent nerves (PudA-to-Bladder reflex) were studied in normal and chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) adult cats to examine the reflex plasticity. Physiological activation of pudendal afferent nerves by tactile stimulation of the perigenital skin elicits an inhibitory PudA-to-Bladder reflex in normal cats, but activates an excitatory reflex in chronic SCI cats. However, in both normal and chronic SCI cats electrical stimulation applied to the...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  10. Basic electrophysiological properties of spinal cord motoneurons during old age in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, F R; Boxer, P A; Fung, S J; Chase, M H

    1987-07-01

    1. The electrophysiological properties of alpha-motoneurons in old cats (14-15 yr) were compared with those of adult cats (1-3 yr). These properties were measured utilizing intracellular recording and stimulating techniques. 2. Unaltered in the old cat motoneurons were the membrane potential, action potential amplitude, and slopes of the initial segment (IS) and soma dendritic (SD) spikes, as well as the duration and amplitude of the action potential's afterhyperpolarization. 3. In contrast, the following changes in the electrophysiological properties of lumbar motoneurons were found in the old cats: a decrease in axonal conduction velocity, a shortening of the IS-SD delay, an increase in input resistance, and a decrease in rheobase. 4. In spite of these considerable changes in motoneuron properties in the old cat, normal correlations between different electrophysiological properties were maintained. The following key relationships, among others, were the same in adult and old cat motoneurons: membrane potential polarization versus action potential amplitude, duration of the afterhyperpolarization versus motor axon conduction velocity, and rheobase versus input conductance. 5. A review of the existing literature reveals that neither chronic spinal cord section nor deafferentation (13, 21) in adult animals produce the changes observed in old cats. Thus we consider it unlikely that a loss of synaptic contacts was responsible for the modifications in electrophysiological properties observed in old cat motoneurons. 6. We conclude that during old age there are significant changes in the soma-dendritic portion of cat motoneurons, as indicated by the modifications found in input resistance, rheobase, and IS-SD delay, as well as significant changes in their axons, as indicated by a decrease in conduction velocity. PMID:3612223

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  1. Spinal Cord Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this can also injure the spinal cord. Other spinal cord problems include Tumors Infections such as meningitis and polio Inflammatory diseases Autoimmune diseases Degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral ...

  2. Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD) module supports the maintenance of local and national registries for the tracking of patients with spinal cord injury and disease...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  5. Age-related changes in soma size of neurons in the spinal cord motor column of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R H; Bertolotto, C; Engelhardt, J K; Chase, M H

    1996-06-28

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of the aging process on the soma size and number of motoneurons and interneurons in the motor column of the spinal cord of old cats. Neurons in the motor column were divided into small and large populations based on a bimodal distribution of their soma cross-sectional areas. A 17% decrease in the cross-sectional area of small neurons was observed, this decrease was statistically significant (P cats compared with the control animals. This data suggest that neurons in the motor column are not uniformly affected by the aging process because morphological changes are proportionally greater in small neurons than in large neurons. PMID:8817566

  6. Spinal Cord Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatments Functional and Dysfunctional Spinal Circuitry: Role for Rehabilitation and Neural Prostheses Summary of NINDS New Strategies in Spinal Cord Injury workshop held June, 2000. NINDS Workshop on Re- ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... US ? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information ... spinal cord injuries and the members of their families. Our website has more than 1,500 videos ...

  11. The autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors in the rat and bovine spinal cord and the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis and the effects of neonatal capsaicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substance P (SP) is a putative neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. In the present report the authors have used autoradiographic receptor binding techniques to investigate the distribution of SP receptor binding sites in the rat and bovine spinal cord and in the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. Although some quantitative differences were evident, all species appeared to have a similar distribution of SP receptor binding sites in both the spinal cord and in the spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. In the spinal cord the heaviest concentration of SP receptors is located in lamina X, while moderate to heavy concentrations were found in laminae I, II and V-IX. Very low concentrations of SP receptors were present in laminae III and IV. Examination of the cat and rat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis revealed a moderate density of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II, very low concentrations in laminae III and IV, and low to moderate concentrations in lamina V. Rats treated neonatally with capsaicin showed a small (11%) but significant (P < 0.02) increase in the levels of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord while in all other laminae the levels remained unchanged. (orig.)

  12. Autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors in the rat and bovine spinal cord and the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis and the effects of neonatal capsaicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantyh, P.W.; Hunt, S.P. (Medical Research Council Centre, Cambridge (UK). Medical School, MRC Neurochemical Pharmacology Unit)

    1985-04-22

    Substance P (SP) is a putative neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. In the present report the authors have used autoradiographic receptor binding techniques to investigate the distribution of SP receptor binding sites in the rat and bovine spinal cord and in the rat and cat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. Although some quantitative differences were evident, all species appeared to have a similar distribution of SP receptor binding sites in both the spinal cord and in the spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. In the spinal cord the heaviest concentration of SP receptors is located in lamina X, while moderate to heavy concentrations were found in laminae I, II and V-IX. Very low concentrations of SP receptors were present in laminae III and IV. Examination of the cat and rat spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis revealed a moderate density of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II, very low concentrations in laminae III and IV, and low to moderate concentrations in lamina V. Rats treated neonatally with capsaicin showed a small (11%) but significant (P < 0.02) increase in the levels of SP receptor binding sites in laminae I and II of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord while in all other laminae the levels remained unchanged.

  13. Modeling spinal cord biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos; Shah, Sameer; Cohen, Avis; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2012-02-01

    Regeneration after spinal cord injury is a serious health issue and there is no treatment for ailing patients. To understand regeneration of the spinal cord we used a system where regeneration occurs naturally, such as the lamprey. In this work, we analyzed the stress response of the spinal cord to tensile loading and obtained the mechanical properties of the cord both in vitro and in vivo. Physiological measurements showed that the spinal cord is pre-stressed to a strain of 10%, and during sinusoidal swimming, there is a local strain of 5% concentrated evenly at the mid-body and caudal sections. We found that the mechanical properties are homogeneous along the body and independent of the meninges. The mechanical behavior of the spinal cord can be characterized by a non-linear viscoelastic model, described by a modulus of 20 KPa for strains up to 15% and a modulus of 0.5 MPa for strains above 15%, in agreement with experimental data. However, this model does not offer a full understanding of the behavior of the spinal cord fibers. Using polymer physics we developed a model that relates the stress response as a function of the number of fibers.

  14. Spinal cord trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other rehabilitation after the injury has healed. Rehabilitation will help you cope with the disability from your spinal cord injury. Support Groups Seek out organizations for additional information ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury Map

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    ... Videos Videos by Topic and Question Videos by Family Relationship Videos by Experts Resources The Short List Government ... Home Videos by Topic and Question Videos by Family Relationship Videos by Spinal Cord Experts Resources Forums Peer ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  18. Spinal cord abscess

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    ... abscess: Back injuries or trauma, including minor ones Boils on the skin, especially on the back or ... of spinal cord abscess. Prevention Thorough treatment of boils, tuberculosis, and other infections decreases the risk. Early ...

  19. Deafferentation causes a loss of presynaptic bombesin receptors and supersensitivity of substance P receptors in the dorsal horn of the cat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, V J; Shults, C W; Park, C H; Tizabi, Y; Moody, T W; Chronwall, B M; Culver, M; Chase, T N

    1985-09-23

    Bombesin (BN)- and substance P (SP)-containing neurons are found in the dorsal root ganglia, and project to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The present study was undertaken to determine if chronic deafferentation of the cat spinal cord would affect BN or SP receptors in the spinal cord. Ten and 30 days after a unilateral lumbosacral dorsal rhizotomy, BN and SP receptor binding was evaluated autoradiographically using iodinated ligands to bind to these receptors in vitro. The normal distribution of BN receptors detected by this method was restricted to the head of the dorsal horn. Deafferentation caused a 38% and 22% decline in BN receptor binding in laminae I-IV at 10 or 30 days postoperatively, respectively. These data suggest that 'presynaptic' BN receptors are found on the central nervous system terminals of primary sensory afferents. Normal SP receptor distribution was most dense in lamina X, not in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn. Deafferentation caused an initial decline in SP receptor binding in laminae I-II, followed by a 14% increase at 30 days in comparison to the unoperated side of the spinal cord. This delayed supersensitivity of SP receptors was confirmed in a separate experiment using a homogenate binding assay. These data are discussed with respect to the potential roles of receptor supersensitivity or subsensitivity in the development of deafferentation-induced changes in reactivity of dorsal horn neurons to nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimuli. PMID:2413960

  20. Computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstructions of [14C]-2-deoxy-D-glucose metabolism in cat lumbosacral spinal cord following cutaneous stimulation of the hindfoot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstruction of spinal cord activity associated with stimulation of the plantar cushion (PC) as revealed by [14C]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) serial autoradiographs. Moderate PC stimulation in cats elicits a reflex phasic plantar flexion of the toes. Four cats were chronically spinalized at about T6 under barbiturate anesthesia. Four to 11 days later, the cats were injected (i.v.) with 2-DG (100 microCi/kg) and the PC was electrically stimulated with needle electrodes at 2-5 times threshold for eliciting a reflex. Following stimulation, the spinal cord was processed for autoradiography. Subsequently, autoradiographs, representing approximately 8-18 mm from spinal segments L6-S1, were digitized for computer analysis and 3-D reconstruction. Several strategies of analysis were employed: (1) Three-dimensional volume images were color-coded to represent different levels of functional activity. (2) On the reconstructed volumes, virtual sections were made in the horizontal, sagittal, and transverse planes to view regions of 2-DG activity. (3) In addition, we were able to sample different regions within the grey and white matter semi-quantitatively (i.e., pixel intensity) from section to section to reveal differences between ipsi- and contralateral activity, as well as possible variation between sections. These analyses revealed 2-DG activity associated with moderate PC stimulation, not only in the ipsilateral dorsal horn as we had previously demonstrated, but also in both the ipsilateral and contralateral ventral horns, as well as in the intermediate grey matter. The use of novel computer analysis techniques--combined with an unanesthetized preparation--enabled us to demonstrate that the increased metabolic activity in the lumbosacral spinal cord associated with PC stimulation was much more extensive than had heretofore been observed

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal ... is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries and the ...

  2. Relation between axon morphology in C1 spinal cord and spatial properties of medial vestibulospinal tract neurons in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, S I; Iwamoto, Y; Barke, L F; Baker, J F; Peterson, B W

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-one secondary medial vestibulospinal tract neurons were recorded intraaxonally in the ventromedial funiculi of the C1 spinal cord in decerebrate, paralyzed cats. Antidromic stimulation in C6 and the oculomotor nucleus identified the projection pattern of each neuron. Responses to sinusoidal, whole-body rotations in many planes in three-dimensional space were characterized before injection of horseradish peroxidase or Neurobiotin. The spatial response properties of 19 neurons were described by a maximum activation direction vector (MAD), which defines the axis and direction of rotation that maximally excites the neuron. The other two neurons had spatio-temporal convergent behavior and no MAD was calculated. Collateral morphologies were reconstructed from serial frontal sections to reveal terminal fields in the C1 gray matter. Axons gave off multiple collaterals that terminated ipsilaterally to the stem axon. Collaterals of individual axons rarely overlapped longitudinally but projected to similar regions in the ventral horn when viewed in transverse sections. The number of primary collaterals in C1 was different for vestibulo-collic, vestibulo-oculo-collic, and C6-projecting neurons: on average one every 1.34, 1.72, and 4.25 mm, respectively. The heaviest arborization and most terminal boutons were seen in the ventral horn, in laminae VIII and IX. Varicosities on terminal branches in lamina IX were observed adjacent to large cell bodies-putative neck motoneurons-in counterstained tissue. Some collaterals had branches that extended dorsally to lamina VII. Neurons with different spatial properties had terminal fields in different regions of the ventral horn. Axons with type I responses and MADs near those of a semicircular canal pair had widely distributed collateral branches and numerous terminations in the dorsomedial, ventromedial, and spinal accessory nuclei and in lamina VIII. Axons with type I responses that suggested convergent canal pair input, with

  3. Spinal cord injury pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beric, Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Awareness that SCI pain is common emerged during the past decade. However, there are a number of unresolved issues. There is a need for variety of experimental models to reflect diversity of SCI pains. Current classification is not as user-friendly as it should be. More attention should be given to a condition of the spinal cord below and above the SCI lesion. A consensus for what is an optimal SCI functional assessment for patients with sensory complaints and pain should be developed. Further extensive SCI pain research is needed prior to spinal cord regeneration trials in order to be able to cope with a potential for newly developed pains that may appear during incomplete spinal cord regenerative attempts. PMID:12821403

  4. Cell size and geometry of spinal cord motoneurons in the adult cat following the intramuscular injection of adriamycin: comparison with data from aged cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R H; Yamuy, J; Engelhardt, J K; Xi, M C; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1996-10-28

    of neurons on the control side. We conclude that significant geometrical changes were induced in lumbar motoneurons of adult cats after ADM was injected to their muscles. In old cats, spinal cord motoneurons exhibit similar patterns of changes in their electrophysiological characteristics which have also been suggested to be correlated with changes in cell geometry. The question then arises as to whether the response of motoneurons to ADM and the aging process reflects a stereotypic reaction of motoneurons to a variety of insults or whether the response to ADM mirrors specific aspects of the aging process. PMID:8949934

  5. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was cauused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunsupporessed cancer patient. (orig.)

  6. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, K.; Gronseth, G.; Aldrich, M.; Williams, A.

    1982-11-01

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was caused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunosuppressed cancer patient.

  7. Spinal Cord Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to other treatment. Originally described by Shealy et al. in 1967(1), it is used to treat a range of conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I)(2), angina pectoris(3), radicular...... pain after failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)(4), pain due to peripheral nerve injury, stump pain(5), peripheral vascular disease(6) and diabetic neuropathy(7,8); whereas phantom pain(9), postherpetic neuralgia(10), chronic visceral pain(11), and pain after partial spinal cord injury(12) remain more...... controversial. SCS is not effective in relieving central neuropathic pain states....

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Home Videos by Topic and Question Videos by Family Relationship Videos by Spinal Cord Experts Resources Forums Peer Counseling Blog About Us Contact Donate Sitemap Privacy ... © 2011 – 2016 Hill Foundation for Families Living With Disabilities FacingDisability.com is an informational ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How much do you know about taking good care of yourself? Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Illness & disability Types of ... Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a pediatric rehabilitation specialist at the Children’s National Medical Center. ...

  13. Dimensions of individual alpha and gamma motor fibres in the ventral funiculus of the cat spinal cord.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabricius, C.; Berthold, C H; Rydmark, M

    1994-01-01

    Using light and electron microscopy, axon diameter, myelin sheath thickness (measured as number of myelin lamellae) and internodal length of alpha and gamma motor axons of the L7 ventral root and spinal cord segment were investigated in serial cross-sections. The CNS internodes of the alpha motor fibres had, on average, an axon diameter of 8.6 microns, 105 myelin lamellae and a length of about 560 microns. The CNS internodes of the gamma motor fibres had, on average, an axon diameter of 3.4 m...

  14. Complications of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dursun, Erbil; Hamamci, Nigar; Ozbey, Aydan; Cakci, Aytul

    2004-01-01

    Spinal cord injury and its complications cause important physical, psychosocial and economical problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the complications resulting from spinal cord injury, to show their adverse effects on the rehabilitation program, and to make related clinicians to call attention especially to preventable complications. Sixty-two spinal cord injured patients were included in the study. All the patients were evaluated regarding age, gender, etiology, time since inj...

  15. The Effects of NMDA Antagonists on Neuronal Activity in Cat Spinal Cord Evoked by Acute Inflammation in the Knee Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Hans-Georg; Grubb, Blair D.; Neugebauer, Volker; Oppmann, Maria

    1991-01-01

    In alpha-chloralose-anaesthetized, spinalized cats we examined the effects of NMDA antagonists on the discharges of 71 spinal neurons which had afferent input from the knee joint. These neurons were rendered hyperexcitable by acute arthritis in the knee induced by kaolin and carrageenan. They were located in the deep dorsal and ventral horn and some of them had ascending axons. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists ketamine and d-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP5), were administered ionophoretically, and ketamine was also administered intravenously. In some of the experiments the antagonists were tested against the agonists NMDA and quisqualate. The effects of the NMDA antagonists consisted of a significant reduction in the resting activity of neurons and/or the responses of the same neurons to mechanical stimulation of the inflamed knee. Intravenous ketamine was most effective in suppressing the resting and mechanically evoked activity in 25 of 26 neurons tested. Ionophoretically applied ketamine had a suppressive effect in 11 of 21 neurons, and AP5 decreased activity in 17 of 24 cells. The reduction in the resting and/or the mechanically evoked discharges was achieved with doses of the antagonists which suppressed the responses to NMDA but not those to quisqualate. These results suggest that NMDA receptors are involved in the enhanced responses and basal activity of spinal neurons induced by inflammation in the periphery. PMID:12106256

  16. Retraining the injured spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Leon, R. D.; Harkema, S. J.; Hodgson, J. A.; London, N.; Reinkensmeyer, D. J.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Tillakaratne, N. J.; Timoszyk, W.; Tobin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present review presents a series of concepts that may be useful in developing rehabilitative strategies to enhance recovery of posture and locomotion following spinal cord injury. First, the loss of supraspinal input results in a marked change in the functional efficacy of the remaining synapses and neurons of intraspinal and peripheral afferent (dorsal root ganglion) origin. Second, following a complete transection the lumbrosacral spinal cord can recover greater levels of motor performance if it has been exposed to the afferent and intraspinal activation patterns that are associated with standing and stepping. Third, the spinal cord can more readily reacquire the ability to stand and step following spinal cord transection with repetitive exposure to standing and stepping. Fourth, robotic assistive devices can be used to guide the kinematics of the limbs and thus expose the spinal cord to the new normal activity patterns associated with a particular motor task following spinal cord injury. In addition, such robotic assistive devices can provide immediate quantification of the limb kinematics. Fifth, the behavioural and physiological effects of spinal cord transection are reflected in adaptations in most, if not all, neurotransmitter systems in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Evidence is presented that both the GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory systems are up-regulated following complete spinal cord transection and that step training results in some aspects of these transmitter systems being down-regulated towards control levels. These concepts and observations demonstrate that (a) the spinal cord can interpret complex afferent information and generate the appropriate motor task; and (b) motor ability can be defined to a large degree by training.

  17. The spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spinal cord develops initially as an invagination of the thickened ectodermal neural plate to form the neural groove. This is then closed over by the neural folds, which fuse first in the thoracic region, then progressively rostrad and caudad to form the neural tube. The neural tube is completely formed by the fourth fetal week and is separated from the overlying ectoderm by intervening mesoderm, part of which has simultaneously segmented into somites to become the vertebral column. The cartilaginous and ossifying neural arches of the vertebral column are completely developed and fused by the third month of fetal life. The fetal spine can be detected by US by 12 weeks of gestational age

  18. Electron Microscopic Investigation of Monoaminergic Terminals to α-Motoneurons in the Anterior Horn of the Cat Spinal Cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizukawa,Kiminao

    1982-04-01

    Full Text Available In the anterior horn of the cat thoracic cord, networks of the monoaminergic fibers surrounding the alpha-motoneurons were investigated by fluorescent microscopy and submicroscopically. Monoaminergic terminals were recognized by the administration of 5-OHDA electron microscopically. These terminals could be classified morphologically into three types. The physiological significance of monoaminergic control of alpha-motoneurons was discussed. Type I of the labeled terminals did not show any typical synaptic specialization, such as aggregation of synaptic vesicles or thickening of the pre- and postsynaptic membranes. This type did not have synaptic contact with the alpha-motoneurons. Type II showed typical synaptic contact and asymmetrical synaptic type membranous thickening. A large number of small dense-cored vesicles were accumulated in the vicinity of the presynaptic membranes. Type III contained a large number of small and large dense-cored vesicles and a few flattened small vesicles. This type had synaptic contact with the presynaptic nerve ending in which a large number of agranular vesicles were contained. This study demonstrated that alpha-motoneurons in the anterior horn receive supraspinal monoaminergic control in three ways: modulator control through Type I, monosynaptic direct control through Type II, and inhibitory control through Type III.

  19. Depression and Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Washington-operated SCI Clinics: Harborview Medical Center Rehabilitation Medicine Clinic 325 9th Ave., Seattle WA 98104 Spinal Cord Injury Clinic nurses: 206-744-5862 University of Washington ...

  20. Fixed cord in spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates patients with cervical spinal canal compromise due to congenital anomalies (achondroplasia, Chiari malformation) and degenerative diseases using MR cord motion and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow studies. Pulsatile longitudinal motion of the cervical cord was determined by means of cardiac-gated velocity phase contrast methods, including cine. Pathology included dwarfism (n = 15), Chiari malformation (n = 10), spondylosis (n = 10), and acute cord compression (n = 9). Symptomatic cases of congenital cervical stenosis had decreased cord motion, although CSF flow was not always significantly compromised. Postoperative cases demonstrated good cord and CSF motion, unless compression or obstruction was present

  1. What Is Spinal Cord Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back. Generally speaking, SCI is damage to the spinal nerves, the body's central and most important nerve bundle, ... This, in turn, damages the axons—the long nerve cell "wires" that pass through ... point on the spinal cord below which sensory feeling and motor movement ...

  2. Neuronal network analysis based on arrival times of active-sleep specific inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in spinal cord motoneurons of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, J K; Chase, M H

    2001-07-20

    The neuronal network responsible for motoneuron inhibition and loss of muscle tone during active (REM) sleep can be activated by the injection of the cholinergic agonist carbachol into a circumscribed region of the brainstem reticular formation. In the present report, we studied the arrival times of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) observed in intracellular recordings from cat spinal cord motoneurons. These recordings were obtained during episodes of motor inhibition induced by carbachol or during motor inhibition associated with naturally occurring active sleep. When the observed IPSP arrival times were analyzed as a superposition of renewal processes occurring in a pool of pre-motor inhibitory interneurons, it was possible to estimate the following parameters: (1) the number of independent sources of the IPSPs; (2) the rate at which each source was bombarded with excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs); and (3) the number of EPSPs required to bring each source to threshold. From the data based upon the preceding parameters and the unusually large amplitudes of the active sleep-specific IPSPs, we suggest that each source is a cluster of synchronously discharging pre-motor inhibitory interneurons. The analysis of IPSP arrival times as a superposition of renewal processes, therefore, provides quantitative information regarding neuronal activity that is as far as two synapses upstream from the site of the recording electrode. Consequently, we suggest that a study of the temporal evolution of these parameters could provide a basis for dynamic analyses of this neuronal network and, in the future, for other neuronal networks as well. PMID:11457433

  3. Suicide in a spinal cord injured population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartkopp, A; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Seidenschnur, A M;

    1998-01-01

    To determine the relation between functional status and risk of suicide among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI).......To determine the relation between functional status and risk of suicide among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI)....

  4. Spinal cord trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can be removed or reduced before the spinal nerves are completely destroyed, paralysis may improve. Surgery may be needed to: Realign the spinal bones (vertebrae) Remove fluid or tissue that presses ...

  5. FAQs about Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Care? Emergency Medical Services Hospital (Acute) Care Rehabilitation More FAQs about Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) If you or a loved one is ... spinal cord injury? What recovery is expected following spinal cord injury? Where is the ... on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR grant number 90SI5005). NIDILRR is a ...

  6. Evaluation of spinal cord injury animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Zhang; Marong Fang; Haohao Chen; Fangming Gou; Mingxing Ding

    2014-01-01

    Because there is no curative treatment for spinal cord injury, establishing an ideal animal model is important to identify injury mechanisms and develop therapies for individuals suffering from spinal cord injuries. In this article, we systematically review and analyze various kinds of animal models of spinal cord injury and assess their advantages and disadvantages for further studies.

  7. Traumatismo da medula espinhal em cães e gatos: estudo prospectivo de 57 casos Spinal cord injuries in dogs and cats: prospective study of 57 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Mendes

    2012-12-01

    cause of neurological dysfunction in dogs and cats. Lesions in these species are due to various types of accident, which can cause sequelae that impair the patient for life as a pet, or cause life-threatening injury. The main purpose of this work was the accompaniment of animals with spinal cord trauma seen from August 2009 to November 2010 at the Veterinary Hospital of Universidade Estadual de Londrina, studying the epidemiology and etiology, risk factors, spinal cord segments most affected, outcome of conservative or surgical treatment, ratio of time of patient care with recovery, efficacy and side effects of neuroprotective drugs, complications, sequels and evolution of patients. During this period we monitored 57 animals (48 dogs and nine cats. We observed a predominance of males (68% and indoors (79%. The main cause of injury was being hit by a car (66%. The time between injury and first attendance was less than eight hours in 42% of cases and more than a day in 51%. The spinal segment most affected was the thoracolumbar (52%. Twenty animals were euthanized after the initial attendance due to poor prognosis. The conservative treatment such as rest and/or external immobilization was performed on 29 animals, and a good outcome was seen in 72.4% of this patients: total functional recovery was observed in 17 (58.6% animals and partial functional recovery was seen in four (13.8%. Four animals did not recover, and four animals died. Surgical treatment was performed in eight patients, and three animals recovered, one patient did not recover and four animals died or were subjected to euthanasia due to complications during intraoperative or postoperative period. Conservative treatment was a viable therapy, mainly in dogs with cervical spinal cord trauma.

  8. International Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvorak, M F; Itshayek, E; Fehlings, M G;

    2015-01-01

    the final version. RESULTS: The data set consists of nine variables: (1) Intervention/Procedure Date and start time (2) Non-surgical bed rest and external immobilization, (3) Spinal intervention-closed manipulation and/or reduction of spinal elements, (4) Surgical procedure-approach, (5) Date and time...

  9. Muscle after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Kristensen, Ida Bruun; Kjaer, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    The morphological and contractile changes of muscles below the level of the lesion after spinal cord injury (SCI) are dramatic. In humans with SCI, a fiber-type transformation away from type I begins 4-7 months post-SCI and reaches a new steady state with predominantly fast glycolytic IIX fibers...

  10. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxoplasmosis is the most common brain parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Spinal cord localizations are still rare (2 cases with cerebral involvement, 2 cases without). A case of both spinal cord and cerebral involvement is reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MR imaging) was performed because of sensory level (L 1). A focal conus medullaris enlargement was seen, iso intense on T 1 weighted images. This lesion was hyperintense on T 2 weighted sequence, and was homogeneously enhanced after Gadolinium on T 1 weighted images. A medullary oedema was noted. A toxoplasmosis treatment was initiated, without cortico therapy. MR imaging performed one month later (D 30), while important clinical improvements were seen, pointed out normal thickness of conus medullaris, without enhancement after Gadolinium. Disease lesions in AIDS with focal spinal cord processes are reviewed, and diagnostic work-up is discussed. Spinal cord single lesion, associated or not with brain involvements should be treated as a toxoplasmic infection, with MR imaging follow up. This work up should avoid medullary biopsy, still required in case of treatment failure. Cerebral involvements, with multiples lesions can mask medullary localization. (authors). 8 refs., 2 figs

  11. Nuclear magnetic imaging for MTRA. Spinal canal and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booklet covers the following topics: (1) Clinical indications for NMR imaging of spinal cord and spinal canal; (2) Methodic requirements: magnets and coils, image processing, contrast media: (3) Examination technology: examination conditions, sequences, examination protocols; (4) Disease pattern and indications: diseases of the myelin, the spinal nerves and the spinal canal (infections, tumors, injuries, ischemia and bleedings, malformations); diseases of the spinal cord and the intervertebral disks (degenerative changes, infections, injuries, tumors, malformations).

  12. Leptomeningeal metastasis of spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten patients with leptomeningeal metastases of spinal cord were studied with a 1.5-T MR imager. Six patients had primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors, and the other four had their primary tumor outside of the CNS. All patients had positive CSF cytologic findings, and cervical cords were generally examined. MR findings on T1-weighted images before and after gadolinium-DTPA administration were divided into three types. Type 1, the diffuse form (four cases), was characterized by (1) increased CSF intensity, (2) poor cord-CSF interface, and (3) perimedullary enhancement; type 2, the nodular form (one case) by discrete nodules adherent to the cord surface; and type 3, predominance of intramedullary metastases (three cases), by localized cord swelling with central enhancement. In two cases, no significant findings were found. In conclusion, T1-weighted images with Gd-DTPA enhancement were valuable in the MR imaging of spinal meningeal metastasis. The main route of intramedullary tumor spread is believed to be via arterial seeding, but the authors study suggests that intramedullary metastases resulting from direct extension from the CSF were not infrequent

  13. Isolated intramedullary spinal cord cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a major cause of epilepsy in developing countries. Cysticercal involvement of the spinal cord is rare even in endemic areas and accounts for 0.7 to 5.85% of all cases. We present a 19-year-old man who presented with weakness of both lower limbs and urinary complaints in the form of straining of micturition with increased frequency, in whom preoperative MRI revealed a well-defined cystic lesion in dorso-lumber cord extending from D11 to L1 level, which on pathological examination was found to be intramedullary cysticercosis.

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the entire family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal ... Peer Counseling Blog About Us Contact Donate Sitemap Privacy Statement Terms of Use © 2011 – 2016 Hill Foundation ...

  15. Passive electrophysiological properties of aged and axotomized cat spinal cord motoneurons: the effect of cell size and electrode shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, J K; Chase, M H

    1992-07-01

    Intracellular recordings were obtained from intact and axotomized lumbar motoneurons of aged cats. The sub-threshold electrical properties of these cells were measured, including input resistance, resting membrane potential, and the first two equalizing time constants as well as their associated amplitude constants. These data were used in a semi-infinite cable model of the motoneuron to estimate the size of the shunt resistance (Rshunt) which is created when the electrode penetrates the cell membrane. The average Rshunt for intact aged cells was 5.35 +/- 1.01 M omega, while that for the axotomized aged cells was 8.93 +/- 1.20 M omega. The statistically significant difference in mean shunt magnitude did not affect the measurements of membrane time constant because this constant is independent of the shunt in this model of the motoneuron. However, the determination of cell input resistance, which is not independent of the shunt, was shown to underestimate the real cell input resistance by 23-29%. We therefore conclude that the shunt resistance is an important factor which should be taken into account when measuring input resistance. PMID:1508398

  16. The detailed somatotopic organization of the dorsal horn in the lumbosacral enlargement of the cat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P; Meyers, D E; Snow, P J

    1986-03-01

    The somatotopic organization of spinocervical tract cells and unidentified dorsal horn neurons that lie in the same depth range as the spinocervical tract cells has been examined in detail in the lumbosacral enlargement of cats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. Only gentle hair movement or light touch of glabrous skin were used as stimuli. Within the region of the dorsal horn containing these neurons there is a precise somatotopic organization. However, there is considerable variation between animals in the relationship between the somatotopic map and the lumbosacral segmental boundaries. The somatotopic map described here is considered to be restricted to a 300- to 500-micron thick lamina. In the medial half to two-thirds of this lamina in the L6 and L7 segments the toes are represented in a rostrocaudal sequence from toe 2 to toe 5. Over the most medial 200-500 micron of this part of the dorsal horn are found cells that respond to stimulation of the glabrous skin of the toe pads and the central pad. The toe representation is surrounded by a strip of foot representation, which is in turn surrounded by a strip of leg representation. The most lateral part of the lamina curves ventrally in the L6 and L7 segments and contains a continuous rostrocaudal representation of the skin of the thigh. In this region are found both spinocervical tract cells and unidentified dorsal horn neurons with receptive fields on the thigh. The skin of the hindlimb is represented such that a line of discontinuity runs down the posteromedial thigh, leg, and foot. Skin lateral to this line is represented caudally, while skin medial to it is represented rostrally. PMID:3958785

  17. Nanomedicine for Treating Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Jacqueline Y.; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, lifestyle changes, and difficult rehabilitation. Treatment of spinal cord injury is challenging because the spinal cord is both complex to treat acutely and difficult to regenerate. Nanomaterials can be used to provide effective treatments; their unique properties can facilitate drug delivery to the injury site, enact as neuroprotective agents, or provide platforms to stimulate regrowth of damaged tissues. We review recent use...

  18. Management of acute spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F C

    1977-06-01

    Based on the experience with 58 patients with acute spinal cord injuries, a system for rapidly evaluating such patients has been developed. With the knowledge that has been acquired clinically and experimentally of spinal cord injury and with the information provided by laminography and by either air or Pantopaque myelography, a reasonably certain diagnosis of the type of spinal cord injury may be made. Treatment designed to restore neurological function may then be instituted promptly. PMID:882906

  19. Photochemically induced incomplete spinal cord injury in cat%光化学法诱导猫不完全脊髓损伤动物模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王熠钊; 徐江; 许涛; 方征宇; 徐琦; 黄晓琳

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential of creating a cat model of spinal cord infarction initiated by a photochemical reaction in terms of the neuroethology, motor evoked potential, and morphological outcomes. Meth-ods Fifteen cats were divided into three groups at random. T_13 in the spinal cord was photochemically irradiated for 40 min, 60 min or 80 min in different groups. A photochemically-induced infarction was produced by intravenous in-jection of rose Bengal (35 mg/kg) combined with immediate cold light irradiation (3000 klx) of the spinal cord.Neuroethology changes were observed every day after the surgery far 21 days, and morphological changes were exam-ined at day 21, before which the motor evoked potential was examined and compared with measurements taken before injury. Results The spinal cord infarctions induced by intravenous injection of rose Bengal plus cold light irradia-tion for 40 min were stable by day 8, while the other two groups were stable by day 12. The size of the infarction area in the spinal cord was stable, while the neuroethology, electrophysiological and histopathological changes in the cats were significant. Conclusions All of the cats demonstrated decreased functional mobility after photochemically in-duced thrombosis of the spinal cord, with corresponding pathomorphological and electrophysiologic changes. The model of infarction was stable and reliable.%目的 观察光化学法诱导猫脊髓损伤后的神经行为学、运动诱发电位及形态学改变,为研究脊髓损伤后神经再生与功能重建建立动物模型.方法 将15只猫根据冷光源照射时间不同随机分为40 min组、60 min组和80 min组.手术暴露脊髓后,用35 mg/kg体重的玫瑰红静脉注射,联合应用强度为3000 klx的冷光源照射T_13脊髓节段.术后21 d内连续观察动物神经行为学改变;于术后第21天检测动物的运动诱发电位,并与术前结果 比较;取材观察动物脊髓组织形态学改变.结果 3

  20. Testosterone Plus Finasteride Treatment After Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Spinal Cord Injury; Spinal Cord Injuries; Trauma, Nervous System; Wounds and Injuries; Central Nervous System Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Spinal Cord Diseases; Gonadal Disorders; Endocrine System Diseases; Hypogonadism; Genital Diseases, Male

  1. Subarachnoid disseminative hemangiopericytoma of the spinal cord

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Guo-zhong; WANG Zhen-yu; LI Zhen-dong; ZHONG Yan-feng; WANG Lei-ming

    2010-01-01

    @@ Hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) originating from central nervous system were increasingly reported recently.1 Intravertebral HPCs are predominantly epidural. Primary intradural HPCs of spinal cord are rare.2-5 Little subarachnoid dissemination has been reported. We reported a HPC of the cervical spinal cord with subarachnoid dissemination.

  2. Cellular Scaling Rules for Primate Spinal Cords

    OpenAIRE

    Burish, Mark J.; Peebles, J. Klint; Baldwin, Mary K.; Tavares, Luciano; Kaas, Jon H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2010-01-01

    The spinal cord can be considered a major sensorimotor interface between the body and the brain. How does the spinal cord scale with body and brain mass, and how are its numbers of neurons related to the number of neurons in the brain across species of different body and brain sizes? Here we determine the cellular composition of the spinal cord in eight primate species and find that its number of neurons varies as a linear function of cord length, and accompanies body mass raised to an expone...

  3. Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Izumi [Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital (Japan); Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Hida, Kazutoshi

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

  4. Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

  5. Acute Hydrocephalus Following Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Seong; Lee, Sang Gu; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Woo Kyung

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of acute hydrocephalus secondary to cervical spinal cord injury in a patient with diffuse ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). A 75-year-old male patient visited the emergency department with tetraparesis and spinal shock. Imaging studies showed cervical spinal cord injury with hemorrhage and diffuse OPLL from C1 to C4. We performed decompressive laminectomy and occipitocervical fusion. Two days after surgery, his mental status had deteriorated to drow...

  6. Therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fogaça Cristante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the literature concerning possible therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a disabling and irreversible condition that has high economic and social costs. There are both primary and secondary mechanisms of damage to the spinal cord. The primary lesion is the mechanical injury itself. The secondary lesion results from one or more biochemical and cellular processes that are triggered by the primary lesion. The frustration of health professionals in treating a severe spinal cord injury was described in 1700 BC in an Egyptian surgical papyrus that was translated by Edwin Smith; the papyrus reported spinal fractures as a ''disease that should not be treated.'' Over the last biological or pharmacological treatment method. Science is unraveling the mechanisms of cell protection and neuroregeneration, but clinically, we only provide supportive care for patients with spinal cord injuries. By combining these treatments, researchers attempt to enhance the functional recovery of patients with spinal cord injuries. Advances in the last decade have allowed us to encourage the development of experimental studies in the field of spinal cord regeneration. The combination of several therapeutic strategies should, at minimum, allow for partial functional recoveries for these patients, which could improve their quality of life.

  7. Curcumin protects against ischemic spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua Zhang; Hao Wei; Meimei Lin; Chunmei Chen; Chunhua Wang; Maobai Liu

    2013-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors have been shown to participate in nerve cellinjury during spinal cord ischemia. This study observed a protective effect of curcumin on ischemic spinal cord injury. Models of spinal cord ischemia were established by ligating the lumbar artery from the left renal artery to the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta. At 24 hours after model establishment, the rats were intraperitoneal y injected with curcumin. Reverse transcrip-tion-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical results demonstrated that after spinal cord ischemia, inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mRNA and protein expression significantly increased. However, curcumin significantly decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mRNA and protein expression in the ischemic spinal cord. Tarlov scale results showed that curcumin significantly improved motor function of the rat hind limb after spinal cord ischemia. The results demonstrate that curcumin exerts a neuroprotective ef-fect against ischemic spinal cord injury by decreasing inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression.

  8. Organization of common synaptic drive to motoneurones during fictive locomotion in the spinal cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Conway, B.A.; Halliday, D.M.;

    2005-01-01

    The basic locomotor rhythm in the cat is generated by a neuronal network in the spinal cord. The exact organization of this network and its drive to the spinal motoneurones is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to use time (cumulant density) and frequency domain (coherence) analysis...... to examine the organization of the last order drive to motoneurones during fictive locomotion (evoked by application of nialamide and dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)) in the spinal cat. In all cats, narrow central synchronization peaks (half-width

  9. Advance in spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury: Blood-spinal cord barrier and remote ischemic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qijing; Huang, Jinxiu; Hu, Ji; Zhu, Hongfei

    2016-06-01

    The blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is the physiological and metabolic substance diffusion barrier between blood circulation and spinal cord tissues. This barrier plays a vital role in maintaining the microenvironment stability of the spinal cord. When the spinal cord is subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, the structure and function of the BSCB is disrupted, further destroying the spinal cord homeostasis and ultimately leading to neurological deficit. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is an approach in which interspersed cycles of preconditioning ischemia is followed by reperfusion to tissues/organs to protect the distant target tissues/organs against subsequent lethal ischemic injuries. RIPC is an innovation of the treatment strategies that protect the organ from I/R injury. In this study, we review the morphological structure and function of the BSCB, the injury mechanism of BSCB resulting from spinal cord I/R, and the effect of RIPC on it. PMID:27060223

  10. Spinal cord decompression reduces rat neural cell apoptosis secondary to spinal cord injury*

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Kan; Chen, Qi-xin; Li, Fang-cai; Chen, Wei-Shan; Lin, Min; Wu, Qiong-hua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether spinal cord decompression plays a role in neural cell apoptosis after spinal cord injury. Study design: We used an animal model of compressive spinal cord injury with incomplete paraparesis to evaluate neural cell apoptosis after decompression. Apoptosis and cellular damage were assessed by staining with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling (TUNEL) and immunostaining for caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax. Meth...

  11. Ependymomas of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many patients with spinal cord ependymomas (SCE) undoubtedly benefit from post-operative radiation therapy; however, because of the wide variability in the total doses given, the optimal post-operative dose for SCE remains unclear. Several recent papers recommend total doses of 4000 rad to 5000 rad in 4-1/2 to 6 weeks. Unfortunately, only a small number of patients reported in the literature have been consistently treated to these high dose recommendations. Nine consecutive adult patients with SCE have been treated in a consistent way at Yale-New Haven Hospital with total doses of approximately 4500 rad to 5000 rad at 180 rad to 200 rad per day. The acute and chronic morbidity from such treatment has been minimal and no patient has had a local recurrence at 8 months to 8 years following treatment

  12. Pain in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baastrup, Cathrine; Finnerup, Nanna Brix

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY An important and detrimental effect of spinal cord injury (SCI) is pain, which develops in approximately two-thirds of all SCI patients, while approximately half of SCI patients develop chronic neuropathic pain (NP). Thus far, there is no cure for SCI NP, and oral pharmacological intervention is often inadequate, commonly resulting in a pain reduction of only 20-30%. In this short review, we will present an overview of the important features of SCI pain including taxonomy, epidemiology and classification, as well as a suggested oral pharmacological treatment strategy for SCI NP and the current evidence available from randomized placebo-controlled trials. Considerations and evidence for the nonpharmacological treatment of SCI will be discussed briefly. PMID:24654622

  13. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What are adult brain ...

  14. Extramedullary haematopoeisis causing spinal cord compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ismail

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary haematopoeisis (EMH is a rare cause of spinal cord compression. However, in a patient with a haematological disorder and in particular thalassaemia, EMH with paraspinal masses should be considered and imaging planned appropriately.

  15. Early treatment of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of society, the incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) is increasing year by year, and the treatment is very difficult with a high disability rate. Correct prehospital first aid transportation can greatly reduce secondary injury of spinal cord caused by improper transportation. Early application of high dose methylprednisolone, internal fixation by using screw-rod system, as well as intramedually and extramedually decompression can protect the residual neurolog...

  16. Male infertility in spinal cord trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Utida; Jose C. Truzzi; Homero Bruschini; Rogerio Simonetti; Cedenho, Agnaldo P.; Miguel Srougi; Valdemar Ortiz

    2005-01-01

    Every year there are 10 thousand new cases of patients victimized by spinal cord trauma (SCT) in the United States and it is estimated that there are 7 thousand new cases in Brazil. Eighty percent of patients are fertile males. Infertility in this patient group is due to 3 main factors resulting from spinal cord lesions: erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory disorder and low sperm counts. Erectile dysfunction has been successfully treated with oral and injectable medications, use of vacuum device...

  17. A regeneration strategy for spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Nordblom, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    A severe traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently leads to a devastating and permanent disability. Due to glial scarring and an inhibitory local environment, regrowth of disrupted axons in the injured spinal cord beyond a lesion is obstructed, thus preventing reconnection with neurons at the other side. Many experimental strategies have been presented to limit the damage and improve outcome after SCI, but few options are available for the patient. Neurons in the central nervous sys...

  18. Acute rehabilitation of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    KIDRIČ-SIVEC, Urška; SEDEJ, Bogdana; Marolt, Melita

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury presents with loss of function of neuromuscular and other systems below the level of injury. Patients may suffer from minor loss of strength to complete quadriplegia with respiratory distress. All the patients with traumatic spinal cord injury who are admitted and treated in University Medical Centre Ljubljana are evaluated after admission and individualized plan of rehabilitation is made. The neurological level of injury is documented with international standa...

  19. Hypocretinergic control of spinal cord motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuy, Jack; Fung, Simon J; Xi, Mingchu; Chase, Michael H

    2004-06-01

    Hypocretinergic (orexinergic) neurons in the lateral hypothalamus project to motor columns in the lumbar spinal cord. Consequently, we sought to determine whether the hypocretinergic system modulates the electrical activity of motoneurons. Using in vivo intracellular recording techniques, we examined the response of spinal motoneurons in the cat to electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus. In addition, we examined the membrane potential response to orthodromic stimulation and intracellular current injection before and after both hypothalamic stimulation and the juxtacellular application of hypocretin-1. It was found that (1) hypothalamic stimulation produced a complex sequence of depolarizing- hyperpolarizing potentials in spinal motoneurons; (2) the depolarizing potentials decreased in amplitude after the application of SB-334867, a hypocretin type 1 receptor antagonist; (3) the EPSP induced by dorsal root stimulation was not affected by the application of SB-334867; (4) subthreshold stimulation of dorsal roots and intracellular depolarizing current steps produced spike potentials when applied in concert to stimulation of the hypothalamus or after the local application of hypocretin-1; (5) the juxtacellular application of hypocretin-1 induced motoneuron depolarization and, frequently, high-frequency discharge; (6) hypocretin-1 produced a significant decrease in rheobase (36%), membrane time constant (16.4%), and the equalizing time constant (23.3%); (7) in a small number of motoneurons, hypocretin-1 produced an increase in the synaptic noise; and (8) the input resistance was not affected after hypocretin-1. The juxtacellular application of vehicle (saline) and denatured hypocretin-1 did not produce changes in the preceding electrophysiological properties. We conclude that hypothalamic hypocretinergic neurons are capable of modulating the activity of lumbar motoneurons through presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. The lack of hypocretin

  20. Perturbed cholesterol homeostasis in aging spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Gemma M; Dayas, Christopher V; Smith, Doug W

    2016-09-01

    The spinal cord is vital for the processing of sensorimotor information and for its propagation to and from both the brain and the periphery. Spinal cord function is affected by aging, however, the mechanisms involved are not well-understood. To characterize molecular mechanisms of spinal cord aging, microarray analyses of gene expression were performed on cervical spinal cords of aging rats. Of the metabolic and signaling pathways affected, cholesterol-associated pathways were the most comprehensively altered, including significant downregulation of cholesterol synthesis-related genes and upregulation of cholesterol transport and metabolism genes. Paradoxically, a significant increase in total cholesterol content was observed-likely associated with cholesterol ester accumulation. To investigate potential mechanisms for the perturbed cholesterol homeostasis, we quantified the expression of myelin and neuroinflammation-associated genes and proteins. Although there was minimal change in myelin-related expression, there was an increase in phagocytic microglial and astrogliosis markers, particularly in the white matter. Together, these results suggest that perturbed cholesterol homeostasis, possibly as a result of increased inflammatory activation in spinal cord white matter, may contribute to impaired spinal cord function with aging. PMID:27459933

  1. Modularity of Endpoint Force Patterns Evoked Using Intraspinal Microstimulation in Treadmill Trained and/or Neurotrophin-Treated Chronic Spinal Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, Vanessa S.; Lemay, Michel A.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic spinal cats with neurotrophin-secreting fibroblasts (NTF) transplants recover locomotor function. To ascertain possible mechanisms, intraspinal microstimulation was used to examine the lumbar spinal cord motor output of four groups of chronic spinal cats: untrained cats with unmodified-fibroblasts graft (Op-control) or NTF graft and locomotor-trained cats with unmodified-fibroblasts graft (Trained) or NTF graft (Combination). Forces generated via intraspinal microstimulation at differ...

  2. Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Ferguson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI. Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. The mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain pathways in the spinal cord may emerge with certain patterns of activity, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after spinal cord injury. We review these basic phenomena, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and discuss implications of these findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after spinal cord injury.

  3. Spinal Cord Involvement in Brachial Plexus Injury

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-01-01

    The role of spinal cord plasticity after birth injury and recovery from obstetric brachial plexus lesions was investigated in newborn rats with selective crush injury to spinal roots C5 and C6, in a study at University Clinics of Vienna School of Medicine, Austria.

  4. A SQUID biomagnetometer system for measurement of spinal cord evoked magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a 24-channel superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) biomagnetometer system for the measurement of the evoked magnetic field from stimulated spinal cords. The system uses composite LTc SQUID gradiometers and can observe the three-dimensional components of the magnetic field. With the system, we could successfully record the evoked magnetic fields corresponding to neuronal signals transmitting in the spinal cord of a cat. (author)

  5. Detrusor function in suprasacral spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, J K; Beric, A

    1992-08-01

    A total of 21 patients with chronic, stable suprasacral spinal cord injuries underwent a comprehensive neurological evaluation. A second lumbosacral lesion was excluded. The urodynamic findings were relatively constant as 95% of the patients showed detrusor hyperreflexia with elevated pressures, sphincteric dyssynergia and a competent bladder neck during the filling phase. The urodynamic findings of unexpected detrusor function in high spinal cord injury, for example areflexia and hypocontractility, should raise the clinician's suspicion that there is a lesion or dysfunction involving the sacral cord. PMID:1635134

  6. MRI in spinal cord decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cord decompression sickness (DCS) is a rare condition that can lead to spinal cord infarction. Despite the low incidence of diving-related DCS, we have managed to collect the data and MRI findings of seven patients who have been diagnosed with and treated for DCS in our local hyperbaric facility. This study describes the clinical presentation, MRI spinal cord findings, treatment administered and outcome of these patients. The patient medical records, from 1997 to 2007, were retrospectively reviewed. All patients with a final diagnosis of DCS and who underwent examination were included. The images were independently reviewed by two radiologists who recorded the location and number of lesions within the spinal cord. The Frankel grading was used to assess the initial and clinical outcome response. Patchy-increased T2W changes affecting several levels at the same time were found. Contrary to the popular notion that venous infarction is the leading cause of DCS, most of our patients also demonstrated affliction of grey matter, which is typically seen in an arterial pattern of infarction. Initial involvement of multiple (>6) spinal cord levels was associated with a poor outcome. Patients who continued to have multiple neurological sequelae with less than 50% resolution of symptoms despite recompression treatment were also those who had onset of symptoms within 30 min of resurfacing. DCS is probably a combination of both arterial and venous infarction. Short latency to the onset of neurological symptoms and multilevel cord involvement may be associated with a poorer outcome.

  7. Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Anil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality is rare in adults. Below we present a case report of 20 yrs old male with isolated cervical cord injury, without accompanying vertebral dislocation or fracture involving the spinal canal rim. He fell down on plain and smooth ground while carrying 40 kg weight overhead and developed quadriparesis with difficulty in respiration. Plain radiographs of the neck revealed no fractures or dislocations. MRI showed bulky spinal cord and an abnormal hyper intense signal on the T2W image from C2 vertebral body level to C3/4 intervertebral disc level predominantly in the anterior aspect of the cord The patient was managed conservatively with head halter traction and invasive ventilatory support for the initial 7 days period in the ICU. In our patient recovery was good and most of the neurological deficit improved over 4 weeks with conservative management.

  8. Radiation effects in brain and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sensitivity of both the brain and spinal cord in prenatal and postnatal stages, in infancy and adult age is represented also in consideration of a combined treatment with methotrexate. In adults, application of important doses of high-energy radiation increases the risk of injurious effects to the central nervous system. If the spinal cord is involved, more than 60% of the radiolesions have a progredient course ending with death. The pathogenesis and disposing factors are referred to, and the incidence of radiation necrosis with regard to age and sex, the degrees of injury and their frequence within different ranges of dosage are analyzed on the basis of data from universal literature. An examination of 'tolerance doses' for the spinal cord is made by means of Strandquist-diagrams and of the Ellis-formula. The slopes of regression lines are reported for various 'degrees of response' in skin, brain and spinal cord following radiation therapy. In the Strandquist-diagram, slopes of regression lines are dependent on the 'degree of response', flattening if skin and spinal cord are affected by radiation in the same degree, necroses having the same slope for both the organs. (orig./MG)

  9. Vocational Rehabilitation of Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, Charles R.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews historical development of organized vocational rehabilitation programming for the spinal cord injured in the United States. Significant factors that affect vocational rehabilitation outcomes with spinal cord injured persons are listed and discussed. (Author)

  10. Mechanisms of symptomatic spinal cord ischemia after TEVAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czerny, Martin; Eggebrecht, Holger; Sodeck, Gottfried; Verzini, Fabio; Cao, Piergiorgio; Maritati, Gabriele; Riambau, Vicente; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Rylski, Bartosz; Funovics, Martin; Loewe, Christian; Schmidli, Jürg; Tozzi, Piergiorgio; Weigang, Ernst; Kuratani, Toru; Livi, Ugolino; Esposito, Giampiero; Trimarchi, Santi; van den Berg, Jos C; Fu, Weiguo; Chiesa, Roberto; Melissano, Germano; Bertoglio, Luca; Lönn, Lars; Schuster, Ingrid; Grimm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that simultaneous closure of at least 2 independent vascular territories supplying the spinal cord and/or prolonged hypotension may be associated with symptomatic spinal cord ischemia (SCI) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR)....

  11. Making Human Neurons from Stem Cells after Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Yan; Leyan Xu; Welsh, Annie M; Glen Hatfield; Thomas Hazel; Karl Johe; Koliatsos, Vassilis E.

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Every year, spinal cord injuries, many caused by road traffic accidents, paralyze about 11,000 people in the US. This paralysis occurs because the spinal cord is the main communication highway between the body and the brain. Information from the skin and other sensory organs is transmitted to the brain along the spinal cord by bundles of neurons, nervous system cells that transmit and receive messages. The brain then sends information back down the spinal cord to ...

  12. Characteristics and rehabilitation for patients with spinal cord stab injury

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fangyong; Zhang, Junwei; Tang, Hehu; LI, XIANG; Jiang, Shudong; Lv, Zhen; Liu, Shujia; Chen, Shizheng; Liu, Jiesheng; Hong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of the study was to compare the incidence, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of patients with spinal cord stab injury to those with the more common spinal cord contusion injury. [Subjects] Of patients hospitalized in China Rehabilitation Research Center from 1994 to 2014, 40 of those having a spinal cord stab injury and 50 with spinal cord contusion were selected. [Methods] The data of all patients were analyzed retrospectively. The cases were evaluated by collecting...

  13. Acute care management of spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitcho, K; Yanko, J R

    1999-08-01

    Meeting the health care needs of the spinal cord-injured patient is an immense challenge for the acute care multidisciplinary team. The critical care nurse clinician, as well as other members of the team, needs to maintain a comprehensive knowledge base to provide the care management that is essential to the care of the spinal cord-injured patient. With the active participation of the patient and family in care delivery decisions, the health care professionals can help to meet the psychosocial and physical needs of the patient/family unit. This article provides an evidence-based, comprehensive review of the needs of the spinal cord-injured patient in the acute care setting including optimal patient outcomes, methods to prevent complications, and a plan that provides an expeditious transition to rehabilitation. PMID:10646444

  14. Radioisotope scanning for the spinal cord tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope scanning with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate or 67Ga-citrate for the spinal cord tumors are reported. Six patients with spinal cord tumors including 2 ependymomas, 1 neurinoma, 1 metastatic medulloblastoma, 1 metastatic astrocytoma, and 1 metastatic pinealoma as well as 6 patients with non-neoplastic lesions were examined by this method. Two out of 6 cases with tumors showed positive scans, and two showed equivocal scans. This new method is different from myeloscintigraphy or radioisotope angiography as already reported. It directly demonstrates the tumor itself like brain scanning does and is very useful as a nontraumatic method for screening spinal cord lesions, especially in poor risk patients. Both the usefulness and the limitations of this method are discussed. (auth.)

  15. Radiation-induced spinal cord hemorrhage (hematomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agarwal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraspinal hemorrhage is very rare and intramedullary hemorrhage, also called hematomyelia, is the rarest form of intraspinal hemorrhage, usually related to trauma. Spinal vascular malformations such intradural arteriovenous malformations are the most common cause of atraumatic hematomyelia. Other considerations include warfarin or heparin anticoagulation, bleeding disorders, spinal cord tumors. Radiation-induced hematomyelia of the cord is exceedingly rare with only one case in literature to date. We report the case of an 8 year old girl with Ewing’s sarcoma of the thoracic vertebra, under radiation therapy, presenting with hematomyelia. We describe the clinical course, the findings on imaging studies and the available information in the literature. Recognition of the clinical pattern of spinal cord injury should lead clinicians to perform imaging studies to evaluate for compressive etiologies.

  16. Primary multifocal gliosarcoma of the spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh M. Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gliosarcoma (GS is a rare and exceedingly malignant neoplasm of the central nervous system. It displays clinical features similar to glioblastoma, yet is histologically unique as it harbors both gliomatous and sarcomatous cellular components. Involvement of the neuroaxis is predominantly limited to the cerebral parenchyma and meninges. Primary GS of the spinal cord is rarely encountered. We report a case of a 54 year old male who presented with 2 months of progressive, bilateral lower extremity sensory deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging of the neuro-axis revealed multiple intradural lesions involving the cervical and thoracic spinal cord without evidence of intracranial involvement. Surgical resection of a dural based, extramedullary cervical lesion and two exophytic, intramedullary thoracic lesions revealed gliosarcoma, WHO grade IV. The patient died approximately 11 months after presentation. This report confirms that GS is not limited to supratentorial involvement and can primarily affect the spinal cord.

  17. Turkish Adaptation of Spinal Cord Independence Measure--Version III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesiktas, Nur; Paker, Nurdan; Bugdayci, Derya; Sencan, Sureyya; Karan, Ayse; Muslumanoglu, Lutfiye

    2012-01-01

    Various rating scales have been used to assess ability in individuals with spinal cord injury. There is no specific functional assessment scale for Turkish patients with spinal cord injury. The Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) is a specific test, which has become popular in the last decade. A study was conducted to validate and evaluate the…

  18. Spontaneous herniation of the thoracic spinal cord : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous herniation of the spinal cord is a rare disease entity in which spinal cord substance is herniated through a previously uninjured and/or untouched dural. It is a cause of myelopathy that is treatable but difficult to diagnose. We report the CT and MR findings of a case of spontaneous thoracic spinal cord through a dural defect

  19. Intramedullary sarcoidosis of the cervical spinal cord.

    OpenAIRE

    Vighetto, A; Fischer, G.; Collet, P.; Bady, B; Trillet, M

    1985-01-01

    A 26-year-old male with a history of pulmonary sarcoidosis showed clinical, myelographic and intra-operative evidence of a C5-C6 spinal cord tumour, which was diagnosed by biopsy as a pure intramedullary granuloma. Among the 29 published cases of histologically proven cord sarcoidosis, only five presented with pure parenchymatous infiltration without meningeal involvement. Corticosteroids are the most useful therapy, and surgery is indicated only for minimal biopsy when the parenchyma is inva...

  20. Imaging Techniques in Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ellingson, BM; Salamon, N.; Holly, LT

    2012-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Background Spinal imaging plays a critical role in the diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). In recent years there has been increasing interest in the development of advanced imaging techniques to provide pertinent microstructural and metabolic information that is not provided by conventional modalities. Methods This review details the pathophysiological structural changes that accompany SCI, as well as their imaging correlate...

  1. MR imaging evaluation of tethered spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven cases of tethered cord underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The associated findings included the following: case 1: caudal regression, inperforated anus, cutaneovesical fistula, and diverticulum of the bladder; case 2: Arnold-Chiari malformation, hydromyelia, and urinary reflux; case 3; lipoma; case 4: postoperative syringomyelia and residual lipoma; case 5: diastematomyelia and spinal bifida; case 6: dysraphism, diastematomyelia, and myelomeningocele; and case 7: postoperative split cord T1-weighted axial and sagittal images are sufficient for evaluation of tethered cord and associated anomalies and are also useful for postoperative follow-up and the detection of possible complications

  2. Dynorphin B induces lateral asymmetric changes in feline spinal cord reflexes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The effects of dynorphin B (an agonist of κ-opioid receptors) and naloxone (an antagonist of opioid receptors) on the field potentials (FPs) evoked in the lumbar spinal cord of spinalized cats were examined following successive stimulation of pairs of identical peripheral nerves on both sides of the body. The FPs were recorded bilaterally using microelectrodes from symmetrical sites of the gray matter between the L6 and L7 segments of the spinal cord transected at level of Th11. Significant c...

  3. Melatonin lowers edema after spinal cord injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Li; Xiao Chen; Suchi Qiao; Xinwei Liu; Chang Liu; Degang Zhu; Jiacan Su; Zhiwei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin has been shown to diminish edema in rats. Melatonin can be used to treat spinal cord injury. This study presumed that melatonin could relieve spinal cord edema and examined how it might act. Our experiments found that melatonin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) could reduce the water content of the spinal cord, and suppress the expression of aquaporin-4 and glial ifbrillary acidic protein after spinal cord injury. This suggests that the mechanism by which melatonin alleviates the damage to the spinal cord by edema might be related to the expression of aquaporin-4 and glial ifbrillary acidic protein.

  4. Collagen-omental graft in experimental spinal cord transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, J C; Goldsmith, H S

    1990-01-01

    Spinal cord transection was induced in 3 groups of cats. The gap was surgically reconstructed using a collagen matrix bridge (Group COL), collagen matrix + pedicled omentum graft (Group COM), or gelfoam (Group GEF). After a variable observation period, animals underwent distal cord horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) injections, somatosensory evoked potentials recordings and polarographic measurement of local spinal cord blood flow (1SCBF) using the hydrogen clearance technique. The cord tissue was removed for histologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Results showed retrograde HRP labelling of proximal segmental cord neurons and somatosensory evoked potentials were present in group COM but not in COL or GEF treated animals. Local SCBF was 66% and 87% higher in COM than COL or GEF animals respectively but this increase could be reversed if flow from the pedicled omentum was clamped-off. Histologic examination of cord tissue after 45 days revealed the presence of catecholaminergic axons distal to the transection site in COM but not COL or GEF groups. Moreover, after 90 days, the rate and density of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-IR) axons was 10-fold higher in COM than COL group and this was accompanied by a proportionate increase in the vascular density between the two groups. GEF treated animals showed no regeneration of transected fibers and poor blood flow pattern. These findings indicate that the placement of a pedicled omentum on a collagen matrix bridge results in near restoration of normal SCBF to the reconstructed cord region and is associated with marked regeneration of axons below the lesion site. PMID:2336984

  5. Spinal cord stimulation in chronic pain syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Vaarwerk, IAM; Staal, MJ

    1998-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used for more than 30 years now, and although it has shown to be effective under certain well-described conditions of chronic pain, conclusive evidence on its effectiveness is still sparse. There is a need for more prospective and methodological good studies, i

  6. Staging Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person’s mental status, coordination, and ability to walk normally, and how well the muscles, senses, and reflexes work. This may also be called a neuro ...

  7. New trends in spinal cord tissue engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubinová, Šárka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2015), s. 129-145. ISSN 1479-6708 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : biomaterial * cell therapy * regenerative medicine * spinal cord injury * stem cells scaffold * tissue engineering Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  8. Male infertility in spinal cord trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Utida

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Every year there are 10 thousand new cases of patients victimized by spinal cord trauma (SCT in the United States and it is estimated that there are 7 thousand new cases in Brazil. Eighty percent of patients are fertile males. Infertility in this patient group is due to 3 main factors resulting from spinal cord lesions: erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory disorder and low sperm counts. Erectile dysfunction has been successfully treated with oral and injectable medications, use of vacuum devices and penile prosthesis implants. The technological improvement in penile vibratory stimulation devices (PVS and rectal probe electro-ejaculation (RPE has made such procedures safer and accessible to patients with ejaculatory dysfunction. Despite the normal number of spermatozoa found in semen of spinal cord-injured patients, their motility is abnormal. This change does not seem to be related to changes in scrotal thermal regulation, frequency of ejaculation or duration of spinal cord damage but to factors related to the seminal plasma. Despite the poor seminal quality, increasingly more men with SCT have become fathers through techniques ranging from simple homologous insemination to sophisticated assisted reproduction techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI.

  9. Anorgasmia in anterior spinal cord syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Berić, A; Light, J K

    1993-01-01

    Three male and two female patients with anorgasmia and dissociated sensory loss due to an anterior spinal cord syndrome are described. Clinical, neurophysiological and quantitative sensory evaluation revealed preservation of the large fibre dorsal column functions from the lumbosacral segments with concomitant severe dysfunction or absence of the small fibre neospinothalamic mediated functions. These findings indicate a role for the spinothalamic system in orgasm.

  10. Solitary fibrous tumour of the spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordani, J.P. [City General Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology; Haq, I.U. [North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Singh, J. [North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2000-09-01

    We report an intramedullary primary solitary fibrous tumour of the cervical spinal cord in a 33-year-old man. The tumour predominantly consisted of monomorphic spindle cells with a storiform pattern. MRI demonstrated an inhomogeneously enhancing cervical intramedullary tumour. The patient was well without recurrence 18 months after surgery. (orig.)

  11. Development and Treatments of Inflammatory Cells and Cytokines in Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Zhuang; Xiao-Kang Li; Masayuki Fujino; Ping Zhu; Jia-xin Li

    2013-01-01

    During aortic surgery, interruption of spinal cord blood flow might cause spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The incidence of spinal cord IRI after aortic surgery is up to 28%, and patients with spinal cord IRI might suffer from postoperative paraplegia or paraparesis. Spinal cord IRI includes two phases. The immediate spinal cord injury is related to acute ischemia. And the delayed spinal cord injury involves both ischemic cellular death and reperfusion injury. Inflammation is a ...

  12. Simplified spinal cord phantom for evaluation of SQUID magnetospinography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Y.; Oyama, D.; Somchai, N.; Kawabata, S.; Uehara, G.

    2014-05-01

    Spinal cord functional imaging by magnetospinography (MSG) is a noninvasive diagnostic method for spinal cord diseases. However, the accuracy and spatial resolution of lesion localization by MSG have barely been evaluated in detail so far. We developed a simplified spinal cord phantom for MSG evaluation. The spinal cord phantom is composed of a cylindrical vessel filled with saline water, which acts as a model of a neck. A set of modeled vertebrae is arranged in the cylindrical vessel, which has a neural current model made from catheter electrodes. The neural current model emulates the current distribution around the activated site along the axon of the spinal cord nerve. Our MSG system was used to observe the magnetic field from the phantom; a quadrupole-like pattern of the magnetic field distribution, which is a typical distribution pattern for spinal cord magnetic fields, was successfully reproduced by the phantom. Hence, the developed spinal cord phantom can be used to evaluate MSG source analysis methods.

  13. Spinal-cord swelling in acute multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the frequent involvement of the spinal cord by multiple sclerosis, reports concerning neuroradiological findings regarding these lesions have been limited; most of them have demonstrated a normal or small spinal cord. Two cases of acute paraparesis showed evidence of spinal-cord swelling on myelography and CT myelography, initially suggesting the diagnosis of an intramedullary tumor. Spinal-cord swelling was demonstrated more clearly on CT myelography than on conventional myelography. The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis was made with the aid of the CSF findings, the clinical course, and the contracting-cord sign. The ''contracting-cord sign'' means the diminution of the spinal-cord diameter in the chronic stage. Since acute multiple sclerosis may produce spinal-cord swelling simulating a tumor, careful investigations are necessary to avoid unwarranted surgical interventions. (author)

  14. Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age 1 should not be carried on a bicycle, because their necks are not strong enough to ... may contribute to falls. Secure rugs and loose electrical cords, put away toys, use safety gates, and ...

  15. Non-enhancing pilocytic astrocytoma of the spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, David B. [University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Department of Radiology A-030, Denver, CO (United States); Hedlund, Gary L. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake, Utah (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Pilocytic astrocytomas are among the most common intramedullary spinal cord tumors in the pediatric age group. The presence of contrast enhancement is a major factor used to distinguish these tumors from other spinal cord lesions. We present a case of histologically proved non-enhancing intramedullary spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma in a 12-year-old girl. This case represents an exception to the conventional wisdom that pediatric spinal neoplasms enhance with administration of intravenous contrast material. (orig.)

  16. Non-enhancing pilocytic astrocytoma of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilocytic astrocytomas are among the most common intramedullary spinal cord tumors in the pediatric age group. The presence of contrast enhancement is a major factor used to distinguish these tumors from other spinal cord lesions. We present a case of histologically proved non-enhancing intramedullary spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma in a 12-year-old girl. This case represents an exception to the conventional wisdom that pediatric spinal neoplasms enhance with administration of intravenous contrast material. (orig.)

  17. Evidence for a periaqueductal gray-nucleus retroambiguus spinal cord pathway in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, G.; Kerstens, Lenka; Moes, M.C.; Horst, V.G.J.M. van der

    1997-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus in the cat has been shown to receive strong projections from the periaqueductal gray and to send fibres to distinct motoneuronal cell groups in brainstem and spinal cord. The nucleus retroambiguus plays a role in the production of vocalization and possibly copulatory (lordo

  18. Characterization of A11 Neurons Projecting to the Spinal Cord of Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Koblinger, Kathrin; Füzesi, Tamás; Ejdrygiewicz, Jillian; Krajacic, Aleksandra; Bains, Jaideep S.; Whelan, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic A11 region has been identified in several species including rats, mice, cats, monkeys, zebrafish, and humans as the primary source of descending dopamine (DA) to the spinal cord. It has been implicated in the control of pain, modulation of the spinal locomotor network, restless leg syndrome, and cataplexy, yet the A11 cell group remains an understudied dopaminergic (DAergic) nucleus within the brain. It is unclear whether A11 neurons in the mouse contain the full complement o...

  19. Gene therapy approaches for spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Corinne

    As the biomedical engineering field expands, combination technologies are demonstrating enormous potential for treating human disease. In particular, intersections between the rapidly developing fields of gene therapy and tissue engineering hold promise to achieve tissue regeneration. Nonviral gene therapy uses plasmid DNA to deliver therapeutic proteins in vivo for extended periods of time. Tissue engineering employs biomedical materials, such as polymers, to support the regrowth of injured tissue. In this thesis, a combination strategy to deliver genes and drugs in a polymeric scaffold was applied to a spinal cord injury model. In order to develop a platform technology to treat spinal cord injury, several nonviral gene delivery systems and polymeric scaffolds were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Nonviral vector trafficking was evaluated in primary neuronal culture to develop an understanding of the barriers to gene transfer in neurons and their supporting glia. Although the most efficient gene carrier in vitro differed from the optimal gene carrier in vivo, confocal and electron microscopy of these nonviral vectors provided insights into the interaction of these vectors with the nucleus. A novel pathway for delivering nanoparticles into the nuclei of neurons and Schwann cells via vesicle trafficking was observed in this study. Reporter gene expression levels were evaluated after direct and remote delivery to the spinal cord, and the optimal nonviral vector, dose, and delivery strategy were applied to deliver the gene encoding the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to the spinal cord. An injectable and biocompatible gel, composed of the amphiphillic polymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG) was evaluated as a drug and gene delivery system in vitro, and combined with the optimized nonviral gene delivery system to treat spinal cord injury. Plasmid DNA encoding the bFGF gene and the therapeutic NEP1--40 peptide

  20. Development of locomotion after spinal cord injury in small animals – Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Coutinho Facin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injuries are common in cats and dogs and result in severe neurological deficit, which can lead to permanent loss of sensory and motor capacity. In patients with fair to poor prognoses, complementary treatments have been used to develop an involuntary and uncoordinated ambulation that resembles normal gait, commonly known as spinal locomotion or reflexive stepping. Under experimental conditions, the recovery of a rhythmic gait has been reported following complete spinal cord transection. In veterinary medicine, the development of reflex stepping is of extreme importance to the quality of life and independence of the patients, as well as the satisfaction and tranquility of the owners. The present study is a literature review about the development of locomotion after spinal cord injury in small animals.

  1. Central nociceptive sensitization vs. spinal cord training: opposing forms of plasticity that dictate function after complete spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Adam R.; Huie, J. Russell; Crown, Eric D; Grau, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The spinal cord demonstrates several forms of plasticity that resemble brain-dependent learning and memory. Among the most studied form of spinal plasticity is spinal memory for noxious (nociceptive) stimulation. Numerous papers have described central pain as a spinally-stored memory that enhances future responses to cutaneous stimulation. This phenomenon, known as central sensitization, has broad relevance to a range of pathological conditions. Work from the spinal cord injury (SCI) field in...

  2. Spinal neurons bursting in phase with fictive scratching are not related to spontaneous cord dorsum potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, C A; Trejo, A; Linares, P; Delgado-Lezama, R; Jiménez-Estrada, I; Abyazova, L M; Baltina, T V; Manjarrez, E

    2014-04-25

    Spontaneous cord dorsum potentials (spontaneous CDPs) are produced by the activation of dorsal horn neurons distributed along the L4 to S1 spinal cord segments, in Rexed's laminae III-VI, in the same region in which there are interneurons rhythmically bursting during fictive scratching in cats. An interesting observation is that spontaneous CDPs are not rhythmically superimposed on the sinusoidal CDPs generated during fictive scratching episodes, thus suggesting that the interneurons producing both types of CDPs belong to different spinal circuits. In order to provide experimental data to support this hypothesis, we recorded unitary activity of neurons in the L6 spinal cord segment. We found that the neurons firing rhythmically during the sinusoidal CDPs associated with the extensor, flexor or intermediate phases of scratching were not synchronized with the spontaneous CDPs. Moreover, we found that the neurons firing during the spontaneous CDPs were not synchronized with the sinusoidal CDPs. These results suggest that the neurons involved in the occurrence of spontaneous CDPs are not part of the spinal cord central pattern generators (CPGs). This study will be relevant for understanding the relationships between the spinal cord neuronal populations firing spontaneously and the CPGs, in the intact and injured spinal cord. PMID:24530658

  3. Spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging in suspected multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the value of spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostic work-up of multiple sclerosis (MS). Forty patients suspected of having MS were examined within 24 months after the start of symptoms. Disability was assessed, and symptoms were categorized as either brain or spinal cord. Work-up further included cerebrospinal fluid analysis and standard proton-density, T2-, and T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced brain and spinal cord MRI. Patients were categorized as either clinically definite MS (n = 13), laboratory-supported definite MS (n = 14), or clinically probable MS (n = 4); four patients had clinically probable MS, and in nine MS was suspected. Spinal cord abnormalities were found in 35 of 40 patients (87.5 %), consisting of focal lesions in 31, only diffuse abnormalities in two, and both in two. Asymptomatic spinal cord lesions occurred in six patients. All patients with diffuse spinal cord abnormality had clear spinal cord symptoms and a primary progressive disease course. In clinically definite MS, the inclusion of spinal imaging increased the sensitivity of MRI to 100 %. Seven patients without a definite diagnosis had clinically isolated syndromes involving the spinal cord. Brain MRI was inconclusive, while all had focal spinal cord lesions which explained symptoms and ruled out other causes. Two other patients had atypical brain abnormalities suggesting ischemic/vascular disease. No spinal cord abnormalities were found, and during follow-up MS was ruled out. Spinal cord abnormalities are common in suspected MS, and may occur asymptomatic. Although diagnostic classification is seldom changed, spinal cord imaging increases diagnostic sensitivity of MRI in patients with suspected MS. In addition, patients with primary progressive MS may possibly be earlier diagnosed. Finally, differentiation with atypical lesions may be improved. (orig.)

  4. Sleep disordered breathing following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Jennum, Poul; Laub, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly complain about difficulty in sleeping. Although various sleep disordered breathing definitions and indices are used that make comparisons between studies difficult, it seems evident that the frequency of sleep disorders is higher in individuals...... with SCI, especially with regard to obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, there is a correlation between the incidence of sleep disturbances and the spinal cord level injured, age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdominal girth, and use of sedating medications. Regulation of respiration is...... dependent on wakefulness and sleep. Thus, it is important to be aware of basic mechanisms in the regulation and control of sleep and awake states. Supine position decreases the vital capacity in tetraplegic individuals, and diminished responsiveness to Pa(CO)(2) may further decrease ventilatory reserve...

  5. Radiation tolerance of the cervical spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 109 patients were studied after receiving radiation therapy that included a dose to the spinal cord. In addition to irradiation of the primary site, 59 patients received radiation to the lower neck. Transverse myelopathy developed in three patients; all three had been treated with fields to the lower neck. The dose to the spinal cord at the site of junctional fields was thought to be considerably higher because of the beam divergence from multiple fields employed. The authors stress that prolonged fractionation of treatment, fixation of the head during treatment, precise dosimetry, and close surveillance of the patient are important factors in avoiding radiation myelitis. The authors also stress the importance of controlling divergence of multiple beams by employing appropriate shields

  6. Radiation tolerance of the cervical spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.H.; Fayos, J.V.

    1981-05-01

    A total of 109 patients were studied after receiving radiation therapy that included a dose to the spinal cord. In addition to irradiation of the primary site, 59 patients received radiation to the lower neck. Transverse myelopathy developed in three patients; all three had been treated with fields to the lower neck. The dose to the spinal cord at the site of junctional fields was thought to be considerably higher because of the beam divergence from multiple fields employed. The authors stress that prolonged fractionation of treatment, fixation of the head during treatment, precise dosimetry, and close surveillance of the patient are important factors in avoiding radiation myelitis. The authors also stress the importance of controlling divergence of multiple beams by employing appropriate shields.

  7. Spinal cord cysticercosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouree, Patrice; Dumazedier, Deborah; Bisaro, Francine; Resende, Paula; Comoy, Jean; Aghakhani, Nozar

    2006-12-01

    Cysticercosis caused by the infection with the larva of Taenia solium, common through out the world, is located in the muscles, the eyes and the central nervous system, but mostly in the brain. Spinal cord infection is rare. The authors report a case of a young girl, living in Paris who had traveled in Latin America, and complained of back pains and troublesome walking. MRI showed a cyst in spinal cord, but other examinations were normal. Diagnosis was confirmed by a pathologist. It was a pure intramedullary cysticercosis, the check-up to find other locations was negative. Only approximately 130 cases are reported in the literature, with motor and sensory disorders. The diagnosis was based on MRI and pathological examination. Antiparasitic medical treatment was useful when combined with surgery. PMID:17153691

  8. Spinal cord motion. Influence of respiration and cardiac cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winklhofer, S. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Schoth, F. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Stolzmann, P. [University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Krings, T. [Toronto Western Hospital, ON (Canada). Div. of Neuroradiology; Mull, M.; Wiesmann, M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Stracke, C.P. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Alfried-Krupp-Hospital, Essen (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2014-11-15

    To assess physiological spinal cord motion during the cardiac cycle compared with the influence of respiration based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. Anterior-posterior spinal cord motion within the spinal canal was assessed in 16 healthy volunteers (median age, 25 years) by cardiac-triggered and cardiac-gated gradient echo pulse sequence MRI. Image acquisition was performed during breath-holding, normal breathing, and forced breathing. Normal spinal cord motion values were computed using descriptive statistics. Breathing-dependent differences were assessed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with the cardiac-based cord motion. A normal value table was set up for the spinal cord motion of each vertebral cervico-thoracic-lumbar segment. Significant differences in cord motion were found between cardiac-based motion while breath-holding and the two breathing modalities (P < 0.01 each). Spinal cord motion was found to be highest during forced breathing, with a maximum in the lower cervical spinal segments (C5; mean, 2.1 mm ± 1.17). Image acquisition during breath-holding revealed the lowest motion. MRI permits the demonstration and evaluation of cardiac and respiration-dependent spinal cord motion within the spinal canal from the cervical to lumbar segments. Breathing conditions have a considerably greater impact than cardiac activity on spinal cord motion.

  9. Spinal cord motion. Influence of respiration and cardiac cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess physiological spinal cord motion during the cardiac cycle compared with the influence of respiration based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. Anterior-posterior spinal cord motion within the spinal canal was assessed in 16 healthy volunteers (median age, 25 years) by cardiac-triggered and cardiac-gated gradient echo pulse sequence MRI. Image acquisition was performed during breath-holding, normal breathing, and forced breathing. Normal spinal cord motion values were computed using descriptive statistics. Breathing-dependent differences were assessed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with the cardiac-based cord motion. A normal value table was set up for the spinal cord motion of each vertebral cervico-thoracic-lumbar segment. Significant differences in cord motion were found between cardiac-based motion while breath-holding and the two breathing modalities (P < 0.01 each). Spinal cord motion was found to be highest during forced breathing, with a maximum in the lower cervical spinal segments (C5; mean, 2.1 mm ± 1.17). Image acquisition during breath-holding revealed the lowest motion. MRI permits the demonstration and evaluation of cardiac and respiration-dependent spinal cord motion within the spinal canal from the cervical to lumbar segments. Breathing conditions have a considerably greater impact than cardiac activity on spinal cord motion.

  10. Treadmill step training promotes spinal cord neural plasticity after incomplete spinal cord injury**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiansheng Sun; Chaoqun Ye; Jun Wu; Zhicheng Zhang; Yanhua Cai; Feng Yue

    2013-01-01

    A large body of evidence shows that spinal circuits are significantly affected by training, and that intrinsic circuits that drive locomotor tasks are located in lumbosacral spinal segments in rats with complete spinal cord transection. However, after incomplete lesions, the effect of treadmil training has been debated, which is likely because of the difficulty of separating spontaneous stepping from specific training-induced effects. In this study, rats with moderate spinal cord contusion were sub-jected to either step training on a treadmil or used in the model (control) group. The treadmil training began at day 7 post-injury and lasted 20 ± 10 minutes per day, 5 days per week for 10 weeks. The speed of the treadmil was set to 3 m/min and was increased on a daily basis according to the tolerance of each rat. After 3 weeks of step training, the step training group exhibited a sig-nificantly greater improvement in the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score than the model group. The expression of growth-associated protein-43 in the spinal cord lesion site and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive ventral neurons in the second lumbar spinal segment were greater in the step training group than in the model group at 11 weeks post-injury, while the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein in the spinal cord lesion site showed no difference between the two groups. These results suggest that treadmil training significantly improves functional re-covery and neural plasticity after incomplete spinal cord injury.

  11. Neural plasticity after spinal cord injury☆

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jian; Yang, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Lianying; Wang, Chunxin; Yang, Maoguang

    2012-01-01

    Plasticity changes of uninjured nerves can result in a novel neural circuit after spinal cord injury, which can restore sensory and motor functions to different degrees. Although processes of neural plasticity have been studied, the mechanism and treatment to effectively improve neural plasticity changes remain controversial. The present study reviewed studies regarding plasticity of the central nervous system and methods for promoting plasticity to improve repair of injured central nerves. T...

  12. Chronic complications of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sezer, Nebahat; Akkuş, Selami; Uğurlu, Fatma Gülçin

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious medical condition that causes functional, psychological and socioeconomic disorder. Therefore, patients with SCI experience significant impairments in various aspects of their life. The goals of rehabilitation and other treatment approaches in SCI are to improve functional level, decrease secondary morbidity and enhance health-related quality of life. Acute and long-term secondary medical complications are common in patients with SCI. However, chronic com...

  13. Biocompatible hydrogels in spinal cord injury repair

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejčl, Aleš; Lesný, Petr; Přádný, Martin; Michálek, Jiří; Jendelová, Pavla; Štulík, J.; Syková, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, Suppl.3 (2008), S121-S132. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GA309/06/1246 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) 1A8697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : Spinal cord injury * Hydrogel * Tissue engineering Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  14. 45 Gy - tolerance dose spinal cord - dogma or the facts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose of 45 Gy as a tolerance dose for spinal cord was questioned based on review of clinical data. Some data show that for conventional fractionation with the dose per fraction of less than 2.0 Gy spinal cord tolerance dose may arise up to 50-55 Gy. This was the base for round-table discussion and the importance of clinical and physical risk factors of postirradiation spinal cord injury was discussed and previous diseases of spinal cord, size of dose per fraction and length of irradiated spinal cord were pointed out as high risk factors. It was concluded that from clinical point of view there is no reason and on need to verify and to increase tolerance dose for spinal cord. (author)

  15. Spinal cord evolution in early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marc R; Haeusler, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The discovery at Nariokotome of the Homo erectus skeleton KNM-WT 15000, with a narrow spinal canal, seemed to show that this relatively large-brained hominin retained the primitive spinal cord size of African apes and that brain size expansion preceded postcranial neurological evolution. Here we compare the size and shape of the KNM-WT 15000 spinal canal with modern and fossil taxa including H. erectus from Dmanisi, Homo antecessor, the European middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos, and Pan troglodytes. In terms of shape and absolute and relative size of the spinal canal, we find all of the Dmanisi and most of the vertebrae of KNM-WT 15000 are within the human range of variation except for the C7, T2, and T3 of KNM-WT 15000, which are constricted, suggesting spinal stenosis. While additional fossils might definitively indicate whether H. erectus had evolved a human-like enlarged spinal canal, the evidence from the Dmanisi spinal canal and the unaffected levels of KNM-WT 15000 show that unlike Australopithecus, H. erectus had a spinal canal size and shape equivalent to that of modern humans. Subadult status is unlikely to affect our results, as spinal canal growth is complete in both individuals. We contest the notion that vertebrae yield information about respiratory control or language evolution, but suggest that, like H. antecessor and European middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos, early Homo possessed a postcranial neurological endowment roughly commensurate to modern humans, with implications for neurological, structural, and vascular improvements over Pan and Australopithecus. PMID:26553817

  16. Neurogenic bladder in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Taweel W

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Waleed Al Taweel, Raouf SeyamDepartment of Urology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Neurogenic bladder dysfunction due to spinal cord injury poses a significant threat to the well-being of patients. Incontinence, renal impairment, urinary tract infection, stones, and poor quality of life are some complications of this condition. The majority of patients will require management to ensure low pressure reservoir function of the bladder, complete emptying, and dryness. Management typically begins with anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. Patients who fail this treatment because of inefficacy or intolerability are candidates for a spectrum of more invasive procedures. Endoscopic managements to relieve the bladder outlet resistance include sphincterotomy, botulinum toxin injection, and stent insertion. In contrast, patients with incompetent sphincters are candidates for transobturator tape insertion, sling surgery, or artificial sphincter implantation. Coordinated bladder emptying is possible with neuromodulation in selected patients. Bladder augmentation, usually with an intestinal segment, and urinary diversion are the last resort. Tissue engineering is promising in experimental settings; however, its role in clinical bladder management is still evolving. In this review, we summarize the current literature pertaining to the pathology and management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury.Keywords: neurogenic bladder, spinal cord injury, urodynamics, intestine, intermittent catheterization

  17. Bone marrow stromal cell: mediated neuroprotection for spinal cord repair

    OpenAIRE

    Ritfeld, Gaby Jane

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no treatment available that restores anatomy and function after spinal cord injury. This thesis explores transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bone marrow stromal cells; BMSCs) as a therapeutic approach for spinal cord repair. BMSCs secrete neurotrophic factors, enabling neuroprotection/tissue sparing in a rat model of spinal cord injury. In this model system, bone marrow stromal cell-mediated tissue sparing leads to motor and sensory function impr...

  18. A Neonatal Mouse Spinal Cord Compression Injury Model

    OpenAIRE

    Züchner, Mark; Glover, Joel C.; Boulland, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) typically causes devastating neurological deficits, particularly through damage to fibers descending from the brain to the spinal cord. A major current area of research is focused on the mechanisms of adaptive plasticity that underlie spontaneous or induced functional recovery following SCI. Spontaneous functional recovery is reported to be greater early in life, raising interesting questions about how adaptive plasticity changes as the spinal cord develops. To facili...

  19. Aquaporin 1 – a novel player in spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Nesic, O.; Lee, J.; Unabia, G. C.; Johnson, K.; Z. Ye; Vergara, L.; Hulsebosch, C. E.; Perez-Polo, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The role of water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP-1) in uninjured or injured spinal cords is unknown. AQP-1 is weakly expressed in neurons and gray matter astrocytes, and more so in white matter astrocytes in uninjured spinal cords, a novel finding. As reported before, AQP-1 is also present in ependymal cells, but most abundantly in small diameter sensory fibers of the dorsal horn. Rat contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) induced persistent and significant four- to eightfold increases in AQP-1 levels ...

  20. Spinal cord decompression reduces rat neural cell apoptosis secondary to spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kan XU; Qi-xin CHEN; Fang-cai LI; Wei-shan CHEN; Min LIN; Qiong-hua WET

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether spinal cord decompression plays a role in neural cell apoptosis after spinal cord injury. Study design: We used an animal model of compressive spinal cord injury with incomplete paraparesis to evaluate neural cell apoptosis after decompression. Apoptosis and cellular damage were assessed by staining with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling (TUNEL) and immunostaining for caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax. Methods: Experiments were conducted in male Spragne-Dawley rats (n=78) weighing 300-400 g. The spinal cord was compressed posteriorly at T10 level using a custom-made screw for 6 h, 24 h or continuously, followed by decompression by removal of the screw. The rats were sacrificed on Day 1 or 3 or in Week 1 or 4 post-decompression. The spinal cord was removed en bloc and examined at lesion site, rostral site and caudal site (7.5 mm away from the lesion). Results: The numbers of TUNEL-positive cells were significantly lower at the site of decompression on Day l, and also at the rostral and caudal sites between Day 3 and Week 4 post-decompression, compared with the persistently compressed group. The numbers of cells between Day 1 and Week 4 were immunoreactive to caspase-3 and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X-protein (Bax), but not to Bcl-2, correlated with those of TUNEL-positive cells. Conclusion: Our results suggest that decompression reduces neural cell apoptosis following spinal cord injury.

  1. Accommodation of the spinal cat to a tripping perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ReggieEdgerton

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult cats with a complete spinal cord transection at T12-T13 can relearn over a period of days-to-weeks how to generate full weight-bearing stepping on a treadmill or standing ability if trained specifically for that task. In the present study, we assessed short-term (msec-min adaptations by repetitively imposing a mechanical perturbation on the hindlimb of chronic spinal cats by placing a rod in the path of the leg during the swing phase to trigger a tripping response. The kinematics and EMG were recorded during control (10 steps, trip (1 to 60 steps with various patterns and then release (without any tripping stimulus, 10 to 20 steps sequences. Our data show that the activation patterns and kinematics of the hindlimb in the step cycle immediately following the initial trip (mechanosensory stimulation of the dorsal surface of the paw was modified in a way that increased the probability of avoiding the obstacle in the subsequent step. This indicates that the spinal sensorimotor circuitry reprogrammed the trajectory of the swing following a perturbation prior to the initiation of the swing phase of the subsequent step, in effect “attempting” to avoid the re-occurrence of the perturbation. The average height of the release steps was elevated compared to control regardless of the pattern and the length of the trip sequences. In addition, the average impact force on the tripping rod tended to be lower with repeated exposure to the tripping stimulus. EMG recordings suggest that the semitendinosus, a primary knee flexor, was a major contributor to the adaptive tripping response. These results demonstrate that the lumbosacral locomotor circuitry can modulate the activation patterns of the hindlimb motor pools within the time frame of single step in a manner that tends to minimize repeated perturbations. Furthermore, these adaptations remained evident for a number of steps after removal of the mechanosensory stimulation.

  2. Spinal cord diffusion imaging: Challenging characterization and prognostic value

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, T

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the potential of quantitative imaging mark¬ers derived from diffusion-weighted MRI (DW MRI) in the spinal cord to char¬acterise healthy white matter pathways and provide sensitivity to axonal dam¬age, regeneration and collateral sprouting in spinal cord disease. With new innovative treatment strategies emerging for spinal cord patholo¬gies such as spinal cord injury and Multiple Sclerosis, there is a need for new in-vivo biomarkers that can be specific ...

  3. Does repair of spinal cord injury follow the evolutionary theory?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhicheng Zhang; Fang Li; Tiansheng Sun

    2012-01-01

    Lower vertebrates, such as fish and amphibians, and higher vertebrates in embryonic development can acquire complete regeneration of complex body structures, including the spinal cord, an important part of the central nervous system. However, with species evolution and development, this regenerative capacity gradually weakens and even disappears, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We explored the differences in mechanisms of spinal cord regeneration capability between lower and higher vertebrates, investigated differences in their cellular and molecular mechanisms and between the spinal cord structures of lower vertebrates and mammals, such as rat and monkey, to search for theoretical evidence and therapeutic targets for nerve regeneration in human spinal cord.

  4. Symptomatic epidural lipomatosis of the spinal cord in a child: MR demonstration of spinal cord injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, 505 Parnassus Av, L-371, University of California-San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Servicio de Radiodiagnostico, Seccion de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Universitario ' ' 12 de Octubre' ' , 28040 Madrid (Spain); Barkovich, James A. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, 505 Parnassus Av, L-371, University of California-San Francisco, CA 94143-0628 (United States); Mateos, Fernando; Simon, Rogelio [Seccion de Neurpediatria, Servicio de Neurologia, Hospital Universitario ' ' 12 de Octubre' ' , 28041 Madrid (Spain)

    2002-12-01

    We report a case of symptomatic epidural lipomatosis in an 8-year-old girl with Cushing's syndrome secondary to longstanding high-dose steroid therapy for Crohn's disease. MR imaging of the spine revealed massive diffuse epidural fat compressing the entire spinal cord with T2 prolongation in the central gray matter of the cord suggesting ischemic myelopathy. This finding has not been previously demonstrated on imaging. A proposed mechanism underlying these findings is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Symptomatic epidural lipomatosis of the spinal cord in a child: MR demonstration of spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of symptomatic epidural lipomatosis in an 8-year-old girl with Cushing's syndrome secondary to longstanding high-dose steroid therapy for Crohn's disease. MR imaging of the spine revealed massive diffuse epidural fat compressing the entire spinal cord with T2 prolongation in the central gray matter of the cord suggesting ischemic myelopathy. This finding has not been previously demonstrated on imaging. A proposed mechanism underlying these findings is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Central nociceptive sensitization vs. spinal cord training: Opposing forms of plasticity that dictate function after complete spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Ferguson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The spinal cord demonstrates several forms of plasticity that resemble brain-dependent learning and memory. Among the most studied form of spinal plasticity is spinal memory for noxious (nociceptive stimulation. Numerous papers have described central pain as a spinally-stored memory that enhances future responses to cutaneous stimulation. This phenomenon, known as central sensitization, has broad relevance to a range of pathological conditions. Work from the spinal cord injury (SCI field indicates that the lumbar spinal cord demonstrates several other forms of plasticity, including formal learning and memory. After complete thoracic SCI, the lumbar spinal cord can be trained by delivering stimulation to the hindleg when the leg is extended. In the presence of this response-contingent stimulation the spinal cord rapidly learns to hold the leg in a flexed position, a centrally mediated effect that meets the formal criteria for instrumental (response-outcome learning. Instrumental flexion training produces a central change in spinal plasticity that enables future spinal learning on both the ipsilateral and contralateral leg. However, if stimulation is given in a response-independent manner, the spinal cord develops central maladaptive plasticity that undermines future spinal learning on both legs. The present paper tests for interactions between spinal cord training and central nociceptive sensitization after complete spinal cord transection. We found that spinal training alters future central sensitization by intradermal formalin (24 h post-training. Conversely intradermal formalin impaired future spinal learning (24 h post-injection. Because the NMDA receptor has been implicated in formalin-induced central sensitization, we tested whether pretreatment with NMDA affects spinal learning. We found intrathecal NMDA impaired learning in a dose-dependent fashion, and that this effect endures for at least 24h. These data provide strong evidence for an

  7. A role for bombesin in sensory processing in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, T L; Massari, V J; Pazoles, C J; Chronwall, B M; Shults, C W; Quirion, R; Chase, T N; Moody, T W

    1984-12-01

    Bombesin (BN)-containing neuronal processes were demonstrated in laminae I and II of the dorsal horn of the cat, rat, and mouse spinal cord by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay. Dorsal rhizotomy in the cat resulted in a marked decrease in BN immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn indicating that BN is contained in primary sensory afferents. BN-binding sites were also localized in superficial laminae of the dorsal horn. The presence of both BN and BN-binding sites in the dorsal horn suggested that BN may be involved in sensory processing in the spinal cord. Consistent with this hypothesis, it was demonstrated that an injection of BN into the spinal cord caused a biting and scratching response indicative of sensory stimulation. The effect was similar to that observed after injection of substance P into the cord with the exception that the BN effect lasted about 100 times longer than that induced by substance P. Taken together, these data indicate that BN may be a neurotransmitter of primary sensory afferents to the spinal cord. PMID:6094746

  8. Nuclear magnetic imaging for MTRA. Spinal canal and spinal cord; Magnetresonanztomographie fuer MTRA. Spinalkanal und Wirbelsaeule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, Dominik; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2011-07-01

    The booklet covers the following topics: (1) Clinical indications for NMR imaging of spinal cord and spinal canal; (2) Methodic requirements: magnets and coils, image processing, contrast media: (3) Examination technology: examination conditions, sequences, examination protocols; (4) Disease pattern and indications: diseases of the myelin, the spinal nerves and the spinal canal (infections, tumors, injuries, ischemia and bleedings, malformations); diseases of the spinal cord and the intervertebral disks (degenerative changes, infections, injuries, tumors, malformations).

  9. RhoA/Rho kinase in spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbing Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A spinal cord injury refers to an injury to the spinal cord that is caused by a trauma instead of diseases. Spinal cord injury includes a primary mechanical injury and a much more complex secondary injury process involving inflammation, oxidation, excitotoxicity, and cell death. During the secondary injury, many signal pathways are activated and play important roles in mediating the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury. Among them, the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway plays a particular role in mediating spinal degeneration and regeneration. In this review, we will discuss the role and mechanism of RhoA/Rho kinase-mediated spinal cord pathogenesis, as well as the potential of targeting RhoA/Rho kinase as a strategy for promoting both neuroprotection and axonal regeneration.

  10. RhoA/Rho kinase in spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangbing Wu; Xiao-ming Xu

    2016-01-01

    A spinal cord injury refers to an injury to the spinal cord that is caused by a trauma instead of diseases. Spinal cord injury includes a primary mechanical injury and a much more complex secondary injury pro-cess involving inlfammation, oxidation, excitotoxicity, and cell death. During the secondary injury, many signal pathways are activated and play important roles in mediating the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury. Among them, the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway plays a particular role in mediating spinal degeneration and regeneration. In this review, we will discuss the role and mechanism of RhoA/Rho kinase-mediated spinal cord pathogenesis, as well as the potential of targeting RhoA/Rho kinase as a strategy for promoting both neuroprotection and axonal regeneration.

  11. Treatments of intramedullary spinal cord tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to establish a treatment for intramedullary spinal cord tumors, histology, symptoms (preoperative, upon discharge from the hospital, and at the final follow-up examination), postoperative combination therapy, postoperative complications, and recurrence were assessed in patients with intramedullary spinal cord tumors treated in the author's hospital during the past 19 years. There were 26 subjects (astrocytoma in 8, ependymoma in 6, intramedullary neurinoma in 3, lipoma in 3, hemangioblastoma in 3, cavernous angioma in 1, capillary hemangioma in 1, and enterogenous cyst in 1). Surgery had been performed in 24 of them, and 7 of the tumors were completely resected, 6 were incompletely resected, and 3 were partially resected. Radiotherapy had been performed to treat 7 astrocytomas and 2 ependymomas. Kyphosis was noted as a postoperative complication in 1 patient with an astrocytoma who had received postoperative radiotherapy. Postoperative improvement was better in the patients who had the ependymomas, lipoma, and angioma, and in 1 patient with an astrocytoma. The astrocytomas were very difficult to completely remove surgically, and postoperative radiotherapy was thought to be indispensable. The ependymomas, hemangioblastomas, and angiomas could be surgically resected, but the surgeon must has to exercise sufficient care during the operation. The lipomas were also difficult to resect surgically and intratumoral decompression or decompression should be performed. For adolescents spinal deformity should be considered as one of the postoperative complications. (K.H.)

  12. Selective depression of synaptic excitation in cat spinal neurones by baclofen: an iontophoretic study.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, J

    1981-01-01

    1 The effects of baclofen have been examined on responses of neurones in the spinal cord of the anaesthetized cat to stimulation of appropriate synaptic pathways, acetylcholine and a range of amino acid excitants. Baclofen and excitant substances were administered by standard microiontophoretic techniques. 2 Small ejecting currents of baclofen (less than 10 nA) depressed non-cholinergic, excitatory, synaptic responses evoked by stimulation of dorsal roots or muscle or cutaneous afferents. Exc...

  13. Autonomic consequences of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shaoping; Rabchevsky, Alexander G

    2014-10-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results not only in motor and sensory deficits but also in autonomic dysfunctions. The disruption of connections between higher brain centers and the spinal cord, or the impaired autonomic nervous system itself, manifests a broad range of autonomic abnormalities. This includes compromised cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary, gastrointestinal, thermoregulatory, and sexual activities. These disabilities evoke potentially life-threatening symptoms that severely interfere with the daily living of those with SCI. In particular, high thoracic or cervical SCI often causes disordered hemodynamics due to deregulated sympathetic outflow. Episodic hypertension associated with autonomic dysreflexia develops as a result of massive sympathetic discharge often triggered by unpleasant visceral or sensory stimuli below the injury level. In the pelvic floor, bladder and urethral dysfunctions are classified according to upper motor neuron versus lower motor neuron injuries; this is dependent on the level of lesion. Most impairments of the lower urinary tract manifest in two interrelated complications: bladder storage and emptying. Inadequate or excessive detrusor and sphincter functions as well as detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia are examples of micturition abnormalities stemming from SCI. Gastrointestinal motility disorders in spinal cord injured-individuals are comprised of gastric dilation, delayed gastric emptying, and diminished propulsive transit along the entire gastrointestinal tract. As a critical consequence of SCI, neurogenic bowel dysfunction exhibits constipation and/or incontinence. Thus, it is essential to recognize neural mechanisms and pathophysiology underlying various complications of autonomic dysfunctions after SCI. This overview provides both vital information for better understanding these disorders and guides to pursue novel therapeutic approaches to alleviate secondary complications. PMID:25428850

  14. Volume effects in Rhesus monkey spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to test for the existence of a volume effect in radiation myelopathy using Rhesus monkeys treated with clinically relevant field sizes and fractionation schedules. Five groups of Rhesus monkeys were irradiated using 2.2 Gy per fraction to their spinal cords. Three groups were irradiated with 8 cm fields to total doses of 70.4, 77, and 83.6 Gy. Two additional groups were irradiated to 70.4 Gy using 4 and 16 cm fields. The incidence of paresis expressed within 2 years following the completion of treatment was determined for each group. Maximum likelihood estimation was used to determine parameters of a logistic dose response function. The volume effect was modeled using the probability model in which the probability of producing a lesion in an irradiated volume is governed by the probability of the occurrence of independent events. This is a two parameter model requiring only the estimates of the parameters of the dose-response function for the reference volume, but not needing any additional parameters for describing the volume effect. The probability model using a logistic dose-response function fits the data well with the D50 = 75.8 Gy for the 8-cm field. No evidence was seen for a difference in sensitivities for different anatomical levels of the spinal cord. Most lesions were type 3, combined white matter parenchymal and vascular lesions. Latent periods did not differ significantly from those of type 3 lesions in humans. The spinal cord exhibits a volume effect that is well described by the probability model. Because the dose response function for radiation myelopathy is steep, the volume effect is modest. The Rhesus monkey remains the animal model most similar to humans in dose response, histopathology, and latency for radiation myelopathy. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Prognosis and Treatment of Spinal Cord Astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify the prognostic factors for spinal cord astrocytoma and determine the effects of surgery and radiotherapy on outcome. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study reviewed the cases of consecutive patients with spinal cord astrocytoma treated at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 1962 and 2005. Results: A total of 136 consecutive patients were identified. Of these 136 patients, 69 had pilocytic and 67 had infiltrative astrocytoma. The median follow-up for living patients was 8.2 years (range, 0.08-37.6), and the median survival for deceased patients was 1.15 years (range, 0.01-39.9). The extent of surgery included incisional biopsy only (59%), subtotal resection (25%), and gross total resection (16%). Patients with pilocytic tumors survived significantly longer than those with infiltrative astrocytomas (median overall survival, 39.9 vs. 1.85 years; p < 0.001). Patients who underwent resection had a worse, although nonsignificant, median survival than those who underwent biopsy only (pilocytic, 18.1 vs. 39.9 years, p = 0.07; infiltrative, 19 vs. 30 months, p = 0.14). Postoperative radiotherapy, delivered in 75% of cases, gave no significant survival benefit for those with pilocytic tumors (39.9 vs. 18.1 years, p = 0.33) but did for those with infiltrative astrocytomas (24 vs. 3 months; Wilcoxon p = 0.006). On multivariate analysis, pilocytic histologic type, diagnosis after 1984, longer symptom duration, younger age, minimal surgical extent, and postoperative radiotherapy predicted better outcome. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that histologic type is the most important prognostic variable affecting the outcome of spinal cord astrocytomas. Surgical resection was associated with shorter survival and thus remains an unproven treatment. Postoperative radiotherapy significantly improved survival for patients with infiltrative astrocytomas but not for those with pilocytic tumors

  16. Building bridges with astrocytes for spinal cord repair

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous suppression of glial scarring and a general enhancement of axonal outgrowth has now been accomplished in an adult rat model of spinal cord transection. Transplantation of a novel astrocyte cell type derived from glial-restricted precursors in vitro raise the eventual possibility of cellular therapy for spinal cord injury.

  17. Bone marrow stromal cell : mediated neuroprotection for spinal cord repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritfeld, Gaby Jane

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no treatment available that restores anatomy and function after spinal cord injury. This thesis explores transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bone marrow stromal cells; BMSCs) as a therapeutic approach for spinal cord repair. BMSCs secrete neurotrophic f

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... membranes are surrounded by the vertebrae (back bones). Spinal cord nerves carry messages between the brain and the rest ... of questions and tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person’s mental status, ...

  19. Shriners Hospital Spinal Cord Injury Self Care Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Carol

    This manual is intended for young people with spinal cord injuries who are receiving rehabilitation services within the Spinal Cord Injury Unit at Shriners Hospital (San Francisco, California). An introduction describes the rehabilitation program, which includes family conferences, an individualized program, an independent living program,…

  20. Spinal Cord Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Spinal Cord Diseases URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Spinal Cord Diseases - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  1. Cerebral and spinal cord involvement resulting from invasive aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although central nervous system involvement in disseminated aspergillosis is known to occur in immunocompromised patients, particularly after bone marrow transplantation, localized involvement of the spinal cord is exceedingly rare. In this report we present and illustrate detailed imaging findings of central nervous system invasion by Aspergillus fumigatus in a 30-year-old woman, with emphasis on the spinal cord involvement. (orig.)

  2. Late effects of radiation on the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes experiments concerned with the mechanisms of the development of late radiation damage in the spinal cord. Male rats were used in most of the experiments. The effects of 300 kV X-rays or 15 MeV neutrons were evaluated for different regions of the spinal cord. (Auth.)

  3. Spinal cord stimulation: Background and clinical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    treatment include pregnancy, coagulopathy, severe addiction to psychoactive substances, and lack of ability to cooperate (e.g. due to active psychosis or cognitive impairment). Most common complications to the treatment include lead migration, lead breakage, infection, pain over the implant, and dural......Background Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain refractory to conventional treatment. SCS treatment consists of one or more leads implanted in the epidural space of the spinal canal, connected to an implantable pulse generator (IPG). Each lead carries a...... pain syndrome (CRPS I), angina pectoris, and radicular pain after failed back surgery syndrome, and the treatment is also used to treat stump pain after amputation, and pain due to peripheral nerve injury, peripheral vascular disease, and diabetic neuropathy. Recommended contraindications for the...

  4. Upper limb rehabilitation after spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dimbwadyo Terrer, Iris; Trincado-Alonso, Fernando; Reyes-Guzmán, Ana de los; Aznar, Miguel A.; Alcubilla, Cesar; Pérez Nombela, Soraya; Ama Espinosa, Antonio del; Polonio López, Begoña; Gil-Agudo, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose state: The aim of this preliminary study was to test a data glove, CyberTouch ,combined with a virtual reality (VR) environment, for using in therapeutic training of reaching movements after spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: Nine patients with thoracic SCI were selected to perform a pilot study by comparing two treatments: patients in the intervention group (IG)conducted a VR training based on the use of a data glove, CyberTouch for 2 weeks, while patients in the control group (CG...

  5. Cell transplantation for spinal cord injury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romanyuk, Nataliya; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva

    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2012 - (Morganti-Kossman, C. - Raghupathi, R. - Maas, A.), s. 280-291 ISBN 9781107007437 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500390902; GA MŠk 1M0538; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GA203/09/1242 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/10/1560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : spinal cord injury * stem cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  6. Experimental reconstruction of the injured spinal cord

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejčl, Aleš; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva

    Vol. Part 1. Wien : Springer-Verlag/Wien, 2011 - (Pickard, J.), s. 65-95 ISBN 978-3-7091-0672-3 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR IAA500390902 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/1242; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : spinal cord injury * neurotrophic factors * stem cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  7. Primary spinal cord glioblastoma multiforme presenting with transverse myelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melikhan Cerci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary spinal cord tumors are rarely encountered in childhood period. Ependymomas and pilocytic astrocytomas comprise the majority of spinal cord tumors in children. Spinal glioblastoma multiforme (GM (grade IV astrocytoma is a rare clinical entity accounting for only 1-3% of all pediatric intramedullary tumors. We report a 3- year-8- month-old male with primary spinal cord GM who presented with back pain, paraparesis, gait disturbance and loss of sphincter control and initially diagnosed as transverse myelitis. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 606-610

  8. MR findings of spinal cord in decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the MR imaging findings of spinal cord decompression sickness. We retrospectively analysed the spinal MR images of eight patients (M : 6, F : 2) with decompression sickness affecting the cervical spine (n=1) or thoracic spine (n=7). The observed extent, location, continuity, signal intensity and contrast enhancement pattern of spinal cord lesions were analysed. The chief MR finding was continuous (n=2) or non-continuous (n=3) high signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the posterior paramedian spinal cord. In three cases, additional T2 signal abnormality in the ventral horn of the gray matter was observed. There was no signal intensity abnormality on T1-weighted images or abnormal enhancement of post-Gadolinium T1-weighted images. In one case, cord swelling in addition to T2 signal abnormality was observed. MR imaging is useful for evaluating spinal cord lesions in patients with decompression sickness

  9. MRI diagnosis of acute spinal cord decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe MRI findings of acute spinal cord decompression sickness. Methods: MRI findings of 5 cases with clinical definite acute spinal cord decompression sickness were retrospectively analyzed. The main clinical informations included underwater performance history against regulations, short-term complete or incomplete spinal cord injury symptoms after fast going out of water, sensory disability and urinary and fecal incontinence, etc. Results: Spinal cord vacuole sign was found in all 5 cases. Iso-signal intensity (n=3), high signal intensity (n=1), and low signal intensity (n=1) was demonstrated on T1WI, and high signal intensity (n=5) was found on T2WI. Owl eye sign was detected in 3 cases, and lacune foci were seen in 2 cases. Conclusion: MRI findings of acute spinal cord decompression sickness had some characteristics, and it was easy to diagnose by combining diving history with clinical manifestations. (authors)

  10. Spinal cord stimulation therapy for localized central pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the pathophysiology of localized central pain and the surgical result of spinal cord stimulation. There were 10 cases; 7 males and 3 females from 24 to 77 years old. Pain was caused by peripheral nerve injury in one case, spinal cord injury in two cases and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (thalamic pain) in 7 cases. All cases were treated by epidural spinal cord stimulation and followed from 0.8 to 8.8 years. Sufficient pain relief was achieved in one case of peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury and in 4 cases of CVD. Moderate pain control was achieved in 2 cases of CVD. In one each case of spinal cord injury and of CVD, pain control was ineffective. In cases with thalamic pain, we studied the correlation between the surgical result of spinal cord stimulation and the clinical features, MRI, fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET), and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) findings before operation. MRI revealed a small to moderate sized lesion on the thalamus or putamen in each case. PET also showed decreased accumulation of FDG on the affected thalamus. In all cases without one fair responder to spinal cord stimulation, we could recognize definite SEP originating in the sensory cortex ipsilateral side to the CVD lesion during contralateral median or posterior tibial nerve stimulation. In the good responders, we could recognize SEP originating in the sensory cortex of the lesion side with less delayed latency or decreased amplitude than in the moderate responders. In this group, test stimulation with low voltage on the spinal cord evoked a sensory effect (paresthesia) over the painful part of the body. Spinal cord stimulation proved to be an effective treatment for localized central pain. In cases with localized central pain after CVD, we could expect to ameliorate the intractable pain in those cases in which SEP or spinal cord test stimulation revealed that the thalamo-cortical system was preserved. (author)

  11. Modeling the Connectome of a Simple Spinal Cord

    OpenAIRE

    Borisyuk, Roman; al Azad, Abul Kalam; Conte, Deborah; Roberts, Alan; Soffe, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop a computational model of the anatomy of a spinal cord. We address a long-standing ambition of neuroscience to understand the structure–function problem by modeling the complete spinal cord connectome map in the 2-day old hatchling Xenopus tadpole. Our approach to modeling neuronal connectivity is based on developmental processes of axon growth. A simple mathematical model of axon growth allows us to reconstruct a biologically realistic connectome of the tadpole spinal...

  12. Caesarean section in a parturient with a spinal cord stimulator.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sommerfield, D

    2010-01-01

    A 35-year-old G2P1 parturient at 32 weeks of gestation with an implanted spinal cord stimulator was admitted for urgent caesarean section. Spinal anaesthesia was performed below the spinal cord stimulator leads at the L4-5 level, and a healthy female infant was delivered. A basic description of the technology and resulting implications for the parturient are discussed.

  13. Reproducibility of the MRI-defined spinal cord position in stereotactic radiotherapy for spinal oligometastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To establish the reproducibility of the MRI-defined spinal cord position within the spinal canal. Materials and methods: We acquired T1- and T2-weighted MRI scans of 15 volunteers on spine levels C7, T8 or L2. The scan protocol was repeated several times for different postures and time intervals. We determined the spinal cord shift (LR, AP, CC) using a rigid, grey value, vertebral body registration, followed by a spinal cord registration. We tested the sensitivity of our method, introducing artificial spinal cord shifts by varying the size and direction of the water-fat-shift (WFS) of the MR sequences. Results: The spinal cord position on MRI is reproducible within approximately 0.2 mm SD (LR, AP) and 0.7 mm SD (CC) when reproducing the posture on the same day, as well as several weeks later. However, when comparing different postures, shifts of ∼1.5 mm were found. Varying the WFS difference between scans (0.6–3.0 mm) induced equivalent virtual spinal cord shifts (0.5–2.5 mm). Conclusions: Displacement of the spinal cord inside the spinal canal may occur as a result of posture change. Considering the total geometric accuracy of spine SBRT, MRI-defined spinal cord position is sufficiently reproducible and requires no addition to the typical setup-and-intrafraction motion PRV margin if posture is identical throughout the RT process

  14. [Morphometric differences in the normal and low-intensity laser-irradiated spinal neurons of the cat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakov, D A; Klering, P G; Savich, V I

    1987-01-01

    Structural parameters of neurons of normal and low-intensity Ge-Ne laser irradiated cat spinal cords were investigated by the morphometrical technique. Observed statistical alterations of the soma volume and nuclear surface values as well as cellular nuclear space relations were associated with the evoked changes in the cell metabolism. PMID:3448495

  15. Effects of Epidural Spinal Cord Stimulation and Treadmill Training on Locomotion Function and Ultrastructure of Spinal Cord Anterior Horn after Moderate Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yizhao; HUANG Xiaolin; XU Jiang; XU Tao; FANG Zhengyu; XU Qi; TU Xikai; YANG Peipei

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) and treadmill training on the locomotion function and ultrastructure of spinal cord anterior horn after moderate spinal cord injury in rats. (IT, n=3). All rats received a moderate spinal cord injury surgery. Four weeks after surgery, rats in SE group received an electrode implantation procedure, with the electrode field covering spinal cord segments L2-S1. Four weeks after electrode implantation, rats received subthreshold ESCS for 30 min/d. Rats in TY group received 4cm/s treadmill training for 30min/d. Rats in SI group received no intervention, as a control group. All procedures in these three groups lasted four weeks.The open field Basso,Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scale was used before and after intervention to evaluate rats' hindlimb motor function. Result:After four weeks intervention, rats in TT group improved their open field locomotion scores to 20. In contrast, no significant improvement was observed in groups SI and SE. The morphology of synapses and neurons were similar regardless of whether rats had undergone ESCS, treadmill training or not. Conclusion:ESCS alone was not sufficient to improve the walking ability of spinal cord injured rats. ESCS or treadmill training alone might not contribute to the changes of ultrastructure in anterior horn of spinal cord that underlie the recovery of walking ability. Further research is needed to understand the contributions of combination of ESCS and treadmill training to the rehabilitation of spinal cord injured rats.

  16. Independent spinal cord atrophy measures correlate to motor and sensory deficits in individuals with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Hans Magnus Henrik; Barthelemy, Dorothy; Skimminge, A.;

    2011-01-01

    sensory and motor outcome in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:Danish study on human SCI.Methods:We included 19 individuals with chronic incomplete SCI and 16 healthy controls. Participants underwent MRI and a neurological examination including sensory testing for light...... touch and pinprick, and muscle strength. Antero-posterior width (APW), left-right width (LRW) and cross-sectional spinal cord area (SCA) were extracted from MRI at the spinal level of C2. The angular variation of the spinal cord radius over the full circle was also extracted and compared with the...

  17. Preferred locomotor phase of activity of lumbar interneurons during air-stepping in subchronic spinal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AuYong, Nicholas; Ollivier-Lanvin, Karen; Lemay, Michel A

    2011-03-01

    Spinal locomotor circuits are intrinsically capable of driving a variety of behaviors such as stepping, scratching, and swimming. Based on an observed rostrocaudal wave of activity in the motoneuronal firing during locomotor tasks, the traveling-wave hypothesis proposes that spinal interneuronal firing follows a similar rostrocaudal pattern of activation, suggesting the presence of spatially organized interneuronal modules within the spinal motor system. In this study, we examined if the spatial organization of the lumbar interneuronal activity patterns during locomotor activity in the adult mammalian spinal cord was consistent with a traveling-wave organizational scheme. The activity of spinal interneurons within the lumbar intermediate zone was examined during air-stepping in subchronic spinal cats. The preferred phase of interneuronal activity during a step cycle was determined using circular statistics. We found that the preferred phases of lumbar interneurons from both sides of the cord were evenly distributed over the entire step cycle with no indication of functional groupings. However, when units were subcategorized according to spinal hemicords, the preferred phases of units on each side largely fell around the period of extensor muscle activity on each side. In addition, there was no correlation between the preferred phases of units and their rostrocaudal locations along the spinal cord with preferred phases corresponding to both flexion and extension phases of the step cycle found at every rostrocaudal level of the cord. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that interneurons operate as part of a longitudinally distributed network rather than a rostrocaudally organized traveling-wave network. PMID:21084683

  18. Somatic modulation of spinal reflex bladder activity mediated by nociceptive bladder afferent nerve fibers in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiying; Rogers, Marc J; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Schwen, Zeyad; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2014-09-15

    The goal of the present study was to determine if supraspinal pathways are necessary for inhibition of bladder reflex activity induced by activation of somatic afferents in the pudendal or tibial nerve. Cats anesthetized with α-chloralose were studied after acute spinal cord transection at the thoracic T9/T10 level. Dilute (0.25%) acetic acid was used to irritate the bladder, activate nociceptive afferent C-fibers, and trigger spinal reflex bladder contractions (amplitude: 19.3 ± 2.9 cmH2O). Hexamethonium (a ganglionic blocker, intravenously) significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the amplitude of the reflex bladder contractions to 8.5 ± 1.9 cmH2O. Injection of lidocaine (2%, 1-2 ml) into the sacral spinal cord or transection of the sacral spinal roots and spinal cord further reduced the contraction amplitude to 4.2 ± 1.3 cmH2O. Pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) at frequencies of 0.5-5 Hz and 40 Hz but not at 10-20 Hz inhibited reflex bladder contractions, whereas tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) failed to inhibit bladder contractions at all tested frequencies (0.5-40 Hz). These results indicate that PNS inhibition of nociceptive afferent C-fiber-mediated spinal reflex bladder contractions can occur at the spinal level in the absence of supraspinal pathways, but TNS inhibition requires supraspinal pathways. In addition, this study shows, for the first time, that after acute spinal cord transection reflex bladder contractions can be triggered by activating nociceptive bladder afferent C-fibers using acetic acid irritation. Understanding the sites of action for PNS or TNS inhibition is important for the clinical application of pudendal or tibial neuromodulation to treat bladder dysfunctions. PMID:25056352

  19. Endovascular embolization for spinal cord vascular malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of endovascular embolization for the treatment of spinal cord vascular malformation (SCVM). Methods: During the past ten years endovascular embolization was performed in 32 consecutive patients with SCVM, including 19 males and 13 females with a mean age of 47.2 years. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were followed up for 10 months to 6 years. The clinical efficacy was evaluated and the results were graded as full recovery, improvement, unchanged and aggravation. Results: The SCVMs in our series included spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF, n = 16), perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (PMAVF, n = 9) and spinal arteriovenous malformation(SAVM, n = 7). Complete embolization was achieved in 20 cases and partial embolization in 12 cases, among them pure arterial aneurysm or venous aneurysm was occluded in 4. During an average follow-up period of 48 months, complete recovery was seen in 5 cases, marked improvement in 16 cases, unchanged condition in 8 cases and clinical aggravation in 3 cases. Recurrence was observed in 2 of the improved cases. No bleeding or re-bleeding occurred. Conclusion: Endovascular embolization is an effective and minimally-invasive treatment for SCVM with fewer complications. (J Intervent Radiol, 2010, 19: 933-935) (authors)

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves local microenvironment after spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wang; Shuquan Zhang; Min Luo; Yajun Li

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves motor function in patients with spinal cord injury. In the present study, we explored the mechanisms associated with the recovery of neurological function after hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a rat model of spinal cord injury. We established an acute spinal cord injury model using a modiifcation of the free-falling object method, and treated the animals with oxygen at 0.2 MPa for 45 minutes, 4 hours after injury. The treatment was administered four times per day, for 3 days. Compared with model rats that did not receive the treatment, rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen had fewer apoptotic cells in spinal cord tissue, lower expression levels of aquaporin 4/9 mRNA and protein, and more NF-200 positive nerve ifbers. Furthermore, they had smaller spinal cord cavities, rapid recovery of somatosensory and motor evoked potentials, and notably better recovery of hindlimb motor function than model rats. Our ifndings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy reduces apop-tosis, downregulates aquaporin 4/9 mRNA and protein expression in injured spinal cord tissue, improves the local microenvironment for nerve regeneration, and protects and repairs the spinal cord after injury.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord injury in chronic stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobimatsu, Haruki; Nihei, Ryuichi; Kimura, Tetsuhiko; Yano, Hideo; Touyama, Tetsuo; Tobimatsu, Yoshiko; Suyama, Naoto; Yoshino, Yasumasa (National Rehabilitation Center for the Disabled, Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of a total of 195 patients with cervical (125) or thoracic (70) spinal cord injury were reviewed. The imaging studies of the spinal cord lesions were correlated with clinical manifestations. Sequential MR imaging revealed hypointensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) in all patients, except for five patients showing no signal changes and two showing isointensity, suggesting gliosis, myelomalacia, and syringomyelia. Spinal cord lesions were classified into four types: small lesions, large lesions, complete transverse, and longitudinal rupture. These lesions were well correlated with the severity of injury and paralysis. Complete paralysis was frequently associated with enlarged, complete transverse for cervical spinal cord injury, and longitudinal ruptured or thinned complete transverse for thoracic spinal cord injury. The height of paralysis was well in agreement with that of lesions. For incomplete paralysis, localized lesions were seen within the spinal cord, coinciding with the paralysis or severity. Traumatic syringomyelia was seen in 17 patients (8.7%)-- for the cervical site (10 patients, 8%) and the thoracic site (7 patients, 10%). When homogeneous and marginally clear hypointensity is shown on T1-weighted images and vacuolated hyperintensity is shown on T2-weighted images, in addition to lesions spreading two or more cords or 1.5 or more cords above the nervous root level of paralysis, traumatic syringomyelia is strongly suspected, requiring the follow up observation. (N.K.).

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord injury in chronic stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of a total of 195 patients with cervical (125) or thoracic (70) spinal cord injury were reviewed. The imaging studies of the spinal cord lesions were correlated with clinical manifestations. Sequential MR imaging revealed hypointensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) in all patients, except for five patients showing no signal changes and two showing isointensity, suggesting gliosis, myelomalacia, and syringomyelia. Spinal cord lesions were classified into four types: small lesions, large lesions, complete transverse, and longitudinal rupture. These lesions were well correlated with the severity of injury and paralysis. Complete paralysis was frequently associated with enlarged, complete transverse for cervical spinal cord injury, and longitudinal ruptured or thinned complete transverse for thoracic spinal cord injury. The height of paralysis was well in agreement with that of lesions. For incomplete paralysis, localized lesions were seen within the spinal cord, coinciding with the paralysis or severity. Traumatic syringomyelia was seen in 17 patients (8.7%)-- for the cervical site (10 patients, 8%) and the thoracic site (7 patients, 10%). When homogeneous and marginally clear hypointensity is shown on T1-weighted images and vacuolated hyperintensity is shown on T2-weighted images, in addition to lesions spreading two or more cords or 1.5 or more cords above the nervous root level of paralysis, traumatic syringomyelia is strongly suspected, requiring the follow up observation. (N.K.)

  3. High-field MR imaging of spinal cord multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-one high-field MR imaging studies (1.5 T, General Electric Signa) of the spinal cord were performed in 42 patients (27 female, 15 male; mean age, 40 years) with clinically definitive (n = 34) or probable (n = 8) multiple sclerosis and suspected spinal cord lesions. MR imaging showed focal spinal cord abnormalities in 38 (75%) of 51 studies. T2-weighted images were abnormal (showing foci of high signal intensity) in 38 studies, T1-weighted images were abnormal (showing areas of low signal intensity or mass effect) in 16 (42%) of 38, and GRASS images were abnormal (showing foci of high signal intensity) in 9 (82%) of 11 cases. Brain MR imaging showed periventricular lesions typical of multiple sclerosis in 34 (81%) of 42 studies. Spinal cord studies were positive in eight cases with normal brain MR images, and brain studies were positive in 13 instances of normal spinal cord MR images. Four lesions were at the cervicomedullary junction, 44 in the cervical spinal cord, and three in the thoracic cord. Mass effect in cord lesions, simulating neoplasm, was seen in seven patients during the acute symptomatic phase. Serial studies in three patients with decreasing symptoms showed a reduction after 3-4 weeks and resolution of the mass effect after 2-6 months

  4. Spinal cord compression due to epidural extramedullary haematopoiesis in thalassaemia: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal epidural extramedullary haematopoiesis is very rare in thalassaemia. A 27-year-old man with thalassaemia intermedia presented with symptoms and signs of spinal cord compression. MRI showed a thoracic spinal epidural mass, representing extramedullary haematopoietic tissue, compressing the spinal cord. Following radiotherapy, serial MRI revealed regression of the epidural mass and gradual resolution of spinal cord oedema. (orig.)

  5. Surgical techniques of anterior decompression and fusion for spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlman, H H; Eismont, F J

    1981-01-01

    Many patients who have static or only slowly improving neurologic deficits and significant compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots can benefit from anterior decompression. The improvement ranges from partial root recovery to very dramatic improvement in upper as well as lower extremities in the patient with quadriparesis. Intrinsic damage or contusion of the spinal cord cannot be reversed by decompression. Patients with motor sparing preoperatively attain a better functional improvement than those patients who have only slight distal sensory function initially. The same can be said of patients with spinal cord injuries treated with surgery, but we believe the ultimate degree of functional recovery of incomplete cord injuries is greater following anterior than posterior decompression when the operation is indicated. An early accurate diagnosis must be made concerning whether a patient has a complete or an incomplete spinal cord injury. The mechanical compressive lesion must be well documented by myelography, laminography, or CAT scan. The patient should not be neurologically harmed by a posterior laminectomy approach to anterior pathology which additionally removes all posterior stability. An anterior compressive block is best removed through an anterior approach. PMID:7471590

  6. Transient Spinal Cord Ischemia as Presenting Manifestation of Polycythemia Vera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Costa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Spinal arterial vascularization is supplied by a large anastomotic net, making spinal ischemic events far less common than ischemic cerebral strokes. Polycythemia vera, due to blood hyperviscosity and activated platelet aggregation, is associated with a higher risk of arterial and venous thrombotic events. We report a patient with spinal cord transient ischemic attacks, a rarely presenting manifestation, and polycythemia vera, which highlights the thrombotic potential of this disease, and the requirement of exhaustive diagnostic workout of a spinal ischemic event.

  7. MR imaging of diseases of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cord lesions are infrequently encountered in daily diagnostic imaging practice, although the spinal cord can be affected by various diseases. MR findings of diseases that can affect the spinal cord, including syringomyelia, vascular diseases, arteriovenous malformation, and demyelinating and inflammatory diseases, are reviewed. Because intramedullary lesions can be visualized on MR images, that imaging modality plays an important role in the diagnosis of these diseases. However, MR findings are sometimes nonspecific. Therefore integration of clinical history and laboratory data with MR findings is essential in making the final diagnosis. (author)

  8. Evaluation of Erectile Dysfunction in Spinal Cord Injured Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Berrin Gündüz; Salih Baran; Belgin Erhan; Ayşe Nur Bardak; Feride Savaş

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Spinal cord injuries affect sexual function and cause problems in erection, ejaculation, orgasm and fertility; erectile dysfunction is the most important one. The aim of this study is to evaluate the erectile dysfunction seen after spinal cord injury.Materials and Method: Sixty male patients with spinal cord injury, 20 above the level of T10, 20 between T11 and L2, 20 with conus/cauda equina lesions were included in this study. The patients were evaluated according to the American ...

  9. [Pre-hospital care management of acute spinal cord injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thorsten; Hirschfeld, Sven; Thietje, Roland; Lönnecker, Stefan; Kerner, Thoralf; Stuhr, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Acute injury to the spine and spinal cord can occur both in isolation as also in the context of multiple injuries. Whereas a few decades ago, the cause of paraplegia was almost exclusively traumatic, the ratio of traumatic to non-traumatic causes in Germany is currently almost equivalent. In acute treatment of spinal cord injury, restoration and maintenance of vital functions, selective control of circulation parameters, and avoidance of positioning or transport-related additional damage are in the foreground. This article provides information on the guideline for emergency treatment of patients with acute injury of the spine and spinal cord in the preclinical phase. PMID:27070515

  10. The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Guven, Mustafa; Akman, Tarik; Yener, Ali Umit; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Yuksel, Yasemin; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuroprotective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Methods Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta...

  11. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and the treatment of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Fu-jiang; FENG Shi-qing

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the recent studies about human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) and advances in the treatment of spinal cord injury, Data sources Published articles (1983-2007) about hUCMSCs and spinal cord injury were selected using Medline. Study selection Articles selected were relevant to development of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for transplantation in spinal cord injury therapy. Of 258 originally identifiied arises 51 were selected that specifically addressed the stated purpose. Results Recent work has revealed that hUCMSCs share most of the characteristics with MSCs derived from bone marrow and are more appropriate to transplantation for cell based therapies. Conclusions Human umbilical cord could be regarded as a source of MSCs for experimental and clinical needs. In addition, as a peculiar source of stem cells, hUCMSCs may play an important role in the treatment of spinal cord injury.

  12. Acute injuries of the spinal cord and spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal injuries may result in severe neurological deficits, especially if the spinal cord or spinal nerve roots are involved. Patients may even die of a spinal shock. Besides presenting the important embryologic and anatomical basis underlying the typical radiological findings of spinal trauma, the trauma mechanisms and the resulting injuries are correlated. Special situations, such as the involvement of the alar ligaments and typical injuries in children, will be discussed as well as specific traumatic patters relevant for imaging. Based on the actual literature and recommendations of professional organizations, an approach is provided to the radiologic evaluation of spinal injuries. Advantages and disadvantages of the individual imaging modalities are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  13. Parents with a spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasul, A; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional questionnaire. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the impact of parenting young children with a spinal cord injury (SCI) on various life situations (for example, personal, vocational and social). SETTING: Community; Denmark. METHODS: A...... postal survey was designed to collect data in persons with SCI regarding the following: (1) socio-demographics, injury characteristics and parental status; (2) employment status; (3) environmental adjustments to support parenting roles; (4) childcare institution use and experiences; (5) network support...... for parenting; and (6) parenting advice for others. RESULTS: A total of 62 persons (58% men) responded to the survey, with 56% having paraplegia and 44% having tetraplegia. The majority of men (83%) and women (62%) were employed during the first 10 years of their child's lives. Half of the sample (50...

  14. Spinal cord injury pain: mechanisms and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerup, Nanna Brix; Baastrup, Cathrine

    2012-06-01

    Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) may experience several types of chronic pain, including peripheral and central neuropathic pain, pain secondary to overuse, painful muscle spasms, and visceral pain. An accurate classification of the patient's pain is important for choosing the optimal treatment strategy. In particular, neuropathic pain appears to be persistent despite various treatment attempts. In recent years, we have gained increasing knowledge of SCI pain mechanisms from experimental models and clinical studies. Nevertheless, treatment remains difficult and inadequate. In line with the recommendations for peripheral neuropathic pain, evidence from randomized controlled treatment trials suggests that tricyclic antidepressants and pregabalin are first-line treatments. This review highlights the diagnosis and classification of SCI pain and recent improvements in the understanding of underlying mechanisms, and provides an update on treatment of SCI pain. PMID:22392531

  15. Cardiac arrhythmias associated with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hector, Sven Magnus; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT/OBJECTIVES: To review the current literature to reveal the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and its relation to spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Data source: MEDLINE database, 304 hits, and 32 articles were found to be relevant. The relevant articles all met the inclusion criteria: (1......) contained original data (2) on cardiac arrhythmias (3) in humans with (4) traumatic SCI. RESULTS: In the acute phase of SCI (1-14 days after injury) more cranial as well as more severe injuries seemed to increase the incidence of bradycardia. Articles not covering the first 14 days after injury, thus...... describing the chronic phase of SCI, showed that individuals with SCI did not have a higher incidence of cardiac arrhythmias compared with able-bodied controls. Furthermore, their heart rate did not differ significantly. Penile vibro-stimulation was the procedure investigated most likely to cause bradycardia...

  16. Outcome after incomplete spinal cord injury: central cord versus Brown-Sequard syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wirz, M.; Zörner, B; Rupp, R; Dietz, V.

    2010-01-01

    Study design : A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.Objective:A hemisection of the spinal cord is a frequently used animal model for spinal cord injury (SCI), the corresponding human condition, that is, the Brown-Sequard syndrome (BS), is relatively rare as compared with the central cord syndrome (CC). The time course of neurological deficit, functional recovery, impulse conductivity and rehabilitation length of stay in BS and CC subjects were compared.Setting:Nine Europea...

  17. Microsurgical treatment of intramedullary spinal cord tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical characteristics, diagnostic imaging by MRI, histological diagnosis, and clinical outcome of intramedullary spinal cord tumors were investigated, and problems in diagnosis and treatment were assessed. The subjects were 45 patients surgically treated for intramedullary spinal cord tumors between 1983 and 2000 (males 25, females 20; age 2-80 years; ependymoma in 11, astrocytoma in 11, hemangioma in 7, schwannoma in 4, hemangioblastoma in 3, ganglioma in 2, others in 7). Radiotherapy had been used in combination to treat 7 astrocytomas and 1 glioblastoma. Numbness was the initial symptom in many of the patients with ependymoma and hemangioma, and dyskinesia was the initial symptom in many of the astrocytoma patients. The duration of morbidity was significantly shorter in the astrocytoma and hemangioma patients than in the ependymoma patients. These results were useful for qualitative diagnosis. Preoperative MRI was performed in 24 patients. The rate of diagnosis by MRI was 37.5%, and the rate of agreement with the intra- and post-operative histological diagnosis was 58.1%. Some of the cases were difficult to diagnose, and as a result the diagnostic rate was low. The ependymomas and vascular tumors were able to be completely removed by surgery, and the surgical outcome was good in those patients, with no deterioration of motor function. None of the astrocytoma patients improved, and 6 ≥ grade II patients died an average of 14.2 months postoperatively. Diagnosis and treatment with close cooperation between radiologists and pathologists as well as progress in surgical technique appeared to be important in improving diagnosis and treatment outcome. (K.H.)

  18. Augmentation by 4-aminopyridine of vestibulospinal free fall responses in chronic spinal-injured cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blight, A R; Gruner, J A

    1987-12-01

    This study examines the effect of the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on free fall responses (FFR) in the hindlimb muscles of chronically spinal injured cats. The thoracic spinal cord of 7 adult female cats was injured by a standardized contusion method. At 3-7 months post-injury the FFR in 6 hindlimb muscles was recorded electromyographically in each animal, under ketamine sedation. The normal short-latency response to a sudden drop was severely attenuated in all injured animals and practically undetectable in 2 cases. Within 15 min following intravenous administration of 1 mg/kg 4-AP, there was profound augmentation of the amplitude of the FFR and a tendency toward normalization of latency in all animals, though the normal amplitude range was not attained. The same 4-AP dose produced a relatively small increase of FFR amplitude in only 2 of 4 normal, uninjured animals tested. The data are consistent with previous observations that low doses of 4-AP restore conduction in some critically demyelinated axons, and provide support for the hypothesis that conduction block in surviving axons is responsible for a proportion of the dysfunction in chronic spinal injury. Augmentation of FFR in injured animals may also result partly from increased transmitter release in both spinal cord and periphery, due to the presynaptic effects of 4-AP. PMID:2831307

  19. Differential expression of Cathepsin S and X in the spinal cord of a rat neuropathic pain model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz Beate

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ample evidence suggests a substantial contribution of cellular and molecular changes in the spinal cord to the induction and persistence of chronic neuropathic pain conditions. While for a long time, proteases were mainly considered as protein degrading enzymes, they are now receiving growing interest as signalling molecules in the pain pathology. In the present study we focused on two cathepsins, CATS and CATX, and studied their spatiotemporal expression and activity during the development and progression of neuropathic pain in the CNS of the rat 5th lumbar spinal nerve transection model (L5T. Results Immediately after the lesion, both cathepsins, CATS and CATX, were upregulated in the spinal cord. Moreover, we succeeded in measuring the activity of CATX, which was substantially increased after L5T. The differential expression of these proteins exhibited the same spatial distribution and temporal progression in the spinal cord, progressing up to the medulla oblongata in the late phase of chronic pain. The cellular distribution of CATS and CATX was, however, considerably different. Conclusion The cellular distribution and the spatio-temporal development of the altered expression of CATS and CATX suggest that these proteins are important players in the spinal mechanisms involved in chronic pain induction and maintenance.

  20. Features of spinal cord injury in Taiwan (1977-1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y S; Lee, S T; Lui, T N; Fairholm, D J; Chen, W J; Wong, M K

    1993-09-01

    In order to establish an etiological and statistical base for spinal cord injuries, 1,617 spinal cord injured patients admitted to the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan during the period of 1977 to 1989 were reviewed. The most common causes of injury were pedestrian (29.31%) and motorcycle (28.88%) accidents. The greatest incidence of injury was in the 26-35 year age group. The complete tetraplegic patients had the highest mortality rate (26.5%). Additional features studied were the time of occurrence and pattern of injury. Information gathered from this study suggest the need to establish a Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Program, to develop a Prehospital Care System and set up comprehensive Spinal Cord Injury Units in Taiwan. We expect this study to be adaptable to other similar developing countries. PMID:8221290

  1. Imaging of demyelinating and neoplastic diseases of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical symptoms of myelopathy are variable and non-specific. Demyelinating as well as neoplastic spinal cord diseases can cause paresthesia, progressive sensomotoric deficits and bowel and bladder dysfunction. Imaging of the spine, especially with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is an essential component in the diagnostic assessment of myelopathy and makes a substantial contribution to achieving the correct diagnosis. Although intramedullary neoplasms are far less common than demyelinating spinal cord diseases, radiologists should be familiar with the three most common entities, astrocytoma, ependymoma and hemangioblastoma, which represent over 70% of all spinal cord neoplasms. An early diagnosis and therapy is essential with neoplastic and demyelinating spinal cord diseases to hold residual neurological deficits as low as possible. (orig.)

  2. Syrinx of the Spinal Cord and Brain Stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... imaging (MRI) of the entire spinal cord and brain is done after paramagnetic contrast agent, such as ... neurosurgeon may make a hole in a syrinx to drain it and prevent it from expanding, but surgery ...

  3. The value of contrast media in spinal cord abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents are intramedullary tumors, inflammatry lesions, demyelinating diseases - multiple sclerosis (MS), radiation myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM); vascular lesions - spinal cord infarct, arteriovenous malformation, cavernous haemangioma (24 refs.)

  4. Influence of Spinal Cord Integrity on Gait Control in Human Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awai, Lea; Bolliger, Marc; Ferguson, Adam R; Courtine, Grégoire; Curt, Armin

    2016-07-01

    Background Clinical trials in spinal cord injury (SCI) primarily rely on simplified outcome metrics (ie, speed, distance) to obtain a global surrogate for the complex alterations of gait control. However, these assessments lack sufficient sensitivity to identify specific patterns of underlying impairment and to target more specific treatment interventions. Objective To disentangle the differential control of gait patterns following SCI beyond measures of time and distance. Methods The gait of 22 individuals with motor-incomplete SCI and 21 healthy controls was assessed using a high-resolution 3-dimensional motion tracking system and complemented by clinical and electrophysiological evaluations applying unbiased multivariate analysis. Results Motor-incomplete SCI patients showed varying degrees of spinal cord integrity (spinal conductivity) with severe limitations in walking speed and altered gait patterns. Principal component (PC) analysis applied on all the collected data uncovered robust coherence between parameters related to walking speed, distortion of intralimb coordination, and spinal cord integrity, explaining 45% of outcome variance (PC 1). Distinct from the first PC, the modulation of gait-cycle variables (step length, gait-cycle phases, cadence; PC 2) remained normal with respect to regained walking speed, whereas hip and knee ranges of motion were distinctly altered with respect to walking speed (PC 3). Conclusions In motor-incomplete SCI, distinct clusters of discretely controlled gait parameters can be discerned that refine the evaluation of gait impairment beyond outcomes of walking speed and distance. These findings are specifically different from that in other neurological disorders (stroke, Parkinson) and are more discrete at targeting and disentangling the complex effects of interventions to improve walking outcome following motor-incomplete SCI. PMID:26428035

  5. Epidemiologic Change of Patients With Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Dae Hyun; Yu, Su Jin; Yang, Hea Eun; Yoon, Seo Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the epidemiologic change of patients with spinal cord injury who were admitted to a Rehabilitation Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, during 1987-1996 and 2004-2008. Methods Medical records of 629 patients with spinal cord injury admitted to the Rehabilitation Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, from 2004 to 2008 were collected and reviewed retrospectively. Results The male-to-female ratio decreased to 2.86:1, the mean age at injury increased, ...

  6. Spinal cord injury. Rehabilitation adds life to years.

    OpenAIRE

    De Vivo, M. J.; Richards, J S; Stover, S. L.; Go, B. K.

    1991-01-01

    The National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center data base contains information collected prospectively on 13,763 persons injured since 1973 and treated at model systems of care throughout the United States. These data clearly demonstrate improved neurologic status and independent function in activities of daily living following acute care and rehabilitation for most persons with spinal cord injuries. Decreased lengths of initial and subsequent hospital stays and increased survival rates ar...

  7. Clinical and Experimental Advances in Regeneration of Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Keun Hyun; Hae-Won Kim

    2010-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the major disabilities dealt with in clinical rehabilitation settings and is multifactorial in that the patients suffer from motor and sensory impairments as well as many other complications throughout their lifetimes. Many clinical trials have been documented during the last two decades to restore damaged spinal cords. However, only a few pharmacological therapies used in clinical settings which still have only limited effects on the regeneration, recovery ...

  8. International Spinal Cord Injury Urinary Tract Infection Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetz, L L; Cardenas, D D; Kennelly, M;

    2013-01-01

    To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research.......To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Basic Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on UTIs in daily practice or research....

  9. Modelling the connectome of a simple spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Borisyuk; Deborah Conte

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop a computational model of the anatomy of a spinal cord. We address a long-standing ambition of neuroscience to understand the structure-function problem by modelling the complete spinal cord connectome map in the two-day old hatchling Xenopus tadpole. Our approach to modelling neuronal connectivity is based on developmental processes of axon growth. A simple mathematical model of axon growth allows us to reconstruct a biologically realistic connectome of the tadpole ...

  10. International spinal cord injury pulmonary function basic data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Krassioukov, A; Alexander, M S; Donovan, W; Karlsson, A-K; Mueller, G; Perkash, I; William Sheel, A; Wecht, J; Schilero, G J

    2012-01-01

    To develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Pulmonary Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets in order to facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic bronchopulmonary findings in the SCI population.......To develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Pulmonary Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets in order to facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic bronchopulmonary findings in the SCI population....

  11. Traumatic spinal cord lesions: impact of comprehensive nursing care

    OpenAIRE

    Roshanpour, Farah; Pourmirza, Reza; Khodarahmi, Reza; Saleki, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: In the United States, about 12,000 spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are reported each year. The mean age of involved individuals is 39.5 years and 80 percent of victims are men. Most of spinal cord injuries are accompanied with brain traumatic lesions. In this way, nursing care may be important in preventing of undesired injuries. Methods: In this paper, relevant literature published in various periodicals as well as book resources are reviewed. Results: The main goal of SCI ...

  12. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of the spinal cord was performed in 6 patients using selective intra-arterial injections of contrast material. Two arteriovenous malformations of the spinal cord, 1 dural fistula, and 1 case of multiple hemangioblastomas were studied. Contrast and spatial resolution were satisfactory for defining normal and abnormal vascularity while reducing examination time, contrast dosage, patient discomfort, and film cost. The only significant limitation was misregistration artifacts seen on lateral views encompassing the diaphragm

  13. A Surgery Protocol for Adult Zebrafish Spinal Cord Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Fang; Jin-Fei Lin; Hong-Chao Pan; Yan-Qin Shen; Melitta Schachner

    2012-01-01

    Adult zebrafish has a remarkable capability to recover from spinal cord injury,providing an excellent model for studying neuroregeneration.Here we list equipment and reagents,and give a detailed protocol for complete transection of the adult zebrafish spinal cord.In this protocol,potential problems and their solutions are described so that the zebrafish spinal cord injury model can be more easily and reproducibly performed.In addition,two assessments are introduced to monitor the success of the surgery and functional recovery:one test to assess free swimming capability and the other test to assess extent of neuroregeneration by in vivo anterograde axonal tracing.In the swimming behavior test,successful complete spinal cord transection is monitored by the inability of zebrafish to swim freely for 1 week after spinal cord injury,followed by the gradual reacquisition of full locomotor ability within 6 weeks after injury.As a morphometric correlate,anterograde axonal tracing allows the investigator to monitor the ability of regenerated axons to cross the lesion site and increasingly extend into the gray and white matter with time after injury,confirming functional recovery.This zebrafish model provides a paradigm for recovery from spinal cord injury,enabling the identification of pathways and components of neuroregeneration.

  14. Changes in activity after a complete spinal cord injury as measured by the Spinal Cord Independence Measure II (SCIM II)

    OpenAIRE

    Wirth, B.; van Hedel, H J A; Kometer, B; Dietz, V.; Curt, A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The assessment of rehabilitation efficacy in spinal cord injury (SCI) should be based on a combination of neurological and functional outcome measures. The Spinal Cord Independence Measure II (SCIM II) is an independence scale that was specifically developed for subjects with SCI. However, little is known about the changes in SCIM II scores during and after rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate changes in functional recovery during the first year after...

  15. Non-dysraphic intramedullary spinal cord lipoma: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Seung Eun; Lee, Sang Ho [Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Tae Hong [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Spinal cord lipomas are rare tumors with a reported incidence of 1% of all intraspinal tumors. We recently experienced a case of intramedullary lipoma without spinal dysraphism in a 58-year-old woman. MRI, CT, myelography and CT myelography showed the characteristic findings of a lipoma.

  16. High resolution CT of the cervical spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution CT demonstrates the anatomy of the spine, spinal canal and spinal cord. In many cases, the non-contrast HRCT images provide enough information to guide patient management. Where necessary, intravenously-enhanced HRCT and metrizamide HRCT may be employed to gain additional data. Other studies may be obviated in many cases. (orig.)

  17. Spinal Cord Doses in Palliative Lung Radiotherapy Schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: We aim to check the safety of the standard palliative radiotherapy techniques by using the Linear quadratic model for a careful estimation of the doses received by the spinal cord, in all standard palliative lung radiotherapy fields and fractionation. Material and Methods: All patients surveyed at this prospective audit were treated with palliative chest radio-therapy for lung cancer over a period from January to June 2005 by different clinical oncology specialists within the department. Radiotherapy field criteria were recorded and compared with the recommended limits of the MRC trial protocols for the dose and fractionation prescribed. Doses delivered to structures off the field central axis were estimated using a standard CT scan of the chest. Dose estimates were made using an SLPLAN planning system. As unexpected spinal cord toxicity has been reported after hypo fractionated chest radiotherapy, a sagittal view was used to calculate the isodoses along the length of the spinal cord that could lie within the RT field. Equivalent dose estimates are made using the Linear Quadratic Equivalent Dose formula (LQED). The relative radiation sensitivity of spinal cord for myelopathy (the a/b dose) cord has been estimated as a/b = 1 Gy. Results: 17 Gy in 2 fraction and 39 Gy in 13 fraction protocols have spinal cord equivalent doses (using the linear-quadratic model) that lie within the conventional safe limits of 50 Gy in 25 fractions for the 100% isodose. However when the dosimetry is modelled for a 6 MV 100 cm isocentric linac in 3 dimensions, and altered separations and air space inhomogeneity are considered, the D-Max doses consistently fall above this limit on our 3 model patients. Conclusion: The 17 Gy in 2 fraction and 39 Gy in 13 fraction protocol would risk spinal cord damage if the radio therapist was unaware of the potential spinal cord doses. Alterative doses are suggested below 15.5 Gy/ 2 fractions (7 days apart) would be most acceptable

  18. TWIK-Related Spinal Cord K+ Channel Expression Is Increased in the Spinal Dorsal Horn after Spinal Nerve Ligation

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Hee Youn; Zhang, Enji; Park, Sangil; Chung, Woosuk; Lee, Sunyeul; Kim, Dong Woon; Ko, Youngkwon; Lee, Wonhyung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The TWIK-related spinal cord K+ channel (TRESK) has recently been discovered and plays an important role in nociceptor excitability in the pain pathway. Because there have been no reports on the TRESK expression or its function in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in neuropathic pain, we analyzed TRESK expression in the spinal dorsal horn in a spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model. Materials and Methods We established a SNL mouse model by using the L5-6 spinal nerves ligation. We used re...

  19. [Magnetic resonance tomography in late sequelae of spinal and spinal cord injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, A K; Akhadov, T A; Sachkova, I Iu; Belov, S A; Chernenko, O A; Panova, M M

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic-resonance tomography (MRT) helped obtain a high-resolution image characterized by high sensitivity in respect of soft tissue contrast visualization and providing direct imaging of the spinal cord and its radicles. This method is useful in the diagnosis of injuries to the spine and cord. A total of 64 patients of both sexes aged 6 to 67 were examined. The primary diagnosis of traumatic changes in the spine and cord was confirmed by MRT in only 62% of cases. Two groups of patients were singled out: with acute and chronic injuries, subdivided into subgroups with and without spinal cord dysfunction. The detected changes were divided into extramedullary (traumatic disk hernias, compression of the cord or radicles with a dislocated bone fragment, epidural hematoma) and intramedullary (edema, hemorrhages, spinal cord disruption); MRT diagnosis of intramedullary changes is particularly important, more so in the absence of bone injuries. In remote periods after the trauma the clinical picture was determined by spinal canal stenosis, cicatricial atrophic and adhesive changes eventually blocking the liquor space. Intramedullary changes presented as spinal cord cysts or syringomyelia. A classification of the detected changes by the types of injuries and their aftereffects is presented in the paper. The authors emphasize the desirability of MRT in spinal injuries with signs of cord dysfunction. PMID:7801568

  20. Transient Spinal Cord Ischemia as Presenting Manifestation of Polycythemia Vera

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Sónia; Marques, Joana; Barradas, Anabela; Valverde, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Spinal arterial vascularization is supplied by a large anastomotic net, making spinal ischemic events far less common than ischemic cerebral strokes. Polycythemia vera, due to blood hyperviscosity and activated platelet aggregation, is associated with a higher risk of arterial and venous thrombotic events. We report a patient with spinal cord transient ischemic attacks, a rarely presenting manifestation, and polycythemia vera, which highlights the thrombotic potential of this disease, and the...

  1. Tethered spinal cord syndrome with symptomatic onset in adulthood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shi-sheng; ZHAO Ying-chuan; SHI Zhi-cai; LI Ming; HOU Tie-sheng; ZHANG Ye; WU Yun-gang

    2009-01-01

    @@ Tethered spinal cord syndrome(TCS)is a condition of overstretching or compression of the caudal part of the spinal cord caused by various spinal lesions,such as a tight filum terminale or an intraspinal lipoma.~(1-9) Though it is a well-recognized cause of neurological deterioration in childhood,its symptomatic onset in adulthood is uncommon.~(10-23) Eleven cases of TCS are presented here.In addition,their related clinical features,surgical procedures and outcomes are investigated.

  2. Detection of gene expression pattern in the early stage after spinal cord injury by gene chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成龙; 靳安民; 童斌辉

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of the gene expression pattern of spinal cord tissues in the early stage after injury by DNA microarray (gene chip). Methods: The contusion model of rat spinal cord was established according to Allen's falling strike method and the gene expression patterns of normal and injured spinal cord tissues were studied by gene chip. Results: The expression of 45 genes was significantly changed in the early stage after spinal cord injury, in which 22 genes up-regulated and 23 genes down-regulated. Conclusions: The expression of some genes changes significantly in the early stage after spinal cord injury, which indicates the complexity of secondary spinal cord injury.

  3. 76 FR 33734 - Applications for New Awards; Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems (SCIMS) Centers and SCIMS Multi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Rehabilitation Research Projects (DRRPs) and Special Projects and Demonstrations for Spinal Cord Injury Program... that provide comprehensive rehabilitation services to individuals with spinal cord injuries and... Applications for New Awards; Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems (SCIMS) Centers and SCIMS...

  4. [Spinal and spinal cord injuries. Therapeutic approach in Gabon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loembe, P M; Bouger, D; Dukuly, L; Ndong-Launay, M

    1991-01-01

    The authors present their experience with 81 cases (66.4%) of acute cervical spine injuries (C.S.I.) and 41 cases (33.6%) of acute thoracolumbar spine injuries (T.L.S.I.) treated by a multidisciplinary approach, at Jeanne Ebori Hospital (Libreville, Gabon) between the years 1981 and 1987. Traffic accidents were the leading cause of injury. The largest group consisted of patients in their third decade. The anatomic localizations were: upper cervical spine: 22 cases (27%); lower cervical spine: 56 (69%); upper thoracic spine: 11 (26.8%); lower thoracic spine or thoracolumbar area: 19 (46.3%); lumbar spine: 7 (17%). There were osteoligamental lesions in 3 cases (3.7%) of C.S.I. and 4 (9.7%) of T.L.S.I. Clinically, 44 patients (54.3%) with C.S.I. and 37 (90.2%) with T.L.S.I. had neurological deficits. Surgical indications depended upon the osseous as well as neurologic lesions. There were five important steps in the treatment of spinal injuries associated with neurological deficit: (1) immobilization, (2) medical stabilization, (3) spinal alignment (skeletal traction), (4) operative decompression if there was proven cord compression, and (5) spinal stabilization. Twenty patients (24.6%) with cervical injuries were treated conservatively (traction, collar, kinesitherapy); 53 (65.4%) underwent a surgical intervention (anterior approach - 21, posterior fusion - 30, combined approach - 2); and in 8 patients (9.8%) refraining from surgery seemed the best alternative. After lengthy multidisciplinary discussion, the authors elected not to operate on tetraplegic patients with respiratory problems that necessitated assisted ventilation, because of its fatal outcome. Of injuries to the thoracolumbar spine, 13 (31.7%) were treated conservatively (bedrest, orthopedic treatment). Twenty-eight patients (68.2%) with unstable thoracic and lumbar fractures associated with neurologic deficit required acute surgical intervention (stabilization with or without decompression of the neural

  5. Protein composition and synthesis in the adult mouse spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of spinal cord proteins were studied in adult mice subjected to unilateral crush or electrical stimulation of sciatic nerve. The protein composition of spinal tissue was determined using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with subcellular fractionation. Comparisons of mouse spinal cord and brain revealed similarities in the types but differences in the concentrations of myelin associated proteins, nuclear histones and other proteins. Comparisons with sciatic nerve proteins demonstrated differences in types of proteins but similarities in the concentration of myelin proteins and nuclear histones. The short term (less than 2 hrs.) incorporation of radioactive amino acids into spinal cord proteins revealed heterogeneous rates of incorporation. Neither nerve crush six days prior to testing nor sciatic nerve stimulation had a significant effect on the protein composition or amino acid incorporation rates of spinal cord tissue. These observations suggest that known differences in spinal cord function following alterations in nerve input may be dependent upon different mechanisms than have been found in the brain

  6. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in spinal cord ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cord infarction is a rare clinical diagnosis characterized by a sudden onset of paralysis, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and loss of pain and temperature perception, with preservation of proprioception and vibration sense. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) usually demonstrates intramedullary hyperintensity on T2-weighted MR images with cord enlargement. However, in approximately 45% of patients, MR shows no abnormality. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has been widely used for the evaluation of a variety of brain disorders, especially for acute stroke. Preliminary data suggest that DWI has the potential to be useful in the early detection of spinal infarction. We performed DWI, using navigated, interleaved, multishot echo planar imaging (IEPI), in a series of six patients with a clinical suspicion of acute spinal cord ischemia. In all patients, high signal was observed on isotropic DWI images with low ADC values (0.23 and 0.86 x 10-3 cm2/s), indicative of restricted diffusion. We analyzed the imaging findings from conventional MR sequences and diffusion-weighted MR sequences in six patients with spinal cord infarction, compared the findings with those in published series, and discuss the value of DWI in spinal cord ischemia based on current experience. Although the number of patients with described DWI findings totals only 23, the results of previously published studies and those of our study suggest that DWI has the potential to be a useful and feasible technique for the detection of spinal infarction. (orig.)

  7. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in spinal cord ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, Vienna (Austria); Bammer, Roland [Stanford University, Lucas MRS/I Center, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Spinal cord infarction is a rare clinical diagnosis characterized by a sudden onset of paralysis, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and loss of pain and temperature perception, with preservation of proprioception and vibration sense. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) usually demonstrates intramedullary hyperintensity on T2-weighted MR images with cord enlargement. However, in approximately 45% of patients, MR shows no abnormality. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has been widely used for the evaluation of a variety of brain disorders, especially for acute stroke. Preliminary data suggest that DWI has the potential to be useful in the early detection of spinal infarction. We performed DWI, using navigated, interleaved, multishot echo planar imaging (IEPI), in a series of six patients with a clinical suspicion of acute spinal cord ischemia. In all patients, high signal was observed on isotropic DWI images with low ADC values (0.23 and 0.86 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}/s), indicative of restricted diffusion. We analyzed the imaging findings from conventional MR sequences and diffusion-weighted MR sequences in six patients with spinal cord infarction, compared the findings with those in published series, and discuss the value of DWI in spinal cord ischemia based on current experience. Although the number of patients with described DWI findings totals only 23, the results of previously published studies and those of our study suggest that DWI has the potential to be a useful and feasible technique for the detection of spinal infarction. (orig.)

  8. Optical measurement of blood flow changes in spinal cord injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J P; Kyriacou, P A [Biomedical Engineering Research Group, City University London, Northampton Square, London (United Kingdom); George, K J [Neuroscience Centre, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End, London (United Kingdom); Langford, R M, E-mail: justin.phillips.1@city.ac.u [Pain and Anaesthesia Research Centre, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Little is known about cell death in spinal cord tissue following compression injury, despite compression being a key component of spinal injuries. Currently models are used to mimic compression injury in animals and the effects of the compression evaluated by observing the extent and duration of recovery of normal motor function in the days and weeks following the injury. A fibreoptic photoplethysmography system was used to investigate whether pulsation of the small arteries in the spinal cord occurred before, during and after compressive loads were applied to the tissue. It was found that the signal amplitudes were reduced and this reduction persisted for at least five minutes after the compression ceased. It is hoped that results from this preliminary study may improve knowledge of the mechanism of spinal cord injury.

  9. Optical measurement of blood flow changes in spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little is known about cell death in spinal cord tissue following compression injury, despite compression being a key component of spinal injuries. Currently models are used to mimic compression injury in animals and the effects of the compression evaluated by observing the extent and duration of recovery of normal motor function in the days and weeks following the injury. A fibreoptic photoplethysmography system was used to investigate whether pulsation of the small arteries in the spinal cord occurred before, during and after compressive loads were applied to the tissue. It was found that the signal amplitudes were reduced and this reduction persisted for at least five minutes after the compression ceased. It is hoped that results from this preliminary study may improve knowledge of the mechanism of spinal cord injury.

  10. Acute complications of spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ellen Merete

    2015-01-18

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of acute complications of spinal cord injury (SCI). Along with motor and sensory deficits, instabilities of the cardiovascular, thermoregulatory and broncho-pulmonary system are common after a SCI. Disturbances of the urinary and gastrointestinal systems are typical as well as sexual dysfunction. Frequent complications of cervical and high thoracic SCI are neurogenic shock, bradyarrhythmias, hypotension, ectopic beats, abnormal temperature control and disturbance of sweating, vasodilatation and autonomic dysreflexia. Autonomic dysreflexia is an abrupt, uncontrolled sympathetic response, elicited by stimuli below the level of injury. The symptoms may be mild like skin rash or slight headache, but can cause severe hypertension, cerebral haemorrhage and death. All personnel caring for the patient should be able to recognize the symptoms and be able to intervene promptly. Disturbance of respiratory function are frequent in tetraplegia and a primary cause of both short and long-term morbidity and mortality is pulmonary complications. Due to physical inactivity and altered haemostasis, patients with SCI have a higher risk of venous thromboembolism and pressure ulcers. Spasticity and pain are frequent complications which need to be addressed. The psychological stress associated with SCI may lead to anxiety and depression. Knowledge of possible complications during the acute phase is important because they may be life threatening and/ or may lead to prolonged rehabilitation. PMID:25621207

  11. Value of Micro-CT for Monitoring Spinal Microvascular Changes after Chronic Spinal Cord Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Qing Long

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurological degeneration can occur after compression of the spinal cord. It is widely accepted that spinal cord compression leads to ischemic lesions and ultimately neurological dysfunction due to a narrowed spinal canal. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the pathogenesis of spinal cord compression injury is required to help develop effective clinical interventions. In the present study, we propose a new method of quantitative 3D micro-CT to observe microvascular events in a chronic spinal cord compression rat model. A total of 36 rats were divided into two groups: sham control group (n = 12 and compressive spinal cord injury group (n = 24. Rats were scarified at four weeks after surgery. In each group, CD34 micro-vessel immunohistochemical staining was performed in half of the animals, while micro-CT scanning was performed in the other half. Microvessel density (MVD was measured after immunohistochemical staining, while the vascular index (VI was measured in 3D micro-CT. In comparison with sham control, abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP can be seen in all 24 cases of the compression group, and VI shows the amount of microvessels reduced consistently and significantly (p < 0.01. A significant correlation is also found between MVD and VI (r = 0.95, p < 0.01. These data suggest that quantitative 3D micro-CT is a sensitive and promising tool for investigating microvascular changes during chronic compressive spinal cord injury.

  12. Clinical observation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in treatment for sequelae of thoracolumbar spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hongbin; Liu, Xuebin; Hua, Rongrong; Dai, Guanghui; Wang, Xiaodong; Gao, Jianhua; An, Yihua

    2014-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) have a considerable advantage and potential in treating for central nervous system diseases and have become a novel alternative treatment for spinal cord injury. This study aims to compare the neurological function outcome of stem cell transplantation, rehabilitation therapy, and self-healing for sequelae of spinal cord injury. Methods Thirty-four cases of thoracolumbar spinal cord injury were randomly divided into three groups: the st...

  13. MRI of anterior spinal artery syndrome of the cervical spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical spinal cord lesions in the anterior spinal artery syndrome were delineated on magnetic resonance images (MRI) in four patients. The lesion was always seen anteriorly in the cervical cord. On T2-weighted images, the lesions appeared hyperintense relative to the normal spinal cord, while on T1-weighted images, two chronic lesions appeared hypointense, with local atrophy of the cord. In one case, repeated T1-weighted images showed no signal abnormality 4 days after the ictus, but the lesion became hypointense 18 days later, when contrast enhancement was also recognized after injection of Gd-DTPA; this sequence of intensity changes was similar to that of cerebral infarction. The extent of the lesion seen MRI correlated closely with neurological findings in all cases. Although the findings may not be specific, MRI is now the modality of choice for confirming the diagnosis in patients suspected of having an anterior spinal artery syndrome. (orig.)

  14. Dynamics of intrinsic electrophysiological properties in spinal cord neurones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1999-01-01

    The spinal cord is engaged in a wide variety of functions including generation of motor acts, coding of sensory information and autonomic control. The intrinsic electrophysiological properties of spinal neurones represent a fundamental building block of the spinal circuits executing these tasks....... The intrinsic response properties of spinal neurones--determined by the particular set and distribution of voltage sensitive channels and their dynamic non-linear interactions--show a high degree of functional specialisation as reflected by the differences of intrinsic response patterns in different...

  15. Dynorphin B induces lateral asymmetric changes in feline spinal cord reflexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    InnaVereshchaka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dynorphin B (an agonist of kappa opioid receptors and naloxon (an antagonist of opioid receptors on the field potentials (FPs evoked in the lumbar spinal cord of spinalized cats were examined following successive stimulation of pairs of identical peripheral nerves on both sides of the body. The FPs were recorded bilaterally using microelectrodes from symmetrical sites of the gray matter between the L6 and L7 segments of the spinal cord transected at level of Th11. Significant changes (up to 75% were registered in the areas of the initial positive components of the FPs evoked by sequential stimulation of the nn. gastrocnemius-soleus, flexor digitorum longus, and tibialis at both hind limbs; a difference between the effects of various nerves was not observed. Two-way ANOVA analysis showed that two factors, the injection type and recording side, as well as a combination of these factors, strongly influenced the amplitudes of the FPs. Statistically significant side- and injection-dependent differences were registered in the majority of the tests. Both the directions of the changes in the FPs and their relative amplitudes were not connected with a definite side of the spinal cord in different animals. Therefore, it is possible to postulate that the k-opioid receptors are distributed inhomogeneously over the neuronal populations transmitting the peripheral afferent signals from different hind limbs, thus indicating the presence of the lateral asymmetry effects.

  16. In vivo NIRS monitoring in pig Spinal Cord tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiakaka, Olivier; Terosiet, Mehdi; Romain, Olivier; Histace, Aymeric; Benali, Habib; Pradat, Pierre-Franois; Vallette, Farouk; Feher, Michael; Feruglio, Sylvain

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the processes occurring after Spinal Cord damage. Whether permanent or recoverable, those processes have not been precisely characterized because their mechanism is complex and information on the functioning of this organ are partial. This study demonstrates the feasibility of Spinal Cord activity monitoring using Near Infra-Red Spectroscopy in a pig animal model. This animal has been chosen because of its comparable size and its similarities with humans. In the first step, optical characterization of the Spinal Cord tissues was performed in different conditions using a spectrophotometer. Optical Density was evaluated between 3.5 and 6.5 in the [500; 950] nm range. Secondly, adapted light sources with custom probes were used to observe autonomic functions in the spine. Results on the measured haemodynamics at rest and under stimulation show in real time the impact of a global stimulus on a local section of the Spinal Cord. The photoplethysmogram signal of the Spinal Cord showed low AC-to-DC ratio (below to 1 %). PMID:26737236

  17. Neuroprotection and its molecular mechanism following spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-Kui Liu; Xiao-Ming Xu

    2012-01-01

    Acute spinal cord injury initiates a complex cascade of molecular events termed 'secondary injury', which leads to progressive degeneration ranging from early neuronal apoptosis at the lesion site to delayed degeneration of intact white matter tracts, and, ultimately, expansion of the initial injury. These secondary injury processes include, but are not limited to, inflammation, free radical-induced cell death, glutamate excitotoxicity, phospholipase A2 activation, and induction of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, which are important targets in developing neuroprotective strategies for treatment of spinal cord injury. Recently, a number of studies have shown promising results on neuroprotection and recovery of function in rodent models of spinal cord injury using treatments that target secondary injury processes including inflammation, phospholipase A2 activation, and manipulation of the PTEN-Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. The present review outlines our ongoing research on the molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection in experimental spinal cord injury and briefly summarizes our earlier findings on the therapeutic potential of pharmacological treatments in spinal cord injury.

  18. Simultaneous Brain-Cervical Cord fMRI Reveals Intrinsic Spinal Cord Plasticity during Motor Sequence Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabeddin Vahdat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The spinal cord participates in the execution of skilled movements by translating high-level cerebral motor representations into musculotopic commands. Yet, the extent to which motor skill acquisition relies on intrinsic spinal cord processes remains unknown. To date, attempts to address this question were limited by difficulties in separating spinal local effects from supraspinal influences through traditional electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Here, for the first time, we provide evidence for local learning-induced plasticity in intact human spinal cord through simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord during motor sequence learning. Specifically, we show learning-related modulation of activity in the C6-C8 spinal region, which is independent from that of related supraspinal sensorimotor structures. Moreover, a brain-spinal cord functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that the initial linear relationship between the spinal cord and sensorimotor cortex gradually fades away over the course of motor sequence learning, while the connectivity between spinal activity and cerebellum gains strength. These data suggest that the spinal cord not only constitutes an active functional component of the human motor learning network but also contributes distinctively from the brain to the learning process. The present findings open new avenues for rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries, as they demonstrate that this part of the central nervous system is much more plastic than assumed before. Yet, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this intrinsic functional plasticity in the spinal cord warrant further investigations.

  19. Automated identification of spinal cord and vertebras on sagittal MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Dong, Qian; He, Bo; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Couriel, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    We are developing an automated method for the identification of the spinal cord and the vertebras on spinal MR images, which is an essential step for computerized analysis of bone marrow diseases. The spinal cord segment was first enhanced by a newly developed hierarchical multiscale tubular (HMT) filter that utilizes the complementary hyper- and hypo- intensities in the T1-weighted (T1W) and STIR MRI sequences. An Expectation-Maximization (EM) analysis method was then applied to the enhanced tubular structures to extract candidates of the spinal cord. The spinal cord was finally identified by a maximum-likelihood registration method by analysis of the features extracted from the candidate objects in the two MRI sequences. Using the identified spinal cord as a reference, the vertebras were localized based on the intervertebral disc locations extracted by another HMT filter applied to the T1W images. In this study, 5 and 30 MRI scans from 35 patients who were diagnosed with multiple myeloma disease were collected retrospectively with IRB approval as training and test set, respectively. The vertebras manually outlined by a radiologist were used as reference standard. A total of 422 vertebras were marked in the 30 test cases. For the 30 test cases, 100% (30/30) of the spinal cords were correctly segmented with 4 false positives (FPs) mistakenly identified on the back muscles in 4 scans. A sensitivity of 95.0% (401/422) was achieved for the identification of vertebras, and 5 FPs were marked in 4 scans with an average FP rate of 0.17 FPs/scan.

  20. Electrophysiological and Anatomical Correlates of Spinal Cord Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Maurizio; Krstajic, Nikola; Biella, Gabriele E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the continuous improvement in medical imaging technology, visualizing the spinal cord poses severe problems due to structural or incidental causes, such as small access space and motion artifacts. In addition, positional guidance on the spinal cord is not commonly available during surgery, with the exception of neuronavigation techniques based on static pre-surgical data and of radiation-based methods, such as fluoroscopy. A fast, bedside, intraoperative real-time imaging, particularly necessary during the positioning of endoscopic probes or tools, is an unsolved issue. The objective of our work, performed on experimental rats, is to demonstrate potential intraoperative spinal cord imaging and probe guidance by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Concurrently, we aimed to demonstrate that the electromagnetic OCT irradiation exerted no particular effect at the neuronal and synaptic levels. OCT is a user-friendly, low-cost and endoscopy-compatible photonics-based imaging technique. In particular, by using a Fourier-domain OCT imager, operating at 850 nm wavelength and scanning transversally with respect to the spinal cord, we have been able to: 1) accurately image tissue structures in an animal model (muscle, spine bone, cerebro-spinal fluid, dura mater and spinal cord), and 2) identify the position of a recording microelectrode approaching and inserting into the cord tissue 3) check that the infrared radiation has no actual effect on the electrophysiological activity of spinal neurons. The technique, potentially extendable to full three-dimensional image reconstruction, shows prospective further application not only in endoscopic intraoperative analyses and for probe insertion guidance, but also in emergency and adverse situations (e.g. after trauma) for damage recognition, diagnosis and fast image-guided intervention. PMID:27050096

  1. Pregnancy after assisted ejaculation procedures in men with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønksen, J; Sommer, P; Biering-Sørensen, F;

    1997-01-01

    To present the results of fertility treatment in 28 men with spinal cord injury (SCI) and their partners.......To present the results of fertility treatment in 28 men with spinal cord injury (SCI) and their partners....

  2. Antispastic effect of penile vibration in men with spinal cord lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Line; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Biering-Sørensen, F.;

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the possible antispastic effect of penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) in men with spinal cord lesion (SCL).......To evaluate the possible antispastic effect of penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) in men with spinal cord lesion (SCL)....

  3. Effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laessøe, Line; Sønksen, Jens; Bagi, Per; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Ohl, Dana A; McGuire, Edward J; Kristensen, Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    We examined the effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions.......We examined the effects of ejaculation by penile vibratory stimulation on bladder capacity in men with spinal cord lesions....

  4. A Danish survey of spinal cord stimulation baseline data: First results from a national neuromodulation database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare; Scherer, Christian; Rosenlund, Christina; Gulisano, Helga Angela; Enggaard, Thomas Peter; Willumsen, Lisette; Knudsen, Anne Lene Høst; Rasmusson, Mattias; Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann

    A Danish survey of spinal cord stimulation baseline data: First results from a national neuromodulation database......A Danish survey of spinal cord stimulation baseline data: First results from a national neuromodulation database...

  5. Microtubule stabilization reduces scarring and causes axon regeneration after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Hellal (Farida); A. Hurtado (Andres); J. Ruschel (Jörg); K.C. Flynn (Kevin); C.J. Laskowski (Claudia); M. Umlauf (Martina); L.C. Kapitein (Lukas); D. Strikis (Dinara); V. Lemmon (Vance); J. Bixby (John); C.C. Hoogenraad (Casper); F. Bradke (Frank)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHypertrophic scarring and poor intrinsic axon growth capacity constitute major obstacles for spinal cord repair. These processes are tightly regulated by microtubule dynamics. Here, moderate microtubule stabilization decreased scar formation after spinal cord injury in rodents through va

  6. How Do I Deal with Depression and Adjustment to My Spinal Cord Injury?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... yourself with information on what a spinal cord injury is, and what it means in terms of ... thoughts. Depression is common in the spinal cord injury population -- affecting about 1 in 5 people. There ...

  7. 2009 review and revisions of the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waring, William P; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Burns, Stephen;

    2010-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) were recently reviewed by the ASIA's Education and Standards Committees, in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. Available educational materials for the ISNCSCI...

  8. Spinal cord ischemia: aetiology, clinical syndromes and imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to analyse MR imaging features and lesion patterns as defined by compromised vascular territories, correlating them to different clinical syndromes and aetiological aspects. In a 19.8-year period, clinical records and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of 55 consecutive patients suffering from spinal cord ischemia were evaluated. Aetiologies of infarcts were arteriosclerosis of the aorta and vertebral arteries (23.6 %), aortic surgery or interventional aneurysm repair (11 %) and aortic and vertebral artery dissection (11 %), and in 23.6 %, aetiology remained unclear. Infarcts occurred in 38.2 % at the cervical and thoracic level, respectively, and 49 % of patients suffered from centromedullar syndrome caused by anterior spinal artery ischemia. MRI disclosed hyperintense pencil-like lesion pattern on T2WI in 98.2 %, cord swelling in 40 %, enhancement on post-contrast T1WI in 42.9 % and always hyperintense signal on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) when acquired. The most common clinical feature in spinal cord ischemia is a centromedullar syndrome, and in contrast to anterior spinal artery ischemia, infarcts in the posterior spinal artery territory are rare. The exclusively cervical location of the spinal sulcal artery syndrome seems to be a likely consequence of anterior spinal artery duplication which is observed preferentially here. (orig.)

  9. Drug distribution in spinal cord during administration with spinal loop dialysis probes in anaesthetized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uustalu, Maria; Abelson, Klas S P

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study two methodological concerns of an experimental model, where a spinal loop dialysis probe is used for administration of substances to the spinal cord and sampling of neurotransmitters by microdialysis from the same area of anaesthetized rats. [(3)H]Epibatid......The present investigation aimed to study two methodological concerns of an experimental model, where a spinal loop dialysis probe is used for administration of substances to the spinal cord and sampling of neurotransmitters by microdialysis from the same area of anaesthetized rats. [(3)H......]Epibatidine in concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 nM was dissolved in Ringer's solution and administered through the dialysis membrane into the dorsal region of the cervical spinal cord. First, the outflow of [(3)H]epibatidine from the probe into the spinal cord was examined with respect to different concentrations and changes....... The administered [(3)H]epibatidine was found to be distributed to the area closest to the dialysis probe and not dispersed along the spinal cord, and the distribution was equal for all concentrations. The data presented in this investigation provide information, which is important for interpretation of data from...

  10. Visual bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in the repair of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Rui-ping Zhang; Cheng Xu; Yin Liu; Jian-ding Li; Jun Xie

    2015-01-01

    An important factor in improving functional recovery from spinal cord injury using stem cells is maximizing the number of transplanted cells at the lesion site. Here, we established a contusion model of spinal cord injury by dropping a weight onto the spinal cord at T 7-8 . Superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into the injured spinal cord via the subarachnoid space. An outer magnetic field was used to successfully guide the labeled cells to...

  11. Propofol promotes spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-jing Zhou; Jian-min Liu; Shu-ming Wei; Yun-hao Zhang; Zhen-hua Qu; Shu-bo Chen

    2015-01-01

    Propofol is a neuroprotective anesthetic. Whether propofol can promote spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains poorly understood. We used rats to investigate spinal cord injury repair using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with propofol administration via the tail vein. Rat spinal cord injury was clearly alleviated; a large number of newborn non-myelinated and myelinated nerve fibers appeared in the spinal cord, the numbers of CM-Dil-l...

  12. Spinal cord blood flow measured by 14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography during and after graded spinal cord compression in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relations between degree of thoracic spinal cord compression causing myelographic block, reversible paraparesis, and extinction of the sensory evoked potential on one hand, and spinal cord blood flow on the other, were investigated. This was done in rats using the blocking weight-technique and 14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography. A load of 9 g caused myelographic block. Five minutes of compression with that load caused a reduction of spinal cord blood flow to about 25%, but 5 and 60 minutes after the compression spinal cord blood flow was restored to 60% of the pretrauma value. A load of 35 g for 5 minutes caused transient paraparesis. Recovery to about 30% was observed 5 and 60 minutes thereafter. During compression at a load of 55 g, which caused almost total extinction of sensory evoked potential and irreversible paraplegia, spinal cord blood flow under the load ceased. The results indicate that myelographic block occurs at a load which does not cause irreversible paraparesis and that a load which permits sensory evoked potential to be elicited results in potentially salvageable damage

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord trauma: a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, Philippe [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-04-15

    Assessing a patient with clinical signs of acute spinal cord trauma is an emergency. A radiological work-up is crucial in determining management, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice. It should therefore be performed immediately, preferably within 3 hours, even when plain radiography does not show an abnormality. By choosing an appropriate imaging protocol, it is possible to assess the spinal cord, joints, muscles, ligaments and bone marrow of the spine. Moreover, early MRI findings assist in determining functional prognosis. A major limitation to early MRI is that the examination is usually restricted to stable trauma patients because of the difficulties in monitoring ventilated patients during scanning. However, when an anaesthesiologist with experience in MRI and MR-compatible monitoring equipment is available, even these patients can be safely examined. MRI is also indicated for the evaluation of patients with late complications and sequelae following spinal cord trauma, since many of these chronic lesions are potentially treatable. (orig.)

  14. Double-level Incomplete Spinal Cord Injuries: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bin Ayaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Brown-Séquard Syndrome is a type of Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury characterized by a relatively greater ipsilateral loss of proprioception and motor function, with contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensations. The residual deficits in balance produced by such injury may render a person liable to fall that may result in vertebral fracture and another injury to the spinal cord. We present here a case who initially had Brown-Séquard Syndrome due to penetrating knife injury to the neck and later on developed Cauda Equina Syndrome (another Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury due to fractured LV1 following a fall. The fracture was fixed through Pedicle Screws and the patient underwent effective rehabilitation to gain maximum achievable independence in functional activities. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 392-398

  15. Spinal cord stimulation for neuropathic pain: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolter T

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tilman Wolter Interdisciplinary Pain Centre, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany Abstract: Neuropathic pain constitutes a significant portion of chronic pain. Patients with neuropathic pain are usually more heavily burdened than patients with nociceptive pain. They suffer more often from insomnia, anxiety, and depression. Moreover, analgesic medication often has an insufficient effect on neuropathic pain. Spinal cord stimulation constitutes a therapy alternative that, to date, remains underused. In the last 10 to 15 years, it has undergone constant technical advancement. This review gives an overview of the present practice of spinal cord stimulation for chronic neuropathic pain and current developments such as high-frequency stimulation and peripheral nerve field stimulation. Keywords: spinal cord stimulation, neuropathic pain, neurostimulation

  16. Microglia and Spinal Cord Synaptic Plasticity in Persistent Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Taves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are regarded as macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS and play an important role in neuroinflammation in the CNS. Microglial activation has been strongly implicated in neurodegeneration in the brain. Increasing evidence also suggests an important role of spinal cord microglia in the genesis of persistent pain, by releasing the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα, Interleukine-1beta (IL-1β, and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. In this review, we discuss the recent findings illustrating the importance of microglial mediators in regulating synaptic plasticity of the excitatory and inhibitory pain circuits in the spinal cord, leading to enhanced pain states. Insights into microglial-neuronal interactions in the spinal cord dorsal horn will not only further our understanding of neural plasticity but may also lead to novel therapeutics for chronic pain management.

  17. Hydraulic spinal cord and cauda equina nerve injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Hydraulic spinal cord and cauda equina nerve injuries are very uncommon. Since 19 96, we have received and treated 4 patients with hydraulic spinal cord and cauda equina injuries. This report gives a detail description. Four patients with hydraulic spinal cord and cauda equina nerve injuries, male: 3, female: 1, aging 13-56 years have been treated in our hospital since 1996. E xtradural blocking injury was in 1 patient, extradural anaesthesia injury in 1 p atient and intraspinal canal myelography injury in 2 patients; the segments of i ntraspinal canal were L2-3 and L3-4. One patient was accompanied b y femoral fracture, 2 patients by intraspinal tumor and 1 patient had operat ion because of prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc.

  18. Malnutrition in spinal cord injury: more than nutritional deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis

    2012-08-01

    Denervation of the spinal cord below the level of injury leads to complications producing malnutrition. Nutritional status affects mortality and pathology of injured subjects and it has been reported that two thirds of individuals enrolled in rehabilitation units are malnourished. Therefore, the aim should be either to maintain an optimal nutritional status, or supplement these subjects in order to overcome deficiencies in nutrients or prevent obesity. This paper reviews methods of nutritional assessment and describes the physiopathological mechanisms of malnutrition based on the assumption that spinal cord injured subjects need to receive adequate nutrition to promote optimal recovery, placing nutrition as a first line treatment and not an afterthought in the rehabilitation of spinal cord injury. PMID:22870169

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord trauma: a pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessing a patient with clinical signs of acute spinal cord trauma is an emergency. A radiological work-up is crucial in determining management, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice. It should therefore be performed immediately, preferably within 3 hours, even when plain radiography does not show an abnormality. By choosing an appropriate imaging protocol, it is possible to assess the spinal cord, joints, muscles, ligaments and bone marrow of the spine. Moreover, early MRI findings assist in determining functional prognosis. A major limitation to early MRI is that the examination is usually restricted to stable trauma patients because of the difficulties in monitoring ventilated patients during scanning. However, when an anaesthesiologist with experience in MRI and MR-compatible monitoring equipment is available, even these patients can be safely examined. MRI is also indicated for the evaluation of patients with late complications and sequelae following spinal cord trauma, since many of these chronic lesions are potentially treatable. (orig.)

  20. [MR imaging of the spinal cord--with special emphasis on the factors influencing spinal cord measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, K

    1992-03-01

    On MR images the spinal cord is seen differently in size depending on imaging parameters and displaying window; consequently the findings may be interpreted erroneously as swelling or atrophy of the spinal cord. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate factors influencing spinal cord size on images and to determine the optimal condition estimating the size of the spinal cord. At first we selected 4 cases suspected of cervical spinal disorders which had been examined by both MRI and myelography with tomography. Sagittal diameter of the spinal cord was measured on a film and it was significantly different of those three. That is, the measurement value was greater on T1 weighted image (T1WI) and smaller on T2 weighted image (T2WI) than myelo-tomography. To evaluate the effect of imaging parameters, image reconstruction and image displaying window quantitatively, studied were the cadaveric cervical spinal cord and gelatin phantom tube with a diameter of 13 mm and 9 mm placed in a saline-filled plastic tube. The measurement value was significantly greater on T1WI and smaller on T2WI than true size of the objects. Numbers of phase encoding (128 and 256) significantly affected the measurement value, both on T1WI and T2WI, as well. Ringing artifact of high or low signal was observed at the boundary area of the objects and saline (so-called truncation artifact). However, when the window-level of displaying image was raised stepwisely the measurement value was proportionally decreased and it reached to real value when the level was adjusted at the mean MR signal intensity of the object and saline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1591101

  1. Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Therapeutic Benefits of Their Inhibition in Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haoqian; Chang, Mayland; Hansen, Christopher N; Basso, D. Michele; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary This review will focus on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors in the context of spinal cord injury (SCI). MMPs have a specific cellular and temporal pattern of expression in the injured spinal cord. Here we consider their diverse functions in the acutely injured cord and during wound healing. Excessive activity of MMPs, and in particular gelatinase B (MMP-9), in the acutely injured cord contributes to disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier, and the influx of leu...

  2. Intramedullary Spinal Cord and Leptomeningeal Metastases from Intracranial Low-grade Oligodendroglioma

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Nipun; Nolan, Craig; Hirano, Miki; Robert J. Young

    2014-01-01

    We present an unusual case of a patient with an intracranial low-grade oligodendroglioma who developed recurrence with an intramedullary spinal cord metastasis and multiple spinal leptomeningeal metastases. The intramedullary spinal cord metastasis showed mild enhancement similar to the original intracranial primary, while the multiple spinal leptomeningeal metastases revealed no enhancement. This is the seventh reported case of symptomatic intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from a low-gra...

  3. Cellular and axonal plasticity in the lesioned spinal cord of adult zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Kuscha, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish, in contrast to mammals, are capable of functional regeneration after complete transection of the spinal cord. In this system I asked: (1) Which spinal cell types regenerate in the lesioned spinal cord? (2) To what extent do the dopaminergic and 5-HT systems regenerate and (3) do dopaminergic axons from the brain influence cellular regeneration in the spinal cord? (1) Lost motor neurons are replaced by newly born motor neurons that mature and are integrated into the spinal cir...

  4. Spinal cord compression due to epidural extramedullary haematopoiesis in thalassaemia: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydingoez, Ue.; Oto, A.; Cila, A. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    1997-12-01

    Spinal epidural extramedullary haematopoiesis is very rare in thalassaemia. A 27-year-old man with thalassaemia intermedia presented with symptoms and signs of spinal cord compression. MRI showed a thoracic spinal epidural mass, representing extramedullary haematopoietic tissue, compressing the spinal cord. Following radiotherapy, serial MRI revealed regression of the epidural mass and gradual resolution of spinal cord oedema. (orig.) With 3 figs., 6 refs.

  5. Antioxidation of melatonin against spinal cord injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锦波; 唐天驷; 杨惠林; 肖德生

    2004-01-01

    Background The iron catalyzed lipid peroxidation plays an important role in the autodestruction of the injured spinal cord. This study was to detect the antioxidation of melatonin against spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats.Methods Sity Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: group A (n = 15) for laminectomyanly, group B (n = 15) for laminectomy with SCI, group C (n = 15) for SCI and intraperitoneal injection of a bolus of 100 mg/kg melatonin, and group D (n = 15) for SCI and intraperitoneal injection of saline containing 5% ethanol. The SCI of animal model was made using modified Allen's method on T12. Six rats of each group were sacrificed 4 hours after injury, and the levels of free iron and malondialdehyde (MDA) of the involved spinal cord segments were measured by the bleomycin assay and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) separately. Functional recovery of the spinal cord was assessed by Modified Tarlov's scale and the inclined plane method at 1,3, 7, 14, 21 days after SCI. The histologic changes of the damaged spinal cord were also examined at 7 days after SCl.Results After SCI, the levels of free iron and MDA were increased significantly and the modified Tarlov's score and inclined plane angle decreased significantly in groups B and D. In group C, the Tarlov's score and inclined plane angle were increased significantly at 7, 14 and 21 days, with histological improvement.Conclusion: Melatonin can reduce the level of lipid peroxidation and prevent damage to the spinal cord of rat.

  6. Aquaporin 1 - a novel player in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesic, O; Lee, J; Unabia, G C; Johnson, K; Ye, Z; Vergara, L; Hulsebosch, C E; Perez-Polo, J R

    2008-05-01

    The role of water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP-1) in uninjured or injured spinal cords is unknown. AQP-1 is weakly expressed in neurons and gray matter astrocytes, and more so in white matter astrocytes in uninjured spinal cords, a novel finding. As reported before, AQP-1 is also present in ependymal cells, but most abundantly in small diameter sensory fibers of the dorsal horn. Rat contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) induced persistent and significant four- to eightfold increases in AQP-1 levels at the site of injury (T10) persisting up to 11 months post-contusion, a novel finding. Delayed AQP-1 increases were also found in cervical and lumbar segments, suggesting the spreading of AQP-1 changes over time after SCI. Given that the antioxidant melatonin significantly decreased SCI-induced AQP-1 increases and that hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha was increased in acutely and chronically injured spinal cords, we propose that chronic hypoxia contributes to persistent AQP-1 increases after SCI. Interestingly; AQP-1 levels were not affected by long-lasting hypertonicity that significantly increased astrocytic AQP-4, suggesting that the primary role of AQP-1 is not regulating isotonicity in spinal cords. Based on our results we propose possible novel roles for AQP-1 in the injured spinal cords: (i) in neuronal and astrocytic swelling, as AQP-1 was increased in all surviving neurons and reactive astrocytes after SCI and (ii) in the development of the neuropathic pain after SCI. We have shown that decreased AQP-1 in melatonin-treated SCI rats correlated with decreased AQP-1 immunolabeling in the dorsal horns sensory afferents, and with significantly decreased mechanical allodynia, suggesting a possible link between AQP-1 and chronic neuropathic pain after SCI. PMID:18248364

  7. Neurological deficit following spinal anaesthesia: MRI and CT evidence of spinal cord gas embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedeschi, E. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences]|[Parco Comola-Ricci, Naples (Italy); Marano, I.; Savarese, F.; Brunetti, A.; Sodano, A. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences; Olibet, G. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Intensive Care Unit; Di Salvo, E. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dept. of General and Transplant Surgery

    1999-04-01

    A 62-year-old diabetic woman developed permanent neurological deficits in the legs following spinal anaesthesia. MRI showed oedema in the spinal cord and a small intramedullary focus of signal void at the T10 level, with negative density at CT. Intramedullary gas bubbles have not been reported previously among the possible neurological complications of spinal anaesthesia; a combined ischaemic/embolic mechanism is hypothesised. (orig.) With 2 figs., 10 refs.

  8. Neurological deficit following spinal anaesthesia: MRI and CT evidence of spinal cord gas embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 62-year-old diabetic woman developed permanent neurological deficits in the legs following spinal anaesthesia. MRI showed oedema in the spinal cord and a small intramedullary focus of signal void at the T10 level, with negative density at CT. Intramedullary gas bubbles have not been reported previously among the possible neurological complications of spinal anaesthesia; a combined ischaemic/embolic mechanism is hypothesised. (orig.)

  9. Functional electrical stimulation for incomplete spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Fazio, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes the early use of functional electrical stimulation on an individual with an incomplete spinal cord injury to assist with motor recovery and a return to ambulation. A 32-year-old woman sustained a C7 burst fracture after a fall, requiring anterior cervical fixation from C6 to T1 prior to transfer to acute rehabilitation. She presented as a C8 AIS B spinal cord injury, meaning she had some sensory function spared below the level of injury but not motor function. At di...

  10. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  11. Tumefactive demyelinating disease with isolated spinal cord involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumefactive multiple sclerosis (TMS) is an unusual variant of demyelinating disease. TMS has a variable and unknown progression and presents with features similar to a neoplasm making the determination a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. This report presents one of the very few reported cases of isolated spinal cord TMS, and the second case to describe TMS of the lower spinal cord, given that the lesions are typically cervical. This case study presents a diagnostic approach based on clinical, laboratory, and imaging characteristics, as well as sheds some light on the response to therapy and disease evolution

  12. [Spinal cord stimulation for the management of chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchoud, Christophe; Mariotti, Nicolas

    2016-06-22

    Neuromodulation techniques modify the activity of the central or peripheral nervous system. Spinal cord stimulation is a reversible and minimally invasive treatment whose efficacy and cost effectiveness are recognized for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain or ischemic pain. Spinal cord stimulation is not the option of last resort and should be considered among other options before prescribing long-term opioids or considering reoperation. The selection and regular follow-up of patients are crucial to the success of the therapy. PMID:27506068

  13. Expression of Lymphatic Markers in the Adult Rat Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schroedl, Falk; Bieler, Lara; Trost, Andrea; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Tempfer, Herbert; Zaunmair, Pia; Kreutzer, Christina; Traweger, Andreas; Reitsamer, Herbert A.; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, lymphatic vessels are thought to be absent from the central nervous system (CNS), although they are widely distributed within the rest of the body. Recent work in the eye, i.e., another organ regarded as alymphatic, revealed numerous cells expressing lymphatic markers. As the latter can be involved in the response to pathological conditions, we addressed the presence of cells expressing lymphatic markers within the spinal cord by immunohistochemistry. Spinal cord of young adult Fisher rats was scrutinized for the co-expression of the lymphatic markers PROX1 and LYVE-1 with the cell type markers Iba1, CD68, PGP9.5, OLIG2. Rat skin served as positive control for the lymphatic markers. PROX1-immunoreactivity was detected in many nuclei throughout the spinal cord white and gray matter. These nuclei showed no association with LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 could only be detected in cells at the spinal cord surface and in cells closely associated with blood vessels. These cells were found to co-express Iba1, a macrophage and microglia marker. Further, double labeling experiments using CD68, another marker found in microglia and macrophages, also displayed co-localization in the Iba1+ cells located at the spinal cord surface and those apposed to blood vessels. On the other hand, PROX1-expressing cells found in the parenchyma were lacking Iba1 or PGP9.5, but a significant fraction of those cells showed co-expression of the oligodendrocyte lineage marker OLIG2. Intriguingly, following spinal cord injury, LYVE-1-expressing cells assembled and reorganized into putative pre-vessel structures. As expected, the rat skin used as positive controls revealed classical lymphatic vessels, displaying PROX1+ nuclei surrounded by LYVE-1-immunoreactivity. Classical lymphatics were not detected in adult rat spinal cord. Nevertheless, numerous cells expressing either LYVE-1 or PROX1 were identified. Based on their localization and overlapping expression with

  14. Spinal cord response to laser treatment of injured peripheral nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochkind, S.; Vogler, I.; Barr-Nea, L. (Ichilov Hospital, Tel-Aviv Medical Center (Israel))

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe the changes occurring in the spinal cord of rats subjected to crush injury of the sciatic nerve followed by low-power laser irradiation of the injured nerve. Such laser treatment of the crushed peripheral nerve has been found to mitigate the degenerative changes in the corresponding neurons of the spinal cord and induce proliferation of neuroglia both in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. This suggests a higher metabolism in neurons and a better ability for myelin production under the influence of laser treatment.

  15. Neurological Outcome in Road Traffic Accidents with Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Moslavac, Saša; DŽIDIĆ, Ivan; Kejla, Zvonko

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate neurological outcome in road traffic accidents (RTA) with spinal cord injury (SCI). The study was undertaken in National Spinal Unit of Special Medical Rehabilitation Hospital, in Vara`dinske Toplice, Croatia. Hospital records of 154 inpatient RTA SCI patients, in years 1991–2001 were reviewed. Six groups of patients were formed: car drivers, co-drivers, back seat passengers, motorcycle drivers, bicycle drivers and pedestrians. Neurological ...

  16. Primitive roles for inhibitory interneurons in developing frog spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Li, W-C; Higashijima, S-I; Parry, DM; Roberts, A.; Soffe, SR

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the neuronal networks in the mammal spinal cord is hampered by the diversity of neurons and their connections. The simpler networks in developing lower vertebrates may offer insights into basic organization. To investigate the function of spinal inhibitory interneurons in Xenopus tadpoles, paired whole-cell recordings were used.We show directly that one class of interneuron, with distinctive anatomy, produces lycinergic, negative feedback inhibition that can limit firing in moto...

  17. [Acute ischemic spinal cord disease. Spinal cord infarction. A clinical study and MRI in 8 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau Serradell, A

    1994-01-01

    Acute spinal cord infarction (ASCI) occurs infrequently and may have diverse causes. The diagnosis of ASCI, and particularly of an anterior spinal artery syndrome (ASAS) can be confirmed nowadays by MRI, whereas in the past only necropsy confirmation was possible. Pathophysiology and long-term prognosis may be better known at present and treatments more consistent. We present the longitudinal study and clinical features of 8 patients suffering from ASCI. All of them were personally studied and had MRI examinations, often with sequential studies. three groups must be considered: one included 4 cases of ASAS at cervical level, the second 2 cases of ASAS at thoracic level and the third group with infarction of the conus medullaris (ICM), one of them developed during surgical repair of an infrarenal aortic aneurysm. Motor and sensory sequelae were assessed in each case together with possible etiological factors. In conclusion, recovery after ASAS tends to be dependent on the severity of the initial deficit. At cervical level, clinical and morphological findings argue in favour of an extrinsic selective compression of the C7 right radiculo-medullary artery as responsible for the ASA. At thoracic level, the artery preferentially occluded seems to be the sulco-commisural artery as a consequence of disc compression. Finally, an underlying peculiarity of the pattern of arterial supply is a probable predisposing factor for ICM. Generally, the long-term prognosis of ASCI is not necessarily bad. PMID:7801036

  18. Cerebral activation is correlated to regional atrophy of the spinal cord and functional motor disability in spinal cord injured individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Henrik; Christensen, Mark Schram; Barthélemy, Dorothy;

    2011-01-01

    the width of the spinal cord in the left-right direction, where the corticospinal tract is located, but not in the antero-posterior direction. There was a tendency for a negative correlation between cerebral activation in ipsilateral S1, M1 and PMC and the amplitude of motor evoked potentials in the...... tibialis anterior muscle elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation, but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no correlation between motor score or spinal cord dimensions and the volume of the cortical motor areas. The observations show that lesion of descending tracts in the lateral...

  19. A Neonatal Mouse Spinal Cord Compression Injury Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züchner, Mark; Glover, Joel C; Boulland, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) typically causes devastating neurological deficits, particularly through damage to fibers descending from the brain to the spinal cord. A major current area of research is focused on the mechanisms of adaptive plasticity that underlie spontaneous or induced functional recovery following SCI. Spontaneous functional recovery is reported to be greater early in life, raising interesting questions about how adaptive plasticity changes as the spinal cord develops. To facilitate investigation of this dynamic, we have developed a SCI model in the neonatal mouse. The model has relevance for pediatric SCI, which is too little studied. Because neural plasticity in the adult involves some of the same mechanisms as neural plasticity in early life(1), this model may potentially have some relevance also for adult SCI. Here we describe the entire procedure for generating a reproducible spinal cord compression (SCC) injury in the neonatal mouse as early as postnatal (P) day 1. SCC is achieved by performing a laminectomy at a given spinal level (here described at thoracic levels 9-11) and then using a modified Yasargil aneurysm mini-clip to rapidly compress and decompress the spinal cord. As previously described, the injured neonatal mice can be tested for behavioral deficits or sacrificed for ex vivo physiological analysis of synaptic connectivity using electrophysiological and high-throughput optical recording techniques(1). Earlier and ongoing studies using behavioral and physiological assessment have demonstrated a dramatic, acute impairment of hindlimb motility followed by a complete functional recovery within 2 weeks, and the first evidence of changes in functional circuitry at the level of identified descending synaptic connections(1). PMID:27078037

  20. Autoregulation of spinal cord blood flow: is the cord a microcosm of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autoregulatory capability of regional areas of the brain and spinal cord was demonstrated in 18 rats anesthetized with a continuous infusion of intravenous pentothal. Blood flow was measured by the injection of radioactive microspheres (Co57, Sn113, Ru103, Sc46). Blood flow measurements were made at varying levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP) which was altered by neosynephrine to raise MAP or trimethaphan to lower MAP. Autoregulation of the spinal cord mirrored that of the brain, with an autoregulatory range of 60 to 120 mm Hg for both tissues. Within this range, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was 59.2 +/- 3.2 ml/100 g/min (SEM) and spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) was 61.1 +/- 3.6. There was no significant difference in CBF and SCBF in the autoregulatory range. Autoregulation was also demonstrated regionally in the left cortex, right cortex, brainstem, thalamus, cerebellum, hippocampus and cervical, thoracic and lumbar cord. This data provides a coherent reference point in establishing autoregulatory curves under barbiturate anesthesia. Further investigation of the effects of other anesthetic agents on autoregulation of the spinal cord is needed. It is possible that intraspinal cord compliance, like intracranial compliance, might be adversely affected by the effects of anesthetics on autoregulation

  1. Timing of Decompressive Surgery of Spinal Cord after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: An Evidence-Based Examination of Pre-Clinical and Clinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan, Julio C.; Noonan, Vanessa; Cadotte, David W.; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    While the recommendations for spine surgery in specific cases of acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) are well recognized, there is considerable uncertainty regarding the role of the timing of surgical decompression of the spinal cord in the management of patients with SCI. Given this, we sought to critically review the literature regarding the pre-clinical and clinical evidence on the potential impact of timing of surgical decompression of the spinal cord on outcomes after traumatic SCI....

  2. The International Spinal Cord Injury Pain Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widerstrom-Noga, E.; Bryce, T.; Cardenas, D.D.;

    2008-01-01

    classification and questions related to the temporal pattern of pain for each specific pain problem. The impact of pain on physical, social and emotional function, and sleep is evaluated for each pain.Spinal Cord (2008) 46, 818-823; doi:10.1038/sc.2008.64; published online 3 June 2008 Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  3. Race-Ethnicity, Education, and Employment after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S.; Saunders, Lee; Staten, David

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article was to identify the relationship between race-ethnicity and employment after spinal cord injury (SCI), while evaluating interrelationships with gender, injury severity, and education. The authors used a cohort design using the most current status from a post-injury interview from the National SCI Statistical Center.…

  4. ADAM10 negatively regulates neuronal differentiation during spinal cord development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yan

    Full Text Available Members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease family are involved in embryogenesis and tissue formation via their proteolytic function, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. ADAM10 is expressed temporally and spatially in the developing chicken spinal cord, but its function remains elusive. In the present study, we address this question by electroporating ADAM10 specific morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (ADAM10-mo or dominant-negative ADAM10 (dn-ADAM10 plasmid into the developing chicken spinal cord as well as by in vitro cell culture investigation. Our results show that downregulation of ADAM10 drives precocious differentiation of neural progenitor cells and radial glial cells, resulting in an increase of neurons in the developing spinal cord, even in the prospective ventricular zone. Remarkably, overexpression of the dn-ADAM10 plasmid mutated in the metalloprotease domain (dn-ADAM10-me mimics the phenotype as found by the ADAM10-mo transfection. Furthermore, in vitro experiments on cultured cells demonstrate that downregulation of ADAM10 decreases the amount of the cleaved intracellular part of Notch1 receptor and its target, and increases the number of βIII-tubulin-positive cells during neural progenitor cell differentiation. Taken together, our data suggest that ADAM10 negatively regulates neuronal differentiation, possibly via its proteolytic effect on the Notch signaling during development of the spinal cord.

  5. Spinal Cord Injury: Facts and Figures at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1,517,806 $1,071,309 Data Source: Economic Impact of SCI published in the journal Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Volume 16 ... South, SRC 515, Birmingham, AL 35233-7330 For Statistics: (205) 934-3342; For Business: (205) 934-3320; TDD: (205) 934-4642; FAX: ( ...

  6. Vocational reintegration following spinal cord injury : expectations, participation and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönherr, M.C.; Groothoff, J.W.; Mulder, G.A.; Schoppen, T.; Eisma, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Study design: Survey. Objectives: To explore the process of reintegration in paid work following a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), including the role of early expectations of individual patients regarding return to work, indicators of success of job reintegration and a description of reintegrati

  7. Alterations of Spinal Cord in Japanese B Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kishikawa, Masao

    1993-01-01

    The cytopathologic changes of Japanese B encephalitis (JBE) are basically similar to those of other forms of arbovirus encephalitis. Because the entire central nervous system including the spinal cord is involved to varying degrees, the nomenclature of JBE should actually be Japanese B panencephalomyelitis.

  8. Spinal Cord Meningioma: A Treatable Cause of Paraplegia

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal, Manoj K; Rabinstein, Alejandro A.

    2012-01-01

    Chondrocalcinosis associated with Gitelman syndrome (GS) presents in young adults with either no symptoms or joint pain, muscle weakness, muscle cramps, paresthesias, episodes of tetany, or hypokalemic paralysis. Spinal cord meningiomas present with gradual onset of lower extremities weakness, numbness, pain, or balance problem. We report a 76 year old gentleman who presented with gradually progressive leg weakness puzzling the treating physicians.

  9. Peripheral nervous system involvement in chronic spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tankisi, Hatice; Pugdahl, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Upper motor neuron disorders are believed to leave the peripheral nervous system (PNS) intact. In this study we examined whether there is evidence of PNS involvement in spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Twelve subjects with chronic low cervical or thoracic SCI were included...

  10. What Are Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tissues and cells, which can develop into different types of tumors. Neurons (nerve cells): These are the most important cells ... as long as several feet. Unlike many other types of cells that can grow and divide to repair damage from injury or disease, neurons in the brain and spinal cord largely stop ...

  11. Nursing rehabilitation of patients with spin and spinal cord injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrou V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The injury of the Spine cord is a major problem because of the high mortality and morbidity in patients. Despite the advanced medical care and specialized rehabilitation the life expectancy of people with injuries of the spinal cord is lower than the general population. Hospitalization in modern rehabilitation centers reduces the mortality and severity of the complications with comprehensive programs which include the prevention of complications. It also educates the patient and his carer with psychological and social support. The nursing interventions have perhaps the most significant impact on the area of functional independence, rehabilitation and the quality of the patients life. The development of better rehabilitation programs will improve the life of people with injury of the spine and Spinal Cord.

  12. Syphilitic myelitis with diffuse spinal cord abnormality on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syphilitic myelitis is a very rare manifestation of neurosyphilis. The MRI appearance of syphilitic myelitis is not well documented and only a few cases have been reported. We present a 52-year-old woman with acute onset of paraplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine showed diffuse high signal intensity in the whole spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Focal enhancement was observed in the dorsal aspect of the thoracic cord on T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced images. To our knowledge, diffuse spinal cord abnormality in syphilitic myelitis has not been reported in the international literature. Disappearance of the diffuse high-signal lesions with residual focal enhancement was noted after antibiotic therapy. The patient suffered significant neurological deficit despite improvement in the MR images. In this article we present the imaging findings and review the literature of this rare condition. (orig.)

  13. [Changes in presynaptic processes during tonic subthreshold activation of the spinal center of scratching movements in the cat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadskaia, T V; Degtiarenko, A M; Baev, K V

    1987-01-01

    In immobilized intercollicularly decerebrated cats tonic underthreshold activation of the spinal scratching generator (after application of tubocurarine or bicuculline on C1-C2 segments) is accompanied by an increase in primary different terminal depolarization, decrease in N1-component of cord dorsum potential evoked by stimulation of cutaneous afferents, decrease in the amplitude of DRP and early polysynaptic responses of motoneurons evoked by stimulation of cutaneous and muscle afferents; a respective rise and reduction in activity of intermediate nucleus interneurons which are mono- and di (oligo)-synaptically connected with afferent terminals. Spinalization of animal led to reverse changes. Injection of DOPA into spinal animals allowed comparing changes in the state of lumbar segmental apparatus during tonic underthreshold activation of spinal scratching and locomotor generators. PMID:3037395

  14. International urodynamic basic spinal cord injury data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craggs, M.; Kennelly, M.; Schick, E.; Wyndaele, J.J.; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To create the International Urodynamic Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. SETTING: International working group. METHODS: The draft of the data set was developed by a working group consisting of members appointed by the...... Neurourology Committee of the International Continence Society, the European Association of Urology, the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version...... of the data set was developed after review and comments by members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA Board, relevant and interested (international) organizations and societies (around 40) and persons and the ISCoS Council...

  15. International bowel function basic spinal cord injury data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, K; Perkash, I; Stiens, S A;

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: International expert working group. OBJECTIVE: To develop an International Bowel Function Basic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on bowel function in daily practice or in research....... SETTING: Working group consisting of members appointed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS). METHODS: A draft prepared by the working group was reviewed by Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, and later by ISCo......S Scientific Committee, Council and ASIA Board received the data set for final review and approval. RESULTS: The International Bowel Function Basic SCI Data Set includes the following 12 items: date of data collection, gastrointestinal or anal sphincter dysfunction unrelated to SCI, surgical procedures on the...

  16. International bowel function extended spinal cord injury data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, K; Perkash, I; Stiens, S A;

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: International expert working group.Objective:To develop an International Bowel Function Extended Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Set presenting a standardized format for the collection and reporting of an extended amount of information on bowel function. SETTING: Working group...... consisting of members appointed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS). METHODS: A draft prepared by the working group was reviewed by Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets and later by the ISCoS Scientific Committee...... or segmental colorectal transit times. CONCLUSION: An International Bowel Function Extended SCI Data Set has been developed. This Data Set is mainly for research purposes and it should be used in combination with the information obtained from the International SCI Core Data Set and the International...

  17. Evidence-based treatment for acute spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhouming Deng; Jiajia Su; Lin Cai; Ansong Ping; Wei Jin; Renxiong Wei; Yan Zhan

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To formulate an evidence-based treatment for one patient with acute spinal cord injury and summarize evidence for evaluating acute spinal cord injury treatment. METHODS: Studies related to the treatment for acute spinal cord injury were identified via a search of National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC, 2000-11), the Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2011), TRIP Database (2000-11), and PubMed (1966-2011). Treatment strategies were formulated according to three basic principles: best evidence, doctor's professional experience, and wishes of the patient. RESULTS: A total of 34 articles were selected, including 1 NGC guideline, 22 systematic reviews, and 11 randomized controlled trials. Based on our review, we arrived at the following recommendations: no clinical evidence exists definitively to recommend the use of any of neuroprotective pharmaceuticals; surgery should be undertaken early; mechanical compression devices and low-molecular weight heparin should be employed to prevent thrombosis; respiratory muscle training is beneficial for pulmonary function and quality of life; and functional electrical stimulation and acupuncture can promote functional recovery. The patient accordingly underwent surgery 6 hours after trauma without receiving any neuroprotective pharmaceuticals; low-molecular weight heparin and intermittent pneumatic compression were applied to prevent thrombosis. He also underwent respiratory muscle training daily for 8 weeks and received functional electrical stimulation for 15 minutes and acupuncture for 30 minutes every day. After follow-up for 3 months, the above therapeutic regimen was confirmed efficacious for acute spinal cord injury.CONCLUSION: Evidence-based medicine provides an individualized treatment protocol for acute spinal cord injury, which can significantly improve the therapeutic effect and prognosis.

  18. Spinal cord ischaemia complicating meningococcal meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Swart, S. S.; Pye, I F

    1980-01-01

    An extensive ischaemic cord syndrome developed in a patient with meningococcal meningitis complicated by 2 respiratory arrests but not by any period of prolonged hypotension or other signs of cardiovascular collapse. Excellent functional recovery occurred after intensive rehabilitation.

  19. Injectable hydrogel materials for spinal cord regeneration: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) presents a complex regenerative problem due to the multiple facets of growth inhibition that occur following trauma to the cord parenchyma and stroma. Clinically, SCI is further complicated by the heterogeneity in the size, shape and extent of human injuries. Many of these injuries do not breach the dura mater and have continuous viable axons through the injury site that can later lead to some degree of functional recovery. In these cases, surgical manipulation of the spinal cord by implanting a preformed scaffold or drug delivery device may lead to further damage. Given these circumstances, in situ-forming scaffolds are an attractive approach for SCI regeneration. These synthetic and natural polymers undergo a rapid transformation from liquid to gel upon injection into the cord tissue, conforming to the individual lesion site and directly integrating with the host tissue. Injectable materials can be formulated to have mechanical properties that closely match the native spinal cord extracellular matrix, and this may enhance axonal ingrowth. Such materials can also be loaded with cellular and molecular therapeutics to modulate the wound environment and enhance regeneration. This review will focus on the current status of in situ-forming materials for spinal cord repair. The advantages of, and requirements for, such polymers will be presented, and examples of the behavior of such systems in vitro and in vivo will be presented. There are helpful lessons to be learned from the investigations of injectable hydrogels for the treatment of SCI that apply to the use of these biomaterials for the treatment of lesions in other central nervous system tissues and in organs comprising other tissue types. (topical review)

  20. MR imaging findings in subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause neurologic complications in the spinal cord, brain, and optic and peripheral nerves. Subacute combined degeneration is a rare disease of demyelinating lesions of the spinal cord, affecting mainly the posterior and lateral columns of the thoracic cord. We report the MR imaging findings of a case of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord in a patient with vitamin B12 deficiency and mega loblastic anemia. (author)

  1. Propranolol, but not naloxone, enhances spinal reflex bladder activity and reduces pudendal inhibition in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Marc J; Xiao, Zhiying; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Schwen, Zeyad; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of β-adrenergic and opioid receptors in spinal reflex bladder activity and in the inhibition induced by pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) or tibial nerve stimulation (TNS). Spinal reflex bladder contractions were induced by intravesical infusion of 0.25% acetic acid in α-chloralose-anesthetized cats after an acute spinal cord transection (SCT) at the thoracic T9/T10 level. PNS or TNS at 5 Hz was applied to inhibit these spinal reflex contractions at 2 and 4 times the threshold intensity (T) for inducing anal or toe twitch, respectively. During a cystrometrogram (CMG), PNS at 2T and 4T significantly (P < 0.05) increased bladder capacity from 58.0 ± 4.7% to 85.8 ± 10.3% and 96.5 ± 10.7%, respectively, of saline control capacity, while TNS failed to inhibit spinal reflex bladder contractions. After administering propranolol (3 mg/kg iv, a β₁/β₂-adrenergic receptor antagonist), the effects of 2T and 4T PNS on bladder capacity were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced to 64.5 ± 9.5% and 64.7 ± 7.3%, respectively, of the saline control capacity. However, the residual PNS inhibition (about 10% increase in capacity) was still statistically significant (P < 0.05). Propranolol treatment also significantly (P = 0.0019) increased the amplitude of bladder contractions but did not change the control bladder capacity. Naloxone (1 mg/kg iv, an opioid receptor antagonist) had no effect on either spinal reflex bladder contractions or PNS inhibition. At the end of experiments, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg iv, a ganglionic blocker) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the amplitude of the reflex bladder contractions. This study indicates an important role of β₁/β₂-adrenergic receptors in pudendal inhibition and spinal reflex bladder activity. PMID:25394827

  2. Survey of spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder studies using the Web of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Benjing; Zhang, Yongli; Li, Yucheng; WANG, ZANTAO; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Xiyin; Wang, Bingdong; Long, Zhixin; Wang, Feng; SONG, GUO; Yan WANG

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify global trends in research on spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder, through a bibliometric analysis using the Web of Science. DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis of studies on spinal cord injury-induced neurogenic bladder using the Web of Science. Data retrieval was performed using key words “spinal cord injury”, “spinal injury”, “neurogenic bladder”, “neuropathic bladder”, “neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction”, “neurogenic voiding dysfun...

  3. Selective Stimulation of the Spinal Cord Surface Using a Stretchable Microelectrode Array

    OpenAIRE

    Meacham, Kathleen Williams; Guo, Liang; DeWeerth, Stephen P.; Hochman, Shawn

    2011-01-01

    By electrically stimulating the spinal cord, it is possible to activate functional populations of neurons that modulate motor and sensory function. One method for accessing these neurons is via their associated axons, which project as functionally segregated longitudinal columns of white-matter funiculi (i.e., spinal tracts). To stimulate spinal tracts without penetrating the cord, we have recently developed technology that enables close-proximity, multi-electrode contact with the spinal cord...

  4. Towards a miniaturized brain-machine-spinal cord interface (BMSI) for restoration of function after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdoost, Shahab; Frost, Shawn; Van Acker, Gustaf; DeJong, Stacey; Dunham, Caleb; Barbay, Scott; Nudo, Randolph; Mohseni, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 6 million people in the United States are currently living with paralysis in which 23% of the cases are related to spinal cord injury (SCI). Miniaturized closed-loop neural interfaces have the potential for restoring function and mobility lost to debilitating neural injuries such as SCI by leveraging recent advancements in bioelectronics and a better understanding of the processes that underlie functional and anatomical reorganization in an injured nervous system. This paper describes our current progress towards developing a miniaturized brain-machine-spinal cord interface (BMSI) that is envisioned to convert in real time the neural command signals recorded from the brain to electrical stimuli delivered to the spinal cord below the injury level. Specifically, the paper reports on a corticospinal interface integrated circuit (IC) as a core building block for such a BMSI that is capable of low-noise recording of extracellular neural spikes from the cerebral cortex as well as muscle activation using intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) in a rat with contusion injury to the thoracic spinal cord. The paper further presents results from a neurobiological study conducted in both normal and SCI rats to investigate the effect of various ISMS parameters on movement thresholds in the rat hindlimb. Coupled with proper signal-processing algorithms in the future for the transformation between the cortically recorded data and ISMS parameters, such a BMSI has the potential to facilitate functional recovery after an SCI by re-establishing corticospinal communication channels lost due to the injury. PMID:25570002

  5. An Intermediate Animal Model of Spinal Cord Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiho, Thomas; Coste, Christine Azevedo; Delleci, Claire; Chenu, Jean-Patrick; Vignes, Jean-Rodolphe; Bauchet, Luc; Guiraud, David

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCI) result in the loss of movement and sensory feedback as well as organs dysfunctions. For example, nearly all SCI subjects loose their bladder control and are prone to kidney failure if they do not proceed to intermittent (self-) catheterization. Electrical stimulation of the sacral spinal roots with an implantable neuroprosthesis is a promising approach, with commercialized products, to restore continence and control micturition. However, many persons do not ask for this intervention since a surgical deafferentation is needed and the loss of sensory functions and reflexes become serious side effects of this procedure. Recent results renewed interest in spinal cord stimulation. Stimulation of existing pre-cabled neural networks involved in physiological processes regulation is suspected to enable synergic recruitment of spinal fibers. The development of direct spinal stimulation strategies aiming at bladder and bowel functions restoration would therefore appear as a credible alternative to existent solutions. However, a lack of suitable large animal model complicates these kinds of studies. In this article, we propose a new animal model of spinal stimulation -pig- and will briefly introduce results from one first acute experimental validation session. PMID:27478570

  6. An intermediate animal model of spinal cord stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Guiho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injuries (SCI result in the loss of movement and sensory feedback as well as organs dysfunctions. For example, nearly all SCI subjects loose their bladder control and are prone to kidney failure if they do not proceed to intermittent (self- catheterization. Electrical stimulation of the sacral spinal roots with an implantable neuroprosthesis is a promising approach, with commercialized products, to restore continence and control micturition. However, many persons do not ask for this intervention since a surgical deafferentation is needed and the loss of sensory functions and reflexes become serious side effects of this procedure. Recent results renewed interest in spinal cord stimulation. Stimulation of existing pre-cabled neural networks involved in physiological processes regulation is suspected to enable synergic recruitment of spinal fibers. The development of direct spinal stimulation strategies aiming at bladder and bowel functions restoration would therefore appear as a credible alternative to existent solutions. However, a lack of suitable large animal model complicates these kinds of studies. In this article, we propose a new animal model of spinal stimulation -pig- and will briefly introduce results from one first acute experimental validation session.

  7. A clinicopathological analysis of unusual extraventricular neurocytoma of spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zhi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Extraventricular neurocytoma (EVN is an unusual tumor and has been recently accepted as a new brain tumor entity by World Health Organization (WHO classification. It has been reported in several locations outside the typical supratentorial ventricular system, including the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, pons, spinal cord, cauda equine and retina. Only a few cases have been described in the spinal cord in the literature. It is a diagnostic challenge for clinicians and histopathologists to differentiate EVN from other spinal tumors because of its similarities in histological and immunohistochemical findings, as well as its non-specific radiological manifestation. Herein we describe a case of unusual intramedullary EVN in spinal cord. The clinicopathology of this tumor and its differential diagnosis are discussed. Methods The clinical manifestation of a patient with primary EVN occurring C6-T3 level of spinal cord was presented retrospectively. Gross totally resected mass was routinely paraffin-embedded and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Dako EnVision immunohistochemical staining system was used to detect the tumor antigen expressions, including vimentin (Vim, cytokeratin (CK, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, S-100 protein (S-100, synaptophysin (Syn, chromogranin (CgA, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, Neuronal nuclei (NeuN, oligodendrocytes transcription factor-2 (Oligo-2 and Ki-67. Results A 47-year-old male patient presented with 1 year history of weakness in both upper limbs associated with an increasing neck back pain. There was no paraesthesia in limbs. MRI of the whole spine revealed a heterogeneous intramedullary mass resembling an ependymoma extending from the C6 to T3 level with heterogeneous enhancement after contrast administration. Laminectomy and midline opening of the dura were performed. The spinal lesion appeared to have no capsule and locate intramedullary. The lesion did not

  8. Efficacy of a metalloproteinase inhibitor in spinal cord injured dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Levine

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is elevated within the acutely injured murine spinal cord and blockade of this early proteolytic activity with GM6001, a broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, results in improved recovery after spinal cord injury. As matrix metalloproteinase-9 is likewise acutely elevated in dogs with naturally occurring spinal cord injuries, we evaluated efficacy of GM6001 solubilized in dimethyl sulfoxide in this second species. Safety and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in naïve dogs. After confirming safety, subsequent pharmacokinetic analyses demonstrated that a 100 mg/kg subcutaneous dose of GM6001 resulted in plasma concentrations that peaked shortly after administration and were sustained for at least 4 days at levels that produced robust in vitro inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9. A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study was then conducted to assess efficacy of GM6001 given within 48 hours of spinal cord injury. Dogs were enrolled in 3 groups: GM6001 dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (n = 35, dimethyl sulfoxide (n = 37, or saline (n = 41. Matrix metalloproteinase activity was increased in the serum of injured dogs and GM6001 reduced this serum protease activity compared to the other two groups. To assess recovery, dogs were a priori stratified into a severely injured group and a mild-to-moderate injured group, using a Modified Frankel Scale. The Texas Spinal Cord Injury Score was then used to assess long-term motor/sensory function. In dogs with severe spinal cord injuries, those treated with saline had a mean motor score of 2 (95% CI 0-4.0 that was significantly (P<0.05; generalized linear model less than the estimated mean motor score for dogs receiving dimethyl sulfoxide (mean, 5; 95% CI 2.0-8.0 or GM6001 (mean, 5; 95% CI 2.0-8.0. As there was no independent effect of GM6001, we attribute improved neurological outcomes to dimethyl sulfoxide, a pleotropic agent that may target diverse

  9. Transcutaneous spinal stimulation as a therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecco LH

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leandro H Grecco,1,3,4,* Shasha Li,1,5,* Sarah Michel,1,6,* Laura Castillo-Saavedra,1 Andoni Mourdoukoutas,7 Marom Bikson,7 Felipe Fregni1,21Spaulding Neuromodulation Center, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 2Spaulding-Harvard Spinal Cord Injury Model System, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA; 3Special Laboratory of Pain and Signaling, Butantan Institute, 4Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 5Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China; 6Department of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Namur, Belgium; 7Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, NY, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI still have limited effects. Electrical stimulation might facilitate plastic changes in affected spinal circuitries that may be beneficial in improving motor function and spasticity or SCI-related neuropathic pain. Based on available animal and clinical evidence, we critically reviewed the physiological basis and therapeutic action of transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation in SCI. We analyzed the literature published on PubMed to date, looking for the role of three main noninvasive stimulation techniques in the recovery process of SCI and focusing mainly on transcutaneous spinal stimulation. This review discusses the main clinical applications, latest advances, and limitations of noninvasive electrical stimulation of the spinal cord. Although most recent research in this topic has focused on transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS, we also reviewed the technique of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES as potential methods to modulate spinal cord

  10. Cecal bascule after spinal cord injury: A case series report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuichi; McLean, Susan F.; Tyroch, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cecal bascule is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction associated with upward and anterior folding of the ascending colon. We report three patients who presented with spinal cord injury complicated with a cecal bascule. Diagnosis and management of cecal bascule is discussed. Presentation of cases Patient 1: 59-year-old male sustained a traumatic brain injury and cervical spinal cord injury after a motorcycle crash. He had abdominal distension and the diagnosis of cecal bascule was made. Cecopexy was performed. Patient 2: 51-year-old male sustained an unstable C7 vertebral fracture with a cord contusion and quadriplegia after a diving incident. After an unsuccessful medical management of the colonic distension, the patient was taken for a laparotomy and cecal bascule was found. A cecostomy and a cecopexy were performed. Patient 3: 63-year-old male was transferred after a fall. He had diffuse degenerative changes in the thoracic and lumbar spine. He was found to have a perforated cecal bascule. He had a right hemicolectomy with an ileocolic anastomosis. Discussion We suggest the possibility of spinal cord injury being a risk factor for cecal bascule. Currently, right hemicolectomy is recommended for the treatment of cecal bascule. Cecopexy is also acceptable treatment option for a case in which the patient will be undergoing an operation with an insertion of hardware. Conclusion The diagnosis of cecal bascule should be considered for trauma patients with cecal distention without delay in order to prevent disastrous complications. PMID:27077698

  11. A Clinical Perspective and Definition of Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzer, Ryan M

    2016-04-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can be complete or incomplete. The level of injury in SCI is defined as the most caudal segment with motor function rated at greater than or equal to 3/5, with pain and temperature preserved. The standard neurological classification of SCI provided by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) assigns grades from ASIA A (complete SCI) through ASIA E (normal sensory/motor), with B, C, and D representing varying degrees of injury between these extremes. The most common causes of SCI include trauma (motor vehicle accidents, sports, violence, falls), degenerative spinal disease, vascular injury (anterior spinal artery syndrome, epidural hematoma), tumor, infection (epidural abscess), and demyelinating processes (). (SDC Figure 1, http://links.lww.com/BRS/B91)(Figure is included in full-text article.). PMID:27015067

  12. The coding of cutaneous temperature in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chen; Hoon, Mark A; Chen, Xiaoke

    2016-09-01

    The spinal cord is the initial stage that integrates temperature information from peripheral inputs. Here we used molecular genetics and in vivo calcium imaging to investigate the coding of cutaneous temperature in the spinal cord in mice. We found that heating or cooling the skin evoked robust calcium responses in spinal neurons, and their activation threshold temperatures distributed smoothly over the entire range of stimulation temperatures. Once activated, heat-responding neurons encoded the absolute skin temperature without adaptation and received major inputs from transient receptor potential (TRP) channel V1 (TRPV1)-positive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. By contrast, cold-responding neurons rapidly adapted to ambient temperature and selectively encoded temperature changes. These neurons received TRP channel M8 (TRPM8)-positive DRG inputs as well as novel TRPV1(+) DRG inputs that were selectively activated by intense cooling. Our results provide a comprehensive examination of the temperature representation in the spinal cord and reveal fundamental differences in the coding of heat and cold. PMID:27455110

  13. Spinal cord injury and its association with blunt head trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva WS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wellingson S Paiva, Arthur MP Oliveira, Almir F Andrade, Robson LO Amorim, Leonardo JO Lourenço, Manoel J TeixeiraDivision of Neurosurgery, University of São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Severe and moderate head injury can cause misdiagnosis of a spinal cord injury, leading to devastating long-term consequences. The objective of this study is to identify risk factors involving spine trauma and moderate-to-severe brain injury.Methods: A prospective study involving 1617 patients admitted in the emergency unit was carried out. Of these patients, 180 with moderate or severe head injury were enrolled. All patients were submitted to three-view spine series X-ray and thin cut axial CT scans for spine trauma investigations.Results: 112 male patients and 78 female patients, whose ages ranged from 11 to 76 years (mean age, 34 years. The most common causes of brain trauma were pedestrians struck by motor vehicles (31.1%, car crashes (27.7%, and falls (25%. Systemic lesions were present in 80 (44.4% patients and the most common were fractures, and lung and spleen injuries. 52.8% had severe and 47.2% moderate head trauma. Fourteen patients (7.8% suffered spinal cord injury (12 in cervical spine, one in lumbar, and one thoracic spine. In elderly patients, the presence of associated lesions and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS < 9 were statistically significant as risk factors (P < 0.05 for spine injury.Conclusion: Spinal cord injury related to moderate and severe brain trauma usually affects the cervical spine. The incidence of spinal lesions and GCS < 9 points were related to greater incidence of spinal cord injury.Keywords: head injury, spine trauma, risk factors

  14. The natural history of transdural herniation of the spinal cord: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a patient with a Brown-Sequard syndrome who developed ventral transdural spinal cord herniation, showing the imaging findings changing over time from two thoracic disc protrusions with a normal spinal cord to a cord trapped within a bony defect in a thoracic vertebra. (orig.)

  15. Spinal cord compression due to primary intramedullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord presenting as paraplegia: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhansu Sekhar Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This case illustrates the risk of misdiagnosis and the importance of histological confirmation of a pathological lesion as spinal cord tuberculoma prior to surgical therapy, which should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis of the intramedullary spinal cord tumors.

  16. The delivery of specialist spinal cord injury services in Queensland and the potential for telehealth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van de Eileen; Lucas, Karen; Geraghty, Timothy; Pershouse, Kiley; Harding, Sandra; Atresh, Sridhar; Smith, Anthony C.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    The Queensland Spinal Cord Injuries Service (QSCIS) is a statewide service in Brisbane at the Princess Alexandra Hospital (PAH). The QSCIS assists individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) through three services: the Spinal Injuries Unit (SIU), Transitional Rehabilitation Program (T

  17. Altering spinal cord excitability enables voluntary movements after chronic complete paralysis in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Angeli, Claudia A.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Gerasimenko, Yury P.; Harkema, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    A diagnosis of motor complete spinal cord injury carries a dim prognosis for recovery. However, Angeli et al. show that epidural stimulation of the spinal cord can modulate the spinal circuitry to enable completely paralysed individuals to voluntarily control muscles of their legs and recover intentional movement years after injury.

  18. Spinal cord compression due to metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of 20 patients with medullary compression syndrome due to lesions not related to the central nervous system is presented. Plain films of the spine and myelography are made to determine the level of osseous involvement, the level of the spinal block and to planning radiotherapy. (Author)

  19. Gangliocytoma of the spinal cord: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of intramedullary spinal gangliocytoma in a 7-year-old girl who presented with scoliosis and progressive weakness of both legs. The tumour involved the whole spinal cord and medulla oblongata and was composed of inner cystic and outer solid components. On MRI, the solid portion of the lesion showed strong enhancement at the thoracolumbar level and mild enhancement at the cervical and medullary levels. Histological examination of the surgical specimen showed neoplastic ganglion cells arranged irregularly in benign normocellular glial background, which made a diagnosis of gangliocytoma. (orig.)

  20. Gangliocytoma of the spinal cord: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Y.H.; Kim, I.O.; Cheon, J.E.; Kim, W.S.; Yeon, K.M. [Dept. of Radiology and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Wang, K.C.; Cho, Byung-Kyu [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Chi, Je Geun [Dept. of Pathology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-05-01

    We present a case of intramedullary spinal gangliocytoma in a 7-year-old girl who presented with scoliosis and progressive weakness of both legs. The tumour involved the whole spinal cord and medulla oblongata and was composed of inner cystic and outer solid components. On MRI, the solid portion of the lesion showed strong enhancement at the thoracolumbar level and mild enhancement at the cervical and medullary levels. Histological examination of the surgical specimen showed neoplastic ganglion cells arranged irregularly in benign normocellular glial background, which made a diagnosis of gangliocytoma. (orig.)

  1. Spine and spinal cord vascular malformations: pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spine and spinal cord vascular malformations are an uncommon cause of acute, subacute, episodic or progressive myelopathy. They affect all age groups and constitute important clinical entities because of the high morbidity and even mortality associated with them if they are left untreated. These malformations are classified according to their anatomic location and angioarchitecture (Table 1). Today, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the initial radiologic screening procedure of choice for acute or progressive myelopathy. This pictorial essay reviews the radiologic work-up and the imaging features of spinal vascular malformations, as well as the clinical presentation, the probable pathophysiology and the different treatment modalities. (author)

  2. Oligodendrocyte-like cell transplantation for acute spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongtao Xu; Anmin Chen; Feng Li; Hougeng Lu

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used insulin-like growth factor-1 to induce bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into oligodendrocyte-like cells. Cell surface marker identification showed that they expressed myelin basic protein and galactosylceramide, two specific markers of oligodendrocytes. These cells were transplanted into rats with acute spinal cord injury at T10. At 8 weeks post-implantation, oligodendrocyte-like cells were observed to have survived at the injury site. The critical angle of the inclined plane, and Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores were all increased. Furthermore, latencies of motion-evoked and somatosensory-evoked potentials were decreased. These results demonstrate that transplantation of oligodendrocytic-induced MSCs promote functional recovery of injured spinal cord.

  3. Photoplethysmographic sensors for perfusion measurements in spinal cord tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J P; Kyriacou, P A, E-mail: Justin.Phillips.1@city.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University London, EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-17

    Sensors for recording photoplethysmographic signals from the nervous tissue of the spinal cord are described. The purpose of these sensors is to establish whether perfusion is compromised in various states of injury which occur in certain animal models of spinal cord injury, for example compression injury. Various measures of perfusion are applicable such as the amplitude of the photoplethysmograph signal and the oxygen saturation, measured using a dual wavelength configuration. Signals are usually compared to baseline measurements made in uninjured subjects. This paper describes two types of probe, one based on optical fibres, and one in which optotes are placed in direct contact with the tissue surface. Results from a study based on a compression model utilising a fibreoptic sensor are presented.

  4. Spinal cord injury rehabilitation outcome: the impact of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkony, G M; Roth, E J; Heinemann, A W; Lovell, L L

    1988-01-01

    The effect of age on self-care and mobility skill performance after spinal cord injury was studied using a 15-task modified Barthel Index (MBI) to score functional abilities for 708 patients aged 6 through 88 years. Analysis of covariance showed no relationship between age and discharge MBI score; however, patients with paraplegia, incomplete lesions, and greater admission functional ratings had greater discharge functional scores than did those with quadriplegia, complete lesions, and lower admission scores, respectively. Advancing age was associated with increased dependence in only seven functional skills (bathing, upper and lower body dressing, stair climbing, and transfers to chair, toilet and bath) and only for patients with complete paraplegia. Other MBI component tasks and patients with complete quadriplegia, incomplete paraplegia and incomplete quadriplegia demonstrated no relationship between age and skill performance. Results of this study support the practice of providing comprehensive rehabilitation services to all patients following spinal cord injury regardless of age. PMID:3335882

  5. Nanomedicine strategies for treatment of secondary spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Schenk, Désirée; Shi, Riyi; Leary, James F

    2015-01-01

    Neurological injury, such as spinal cord injury, has a secondary injury associated with it. The secondary injury results from the biological cascade after the primary injury and affects previous uninjured, healthy tissue. Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly. Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited. Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications. Based on their material properties, they can help treat disease by delivering drugs to specific tissues, enhancing detection methods, or a mixture of both. Incorporating nanomedicine into the treatment of neuronal injury and disease would likely push nanomedicine into a new light. This review highlights the various pathological issues involved in secondary spinal cord injury, current treatment options, and the improvements that could be made using a nanomedical approach. PMID:25673988

  6. Stem Cells: New Hope For Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazdic Marina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy offers several attractive strategies for spinal cord repair. The regenerative potential of pluripotent stem cells was confirmed in an animal model of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI; nevertheless, optimized growth and differentiation protocols along with reliable safety assays should be established prior to the clinical application of hESCs and iPSCs. Th e therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in SCI result from neurotrophin secretion, angiogenesis, and antiinflammatory actions. Several preclinical SCI studies have reported that the occurrence of axonal extension, remyelination and neuroprotection occur after the transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs. The transplantation of neural stem cells NSCs (NSCs promotes partial functional improvement after SCI because of their potential to differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. The ideal source of stem cells for safe and efficient cell-based therapy for SCI remains a challenging issue that requires further investigation.

  7. In Vivo Reprogramming for Brain and Spinal Cord Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wernig, Marius; Berninger, Benedikt; Nakafuku, Masato; Parmar, Malin; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2015-01-01

    Cell reprogramming technologies have enabled the generation of various specific cell types including neurons from readily accessible patient cells, such as skin fibroblasts, providing an intriguing novel cell source for autologous cell transplantation. However, cell transplantation faces several difficult hurdles such as cell production and purification, long-term survival, and functional integration after transplantation. Recently, in vivo reprogramming, which makes use of endogenous cells for regeneration purpose, emerged as a new approach to circumvent cell transplantation. There has been evidence for in vivo reprogramming in the mouse pancreas, heart, and brain and spinal cord with various degrees of success. This mini review summarizes the latest developments presented in the first symposium on in vivo reprogramming glial cells into functional neurons in the brain and spinal cord, held at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in Washington, DC. PMID:26730402

  8. Molecular Imaging in Stem Cell Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahuan Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is a serious disease of the center nervous system (CNS. It is a devastating injury with sudden loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic function distal to the level of trauma and produces great personal and societal costs. Currently, there are no remarkable effective therapies for the treatment of SCI. Compared to traditional treatment methods, stem cell transplantation therapy holds potential for repair and functional plasticity after SCI. However, the mechanism of stem cell therapy for SCI remains largely unknown and obscure partly due to the lack of efficient stem cell trafficking methods. Molecular imaging technology including positron emission tomography (PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, optical imaging (i.e., bioluminescence imaging (BLI gives the hope to complete the knowledge concerning basic stem cell biology survival, migration, differentiation, and integration in real time when transplanted into damaged spinal cord. In this paper, we mainly review the molecular imaging technology in stem cell therapy for SCI.

  9. Glycoconjugates Distribution during Developing Mouse Spinal Cord Motor Organizers

    OpenAIRE

    Vojoudi, Elham; Ebrahimi, Vahid; Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan, Alireza; Fazel, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this research was to study the distribution and changes of glycoconjugates particularly their terminal sugars by using lectin histochemistry during mouse spinal cord development. Methods: Formalin-fixed sections of mouse embryo (10-16 fetal days) were processed for lectin histochemical method. In this study, two groups of horseradish peroxidase -labeled specific lectins were used: N-acetylgalactosamine, including Dolichos biflorus, Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), ...

  10. Emerging Role of Spinal Cord TRPV1 in Pain Exacerbation

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-In Choi; Ji Yeon Lim; Sungjae Yoo; Hyun Kim; Sun Wook Hwang

    2016-01-01

    TRPV1 is well known as a sensor ion channel that transduces a potentially harmful environment into electrical depolarization of the peripheral terminal of the nociceptive primary afferents. Although TRPV1 is also expressed in central regions of the nervous system, its roles in the area remain unclear. A series of recent reports on the spinal cord synapses have provided evidence that TRPV1 plays an important role in synaptic transmission in the pain pathway. Particularly, in pathologic pain st...

  11. Training a Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Team in Motivational Interviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Lusilla-Palacios; Carmina Castellano-Tejedor

    2015-01-01

    Background. An acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) is a severe condition that requires extensive and very specialized management of both physical and psychological dimensions of injured patients. Objective. The aim of the part of the study reported here was twofold: (1) to describe burnout, empathy, and satisfaction at work of these professionals and (2) to explore whether a tailored program based on motivational interviewing (MI) techniques modifies and improves such features. Methods. This pape...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury and Osteoporosis: Causes, Mechanisms, and Rehabilitation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Can Ozan; Battaglino, Ricardo A; Morse, Leslie R.

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) has a huge impact on the individual, society and the economy. Though advances in acute care resulted in greatly reduced co-morbidities, there has been much less progress preventing long-term sequelae of SCI. Among the long-term consequences of SCI is bone loss (osteoporosis) due to the mechanical unloading of the paralyzed limbs and vascular dysfunction below the level of injury. Though osteoporosis may be partially prevented via pharmacologic interventions during the...

  13. Malnutrition in Spinal Cord Injury: More Than Nutritional Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Denervation of the spinal cord below the level of injury leads to complications producing malnutrition. Nutritional status affects mortality and pathology of injured subjects and it has been reported that two thirds of individuals enrolled in rehabilitation units are malnourished. Therefore, the aim should be either to maintain an optimal nutritional status, or supplement these subjects in order to overcome deficiencies in nutrients or prevent obesity. This paper reviews methods of nutritiona...

  14. FITNESS AND CONDITIONING DURING SPINAL CORD INJURY (SCI) REHABILITATION.

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Woude, Lucas HV; de Groot, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Little is known of the outcome and effectiveness of clinical rehabilitation on physical activity, mobility, fitness, functioning in society or quality of life. A multi-disciplinary research collaboration and multicenter prospective cohort study (www.scionn.nl) was conducted and studied the course of restoration of mobility of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) served as a conceptual framework. A total of 225 SCI ...

  15. Spinal cord involvement in a child with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gokce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL has known to be limited to the brain, brain stem, and cerebellum. Herein, we report an 11-year-old boy who presented with neurological symptoms and was diagnosed as FHL by molecular diagnosis. The hemophagocytic lesions in the CNS were shown to extend to the thoracal level of spinal cord which completely disappeared after the completion of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-2004 protocol.

  16. Modulation by Substance P in the Lamprey Spinal Cord

    OpenAIRE

    Thörn Pérez, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Neuromodulation is a key element for animal adaptation to environmental circumstances. Neuromodulators can alter the output of a physiological system by acting on the motor circuit by transforming intrinsic firing properties and altering synaptic strength. Substance P belongs to the family of tachykinin, which are peptidergic neuromodulators. The main focus of this thesis has been to characterize the effects of substance P in neurons and networks in the lamprey spinal cord. ...

  17. Sexual Health of Women with Spinal Cord Injury in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Huib Cornielje; Reshma Parvin Nuri; Noortje Pauline Maria Lubbers; van Brakel, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify factors influencing the sexual health of women with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Bangladesh.Methods: This study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. The quantitative part used a case-control design. Cases were women with SCI and controls were age-matched women without SCI.  Questionnaires were used to collect data concerning the sexual health status of women. Multivariate logistic regression was done to determine which factors had an independent effect on sexual...

  18. Retinoic Acid Signaling during Early Spinal Cord Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Diez del Corral; Morales, Aixa V

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid signaling is required at several steps during the development of the spinal cord, from the specification of generic properties to the final acquisition of neuronal subtype identities, including its role in trunk neural crest development. These functions are associated with the production of retinoic acid in specific tissues and are highly dependent on context. Here, we review the defects associated with retinoic acid signaling manipulations, mostly in chick and mouse models, tr...

  19. Respiratory Management in the Patient with Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Galeiras Vázquez; Pedro Rascado Sedes; Mónica Mourelo Fariña; Antonio Montoto Marqués; M. Elena Ferreiro Velasco

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) often lead to impairment of the respiratory system and, consequently, restrictive respiratory changes. Paresis or paralysis of the respiratory muscles can lead to respiratory insufficiency, which is dependent on the level and completeness of the injury. Respiratory complications include hypoventilation, a reduction in surfactant production, mucus plugging, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Vital capacity (VC) is an indicator of overall pulmonary function; patients with s...

  20. Morphine Self-Administration following Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Woller, Sarah A.; Malik, Jamal S.; Aceves, Miriam; Hook, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain develops in up to two-thirds of people following spinal cord injury (SCI). Opioids are among the most effective treatments for this pain and are commonly prescribed. There is concern surrounding the use of these analgesics, however, because use is often associated with the development of addiction. Previous data suggests that this concern may not be relevant in the presence of neuropathic pain. Yet, despite the common prescription of opioids for the treatment of SCI-related p...

  1. Provocative Testing for Embolization of Spinal Cord AVMs

    OpenAIRE

    Niimi, Y.; Sala, F; Deletis, V; Berenstein, A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate efficacy and reliability of chemical provocative testing using neurophysiological monitoring prior to embolization of spinal cord AVMs (SCAVMs). We performed retrospective analysis of provocative testing using sodium amytal and lidocaine injected superselectively in 41 angiography and/ or embolization procedures in 26 patients with a SCAVM, including 23 amytal and 26 lidocaine injections. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia using neu...

  2. Neurotoxic effects of levobupivacaine and fentanyl on rat spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to compare the neurotoxic effects of intrathecally administered levobupivacaine, fentanyl and their mixture on rat spinal cord. METHODS: In experiment, there were four groups with medication and a control group. Rats were injected 15 µL saline or fentanyl 0.0005 µg/15 µL, levobupivacaine 0.25%/15 µL and fentanyl 0.0005 µg + le...

  3. Neurotoxic effects of levobupivacaine and fentanyl on rat spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Cokay Abut

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to compare the neurotoxic effects of intrathecally administered levobupivacaine, fentanyl and their mixture on rat spinal cord. METHODS: In experiment, there were four groups with medication and a control group. Rats were injected 15 µL saline or fentanyl 0.0005 µg/15 µL, levobupivacaine 0.25%/15 µL and fentanyl 0.0005 µg + levobupivacaine 0.25%/15 µL intrathecally for four days. Hot plate test was performed to assess neurologic function after each injection at 5th, 30th and 60th min. Five days after last lumbal injection, spinal cord sections between the T5 and T6 vertebral levels were obtained for histologic analysis. A score based on subjective assessment of number of eosinophilic neurons - Red neuron - which means irreversible neuronal degeneration. They reflect the approximate number of degenerating neurons present in the affected neuroanatomic areas as follows: 1, none; 2, 1-20%; 3, 21-40%; 4, 41-60%; and 5, 61-100% dead neurons. An overall neuropathologic score was calculated for each rat by summating the pathologic scores for all spinal cord areas examined. RESULTS: In the results of HPT, comparing the control group, analgesic latency statistically prolonged for all four groups.In neuropathologic investment, the fentanyl and fentanyl + levobupivacaine groups have statistically significant high degenerative neuron counts than control and saline groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that, when administered intrathecally in rats, fentanyl and levobupivacaine behave similar for analgesic action, but fentanyl may be neurotoxic for spinal cord. There was no significant degeneration with levobupivacaine, but fentanyl group has had significant degeneration.

  4. Microglia and Spinal Cord Synaptic Plasticity in Persistent Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Taves; Temugin Berta; Gang Chen; Ru-Rong Ji

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are regarded as macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in neuroinflammation in the CNS. Microglial activation has been strongly implicated in neurodegeneration in the brain. Increasing evidence also suggests an important role of spinal cord microglia in the genesis of persistent pain, by releasing the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF α ), Interleukine-1beta (IL-1 β ), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In this ...

  5. A review of spinal cord injury decompression in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is major permanent sequelae of trauma with high burden and low frequency. In the setting of SCI is there any correlation between the timing of surgical decompression and sensory-motor improvement.Material and Methods: A literature review was performed using PUBMED from 1966 to 25th January 2010. Cross referencing of discovered articles was also reviewed.Results: The results of animal studies have shown that aside from the kind of procedure and s...

  6. Amitriptyline pharmacokinetics in experimental spinal cord injury in the rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihanikermani H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that pharmacokinetic behavior of several drugs such as paracetamol, theophylline, and aminoglycosides are significantly altered in spinal cord injured patients. No pharmacokinetic study of amitriptyline has been performed in patients and experimental models of spinal cord injury. Pharmacokinetic parameters of amitriptyline in orally treated rabbits subjected to laminectomy and spinal cord injury compared with those underwent laminectomy alone. Among twenty four male rabbits were included in this study, nine of them subjected to spinal cord injury at the 8 th thoracic level by knife severance method and six rabbits underwent laminectomy alone (sham group and nine rabbits treated as control. All received a single oral dose of amitriptyline (20 mg/kg 24 h after injury. Blood sampling were done at predetermined times to 36 h after drug administration. Amitriptyline concentration in serum samples was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters including maximum concentration (C max , time to reach maximum concentration (T max , half life, and the area under the curve to last detectable concentration time point (AUC 0-t were directly determined from the concentration-time curve. Maximum concentration was observed at 6.5 h after administration in sham group with a concentration of 439.6 ng/ml, whereas in SCI group T max was at 2.7 h with a concentration of 2763.9 ng/ml. In control group it was 3.3 h and 396 ng/ml, respectively. In SCI group, AUC was 9465.6 ng.h/ml and half life was 6 h and for control group it was 2817.4 ng.h/ml and 6.4 h, respectively. Statistical analysis of data showed that SCI didn′t induce significant changes in amitriptyline pharmacokinetic parameters.

  7. Cellular Transplantation Strategies for Spinal Cord Injury and Translational Neurobiology

    OpenAIRE

    Reier, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    Summary: Basic science advances in spinal cord injury and regeneration research have led to a variety of novel experimental therapeutics designed to promote functionally effective axonal regrowth and sprouting. Among these interventions are cell-based approaches involving transplantation of neural and non-neural tissue elements that have potential for restoring damaged neural pathways or reconstructing intraspinal synaptic circuitries by either regeneration or neuronal/glial replacement. Nota...

  8. Spinal cord compression secondary to malignant disease (Superior sulcus tumour)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cord compression from malignant disease is a complication of cancer. A high index of suspicion is required to make an early clinical diagnosis, which can be confirmed by appropriate radiological investigation. Quality of life particularly ambulation can be preserved with radiotherapy and in some situations surgery. In few instances paralysis can be reversed with treatment. This may delay as long as 15 months. (author)

  9. A Neural Model of Demyelination of the Mouse Spinal Cord

    OpenAIRE

    Petreska, Biljana; Yovel, Yossi

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a neural network model of demyelination of the mouse motor pathways, coupled to a central pattern generation (CPG) model for quadruped walking. Demyelination is the degradation of the myelin layer covering the axons which can be caused by several neurodegenerative autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. We use this model - to our knowledge first of its kind - to investigate the locomotion deficits that appear following demyelination of axons in the spinal cord. Our...

  10. Acute ketoprofen neurotoxicity in spinal cord of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Roger Wroclawski; Maria Tereza Gianotti Galupo; Irimar de Paula Posso; Desiré Carlos Callegari

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate possible spinal cord injury in rats followingdifferent doses of intrathecal ketoprofen. Methods: Animalswere divided into four groups of five rats each; 10 μl of anintrathecal solution were injected into the L6-S1 intervertebralspace. Ketoprofen 1% was injected in the first group; ketoprofen0.1% was injected in the second group; ketoprofen 0.01% wasinjected in the third group; and a sodium chloride 0.9% solutionwas injected in the Control Group. Histological sections of...

  11. The Potential of Curcumin in Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavendra Sanivarapu; Vijayalakshmi Vallabhaneni; Vivek Verma

    2016-01-01

    Current treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI) is supportive at best; despite great efforts, the lack of better treatment solutions looms large on neurological science and medicine. Curcumin, the active ingredient in turmeric, a spice known for its medicinal and anti-inflammatory properties, has been validated to harbor immense effects for a multitude of inflammatory-based diseases. However, to date there has not been a review on curcumin's effects on SCI. Herein, we systematically review all...

  12. Stimulation-induced optical signals in rat spinal cord slices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubinová, Šárka; Vargová, Lýdia; Syková, Eva

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2002), s. 34. ISSN 0894-1491. [European Meeting on Glial Cell Function in Health and Disease.. Rome - Italy, 21.05.2002-25.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906; CEZ:MSM 111300004; CEZ:MSM 5011112 Keywords : spinal cord Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.600, year: 2002

  13. The design of an embedded spinal cord stimulator

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇINKAYA, Fikret; ERBAŞ, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation is a physical therapy methodology utilizing electrical impulses, pulses, or a combination of various standard electrical waveforms to block pain. However, standard forms are not functioning effectively for each illness due to the unique conditions of the patient. Therefore, patient-specific waveforms (or user-defined waveforms) integrated with nondestructive, complete, or partially noninvasive and effective medical instruments to help relieve pain are required. In the ...

  14. The puerperium alters spinal cord plasticity following peripheral nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Silvia; Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Eisenach, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue and nerve damage can result in chronic pain. Yet, chronic pain after cesarean delivery is remarkably rare in women and hypersensitivity from peripheral nerve injury in rats resolves rapidly if the injury occurs in the puerperium. Little is known regarding the mechanisms of this protection except for a reliance on central nervous system oxytocin signaling. Here we show that density of inhibitory noradrenergic fibers in the spinal cord is greater when nerve injury is performed in rats du...

  15. Astrocytoma with involvement of medulla oblongata, spinal cord and spinal nerves in a raccoon (Procyon lotor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neoplasms affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems of wild animals are extremely rare. Described are clinical signs, pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in an adult female raccoon (Procyon lotor) with an astrocytoma which involved brainstem, cervical spinal cord and roots of the ...

  16. Propofol promotes spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-jing Zhou; Jian-min Liu; Shu-ming Wei; Yun-hao Zhang; Zhen-hua Qu; Shu-bo Chen

    2015-01-01

    Propofol is a neuroprotective anesthetic. Whether propofol can promote spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains poorly understood. We used rats to investigate spinal cord injury repair using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with propofol administrationvia the tail vein. Rat spinal cord injury was clearly alleviated; a large number of newborn non-myelinated and myelinated nerve ifbers appeared in the spinal cord, the numbers of CM-Dil-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and lfuorogold-labeled nerve ifbers were increased and hindlimb motor function of spinal cord-injured rats was mark-edly improved. These improvements were more prominent in rats subjected to bone marrow mesenchymal cell transplantation combined with propofol administration than in rats receiving monotherapy. These results indicate that propofol can enhance the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on spinal cord injury in rats.

  17. Symptomatic spinal cord deformity secondary to a redundant intramedullary shunt catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Right arm pain, motor and sensory loss in the right arm and right facial numbness recurred in a 27 year old quadraplegic shortly after a posttraumatic spinal cord cyst (PTSCC) was shunted via a catheter into the adjacent subarachnoid space. Although shunt malfunction was clinically suspected, metrizamide computed tomography (MCT) suggested that redundancy of the catheter had caused deformity of the spinal cord. This hypothesis was confirmed at surgery when intraoperative spinal sonography (IOSS) showed that the spinal cord deformity at C1-C2 disappeared when the catheter was withdrawn. This case shows that new or recurrent spinal cord symptoms may be due to a mechanical deformity of the cord rather than shunt malfunction, that restricting the length of the shunt catheter which is used to decompress PTSCCs is important, and that IOSS is an indispensible tool for visualizing the changes in spinal cord morphology during shunting procedures. (orig.)

  18. Blood supply and vascular reactivity of the spinal cord under normal and pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Feuerstein, Jeanne S; Theodore, Nicholas; Cavalcanti, Daniel D; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2011-09-01

    The authors present a review of spinal cord blood supply, discussing the anatomy of the vascular system and physiological aspects of blood flow regulation in normal and injured spinal cords. Unique anatomical functional properties of vessels and blood supply determine the susceptibility of the spinal cord to damage, especially ischemia. Spinal cord injury (SCI), for example, complicating thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair is associated with ischemic trauma. The rate of this devastating complication has been decreased significantly by instituting physiological methods of protection. Traumatic SCI causes complex changes in spinal cord blood flow, which are closely related to the severity of injury. Manipulating physiological parameters such as mean arterial blood pressure and intrathecal pressure may be beneficial for patients with an SCI. Studying the physiopathological processes of the spinal cord under vascular compromise remains challenging because of its central role in almost all of the body's hemodynamic and neurofunctional processes. PMID:21663407

  19. MRI monitoring of pathological changes in the spinal cord in patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gass, Achim; Rocca, Maria A; Agosta, Federica; Ciccarelli, Olga; Chard, Declan; Valsasina, Paola; Brooks, Jonathan C W; Bischof, Antje; Eisele, Philipp; Kappos, Ludwig; Barkhof, Frederik; Filippi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    techniques, findings of cord atrophy, intrinsic cord damage, and adaptation are shown to occur largely independently of focal spinal cord lesion load, which emphasises their relevance in depiction of the true burden of disease. Combinations of magnetisation transfer ratio or diffusion tension imaging indices......The spinal cord is a clinically important site that is affected by pathological changes in most patients with multiple sclerosis; however, imaging of the spinal cord with conventional MRI can be difficult. Improvements in MRI provide a major advantage for spinal cord imaging, with better signal......-to-noise ratio and improved spatial resolution. Through the use of multiplanar MRI, identification of diffuse and focal changes in the whole spinal cord is now routinely possible. Corroborated by related histopathological analyses, several new techniques, such as magnetisation transfer, diffusion tension imaging...

  20. Post-surgical thoracic pseudomeningocele causing spinal cord compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macki, Mohamed; Lo, Sheng-fu L; Bydon, Mohamad; Kaloostian, Paul; Bydon, Ali

    2014-03-01

    Pseudomeningoceles are extradural cerebrospinal fluid collections categorized into three groups: traumatic, congenital, and iatrogenic. Iatrogenic pseudomeningoceles occur after durotomy, usually after cervical or lumbar spine surgery. Although many remain asymptomatic, pseudomeningoceles can compress or herniate the spinal cord and nerve roots. We present a 57-year-old woman who had a thoracic laminectomy and discectomy. Two weeks after surgery, she presented with lower extremity weakness and gait difficulty. Physical examination revealed hyperreflexia and a T11 sensory level. MRI revealed a pseudomeningocele compressing the thoracic spinal cord. The patient underwent surgical drainage of the cyst. On follow-up, she had complete resolution of her symptoms, and MRI did not show a residual lesion. To our knowledge, this is the second documented post-operative pseudomeningocele causing symptomatic spinal cord compression of the thoracic spine. In this article, a review of the literature is presented, including four reported patients with post-traumatic pseudomeningocele causing myelopathic symptoms and 20 patients with iatrogenic pseudomeningocele that resulted in neurological decline due to herniation or compression of neural tissue. Treatment options for these lesions include conservative management, epidural blood patch, lumbar subarachnoid drainage, and lumbo-peritoneal shunt placement. Surgical repair, usually by primary dural closure, remains the definitive treatment modality for iatrogenic symptomatic pseudomeningoceles. PMID:24210805

  1. Neuroarthropathy of the hip following spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibek Banskota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 33-year-old male who sustained a burst fracture D12 vertebrae with spinal cord injury (ASIA impairment scale A and a right mid-diaphysial femoral shaft fracture around 1.5 years back. The patient reported 1.5 years later with a swelling over the right buttock. Arthrotomy revealed serous fluid and fragmented bone debris. The biopsy showed a normal bony architecture with no evidence of infection and malignant cells. Hence, a diagnosis of Charcot′s hip was made. Charcot′s neuroarthropathy of the feet is a well-recognized entity in the setting of insensate feet resulting from causes such as diabetes or spina bifida. Although Charcot′s disease of the hips has been described, it is uncommon in association with spinal cord injury, syphilis and even with the use of epidural injection. The present case highlights the fact that neuroarthropathy of the hip can occur in isolation in the setting of a spinal cord injury, and this can lead to considerable morbidity.

  2. Nanomedicine strategies for treatment of secondary spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White-Schenk D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Désirée White-Schenk,1,4 Riyi Shi,1–3 James F Leary1–4 1Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences Program, 2Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, 3Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Lynn School of Veterinary Medicine, 4Birck Nanotechnology Center, Discovery Park, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA Abstract: Neurological injury, such as spinal cord injury, has a secondary injury associated with it. The secondary injury results from the biological cascade after the primary injury and affects previous uninjured, healthy tissue. Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly. Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited. Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications. Based on their material properties, they can help treat disease by delivering drugs to specific tissues, enhancing detection methods, or a mixture of both. Incorporating nanomedicine into the treatment of neuronal injury and disease would likely push nanomedicine into a new light. This review highlights the various pathological issues involved in secondary spinal cord injury, current treatment options, and the improvements that could be made using a nanomedical approach. Keywords: spinal cord injury, acrolein, drug delivery, methylprednisolone, secondary injury

  3. Caffeine treatment aggravates secondary degeneration after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Chang; Jou, I-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in some form of paralysis. Recently, SCI therapy has been focused on preventing secondary injury to reduce both neuroinflammation and lesion size so that functional outcome after an SCI may be improved. Previous studies have shown that adenosine receptors (AR) are a major regulator of inflammation after an SCI. The current study was performed to examine the effect of caffeine, a pan-AR blocker, on spontaneous functional recovery after an SCI. Animals were assigned into 3 groups randomly, including sham, PBS and caffeine groups. The rat SCI was generated by an NYU impactor with a 10 g rod dropped from a 25 mm height at thoracic 9 spinal cord level. Caffeine and PBS were injected daily during the experiment period. Hind limb motor function was evaluated by the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale at 1 week and 4 weeks after the SCI. Spinal cord segments were collected after final behavior evaluation for morphological analysis. The tissue sparing was evaluated by luxol fast blue staining. Immunofluorescence stain was employed to assess astrocyte activation and neurofilament positioning, while microglia activation was examined by immunohistochemistry stain.The results showed that spontaneous functional recovery was blocked after the animals were subjected caffeine daily. Moreover, caffeine administration increased the demyelination area, promoted astrocyte and microglia activation and decreased the quantity of neurofilaments. These findings suggest that the neurotoxicity effect of caffeine may be associated with the inhibition of neural repair and the promotion of neuroinflammation. PMID:26746340

  4. An unusual case of spinal cord compression from concomitant spinal epidural lipomatosis and Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzai, Hasib; Khalil, Ali; Mitchell, Ruth A.; Kwok, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) results from an abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated fat within the epidural space and is a rare cause of spinal cord compression, which needs to be considered with a high index of suspicion. It most commonly occurs secondary to chronic corticosteroid use and endocrinopathies. Idiopathic cases are highly associated with obesity. We report an unusual case of idiopathic thoracic SEL in a 69-year-old male, with an adjacent infiltrative Hodgkin's lymphoma and associated vertebral crush fracture, which resulted in ataxia and sensory loss. Magnetic resonance imaging scans displayed extensive SEL and an infiltrative disease process causing thoracic cord compression. Surgical decompression confirmed the presence of extensive epidural lipomatosis and Hodgkin's lymphoma and subsequently led to improvement in neurological symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of concomitant SEL with an adjacent Hodgkin's lymphoma resulting in cord compression. PMID:26962199

  5. Pilot study: bone marrow stem cells as a treatment for dogs with chronic spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmento, Carlos Alberto Palmeira; Rodrigues, Marcio Nogueira; Bocabello, Renato Zonzini; Mess, Andrea Maria; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic Spinal Cord injury is a common, severe, and medically untreatable disease. Since the functional outcomes of acute and experimental chronic spinal cord injury have been shown to improve with stem cell therapy, a case study was conducted to test if the application of stem cell also regenerates chronic SCI dysfunction. Transplantation of foetal bone marrow stem cells was applied in seven dogs with chronic spinal cord injury. Magnetic resonance images and assessments of symptom...

  6. Chondroitinase ABC plus bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for repair of spinal cord injury☆

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chun; He, Xijing; Li, Haopeng; Wang, Guoyu

    2013-01-01

    As chondroitinase ABC can improve the hostile microenvironment and cell transplantation is proven to be effective after spinal cord injury, we hypothesized that their combination would be a more effective treatment option. At 5 days after T8 spinal cord crush injury, rats were injected with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension or chondroitinase ABC 1 mm from the edge of spinal cord damage zone. Chondroitinase ABC was first injected, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension was...

  7. Effect of Regular Exercise on Cardiopulmonary Fitness in Males With Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young Hee; Oh, Kyung Joon; Kong, In Deok; Kim, Sung Hoon; Shinn, Jong Mock; Kim, Jong Heon; Yi, Dongsoo; Lee, Jin Hyeong; Chang, Jae Seung; Kim, Tae-ho; Kim, Eun Ju

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance of subjects with spinal cord injury by measuring the maximal oxygen consumption with varying degrees of spinal cord injury level, age, and regular exercise. Methods We instructed the subjects to perform exercises using arm ergometer on healthy adults at 20 years of age or older with spinal cord injury, and their maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was measured with a metabolic measurement system. The exercise proceeded stepwise according to ...

  8. Effect of Spinal Cord Compression on Local Vascular Blood Flow and Perfusion Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Alshareef; Vibhor Krishna; Jahid Ferdous; Ahmed Alshareef; Mark Kindy; Kolachalama, Vijaya B.; Tarek Shazly

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can induce prolonged spinal cord compression that may result in a reduction of local tissue perfusion, progressive ischemia, and potentially irreversible tissue necrosis. Due to the combination of risk factors and the varied presentation of symptoms, the appropriate method and time course for clinical intervention following SCI are not always evident. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element fluid-structure interaction model of the cervical spinal cord was de...

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor-loaded injectable hydrogel enhances plasticity in the injured spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Preat, V. (Veronique); Clotman, F; Bailly, Ch. (Christian); Carmeliet, P; Blanco-Prieto, M.J. (María José); Feron, O.; Simon-Yarza, T. (Teresa); Auhl, D.; Bouzin, C; Audouard, E.; Schakman, O.; Jacobs, D.; Ucakar, B. (Bernard); E. Ansorena; Berdt, P. (Pauline) de

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-containing hydrogels that gelify in situ after injection into a traumatized spinal cord, could stimulate spinal cord regeneration. Injectable hydrogels composed of 0.5% Pronova UPMVG MVG alginate, supplemented or not with fibrinogen, were used. The addition of fibrinogen to alginate had no effect on cell proliferation in vitro but supported neurite growth ex vivo. When injected into a rat spinal cord in a hemisection model, algina...

  10. Permissive Schwann Cell Graft/Spinal Cord Interfaces for Axon Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Ryan R.; Henao, Martha; Pearse, Damien D.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2013-01-01

    The transplantation of autologous Schwann cells (SCs) to repair the injured spinal cord is currently being evaluated in a clinical trial. In support, this study determined properties of spinal cord/SC bridge interfaces that enabled regenerated brainstem axons to cross them, possibly leading to improvement in rat hindlimb movement Fluid bridges of SCs and Matrigel were placed in complete spinal cord transections. Compared to pregelled bridges of SCs and Matrigel, they improved regeneration of ...

  11. Morphological study of Schwann cells remyelination in contused spinal cord of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Lu; ZHANG Jie-yuan; Liu, Zheng; Duan, Zhao-Xia; Li, Bing-Cang

    2013-01-01

    【Abstract】Objective: To study the role and effect of Schwann cells (SCs) remyelination in contused spinal cord. Methods: Green fluorescence protein expressing-SCs were transplanted into the epicenter, rostral and caudal tis-sues of the injury site at 1 week after the spinal cords were contused. At 6 weeks, the spinal cords were removed for cryosections, semithin sections and ultrathin sections, and then immunocytochemical staining of myelin basic protein (MBP), P...

  12. Acute Spinal Cord Ischemia during Aortography Treated with Intravenous Thrombolytic Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo, Lucas; Guttin, Jorge F.

    2006-01-01

    Acute anterior spinal cord ischemia is a rare but disastrous complication of endovascular aortic procedures. Although intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is an effective treatment for acute brain ischemia, its use for the treatment of spinal cord ischemia has not previously been reported. We report the case of a patient who developed anterior spinal cord ischemia during diagnostic aortography. He was treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen ac...

  13. Puerarin Alleviates Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting Neuroinflammation in Spinal Cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain responds poorly to drug treatments, and partial relief is achieved in only about half of the patients. Puerarin, the main constituent of Puerariae Lobatae Radix, has been used extensively in China to treat hypertension and tumor. The current study examined the effects of puerarin on neuropathic pain using two most commonly used animal models: chronic constriction injury (CCI and diabetic neuropathy. We found that consecutive intrathecal administration of puerarin (4–100 nM for 7 days inhibited the mechanical and thermal nociceptive response induced by CCI and diabetes without interfering with the normal pain response. Meanwhile, in both models puerarin inhibited the activation of microglia and astroglia in the spinal dorsal horn. Puerarin also reduced the upregulated levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and other proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, in the spinal cord. In summary, puerarin alleviated CCI- and diabetes-induced neuropathic pain, and its effectiveness might be due to the inhibition of neuroinflammation in the spinal cord. The anti-inflammation effect of puerarin might be related to the suppression of spinal NF-κB activation and/or cytokines upregulation. We conclude that puerarin has a significant effect on alleviating neuropathic pain and thus may serve as a therapeutic approach for neuropathic pain.

  14. Anterior spinal cord syndrome after initiation of treatment with atenolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Gregory S

    2010-06-01

    Anterior spinal cord syndrome is a rare condition with a variety of precipitating factors. Patients typically complain of weakness or paralysis of the extremities, often accompanied by pain, but frequently without a history of trauma. A 48-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of neck pain and inability to move his legs in the absence of trauma. Several hours prior he had seen his private physician and was given a dose of atenolol for elevated blood pressure. He had not previously been on medications for hypertension. His neurological examination revealed bilateral paralysis of the lower extremities. In the upper extremities he had weakness and sensory loss at the level of C6. Rectal tone was decreased and without sensation. Cervical and thoracic spine magnetic resonance imaging showed spondylotic disc disease, with disc herniation at C6-7 causing severe spinal canal stenosis. Despite i.v. methylprednisolone, pressors, and a prolonged intensive care unit course, the patient was discharged 5 weeks later with continued neurological deficits. Anterior spinal cord syndrome results from compression of the anterior spinal artery and often occurs in the absence of traumatic injury. The recognition, management, and prognosis of this condition are discussed. PMID:18597977

  15. Use of quadrupedal step training to re-engage spinal interneuronal networks and improve locomotor function after spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Prithvi K.; Garcia-Alias, Guillermo; Choe, Jaehoon; Gad, Parag; Gerasimenko, Yury; Tillakaratne, Niranjala; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2013-01-01

    Can lower limb motor function be improved after a spinal cord lesion by re-engaging functional activity of the upper limbs? We addressed this issue by training the forelimbs in conjunction with the hindlimbs after a thoracic spinal cord hemisection in adult rats. The spinal circuitries were more excitable, and behavioural and electrophysiological analyses showed improved hindlimb function when the forelimbs were engaged simultaneously with the hindlimbs during treadmill step-training as oppos...

  16. Intermittent positive-pressure breathing effects in patients with high spinal cord injury. : Hyperinflation in Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Laffont, Isabelle; Bensmail, Djamel; Lortat-Jacob, Sylvie; Falaize, Line; Hutin, Claudette; Le Bomin, Elisabeth; Ruquet, Maria; Denys, Pierre; Lofaso, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intermittent positive-pressure breathing (IPPB) improved lung compliance, work of breathing, and respiratory function in patients with recent high spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: An unblinded randomized crossover trial. SETTING: Rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=14) with SCI caused by trauma within the last 6 months and located between C5 and T6. INTERVENTION: Two months of IPPB and 2 months of conventional treatment were evaluated prospectiv...

  17. Blood-spinal cord barrier function and morphometry after single doses of x-rays in rat spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The effects of irradiation on blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) function and ultrastructure were evaluated using a rat spinal cord model. Methods and Materials: Rats received a single dose of 25 Gy to the cervical spinal cord (C2-T2). At various times following irradiation and before the onset of paralysis, BSCB function was assessed using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a vascular tracer, and barrier-related structural changes in the capillaries were evaluated using morphometric techniques. Results: Focal extravasation of HRP was seen at 93 days after irradiation, and extensive extravasation was apparent by 114 days in white matter, but not in gray matter. At 93 days, pathologic changes apparent by light microscopy were very minor in the white matter of the irradiated segment. By 107 days, myelin beading, Wallerian degeneration, edema, and histiocytes were apparent in white matter, and these features became increasingly prominent over the following weeks. No noteworthy changes were seen in gray matter at these times. Electron microscopic examination showed that, during the first 93 days following irradiation, more than half of the endothelial cells in white matter had disappeared (p < 0.05). In terms of the putative vascular pores, no abnormalities in endothelial junctions (the presumed small pore) were found, but there was an increase in the density of endothelial vesicles (a putative form of the large pore) in irradiated white matter (p < 0.001), but not in gray matter. Pericytes, thought to act as a second line of defence in the blood-brain barrier, increased in size but not in number in the irradiated white matter of the spinal cord. Conclusion: We suggest that radiation damage to endothelial cells, which form the BSCB prior to the onset of neurological deficit, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of white matter necrosis

  18. Spinal cord compression in β-thalassemia: follow-up after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cord compression due to extramedullary hematopoiesis is a well-described bu rare syndrome encountered in several hematologic disorders, including β-thalassemia. We report a case of a patient with intermediate β-thalassemia and crural paraparesis due to spinal cord compression by a paravertebral extramedullary mass. She was successfully treated with low-dose radiotherapy and transfusions. After splenectomy, she was regularly followed up for over four years without transfusion or recurrence of spinal cord compression. Extramedullary hematopoiesis should be investigated in patients with hematologic disorders and spinal cord symptoms. The rapid recognition and treatment with radiotherapy can dramatically alleviate symptoms. (author)

  19. MR spectroscopy of cervical spinal cord in patients with multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the brain in patients with multiple sclerosis has been well studied. However, in vivo MRS of the spinal cord in patients with MR spectroscopy has not been reported to our knowledge. We performed MRS of normal-appearing cervical spinal cords in multiple sclerosis patients and in healthy controls. N-acetyl aspartate was shown to be reduced within the cervical spinal cord of multiple sclerosis patients when compared with healthy controls. This finding supports axonal loss and damage within even normal-appearing spinal cords of multiple sclerosis patients. (orig.)

  20. Selective Stimulation of the Spinal Cord Surface Using a Conformable Microelectrode Array

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Williams Meacham; Shawn Hochman

    2011-01-01

    By electrically stimulating the spinal cord, it is possible to activate functional populations of neurons that modulate motor and sensory function. One method for accessing these neurons is via their associated axons, which project as functionally-segregated longitudinal columns of white- matter funiculi (i.e., spinal tracts). To stimulate spinal tracts without penetrating the cord, we have recently developed technology that enables close-proximity, multi-electrode contact with the spinal ...

  1. Delayed release particles from vascular endothelial growth factor for repairing spinal cord ischemic injury of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yang; LI Feng; XIAO Jian-de; LI Zhen-yu; YANG Lei; LUO Xin-le

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of delayed release particles from vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)on the reparation of ischemic injury of spinal cord in rats. Methods:The spinal cord ischemia model of rats was established.The delayed release particles from VEGF were injected via the intubation of spinal subarachnoid space.The rehabilitation was observed by the assessment of unfold claw reflection,space between toes,spinal evoked potential (SEP) and motor evoked potential (MEP). Results:VEGF prompted SEP and MEP appearance,improved the motor function of hind limbs. Conclusions:VEGF can promote the rehabilitation of spinal cord ischemic injury of rats.

  2. Synaptic development in the injured spinal cord cavity following co-transplantation of fetal spinal cord cells and autologous activated Schwann cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wendong Ruan; Yuan Xue; Ninghua Li; Xiaotao Zhao; Huajian Zhao; Peng Li

    2010-01-01

    Transplantation of activated transgenic Schwann cells or a fetal spinal cord cell suspension has been widely used to treat spinal cord injury. However, little is known regarding the effects of co-transplantation. In the present study, autologous Schwann cells in combination with a fetal spinal cord cell suspension were transplanted into adult Wistar rats with spinal cord injury, and newly generated axonal connections were observed ultrastructurally. Transmission electron microscopic observations showed that the neuroblast first presented cytoplasmic processes, followed by pre- and postsynaptic membranes with low electron density forming a dense projection. The number and types of synaptic vesicles were increased. Synaptic connections developed from single cell body-dendritic synapses into multiple cell body-dendritic anddendrite-dendritic synapses. In addition, the cell organs of the transplanted neuroblast, oligodendroblast and astroblast matured gradually. The blood-brain barrier appeared subsequently. Moreover, neurofilament, histamine, calcitonin-gene-related peptides, and glial fibrillary acidic protein positive fibers were observed in the transplant region. These findings demonstrate that fetal spinal cord cells in the presence of autologous activated Schwann cells can develop into mature synapses in the cavity of injured spinal cords, suggesting the possibility of information exchange through the reconstructed synapse between fetal spinal cord cells and the host.

  3. Electrophysiological study of supraspinal input and spinal output of cat's subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Velo

    Full Text Available This work addressed the study of subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD neurons in relation to their supraspinal input and the spinal terminating sites of their descending axons. SRD extracellular unitary recordings from anesthetized cats aimed to specifically test, 1 the rostrocaudal segmental level reached by axons of spinally projecting (SPr neurons collateralizing or not to or through the ipsilateral nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NRGc, 2 whether SPr fibers bifurcate to the thalamus, and 3 the effects exerted on SRD cells by electrically stimulating the locus coeruleus, the periaqueductal grey, the nucleus raphe magnus, and the mesencephalic locomotor region. From a total of 191 SPr fibers tested to cervical 2 (Ce2, thoracic 5 (Th5 and lumbar5 (Lu5 stimulation, 81 ended between Ce2 and Th5 with 39 of them branching to or through the NRGc; 21/49 terminating between Th5 and Lu5 collateralized to or through the same nucleus, as did 34/61 reaching Lu5. The mean antidromic conduction velocity of SPr fibers slowed in the more proximal segments and increased with terminating distance along the cord. None of the 110 axons tested sent collaterals to the thalamus; instead thalamic stimulation induced long-latency polysynaptic responses in most cells but also short-latency, presumed monosynaptic, in 7.9% of the tested neurons (18/227. Antidromic and orthodromic spikes were elicited from the locus coeruleus and nucleus raphe magnus, but exclusively orthodromic responses were observed following stimulation of the periaqueductal gray or mesencephalic locomotor region. The results suggest that information from pain-and-motor-related supraspinal structures converge on SRD cells that through SPr axons having conduction velocities tuned to their length may affect rostral and caudal spinal cord neurons at fixed delays, both directly and in parallel through different descending systems. The SRD will thus play a dual functional role by simultaneously

  4. Amikacin Dosing and Monitoring in Spinal Cord Injury Patients: Variation in Clinical Practice Between Spinal Injury Units and Differences in Experts' Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan; Charles Peloquin; Jean-Jacques Wyndaele; Buczynski, Andrew Z.; Yaniv Almog; Markantonis, Sophia L.; Vidya Jayawardena; Soni, Bakul M.; Joan Cannon; Joan Vidal

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this article was to determine the current practice on amikacin dosing and monitoring in spinal cord injury patients from spinal cord physicians and experts. Physicians from spinal units and clinical pharmacologists were asked to provide protocol for dosing and monitoring of amikacin therapy in spinal cord injury patients. In a spinal unit in Poland, amikacin is administered usually 0.5 g twice daily. A once-daily regimen of amikacin is never used and amikacin concentrations a...

  5. A potential protective effect of α-tocopherol on vascular complication in spinal cord reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Ossama A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraplegia remains a potential complication of spinal cord ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI in which oxidative stress induced cyclooxygenase activities may contribute to ischemic neuronal damage. Prolonged administration of vitamin E (α-TOL, as a potent biological antioxidant, may have a protective role in this oxidative inflammatory ischemic cascade to reduce the incidence of paraplegia. The present study was designed to evaluate the preventive value of α-TOL in IRI of spinal cord. Methods For this study, 50 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into five experimental groups (n = 10: Control group (C; α-TOL control group (CE which received intramuscular (i.m. α-TOL injections (600 mg/kg; Sham operated group (S, IRI rats were subjected to laparotomy and clamping of the aorta just above the bifurcation for 45 min, then the clamp was released for 48 hrs for reperfusion; and IRIE rats group, received 600 mg/kg of α-TOL i.m. twice weekly for 6 weeks, followed by induction of IRI similar to the IRI group. At the end of the experimental protocol; motor, sensory and placing/stepping reflex evaluation was done. Plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx was measured. Then animals' spinal cord lumbar segments were harvested and homogenized for measurement of the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, malondialdehyde (MDA and advanced oxidation products (AOPP, while superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity were evaluated. Results Induction of IRI in rats resulted in significant increases in plasma levels of nitrite/nitrate (p 2, MDA, advanced oxidation protein products AOPP and SOD with significant reduction (p Conclusions α-TOL administration significantly prevents the damage caused by spinal cord IRI in rats with subsequent recovery of both motor and sensory functions. Alpha-tocopherol improves the oxidative stress level with subsequent reduction of the incidence of neurological deficits due to spinal cord IRI conditions.

  6. The impact of spinal cord injury on South African youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Njoki

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 500 South Africans, mainly young people,sustain a spinal cord injury every year leading to severe lifetime physical disabilities. With advances in medicine and assistive technology, these young people are able to reach adulthood. The physical, social and  emotional adjustments, which determine the eventual successful outcome following injury, vary considerably from person to person. Some make satisfactory adjustments whereas others remain chronically distressed.This study aimed to determine the impact of SCI on youth in community settings after discharge from rehabilitation.  A qualitative approach, that utilised face-to-face interviews and focus group methods of data collection, was used. Data were drawn from ten participants selected at Conradie Spinal Rehabilitation Unit, using purposive sampling. Audiotape recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim. Strong themes that ran through the data were identified. The results of the study revealed that spinal cord injury impacts on more than just the physical capabilities of an individual. Participants identified issues such as social identity, intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, social support and employment opportunities as having a major impact on their lives once back in the community.  It is  recommended that rehabilitation professionals include issues such as identity and psychosocial adjustment into their health promotion interventions.

  7. Cellular transplantation strategies for spinal cord injury and translational neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reier, Paul J

    2004-10-01

    Basic science advances in spinal cord injury and regeneration research have led to a variety of novel experimental therapeutics designed to promote functionally effective axonal regrowth and sprouting. Among these interventions are cell-based approaches involving transplantation of neural and non-neural tissue elements that have potential for restoring damaged neural pathways or reconstructing intraspinal synaptic circuitries by either regeneration or neuronal/glial replacement. Notably, some of these strategies (e.g., grafts of peripheral nerve tissue, olfactory ensheathing glia, activated macrophages, marrow stromal cells, myelin-forming oligodendrocyte precursors or stem cells, and fetal spinal cord tissue) have already been translated to the clinical arena, whereas others have imminent likelihood of bench-to-bedside application. Although this progress has generated considerable enthusiasm about treating what once was thought to be a totally incurable condition, there are many issues to be considered relative to treatment safety and efficacy. The following review reflects on different experimental applications of intraspinal transplantation with consideration of the underlying pathological, pathophysiological, functional, and neuroplastic responses to spinal trauma that such treatments may target along with related issues of procedural and biological safety. The discussion then moves to an overview of ongoing and completed clinical trials to date. The pros and cons of these endeavors are considered, as well as what has been learned from them. Attention is primarily directed at preclinical animal modeling and the importance of patterning clinical trials, as much as possible, according to laboratory experiences. PMID:15717046

  8. Changes in Pain Processing in the Spinal Cord and Brainstem after Spinal Cord Injury Characterized by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, Patrick W; Khan, Hamza S; Bosma, Rachel L; Cotoi, Andrea I; Leung, Roxanne; Cadotte, David W; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has a number of devastating consequences, including high prevalence of chronic pain and altered pain sensitivity. The causes of altered pain states vary depending on the injury and are difficult to diagnose and treat. A better understanding of pain mechanisms after SCI is expected to lead to better diagnostic capabilities and improved treatments. We therefore applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brainstem and spinal cord in a group of participants with previous traumatic SCI to characterize changes in pain processing as a result of their injuries. The same thermal stimulus was applied to the medial palm (C8 dermatome) as a series of repeated brief noxious thermal pulses in a group of 16 participants with a cervical (n = 14) and upper thoracic (n = 2) injuries. Functional MRI of the brainstem and spinal cord was used to determine the neuronal activity evoked by the noxious stimulation, and connectivity between regions was characterized with structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that pain ratings, the location and magnitude of blood oxygenation-level dependent fMRI results, and connectivity assessed with SEM varied widely across participants. However, the results varied in relation to the perceived pain and the level/severity of injuries, particularly in terms of hypothalamus connectivity with other regions, and descending modulation via the periaqueductal gray matter-rostral ventromedial medulla-cord pathway. The results, therefore, appear to provide sensitive indicators of each individual's pain response, and information about the mechanisms of altered pain sensitivity. The ability to characterize changes in pain processing in individuals with SCI represents a significant technological advance. PMID:26801315

  9. Evidence for specialized rhythm-generating mechanisms in the adult mammalian spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigon, Alain; Gossard, Jean-Pierre

    2010-05-19

    Locomotion and scratch are characterized by alternation of flexion and extension phases within one hindlimb, which are mediated by rhythm-generating circuitry within the spinal cord. By definition, the rhythm generator controls cycle period, phase durations, and phase transitions. The aim was to determine whether rhythm-generating mechanisms for locomotion and scratch are similar in adult decerebrate cats. The regulation of cycle period during fictive scratching was evaluated, as were the effects of specific sensory inputs on phase durations and transitions during spontaneous fictive locomotion and pinna-evoked fictive scratching. Results show that cycle period during fictive scratching varied predominantly with flexion phase duration, contrary to spontaneous fictive locomotion, where cycle period varied with extension phase duration. Ankle dorsiflexion greatly increased extension phase duration and cycle period during fictive locomotion but did not alter cycle period during scratching. Moreover, stimulating the plantaris (ankle extensor muscle) nerve during flexion reset the locomotor rhythm to extension but not the scratch rhythm. Stimulating the plantaris nerve during extension prolonged the extension phase and cycle period during fictive locomotion but not during fictive scratching. Stimulating the sartorius nerve (hip flexor muscle) during early flexion reduced the flexion phase and cycle period during fictive locomotion, but considerably prolonged the flexion phase and cycle period during fictive scratching. These data indicate that cycle period, phase durations, and phase transitions are not regulated similarly during fictive locomotion and scratching, with or without sensory inputs, providing evidence for specialized rhythm-generating mechanisms within the adult mammalian spinal cord. PMID:20484648

  10. Roentgenosemiotics of GI tract functional obstruction determined by birth injuries of the spinal column and spinal cord in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on animals and the results of combined clinico-roentgenological investigation of 150 children with birth injuries of the spinal column and cord and 40 children with invagination and consequences of the cervical spine and cord, made it possible to study roentgenosemiotics and to establish pathogenetic interrelationship of natal injuries of the spinal column, spinal cord and GI tract functional obstruction in the form of polyspasm, spastic-hypo- and atonic intestinal dyskenesia, gastroesophageal reflux, aspiration pneumonia with the development of intestinal invagination

  11. Atypical Supernumerary Phantom Limb and Phantom Limb Pain in a Patient With Spinal Cord Injury: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ja Young; Kim, Hyo In; Lee, Kil Chan; Han, Zee-A

    2013-01-01

    Supernumerary phantom limb (SPL) resulting from spinal cord lesions are very rare, with only sporadic and brief descriptions in the literature. Furthermore, the reported cases of SPL typically occurred in neurologically incomplete spinal cord patients. Here, we report a rare case of SPL with phantom limb pain that occurred after traumatic spinal cord injury in a neurologically complete patient. After a traffic accident, a 43-year-old man suffered a complete spinal cord injury with a C6 neurol...

  12. Evaluationof efficiency of methods of neuromodulation in the treatment of spastic syndromes in patients with spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Smolkin А.А.; Ninel V.G.; Korshunova G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of the neuromodulation methods and to determine their role in complex rehabilitation of patients with spastic syndromes after spinal cord injury. Material and methods: Based on the study and treatment of 105 patients with spastic syndromes after injury of the spinal cord, electrical stimulation of the spinal cord, epidural drug therapy in combination with electrical nerve stimulation and local hypothermia spinal cord have been consistently applied for the...

  13. Frequency of co-morbidities associated with spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequencies of comorbidities (dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) of duration > 1 year. Study Design: Case control. Place and Duration of Study: Spinal Cord Injury Department, Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM) Rawalpindi and Department of Chemical Pathology, Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), from October 2013 to March 2014. Patients and Methods: Thirty six patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI), level C5 to T12 were included by non-probability, convenience sampling. Control group consisted of age and sex matched healthy individuals. A detailed medical history was obtained. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded. Fasting blood samples were obtained and analyzed for plasma glucose and serum lipid profile. Results: Out of thirty six patients, 31 (86.1%) were male and 5 (13.9%) were females; their mean age was 36.6 ± 11 years. Mean duration of injury was 6.04 ± 3.35 years. Among cases, dyslipidemias were detected in 25 (69.4%) patients while 7 (19.4%) patients had diabetes mellitus. Whereas in control group, frequency of dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus were significantly lower than cases i.e 13.8% and 5.5% respectively. Also no significant difference was found between blood pressures of study group when compared with control group. Conclusion: Individuals with chronic SCI had more frequent associated co-morbid conditions like dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus than normal individuals. Early screening is recommended in patients having SCI >6 months for better patient care and reduction in long term comorbidities in such patients. (author)

  14. Differential Neuroproteomic and Systems Biology Analysis of Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghieb, Ahmed; Bramlett, Helen M; Das, Jyotirmoy H; Yang, Zhihui; Selig, Tyler; Yost, Richard A; Wang, Michael S; Dietrich, W Dalton; Wang, Kevin K W

    2016-07-01

    Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with many consequences and no known effective treatment. Although it is quite easy to diagnose traumatic SCI, the assessment of injury severity and projection of disease progression or recovery are often challenging, as no consensus biomarkers have been clearly identified. Here rats were subjected to experimental moderate or severe thoracic SCI. At 24h and 7d postinjury, spinal cord segment caudal to injury center versus sham samples was harvested and subjected to differential proteomic analysis. Cationic/anionic-exchange chromatography, followed by 1D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was used to reduce protein complexity. A reverse phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry proteomic platform was then utilized to identify proteome changes associated with SCI. Twenty-two and 22 proteins were up-regulated at 24 h and 7 day after SCI, respectively; whereas 19 and 16 proteins are down-regulated at 24 h and 7 day after SCI, respectively, when compared with sham control. A subset of 12 proteins were identified as candidate SCI biomarkers - TF (Transferrin), FASN (Fatty acid synthase), NME1 (Nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1), STMN1 (Stathmin 1), EEF2 (Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2), CTSD (Cathepsin D), ANXA1 (Annexin A1), ANXA2 (Annexin A2), PGM1 (Phosphoglucomutase 1), PEA15 (Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15), GOT2 (Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2), and TPI-1 (Triosephosphate isomerase 1), data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003473. In addition, Transferrin, Cathepsin D, and TPI-1 and PEA15 were further verified in rat spinal cord tissue and/or CSF samples after SCI and in human CSF samples from moderate/severe SCI patients. Lastly, a systems biology approach was utilized to determine the critical biochemical pathways and interactome in the pathogenesis of SCI. Thus, SCI candidate biomarkers identified can be used to correlate with disease progression or

  15. Ambulation following spinal cord injury and its correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Menon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess walking ability of spinal cord injury (SCI patients and observe its correlation with functional and neurological outcomes. Patients and Methods: The present prospective, observational study was conducted in a tertiary research hospital in India with 66 patients (46 males between January 2012 and December 2013. Mean age was 32.62 ± 11.85 years (range 16-65 years, mean duration of injury was 85.3 ± 97.6 days (range 14-365 days and mean length of stay in the rehabilitation unit was 38.08 ± 21.66 days (range 14-97 days in the study. Walking Index for spinal cord injury (WISCI II was used to assess ambulation of the SCI patients. Functional recovery was assessed using Barthel Index (BI and Spinal Cord Independence Measures (SCIM. Neurological recovery was assessed using ASIA impairment scale (AIS. We tried to correlate ambulatory ability of the patients with functional and neurological recovery. Results: Ambulatory ability of the patients improved significantly using WISCI II (P < 0.001 when admission and discharge scores were compared (1.4 ± 3.5 vs 7.6 ± 6.03. Similarly, functional (BI: 31.7 ± 20.5 vs 58.4 ± 23.7 and SCIM: 29.9 ± 15.1 vs 56.2 ± 20.6 and neurological recovery were found to be very significant (P < 0.001 when admission vs discharge scores were compared. Improvement in WISCI II scores was significantly correlated with improvement in neurological (using AIS scores and functional status (using BI and SCIM scores (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Significant improvement was seen in WISCI II, BI, and SCIM scores after in-patient rehabilitation. Improvement in WISCI II scores also significantly correlated with functional and neurological recovery.

  16. Religiosity and Spirituality among Persons with Spinal Cord Injury: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Irmo; Glover-Graf, Noreen M.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 157 persons with spinal cord injury completed the "Spirituality and Spinal Cord Injury Survey" in relation to their spiritual and/or religious attitudes, beliefs, and practices in terms of adapting to their disability. Factor analysis accounting for 69% of the variance revealed four factors related to Spiritual Help and Improvement…

  17. Intracranial somatosensory responses with direct spinal cord stimulation in anesthetized sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver E Flouty

    Full Text Available The efficacy of spinal cord stimulators is dependent on the ability of the device to functionally activate targeted structures within the spinal cord, while avoiding activation of near-by non-targeted structures. In theory, these objectives can best be achieved by delivering electrical stimuli directly to the surface of the spinal cord. The current experiments were performed to study the influence of different stimulating electrode positions on patterns of spinal cord electrophysiological activation. A custom-designed spinal cord neurostimulator was used to investigate the effects of lead position and stimulus amplitude on cortical electrophysiological responses to spinal cord stimulation. Brain recordings were obtained from subdural grids placed in four adult sheep. We systematically varied the position of the stimulating lead relative to the spinal cord and the voltage delivered by the device at each position, and then examined how these variables influenced cortical responses. A clear relationship was observed between voltage and electrode position, and the magnitude of high gamma-band oscillations. Direct stimulation of the dorsal column contralateral to the grid required the lowest voltage to evoke brain responses to spinal cord stimulation. Given the lower voltage thresholds associated with direct stimulation of the dorsal column, and its possible impact on the therapeutic window, this intradural modality may have particular clinical advantages over standard epidural techniques now in routine use.

  18. Spinal cord tolerance to reirradiation with single-fraction radiosurgery: a swine model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medin, P.M.; Foster, R.D.; Kogel, A.J. van der; Sayre, J.W.; McBride, W.H.; Solberg, T.D.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was performed to determine swine spinal cord tolerance to single-fraction, partial-volume irradiation 1 year after receiving uniform irradiation to 30 Gy in 10 fractions. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A 10-cm length of spinal cord (C3-T1) was uniformly irradiated to 30 Gy in 10 consecut

  19. Spinal cord glioma after multiple fluoroscopies during artificial pneumothorax treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient is reported who developed multiple basal-cell carcinomas of the skin, a breast carcinoma, and astrocytoma of the spinal cord, and a bronchial carcinoid tumor following multiple fluoroscopies during artificial pneumothorax treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. A review of the literature revealed no previously documented cases of radiation-induced gliomas of the spinal cord

  20. Atorvastatin activates autophagy and promotes neurological function recovery after spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Zhang, Zhong-ming; Shen, Zhao-liang; Gao, Kai; Chang, Liang; Guo, Yue; Li, Zhuo; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ai-mei

    2016-01-01

    Atorvastatin, a lipid-lowering medication, provides neuroprotective effects, although the precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. Our previous studies confirmed activated autophagy following spinal cord injury, which was conducive to recovery of neurological functions. We hypothesized that atorvastatin could also activate autophagy after spinal cord injury, and subsequently improve recovery of neurological functions. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established based on the Allen method. Atorvastatin (5 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected at 1 and 2 days after spinal cord injury. At 7 days post-injury, western blot assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining results showed increased Beclin-1 and light chain 3B gene and protein expressions in the spinal cord injury + atorvastatin group. Additionally, caspase-9 and caspase-3 expression was decreased, and the number of TUNEL-positive cells was reduced. Compared with the spinal cord injury + saline group, Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale scores significantly increased in the spinal cord injury + atorvastatin group at 14–42 days post-injury. These findings suggest that atorvastatin activated autophagy after spinal cord injury, inhibited apoptosis, and promoted recovery of neurological function.

  1. Numerical model of the human cervical spinal cord--the development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyż, Marcin; Scigała, Krzysztof; Jarmundowicz, Włodzimierz; Będziński, Romuald

    2011-01-01

    The influence of mechanical load on the extent of nervous tissue damage in the spinal cord at the time of trauma is presently incontestable. Although numerical modelling cannot fully replace physical testing, it seems to be the perfect complement to experiments in terms of the analysis of such a complex phenomenon as traumatic spinal cord injury. Previous numerical models of the human cervical spinal cord have been limited by several factors: two-dimensional modelling, spinal cord geometry simplification and incomplete reflection of specific anatomical and biomechanical relations of the objects being modelled. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an accurate and universal numerical Finite Element Method (FEM) model of the human cervical spinal cord. Our survey focuses mainly on geometric, constraint and material aspects. Experimental validation was carried out based on a controlled compression of the porcine spinal cord specimens. Each stage of compression was simulated using the FEM model of the compressed segment. Our 3D numerical simulation results compared with experimental results show a good agreement. It is possible to use the developed numerical model of the human cervical spinal cord in the biomechanical analysis of the spinal cord injury phenomenon. However, further clinical evaluation is clearly justified. PMID:22339282

  2. Body composition of active persons with spinal cord injury and with poliomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study sought to evaluate the body composition of subjects with active spinal cord injuries and polio. Two groups of males and females, active, free-living, of similar ages and body mass index (BMI), were distributed according to the source of deficiency: SCI – low spinal cord injury (T5-T12) an...

  3. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Donovan, William; Kennelly, Michael; Kirshblum, Steven; Krogh, Klaus; Alexander, Marca Sipski; Vogel, Lawrence; Wecht, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including the...

  4. CT scanning in two cases of lipoma of the spinal cord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossetor, R.S.; Kaiser, M.; Veiga-Pires, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Two cases of lipoma of the spinal cord are presented. CT gives a specific diagnosis in this condition without any contrast being given. It is important to make a preoperative diagnosis, as in lipoma of the spinal cord biopsy is dangerous and frequently makes the patient worse. CT is also valuable as

  5. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and spinal cord compression: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Morghen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This report describes a 60-year-old woman with intensive back pain due to metastatic vertebral body collapse, who underwent  percutaneous vertebroplasty. Subsequently, the patient developed metastatic  lesion extrusion into the  spinal canal because of pressure of the cement, with compression of the left anterolateral spinal cord. During percutaneous vertebroplasty procedure in patient with malignant tumors, the complication rate increases owing to the risk of leakage of cement resulting from the vertebral body destruction, but as also seen in our case, for the extrusion of the neoplastic tissue  and increase of the pressure in the vertebral body due to the introduction of the cement.

  6. Spinal cord demyelination combined with hyperhomocysteinemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao MM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Meimei Hao, Yan Zhang, Shuangxing Hou, Yanling Chen, Ming Shi, Gang Zhao, Yanchun Deng Department of Neurology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy has been recognized as an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease. Here we report a patient who suffered from spinal cord demyelination combined with HHcy. The patient was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of acute myelitis. However, hormone therapy was ineffective. Further investigations revealed that he had HHcy and a homozygous mutation of the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR c.677C>T, which is a key enzyme involved in homocysteine metabolism. In view of these findings, we treated the patient with B vitamins and his symptoms gradually improved. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging performed 3 months after onset showed near recovery of the lesion. To our knowledge, similar reports are rare. Keywords: demyelination, hyperhomocysteinemia, homocysteine, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, methylation

  7. Blocking weight-induced spinal cord injury in rats: effects of TRH or naloxone on motor function recovery and spinal cord blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtz, A.; Nystroem, B. (Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)); Gerdin, B. (Department of General Surgery, University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1989-01-01

    The ability of thyotropin releasing hormone (TRH) or naloxone to reduce the motor function deficit and to improve the spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) was investigated in a rat spinal cord compression injury model. Spinal cord injury was induced by compression for 5 min with a load of 35 g on a 2.2 x 5.0 mm sized compression plate causing a transient paraparesis. One group of animals was given TRH, one group naloxone and one group saline alone. Each drug was administered intravenously as a bolus dose of 2 mg/kg 60 min after injury followed by a continuous infusion of 2 mg/kg/h for 4 h. The motor performance was assessed daily on the inclined plant until Day 4, when SCBF was measured with the {sup 14}C-iodoantipyrine autoradiographic method. It was found that neither TRH nor naloxone had promoted motor function recovery or affected SCBF 4 days after spinal cord injury. (author).

  8. Blocking weight-induced spinal cord injury in rats: effects of TRH or naloxone on motor function recovery and spinal cord blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of thyotropin releasing hormone (TRH) or naloxone to reduce the motor function deficit and to improve the spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) was investigated in a rat spinal cord compression injury model. Spinal cord injury was induced by compression for 5 min with a load of 35 g on a 2.2 x 5.0 mm sized compression plate causing a transient paraparesis. One group of animals was given TRH, one group naloxone and one group saline alone. Each drug was administered intravenously as a bolus dose of 2 mg/kg 60 min after injury followed by a continuous infusion of 2 mg/kg/h for 4 h. The motor performance was assessed daily on the inclined plant until Day 4, when SCBF was measured with the 14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiographic method. It was found that neither TRH nor naloxone had promoted motor function recovery or affected SCBF 4 days after spinal cord injury. (author)

  9. Substance P release from rat hypothalamus and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for substance P has been developed to study the release of immunoreactive substance P from incubated rat hypothalamus and rat spinal cord in vitro. Release was significantly increased in the presence of two depolarizing stimuli (56 mM KCl and 75 μM veratrine) and was calcium-dependent. The released immunoreactive material diluted in parallel with synthetic substance P and showed close identity on Sephadex chromatography. A neuromodulator role for the peptide in the central nervous system is suggested

  10. Urinary tract infections in patients with spinal cord lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Bagi, P; Høiby, N

    2001-01-01

    Even though the mortality due to urinary tract complications has decreased dramatically during the last decades in individuals with spinal cord lesions (SCL), urinary tract infections (UTI) still cause significant morbidity in this population. Complicated UTI are caused by a much wider variety of...... with SCL. There is no doubt that the greatest risk for complicated UTI in these individuals is the use of an indwelling catheter. Intermittent catheterisation during the rehabilitation phase has been shown to lower the rate of UTI, and virtually eliminate many of the complications associated with...

  11. Spinal-Cord-Injured Individual's Experiences of Having a Partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    Having a partner is a strong factor in adaptation to the new life situation with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Still, more knowledge in detail about the partner's influences according to the experiences of individuals with SCI could contribute to the understanding of the situation after an injury....... The aim of this phenomenological-hermeneutic article is to achieve a deeper understanding of nine individuals' experiences the first 2 years after SCI. In rehabilitation after SCI, the partner supported the SCI individual's life spirit by not giving up and by still seeing possibilities in the future...

  12. Endovascular treatment of spine and spinal cord lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berenstein, A. (New York Univ. - Bellevue Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Neurosurgery); Lasjaunias, P. (New York Univ., NY (United States) Hopital de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France))

    1992-01-01

    Completing this comprehensive series on endovascular interventional angiography, Volume 5 focuses on the vascular abnormalities of the spine and spinal cord. It is based on the detailed functional vascular anatomy described in Volume 3 and the principles and function of endovascular treatment described in Volumes 1-4. As in the companion volumes, the unique approach gives view of the disease itself, its anatomical features and its clinical presentation. The technical aspects of the interventional or endovascular neuroradiology are built upon the solid analysis of the disease and its angioarchitecture. The recent developments in endovascular procedures, such as aneurysm treatment, angioplasty, and vascular recanalizations, are reviewed. (orig.). 118 figs. in 442 separate illustrations

  13. Retinoic Acid Signaling during Early Spinal Cord Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Diez del Corral

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid signaling is required at several steps during the development of the spinal cord, from the specification of generic properties to the final acquisition of neuronal subtype identities, including its role in trunk neural crest development. These functions are associated with the production of retinoic acid in specific tissues and are highly dependent on context. Here, we review the defects associated with retinoic acid signaling manipulations, mostly in chick and mouse models, trying to separate the different processes where retinoic acid signaling is involved and to highlight common features, such as its ability to promote transitions along the neuronal differentiation cascade.

  14. Central Nervous System Aspergillosis causing Spinal Cord Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Ahmed

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS aspergillosis is a rare and uniformly fatal complication of disseminated disease, involving the cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum in the majority of cases. It is a ubiquitous mold and refers to a group of diseases caused by monomorphic mycelial fungi of the genus Aspergillosis fumigatus. Outbreaks of invasive aspergillosis are a problem in immunocompromized persons after they are exposed to air-borne spores.1 Aspergillosis causing spinal cord compression due to epidural abscess formation and hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a rare entity, thus such a case is presented herewith.

  15. Management of Pediatric Spinal Cord Astrocytomas: Outcomes With Adjuvant Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guss, Zachary D.; Moningi, Shalini [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Jallo, George I. [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Cohen, Kenneth J. [Division of Pediatric Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wharam, Moody D. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Terezakis, Stephanie A., E-mail: stereza1@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord tumors are exceedingly rare; in the United States, 100 to 200 cases are recognized annually, of these, most are astrocytomas. The purpose of this study is to report the outcomes in pediatric patients with spinal cord astrocytomas treated at a tertiary care center. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved retrospective single-institution study was performed for pediatric patients with spinal cord astrocytomas treated at our hospital from 1990 to 2010. The patients were evaluated on the extent of resection, progression-free survival (PFS), and development of radiation-related toxicities. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate regression model methods were used for analysis. Results: Twenty-nine patients were included in the study, 24 with grade 1 or 2 (low-grade) tumors and 5 with grade 3 or 4 (high-grade) tumors. The median follow-up time was 55 months (range, 1-215 months) for patients with low-grade tumors and 17 months (range, 10-52 months) for those with high-grade tumors. Thirteen patients in the cohort received chemotherapy. All patients underwent at least 1 surgical resection. Twelve patients received radiation therapy to a median radiation dose of 47.5 Gy (range, 28.6-54.0 Gy). Fifteen patients with low-grade tumors and 1 patient with a high-grade tumor exhibited stable disease at the last follow-up visit. Acute toxicities of radiation therapy were low grade, whereas long-term sequelae were infrequent and manageable when they arose. All patients with low-grade tumors were alive at the last follow-up visit, compared with 1 patient with a high-grade tumor. Conclusion: Primary pediatric spinal cord astrocytomas vary widely in presentation and clinical course. Histopathologic grade remains a major prognostic factor. Patients with low-grade tumors tend to have excellent disease control and long-term survival compared to those with high-grade tumors. This experience suggests that radiation therapy

  16. Cervical spinal cord compression after thyroidectomy under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenlong; Qiu, Jin; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Chuanhan

    2014-02-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury is a rare but serious complication after general anesthesia. The risk factors include traumatic cervical injury, cervical spine instability, and difficult airway management. It has also occurred in the absence of cervical instability. Here we report a patient who had a history of intermittent neck pain without numbness. Preoperative radiologic examinations showed degenerative changes in the cervical spine. She developed progressive tingling and numbness in her limbs after thyroidectomy under general anesthesia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cervical disc protruding into the canal at C5-C6, which was considered to be induced by surgical positioning. She recovered after anterior cervical decompression and internal fixation surgery. PMID:23828450

  17. Peripheral formalin injection induces unique spinal cord microglial phenotypic changes

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Kai-Yuan; Tan, Yong-Hui; Sung, Backil; Mao, Jianren

    2008-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of brain and activated by peripheral tissue injury. In the present study, we investigated the possible induction of several microglial surface immunomolecules in the spinal cord, including leukocyte common antigen (LCA/CD45), MHC class I antigen, MHC class II antigen, Fc receptor, and CD11c following formalin injection into the rat’s hind paw. CD45 and MHC class I were upregulated in the activated microglia, which was evident on day 3 with the peak expressi...

  18. Management of Pediatric Spinal Cord Astrocytomas: Outcomes With Adjuvant Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord tumors are exceedingly rare; in the United States, 100 to 200 cases are recognized annually, of these, most are astrocytomas. The purpose of this study is to report the outcomes in pediatric patients with spinal cord astrocytomas treated at a tertiary care center. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved retrospective single-institution study was performed for pediatric patients with spinal cord astrocytomas treated at our hospital from 1990 to 2010. The patients were evaluated on the extent of resection, progression-free survival (PFS), and development of radiation-related toxicities. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate regression model methods were used for analysis. Results: Twenty-nine patients were included in the study, 24 with grade 1 or 2 (low-grade) tumors and 5 with grade 3 or 4 (high-grade) tumors. The median follow-up time was 55 months (range, 1-215 months) for patients with low-grade tumors and 17 months (range, 10-52 months) for those with high-grade tumors. Thirteen patients in the cohort received chemotherapy. All patients underwent at least 1 surgical resection. Twelve patients received radiation therapy to a median radiation dose of 47.5 Gy (range, 28.6-54.0 Gy). Fifteen patients with low-grade tumors and 1 patient with a high-grade tumor exhibited stable disease at the last follow-up visit. Acute toxicities of radiation therapy were low grade, whereas long-term sequelae were infrequent and manageable when they arose. All patients with low-grade tumors were alive at the last follow-up visit, compared with 1 patient with a high-grade tumor. Conclusion: Primary pediatric spinal cord astrocytomas vary widely in presentation and clinical course. Histopathologic grade remains a major prognostic factor. Patients with low-grade tumors tend to have excellent disease control and long-term survival compared to those with high-grade tumors. This experience suggests that radiation therapy

  19. Spinal cord Neurobehcet's disease detected on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging studies in Neurobehcet's disease have to date focused on the brain, with only four previous case reports of documented spinal cord involvement on MRI being published. A fifth case is documented here, together with a review of the literature. The conclusion of this study is that while the MRI findings were non-specific, it is still a reliable and sensitive test in Neurobehcet's disease. It should be used to support the clinical and laboratory diagnosis, and to monitor subsequent progress and treatment. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  20. MRI in Lyme disease of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of Lyme myelitis in a 31-year-old man, presenting with a conus medullaris syndrome. MRI demonstrated contrast enhancement on the pial surface of the lower thoracic cord and conus medullaris. Elevated blood immunoglobulins and IgM antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were found. Leptomeningitis may be the first stage of spinal infection in Lyme disease, preceding parenchymal infection leading to myelitis. Vasculitis is probably the major mechanism. MRI findings are nonspecific and the diagnosis is given by serum and CSF analyses. Early treatment with antibiotics and high doses steroids may result in complete recovery, as in this case. (orig.)

  1. Zinc-enriched boutons in rat spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Danscher, G; Jo, S M;

    2000-01-01

    The rat spinal cord reveals a complex pattern of zinc-enriched (ZEN) boutons. As a result of in vivo exposure to selenide ions, nanosized clusters of zinc selenide are created in places where zinc ions are present, including the zinc-containing synaptic vesicles of ZEN boutons. The clusters can be...... silver enhanced by autometallographic (AMG) development. A description of the ZEN bouton patterns is presented and discussed. The distribution of ZEN boutons could indicate that these terminal systems have a differentiated influence on sensory and motor systems....

  2. MRI in Lyme disease of the spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantienne, C.; Catalaa, I.; Sevely, A.; Cognard, C.; Manelfe, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Neuroradiology, Hopital Purpan, Toulouse (France); Albucher, J.F. [Dept. of Neurology, Hopital Purpan, Toulouse (France)

    2001-06-01

    We report a case of Lyme myelitis in a 31-year-old man, presenting with a conus medullaris syndrome. MRI demonstrated contrast enhancement on the pial surface of the lower thoracic cord and conus medullaris. Elevated blood immunoglobulins and IgM antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were found. Leptomeningitis may be the first stage of spinal infection in Lyme disease, preceding parenchymal infection leading to myelitis. Vasculitis is probably the major mechanism. MRI findings are nonspecific and the diagnosis is given by serum and CSF analyses. Early treatment with antibiotics and high doses steroids may result in complete recovery, as in this case. (orig.)

  3. Pure intramedullary spinal cord metastasis secondary to gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzeri, Roberto; Galarza, Marcelo; Faiola, Andrea; Gazzeri, Giovanni

    2006-04-01

    Pure intramedullary spinal-cord metastases (ISCM) are a rare manifestation of cancer. We report a case of ISCM from gastric cancer. A 68-year-old man, treated with total gastrectomy for a gastric cancer, presented 9 months later with paresis of the left arm, pain and dissociated sensory loss. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a pure intramedullary lesion at the C3-C5 level. After surgical resection, pathological findings revealed an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric origin. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of ISCM from gastric cancer in the literature. PMID:16465555

  4. Effect of misonidazole on radiation injury to mouse spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of hind limb paralysis in unanaesthetized mice following spinal cord X irradiation and/or misonidazole (MISO) was studied at 7 and 18 months after treatment. The sensitizer enhancement ratios calculated from the ED50 at 7 and 18 months showed a small enhancement of radiation paralysis when MISO was given before X-irradiation but it was not statistically significant. Enhancement of spinalcord injury at lower MISO doses has been observed in previous studies but this may have been due to anaesthesia-induced hypoxia. (U.K.)

  5. Care of post-traumatic spinal cord injury patients in India: An analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey V; Nigam V; Goyal T; Chhabra H

    2007-01-01

    Background: The spinal cord injured patients if congregated early in spinal units where better facilities and dedicated expert care exist the outcome of treatment and rehabilitation, can be improved. The objective of this study is to find out the various factors responsible for a delay in the presentation of spinal injury patients to the specialized spinal trauma units and to suggest steps to improve the quality of care of the spinal trauma patients in the Indian setup. Materials and Method...

  6. Transcutaneous spinal stimulation as a therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury: state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Fregni, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Leandro H Grecco,1,3,4,* Shasha Li,1,5,* Sarah Michel,1,6,* Laura Castillo-Saavedra,1 Andoni Mourdoukoutas,7 Marom Bikson,7 Felipe Fregni1,21Spaulding Neuromodulation Center, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 2Spaulding-Harvard Spinal Cord Injury Model System, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA; 3Special Laboratory of Pain and Signaling, Butantan Institute, 4Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sc...

  7. Neural Precursor Cell Transplantation Enhances Functional Recovery and Reduces Astrogliosis in Bilateral Compressive/Contusive Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Jared T.; Satkunendrarajah, Kajana; Zuccato, Jeffrey A.; Nassiri, Farshad; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of neural precursor cell (NPC) transplants in a rodent model of bilateral cervical contusion-compression spinal cord injury. Transplantation of NPCs in the bilaterally injured cervical spinal cord resulted in significantly improved spinal cord tissue composition and forelimb function and warrants study in preclinical cervical models to improve this treatment paradigm for clinical translation.

  8. Early history of glycine receptor biology in mammalian spinal cord circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Callister

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review we provide an overview of key in vivo experiments, undertaken in the cat spinal cord in the 1950s and 1960s, and point out their contributions to our present understanding of glycine receptor (GlyR function. Importantly, some of these discoveries were made well before an inhibitory receptor, or its agonist, was identified. These contributions include the universal acceptance of a chemical mode of synaptic transmission, that GlyRs are chloride channels, are involved in reciprocal and recurrent spinal inhibition, are selectively blocked by strychnine, and can be distinguished from the GABAA receptor by their insensitivity to bicuculline. The early in vivo work on inhibitory mechanisms in spinal neurons also contributed to several enduring principles on synaptic function, such as the time associated with synaptic delay, the extension of Dale’s hypothesis (regarding the chemical unity of nerve cells and their terminals to neurons within the central nervous system, and the importance of inhibition for synaptic integration in motor and sensory circuits. We hope the work presented here will encourage those interested in GlyR biology and inhibitory mechanisms to seek out and read some of the “classic” articles that document the above discoveries.

  9. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of normal spinal cord: Evaluating cord visualization and conus medullaris position by T2-weighted sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ling Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR imaging demonstration of the normal spinal cord and the conus medullaris location has not been well studied. We compared balanced fast field echo (bFFE with single-shot turbo spin-echo (SSh-TSE MR sequences for visualizing the normal spinal cord and position of conus medullaris in fetuses. Methods: This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Chang Gung Medical Foundation. We reviewed the MR images of 141 fetuses aged between 16 and 39 gestational weeks, to determine the position of the conus and visualize the spinal cord by using a signal intensity ratio of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF to the spinal cord. Results: Of the 75 subjects having normal spinal cord and being examined by both bFFE and SSh-TSE studies, the signal intensity ratio of CSF/cord was greater on bFFE images (2.18 ± 0.53 than that on SSh-TSE images (1.21 ± 0.13 (p < 0.05. The conus level identified in the 50 subjects, in whom the lumbosacral spine was appropriately imaged, was located from L1 to L5 levels. The ascendance of the conus correlated moderately with gestational age. Conclusions: With greater signal contrast ratio of CSF to spinal cord, bFFE sequence, when compared with SSh-TSE sequence, provides better visualization of normal spinal cord. The fetal conus medullaris ascends from L5 to L1 levels as the gestational age increases.

  10. Retrograde tracing of fluorescent gold after autogenous nerve transplantation on spinal cord injured in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, X; Liu, W; Ding, Ming;

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of the fluorescent gold retrograde tracing autogenous nerve transplantation on spinal cord injured in rats. Methods The animals were divided into two groups, with modified Allen impact method to establish model of spinal cord injury. After 4 weeks, the...... transplantation group using autologous sural nerve graft to repair spinal cord injury period and non-transplantation group was only exposed incision without treatment. In the 4, 6 and 8 weeks after operation, the retrograde tracing of FG Fluoro-Gold was performed to discover the recovery of the axial plasma.......01). Conclusion After spinal cord injury, autologous nerve graft was repaired and survived well and promote the recovery of spinal cord injury segment shaft pulp transportation function....

  11. Production of dopamine by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase cells after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Liqun; Wienecke, Jacob; Hultborn, Hans;

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) cells are widely distributed in the spinal cord and their functions are largely unknown. We have previously found that AADC cells in the spinal cord could increase their ability to produce serotonin from 5-hydroxytryptophan after spinal cord injury (SCI...... inhibitor (pargyline) co-application, systemic administration of L-dopa resulted in ~ 94% of AADC cells to become DA-immunopositive in the spinal cord below the lesion, whereas in normal or sham-operated rats none or very few of AADC cells became DA-immunopositive with the same treatment. Using tail....... These findings demonstrate that AADC cells in the spinal cord below the lesion gain the ability to produce DA from its precursor in response to SCI. This ability also enables the AADC cells to produce 5-HT and trace-amines, and likely contributes to the development of hyperexcitability. These results...

  12. SEXUALITY OF PEOPLE WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY: AN ISSUE OF HEALTH EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Cruz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The spinal cord injury causes loss of sensation and movement below the level of injury, damaging some important functions in the body such as motor function, bladder control, bowel and sexual dysfunction. In general, affect mainly young males and its main cause is given by stab wound (SW, injury by firearms (IF, high falls, car accident, diving in shallow water, infectious and degenerative diseases. Spinal cord injury brings drastic changes in the lives not only of the person who suffered spinal cord injury, but also for the entire family. Health education focused on sexual rehabilitation is able to expand individual and collective knowledge, aiding in sexual adjustment. The purpose of this article is to describe the importance of health education for people with spinal cord injury. Through a structured questionnaire can appreciate the difficulties of people with spinal cord injury on sexuality and prove that the health education contributes to improving the quality of life of people

  13. Neurotransmission in CNS regions involved in pain modulation : Neurochemical effects of analgesic drugs and spinal cord stimulation in the spinal cord and midbrain periaqueductal grey of the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Stiller, Carl-Olav

    1997-01-01

    Neurotransmission in CNS Regions Involved in Pain Modulation Neurochemical effects of analgesic drugs and spinal cord stimulation in the dorsal horn and midbrain periaqueductal grey of the rat by Carl-Olav Stiller From the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Division of Pharmacology Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden The dorsal hom of the spinal cord and the midbrain penaqueductal grey matter (PAG) are important regions for pain modulation. In ...

  14. Early neurosurgical intervention of spinal cord contusion: an analysis of 30 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background The incidence of spinal injury with spinal cord contusion is high in developed countries and is now growing in China. Furthermore, spinal cord injury happens mostly in young people who have a long life expectance. A large number of patients thus are wheelchair bound for the rest of their lives. Therefore, spinal cord injury has aroused great concern worldwide. Despite great efforts, recovery from spinal cord injury remains unsatisfactory. Based on the pathology of spinal cord contusion, an idea of early neurosurgical intervention has been formulated in this study. Methods A total of 30 patients with "complete" spinal cord injury or classified as American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA)-A were studied. Orthopedic treatment of the injured vertebra(e), internal fixation of the vertebral column, and bilateral laminectomy for epidural decompression were followed directly by neurosurgical management, including separation of the arachnoid adhesion to restore cerebrospinal fluid flow and debridement of the spinal cord necrotic tissue with concomitant intramedullary decompression. Rehabilitation started 17 days after the operation. The final outcome was evaluated after 3 months of rehabilitation. Pearson chi-square analysis was used for statistical analysis. Results All the patients recovered some ability to walk. The least recovered patients were able to walk with a wheeled weight support and help in stabilizing the weight bearing knee joint (12 cases, 40%). Thirteen patients (43%) were able to walk with a pair of crutches, a stick or without any support. The timing of the operation after injury was important. An optimal operation time window was identified at 4-14 days after injury. Conclusions Early neurosurgical intervention of spinal cord contusion followed by rehabilitation can significantly improve the locomotion of the patients. It is a new idea of a therapeutic approach for spinal cord contusion and has been proven to be very successful.

  15. Transitory spinal cord swelling in a 6-year-old boy with Guillain-Barre syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 6-year-old boy developed progressive motor weakness and areflexia. The clinical picture, combined with electrophysiological findings, indicated a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). MRI on admission revealed spinal cord swelling and increased signal intensity within the cord. It is concluded that, since a degree of central nervous system involvement can occasionally be part of the spectrum of GBS, swelling of the spinal cord without contrast enhancement does not exclude a diagnosis of GBS. (orig.)

  16. Functional effect of mouse embryonic stem cell implantation after spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    We transplanted mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to improve functional loss in a rat model of clip-compression spinal cord injury (SCI). The mouse embryonic stem cells were transplanted to injured cord 7 days after injury. We include minimizing the progression of secondary injury, manipulating the neuroinhibitory environment of the spinal cord, replacing lost tissue with transplanted cells and substantial improvement of motor. A number of potential approaches optimize functional recovery af...

  17. Animal Models of Neurologic Disorders: A Nonhuman Primate Model of Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Nout, Yvette S.; Rosenzweig, Ephron S.; Brock, John H.; Strand, Sarah C.; Moseanko, Rod; Hawbecker, Stephanie; Zdunowski, Sharon; Nielson, Jessica L; Roy, Roland R.; Courtine, Gregoire; Ferguson, Adam R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Beattie, Michael S.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.; Tuszynski, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Primates are an important and unique animal resource. We have developed a nonhuman primate model of spinal cord injury (SCI) to expand our knowledge of normal primate motor function, to assess the impact of disease and injury on sensory and motor function, and to test candidate therapies before they are applied to human patients. The lesion model consists of a lateral spinal cord hemisection at the C7 spinal level with subsequent examination of behavioral, electrophysiological, and anatomical...

  18. Body Position Influences Which Neural Structures Are Recruited by Lumbar Transcutaneous Spinal Cord Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Danner, Simon M.; Matthias Krenn; Hofstoetter, Ursula S.; Andrea Toth; Winfried Mayr; Karen Minassian

    2016-01-01

    Transcutaneous stimulation of the human lumbosacral spinal cord is used to evoke spinal reflexes and to neuromodulate altered sensorimotor function following spinal cord injury. Both applications require the reliable stimulation of afferent posterior root fibers. Yet under certain circumstances, efferent anterior root fibers can be co-activated. We hypothesized that body position influences the preferential stimulation of sensory or motor fibers. Stimulus-triggered responses to transcutaneous...

  19. HOMICIDE BY CERVICAL SPINAL CORD GUNSHOT INJURY WITH SHOTGUN FIRE PELLETS: CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Turliuc, Serban Turliuc, Iustin Mihailov, Andrei Cucu, Gabriel Dumitrescu,Claudia Costea

    2015-01-01

    This case present a rare forensic case of cervical spinal gunshot injury of a female by her husband, a professional hunter, during a family fight with a shotgun fire pellets. The gunshot destroyed completely the cervical spinal cord, without injury to the neck vessels and organs and with the patient survival for seven days. We discuss notions of judicial ballistics, assessment of the patient with spinal cord gunshot injury and therapeutic strategies. Even if cervical spine gunshot injuries ar...

  20. Therapeutic effects of neurotrophic factors in experimental spinal cord injury models

    OpenAIRE

    Enomoto M

    2016-01-01

    Mitsuhiro Enomoto1,21Department of Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate School, 2Hyperbaric Medical Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Neurotrophic factors (NFs) play important roles in regenerative medicine approaches to mitigate primary and secondary damage after spinal cord injury (SCI) because their receptors are still present in the injured spinal cord even though the expression of the NFs themselves is decreased. Several reports have shown that NF adm...

  1. Thoracic rat spinal cord contusion injury induces remote spinal gliogenesis but not neurogenesis or gliogenesis in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Franz

    Full Text Available After spinal cord injury, transected axons fail to regenerate, yet significant, spontaneous functional improvement can be observed over time. Distinct central nervous system regions retain the capacity to generate new neurons and glia from an endogenous pool of progenitor cells and to compensate neural cell loss following certain lesions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether endogenous cell replacement (neurogenesis or gliogenesis in the brain (subventricular zone, SVZ; corpus callosum, CC; hippocampus, HC; and motor cortex, MC or cervical spinal cord might represent a structural correlate for spontaneous locomotor recovery after a thoracic spinal cord injury. Adult Fischer 344 rats received severe contusion injuries (200 kDyn of the mid-thoracic spinal cord using an Infinite Horizon Impactor. Uninjured rats served as controls. From 4 to 14 days post-injury, both groups received injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU to label dividing cells. Over the course of six weeks post-injury, spontaneous recovery of locomotor function occurred. Survival of newly generated cells was unaltered in the SVZ, HC, CC, and the MC. Neurogenesis, as determined by identification and quantification of doublecortin immunoreactive neuroblasts or BrdU/neuronal nuclear antigen double positive newly generated neurons, was not present in non-neurogenic regions (MC, CC, and cervical spinal cord and unaltered in neurogenic regions (dentate gyrus and SVZ of the brain. The lack of neuronal replacement in the brain and spinal cord after spinal cord injury precludes any relevance for spontaneous recovery of locomotor function. Gliogenesis was increased in the cervical spinal cord remote from the injury site, however, is unlikely to contribute to functional improvement.

  2. Traumatic spinal cord injury in MR imaging; Urazowe przerwanie ciaglosci rdzenia kregowego w obrazie MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronarski, J.; Wozniak, E. [Stoleczne Centrum Rehabilitacji, Konstancin (Poland)]|[Inst. Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warsaw (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    Spinal cord injuries in tetraplegics were briefly discussed on the basis of MR imaging. It was found that severe cervical spine trauma usually results in concussion - the complete transection of the cord is rare. A case of 19 years old male with total cord transection confirmed by MR imaging is described. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs.

  3. Contributions of Johann jacob Huber to the surface anatomy of the spinal cord and meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengachary, Setti S; Pelle, Dominic; Guthikonda, Murali

    2008-06-01

    From prehistoric times, man has been aware that injury to the spine may result in paralysis of the limbs; this is reflected in bas-relief figures found at Nineweh in ancient Mesopotamia, in a hunting scene that depicts a lioness wounded by King Ashurbanipal. The Edwin Smith papyrus gives many case illustrations of spinal cord injury resulting in paralysis, yet early physicians were unaware of the anatomy of the spinal cord. Galen performed prospective studies in animals by sectioning the spinal cord at varying levels and observing the commensurate paralysis and sensory loss. Real advances in the understanding of spinal cord anatomy did not occur until human cadaveric dissections were undertaken; even then, the knowledge of the anatomy of the spinal cord lagged behind that of other body structures. Johann Jacob Huber appears to be the first anatomist to focus on the spinal cord almost exclusively. His descriptions, and especially his illustrations that depict spinal cord surface anatomy, are impressive with regard to their accuracy and their sense of photorealism. Indeed, his illustrations seem to compare well with the anatomic drawings in contemporary anatomic texts. Yet, we were unable to find a single article in the entire English-language literature depicting his illustrations. We conclude that the description and anatomic illustrations by Johann Jacob Huber remain a hidden gem in the history of human spinal anatomy. PMID:18825005

  4. Neurogenesis in spinal cord of mouse: an autoradiographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An autoradiographic analysis of the time and sites of origin, and the migration and setting patterns of neurons was made in the spinal cord of the mouse. The neurons originated on days 10-15 of gestation with temporal gradients along the ventrodorsal and rostrocaudal axes. The motor neurons originated on days 10-11 of gestation; the neurons in the intermediate gray region originated on days 11-14 of gestation; the neurons of the head of the dorsal horn originated on days 12-14 of gestation. The neurons that originated on days 10 and 11 originated and migrated primarily from the basal plate, and they settled in the adjacent regions of the intermediate zone; those neurons formed on days 12-14 originated and migrated primarily from the alar plate, and it was concluded that these neuroblasts similarly settled in the adjacent regions of the intermediate zone. Extraventricular proliferation, which presumably signaled the initial stages of gliogenesis, was first observed on day 12 of gestation. This study supports the classical idea of the mosaic pattern of neurogenesis in the embryonic spinal cord. (Auth.)

  5. Spinal-cord injuries in Australian footballers, 1960-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T K; Coolican, M R

    1987-08-01

    A review of 107 footballers who suffered a spinal-cord injury between 1960 and 1985 has been undertaken. Since 1977, the number of such injuries in Rugby Union, Rugby League and Australian Rules has increased, from an average of about two injuries a year before 1977 to over eight injuries a year since then. Rugby Union is clearly the most dangerous game, particularly for schoolboys; all of the injuries in schoolboy games for this code have occurred since 1977. This study has shown that collision at scrum engagement, and not at scrum collapse, is the way in which the majority of scrum injuries are sustained. These injuries are largely preventable, and suggestions for rule changes are made. Half the injured players recovered to Frankel grades D or E. The financial entitlements of those injured were grossly inadequate; this warrants action. A national register for spinal-cord injuries from football should be established to monitor the effects of desirable rule changes in Rugby Union and Rugby League. PMID:3600465

  6. Spinal cord compression secondary to bone metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Chandra Doval; Komal Bhatia; Ashok Kumar Vaid; Keechelat Pavithran; Jai Bhagwan Sharma; Digant Hazarika; Amarnath Jena

    2006-01-01

    Bone metastases are rare in primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Spinal cord compression (SCC) due to bone metastases occur commonly in patients with lung and breast carcinomas, and metastatic HCC is an unusual cause of SCC. Spinal cord compression is an oncologic emergency and treatment delays can lead to irreversible consequences. Thus, the awareness that SCC could be a potential complication of bone metastases due to HCC is of significance in initiation of early treatment that can improve the quality of life and survival of the patients, if diagnosed earlier. This paper describes four cases of primary HCC with varied manifestations of SCC due to bone metastases. The first patient presented primarily with the symptoms of bone pains corresponding to the bone metastases sites rather than symptoms of associated hepatic pathology and eventually developed SCC. The second patient, diagnosed as having HCC, developed extradural SCC leading to paraplegia during the course of illness, for which he underwent emergency laminectomy with posterior fixation. The third patient developed SCC soon after the primary diagnosis and had to undergo emergency laminectomy. Post laminectomy he had good neurological recovery. The Fourth patient presented primarily with radicular pains rather than frank paraplegia as the first manifestation of SCC.

  7. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapies for Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M. Doulames

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cervical-level injuries account for the majority of presented spinal cord injuries (SCIs to date. Despite the increase in survival rates due to emergency medicine improvements, overall quality of life remains poor, with patients facing variable deficits in respiratory and motor function. Therapies aiming to ameliorate symptoms and restore function, even partially, are urgently needed. Current therapeutic avenues in SCI seek to increase regenerative capacities through trophic and immunomodulatory factors, provide scaffolding to bridge the lesion site and promote regeneration of native axons, and to replace SCI-lost neurons and glia via intraspinal transplantation. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are a clinically viable means to accomplish this; they have no major ethical barriers, sources can be patient-matched and collected using non-invasive methods. In addition, the patient’s own cells can be used to establish a starter population capable of producing multiple cell types. To date, there is only a limited pool of research examining iPSC-derived transplants in SCI—even less research that is specific to cervical injury. The purpose of the review herein is to explore both preclinical and clinical recent advances in iPSC therapies with a detailed focus on cervical spinal cord injury.

  8. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapies for Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulames, Vanessa M; Plant, Giles W

    2016-01-01

    Cervical-level injuries account for the majority of presented spinal cord injuries (SCIs) to date. Despite the increase in survival rates due to emergency medicine improvements, overall quality of life remains poor, with patients facing variable deficits in respiratory and motor function. Therapies aiming to ameliorate symptoms and restore function, even partially, are urgently needed. Current therapeutic avenues in SCI seek to increase regenerative capacities through trophic and immunomodulatory factors, provide scaffolding to bridge the lesion site and promote regeneration of native axons, and to replace SCI-lost neurons and glia via intraspinal transplantation. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a clinically viable means to accomplish this; they have no major ethical barriers, sources can be patient-matched and collected using non-invasive methods. In addition, the patient's own cells can be used to establish a starter population capable of producing multiple cell types. To date, there is only a limited pool of research examining iPSC-derived transplants in SCI-even less research that is specific to cervical injury. The purpose of the review herein is to explore both preclinical and clinical recent advances in iPSC therapies with a detailed focus on cervical spinal cord injury. PMID:27070598

  9. [Anesthesiological approach for patients with spinal cord injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, A; Litz, R J; Zahn, P

    2016-07-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCI) are serious medical conditions, which are associated with severe and potentially fatal risks and complications depending on the location and extent of injury. Traffic accidents, falls and recreational activities are the leading causes for traumatic SCI (TSCI) worldwide whereas non-traumatic spinal cord injuries (NTSCI) are mostly due to tumors and congenital diseases. As chronification of the injuries progresses other organ systems are affected including anatomical changes, the respiratory and cardiovascular systems and endocrinological pathways. All these effects have to be considered in the anesthesiological management of patients with SCI. Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is the most dangerous and life-threatening complication in patients with chronic SCI above T6 that results from an overstimulation of sympathetic reflex circuits in the upper thoracic spine and can be fatal. This article summarizes the specific pathophysiology of SCI and how AD can be avoided as well as also providing anesthetists with strategies for perioperative and intensive care management of patients with SCI. PMID:27371543

  10. Spinal cord ependymoma in children – Results of postoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the results of postoperative radiation therapy of spinal cord ependymoma in children. Methods and materials: Between 1984 and 2005, 28 children with spinal cord ependymoma were treated with radiotherapy, after surgery and in three cases after chemotherapy as well. Median age at diagnosis was 13.3 years (range from 4.7 to 16.2 years). Ependymoma myxopapillare was identified in 13, ependymoma in 12 and anaplastic ependymoma in 3 cases. Results: With a median follow-up of 8.7 years (range from 3 to 25 years) 22 patients were alive. The overall survival rate of 2, 5 and 10 years was 93%, 85% and 77% respectively, whereas progression free survival rate was 82%, 74% and 74% respectively. Patients with myxopapillary ependymoma had significantly better 5-year overall survival rate 100% than those with other histopathological types 60% (p = 0.016). There were 2 relapse incidences observed among 13 patients with myxopapillary ependymoma, both underwent repeated surgery and reirradiation. In the group of 20 patients with gross total resection the overall 5-year survival rate was 100% in comparison with 62.5% with partial surgery, but it did not achieve statistical significance. Conclusions: The histological type of ependymoma myxopapillary was a statistical significant favourable prognostic factor. The gross total resection with adjuvant radiotherapy allows obtaining a high total survival rate

  11. Gap junction proteins and their role in spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilin Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gap junctions are specialized intercellular communication channels that are formed by two hexameric connexin hemichannels, one provided by each of the two adjacent cells. Gap junctions and hemichannels play an important role in regulating cellular metabolism, signaling and functions in both normal and pathological conditions. Following spinal cord injury (SCI, there is damage and disturbance to the neuronal elements of the spinal cord including severing of axon tracts and rapid cell death. The initial mechanical disruption is followed by multiple secondary cascades that cause further tissue loss and dysfunction. Recent studies have implicated connexin proteins as playing a critical role in the secondary phase of SCI by propagating death signals through extensive glial networks. In this Mini-Review, we bring together past and current studies to outline the distribution, changes and roles of various connexins found in neurons and glial cells, before and in response to SCI. We discuss the contribution of pathologically activated connexin proteins, in particular connexin 43, to functional recovery and neuropathic pain, as well as providing an update on potential connexin specific pharmacological agents to treat SCI.

  12. Neurobrucellosis presenting as an intra-medullary spinal cord abscess

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    Vajramani, Girish V; Nagmoti, Mahantesh B; Patil, Chidanand S

    2005-01-01

    Background Of the diverse presentation of neurobrucellosis, intra-medullary spinal cord abscess is extremely rare. Only four other cases have been reported so far. We present a case of spinal cord intra-medullary abscess due to Brucella melitensis. Case presentation A forty-year-old female presented with progressive weakness of both lower limb with urinary incontinence of 6 months duration. She was febrile. Neurological examination revealed flaccid areflexic paraplegia with T10 below sensory impairment including perianal region. An intramedullary mass was diagnosed on Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) scan extending from T12 to L2. At surgery, a large abscess was encountered at the conus medullaris, from which Brucella melitensis was grown on culture. She was started on streptomycin and doxycycline for 1 month, followed by rifampicin and doxycycline for 1 month. At 2-year follow-up, she had recovered only partially and continued to have impaired bladder function. Conclusion Neurobrucellosis, if not treated early, can result in severe neurological morbidity and sequale, which may be irreversible. Hence it is important to consider the possibility of neurobrucellosis in endemic region and treat aggressively. PMID:16168059

  13. Neurobrucellosis presenting as an intra-medullary spinal cord abscess

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    Patil Chidanand S

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the diverse presentation of neurobrucellosis, intra-medullary spinal cord abscess is extremely rare. Only four other cases have been reported so far. We present a case of spinal cord intra-medullary abscess due to Brucella melitensis. Case presentation A forty-year-old female presented with progressive weakness of both lower limb with urinary incontinence of 6 months duration. She was febrile. Neurological examination revealed flaccid areflexic paraplegia with T10 below sensory impairment including perianal region. An intramedullary mass was diagnosed on Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI scan extending from T12 to L2. At surgery, a large abscess was encountered at the conus medullaris, from which Brucella melitensis was grown on culture. She was started on streptomycin and doxycycline for 1 month, followed by rifampicin and doxycycline for 1 month. At 2-year follow-up, she had recovered only partially and continued to have impaired bladder function. Conclusion Neurobrucellosis, if not treated early, can result in severe neurological morbidity and sequale, which may be irreversible. Hence it is important to consider the possibility of neurobrucellosis in endemic region and treat aggressively.

  14. Methylprednisolone for acute spinal cord injury: an increasingly philosophical debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Christian A.; Kundu, Bornali; Hawryluk, Gregory W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Following publication of NASCIS II, methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) was hailed as a breakthrough for patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). MPSS use for SCI has since become very controversial and it is our opinion that additional evidence is unlikely to break the stalemate amongst clinicians. Patient opinion has the potential to break this stalemate and we review our recent findings which reported that spinal cord injured patients informed of the risks and benefits of MPSS reported a preference for MPSS administration. We discuss the implications of the current MPSS debate on translational research and seek to address some misconceptions which have evolved. As science has failed to resolve the MPSS debate we argue that the debate is an increasingly philosophical one. We question whether SCI might be viewed as a serious condition like cancer where serious side effects of therapeutics are tolerated even when benefits may be small. We also draw attention to the similarity between the side effects of MPSS and isotretinoin which is prescribed for the cosmetic disorder acne vulgaris. Ultimately we question how patient autonomy should be weighed in the context of current SCI guidelines and MPSS's status as a historical standard of care.

  15. Effect of spinal cord compression on local vascular blood flow and perfusion capacity.

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    Mohammed Alshareef

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI can induce prolonged spinal cord compression that may result in a reduction of local tissue perfusion, progressive ischemia, and potentially irreversible tissue necrosis. Due to the combination of risk factors and the varied presentation of symptoms, the appropriate method and time course for clinical intervention following SCI are not always evident. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element fluid-structure interaction model of the cervical spinal cord was developed to examine how traditionally sub-clinical compressive mechanical loads impact spinal arterial blood flow. The spinal cord and surrounding dura mater were modeled as linear elastic, isotropic, and incompressible solids, while blood was modeled as a single-phased, incompressible Newtonian fluid. Simulation results indicate that anterior, posterior, and anteroposterior compressions of the cervical spinal cord have significantly different ischemic potentials, with prediction that the posterior component of loading elevates patient risk due to the concomitant reduction of blood flow in the arterial branches. Conversely, anterior loading compromises flow through the anterior spinal artery but minimally impacts branch flow rates. The findings of this study provide novel insight into how sub-clinical spinal cord compression could give rise to certain disease states, and suggest a need to monitor spinal artery perfusion following even mild compressive loading.

  16. Effect of spinal cord compression on local vascular blood flow and perfusion capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshareef, Mohammed; Krishna, Vibhor; Ferdous, Jahid; Alshareef, Ahmed; Kindy, Mark; Kolachalama, Vijaya B; Shazly, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can induce prolonged spinal cord compression that may result in a reduction of local tissue perfusion, progressive ischemia, and potentially irreversible tissue necrosis. Due to the combination of risk factors and the varied presentation of symptoms, the appropriate method and time course for clinical intervention following SCI are not always evident. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element fluid-structure interaction model of the cervical spinal cord was developed to examine how traditionally sub-clinical compressive mechanical loads impact spinal arterial blood flow. The spinal cord and surrounding dura mater were modeled as linear elastic, isotropic, and incompressible solids, while blood was modeled as a single-phased, incompressible Newtonian fluid. Simulation results indicate that anterior, posterior, and anteroposterior compressions of the cervical spinal cord have significantly different ischemic potentials, with prediction that the posterior component of loading elevates patient risk due to the concomitant reduction of blood flow in the arterial branches. Conversely, anterior loading compromises flow through the anterior spinal artery but minimally impacts branch flow rates. The findings of this study provide novel insight into how sub-clinical spinal cord compression could give rise to certain disease states, and suggest a need to monitor spinal artery perfusion following even mild compressive loading. PMID:25268384

  17. Inhibition of spinal c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) improves locomotor activity of spinal cord injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Alessandra C; Forner, Stefânia; Koepp, Janice; Rae, Giles Alexander

    2016-05-16

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been implicated in central nervous system injuries, yet the roles within neurodegeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI) still remain partially elucidated. We aimed to investigate the changes in expression of the three MAPKs following SCI and the role of spinal c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in motor impairment following the lesion. SCI induced at the T9 level resulted in enhanced expression of phosphorylated MAPKs shortly after trauma. SCI increased spinal cord myeloperoxidase levels, indicating a local neutrophil infiltration, and elevated the number of spinal apoptotic cells. Intrathecal administration of a specific inhibitor of JNK phosphorylation, SP600125, given at 1 and 4h after SCI, reduced the p-JNK expression, the number of spinal apoptotic cells and many of the histological signs of spinal injury. Notably, restoration of locomotor performance was clearly ameliorated by SP600125 treatment. Altogether, the results demonstrate that SCI induces activation of spinal MAPKs and that JNK plays a major role in mediating the deleterious consequences of spinal injury, not only at the spinal level, but also those regarding locomotor function. Therefore, inhibition of JNK activation in the spinal cord shortly after trauma might constitute a feasible therapeutic strategy for the functional recovery from SCI. PMID:27080425

  18. Inosine Improves Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity following Spinal Cord Injury.

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    Yeun Goo Chung

    Full Text Available Neurogenic detrusor overactivity and the associated loss of bladder control are among the most challenging complications of spinal cord injury (SCI. Anticholinergic agents are the mainstay for medical treatment of detrusor overactivity. However, their use is limited by significant side effects such that a search for new treatments is warranted. Inosine is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside with neuroprotective, neurotrophic and antioxidant effects that is known to improve motor function in preclinical models of SCI. However, its effect on lower urinary tract function has not been determined. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of systemic administration of inosine on voiding function following SCI and to delineate potential mechanisms of action. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent complete spinal cord transection, or cord compression by application of an aneurysm clip at T8 for 30 sec. Inosine (225 mg/kg or vehicle was administered daily via intraperitoneal injection either immediately after injury or after a delay of 8 wk. At the end of treatment, voiding behavior was assessed by cystometry. Levels of synaptophysin (SYP, neurofilament 200 (NF200 and TRPV1 in bladder tissues were measured by immunofluorescence imaging. Inosine administration decreased overactivity in both SCI models, with a significant decrease in the frequency of spontaneous non-voiding contractions during filling, compared to vehicle-treated SCI rats (p<0.05, including under conditions of delayed treatment. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated increased levels of the pan-neuronal marker SYP and the Adelta fiber marker NF200, but decreased staining for the C-fiber marker, TRPV1 in bladder tissues from inosine-treated rats compared to those from vehicle-treated animals, including after delayed treatment. These findings demonstrate that inosine prevents the development of detrusor overactivity and attenuates existing overactivity following SCI, and may

  19. Spinal cord infarction: MR imaging and clinical features in 16 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cord infarctions are rare and due to heterogeneous etiologies. The aim of the study was to analyze the MR imaging findings and evaluate their correlations with clinical symptoms in ischemic spinal cord lesions. MR images and clinical features of 16 patients (11 male, 5 female) with typical sudden onset of neurological deficits caused by spinal cord ischemia were evaluated. MR imaging was performed within 2 h to 14 days after the initial neurological symptoms. Eight patients had follow-up examinations including contrast-enhanced MR imaging. MR abnormalities were best demonstrated on sagittal T2-weighted images, with ''pencil-like'' hyperintensities (16/16) and cord enlargement (9/16). Axial T2-weighted images showed bilateral (13/16) and unilateral (3/16) hyperintensities according, in 15 patients, to anterior spinal artery (ASA) territory, with three of them located particularly in the spinal sulcal artery territory. In one patient only the posterior spinal artery (PSA) territory was involved. Spinal cord was affected at the cervical level (especially C2-C3) in seven patients, at the upper thoracic level (T3-T5) in two patients and at the thoracolumbar region including the conus medullaris (T10-L1) in seven patients. Presumed etiologies were vascular surgery (3 patients), infrarenal aortic aneurysm (1 patient), bilateral vertebral artery dissection (1 patient), hypotension (1 patient), spine operation (1 patient), excessive cocaine misuse (1 patient) and cardioembolic vertebral artery occlusion (1 patient); six of seven patients with unclear etiologies had vascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes and cigarette smoking. MR imaging is therefore useful in detecting spinal cord infarction, with axial T2-weighted images showing hyperintensities in the ASA territory in 15 of 16 patients. Contrary to the presumed spinal cord watershed at the lower cervical and upper thoracic level, and despite numerous central arteries in the cervical cord, our data

  20. Spinal cord injuries in older children: is there a role for high-dose methylprednisolone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Bhawana; Suresh, Srinivasan

    2011-12-01

    We present a retrospective case series of 15 children (aged 8-16 years) with blunt traumatic spinal cord injury who were treated with methylprednisolone as per the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study protocol. Of all patients, 12 (80%) were male. Causes were sports injuries (n = 9), motor vehicle crashes (n = 2), and falls (n = 4). Most injuries were nonskeletal (n = 14), and all patients had incomplete injury of the spinal cord. The most common location of tenderness was cervical (n = 7). Of the 15 patients, methylprednisolone was initiated within 3 hours in 13 patients and between 3 and 8 hours in 2 patients. All patients received the medication for 23 hours as per the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study protocol. Of the 15 patients, 13 recovered completely by 24 hours and were discharged with a diagnosis of spinal cord concussion. One patient had compression fracture of T5 and T3-T5 spinal contusion but no long-term neurological deficit. One patient was discharged with diagnosis of C1-C3 spinal cord contusion (by magnetic resonance imaging) and had partial recovery at 2 years after injury. All patients with a diagnosis of cord concussion had normal plain films of the spine and computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings. None of the patients had any associated major traumatic injuries to other organ systems. The high-dose steroid therapy did not result in any serious bacterial infections. PMID:22158284

  1. Spinal cord injury-induced immune deficiency syndrome enhances infection susceptibility dependent on lesion level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, Benedikt; Engel, Odilo; Kopp, Marcel A; Watzlawick, Ralf; Müller, Susanne; Prüss, Harald; Chen, Yuying; DeVivo, Michael J; Finkenstaedt, Felix W; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Liebscher, Thomas; Meisel, Andreas; Schwab, Jan M

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of death after acute spinal cord injury and is associated with poor neurological outcome. In contrast to the current understanding, attributing enhanced infection susceptibility solely to the patient's environment and motor dysfunction, we investigate whether a secondary functional neurogenic immune deficiency (spinal cord injury-induced immune deficiency syndrome, SCI-IDS) may account for the enhanced infection susceptibility. We applied a clinically relevant model of experimental induced pneumonia to investigate whether the systemic SCI-IDS is functional sufficient to cause pneumonia dependent on spinal cord injury lesion level and investigated whether findings are mirrored in a large prospective cohort study after human spinal cord injury. In a mouse model of inducible pneumonia, high thoracic lesions that interrupt sympathetic innervation to major immune organs, but not low thoracic lesions, significantly increased bacterial load in lungs. The ability to clear the bacterial load from the lung remained preserved in sham animals. Propagated immune susceptibility depended on injury of central pre-ganglionic but not peripheral postganglionic sympathetic innervation to the spleen. Thoracic spinal cord injury level was confirmed as an independent increased risk factor of pneumonia in patients after motor complete spinal cord injury (odds ratio = 1.35, P paralysis, spinal cord injury also induces a functional SCI-IDS ('immune paralysis'), sufficient to propagate clinically relevant infection in an injury level dependent manner. PMID:26754788

  2. 5-羟色胺1受体对酸灌注脊髓损伤猫膀胱排尿的影响%Effect of 5-serotonin 1 receptor agonists on acetic acid stimulated micturition in chronic spinal cord injury cats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚; 程曙杰; 曹海兵; 陈加生; 俞建军; 谷宝军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of 5-serotonin 1 (5-HT1) receptor agonists on acetic acid stimulated micturition in cats with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI).Methods Chloralose-anesthetized SCI cats were catheterized through the bladder dome for filling cystometry during 0.5% acetic acid infusion.Dose-response curves for ( R)-8-OH-DPAT (0.30-30.00 μg/kg,i.v.) or GR 46611 (0.03-300.00 μg/kg,i.v.) were followed by 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100635 (300.00 μg/kg).Threshold volume,bladder capacity,residual volume,micturition volume,and arterial pressure were measured and the external urethral sphincter electromyogram (EUS-EMG) was recorded.Results Acid-infused SCI cats responded to (R)-8-OH-DPAT but not GR-46611 with dose-dependent increases in threshold volume,capacity,and residual volume,significantly at the dose above 10 μg/kg.Effects of (R)-8-OH-DPAT were largely reversed by WAY 100635.Neither (R)-8-OH-DPAT nor GR-46611 augmented EUS-EMG activity.Conclusion Because 5-HT1A receptor agonists increase bladder capacity under either saline or acid infused conditions,they are promising candidates for reducing bladder hyperactivity and increasing bladder capacity in patients with chronic SCI.%目的 观察5-羟色胺1(5-HT1)受体激动剂对酸灌注脊髓损伤(SCI)猫膀胱排尿的影响.方法 手术彻底离断雌猫脊髓12只,术后饲养2个月,氯醛糖麻醉猫后予膀胱置管,注入0.5%乙酸溶液同时行膀胱压力测定.静脉给与5-HTlA受体激动剂8-OH-DPAT(0.30 ~30.00μg/kg)或GR-46611 (0.03 ~300.00 μg/kg),最后给予5-HT1A受体拮抗剂WAY-100635(300.00 μg/kg),记录膀胱容量阈值、膀胱容量、残尿量、排尿量和血压,同时记录尿道外括约肌肌电图(EUS-EMG).结果 8-OH-DPAT作用酸灌注脊髓损伤猫后,其膀胱容量阈值、膀胱容量、残尿量等均呈剂量依赖性增加,剂量≥10μg/kg时反应明显,差异有统计学意义.而GR-46611无类似效应.WAY-100635能逆转8-OH

  3. Novel aspects of spinal cord evoked potentials (SCEPs) in the evaluation of dorso-ventral and lateral mechanical impacts on the spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Iman; Kouhzaei, Sogolie; Mobasheri, Hamid; Saberi, Hooshang

    2015-02-01

    Objectives. The aim of the current study was to mimic mechanical impacts on the spinal cord by manifesting the effects of dorsoventral (DVMP) and lateral (LMP) mechanical pressure on neural activity to address points to be considered during surgery for different purposes, including spinal cord decompression. Approaches. Spinal cords of anesthetized rats were compressed at T13. Different characteristics of axons, including vulnerability, excitability, and conduction velocity (CV), in response to promptness, severity, and duration of pressure were assessed by spinal cord evoked potentials (SCEPs). Real-time SCEPs recorded at L4-5 revealed N1, N2, and N3 peaks that were used to represent the activity of injured sensory afferents, interneurons, and MN fibers. The averaged SCEP recordings were fitted by trust-region algorithm to find the equivalent Gaussian and polynomial equations. Main results. The pyramidal and extrapyramidal pathways possessed CVs of 3-11 and 16-80 m s-1, respectively. DVMP decreased the excitability of myelinated neural fibers in antidromic and orthodromic pathways. The excitability of fibers in extrapyramidal and pyramidal pathways of lateral corticospinal (LCS) and anterior corticospinal (ACS) tracts decreased following LMP. A significant drop in the amplitude of N3 and its conduction velocity (CV) revealed higher susceptibility of less-myelinated fibers to both DVMP and LMP. The best parametric fitting model for triplet healthy spinal cord CAP was a six-term Gaussian equation (G6) that fell into a five-term equation (G5) at the complete compression stage. Significance. The spinal cord is more susceptible to dorsoventral than lateral mechanical pressures, and this should be considered in spinal cord operations. SCEPs have shown promising capabilities for evaluating the severity of SCI and thus can be applied for diagnostic or prognostic intraoperative monitoring (IOM).

  4. Metastatic spinal cord compression: radiotherapy outcome and dose fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: No standard dose fractionation has been defined for metastatic spinal cord compression. This retrospective analysis was undertaken to explore the impact of hypo fractionated treatment compared to conventional multi fraction treatment. Materials and methods: One hundred and two consecutive patients referred to Mount Vernon Cancer Centre with metastatic spinal canal compression confirmed on MR scan in 95% with median age 68 years (range 32-90) and main primary tumour types breast (28%), prostate (28%) and lung (20%); 51% of patients were fully ambulant at diagnosis, 41% ambulant but with paraparesis and 9% had complete paraplegia. Spinal radiotherapy was given delivering a single dose in 32% and 20 Gy in five fractions in 64%. Results: The median survival was 3.5 months; survival was significantly related to primary site and motor function at presentation. Normal ambulation was achieved in 58% at 2 weeks and 71% up to 2 months after treatment. No patient who presented with paraplegia regained function. At presentation 59% of patients had severe pain, which fell to 8% at 2 weeks. Comparing those patients who received one or two dose treatments with those who received protracted fractionation, the two groups were matched for age, sex, primary site and site of compression. Relatively more patients treated with one or two doses had paraplegia; 19% vs. 3%. Despite this outcome in the two groups was equivalent for motor and sphincter function and pain control. Conclusions: Metastatic spinal canal compression carries a poor prognosis. Urgent treatment will maintain and improve motor function in patients presenting ambulant but those who have paraplegia at presentation do not improve and have a very short survival. In this series no difference in outcome was seen between patients treated with one or two radiation doses compared to multi fraction treatment; a randomised trial comparing fractionation schedules would be justified

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging features of the spinal cord in pediatric multiple sclerosis: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal cord lesions in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) are thought to contribute to disability. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance and clinical correlates of spinal cord lesions in children with MS have not been reported. T1-weighted pre- and post-gadolinium and T2-weighted TSE/FSE spine MR images of 36 children (age, 14.3 ± 3.3) with relapsing-remitting MS (annualized relapse rate, 0.7; disease duration, 7.5 ± 3.3 years) were analyzed for total lesion count, lesion location and length, intramedullary extent, and gadolinium enhancement. Clinical, demographic, laboratory, and MRI data were correlated. Lesions preferentially involved the cervical region, were predominantly focal, and involved only a portion of the transverse cord diameter. However, ten of 36 patients demonstrated longitudinally extensive lesions. Children with the highest clinical relapse rate also tended to have more spinal cord lesions and were more likely to accrue new lesions on serial spinal scans. These preliminary data suggest that MS lesions of the spinal cord in children are radiographically similar to that of adult-onset MS - supporting a common biology of pediatric- and adult-onset disease. However, children with relapsing-remitting MS can also develop longitudinally extensive lesions, suggesting that such lesions may be less specific for diseases such as neuromyelitis optica in pediatric patients. All patients recovered well from spinal cord attacks, and the presence of spinal cord lesions in the first few years of disease did not correlate with physical disability. Measures of spinal cord atrophy and longer periods of observation are required to determine the impact of spinal cord involvement in pediatric-onset MS. (orig.)

  6. Physiology of wheelchair racing in athletes with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhambhani, Yagesh

    2002-01-01

    Wheelchair racing is one of the most popular sporting activities of individuals with spinal cord injury. Athletes with this impairment have unique changes in metabolic, cardiorespiratory, neuromuscular and thermoregulatory systems, which reduce their overall physiological capacity compared with able-bodied individuals or individuals with other types of impairments. This review on spinal cord injury: presents the International Stoke Mandeville Games Federation classification of wheelchair athletes; describes methods commonly used to characterise anaerobic and aerobic fitness; presents the findings of physiological studies that have evaluated wheelchair racing performance; identifies the risks associated with temperature regulation when competing in wheelchair races; and discusses special conditions that can influence wheelchair racing performance. Currently there is limited research that has examined the relationship between sprint or distance wheelchair racing performance and the anaerobic and aerobic components of physical fitness. Although the descriptive evidence indicates that the profiles of these athletes reflect their training and participation in these specific events, the association between their physiological profiles and real or simulated racing performance is unclear. The generally accepted concept that high values of aerobic and anaerobic power are strongly correlated with endurance and sprint racing performance, respectively, are not necessarily true in this population. Athletes with spinal cord injury have an impaired thermoregulatory capacity, because the compromised autonomic and somatic nervous system functions disrupt control of skin blood flow and sweating below the level of the lesion. As a result, they may be more susceptible to hyperthermia during distance wheelchair racing performance. Wheelchair athletes should follow recommendations advocated for able-bodied individuals to minimise their risks of heat stress during competition. Many

  7. Severe Spinal Cord Injury Causes Immediate Multi-cellular Dysfunction at the Chondro-Osseous Junction

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, Leslie R; XU, Yan(Department of Music,Guangxi Normal University); Solomon, Bethlehem; Boyle, Lara; Yoganathan, Subbiah; Stashenko, Philip; Battaglino, Ricardo A.

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is associated with rapid bone loss and arrested long bone growth due to mechanisms that are poorly understood. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of severe T10 contusion spinal cord injury on the sublesional bone microenvironment in adolescent rats. A severe lower thoracic (vertebral T10) spinal cord injury was generated by weight drop (10 g×50 mm). Severely injured and body weight-matched uninjured male Sprague–Dawley rats were studied. At 3 and 5 days post-...

  8. Apoptosis of lumbar spinal cord neurons in cauda equina syndrome rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the law of apoptosis of lumbar spinal cord neurons in cauda equina syndrome (CES). Methods Cauda equina of rats was compressed by a piece of silica gel stick. From day 1 to day 28,the lumbar spinal cord specimens were harvested and assessed by Nissl's staining and TUNEL staining. Results Compression of cauda equina caused lesion and apoptosis of neurons in lumbar spinal cord,and the extent of apoptosis reached the peak on 7th day after compression. Conclusion Apoptosis of neurons in lum...

  9. Radiation tolerance dose of the spinal cord following conventionally fractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Shogo; Hoshi, Akihiko; Takai, Yoshihiro; Hoshino, Fumiya; Mochizuki, Yukio; Kanehira, Chihiro; Kaneta, Koichi.

    1987-08-01

    409 patients whose spinal cord were irradiated over 30 Gy with conentionally fractionated method were surveied to study the colleration between the dose of spinal cord and the incidence of radiation myelitis. Radiation myelitis was observed in 26 cases including 3 transverse myelitis ones. 5 year incidences of transverse myelitis calculated with life table method were approximately 0 % at 40 Gy, 5 % at 50 Gy, 10 % at 60 Gy and 20 % at 70 Gy. The radiation tolerance dose of the spinal cord was considered to be 50 Gy.

  10. Radiation tolerance dose of the spinal cord following conventionally fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    409 patients whose spinal cord were irradiated over 30 Gy with conentionally fractionated method were surveied to study the colleration between the dose of spinal cord and the incidence of radiation myelitis. Radiation myelitis was observed in 26 cases including 3 transverse myelitis ones. 5 year incidences of transverse myelitis calculated with life table method were approximately 0 % at 40 Gy, 5 % at 50 Gy, 10 % at 60 Gy and 20 % at 70 Gy. The radiation tolerance dose of the spinal cord was considered to be 50 Gy. (author)

  11. Spinal cord stimulation for recurrent painful neuromas of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Giuseppe; Nazzi, Vittoria; Sinisi, Marco; Dones, Ivano; Pollo, Bianca; Franzini, Angelo

    2011-08-01

    The authors report the case of a patient affected by recurrent neuromas of the interdigital nerves of the left foot that appeared after surgery for Morton's disease. Implantation of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) system was performed after three unsuccessful surgical revisions, which demonstrated the presence of multiple neuromas growing at endings of the stumps of the nerves and fasciculi. The patient developed chronic neuropathic pain localized within the third metatarsal region of the left foot. Conservative treatments failed and autonomous gait became impossible. SCS immediately abolished pain and the patient was able to perform her normal daily activities within 1 month. At our knowledge, this is the first report in literature of SCS successfully employed for recurrent and refractory pain due to Morton's neuroma. PMID:21678072

  12. Pain modulation by nitric oxide in the spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio M Freire

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a versatile messenger molecule first associated with endothelial relaxing effects. In the central nervous system (CNS, NO synthesis is primarily triggered by activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors and has a Janus face, with both beneficial and harmful properties, depending on concentration and the identity of its synthetic enzyme isoform. There are three isoforms of the NO synthesizing enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS: neuronal (nNOS, endothelial (eNOS, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, each one involved with specific events in the brain. In CNS, nNOS is involved with modulation of synaptic transmission through long-term potentiation in several regions, including nociceptive circuits in the spinal cord. Here, we review the role played by NO on central pain sensitization.

  13. [Traumatic spinal cord injury in children; early and late effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jeroen P M; Kramer, William L M

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) have physical, emotional, psychological and economic consequences for patients. Although SCIs in children are rare, they have to cope with the consequences for the rest of their lives. In this article, three children who presented at our emergency department are discussed. These children had suffered SCIs from different etiologies. Most SCIs are caused by trauma and more males than females suffer SCIs. The younger children are, the more likely they will sustain cervical SCIs, which can be attributed to several distinct anatomical differences in the juvenile spine. Depending on the level of the spine injured, multiple secondary problems can occur. In this article, we paint a picture of the complex and multidisciplinary treatment and rehabilitation of young SCI patients and emphasise the need for treatment to take place in a specialised (children's) rehabilitation unit. PMID:23838399

  14. Exercise awareness and barriers after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S

    2014-07-18

    Exercise is an essential element in managing several of the non-communicable diseases after spinal cord injury (SCI). Awareness of the importance of prescribing a customized exercise program that meets the goals of persons with SCI should be highly considered in the rehabilitation community. The barriers of implementing specific exercise program as well as the factors that may mask the outcomes of regular exercise regimen need to be continuously addressed as a part of patients' rehabilitation care. The focus of this editorial is to encourage the medical community to consider routine physical activity as one of the necessary vital signs that needs to be routinely checked in patients with SCI. Providing education tips, nutritional counseling and engaging in recreational programs may provide motivational route to the community of SCI. This may result in reinforcing active lifestyle in survivors with SCI as well as to reduce the impact of chronic life threatening medical disorders. PMID:25035817

  15. International Spinal Cord Injury Upper Extremity Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Bryden, A; Curt, A;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Upper Extremity Basic Data Set as part of the International SCI Data Sets, which facilitates consistent collection and reporting of basic upper extremity findings in the SCI population. SETTING: International. METHODS: A first draft of...... a SCI Upper Extremity Data Set was developed by an international working group. This was reviewed by many different organisations, societies and individuals over several months. A final version was created. VARIABLES: The final version of the International SCI Upper Extremity Data Set contains...... variables related to basic hand-upper extremity function, use of assistive devices, SCI-related complications to upper extremity function and upper extremity/hand reconstructive surgery. Instructions for data collection and the data collection form are freely available on the ISCoS website (www...

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging in cervical spinal cord compression

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    Giovanni Giammona

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available In patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy MRI sometimes shows increased signal intensity zones on the T2-weighted images. It has been suggested that these findings carry prognostic significance. We studied 56 subjects with cervical spinal cord compression. Twelve patients showed an increased signal intensity (21.4% and a prevalence of narrowing of the AP-diameter (62% vs 24%. Furthemore, in this group, there was evidence of a longer mean duration of the symptoms and, in most of the patients, of more serious clinical conditions. The importance of these predisposing factors remains, however, to be clarified since they are also present in some patients without the increased signal intensity.

  17. Respiratory Management in the Patient with Spinal Cord Injury

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    Rita Galeiras Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injuries (SCIs often lead to impairment of the respiratory system and, consequently, restrictive respiratory changes. Paresis or paralysis of the respiratory muscles can lead to respiratory insufficiency, which is dependent on the level and completeness of the injury. Respiratory complications include hypoventilation, a reduction in surfactant production, mucus plugging, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Vital capacity (VC is an indicator of overall pulmonary function; patients with severely impaired VC may require assisted ventilation. It is best to proceed with intubation under controlled circumstances rather than waiting until the condition becomes an emergency. Mechanical ventilation can adversely affect the structure and function of the diaphragm. Early tracheostomy following short orotracheal intubation is probably beneficial in selected patients. Weaning should start as soon as possible, and the best modality is progressive ventilator-free breathing (PVFB. Appropriate candidates can sometimes be freed from mechanical ventilation by electrical stimulation. Respiratory muscle training regimens may improve patients’ inspiratory function following a SCI.

  18. Common data elements for spinal cord injury clinical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Alai, S; Anderson, K.;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop a comprehensive set of common data elements (CDEs), data definitions, case report forms and guidelines for use in spinal cord injury (SCI) clinical research, as part of the CDE project at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) of the US National...... Institutes of Health. SETTING: International Working Groups. METHODS: Nine working groups composed of international experts reviewed existing CDEs and instruments, created new elements when needed and provided recommendations for SCI clinical research. The project was carried out in collaboration with and...... of CDEs can facilitate SCI clinical research and trial design, data sharing and retrospective analyses. Continued international collaboration will enable consistent data collection and reporting, and will help ensure that the data elements are updated, reviewed and broadcast as additional evidence is...

  19. SnoN facilitates axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury.

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    Jiun L Do

    Full Text Available Adult CNS neurons exhibit a reduced capacity for growth compared to developing neurons, due in part to downregulation of growth-associated genes as development is completed. We tested the hypothesis that SnoN, an embryonically regulated transcription factor that specifies growth of the axonal compartment, can enhance growth in injured adult neurons. In vitro, SnoN overexpression in dissociated adult DRG neuronal cultures significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth. Moreover, TGF-β1, a negative regulator of SnoN, inhibited neurite outgrowth, and SnoN over-expression overcame this inhibition. We then examined whether SnoN influenced axonal regeneration in vivo: indeed, expression of a mutant form of SnoN resistant to degradation significantly enhanced axonal regeneration following cervical spinal cord injury, despite peri-lesional upregulation of TGF-β1. Thus, a developmental mechanism that specifies extension of the axonal compartment also promotes axonal regeneration after adult CNS injury.

  20. Characterization of A11 neurons projecting to the spinal cord of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinger, Kathrin; Füzesi, Tamás; Ejdrygiewicz, Jillian; Krajacic, Aleksandra; Bains, Jaideep S; Whelan, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic A11 region has been identified in several species including rats, mice, cats, monkeys, zebrafish, and humans as the primary source of descending dopamine (DA) to the spinal cord. It has been implicated in the control of pain, modulation of the spinal locomotor network, restless leg syndrome, and cataplexy, yet the A11 cell group remains an understudied dopaminergic (DAergic) nucleus within the brain. It is unclear whether A11 neurons in the mouse contain the full complement of enzymes consistent with traditional DA neuronal phenotypes. Given the abundance of mouse genetic models and tools available to interrogate specific neural circuits and behavior, it is critical first to fully understand the phenotype of A11 cells. We provide evidence that, in addition to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) that synthesizes L-DOPA, neurons within the A11 region of the mouse contain aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), the enzyme that converts L-DOPA to dopamine. Furthermore, we show that the A11 neurons contain vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), which is necessary for packaging DA into vesicles. On the contrary, A11 neurons in the mouse lack the dopamine transporter (DAT). In conclusion, our data suggest that A11 neurons are DAergic. The lack of DAT, and therefore the lack of a DA reuptake mechanism, points to a longer time of action compared to typical DA neurons. PMID:25343491