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Sample records for cat scratch disease

  1. Cat Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry ... infection does not make cats sick. However, the scratch or bite of an infected cat can cause ...

  2. Cat Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  3. Cat scratch disease in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Karpathios, T; Golphinos, C; Psychou, P; Garoufi, A; Papadimitriou, A; Nicolaidou, P

    1998-01-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody test for Bartonella henselae, B quintana, and B elizabethae was performed in all 18 children who presented to our paediatric outpatient clinic with cat scratch disease over a six year period. Serum samples were taken on admission, after 15 days, and after six months. Diagnosis was confirmed in 15 patients (83%) and was based on seroconversion or a fourfold change of the antibody titre to B henselae in 12 patients and on a single high titre...

  4. Cat-Scratch Disease With Bone Involvemnet

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, R; Brito, MJ; Sousa, R.; Gouveia, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bartonella henselae infection typically presents as a self-limiting regional lymphadenopathy. Bone involvement is a very rare form of the disease. Aims: To describe bone infection associated to cat-scratch disease (CSD) in a portuguese pediatric hospital. Methods: Clinical records of children admitted at the hospital with the diagnosis of CSD associated bone infection, during 2010, were reviewed. Diagnosis was confirmed by serology using indirect fluorescence assay ...

  5. A Rare Case Misinterpreted as Breast Cancer: Cat Scratch Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Böyük, Abdullah; ÜSTÜN, Cemal; SOLMAZ, Özgen Arslan; Altinsoy, Hasan Baki; Banli, Oktay

    2009-01-01

    Cat scratch disease is slow progressing disease that is mostly seen in children and young adults and is characterized with regional lymphadenopathy. It is caused by Bartonella henseleae. The causative agent is commonly transmitted from cats to human. The disease is presented with regional lymphadenopathy, fever, fatigue and weakness. A 44-year-old woman admitted to General Surgery Policlinic with right axillary mass was interned. Axillary lymphadenopathy was detected in her physical examin...

  6. Vertebral osteomyelitis associated with cat-scratch disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, CV; Koetse, HA; Kimpen, JLL; Wolfs, TFW

    1999-01-01

    We describe a patient with vertebral osteomyelitis and paravertebral soft-tissue collections associated with cat-scratch disease (CSD). Diagnosis was established on the basis of histologic examination and serological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Treatment consisted of administration of

  7. Atypical form of cat scratch disease in immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cat scratch disease (CSD is an acute infectious disease with benign course caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae. Clinically, it is usually manifested as regional lymphadenopathy and mild infective syndrome. Rare forms of the disease which usually occur in immunocompromised presons are: encephalitis, transverse myelitis, neuroretinitis, granulomatosus conjunctivitis, arthritis, hepatitis etc. Case report. We presented an atypical form of cat scratch disease in a young immunocompetent female person. The disease was manifested with prolonged fever, rash, purulent lymphadenitis and hepatitis. The diagnosis was based on characteristic patohystological finding and exclusion of the other causes of lymphadenopathy. The patient was treated by antibiotics for a few weeks, with surgical incision and drainage of the purulent lymphadenitis. Conclusion. Atypical forms of CSD could be an important differential-diagnostic problem, especially if there is no opportunity for serological confirmation of the disease.

  8. Imaging Manifestations in Systemic Cat Scratch Disease: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cat scratch disease is a zoonosis caused by Bartonella henselae, which is transmitted by scratches, bites or exposition to cats saliva (1). The disease typically manifests with local lymphadenitis after bacterial inoculation in the skin, however, there is an atypical systemic presentation in 5 to 10% of patients, which causes unspecific symptoms. There are several imaging findings that lead the radiologist to consider this diagnosis, in order to prevent an invasive procedure, especially if we consider that the majority of cases occur in the pediatric population (2,3). Although in the majority of cases the symptoms and imaging findings resolve spontaneously, there are specific indications like the systemic form of the disease,which requires antibiotic treatment. In the present article we are exposing a case report from Fundacion Cardioinfantil; we will review some epidemiologic aspects, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods as well as imaging findings in Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance and Nuclear Medicine.

  9. Imaging Manifestations in Systemic Cat Scratch Disease: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cat scratch disease is a zoonosis caused by Bartonella henselae, which is transmitted by scratches, bites or exposition to cats saliva (1). The disease typically manifests with local lymphadenitis after bacterial inoculation in the skin, however, there is an atypical systemic presentation in 5 to 10% of patients, which causes unspecific symptoms. There are several imaging findings that lead the radiologist to consider this diagnosis, in order to prevent an invasive procedure, especially if we consider that the majority of cases occur in the pediatric population (2,3). Although in the majority of cases the symptoms and imaging findings resolve spontaneously, there are specific indications like the systemic form of the disease, which requires antibiotic treatment. In the present article we are exposing a case report from Fundacion Cardio infantil; we will review some epidemiologic aspects, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods as well as imaging findings in Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance and Nuclear Medicine.

  10. Cat-Scratch disease in Crete: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios Minadakis; Emmanouil Angelakis; Dimosthenis Chochlakis; Yannis Tselentis; Anna Psaroulaki

    2011-01-01

    There are few epidemiological and clinical studies about the presence of cat scratch disease (CSD) on the island of Crete. The objective of this study was to analyze a large number of patients with suspected CSD to define the frequency of Bartonella infections in Crete. From January 2005 to October 2008, we studied patients with suspected CSD from hospitals in Crete. Sera of the referred patients were tested by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). For some patients, we also received lymph nodes an...

  11. Cat-scratch disease in Crete: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Minadakis, Georgios; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2011-01-01

    There are few epidemiological and clinical studies about the presence of cat scratch disease (CSD) on the island of Crete. The objective of this study was to analyze a large number of patients with suspected CSD to define the frequency of Bartonella infections in Crete. From January 2005 to October 2008, we studied patients with suspected CSD from hospitals in Crete. Sera of the referred patients were tested by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). For some patients, we also received lymph nodes an...

  12. Cat Scratch Disease: the Rare Role of Afipia felis

    OpenAIRE

    Giladi, Michael; Avidor, Boaz; Kletter, Yehudith; Abulafia, Suzy; Slater, Leonard N.; Welch, David F.; Brenner, Don J.; Steigerwalt, Arnold G.; Whitney, Anne M.; Ephros, Moshe

    1998-01-01

    Since its isolation in 1988, Afipia felis has been associated with cat scratch disease (CSD) in only one report and its role in CSD has been questioned. We have cultured A. felis from a lymph node of a patient with CSD. 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA relatedness studies, fatty acid analysis, and PCR of the A. felis ferredoxin gene showed that the isolate is identical to the previously reported A. felis isolate. To determine the role of A. felis in CSD, PCR of the 16S rRNA gene followed by hybr...

  13. Cat scratch disease during infliximab therapy: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Yin, Geng; Tan, Chunyu; Liu, Yi

    2015-05-01

    Cat scratch disease may occur during etanercept therapy, but there has been no report on infliximab-associated cat scratch disease. We report a case of a 23-year-old woman who developed right inguinal lymph node enlargement following a cat scratch. The patient had received infliximab therapy for spondyloarthropathy. She was successfully managed by discontinuing infliximab and by treatment with moxifloxacin and amikacin.

  14. Cat scratch disease and lymph node tuberculosis in a colon patient with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Matias, M.; Marques, T.; Ferreira, M.A.; Ribeiro, L.

    2013-01-01

    A 71-year-old man operated for a sigmoid tumour remained in the surveillance after adjuvant chemotherapy. After 3 years, a left axillary lymph node was visible on CT scan. The biopsy revealed a necrotising and abscessed granulomatous lymphadenitis, suggestive of cat scratch disease. The patient confirmed having been scratched by a cat and the serology for Bartonella henselae was IgM+/IgG−. Direct and culture examinations for tuberculosis were negative. The patient was treated for cat scratch ...

  15. Cat scratch disease complicated with aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Laerte Pinto Jr.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Cat scratch disease (CSD is a self limited condition characterized by fever, lymph node enlargement and less often eye involvement. Central nervous system involvement by Bartonella henselae infection is possibly an important cause of morbidity; its role as an agent of aseptic meningitis is unknown. We report a case of a 40 years-old man with CSD accompanied by aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis. Serum indirect immmunofluorescence (IFI assays for B. henselae were positive and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis showed mononuclear pleocytosis and increased level of protein. Serological tests for other etiologies were negative. The patient responded well to antibiotic therapy with oral doxycicline plus rifampin and in the 12th day of hospitalization evolved to total regression of the headache and partial regression of the visual loss. Clinicians should consider CSD as a differential diagnosis when assessing previously healthy patients with aseptic meningitis associated with regional lymphadenopathy and epidemiological history of feline contact.

  16. Cat Scratch Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lourdes Ruiz-Rebollo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, we have read several publications regarding the term “cat scratch colon.” This neologism was developed to define some bright red linear markings seen in the colonic mucosa that resemble scratches made by a cat. We would like to communicate a recent case attended at our institution.

  17. [Bartonella henselae infection-cat-scratch disease in children (case report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the 11 year old patient with cat scratch disease. The diagnoes of this infection was based on detailed history, physical examenination and para-clinical data analyses. In case of cat-scratch disease (because it is rare diagnosis), a different approach is required to every specific occaison. A series of investigations (most informative is intrinsic factor antibody - IFA) should be conducted to determain the cat-scratch disease from the various reasons of the lymphocytic leukaemoid reaction.

  18. Cat-Scratch disease in Crete: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Minadakis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few epidemiological and clinical studies about the presence of cat scratch disease (CSD on the island of Crete. The objective of this study was to analyze a large number of patients with suspected CSD to define the frequency of Bartonella infections in Crete. From January 2005 to October 2008, we studied patients with suspected CSD from hospitals in Crete. Sera of the referred patients were tested by immunofluorescence assay (IFA. For some patients, we also received lymph nodes and blood samples that we tested for the presence of Bartonella henselae by molecular assays. Overall, we tested 507 serum samples and we found 56 (11% cases of CSD. PCR assay was positive for 2 patients; one had a B. henselae positive lymph node and the other a positive whole blood sample. Significantly more CSD cases (62.5%, 35 of 56 were reported in children than in infants and adults (P<0.05. Moreover, we identified that most cases of CSD occurred between May and September (P=0.002 and December and January. CSD is prevalent in Crete and is mostly associated with an increase in outdoor activity.

  19. [Osteomyelitis in cat scratch disease: a case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusser, P; Eyssette-Guerreau, S; Koné-Paut, I

    2013-06-01

    Cat scratch disease is the most common zoonosis in humans and its typical expression is a persistent benign regional adenopathy. In some rare cases, mono- or multifocal osteomyelitis is described. In this paper, we report the case of bone lesions in a 13-year-old girl infected with cat scratch disease. We have also undertaken a literature review and analyzed 60 other such cases. The manifestation of a bone lesion associated with cat scratch disease was characterized by a mono- or multifocal infectious osteomyelitis, fever, and a general alteration of the patient's health. The most frequent location of osteomyelitis was in the spine. Magnetic resonance imaging appeared the most sensitive test to highlight the bone lesions. Serological findings help reinforce the diagnosis of cat scratch disease caused by Bartonella henselae infection. Osteomyelitis in cat scratch disease is rare but not exceptional. Therefore, it is essential to think about this hypothesis in case of osteomyelitis associated with a general alteration of the patient's health, especially if the lesions are multifocal and if there is a known history of cat contact.

  20. Cat-Scratch Disease in the United States, 2005-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christina A; Saha, Shubhayu; Mead, Paul S

    2016-10-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is mostly preventable. More information about the epidemiology and extent of CSD would help direct prevention efforts to those at highest risk. To gain such information, we reviewed the 2005-2013 MarketScan national health insurance claims databases and identified patients cats) are particularly helpful in southern states and in households with children. PMID:27648778

  1. Cat Scratch Disease in kidney transplant receptors: is it a rare or underdiagnosed pathology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Teixeira Verçoza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cat Scratch Disease (CSD is an infectious disorder which appears after cat scratching particularly in children and adolescents. Bartonella henselae is the etiologic agent more frequently involved. There are only a few recent reports demonstrating the disease after transplantation, although the illness is not infrequent in immunologically competent people. Indeed CSD in transplant receptors has only been recently emphasized in the literature and it was concluded that fever and lymphadenopathy in patients who had been exposed to cats should prompt clinicians to maintain a suspicion for the infection. In this report CSD infecting a renal transplanted adolescent complaining of headache, blurred vision and fever, presenting a cat scratching lesion in the right arm, with a bilateral painful cervical lymphadenopathy was related. He also presented indirect immunofluorescency identifying that the two subtype's titles of Bartonella-henselae and quintana- were elevated. Treatment with doxicicline e rifampicin was introduced and the patient became asymptomatic in about 3 weeks.

  2. [Cat Scratch Disease as a differential diagnosis in a patient with swelling in the groin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Ahmad; Murra, May; Sommer, Thorbjørn

    2014-08-11

    at Scratch Disease is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae and presents in patients exposed to a scratch/bite from cats. We present a case with a 12-year-old boy with an enlarged inguinal lymph node, initially suspected to be a femoral hernia by ultrasonography. Histologic examination of an inguinal lymph node showed necrosis and B. henselae infection. It is important with a thorough anamnesis including any history of animal bites/scratch and it should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in patients with swelling in the groin, despite the rare diagnosis of this disease.

  3. Cat scratch disease in 9-year-old patient - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świątkowski, Wojciech; Rahnama, Mansur; Strzelczyk, Katarzyna; Baszak, Jakub; Sierocińska-Sawa, Jadwiga

    2016-03-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) - bartonellosis, is zoonosis caused by the intracellular gram negativebacterium Bartonellahenselae or Bartonellaquintana. The pathogens of this disease enter the human body usually as a consequence of a bite or scratch by young cats which are the natural source of such bacteria. The illness proceeds asymptomatically or with topical symptoms of infection such as a lump, spot or blister. Within 14 days a high fever and topical lymphadenopathy are observed. Lymph nodes are sore and start suppurating. In half of patients, these symptoms may resemble malignancy, and in single cases there are symptoms associated with the musculoskeletal system, such as: osteitis, arthitis and myositis. In paper presented case of 9 year-old girl patients, treated in Oral Surgery Unit due to odema and lymphadenopathy in right submandibular space. Primary surgical treatment of deciduous teeth was conducted without recovery. In few months follow-up, biopsy of lymph node of submandibular group was taken and provisional diagnosis of cat scratch disease was set. Patient was referred to the Infectious Diseases Unit where serological test confirmed cat scratch disease, and pharmacological treatment was conducted with success and recovery of young patient.

  4. Persistent cat scratch disease requiring surgical excision in a patient with MPGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Katherine Y; Hicks, M John; Mazziotti, Mark V; Eldin, Karen W; Starke, Jeffrey R; Michael, Mini

    2015-06-01

    We present the case of a 13-year-old immunosuppressed patient with unrelenting cat scratch disease despite 9 months of antibiotic therapy. The patient was being treated with mycophenolate and prednisone for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (type 1) diagnosed 13 months before the onset of cat scratch disease. Cat scratch disease was suspected due to epitrochlear lymphadenitis and an inoculation papule on the ipsilateral thumb, and the diagnosis was confirmed by the use of acute and convalescent titers positive for Bartonella henselae. The patient experienced prolonged lymphadenitis despite azithromycin and rifampin therapy, and she developed a draining sinus tract ∼4 months after initial inoculation while receiving antibiotics. Acute exacerbation of the primary supratrochlear node prompted incision and drainage of the area, with no improvement in the disease course. Ultimately, excision of all affected nodes and the sinus tract 9 months after the initial diagnosis was required to achieve resolution. Bartonella was detected at a high level according to a polymerase chain reaction assay in the excised nodes. Persistent treatment with oral antibiotics may have prevented disseminated infection in this immunosuppressed patient. Surgical excision of affected nodes should be considered in patients with cat scratch disease that persists beyond 16 weeks.

  5. Cat scratch disease in 9-year-old patient - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świątkowski, Wojciech; Rahnama, Mansur; Strzelczyk, Katarzyna; Baszak, Jakub; Sierocińska-Sawa, Jadwiga

    2016-03-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) - bartonellosis, is zoonosis caused by the intracellular gram negativebacterium Bartonellahenselae or Bartonellaquintana. The pathogens of this disease enter the human body usually as a consequence of a bite or scratch by young cats which are the natural source of such bacteria. The illness proceeds asymptomatically or with topical symptoms of infection such as a lump, spot or blister. Within 14 days a high fever and topical lymphadenopathy are observed. Lymph nodes are sore and start suppurating. In half of patients, these symptoms may resemble malignancy, and in single cases there are symptoms associated with the musculoskeletal system, such as: osteitis, arthitis and myositis. In paper presented case of 9 year-old girl patients, treated in Oral Surgery Unit due to odema and lymphadenopathy in right submandibular space. Primary surgical treatment of deciduous teeth was conducted without recovery. In few months follow-up, biopsy of lymph node of submandibular group was taken and provisional diagnosis of cat scratch disease was set. Patient was referred to the Infectious Diseases Unit where serological test confirmed cat scratch disease, and pharmacological treatment was conducted with success and recovery of young patient. PMID:27213258

  6. Cat scratch disease: detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in archival biopsies from patients with clinically, serologically, and histologically defined disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, M. A.; McCurley, T. L.; Vnencak-Jones, C L; Hager, C; McCoy, J. A.; Anderson, B; Collins, R. D.; K.M. Edwards

    1996-01-01

    Serological and epidemiological studies suggest that Bartonella henselae is the etiological agent of cat scratch disease. We designed a study to detect B. henselae in archival biopsies by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 16S rRNA gene followed by Southern blot hybridization. Forty-two histologically defined cat scratch disease biopsies and eighteen controls were selected for blinded analysis. After testing, charts were reviewed for clinical, immunological, and microbial evidence...

  7. [Spasmodic left waist pain in a six years old child--cat scratch disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkai, Galia; Gutman, Gabriel; Sherr-Lurie, Nir; Hoffmann, Chen; Schpirer, Zvi

    2012-08-01

    Cat scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae, a bacterium transmitted to humans from cats through a scratch or by fleas. In 90% of cases, the clinical presentation is that of classical cat scratch disease where an adjacent lymph node is infected. Atypical manifestations include prolonged fever, liver and spleen abscesses, infective endocarditis, central nervous system involvement etc. We present a 6 years old girl who suffered from L2 vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess, initially presenting as colic left waist pain, with no back pain or high fevers. During the process of diagnosis, she recovered without surgical intervention or antibiotic treatment. A review of the literature indicates that among the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of cat scratch disease, skeletal involvement is rare. However, in cases of osteomyelitis, vertebrae are a common site as well as formation of a contiguous phlegmon. Although no studies have investigated the efficacy of different treatment regimens, all patients presented were treated with antimicrobial combinations and recovery rates were high. In view of the patient presented here, it is questioned whether the high recovery rates are a result of efficient antibiotic treatment or due to a benign natural course of the disease.

  8. [Cat-scratch disease. A report of 4 cases and a review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, F; de la Viuda, J M; Urkijo, J C; Mendoza, F

    1997-01-01

    Four cases of cat-scratch diseases are here reported and a review of the literature is made. The disease, apart from its typical presentation form as a usually self-limited regional lymph node enlargement, can occasionally spread and involve several organs systems. Indirect immunofluorescence serological tests have been of help for its diagnosis and should be included among the diagnostic criteria for the disease. In particular cases, nuclear magnetic resonance can be useful to suggests the diagnosis.

  9. Cervical Cat Scratch Disease Lymphadenitis in a Patient with Immunoglobulin M Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Arvand, Mardjan; Kazak, Ilkay; Jovanovic, Sergije; Foss, Hans-Dieter; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    We report on a young patient with chronic cervical lymphadenopathy and serological and histological evidence for infection with Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii. Serological follow-up studies, including testing for avidity of Toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies, assisted in the determination of the cause of the acute lymphadenitis. Our results suggest that the clinical symptoms were most likely due to cat scratch disease rather than to acute toxoplasmosis.

  10. Molecular diagnosis of cat scratch disease: a two-step approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Avidor, B; Kletter, Y; Abulafia, S; Golan, Y.; Ephros, M; Giladi, M.

    1997-01-01

    Amplification of Bartonella henselae DNA has been proposed as a diagnostic test for cat scratch disease (CSD). The sensitivities of the following three PCR assays were compared. PCR/rRNA with universal primers amplifies part of the 16S rRNA gene, followed by hybridization with a specific B. henselae probe; PCR/CS and PCR/HSP amplify portions of the gltA and the htrA genes, respectively, each followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The threshold of detection of B. hensel...

  11. Atypical Cat-Scratch Disease in Children: Report of Seven Presentations Ranging From Hepatosplenic Disease to Horner Syndrome

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    Gilliaux

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cat scratch disease (CSD is an infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative rod Bartonella henselae (BH. It usually leads to subacute loco-regional lymphadenitis occasionally associated with fever. In most of the cases, it resolves spontaneously within 4 - 6 weeks. However, CSD has also been associated with other atypical presentations. Case Presentation We reported a series of seven children with unusual symptoms of CSD. In particular, we described the case of a child with ptosis, miosis and enophtalmy, suggesting Horner syndrome, associated with cervical lymphadenitis. Cat scratch was mentioned in only one patient, while four of them mentioned a recent contact with cats. We reviewed and discussed the incidence of these atypical presentations of CSD as well as the therapeutic approaches recommended and the available diagnostic tools. Conclusions This paper highlighted the need to exclude CSD in children with unexplained symptoms such as prolonged fever, hepatosplenic lesion and osteomyelitis.

  12. Lymphadenopathy at the medial epitrochlear region in cat-scratch disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to describe the imaging features of lymphadenopathy at the medial epitrochlear region as frequently seen in cat-scratch disease (CSD) and to compare these features with those seen in non-CSD. Ten patients (four males and six females) presented with a subcutaneous soft tissue mass at the medial epitrochlear region. Three patients were younger than 15 years. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all patients. All lesions turned out to be regional lymphadenopathy instead of soft tissue neoplasm. They were caused by benign disorders in eight cases, including seven CSD and one other infection, and in two cases by metastatic disease. All lesions, except for three benign ones, were solitary. On MRI, high signal intensity (SI) strands in the surrounding soft tissue on T2-weighted images (WI) were present in all cases. Three cases of CSD showed homogeneous SI on both T1- and T2WI. After contrast administration, a moderate, homogeneous enhancement was seen. The other seven lesions, except for one metastasis, had both solid and liquid components. Liquid components showed high SI on T2WI without enhancement, whereas solid components had intermediate SI on T2WI and marked enhancement after contrast administration. Pathological findings in seven patients, including four with CSD, supported the tentative diagnosis made on MRI. One of two patients with CSD had positive serological test. Cat-scratch disease is a major cause of a soft tissue swelling at the medial epitrochlear region. Identification of lymphadenopathy and its presentation on MRI may be helpful in eliciting an animal-scratch history and achieving diagnostic and therapeutic aims in patients without primary cancer. (orig.)

  13. Cat Scratch Disease Presenting as Breast Cancer: A Report of an Unusual Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Iannace

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign lymphoreticulosis (cat scratch disease, CSD may have a clinical course that varies from the most common lymphadenitis localized in the site of inoculation, preceded by the typical “primary lesion,” to a context of severe systemic involvement. Among these uncommon clinical aspects, there is mammarian granulomatous lymphadenitis which may appear as a mastitis or a solitary intraparenchymal mass, giving the impression of a breast tumor. In these cases, intensive clinical, instrumental, and laboratory investigations are necessary to exclude malignancy. Because of its rarity, in equivocal cases, it is reasonable to use surgical excision for accurate histological examination. We report a case of CSD of the breast in a 59-year-old woman, analyzing the clinical, histopathological, and instrumental appearance and also performing a literature review.

  14. Cat-Scratch Disease in the United States, 2005–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shubhayu; Mead, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is mostly preventable. More information about the epidemiology and extent of CSD would help direct prevention efforts to those at highest risk. To gain such information, we reviewed the 2005–2013 MarketScan national health insurance claims databases and identified patients <65 years of age with an inpatient admission or outpatient visit that included a CSD code from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Incidence of CSD was highest among those who lived in the southern United States (6.4 cases/100,000 population) and among children 5–9 years of age (9.4 cases/100,000 population). Inpatients were significantly more likely than outpatients to be male and 50–64 years of age. We estimate that each year, 12,000 outpatients are given a CSD diagnosis and 500 inpatients are hospitalized for CSD. Prevention measures (e.g., flea control for cats) are particularly helpful in southern states and in households with children. PMID:27648778

  15. Cat-scratch disease presenting as multiple hepatic lesions: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Andrade Baptista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although infectious diseases are the most prevalent cause of fevers of unknown origin (FUO, this diagnosis remains challenging in some pediatric patients. Imaging exams, such as computed tomography (CT are frequently required during the diagnostic processes. The presence of multiple hypoattenuating scattered images throughout the liver associated with the history of cohabitation with cats should raise the suspicion of the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease (CSD, although the main etiologic agent of liver abscesses in childhood is Staphylococcus aureus. Differential diagnosis by clinical and epidemiological data with Bartonella henselae is often advisable. The authors report the case of a boy aged 2 years and 9 months with 16-day history of daily fever accompanied by intermittent abdominal pain. Physical examination was unremarkable. Abdominal ultrasound performed in the initial work up was unrevealing, but an abdominal CT that was performed afterwards disclosed multiple hypoattenuating hepatic images compatible with the diagnosis of micro abscesses. Initial antibiotic regimen included cefotaxime, metronidazole, and oxacillin. Due to the epidemiology of close contact with kittens, diagnosis of CSD was considered and confirmed by serologic tests. Therefore, the initial antibiotics were replaced by clarithromycin orally for 14 days followed by fever defervescence and clinical improvement. The authors call attention to this uncommon diagnosis in a child presenting with FUO and multiple hepatic images suggestive of micro abscesses.

  16. A prospective study of cat-scratch disease in Lima-Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUARCAYA Erick

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat-Scratch Disease (CSD is a benign lymphadenitis that may progress to severe or recurrent forms, and it is occasionally associated with morbidity. Between January of 1998 and March of 1999, forty-three suspected CSD patients were assessed in the Hospital Cayetano Heredia and the Instituto de Salud del Niño, in Lima, Peru. Twelve patients had a confirmed diagnosis, 8 of whom were women, and the mean age was 10 years old. The majority (53% of the cases were encountered in the summer. All patients reported having had contact with cats. Fever, malaise, lymphadenopathy and skin lesions were the most frequent clinical features. Twelve patients had indirect immunofluorescence antibody test titers of between 1/50 and 1/800 for Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae. Two lymph node biopsies were histologically compatible with CSD. No positive blood cultures could be obtained. This is the first Peruvian prospective study able to identify B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in pediatric patients.

  17. Diagnosis of Cat Scratch Disease with Detection of Bartonella henselae by PCR: a Study of Patients with Lymph Node Enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    Hansmann, Yves; Demartino, Sylvie; Piémont, Yves; Meyer, Nicolas; Mariet, Philippe; Heller, Rémy; Christmann, Daniel; Jaulhac, Benoît

    2005-01-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is mostly due to Bartonella henselae after inoculation of the organism through a skin injury. Since the causative bacteria cannot be easily cultured from human lymph node samples, the diagnosis usually relies on epidemiological, clinical, histological, and serological criteria (classical criteria). A study was performed to determine the diagnostic value of PCR analysis for the detection of B. henselae for the diagnosis of CSD and its place in the diagnostic strategy ...

  18. Cat scratch disease, a rare cause of hypodense liver lesions, lymphadenopathy and a protruding duodenal lesion, caused by Bartonella henselae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ierland-van Leeuwen, Marloes; Peringa, Jan; Blaauwgeers, Hans; van Dam, Alje

    2014-10-29

    A 46-year-old woman presented with right upper abdominal pain and fever. At imaging, enlarged peripancreatic and hilar lymph nodes, as well as hypodense liver lesions, were detected, suggestive of malignant disease. At endoscopy, the mass adjacent to the duodenum was seen as a protruding lesion through the duodenal wall. A biopsy of this lesion, taken through the duodenal wall, showed a histiocytic granulomatous inflammation with necrosis. Serology for Bartonella henselae IgM was highly elevated a few weeks after presentation, consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Clinical symptoms subsided spontaneously and, after treatment with azithromycin, the lymphatic masses, liver lesions and duodenal ulceration disappeared completely.

  19. A star in the eye: cat scratch neuroretinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gajula, Viswanath; Kamepalli, Ravi; Kalavakunta, Jagadeesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Neuroretinitis is one of the atypical presentations of Cat scratch disease (CSD). Fundoscopy showed star pattern macular exudates. CSD should be considered in patients who present with blurry vision and typical fundoscopic findings.

  20. Visceral cat scratch disease with endocarditis in an immunocompetent adult: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasha, David; Gilon, Dan; Vernea, Fiona; Moses, Allon E; Strahilevitz, Jacob

    2014-03-01

    Infective endocarditis and hepatosplenic abscesses are rare manifestations of cat scratch disease (CSD), especially among immunocompetent adults. An otherwise healthy woman who presented with fever and abdominal pain was diagnosed with multiple abscesses in the spleen and the liver, as well as a mitral valve vegetation. PCR on spleen tissue was positive for Bartonella henselae. Prolonged treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin led to complete recovery. Review of the literature revealed 18 cases of hepatosplenic CSD in immunocompetent adults; the majority presented with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain. In most cases the causative organism was B. henselae and the pathological findings were necrotizing granulomas, similar to the pathological features in classic CSD. Concomitant endocarditis was diagnosed in one case. Because Bartonella is one of the leading pathogens of culture-negative endocarditis, we raise the question of whether a comprehensive evaluation for endocarditis is needed in cases of systemic CSD.

  1. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Bartonella henselae in Patients with Cat Scratch Disease and in Healthy Controls: Evaluation and Comparison of Two Commercial Serological Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Sander, Anna; Posselt, Miriam; Oberle, Karin; Bredt, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    Serologic testing for the presence of antibodies to Bartonella henselae is a widely accepted diagnostic procedure for laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD). In this study a commercially available indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) based on B. henselae-infected human larynx carcinoma cells (test A) was evaluated. Sera from 42 patients with CSD (20 confirmed by PCR) and 270 sera from healthy controls (consisting of 63 cat owners, 65 individuals whose last cl...

  2. Cat Scratch Can Sometimes Lead to Serious Illness: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161086.html Cat Scratch Can Sometimes Lead to Serious Illness: CDC But ... Fluffy the cat gets out of sorts and scratches you, it's possible you could get a bacterial ...

  3. "Cat scratch colon" in a patient with ischemic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Eui Bae; Jeon, Seong Ran; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2015-03-01

    "Cat scratch colon" is a gross finding characterized by hemorrhagic mucosal scratches on colonoscopy. It is usually associated with a normal colon and is rarely associated with collagenous colitis. In a previous report, cat scratch colon was noted in the cecum and ascending colon, but has also been observed in the distal transverse colon. The patient in this study was also diagnosed with ischemic colitis that may have played a role in the development of cat scratch colon.

  4. Evaluation of Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Assay for Detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Seroprevalence of B. clarridgeiae among Patients with Suspected Cat Scratch Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Umeda, Akiko; Tsukahara, Masato; Sasaki, Kohsuke

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of Bartonella clarridgeiae being a causative agent of cat scratch disease (CSD) was investigated by using indirect fluorescence antibody assays with 288 suspected CSD patients. Immunoglobulin G antibody to noncocultivated B. clarridgeiae was suitable only for detection of B. clarridgeiae antibody. Significant cross-reactivity between Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae was noted, and no CSD case caused by B. clarridgeiae was detected.

  5. 16S rRNA sequences of Bartonella bacilliformis and cat scratch disease bacillus reveal phylogenetic relationships with the alpha-2 subgroup of the class Proteobacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, S P; Dorsch, M; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Stackebrandt, E

    1991-01-01

    The primary structures of 16S rRNAs of Bartonella bacilliformis, an isolate of the cat scratch disease (CSD) bacillus, and a strain phenotypically similar to the CSD bacillus were determined by reverse transcriptase sequencing. These microorganisms were found to be members of the alpha-2 subgroup of the class Proteobacteria. The sequence from B. bacilliformis was most closely related to the rRNA of Rochalimaea quintana (91.7% homology), the etiologic agent of trench fever. The sequence from t...

  6. Utility of MR imaging in cat-scratch neuroretinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 80% of cat-scratch disease (CSD) infections occur in children, and CSD neuroretinitis (optic neuropathy with retinal exudates in a ''macular star'' pattern) mostly occurs in children and young adults. A recent study suggested that CSD optic neuropathy has specific features on MR imaging. However, MR imaging findings in CSD neuroretinitis are not well described in the pediatric literature. We present a patient with CSD neuroretinitis in whom these specific MR imaging features preceded the macular star, a funduscopic finding strongly suggestive of neuroretinitis. This case demonstrates how knowledge of these features is important in the appropriate diagnostic work-up of optic neuropathy. MR imaging also incidentally revealed neuritis of another cranial nerve in the auditory canal - a rare manifestation of CSD. (orig.)

  7. New-onset refractory status epilepticus in an adult with an atypical presentation of cat-scratch disease: successful treatment with high-dose corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laswell, Emily M; Chambers, Kasandra D; Whitsel, Danielle R; Poudel, Kiran

    2015-06-01

    New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is defined as a sudden onset of refractory status epilepticus in patients who do not have a history of epilepsy. It is a neurologic emergency, and determining the underlying etiology is an important factor for effectively managing and predicting the prognosis of NORSE. We describe the case of a 28-year-old woman who was hospitalized with NORSE secondary to an unknown etiology. She did not respond to traditional anticonvulsant therapy, including benzodiazepines, fosphenytoin, propofol, and levetiracetam. The patient was placed on continuous electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring and was treated further with multiple antiepileptics, which were titrated aggressively based on EEG readings and therapeutic drug levels; despite this treatment, EEG monitoring revealed continued seizures. Thus, high-dose corticosteroids were started for seizure control. Her workup included computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head, a lumbar puncture, toxicology screening, and extensive testing for multiple infectious and inflammatory etiologies. The patient's history revealed recent exposure to a new cat. Serologic results were positive for Bartonella henselae, and she was diagnosed with cat-scratch disease (CSD). She did not have the typical presentation of symptoms of lymphadenopathy, however, which is common in CSD. Doxycycline 100 mg and rifampin 300 mg twice daily were added to the patient's anticonvulsant and corticosteroid therapy. She was hospitalized for a total of 26 days and discharged with only minor neurologic impairment (short-term memory deficits and minor cognitive problems). The patient was discharged receiving antiepileptics, antibiotics, and a corticosteroid taper. To our knowledge, this is the first clinically known case of NORSE secondary to CSD without typical CSD symptoms in the adult population. The patient failed to respond to traditional anticonvulsant therapy alone. With the addition of high

  8. Conjuntivite granulomatosa atípica causada pela doença da arranhadura do gato: relato de caso Cat-scratch disease causing atypical granulomatous conjunctivitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hassler Príncipe de Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos caso de paciente do sexo feminino, brasileira, 23 anos, residente na Alemanha, que cursou com quadro de conjuntivite granulomatosa bilateral crônica, sem acometimento ganglionar, não responsiva a tratamento tópico. A pesquisa laboratorial confirmou diagnóstico de conjuntivite por Bartonella henselae. O caso demonstra que a ausência de acometimento ganglionar não exclui o diagnóstico de doença da arranhadura do gato.We report a case of a 23-year-old female patient, Brazilian, resident of Germany, who presented with a bilateral chronic granulomatous conjunctivitis, without lymphoadenopathy and irresponsive to topical treatment. Laboratorial work-up confirmed Bartonella henselae as the etiologic agent. The case shows that the absence of lymphoadenopathy does not exclude the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease.

  9. Clinicopathological analysis of 23 cases of neck cat scratch disease lymphadenitis%颈部猫抓病性淋巴结炎23例临床病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建瑞; 于宏亮; 王小杰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical and pathological features of the neck cat scratch disease lymphadenitis. Methods From September 2011 to September 2015,23 patients with cat scratch disease were selected,the clinical and pathological features were analyzed. Results To observe the lymph nodes,the display quality was moderate,mild to moderate swelling,sallow little necrosis in section detection;microscope:the follicular hyperplasia as the main performance,sinus dilation structure was still there,neutrophils for interstitial infiltration with focal necrosis,or a piece of purulent surround-ing granulation tissue formation. Twenty-three cases addicted silver fiber staining results were positive, micro abscess surrounding lymph sinus see section showed granular,brown or pleomorphic,rod-shaped bacteria,both color positive. The group on the lymph nodes were removed by surgery,recovered. Con-clusions Head and neck cat scratch disease lymphadenitis lack of specific clinical manifestations,need to be diagnosed in time according to the pathological features,supportive treatment with surgery can a-chieve good prognosis,to ensure the quality of life of patients.%目的:探讨颈部猫抓病性淋巴结炎的临床病理特征。方法选取驻马店市中医院2011年9月至2015年9月收治的23例颈部猫抓病性淋巴结炎患者,分析其临床病理特点。结果巨检:观察淋巴结,质量呈中等显示,为轻中度肿大,有灰黄色小的坏死灶于切面检出;镜下观察:以淋巴滤泡增生为主要表现,窦扩张,结构仍存在,有中性粒细胞间质浸润,有灶性或成片化脓性坏死,周边形成有肉芽组织。23例嗜银纤维染色结果均呈阳性,微脓肿周边、淋巴窦内切片示见颗粒状、棕黑色或多形性、杆状的细菌,均为显色阳性。采用手术切除肿大淋巴结,所有患者均痊愈。结论头颈部猫抓病淋巴结炎缺乏特异性临床表现,需依据病理特点及

  10. Scratch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan BOLOGA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a brief introduction to the highly innovative product SCRATCH developed at MIT Media Lab by Professor Mitchell Resnick and his team. The product is intended to be used by young children with ages between 10 and 19 years in order to understand the programming basics. The key advantage of SCRATCH is the fact that it does not require any mathematical knowledge in order to use it.

  11. Scratch

    OpenAIRE

    Razvan BOLOGA

    2006-01-01

    The article is a brief introduction to the highly innovative product SCRATCH developed at MIT Media Lab by Professor Mitchell Resnick and his team. The product is intended to be used by young children with ages between 10 and 19 years in order to understand the programming basics. The key advantage of SCRATCH is the fact that it does not require any mathematical knowledge in order to use it.

  12. Development of a Highly Specific IgM Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Bartonella henselae Using Refined N-Lauroyl-Sarcosine-Insoluble Proteins for Serodiagnosis of Cat Scratch Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuyama, Ken-Ichiro; Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Kondou, Kaori; Yanagihara, Masashi; Tokuda, Nobuko; Shirasawa, Bungo; Ichihara, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    The conventional anti-Bartonella henselaeIgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM-ELISA) methods for diagnosing cat scratch disease (CSD) remain poor in both sensitivity and specificity. We sought to develop an IgM-ELISA with improved accuracy in the serodiagnosis of CSD by exploring the antigens that are most suitable for an ELISA. We prepared 5 different protein antigens: antigen I (sonicatedB. henselaewhole-cell antigen), antigen II (N-lauroyl-sarcosine-insoluble antigen), antigen III (processed sarcosine-soluble antigen), and antigen IV and antigen V (sarcosine-insoluble and sarcosine-soluble antigens refined by DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow ion-exchange chromatography). The IgM antibodies in the sera of 47 patients with clinically suspected CSD (24 definite, 23 suspected) and of 85 healthy individuals were examined by ELISAs using the 5 antigens, and the results were compared with those of an IgM indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IgM-IFA). In a reference panel, which consisted of 5 positive and 5 negative sera, antigen I and antigen III failed to distinguish between the two statuses, whereas the other three antigens succeeded in distinguishing between them. When the cutoff value was set at the 98th percentile of the ELISA index for healthy individuals, the sensitivity of IgM-IFA for the 24 cases of definite CSD was 54%, whereas the sensitivities of the IgM-ELISAs with antigen II, IV, and V were 75%, 83%, and 75%, respectively. The sensitivities of these three IgM-ELISAs for all 47 of the clinically suspected cases were 49%, 64%, and 51%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity of IgM-IFA was 28%. These results indicate that the refined sarcosine-insoluble proteins (antigen IV), which possessed the highest specificity among the 5 antigens, are the most appropriate for developing an IgM-ELISA for the highly specific serodiagnosis of CSD. PMID:26865692

  13. Intraspinally mediated state-dependent enhancement of motoneurone excitability during fictive scratch in the adult decerebrate cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Kevin E; McCrea, David A; Fedirchuk, Brent

    2010-08-01

    This is the first study to report on the increase in motoneurone excitability during fictive scratch in adult decerebrate cats. Intracellular recordings from antidromically identified motoneurones revealed a decrease in the voltage threshold for spike initiation (V(th)), a suppression of motoneurone afterhyperpolarization and activation of voltage-dependent excitation at the onset of scratch. These state-dependent changes recovered within 10-20 s after scratch and could be evoked after acute transection of the spinal cord at C1. Thus, there is a powerful intraspinal system that can quickly and reversibly re-configure neuronal excitability during spinal network activation. Fictive scratch was evoked in spinal intact and transected decerebrate preparations by stroking the pinnae following topical curare application to the dorsal cervical spinal cord and neuromuscular block. Hyperpolarization of V(th) occurred (mean 5.8 mV) in about 80% of ipsilateral flexor, extensor or bifunctional motoneurones during fictive scratch. The decrease in V(th) began before any scratch-evoked motoneurone activity as well as during the initial phase in which extensors are tonically hyperpolarized. The V(th) of contralateral extensors depolarized by a mean of +3.7 mV during the tonic contralateral extensor activity accompanying ipsilateral scratch. There was a consistent and substantial reduction of afterhyperpolarization amplitude without large increases in motoneurone conductance in both spinal intact and transected preparations. Depolarizing current injection increased, and hyperpolarization decreased the amplitude of rhythmic scratch drive potentials in acute spinal preparations indicating that the spinal scratch-generating network can activate voltage-dependent conductances in motoneurones. The enhanced excitability in spinal preparations associated with fictive scratch indicates the existence of previously unrecognized, intraspinal mechanisms increasing motoneurone excitability.

  14. Reciprocal Ia inhibition contributes to motoneuronal hyperpolarisation during the inactive phase of locomotion and scratching in the cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Stecina, Katinka; Meehan, Claire Francesca;

    2011-01-01

    of motoneurones during fictive locomotion (evoked either by electrical stimulation of the brainstem or by L-DOPA administration following a spinal transection at the cervical level) and fictive scratching (evoked by stimulation of the pinna) in decerebrate cats. Simultaneous extracellular recordings of Ia...

  15. Warthin-Starry特殊染色、免疫组织化学和透射电镜在猫抓病病理诊断中的作用%Application of Warthin-Starry stain,immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy in diagnosis of cat scratch disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄娟; 董丹丹; 徐纲; 辜正策; 郝冀玲; 华平; 何磊; 段芳蕾; 代琳; 雷松; 廖殿英; 王晓卿; 罗添友; 陈昱; 杭振镳; 李甘地

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic utility of Warthin-Starry silver stain,immunohiatochemistry and transmission electron microscopy in the detection of human Bartonella henselae infection and pathologic diagnosis of cat scratch disease(CSD).Metbotis The paraffin-embedded lymph node tissues of 77 histologically.defined cases of cat scratch disease collected during the period from January,1998 to December,2008 were retrieved and studied using Warthin-Starry silver stain(WS stain)and mouse monoclonal antibody against Bartonella henselae(BhmAB stain).Five cases rich in bacteria were selected for transmission electron microscopy.Results Under electron microscope,the organisms Bartonella henselae appeared polymorphic,round,elliptical,short rod or bacilliform shapes,ranged from 0.489 to 1.110 μm by 0.333 to 0.534 μm and often clustered together.Black short rod-shaped bacilli arranged in chains or clumps were demonstrated in 61.0%(47/77)of CSD by WS stain.The organisms were located outside the cells and lie mainly in the necrotic debris,especially near the nodal capsule.In 72.7%(56/77)of the cases,dot-like,granular as well as few linear positive signals were observed using BhmAB immunostain and showed similar localization.Positive results for both stains were identified in 59.7%(46/77)of the cases.When applying both stains together,Bartonella henselae was observed in 74.0%(57/77)of the earle.The difference between the results obtained by WS stain and BhmAB immunostain was of statistical significance(P<0.05).Conclusions Bartonella henselae is the causative pathogen of cat scratch disease.WS stain,BhmAB immunostain and transmission electron microscopy are helpful in confirming the histologic diagnosis.Immunostaining using BhmAB can be a better alternative than WS stain in demonstrating the organisms.%目的 探讨Warthin-Starry银染色法、抗汉赛巴尔通体单克隆抗体和电镜在检测人巴尔通体感染、确诊猫抓病中的实用价值.方法 收集1998

  16. An abscess due to Pasteurella multocida after a cat scratch: Case report and evaluation of antibiotic prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim Alpay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida has been isolated from 50% to 70% of healthy cats and most commonly associated with acute skin and soft tissue infections following an animal bite or scratch. As the zone and depth of injury can lead to more serious infections such as deep tissue infections, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis. However, no predictive factor showing which wound would be infected. In our case, patient whom applied with abscess after a cat scratch and P. multocida was found as a causative agent. This situation has caused to review us, once more, that which cases should be taken antibiotic pro­phylaxis in addition to immunoprophylaxis (for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis, and anti-tetanus prophylaxis in the first admission. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be used for 3-5 days in selected cases if they include; moderate to severe crushing injuries especially edematous form, less than 8 hours old, bone or joint penetration, hand wounds, especially emphasizes the importance of hand injuries and deep penetrations. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014; 4(4: 159-161

  17. Polycystic kidney disease in a Chartreux cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed. PMID:19716738

  18. Polycystic kidney disease in a Chartreux cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed.

  19. Clinical pathologic analysis of the eat-scratch diseases%猫抓病2例临床病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨猫抓病的临床病理学特征、诊断及鉴别诊断.方法 对2例猫抓病进行临床病理分析,应用Warthin-Starry嗜银纤维染色进行诊断和鉴别诊断.结果 2例猫抓病患者,1例有明确的被猫咬伤手指史,1例可疑被猫抓咬病史.镜下见大量淋巴结构破坏,多发性、大小不一的圆形结节性肉芽肿性病变.结节中央为含嗜中性粒细胞的中心性坏死,其间见少量类上皮细胞、多核巨细胞等.肉芽肿性结节为非干酪样坏死性.Warthin-Starry嗜银纤维染色发现结节内有大量阳性杆菌.结论 猫抓病常见的病原体为巴尔通氏体,其淋巴结肉芽肿的病理组织学变化酷似性病性淋巴肉芽肿、非干酪性结核等.可根据临床病史、特殊皮肤试验、病理组织学改变及嗜银纤维染色来加以诊断和鉴别诊断.%Objiective To explore clinical pathologic characteristics, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the cat-scratch diseases. Methods 2 patients with cat-scratch diseases were analyzed by histological observation and Warthin-Starry argentaffine fibers stain. Results One patient had a clearly medical history bitten finger by a roam a-bout cat. Histologically, the nodular was composed of epithelioid cells, multinuclear giant cells with a central necrot-ic. Conclusions The common etiology of the cat-scratch disease were Bartonella hensellae. These lesions greagly re-semble those of lymphogranuloma venereum and non-caseous tuberculosis. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis was based on the history, a specific cutaneous test and Warthin-Starry argentaffine fibers stain.

  20. [Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghermai, A K

    1989-01-01

    The aetiology of chronic idiopathic intestinal inflammation is unknown. It is characterized by a diffuse infiltration with inflammatory cells into the intestinal mucosa and sometimes submucosa. Cats with chronic intermittent vomiting and diarrhoea, later on accompanied by anorexia and weight loss, are presented. Definitive diagnosis can be obtained by intestinal biopsy only. An immune pathogenesis is suspected, which is supported by the fact, that chronic inflammatory bowel disease responds to steroid therapy.

  1. Toxoplasmosis in two cats with inflammatory intestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J L; Willard, M D; Lees, G E; Lappin, M R; Dieringer, T; Floyd, E

    1991-08-15

    Lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis, a chronic inflammatory intestinal disease, was diagnosed in 2 cats. In 1 cat, recurrence of clinical signs after initiating treatment was attributed to relapse of the inflammatory intestinal disease, but was found to be attributable to relapsing toxoplasmosis secondary to immunosuppressive drug therapy. Treatment with clindamycin resolved the recurrent toxoplasmosis. In the second cat, clinical signs of toxoplasmosis did not develop, but serologic testing yielded evidence of active toxoplasmosis. Treatment with clindamycin caused the titers to decrease. Relapsing toxoplasmosis may be responsible for apparent resistance to treatment in cats for inflammatory intestinal disease being treated with immunosuppressive drugs.

  2. Concurrent Diseases and Conditions in Cats with Renal Infarcts

    OpenAIRE

    Hickey, M.C.; Jandrey, K.; Farrell, K.S.; Carlson‐Bremer, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal infarcts identified without definitive association with any specific disease process. Objective Determine diseases associated with diagnosis of renal infarcts in cats diagnosed by sonography or necropsy. Animals 600 cats underwent abdominal ultrasonography, necropsy, or both at a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Methods Information obtained from electronic medical records. Cats classified as having renal infarct present based on results of sonographic evaluation or necro...

  3. Scratch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Milonovich, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    A practical approach with hands-on recipes to learn more about Scratch and its features.Scratch Cookbook is great for people who are still relatively new to programming but wish to learn more. It assumes you know the basics of computer operation. The methods of using Scratch are worked through quickly with a focus on more advanced topics, though readers can move at their own pace to learn all the techniques they need.

  4. Zoonotic diseases associated with free-roaming cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, R W; Jessup, D A

    2013-05-01

    Free-roaming cat populations have been identified as a significant public health threat and are a source for several zoonotic diseases including rabies, toxoplasmosis, cutaneous larval migrans because of various nematode parasites, plague, tularemia and murine typhus. Several of these diseases are reported to cause mortality in humans and can cause other important health issues including abortion, blindness, pruritic skin rashes and other various symptoms. A recent case of rabies in a young girl from California that likely was transmitted by a free-roaming cat underscores that free-roaming cats can be a source of zoonotic diseases. Increased attention has been placed on trap-neuter-release (TNR) programmes as a viable tool to manage cat populations. However, some studies have shown that TNR leads to increased immigration of unneutered cats into neutered populations as well as increased kitten survival in neutered groups. These compensatory mechanisms in neutered groups leading to increased kitten survival and immigration would confound rabies vaccination campaigns and produce naïve populations of cats that can serve as source of zoonotic disease agents owing to lack of immunity. This manuscript is a review of the various diseases of free-roaming cats and the public health implications associated with the cat populations. PMID:22830565

  5. Cardiopulmonary disease in the geriatric dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of cardiopulmonary disease increases with age. Degenerative valvular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and arrhythmias are common in the geriatric dog. Chronic bronchial disease, pulmonary neoplasia, and arrhythmias occur in the geriatric cat. Systemic diseases in both species often show cardiopulmonary manifestations. Medical management to treat the underlying disease and to control clinical signs is complicated by altered absorption, metabolism, and elimination of drugs

  6. Serum Beta Hydroxybutyrate Concentrations in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease, Hyperthyroidism, or Hepatic Lipidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, L.; Sharkey, L.C.; Armstrong, P.J.; Little, K.; Rendahl, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ketones, including beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB), are produced in conditions of negative energy balance and decreased glucose utilization. Serum BHB concentrations in cats are poorly characterized in diseases other than diabetes mellitus. Hypothesis Serum BHB concentrations will be increased in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD), hyperthyroidism (HT), or hepatic lipidosis (HL). Animals Twenty‐eight client‐owned cats with CKD, 34 cats with HT, and 15 cats with HL; 43 healthy cats. ...

  7. Limited sampling pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous ondansetron in healthy geriatric cats, cats with chronic kidney disease, and cats with liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, R L; Wittenburg, L A; Hansen, R J; Gustafson, D L; Quimby, J M

    2016-08-01

    Ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, is an effective anti-emetic in cats. The purpose of this study was to compare pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous (SQ) ondansetron in healthy geriatric cats to cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or liver disease using a limited sampling strategy. 60 cats participated; 20 per group. Blood was drawn 30 and 120 min following one 2 mg (mean 0.49 mg/kg, range 0.27-1.05 mg/kg) SQ dose of ondansetron. Ondansetron concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Drug exposure represented as area under the curve (AUC) was predicted using a limited sampling approach based on multiple linear regression analysis from previous full sampling studies, and clearance (CL/F) estimated using noncompartmental methods. Kruskal-Wallis anova was used to compare parameters between groups. Mean AUC (ng/mL·h) of subcutaneous ondansetron was 301.4 (geriatric), 415.2 (CKD), and 587.0 (liver). CL/F (L/h/kg) of SQ ondansetron was 1.157 (geriatric), 0.967 (CKD), and 0.795 (liver). AUC was significantly higher in liver and CKD cats when compared to geriatric cats (P < 0.05). CL/F in liver cats was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared to geriatric cats. In age-matched subset analysis, AUC and CL/F in liver cats remained significantly different from geriatric cats. PMID:26667224

  8. Disseminated cat-scratch disease in an adult with selective IgA deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron Rohr, MD, MS; Ryan Ash, MD; John Vadaparampil, MD; Jacqueline Hill, MPH; Louis Wetzel, MD

    2016-01-01

    A 51-year-old man with history of undiagnosed pulmonary nodules 4 years prior, presented with right-sided chest pain. Acute cardiac workup was negative, and a chest computed tomography examination demonstrated marked improvement in bilateral pulmonary nodules. A concordant abdominal computed tomography examination showed new subcentimeter hypodense lesions throughout the liver and spleen, mild progressive abdominopelvic lymphadenopathy, and new small lytic lesions of T11 and L4 vertebrae. A p...

  9. Hepatosplenic Cat-Scratch Disease in Children and the Positive Contribution of F-18-FDG Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraft, Karianne E.; Doedens, Rienus A.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Two patients were referred to our hospital because of suspected malignancy. In patient 1, a 4-year-old boy, a F-18-FDG PET scan showed an enlarged liver with multiple FDG-positive nodular lesions. In patient 2, a 16-year-old boy, a FDG PET-(low-dose) CT showed an enlarged liver and spleen with multi

  10. Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... those experienced by humans. Cats that hunt wild rodents and rabbits in the western, particularly the southwestern, ... caused by a fungus that can infect skin, hair, and nails of both people and animals. Ringworm ...

  11. Vestibular disease in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmeisl, John H

    2010-01-01

    The vestibular system is the major sensory (special proprioceptive) system that, along with the general proprioceptive and visual systems, maintains balance. Clinical signs of vestibular disease include asymmetric ataxia, head tilt, and pathologic nystagmus. Neuroanatomic localization of observed vestibular signs to either the peripheral or central components of the vestibular system is paramount to the management of the patient with vestibular dysfunction, as the etiology, diagnostic approaches, and prognoses are dependent on the neuroanatomic diagnosis. This article reviews functional vestibular neuroanatomy as well as the diagnosis and treatment of common causes of small animal vestibular disease. PMID:19942058

  12. Primary hyperaldosteronism, a mediator of progressive renal disease in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, S; Djajadiningrat-Laanen, S C; Kooistra, H S; van Dongen, A M; Voorhout, G; van Sluijs, F J; van den Ingh, T S G A M; Boer, W H; Rijnberk, A

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in primary hyperaldosteronism, particularly because of its possible role in the progression of kidney disease. While most studies have concerned humans and experimental animal models, we here report on the occurrence of a spontaneous form of (non-tumorous) primary hyperaldosteronism in cats. At presentation, the main physical features of 11 elderly cats were hypokalemic paroxysmal flaccid paresis and loss of vision due to retinal detachment with hemorrhages. Primary hyperaldosteronism was diagnosed on the basis of plasma concentrations of aldosterone (PAC) and plasma renin activity (PRA), and the calculation of the PAC:PRA ratio. In all animals, PACs were at the upper end or higher than the reference range. The PRAs were at the lower end of the reference range, and the PAC:PRA ratios exceeded the reference range. Diagnostic imaging by ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed no or only very minor changes in the adrenals compatible with nodular hyperplasia. Adrenal gland histopathology revealed extensive micronodular hyperplasia extending from zona glomerulosa into the zona fasciculata and reticularis. In three cats, plasma urea and creatinine concentrations were normal when hyperaldosteronism was diagnosed but thereafter increased to above the upper limit of the respective reference range. In the other eight cats, urea and creatinine concentrations were raised at first examination and gradually further increased. Even in end-stage renal insufficiency, there was a tendency to hypophosphatemia rather than to hyperphosphatemia. The histopathological changes in the kidneys mimicked those of humans with hyperaldosteronism: hyaline arteriolar sclerosis, glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The non-tumorous form of primary hyperaldosteronism in cats has many similarities with "idiopathic" primary hyperaldosteronism in humans. The condition is associated with progressive renal disease

  13. A review of histiocytic diseases of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P F

    2014-01-01

    Histiocytic proliferative disorders are commonly observed in dogs and less often cats. Histiocytic disorders occur in most of the dendritic cell (DC) lineages. Canine cutaneous histiocytoma originates from Langerhans cells (LCs) indicated by expression of CD1a, CD11c/CD18, and E-cadherin. When histiocytomas occur as multiple lesions in skin with optional metastasis to lymph nodes and internal organs, the disease resembles cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis of humans. Langerhans cell disorders do not occur in feline skin. Feline pulmonary LCH has been recognized as a cause of respiratory failure due to diffuse pulmonary infiltration by histiocytes, which express CD18 and E-cadherin and contain Birbeck's granules. In dogs and cats, histiocytic sarcomas (HS) arise from interstitial DCs that occur in most tissues of the body. Histiocytic sarcomas begin as localized lesions, which rapidly disseminate to many organs. Primary sites include spleen, lung, skin, brain (meninges), lymph node, bone marrow, and synovial tissues of limbs. An indolent form of localized HS, progressive histiocytosis, originates in the skin of cats. Hemophagocytic HS originates in splenic red pulp and bone marrow macrophages in dogs and cats. In dogs, histiocytes in hemophagocytic HS express CD11d/CD18, which is a leuko-integrin highly expressed by macrophages in splenic red pulp and bone marrow. Canine reactive histiocytic diseases, systemic histiocytosis (SH) and cutaneous histiocytosis, are complex inflammatory diseases with underlying immune dysregulation. The lesions are dominated by activated interstitial DCs and lymphocytes, which invade vessel walls and extend as vasocentric infiltrates in skin, lymph nodes, and internal organs (SH).

  14. Biofilm Implication in Oral Diseases of Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Zambori

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of biofilm in disease processes in humans and animals is now widely recognized. In animal species,the risk of infection is probably greater than the risk in humans. This is due to the difference in animal housing andliving environments – animals naturally live in environments with a large and much more diverse microbialcommunity. Most oral bacteria live symbiotically in biofilm. This symbiotic association gives the bacteria differentcommunal properties than individual planktonic bacteria.Bacteria that form biofilm live and develop in communities which are an important property for dental plaqueformation that leads to dental calculus formation, periodontal diseases, dental caries and systemic diseases.The objective of this study is to reveal the role of dental plaque (oral biofilm in pathogenesis of dental calculus,periodontal disease and dental caries in dogs and cats.

  15. Persistent haematuria and proteinuria due to glomerular disease in related Abyssinian cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joanna D; Norris, Jacqueline M; Bosward, Katrina L; Fleay, R; Lauer, Chris; Malik, Richard

    2008-07-01

    Eight cases of glomerular disease in young, related Abyssinian cats are described. Haematuria was the most consistent feature. Six cats developed the nephrotic syndrome. The short-term prognosis was good for cats with haematuria and fair for cats with the nephrotic syndrome as oedema resolved in three of the six cats. Light microscopic examination of renal biopsies from three cats was considered normal or revealed only mild abnormalities. In the three cases subjected to necropsy, histological abnormalities included mild mesangial hypercellularity and adhesions between the glomerular tuft and Bowman's capsule consistent with a focal proliferative glomerulopathy. Further investigation into this glomerulopathy will require ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies to characterise the glomerular abnormality and genetic analyses to investigate its potential to be an inherited disease. Glomerular disease, potentially a familial one, should be considered in the investigation of persistent haematuria or proteinuria in Abyssinian and related cats. PMID:18455462

  16. Exposure to cats: update on risks for sensitization and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmage, Shyamali C; Lodge, Caroline L; Matheson, Melanie C; Campbell, Brittany; Lowe, Adrian J

    2012-10-01

    Cats are the pets most commonly implicated in the etiology of asthma and allergic disease. However, systematic reviews have concluded that there is a lack of evidence to support the idea that cat exposure in early life increases the risk of allergic disease. Indeed, it appears most likely that cat exposure is protective against allergic diseases. Recent large prospective studies have shown that living with a cat during childhood, especially during the first year of a child's life, could be protective. However, any advice given to the parents should also incorporate how new acquisition of cats can affect other family members, especially those who are already sensitized. Research is urgently needed to determine whether the suggested impact of acquisition of cats in adult life is modified by the person's childhood pet ownership, to help parents who seek advice on whether or not to get a cat. PMID:22878928

  17. Prospective evaluation of healthy Ragdoll cats for chronic kidney disease by routine laboratory parameters and ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paepe, Dominique; Bavegems, Valérie; Combes, Anaïs; Saunders, Jimmy H; Daminet, Sylvie

    2013-10-01

    Ragdoll breeder organisations often forewarn Ragdoll cat owners that renal problems may develop as a result of polycystic kidney disease (PKD), chronic interstitial nephritis, familial renal dysplasia or nephrocalcinosis. Healthy Ragdoll and non-Ragdoll cats were prospectively evaluated by measuring serum creatinine and urea concentrations, routine urinalysis and abdominal ultrasonography. All Ragdoll cats also underwent genetic PKD testing. One hundred and thirty-three Ragdoll and 62 control cats were included. Ragdoll cats had significantly lower serum urea concentrations and higher urinary specific gravity. However, median creatinine concentration, median urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio, and the proportion of cats with serum creatinine or urea concentration exceeding the reference interval did not differ. One or more renal ultrasonographical changes were detected in 66/133 (49.6%) Ragdoll and in 25/62 (40%) control cats. Ragdoll cats showed significantly more frequent segmental cortical lesions (7.5% versus 0%), abnormal renal capsule (19.5% versus 8%) and echogenic urine (51.9% versus 25.8%). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was ultrasonographically suspected in 7/133 (5.3%) Ragdoll and in none of the control cats, which approached significance. Laboratory parameters confirmed kidney dysfunction only in 1/7 of these Ragdoll cats. All Ragdoll cats were PKD negative. In conclusion, first, breed-specific serum creatinine reference intervals are not likely required for Ragdoll cats. Second, renal ultrasonographical abnormalities are common, both in Ragdoll and non-Ragdoll cats. Third, healthy young Ragdoll cats are uncommonly affected by PKD and CKD, but an increased susceptibility of Ragdoll cats to develop CKD cannot be excluded. Finally, Ragdoll cats are predisposed to segmental cortical lesions, which may indicate renal infarction or cortical scarring.

  18. Prospective evaluation of healthy Ragdoll cats for chronic kidney disease by routine laboratory parameters and ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paepe, Dominique; Bavegems, Valérie; Combes, Anaïs; Saunders, Jimmy H; Daminet, Sylvie

    2013-10-01

    Ragdoll breeder organisations often forewarn Ragdoll cat owners that renal problems may develop as a result of polycystic kidney disease (PKD), chronic interstitial nephritis, familial renal dysplasia or nephrocalcinosis. Healthy Ragdoll and non-Ragdoll cats were prospectively evaluated by measuring serum creatinine and urea concentrations, routine urinalysis and abdominal ultrasonography. All Ragdoll cats also underwent genetic PKD testing. One hundred and thirty-three Ragdoll and 62 control cats were included. Ragdoll cats had significantly lower serum urea concentrations and higher urinary specific gravity. However, median creatinine concentration, median urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio, and the proportion of cats with serum creatinine or urea concentration exceeding the reference interval did not differ. One or more renal ultrasonographical changes were detected in 66/133 (49.6%) Ragdoll and in 25/62 (40%) control cats. Ragdoll cats showed significantly more frequent segmental cortical lesions (7.5% versus 0%), abnormal renal capsule (19.5% versus 8%) and echogenic urine (51.9% versus 25.8%). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was ultrasonographically suspected in 7/133 (5.3%) Ragdoll and in none of the control cats, which approached significance. Laboratory parameters confirmed kidney dysfunction only in 1/7 of these Ragdoll cats. All Ragdoll cats were PKD negative. In conclusion, first, breed-specific serum creatinine reference intervals are not likely required for Ragdoll cats. Second, renal ultrasonographical abnormalities are common, both in Ragdoll and non-Ragdoll cats. Third, healthy young Ragdoll cats are uncommonly affected by PKD and CKD, but an increased susceptibility of Ragdoll cats to develop CKD cannot be excluded. Finally, Ragdoll cats are predisposed to segmental cortical lesions, which may indicate renal infarction or cortical scarring. PMID:23413268

  19. Polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats with successful treatment of bacterial cyst infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivy, R; Lyons, L A; Aroch, I; Segev, G

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited disorder in cats. Renal cysts progressively increase in size and number, resulting in a gradual decrease in kidney function. An autosomal dominant mutation in exon 29 of the polycystin-1 gene has been identified, mostly in Persian and Persian-related breeds. This case study describes polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats, of which two had the same genetic mutation reported in Persian and Persian-related cats. This likely reflects introduction of this mutation into the British shorthair breeding line because of previous outcrossing with Persian cats. An infected renal cyst was diagnosed and successfully treated in one of the cats. This is a commonly reported complication in human polycystic kidney disease, and to the authors' knowledge has not previously been reported in cats with polycystic kidney disease. PMID:25677715

  20. Polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats with successful treatment of bacterial cyst infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivy, R; Lyons, L A; Aroch, I; Segev, G

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited disorder in cats. Renal cysts progressively increase in size and number, resulting in a gradual decrease in kidney function. An autosomal dominant mutation in exon 29 of the polycystin-1 gene has been identified, mostly in Persian and Persian-related breeds. This case study describes polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats, of which two had the same genetic mutation reported in Persian and Persian-related cats. This likely reflects introduction of this mutation into the British shorthair breeding line because of previous outcrossing with Persian cats. An infected renal cyst was diagnosed and successfully treated in one of the cats. This is a commonly reported complication in human polycystic kidney disease, and to the authors' knowledge has not previously been reported in cats with polycystic kidney disease.

  1. Lungworm disease in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hartmann, Katrin; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    2015-01-01

    OVERVIEW: Cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of cats in Europe. A number of helminth parasites may be involved. The most prevalent lungworm in domestic cats is Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Oslerus rostratus and Troglostrongylus species are found mainly in wild cats. The trichurid Capill

  2. Subnormal concentrations of serum cobalamin (vitamin B12) in cats with gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, K W; Fyfe, J; Cornetta, A; Sachs, A; Strauss-Ayali, D; Lamb, S V; Reimers, T J

    2001-01-01

    The present study sought to determine the spectrum of diseases associated with subnormal concentrations of serum cobalamin in cats undergoing investigation of suspected gastrointestinal problems. The solid-phase boil radioassay (RA) for cobalamin employed in the present study was immunologically specific, precise, and accurate, with a sensitivity of 15 pg/mL. The RA yielded results that strongly correlated with those obtained by bioassay (Spearmann rho = .805; P cats (range 900-2,800 pg/mL; mean +/- SD, 1,775 +/- 535 pg/mL; n = 33). Cats with subnormal cobalamin concentrations (mean +/- SD; 384 +/- 272 pg/mL, range 3-883 pg/mL) were middle-aged or older and were presented for weight loss. diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia, and thickened intestines. Definitive diagnoses in 22 cats included inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), intestinal lymphoma, cholangiohepatitis or cholangits, and pancreatic inflammation. Serum concentrations of cobalamin were particularly low in cats with intestinal lymphoma, three-fifths of whom also had subnormal serum concentrations of folate (disease in the intestines, pancreas, or hepatobiliary system in many cats made it difficult to determine the cause of subnormal cobalamin concentrations. The circulating half-life of parenteral cyanocobalamin was shorter in 2 cats with IBD (5 days) than in 4 healthy cats (12.75 days). The presence of subnormal serum concentrations of cobalamin in 49 of 80 cats evaluated suggests that the measurement of serum cobalamin may be a useful indirect indicator of enteric or pancreatic disease in cats. The rapid depletion of circulating cobalamin in cats suggests that cats may be highly susceptible to cobalamin deficiency. However, the relationship of subnormal serum cobalamin concentrations to cobalamin deficiency and the effect of cobalamin deficiency on cats remain to be determined.

  3. Significance of Coronavirus Mutants in Feces and Diseased Tissues of Cats Suffering from Feline Infectious Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels C. Pedersen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The internal FECV→FIPV mutation theory and three of its correlates were tested in four sibs/half-sib kittens, a healthy contact cat, and in four unrelated cats that died of FIP at geographically disparate regions. Coronavirus from feces and extraintestinal FIP lesions from the same cat were always >99% related in accessory and structural gene sequences. SNPs and deletions causing a truncation of the 3c gene product were found in almost all isolates from the diseased tissues of the eight cats suffering from FIP, whereas most, but not all fecal isolates from these same cats had intact 3c genes. Other accessory and structural genes appeared normal in both fecal and lesional viruses. Deliterious mutations in the 3c gene were unique to each cat, indicating that they did not originate in one cat and were subsequently passed horizontally to the others. Compartmentalization of the parental and mutant forms was not absolute; virus of lesional type was sometimes found in feces of affected cats and virus identical to fecal type was occasionally identified in diseased tissues. Although 3c gene mutants in this study were not horizontally transmitted, the parental fecal virus was readily transmitted by contact from a cat that died of FIP to its housemate. There was a high rate of mutability in all structural and accessory genes both within and between cats, leading to minor genetic variants. More than one variant could be identified in both diseased tissues and feces of the same cat. Laboratory cats inoculated with a mixture of two closely related variants from the same FIP cat developed disease from one or the other variant, but not both. Significant genetic drift existed between isolates from geographically distinct regions of the Western US.

  4. Clinical, radiographic, and bronchial cytologic features of cats with bronchial disease: 65 cases (1980-1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical records, radiographs, and bronchial cytologic abnormalities of 65 cats with bronchial disease were reviewed. Bronchial disease was defined as abnormality of the lower airways to the exclusion of disease originating or mainly involving the alveoli, interstitium, vasculature, or pleura. Cats with bronchial disease were more likely to be female and older. Siamese cats were over represented and had more chronic disease. In order of frequency, the following clinical signs were reported: coughing, dyspnea, occasional sneezing, wheezing, and vomiting. Radiography revealed prominent bronchial markings, with some cats having collapse of the middle lobe of the right lung (n = 7), overinflation of the lungs (n = 9), or aerophagia (n = 13). Of 65 bronchial washes, 58 were considered exudative, with the predominant cell type being eosinophil in 24%, neutrophil in 33%, macrophage in 22%, and mixed population of cells in 21%. Cultures for bacteria were considered positive in 24% of the cats. Circulating eosinophilia was not helpful in predicting the predominant cell type in bronchial cytologic exudates. Hyperproteinemia without dehydration was present in a third of the cats, indicating an immunologic response. Half the cats had resolution of clinical signs, whereas half the cats required continuing medication with bronchodilators, antimicrobial agents, or corticosteroids

  5. Animal models of disease: classification and etiology of diabetes in dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    R. W. Nelson; Reusch, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common disease in dogs and cats. The most common form of diabetes in dogs resembles type 1 diabetes in humans. Studies suggest that genetics, an immune-mediated component, and environmental factors are involved in the development of diabetes in dogs. A variant of gestational diabetes also occurs in dogs. The most common form of diabetes in cats resembles type 2 diabetes in humans. A major risk factor in cats is obesity. Obese cats have altered expression of several insu...

  6. Cats are not small dogs: is there an immunological explanation for why cats are less affected by arthropod-borne disease than dogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael J

    2016-09-20

    It is widely recognized that cats appear to be less frequently affected by arthropod-borne infectious diseases than dogs and share fewer zoonotic pathogens with man. This impression is supported by the relative lack of scientific publications related to feline vector-borne infections. This review explores the possible reasons for the difference between the two most common small companion animal species, including the hypothesis that cats might have a genetically-determined immunological resistance to arthropod vectors or the microparasites they transmit. A number of simple possibilities might account for the lower prevalence of these diseases in cats, including factors related to the lifestyle and behaviour of the cat, lesser spend on preventative healthcare for cats and reduced opportunities for research funding for these animals. The dog and cat have substantially similar immune system components, but differences in immune function might in part account for the markedly distinct prevalence and clinicopathological appearance of autoimmune, allergic, idiopathic inflammatory, immunodeficiency, neoplastic and infectious diseases in the two species. Cats have greater genetic diversity than dogs with much lower linkage disequilibrium in feline compared with canine breed groups. Immune function is intrinsically related to the nature of the intestinal microbiome and subtle differences between the canine and feline microbial populations might also impact on immune function and disease resistance. The reasons for the apparent lesser susceptibility of cats to arthropod-borne infectious diseases are likely to be complex, but warrant further investigation.

  7. Cats are not small dogs: is there an immunological explanation for why cats are less affected by arthropod-borne disease than dogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that cats appear to be less frequently affected by arthropod-borne infectious diseases than dogs and share fewer zoonotic pathogens with man. This impression is supported by the relative lack of scientific publications related to feline vector-borne infections. This review explores the possible reasons for the difference between the two most common small companion animal species, including the hypothesis that cats might have a genetically-determined immunological resistance to arthropod vectors or the microparasites they transmit. A number of simple possibilities might account for the lower prevalence of these diseases in cats, including factors related to the lifestyle and behaviour of the cat, lesser spend on preventative healthcare for cats and reduced opportunities for research funding for these animals. The dog and cat have substantially similar immune system components, but differences in immune function might in part account for the markedly distinct prevalence and clinicopathological appearance of autoimmune, allergic, idiopathic inflammatory, immunodeficiency, neoplastic and infectious diseases in the two species. Cats have greater genetic diversity than dogs with much lower linkage disequilibrium in feline compared with canine breed groups. Immune function is intrinsically related to the nature of the intestinal microbiome and subtle differences between the canine and feline microbial populations might also impact on immune function and disease resistance. The reasons for the apparent lesser susceptibility of cats to arthropod-borne infectious diseases are likely to be complex, but warrant further investigation. PMID:27646278

  8. Disease transmission from companion parrots to dogs and cats: what is the real risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jamie M; Speer, Brian; Opitz, Noel

    2011-11-01

    A number of common misconceptions exist regarding the degree of transmission from companion parrots to dogs and cats. Concern regarding bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic transmission is generally unfounded, because disease transmission between companion parrots and dogs and cats is not well-documented. Infections with Mycobacterium spp, Aspergillus spp, Giardia spp, Chlamydophila psittaci, Salmonella spp, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Cryptosporidium spp, and avian influenza are often considered possible transmissible diseases, causing pet caregivers unwarranted concerns.

  9. Disease transmission from companion parrots to dogs and cats: what is the real risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jamie M; Speer, Brian; Opitz, Noel

    2011-11-01

    A number of common misconceptions exist regarding the degree of transmission from companion parrots to dogs and cats. Concern regarding bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic transmission is generally unfounded, because disease transmission between companion parrots and dogs and cats is not well-documented. Infections with Mycobacterium spp, Aspergillus spp, Giardia spp, Chlamydophila psittaci, Salmonella spp, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Cryptosporidium spp, and avian influenza are often considered possible transmissible diseases, causing pet caregivers unwarranted concerns. PMID:22041215

  10. Plasma PGF 2 alpha metabolite levels in cats with uterine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, R; Karlstam, E; Persson, S; Kindahl, H

    2009-12-01

    Uterine disease induces PGF(2 alpha) increase in many animal species, which can be measured by the metabolite 15-keto-(13,14)-dihydro-PGF(2 alpha) (PGFM). Plasma PGFM levels are associated with severity of the uterine disease and presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in dogs. The objectives in this study were to investigate PGFM levels, presence of SIRS, and clinical and laboratory parameters in female cats as possible indicators for severity of uterine disease. In total, 7 female cats with pyometra, 2 with mucometra, 7 with cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), and 14 healthy control cats were included. Physical examination, ovariohysterectomy, and histopathology were performed, laboratory parameters were analyzed, and PGFM levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of variance, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test and Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. In cats with pyometra, mean PGFM levels were increased (21.1 nmol L(-1)) but were decreased in cats with CEH (0.4 nmol L(-1)) compared with control cats (0.6 nmol L(-1)). In cats with mucometra, the mean PGFM level was 8.8 nmol L(-1). Systemic inflammatory response syndrome was present in 6 (85%) cats with pyometra, 1 cat with mucometra, and 1 cat with CEH. Hospitalization length was negatively correlated with albumin and positively correlated with total white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophils, band neutrophils (BN), percentage BN (PBN), and monocytes. Pyometra and mucometra were associated with increased plasma levels of PGFM. The parameters albumin, WBC, neutrophils, BN, PBN, and monocytes may be useful to determine morbidity as measured by hospitalization length. PMID:19748114

  11. First report of Polycystic kidney disease occurrence in Persian cats in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucicevic, Milos; Slijepcevic, Dajana; Davitkov, Darko; Avdalovic, Vladimir; Aleksic-Kovacevic, Sanja; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2016-03-31

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited autosomal disorder in cats, mostly diagnosed in Persian cats. Renal cysts can be diagnosed by ultrasound, but cats must be at least 16 weeks old. The goals of this study were to assess the occurrence of PKD in Serbia using a randomly selected group of Persian cats, to compare the diagnostic e cacy of ultrasound and genetic tests, and to measure haematological and selected biochemical parameters. We examined 70 cats of Persian breed, between 4 months and 8 years of age. Complete blood count and selected biochemical parameters were measured, renal ultrasound was performed. Swabs of the oral cavity were obtained for genetic testing. Percentage of PKD positive cats identi ed by genetic testing was 48.6%, whilst only 18.6% were detected through ultrasound. Animals that were polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) positive and ultrasound negative ranged from 4 months to 3.5 years. All haematological and biochemical parameters were within the the normal range values in all examined cats. Genetic methods proved to be the most e ective for reliable and early diagnosis of PKD in Persian cats. DNA analysis can be used right after birth, and excludes the need for other diagnostic procedures, such as ultrasound. PMID:27033530

  12. Serum intact parathyroid hormone levels in cats with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano H. Giovaninni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is frequently observed in cats and it is characterized as a multisystemic illness, caused by several underlying metabolic changes, and secondary renal hyperparathyroidism (SRHPT is relatively common; usually it is associated with the progression of renal disease and poor prognosis. This study aimed at determining the frequency of SRHPT, and discussing possible mechanisms that could contribute to the development of SRHPT in cats at different stages of CKD through the evaluation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism, as well as acid-base status. Forty owned cats with CKD were included and divided into three groups, according to the stages of the disease, classified according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS as Stage II (n=12, Stage III (n=22 and Stage IV (n=6. Control group was composed of 21 clinically healthy cats. Increased serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH concentrations were observed in most CKD cats in all stages, and mainly in Stage IV, which hyperphosphatemia and ionized hypocalcemia were detected and associated to the cause for the development of SRHPT. In Stages II and III, however, ionized hypercalcemia was noticed suggesting that the development of SRHPT might be associated with other factors, and metabolic acidosis could be involved to the increase of serum ionized calcium. Therefore, causes for the development of SRHPT seem to be multifactorial and they must be further investigated, mainly in the early stages of CKD in cats, as hyperphosphatemia and ionized hypocalcemia could not be the only factors involved.

  13. Prevalence of polycystic kidney disease in Persian and Persian related cats in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthez, P Y; Rivier, P; Begon, D

    2003-12-01

    The prevalence of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) has been estimated in the USA, Australia, UK, and Germany, but no data are available to date in France. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of PKD in Persian and Persian related breeds of cats in France. Medical records of all healthy cats presented for ultrasonographic screening of PKD between December 2000 and April 2002 were analysed from two centres (ENVL and ENVA). Cats were classified as positive when at least one anechoic cavity was found in at least one kidney. Prevalence of PKD was compared between the two screening centres, between different breeds evaluated, and between male and female using Chi-square test. A total of 310 cats were examined, including 92 at ENVL (57 Persians, 22 Exotic Shorthairs, 7 Chartreux, 4 Norwegian Forest Cats, and 2 Abyssins) and 218 at ENVA (163 Persians, 42 Exotic Shorthairs, 4 Chartreux, 4 British Shorthairs, 2 American Whirehairs, 2 Norwegian Forest Cats, and 1 American Shorthair). Prevalence of PKD was 41.8% in Persian cats and 39.1% in Exotic Shorthair. No PKD was detected in cats from other breeds. There was no significant difference between prevalence of PKD found in ENVL and ENVA, between prevalence of PKD in Persians and in Exotic Shorthairs, and prevalence of PKD in male and in female. Prevalence of PKD in Persians and Exotic Shorthair cats in France is currently high but is similar to prevalence in other parts of the world. Selection based on ultrasonographic detection of cysts should decrease prevalence of PKD in the future. PMID:14623204

  14. Reported cat bites in Dallas: characteristics of the cats, the victims, and the attack events.

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, J C

    1990-01-01

    Associated with the increased popularity of cats as pets in American households has been an increase in the number of cat bites reported to health departments. Bite reports from Dallas, TX, for 1985 were analyzed for different aspects of the cat bite event, including characteristics of the cats, the people bitten, the wounds, and the attack events. Cat bites and scratches constituted 25 percent of the 2,494 reported animal bites. Biting cats were typically stray females. People 21 to 35 years...

  15. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: implications for infections disease transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, Sarah N.; Carver, Scott; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mat; Logan, Kenneth A.; Riley, Seth P.D.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter; Salman, Mo; Lappin, Michael R.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases - vectorborne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii - varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the

  16. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: Implications for infectious disease transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, S.N.; Carver, S.; Boydston, E.E.; Lyren, L.M.; Alldredge, M.; Logan, K.A.; Riley, S.P.D.; Fisher, R.N.; Vickers, T.W.; Boyce, W.; Salman, M.; Lappin, M.R.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases - vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii - varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the

  17. Clinicopathologic findings associated with chronic renal disease in cats: 74 cases (1973-1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartola, S P; Rutgers, H C; Zack, P M; Tarr, M J

    1987-05-01

    The historic, physical, laboratory, and histologic findings for 74 cats with chronic renal disease were reviewed. Most cats were older, and no breed or sex predilection was detected. This most common clinical signs detected by owners were lethargy, anorexia, and weight loss. Dehydration and emaciation were common physical examination findings. Common laboratory findings were nonregenerative anemia, lymphopenia, azotemia, hypercholesterolemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, and isosthenuria. The most common morphologic diagnosis was chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis of unknown cause. The other pathologic diagnoses were renal lymphosarcoma, renal amyloidosis, chronic pyelonephritis, chronic glomerulonephritis, polycystic renal disease, and pyogranulomatous nephritis secondary to feline infectious peritonitis. PMID:3583899

  18. Comparative study of chronic kidney disease in dogs and cats: induction of myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, A; Mitani, S; Fujiki, M; Misumi, K; Endo, Y; Miyoshi, N; Yamato, O

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the kidneys of dogs and cats to clarify whether renal myofibroblasts induction is associated with the severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Immunohistochemical expression of myofibroblast markers, alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and vimentin, were evaluated quantitatively. The degrees of glomerulosclerosis, glomerular hypertrophy, interstitial cell infiltration, and interstitial fibrosis were also evaluated quantitatively. The plasma creatinine (pCre) concentrations correlated with glomerulosclerosis, cell infiltration, and fibrosis in dogs, and only with fibrosis in cats. The alpha-SMA expression correlated with pCre, glomerulosclerosis, cell infiltration, and fibrosis in dogs, and with pCre and fibrosis in cats. Tubular vimentin expression correlated with fibrosis in cats, but not in dogs. Interstitial vimentin expression correlated with pCre, glomerulosclerosis, cell infiltration, and fibrosis in dogs, but only with pCre in cats. In conclusion, it was suggested that the severity of CKD in dogs and cats was mediated by different pathways associated with myofibroblasts expression. PMID:19822338

  19. Misdiagnosis Analysis in Cat-scratach Disease%猫抓病15例误诊分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王滕民; 王常玲

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨猫抓病(Cat-scratch Disease,CSD)的诊断条件及误诊原因.方法 根据15例CSD患者的病因、症状、病理特征及鉴别诊断等临床资料总结CSD误诊原因及诊断条件.结果 (1)误诊情况:15例CSD患者误诊为淋巴炎9例、淋巴瘤4例、淋巴结核2例;误诊时间45~110 d,平均68 d;误诊原因为对CSD的临床认识不清,遗漏患者被猫、狗抓咬伤史及医生诊断中的习惯思维导致误诊为一些常见淋巴结疾病.(2)诊断CSD常用4条标准,即猫、狗抓咬、伤史;淋巴结肿大;淋巴结呈CSD的病理组织学改变;CSD特异抗原皮内试验阳性.具备其中3条即可诊断CSD.结论 前3条诊断标准较实用,可佐以淋巴组织抗酸染色和普通培养等检查,以利于CSD的诊断和鉴别.

  20. Scratch encourages selective doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrylo, F. Z.; Kressel, H.

    1980-01-01

    Dislocations induced by scratching produce deep narrow spikes of zinc diffused in gallium arsenide. Density of defects formed locally increases zinc diffusion coefficient. Enhancements by factor of 6 have been observed. Technique works for other dopants than zinc and for other semiconductors besides GaAs.

  1. A review of anaemia of inflammatory disease in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikazawa, S; Dunning, M D

    2016-07-01

    Anaemia of inflammatory disease is a common cause of anaemia in routine veterinary practice. It is most often mild to moderate, normocytic, normochromic and non-regenerative. Shortened red cell life span, inhibition of iron metabolism and impaired bone marrow response to erythropoietin all contribute to its development. Although anaemia of inflammatory disease is a well-known cause of anaemia in dogs and cats, there is a lack of epidemiological information because specific diagnostic criteria have not been established in veterinary species. Anaemia of inflammatory disease is associated with a poor outcome in various disease states in human medicine; however, its clinical significance and treatment in veterinary medicine are not well understood. This review article describes anaemia of inflammatory disease in dogs and cats and considers its potential significance. PMID:27385622

  2. Exotic diseases of dogs and cats at risk of importation to Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodfellow Mark

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in legislation that facilitate movement of companion animals within the European Union will expose those animals to microbial and parasitic organisms currently exotic to Ireland. This paper reviewed information on the exotic diseases most likely to be introduced to Ireland by travelling dogs and cats: rabies, leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis and dirofilariosis.

  3. Exotic diseases of dogs and cats at risk of importation to Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Goodfellow Mark; Shaw Susan

    2005-01-01

    Changes in legislation that facilitate movement of companion animals within the European Union will expose those animals to microbial and parasitic organisms currently exotic to Ireland. This paper reviewed information on the exotic diseases most likely to be introduced to Ireland by travelling dogs and cats: rabies, leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis and dirofilariosis.

  4. Actigraphy-based scratch detection using logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Johanna; Austin, Daniel; Sack, Robert; Hayes, Tamara L

    2013-03-01

    Incessant scratching as a result of diseases such as atopic dermatitis causes skin break down, poor sleep quality, and reduced quality of life for affected individuals. In order to develop more effective therapies, there is a need for objective measures to detect scratching. Wrist actigraphy, which detects wrist movements over time using micro-accelerometers, has shown great promise in detecting scratch because it is lightweight, usable in the home environment, can record longitudinally, and does not require any wires. However, current actigraphy-based scratch-detection methods are limited in their ability to discriminate scratch from other nighttime activities. Our previous work demonstrated the separability of scratch from both walking and restless sleep using a clustering technique which employed four features derived from the actigraphic data: number of accelerations above 0.01 gs, epoch variance, peak frequency, and autocorrelation value at one lag. In this paper, we extended these results by employing these same features as independent variables in a logistic regression model. This allows us to directly estimate the conditional probability of scratching for each epoch. Our approach outperforms competing actigraphy-based approaches and has both high sensitivity (0.96) and specificity (0.92) for identifying scratch as validated on experimental data collected from 12 healthy subjects. The model must still be fully validated on clinical data, but shows promise for applications to clinical trials and longitudinal studies of scratch.

  5. Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease and glomerulonephritis in a black-footed cat (Felis nigripes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, S L; Heard, D J; LaRock, R

    1998-06-01

    A 6-yr-old, 1.36-kg, intact female black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) was presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of Florida, with a history of depression, lethargy, and anorexia. Cardiac dysfunction and renal failure were diagnosed on the basis of antemortem and postmortem findings. At necropsy, heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis), glomerulonephritis, and endometritis were present. The glomerulonephritis could have been immune mediated and may have been associated with the heartworm infection or the chronic endometritis or both. Heartworm disease should be included in the list of differential diagnoses for any exotic cat housed outdoors in an endemic heartworm region that dies peracutely or has suggestive gastrointestinal or respiratory signs. Heartworm prophylaxis and annual serologic testing in exotic cats housed outdoors in heartworm endemic regions are recommended. PMID:9732037

  6. Lack of genetic association among coat colors, progressive retinal atrophy and polycystic kidney disease in Persian cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, HyungChul; Maggs, David J; Lyons, Leslie A

    2006-10-01

    An inherited form of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is recognized in Persian cats; however, the prevalence of PRA in the breed has not been determined. Breeders suggest that cats from only brown ('chocolate') or Himalayan ('pointed') lines are at risk for PRA, suggesting the disease is not widespread. This study was designed to evaluate whether PRA in Persian cats is associated with three coat colors, including chocolate, or with a highly prevalent inherited disease in this breed--polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Sixty related cats were evaluated for PRA by ophthalmic examination and genetically typed for PKD and the mutations that cause coat color variants in agouti, brown and color (producing the pointed coloration in Himalayan). No associations were identified among any of the traits, including between PRA and chocolate. These data suggest that PRA is not limited to cats with chocolate coat coloration and breeders and veterinarians should be aware that the prevalence of the disease may be higher than currently claimed.

  7. Isolation and identification of Porphyromonas spp. and other putative pathogens from cats with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Salcedo, L; Herrera, D; Esteban-Saltiveri, D; León, R; Jeusette, I; Torre, C; O'Connor, A; González, I; González, I

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the subgingival microbiota and determine the most prevalent periodontal pathogens implicated in feline periodontal disease and to correlate these findings with the clinical periodontal status. Subgingival microbiological samples were taken under sedation from 50 cats with clinical signs of periodontal disease. Pooled paper point samples from 4 selected subgingival sites were cultured on blood agar and on Dentaid-1 medium. Suspected pathogens were identified, subcultured, and preserved. The association between the microbiological findings and the clinical status was studied using correlation coefficients (CC). In addition, cats were stratified in subgroups according to presence of putative pathogens, and comparisons were carried out using unpaired t-test. Three bacterial species were frequently detected including Porphyromonas gulae (86%), Porphyromonas circumdentaria (70%) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (90%). The mean proportion of total flora was high for P. gulae (32.54%), moderate for P. circundentaria (8.82%), and low for F. nucleatum (3.96%). Among the clinical variables, tooth mobility was correlated (CC > 0.50, p Cats with more than 10% of P. gulae showed significantly more mobility (p = 0.014) and recession (p = 0.038), and a tendency for deeper probing pocket depths (p = 0.084) and attachment loss (p = 0.087). The results from this cross-sectional study confirmed that P. gulae is the most relevant pathogen in periodontal disease in cats. PMID:24660305

  8. [Treatment of systemic hypertension associated with kidney disease in the dog and cat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoncompagni, S; Bowles, M H

    2014-01-01

    Systemic hypertension is an increasingly diagnosed disorder in dogs and cats and frequently occurs secondary to chronic kidney disease. Prevention of damage to organs such as the kidneys, brain, heart, and eyes is one of the primary concerns in the management of veterinary patients with hypertension. This article reviews the guidelines for antihypertensive therapy in patients with, or at risk for, kidney disease, including the initiation of treatment and currently recommended medications.

  9. Measurement of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for house dust mite antigens in normal cats and cats with allergic skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglinger, K; Helps, C R; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cats with allergic skin disease have significant concentrations of serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for antigens derived from the house dust mites (HDM) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for this purpose. Binding of serum allergen-specific IgE was detected via the use of biotinylated Fc-epsilon receptor alpha chain protein (FcvarepsilonRIalpha). Following optimisation of the assay, serum samples from 59 cats with allergic skin disease and 54 clinically normal cats were screened. Results were expressed as ELISA units per ml (EU/ml) compared to a standard curve. Serological findings were correlated with the clinical presentation of affected cats. Cats with symptoms of feline allergic skin disease were grouped as follows: self-induced alopecia without lesions (group 1), papulocrusting dermatitis (group 2), eosinophilic granuloma complex (group 3), papular/ulcerative dermatitis of head and neck/facial dermatitis (group 4), and a combination of symptoms (group 5). Control normal cats comprised the final group (group 6). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference between groups for DF- and DP-specific IgE concentrations with a p-value of 0.875 and 0.705, respectively. Although the FcvarepsilonRIalpha-based ELISA was able to detect house dust mite-specific feline IgE, the presence of this allergen-specific IgE correlates poorly with the presence of clinical manifestations of allergic skin disease. The results of this study question the clinical relevance of house dust mite-specific IgE in feline allergic skin disease.

  10. Teaching Programming with Scratch

    OpenAIRE

    Mihalič, Petra

    2014-01-01

    There are quite a few good programing languages and environments for teaching kids how to program. They help beginners learn basic programming constructs usually with help of interactive environment. In this thesis I will describe and compare a few of those languages and environments. Scratch is a language and programming environment that is also intended for learning programming using blocks that make writing complicated instructions easier and reduce beginners' difficulties with syntax erro...

  11. Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsse-Klasen, E.; Fonville, M.; Gassner, F.; Nijhof, A.M.; Hovius, E.K.E.; Jongejan, F.; Takken, W.; Reimerink, J.R.; Overgaauw, P.A.M.; Sprong, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Awareness for flea-and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The r

  12. Prevalence of heart disease in symptomatic cats: an overview from 1998 to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 408 cats with various cardiovascular problems has been presented to two investigational clinics during the last 8 years. The number of yearly examinations has steadily increased during this period. Definitive cardiovascular disease was diagnosed in 287 cats, whereby hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was the most common diagnosis with 67.6%. Congenital cardiovascular malformations were found in 11.8% of the cases. Ventricular septal defect (VSD) was the most frequent anomaly, in contrast to previously published studies. The ECG was found to be relatively non-specific and insensitive for the diagnosis of heart disease. Its usefulness lies in the recognition and diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias. The radiographically recognized changes were also non-specific for certain heart diseases. Radiographs of the thorax are especially useful in the evaluation of cardiomegaly, and secondary signs of congestion

  13. Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease in dogs and cats: 84 cases (1987-1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jergens, A E; Moore, F M; Haynes, J S; Miles, K G

    1992-11-15

    Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease was the diagnosis for 58 dogs and 26 cats, with signs of persistent gastroenteritis, failed responses to dietary trials, and histologic evidence of cellular infiltrates unrelated to other causes of gastrointestinal tract inflammation. Clinical signs of large intestinal dysfunction, watery diarrhea, vomiting, and anorexia with weight loss were common. Nonspecific hematologic, biochemical, and radiographic abnormalities frequently were observed. Mucosal biopsy specimens, obtained endoscopically, were histologically evaluated for severity of mucosal epithelial damage. Mucosal erythema, friability, enhanced granularity, and ulceration or erosion were the predominant endoscopic lesions. Inflammatory bowel disease lesions of moderate severity predominated in the stomach, duodenum, and colon. Lymphocytic/plasmacytic infiltrates were limited to the lamina propria in biopsy specimens from all regions of the gastrointestinal tract. Inflammatory bowel disease commonly is associated with chronic gastroenteritis in dogs and cats.

  14. Diseases associated with spontaneous feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinacher, M

    1989-05-01

    More than 2000 cats sent for necropsy in order to provide a diagnosis were investigated immunohistologically using paraffin sections for the presence of a persistent infection with feline leukemia virus (FeLV). The spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases associated significantly with FeLV infection was determined statistically. Three-quarters of the cats with persistent FeLV infections died of non-neoplastic diseases and about 23% died of tumors, nearly exclusively those of the leukemia/lymphoma disease complex. A strong association with liver degeneration, icterus and a FeLV-associated enteritis was found in addition to the known association with non-neoplastic diseases and conditions such as anemia, bacterial secondary infections and respiratory tract inflammations due to the immunosuppressive effect of FeLV, hemorrhages and feline infectious peritonitis. Surprisingly, diseases and conditions like feline infectious panleukopenia, enteritis (of other types than FeLV-associated enteritis and feline infectious panleukopenia), glomerulonephritis, uremia and hemorrhagic cystitis were not associated with persistent FeLV infection. Another unexpected finding was that most pathogenic infectious agents demonstrated in the cats were not FeLV-associated either. Thus, immunosuppression due to FeLV infection seems to make the animals susceptible to certain pathogenic infectious agents, but not to the majority. PMID:2549696

  15. Neurological manifestations of ear disease in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garosi, Laurent S; Lowrie, Mark L; Swinbourne, Natalie F

    2012-11-01

    There are four major neuroanatomical structures associated with the ear that, when damaged, result in different neurologic clinical signs. These structures are the facial nerve, the ocular sympathetic tract, the vestibular receptors, and the cochlea. The clinical signs associated with disorders of each structure are discussed, followed by a summary of the diseases that should be considered in each case. The article begins with a description of the neuroanatomy of each of these structures. PMID:23122174

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of ocular and orbital disease in 5 dogs and a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired in five dogs and one cat with ocular and orbital disease. MR images were obtained in the dorsal or oblique dorsal, and oblique sagittal planes. Pathologic changes identified in MR images included inflammatory lesions, cystic structures, and neoplasms. All abnormalities were readily apparent in TI-weighted images. MR findings in affected animals were often similar in signal intensity, location, and growth pattern to those found in people with comparable diseases. Although no MR changes were considered pathognomonic for a given disease, MR imaging provided detailed information on the homogeneity, extent and invasiveness of the lesions

  17. Ultrasonography of small intestinal inflammatory and neoplastic diseases in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschen, Lorrie

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasonography, which has become a mainstay of diagnosing intestinal diseases in dogs and cats, is often one of the first diagnostic tools used to differentiate inflammatory from neoplastic infiltration of the small intestine. Although overlap in the sonographic appearances of inflammatory and neoplastic infiltration make a definitive diagnosis difficult, awareness of features of both diseases is important for the accurate interpretation of the sonographic findings. Full-thickness intestinal biopsy remains the gold standard for differentiating inflammatory from neoplastic disease of the small intestine.

  18. Scratch – um primeiro olhar

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Linhalis Arantes; José Michael Leandro da Silva Ferreira; Paula Eduarda Justino Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the “Scratch, a first glance” activity, conducted with the aim of registering the impressions and the responses of students when they looked for the first time to Scratch programs. We present a review on the characterization of Scratch language and environment, trying to identify what a student who never had contact with programming can use to extract information from the programs. Different from other works in literature, we highlight the commands written in the moth...

  19. Scratch for Budding Computer Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Malan, David; Leitner, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Scratch is a "media-rich programming environment" recently developed by MIT's Media Lab that "lets you create your own animations, games, and interactive art." Although Scratch is intended to "enhance the development of technological fluency [among youths] at after-school centers in economically disadvantaged communities," we find rarkable potential in this programming environment for higher education as well.We propose Scratch as a first language for first-time programmers in introductory co...

  20. Reversible worsening of Parkinson disease motor symptoms after oral intake of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Carlos; Torres, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (UT), also known as cat's claw, isa Peruvian Rubiaceae species widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a wide range of health problems. There is no report about the use, safety, and efficacy of UT in neurological disorders. We describe reversible worsening of motor signs in a patient with Parkinson disease after oral intake of UT, and some possible explanations are discussed.

  1. [Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after administration of iodine contrast medium with the Renalyzer PRX90 in healthy cats and cats with kidney diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Westhoff, A; Wohlsein, P; Pohlenz, J; Nolte, I

    1998-09-01

    In the present study, the measurement of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the cat with the aid of an iodine contrast medium clearance with the renalyzer PRX90 is introduced. Investigations on the accuracy of measurement showed that even repeated measurement of plasma samples after two days of storage at room temperature yielded reproducible clearance results. Also, partial dilution of the plasma sample (2 ml with 1 ml Aqua bidest.) to reduce the volume of blood withdrawn still produced reliable results. Further dilution of the plasma volume (1 ml with 2 ml Aqua bidest.) however did not allow for accurate measurements. A total of 59 cats of different age and sex were included in the study. 31 cats had healthy kidneys with urea and creatinine values within the reference range, unchanged urine findings and physiologic urine protein patterns (SDS-PAGE). These cats served as reference group. The GFR reference value ascertained for these animals was 2.1 ml/min/kg BW (mean = 3.45 ml/min/kg with s = +/- 1.0 ml/min/kg). 28 cats had elevated values of urea and creatinine in the blood, as well as partially changed urine findings. For further diagnosis of renal disease, separation of urine proteins was done with the SDS-PAGE in the PhastSystem, which in all cases yielded a pathologic urine protein pattern. In 11 cases the renal disease could be further confirmed by histological investigation. GFR in these patients was clearly lowered compared with healthy cats, with measured values between 0 and 1.8 ml/min/kg. It can be concluded that the renalyzer allows reliable determination of the GFR also in the cat. To what extent measurement of the GFR is also helpful to diagnose nephropathies in the stage of compensation needs to be further investigated. In cats with high grade uremia and a GFR below 1 ml/min however, an exact calculation is not possible, since the accuracy of measurement within this range is inadequate. Thus, in severe disease no correct assessment is possible

  2. A comparative study of chronic kidney disease in dogs and cats: induction of cyclooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Akira; Mitani, Sawane; Sawa, Mariko; Mizukami, Keijiro; Fujiki, Makoto; Yamato, Osamu

    2012-10-01

    The present study investigated whether renal cyclooxygenase (COX) induction is associated with the severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs and cats. The collected kidneys were examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. The immunoreactivities of COX-1 and COX-2 were evaluated quantitatively, and the correlations to the plasma creatinine concentrations, glomerular size, glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and interstitial cell infiltration were evaluated statistically. Immunoreactivities for COX-1 were heterogeneously observed in the medullary distal tubules and collecting ducts; no correlations with the severity of renal damage were detected. Immunoreactivities for COX-2 were heterogeneously observed in the macula densa (MD) regions. In dogs, the percentage of COX-2-positive MD was significantly correlated with the glomerular size. In cats, glomeruli with COX-2-positive MD had significantly higher sclerosis scores than those with COX-2-negative MD. In conclusion, renal COX-2 is induced in canine and feline CKD, especially in relation to the glomerular changes. PMID:22244709

  3. Management of Proteinuria in Dogs and Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaden, Shelly L; Elliott, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    Proteinuria is a negative prognostic indicator for dogs and cats with chronic kidney disease. A normal dog or cat should excrete very little protein and have a urine protein:creatinine ratio that is less than 0.4 or less than 0.2, respectively; persistent proteinuria above this magnitude warrants attention. Administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers, blood pressure control and nutritional modification are considered a standard of care for renal proteinuria. Renal biopsy and administration of immunosuppressive agents should be considered in animals with glomerular proteinuria that have not responded to standard therapy. Targeted patient monitoring is essential when instituting management of proteinuria. PMID:27485278

  4. Relationship of glomerular filtration rate based on serum iodixanol clearance to IRIS staging in cats with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Ryosuke; Sato, Tsubasa; Katayama, Masaaki; Shimamura, Shunsuke; Satoh, Hiroshi; Ichijo, Toshihiro; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2015-08-01

    We examined the correlation between the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated from an equation based on the serum iodixanol clearance technique and International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats. The equation included the injection dose, sampling time, serum concentration and estimated volume of distribution (Vd) of the isotonic, nonionic, contrast medium iodixanol as a test tracer. The percent changes in the median basal GFR values calculated from the equation in CKD cats resembled those of IRIS stages 1-3. These data validate the association between the GFR derived from the simplified equation and IRIS stages based on the serum creatinine concentration in cats with CKD. They describe the GFR ranges determined using single-sample iodixanol clearance for healthy cats and cats with various IRIS stages of CKD. PMID:25864431

  5. Leptospirosis in dogs and cats: epidemiology, clinical disease, zoonotic implications and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Azócar-Aedo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The genus includes a large number of serovars that may be sheed in the urine of infected animals creating a highly infectious source of transmission. Numerous species of wild and domestic mammals act as maintenance hosts and form reservoirs of the bacteria, with other species being incidental hosts that may develop the disease. In dogs and cats, the disease is caused by different serovars and while dogs act as maintenance host for some serovars, both species are incidental host for others. Dogs and cats may have frequent contact with wild and domestic farm animals, therefore they are an important link in the transmission route. Leptospira may survive in the environment which increases the complexity of the epidemiology. The presentation of the disease can be highly variable and, particularly for feline leptospirosis, not well described. Laboratory testing is essential for the diagnosis, however, it is complicated due to the need to discriminate between Leptospira infection in animals with clinical disease from leptospiral specific antibody responses in maintenance hosts, or in animals with subclinical infection. Infection in pets may have important economic and public health implications and because of the risk of transmission from pets to their owners and to other animals, preventive measures need to be applied and an increased awareness is adviced.

  6. Effect of cognitive enrichment on behavior, mucosal immunity and upper respiratory disease of shelter cats rated as frustrated on arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourkow, Nadine; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-09-01

    Acquisition of resources and opportunity to engage in natural behaviors has been shown to reduce frustration-related behaviors and enhance health in nondomestic felids kept in zoos, but little is known about whether there are similar effects in domestic cats living in confinement in animal shelters. Fifteen cats rated as Frustrated during the first hour of confinement to a cage at an animal shelter were assigned to either a Treatment (n=7) or Control (n=8) group. Treatment cats were taken from their cages to a separate room four times daily for 10min each time over a 10 d period, where they took part in training sessions to learn a novel behavior (paw-hand contact with a researcher). Changes in emotional states and mucosal immune response were evaluated over 10days. Infectious status was determined upon admission and incidence of upper respiratory was determined up to day 40 based on clinical signs. Treated cats were more likely to be rated as Content than Control cats and had greater concentrations of S-IgA (537μg/g) in feces than Control cats (101μg/g). Within the Treatment group, cats that responded positively had greater concentrations of S-IgA (925μg/g) than those that responded negatively (399μg/g). Control cats were more likely to develop respiratory disease over time compared to cats that received treatment (Hazard Ratio: 2.37, Confidence Interval: 1.35-4.15). It is concluded that there is prima facie evidence that cognitive enrichment of cats exhibiting frustration-related behaviors can elicit positive affect (contentment), stimulate secretion of IgA and reduce incidence of respiratory disease, which is worthy of further study. PMID:27544259

  7. Analysis of cat oocyte activation methods for the generation of feline disease models by nuclear transfer

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    Herrick Jason R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer in cats offers a useful tool for the generation of valuable research models. However, low birth rates after nuclear transfer hamper exploitation of the full potential of the technology. Poor embryo development after activation of the reconstructed oocytes seems to be responsible, at least in part, for the low efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize the response of cat oocytes to various stimuli in order to fine-tune existing and possibly develop new activation methods for the generation of cat disease models by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Methods First, changes in the intracellular free calcium concentration [Ca2+]i in the oocytes induced by a number of artificial stimuli were characterized. The stimuli included electroporation, ethanol, ionomycin, thimerosal, strontium-chloride and sodium (Na+-free medium. The potential of the most promising treatments (with or without subsequent incubation in the presence of cycloheximide and cytochalasin B to stimulate oocyte activation and support development of the resultant parthenogenetic embryos was then evaluated. Finally, the most effective methods were selected to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer with fibroblasts from mucopolysaccharidosis I- and alpha-mannosidosis-affected cats. Results All treatments were able to elicit a [Ca2+]i elevation in the ooplasm with various characteristics. Pronuclear formation and development up to the blastocyst stage was most efficiently triggered by electroporation (60.5 +/- 2.9 and 11.5 +/- 1.7% and the combined thimerosal/DTT treatment (67.7 +/- 1.8 and 10.6 +/- 1.9%; incubation of the stimulated oocytes with cycloheximide and cytochalasin B had a positive effect on embryo development. When these two methods were used to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer, up to 84.9% of the reconstructed oocytes cleaved. When the 2 to 4-cell embryos (a total of 220 were

  8. [Urine protein analysis with the sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in healthy cats and cats with kidney diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Wohlsein, P; Trautwein, G; Nolte, I

    1997-03-01

    In this investigation, the value of urine protein analysis by means of molecular-weight related sodium dodecyl-polyacryl gradient gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was examined with regard to its applicability and diagnostic significance in nephropathy in the cat. A total of 87 cats was included in the study, 30 of them that were clinically healthy served as the control group. The urine protein pattern of this group had, besides the band representing the market albumin, and additional broad band within the size of the marker transferrin. In some cases, weak bands were present within the range of the Tamm-Horsfall-protein and immunoglobulin G. Micromolecular protein bands were not demonstrable. The remaining 57 animals had a histologically proven nephropathy. Thirty-eight cats had elevated urea and/or creatinine values in the plasma (group 1), and 19 animals had values within the reference range (group 2). The urine protein pattern as evidenced by SDS-urine electrophoresis was altered in all cats with histologically proven nephropathy, and it is thus concluded that with this technique a nephropathy can be diagnosed very early and prior to changes of plasma urea and creatinine (group 2). Moreover, in most of the cases, the nephrological changes can be classified as glomerular or tubulo-interstitial (group 1 and group 2). However, it is not possible to draw exact conclusions concerning the underlying morphological changes, nor can the severity of the disease be correctly assessed. PMID:9123982

  9. Expression of the Bcl-2 apoptotic marker in cats diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease and gastrointestinal lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Christine M; Smedley, Rebecca C; Saavedra, Paulo Vilar; Kiupel, Matti; Kitchell, Barbara E

    2012-10-01

    Immunolabeling for the critical lymphocyte survival factor, Bcl-2, of intestinal biopsies from cats with histologic evidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma was evaluated to determine if expression differed significantly between these two disease processes. Immunolabeling for Bcl-2 was performed on small intestinal endoscopic or full thickness biopsy sections from 55 cats. Diagnosis of IBD, T-cell lymphoma or B-cell lymphoma was established previously. The percentage of infiltrating lymphocytes that were positively labeled for Bcl-2 was subjectively determined for each case. Eight cats were diagnosed with IBD and 47 cats with lymphoma. A significantly higher percentage of cells were positively immunolabeled for Bcl-2 in cats with GI lymphoma [median (range); 90 (5-95)%] compared with cats with IBD [60 (15-95)%] (P = 0.029). However, the overall degree of positive immunolabeling in both groups tended to be high. This over-expression of Bcl-2 may prove useful as a therapeutic target for IBD and GI lymphoma in cats.

  10. The Swedish breeding cat: population description, infectious diseases and reproductive performance evaluated by a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ström Holst, Bodil; Frössling, Jenny

    2009-10-01

    The questionnaire based study gives a combined description of management, infectious diseases and reproductive performance in breeding catteries during 1 year. The mean number of cats per cattery was 6.1, and 25% of the breeders let some of their cats have free access to outdoors. Breeders reported that infection with feline panleukopenia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus or feline leukaemia virus was uncommon, but 8% of the breeders had sold or had themselves owned a cat that died of feline infectious peritonitis. Presence of conjunctivitis was reported by 33.3% of the breeders. Mean litter size was 3.7+/-1.5, with 9.7% stillbirths and 8.3% kitten mortality week 1-12. The percentage of stillborn kittens increased with the age of the queen and litter size, and also differed among breeds. Kitten mortality differed among breeds, but did not increase with age of the queen. Seven percent of the litters were delivered by caesarean section, significantly more during winter and positively associated with presence of stillborn kittens. PMID:19254857

  11. Influence of double-tip scratch and single-tip scratch on nano-scratching process via molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-dimensional molecular dynamics model was proposed to study the influences of scratch feed, depth and crystal orientation on the shape and surface quality of the scratched groove during nano-scratching process. In this paper, comparisons were made between the results of double tips simultaneously scratching the surface and those of single tip successively scratching the surface with the same scratch feed, depth and crystal orientation. EAM potential was used to model the interaction of copper atoms, and Morse potential was used to model the interaction between copper and carbon atoms. The residual profiles of scratched grooves and scratching forces were recorded during the simulations. Simulational results show that when single tip scratches the surface at an extremely small feed, the second time scratch significantly influences the previous groove. The second time scratch has a significant influence on the previous groove by increasing scratch depth. Compared with scratching along crystal orientation [1 0 0], scratching along crystal orientation [0 1 1] and [1 1 1] are easy to obtain two parallel grooves. However, when double tips simultaneously scratch the surface regardless of scratch feed, depth and crystal orientation, two parallel grooves are always obtained. Thus, in order to obtain scratched grooves of high quality, it is quite beneficial to design and machine multiple-tip tools.

  12. Influence of double-tip scratch and single-tip scratch on nano-scratching process via molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Hongwei; Shi, Chengli; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Hu; Ren, Luquan

    2013-09-01

    A three-dimensional molecular dynamics model was proposed to study the influences of scratch feed, depth and crystal orientation on the shape and surface quality of the scratched groove during nano-scratching process. In this paper, comparisons were made between the results of double tips simultaneously scratching the surface and those of single tip successively scratching the surface with the same scratch feed, depth and crystal orientation. EAM potential was used to model the interaction of copper atoms, and Morse potential was used to model the interaction between copper and carbon atoms. The residual profiles of scratched grooves and scratching forces were recorded during the simulations. Simulational results show that when single tip scratches the surface at an extremely small feed, the second time scratch significantly influences the previous groove. The second time scratch has a significant influence on the previous groove by increasing scratch depth. Compared with scratching along crystal orientation [1 0 0], scratching along crystal orientation [0 1 1] and [1 1 1] are easy to obtain two parallel grooves. However, when double tips simultaneously scratch the surface regardless of scratch feed, depth and crystal orientation, two parallel grooves are always obtained. Thus, in order to obtain scratched grooves of high quality, it is quite beneficial to design and machine multiple-tip tools.

  13. Relationship of orthopedic examination, goniometric measurements, and radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease in cats

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    Lascelles B Duncan X

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to palpation, joint crepitus, effusion and thickening were graded. Radiographs of appendicular joints and the axial skeleton were made under sedation. Joint motion was measured by use of a plastic goniometer before and after sedation. Associations between radiographic degenerative joint disease (DJD and examination findings were assessed to determine sensitivity, specificity and likelihood estimations. Results Pain response to palpation was elicited in 0-67% of the joints with DJD, with a specificity ranging from 62-99%; crepitus was detected in 0-56% of the joints and its specificity varied between 87 and 99%; for effusion, values ranged between 6 and 38% (specificity, 82-100%, and thickening, 0-59% (specificity, 74-99%. Joints with DJD tended to have a decreased range of motion. The presence of pain increased the odds of having DJD in the elbow (right: 5.5; left: 4.5; the presence of pain in the lower back increased the odds of spinal DJD being present (2.97 for lumbar; 4.67 for lumbo-sacral. Conclusions Radiographic DJD cannot be diagnosed with certainty using palpation or goniometry. However, negative findings tend to predict radiographically normal joints. Palpation and goniometry may be used as a tool to help to screen cats, mostly to rule out DJD.

  14. Role of personality and expectations for itch and scratching induced by audiovisual itch stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schut, C; Rädel, A; Frey, L; Gieler, U; Kupfer, J

    2016-01-01

    Itch is an unpleasant, bodily sensation, which--similar to pain--evokes behavioral reactions. As a response to itch, people start scratching. There are different ways to provoke itch and subsequent scratching in experimental settings. A non-invasive method to induce itch and scratching is the presentation of itch-related (audio-) visual stimulus material, like slide-supported lectures on skin diseases or crawling insects. Also, watching videos showing other people scratching provokes itch and the desire to scratch. In this review, we focus on psychological factors, which were shown to be associated with itch and scratching provoked by (audio-) visual itch stimuli. First, we summarize the findings on the relationship between personality characteristics and (audio-) visually induced itch. Agreeableness and self-consciousness were shown to be associated with induced itch and scratching in patients with chronic skin diseases, while neuroticism was linked to induced itch in healthy subjects. Second, we present results of a recent study, in which we altered the expectations towards audio-visually induced itch and scratching by changing the information given on upcoming itch stimuli. It was shown that subjects being informed about itch stimuli in a neutral way displayed a shorter scratch duration in itch inducing situations than subjects having catastrophizing expectations. Also, the increase in scratch duration and in the number of scratch movements induced by audiovisual itch stimuli was higher when the patients were not informed about itch induction. Thus, in itch patients neither catastrophizing nor trivializing symptoms seems to be helpful. PMID:26416001

  15. Plasma and Erythrocyte Glutathione Peroxidase Activity, Serum Selenium Concentration, and Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity in Cats with IRIS Stages I–IV Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Krofič Žel, M.; Tozon, N.; Nemec Svete, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Serum selenium concentrations and the activity of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decrease with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in human patients. Selenium is considered a limiting factor for plasma GPx synthesis. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is decreased in CKD cats in comparison to healthy cats. Hypothesis Serum selenium concentrations and plasma and erythrocyte GPx activity in cats with CKD are lower than in healthy cats. Serum selenium concentrati...

  16. To scratch or not to scratch – a reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Malie Zeeman

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which the Scratch programming language has been accepted as an electronic teaching tool among teachers in South Africa. Information Technology (IT) was identified as a scarce skill in the Birchwood Declaration (2007) released by the South African Department of Education, a problem compounded by the declining number of the students who enrol in IT-subjects at school. Scratch was introduced as an e-Learning tool in the IT curriculum as part of an effort to ...

  17. Detection of Helicobacter felis in a cat with gastric disease in laboratory animal facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sunhwa; Chung, Yungho; Kang, Won-Guk

    2016-01-01

    A 3-month-old male cat in the animal facility was presented for investigation of anorexia and occasional vomiting. We collected the specimens from gastroscopic biopsy and stool collection. The gastroscopic biopsy specimens were tested using a rapid urease test, CLO Helicobacter-detection kits. Stool specimens were gathered and evaluated using the commercially available SD Bioline H. pylori Ag kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Genomic DNAs from gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens of the cat were extracted and submitted to the consensus PCR to amplify Helicobacter rpoB gene. Then the DNAs from gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens were conducted a multiplex species-specific PCR to amplify urease B gene for H. heilmannii, H. pylori and H. felis. As the results, the rapid urease test with gastroscopic biopsy was revealed positive reaction. The result of H. pylori Stool Ag assay was one red line, negative for H. pylori. The gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimen were positive reactions by the consensus PCR reaction using the RNA polymerase beta-subunit-coding gene (rpoB) to detect Helicobacter species. By multiplex species-specific PCR with gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens, no amplification products corresponding to either H. heilmannii or H. pylori were detected, but the specimens tested were positive for H. felis. This case was confirmed as gastroenteric disease induced by H. felis infection. On our knowledge, this is a very rare report about H. felis-induced gastroenteric disease in cat and may provide a valuable data on the study of feline Helicobacter infection. PMID:27382381

  18. Association between the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system and renal injury in chronic kidney disease of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Sawane; Yabuki, Akira; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki; Yamato, Osamu

    2013-02-01

    The association of renin and angiotensin II, which are potent components of the renin-angiotensin system, with the severity of chronic renal disease was investigated immunohistochemically in dogs and cats. Immunoreactivities of renin and angiotensin II were evaluated quantitatively, and their correlations with the degrees of glomerulosclerosis, glomerular hypertrophy, interstitial cell infiltration and interstitial fibrosis were statistically analyzed. Immunoreactivities for renin were detected in afferent arteries in both dogs and cats. The score of renin-positive signals showed no correlation with plasma creatinine concentration or any of the histopathological parameters, except for the diameter of glomeruli in dogs. Immunoreactivities for angiotensin II were detected in tubules (primarily proximal tubules) and interstitial mononuclear cells in both dogs and cats. The score of tubular angiotensin II correlated with glomerulosclerosis and cell infiltration in cats but not in dogs. The score of interstitial angiotensin II correlated with plasma creatinine concentration, glomerulosclerosis, cell infiltration and fibrosis in dogs and with glomerulosclerosis and cell infiltration in cats. In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that intrarenal renin-angiotensin system is correlated with the severity of kidney disease, with the underlying mechanism differing between dogs and cats. PMID:22986274

  19. The relationship of mucosal bacteria to duodenal histopathology, cytokine mRNA, and clinical disease activity in cats with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczko, S; Atwater, D; Bogel, E; Greiter-Wilke, A; Gerold, A; Baumgart, M; Bender, H; McDonough, P L; McDonough, S P; Goldstein, R E; Simpson, K W

    2008-04-01

    Feline inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the term applied to a group of poorly understood enteropathies that are considered a consequence of uncontrolled intestinal inflammation in response to a combination of elusive environmental, enteric microbial, and immunoregulatory factors in genetically susceptible cats. The present study sought to examine the relationship of mucosal bacteria to intestinal inflammation and clinical disease activity in cats with inflammatory bowel disease. Duodenal biopsies were collected from 27 cats: 17 undergoing diagnostic investigation of signs of gastrointestinal disease, and 10 healthy controls. Subjective duodenal histopathology ranged from normal (10), through mild (6), moderate (8), and severe (3) IBD. The number and spatial distribution of mucosal bacteria was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes to 16S rDNA. Mucosal inflammation was evaluated by objective histopathology and cytokine profiles of duodenal biopsies. The number of mucosa-associated Enterobacteriaceae was higher in cats with signs of gastrointestinal disease than healthy cats (Pcats. These data establish that the density and composition of the mucosal flora is related to the presence and severity of intestinal inflammation in cats and suggest that mucosal bacteria are involved in the etiopathogenesis of feline IBD.

  20. PREVALENCE OF SOME DISEASES OF DOGS AND CATS AT THE STATE GOVERNMENT VETERINARY CLINIC IN MAIDUGURI (NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. William, S.U.R. Chaudhari1 and N.N. Atsandac2

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year (retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of diseases; clinical conditions of dogs and cats presented at the Government Veterinary Clinic, Maiduguri from January 1995 to December 1997. The prevalent diseases; conditions of dogs included helminthosis (19.19%, accidental injury (18.18%, tick infestation ( 15.15% , canine distemper (8.42% , diarrhoea ( 6.73%, mange ( 7.41%, rabies (5.05% and babesiosis (4.71%, Prevalent diseases/conditions of cats included helminthosis (26.67%. tick infestation ( 8.89%. diarrhea ( 16.67%, nutritional deficiencies ( 15.56% and respiratory infections ( 12.22%. Of highest prevalence in both dogs and cats was helminthosis (20.93%, followed by tick infestation (13. 70% and diarrhea (9.04% suggesting a poor husbandy of these pets in Maiduguri area. Cases of automobile accidental injury of dogs were also high, probably due to the same factors of poor husbandry.

  1. Relationship between degenerative joint disease and hip joint laxity by use of distraction index and Norberg angle measurement in a group of cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the relationship between degenerative joint disease (DJD) and passive laxity of the hip joint in a group of cats. Design: Prospective study. Animals: A select (nonrandomized) group of 78 cats. Procedure: Standard hip-extended radiographic views and compression and distraction views of the pelvis were obtained from cats during sedation. Radiographs were evaluated, using an Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA)-like scoring system for dogs. Passive joint laxity was measured, using Norberg angle (NA) and distraction index (DI). Hip laxity in cats with DJD was compared with hip laxity in cats without DJD. Results: Hip dysplasia (HD) was subjectively diagnosed radiographically in 25 of 78 (32%) cats using the OFA-like scoring system. Nineteen cats had mild HD 4 had moderate HD, and 2 had severe HD. Fifteen of the 25 cats with HD had DJD. The NA ranged from 56 to 105. The mean NA in cats with DJD was (84 degrees) significantly lower than in cats without DJD (95 degrees). The DI ranged from 0.2 to 0.84. The mean DI for cats with DJD was (0.6) significantly higher than that for cats without DJD (0.49). Cats with a DI < 0.4 did not have DJD. Cats had an increased likelihood of having DJD with increased laxity in the coxofemoral joint, as measured by NA or DI. Clinical Implications: The mean NA for radiographically normal cats (92.4 degrees) was lower than that in radiographically normal dogs (103 degrees). The overall mean DI for cats in this group (0.51) is similar to dogs of breeds with high joint laxity, such as the Labrador Retriever (0.5). As in dogs, there is a relationship between DJD and laxity in the hip joint of cats

  2. Progression of glomerulonephritis to end-stage kidney disease in a cat with nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiie, Junichi; Haishima, Atsuko; Inoue, Kaoru; Ogihara, Kikumi; Ono, Mihoko; Yasuno, Kyohei; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Aihara, Naoyuki; Ohmuro, Tamio; Shirota, Kinji

    2011-01-01

    A percutaneous renal biopsy was performed on a 3-year-old female Japanese domestic cat with pleural effusion, mild azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, and proteinuria. Glomerular lesions included mild diffuse hypercellularity and numerous capsular adhesions with segmental sclerosis/hyalinosis of glomerular tufts. Electron microscopy revealed many subendothelial dense deposits with characteristic outer protrusion of glomerular basement membrane. Diffuse and global granular deposits of IgG and C3 were detected along the capillary walls. Tubulo-interstitial changes were mild at the time of biopsy, but progression of the disease was predicted because of the many capsular adhesions of the glomerular tufts. The cat was fed a prescription diet without any other specific or symptomatic therapy after renal biopsy, and died 43 weeks after the biopsy. At necropsy, extensive tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and mononuclear cell infiltration had developed throughout the cortex and outer medulla, and most glomeruli had extensive global sclerosis or obsolescence with less prominent depositions of IgG and C3. PMID:20823662

  3. Renal ultrasonographic and computed tomographic appearance, volume, and function of cats with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Jean K; DiBartola, Stephen P; Léveillé, Renée

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic (US) and computed tomographic (CT) appearance of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in cats; to compare renal volume in cats with ADPKD (n = 5; mean age 59 +/- 10 months)) and normal cats (n = 5; mean age 66 +/- 10 months) using 2 imaging modalities, US and CT; and to calculate cyst volume using CT. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined by 2 methods: 99mTc-diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DPTA) scintigraphic uptake and 99-Tc-DTPA plasma clearance. Sonographically, ADPKD affected kidneys were characterized by multiple anechoic to hypoechoic, round to irregularly shaped structures with variation in size. Affected kidneys had indistinct corticomedullary junctions and foci of mineralization. Intravenous (IV) contrast medium administration allowed more definitive identification of cysts with CT, and identification of distortion of renal pelves by cysts. A significant difference (Welch ANOVA, P = 0.05) was detected between the US-estimated renal volumes of normal and affected cats. No statistically significant differences were detected in CT volume (between the normal and affected cats, or between US and CT volume measurements) or the 2 GFR methods. In this group of clinically normal, middle-aged ADPKD cats, renal function was within normal limits and not significantly different than normal. PMID:12175002

  4. Are pruritus and scratching the cough of the skin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misery, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Pruritus is not the equivalent of the cough of the skin, but itch and scratch can certainly be defined as such. In physiological conditions, they share the same function: to exclude a foreign body. Itch/scratching and cough could be selective responses for the same diseases, mainly atopic diseases, and their pathophysiology is similar (role of C fibers and mast cells; role of histamine, substance P and tachykinins). This is an intriguing analogy rather than a pathophysiological identity. It may be inappropriate for many disease settings. Itch and cough can be triggered or enhanced by stress. This similarity is very interesting because it could give rise to many new research ideas.

  5. Immunohistochemical and morphometric analysis of intestinal full-thickness biopsy samples from cats with lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsilio, S; Kleinschmidt, S; Nolte, I; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2014-05-01

    The distribution and numbers of CD3(+) T lymphocytes, immunoglobulin(+) plasma cells and calprotectin (L1)(+) macrophages was analyzed in full-thickness, formalin-fixed biopsy samples from the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and from the colon from nine cats with clinical signs of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). All animals had lymphoplasmacytic enteritis or lymphoplasmacytic enterocolitis. Equivalent samples from the same intestinal regions from 12 healthy pet cats served as controls. Labelled cells in the lamina propria were counted by computer-aided morphometry. The different cell types were similarly distributed in both groups, but there were differences in their numbers. There were more CD3(+) T cells in the duodenum and jejunum of cats with IBD; however, the difference was only significant for the duodenum. There were significantly more IgA(+) cells in the duodenal crypt region. There were significantly more IgG(+) cells in the lower jejunal crypt region. Plasma cells expressing IgM were decreased in cats with IBD, but the difference was not significant. L1(+) macrophages were significantly decreased in the lower crypt area of the colon in cats with IBD and there was a trend to decreased L1(+) cells in the upper crypt area of the duodenum and jejunum. Comparison of the results of this study with previous findings on endoscopically-obtained duodenal biopsy samples from cats with IBD revealed some differences. These discrepancies might relate to differences between control cat populations, types of biopsy samples, methodological factors such as different counting techniques and the activity of the disease at the time of sampling.

  6. Scratch – um primeiro olhar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Linhalis Arantes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report the “Scratch, a first glance” activity, conducted with the aim of registering the impressions and the responses of students when they looked for the first time to Scratch programs. We present a review on the characterization of Scratch language and environment, trying to identify what a student who never had contact with programming can use to extract information from the programs. Different from other works in literature, we highlight the commands written in the mother tongue of the students as a great facilitator to the understanding of the programs by the beginners. The results of the experiments show that the ability to read the programs is of great importance in the understanding from those who never had previous contact with programming.

  7. Biomarkers in the assessment of acute and chronic kidney diseases in the dog and cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobrin, A R; Blois, S L; Kruth, S A; Abrams-Ogg, A C G; Dewey, C

    2013-12-01

    In both human and veterinary medicine, diagnosing and staging renal disease can be difficult. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate is considered the gold standard for assessing renal function but methods for its assessment can be technically challenging and impractical. The main parameters used to diagnose acute and chronic kidney disease include circulating creatinine and urea concentrations, and urine-specific gravity. However, these parameters can be insensitive. Therefore, there is a need for better methods to diagnose and monitor patients with renal disease. The use of renal biomarkers is increasing in human and veterinary medicine for the diagnosis and monitoring of acute and chronic kidney diseases. An ideal biomarker would identify site and severity of injury, and correlate with renal function, among other qualities. This article will review the advantages and limitations of renal biomarkers that have been used in dogs and cats, as well as some markers used in humans that may be adapted for veterinary use. In the future, measuring a combination of biomarkers will likely be a useful approach in the diagnosis of kidney disorders. PMID:24152019

  8. Imported disease of dogs and cats exotic to Ireland: echinococcus multilocularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodfellow Mark

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Changes in legislation that facilitate the movement of animals within the European Union may increase the risk that some microbial and parasitic organisms, currently exotic to Ireland, will be introduced by travelled pet animals. It is possible that the fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis, might be introduced in that manner from any of the several member states in which it is endemic. Red foxes are the principal definitive hosts of E. multilocularis but dogs and cats can also be infected. Infection in the definitive host is of little clinical significance, but aberrant infection of humans results in alveolar echinococcosis, a debilitating disease that has a high mortality rate. Humans acquire the organism by ingestion of Echinococcus multilocularis eggs excreted by definitive hosts; the larval metacestodes develop primarily in the liver, in the initial asymptomatic phase as small, well-encapsulated cysts. Over time, perhaps five to 15 years, progressive local infiltration and secondary cyst development at distant sites occur with resultant clinical signs. Patients with infiltrative liver disease present with cholestatic jaundice, epigastric pain, fatigue, weight loss and hepatomegaly. If left untreated, the disease can be fatal. This paper recounts the life cycle of the parasite, and discusses the control measures on which its exclusion from Ireland depend. Strict adherence to the routine worming of travelled dogs with praziquantel, at appropriate doses, 24 to 48 hours prior to entry into the country will minimise the likelihood of introduction of this zoonosis.

  9. Cardiac Biomarkers in Hyperthyroid Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, Jodi Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyperthyroidism has substantial effects on the circulatory system. The cardiac biomarkers NT-proBNP and troponin I (cTNI) have proven useful in identifying cats with myocardial disease but have not been as extensively investigated in hyperthyroidism.Hypothesis: Plasma NT-proBNP and cTNI concentrations are higher in cats with primary cardiac disease than in cats with hyperthyroidism and higher in cats with hyperthyroidism than in healthy control cats.Animals: Twenty-three hyperthyr...

  10. Cardiac Biomarkers in Hyperthyroid Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, J.K.; Panciera, D L; Abbott, J.A.; Zimmerman, K.C.; Lantis, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyperthyroidism has substantial effects on the circulatory system. The cardiac biomarkers NT‐proBNP and troponin I (cTNI) have proven useful in identifying cats with myocardial disease but have not been extensively investigated in hyperthyroidism. Hypothesis Plasma NT‐proBNP and cTNI concentrations are higher in cats with primary myocardial disease than in cats with hyperthyroidism and higher in cats with hyperthyroidism than in healthy control cats. Animals Twenty‐three hyperthyro...

  11. Renal alterations in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats: a natural model of lentivirus-induced renal disease changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  12. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pistello

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy.

  13. Evaluation of intrarenal mesenchymal stem cell injection for treatment of chronic kidney disease in cats: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Jessica M; Webb, Tracy L; Gibbons, Debra S; Dow, Steven W

    2011-06-01

    The feasibility of autologous intrarenal mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) was investigated. Six cats (two healthy, four with CKD) received a single unilateral intrarenal injection of autologous bone marrow-derived or adipose tissue-derived MSC (bmMSC or aMSC) via ultrasound guidance. Minimum database and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) via nuclear scintigraphy were determined pre-injection, at 7 days and at 30 days post-injection. Intrarenal injection did not induce immediate or long-term adverse effects. Two cats with CKD that received aMSC experienced modest improvement in GFR and a mild decrease in serum creatinine concentration. Despite the possible benefits of intrarenal MSC injections for CKD cats, the number of sedations and interventions required to implement this approach would likely preclude widespread clinical application. We concluded that MSC could be transferred safely by ultrasound-guided intrarenal injection in cats, but that alternative sources and routes of MSC therapy should be investigated. PMID:21334237

  14. Studies on viral respiratory disease in laboratory cats. I. Isolation of feline herpesvirus and choice of proper disinfectant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagami, K; Ando, S; Omata, Y; Furukawa, T; Fukui, M

    1982-01-01

    In the laboratory cat colony consisted of 14 Korats and 8 Japanese native cats, the disease characterized by upper respiratory signs occurred. Seven cytopathogenic agents were isolated from the oropharyngeal swabs and necropsy materials of affected cats by means of inoculation to primary feline kidney cell cultures. One of the isolates (KS-1 strain) was identical with feline herpesvirus (FHV), and appeared to be a causal agent of the trouble. Properties of the KS-1 strain were in general agreement with the known strains of FHV. Serologic examination and clinical analysis suggested that Japanese native cats became carriers, re-excreted the virus and spread it to susceptible cats. Virucidal activities of several disinfectants against FHV, comparing with a feline calicivirus (FCV), were studied and the following conclusions reached: 1) Sodium hypochlorite, iodine complex, benzethonium chloride and chlorhexidine were effective against FHV at commonly used concentrations. 2) Among chemicals tested sodium hypochlorite was most effective against FCV and followed by iodine complex. 3) Benzethonium chloride and chlorhexidine had little efficacy against FCV at commonly used doses. PMID:6281040

  15. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate in cats with chronic kidney disease undergoing chemical restraint during hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Kleine Figueiredo dos Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis is one of the used methods for treatment of Acute Renal Injury (ARI and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD to replace the function of the kidneys when refers to blood depuration. Hemodialysis removes toxins accumulated in the body directly from the blood, being a useful alternative therapy for dogs and cats with CKD in advanced stages. Because of the difficulty on handling the patient feline, this procedure requires sedation. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the safety of anesthesia in dogs and cats with CKD undergoing dialysis. The present study aimed to evaluate two different protocols of chemical restraint in cats with CKD and the effect of these on systolic blood pressure (SBP and heart rate (HR, since the procedure of extracorporeal circulation leads the patient to a hypotensive frame. Twelve adult cats were used, with an average weight of 4 kg, CKD, underwent two anesthetic protocols: Group GP (n = 6 using propofol, and group GCM (n = 6 using ketamine-midazolam association for the implantation procedure of central venous catheter (CVC and hemodialysis. Cats in GP as well as the GCM group showed statistical difference in the change in SBP and HR only from baseline compared to the other time points evaluated. The two protocols maintained SBP and HR within physiological values.

  16. Azodyl, a synbiotic, fails to alter azotemia in cats with chronic kidney disease when sprinkled onto food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishniw, Mark; Wynn, Susan G

    2011-06-01

    The effect of probiotic therapy in chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats is poorly defined, but gaining in popularity. However, cat owners often prefer to administer probiotics by combining them with food, rather than administering capsules intact, as is prescribed by the manufacturer. The efficacy of such non-recommended administration is unknown. In this double-blinded, controlled clinical trial, 10 cats with naturally-occurring CKD were randomized to receive either a probiotic-prebiotic combination (synbiotic) or psyllium husk (prebiotic only) for 2 months. Medications were sprinkled and mixed into food or given as a slurry. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were measured twice prior to administration of medication, and then monthly for 2 months during the medication administration. Owners and clinicians were masked as to treatment. The maximal percentage change in BUN and creatinine was calculated for each cat. No differences in percentage change were detected between groups (P=0.8 for both BUN and creatinine). The synbiotic supplement used in this study, when applied to food or administered as a slurry fails to reduce azotemia in cats with CKD. Therefore, owners should not administer this synbiotic in this manner. PMID:21571563

  17. Relationship of orthopedic examination, goniometric measurements, and radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Lascelles B Duncan X; Dong Yaa-Hui; Marcellin-Little Denis J; Thomson Andrea; Wheeler Simon; Correa Maria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to...

  18. Pulmonary thromboembolism in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Thomas; Pembleton-Corbett, Julie R; Kornreich, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is rarely diagnosed in cats, and the clinical features of the disease are not well known. PTE was diagnosed at postmortem examination in 17 cats, a prevalence of 0.06% over a 24-year period. The age of affected cats ranged from 10 months to 18 years, although young (10 years) cats were more commonly affected than were middle-aged cats. Males and females were equally affected. The majority of cats with PTE (n = 16) had concurrent disease, which was often severe. The most common diseases identified in association with PTE were neoplasia, anemia of unidentified cause, and pancreatitis. Cats with glomerulonephritis, encephalitis, pneumonia, heart disease, and hepatic lipidosis were also represented in this study. Most cats with PTE demonstrated dyspnea and respiratory distress before death or euthanasia, but PTE was not recognized ante mortem in any cat studied. In conclusion, PTE can affect cats of any age and is associated with a variety of systemic and inflammatory disorders. It is recommended that the same clinical criteria used to increase the suspicion of PTE in dogs should also be applied to cats. PMID:15320593

  19. Learning Computer Science Concepts with Scratch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerbaum-Salant, Orni; Armoni, Michal; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2013-01-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that is widely used by young people. We investigated if Scratch can be used to teach concepts of computer science (CS). We developed learning materials for middle-school students that were designed according to the constructionist philosophy of Scratch and evaluated them in a few schools during two…

  20. Seropositivity of Borrelia burgdorferi in a cohort of symptomatic cats from Europe based on a C6-peptide assay with discussion of implications in disease aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantchev, Nikola; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Pluta, Silvia; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2016-01-01

    There are only few reports on Lyme borreliosis (LB) in cats. The reasons might be a different tick infestation in cats compared to dogs, a low susceptibility for tick-borne infections or a low awareness of veterinarians for tick-borne diseases in feline patients. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) in feline sera, to compare the significance of feline versus canine LB, as well as to evaluate possible implications on disease occurrence. Specific antibodies against the C6-peptide of Bbsl in cats were detected by a rapid test based on enzyme immunoassay technique. The serum samples were sent to a diagnostic laboratory by veterinarians from Germany and other European countries with request for Borrelia serology in the years 2009-2011. Veterinarians were asked for information regarding the cats' location, age, gender, clinical signs, treatment and follow-up. In six of 271 (2.2%; 95% CI: 0.8-4.8%) cat sera, antibodies against the C6-peptide of Bbsl were detected. Proportion of Borrelia antibody-positive cat sera was significantly lower than the one determined for dogs during the same time period. All positive cats lived in countries endemic for LB (Germany, Sweden and Belgium), and all C6-antibody positive cats with the exception of one cat showed clinical signs. Possible implications on disease occurrence are discussed. Data presented here demonstrate a lower prevalence of Borrelia specific C6-antibodies in European cats when compared to dogs residing in the same regions. The absence of antibodies against Bbsl in 97.8% (95% CI: 95.2-99.2%) of the submitted samples indicate that diagnosis "feline LB"is rare in cats. Nevertheless, LB should be considered in cats with compatible clinical signs (e.g. shifting leg lameness, to less extent neurological signs) when other differential diagnoses are ruled out. PMID:27529996

  1. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B. Chomel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as “family members” within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad, but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets. Cutaneous contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira spp., and/or aerosolization of bacteria causing tuberculosis or kennel cough are also emerging/re-emerging pathogens that can be transmitted by our pets, as well as gastro-intestinal pathogens such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Parasitic and fungal pathogens, such as echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, onchocercosis, or sporotrichosis, are also re-emerging or emerging pet related zoonoses. Common sense and good personal and pet hygiene are the key elements to prevent such a risk of zoonotic infection.

  2. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B

    2014-01-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as "family members" within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad), but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets. Cutaneous contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira spp., and/or aerosolization of bacteria causing tuberculosis or kennel cough are also emerging/re-emerging pathogens that can be transmitted by our pets, as well as gastro-intestinal pathogens such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Parasitic and fungal pathogens, such as echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, onchocercosis, or sporotrichosis, are also re-emerging or emerging pet related zoonoses. Common sense and good personal and pet hygiene are the key elements to prevent such a risk of zoonotic infection. PMID:26480316

  3. Controversies in Veterinary Nephrology: Renal Diets Are Indicated for Cats with International Renal Interest Society Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 2 to 4: The Con View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherk, Margie A; Laflamme, Dottie P

    2016-11-01

    Renal diets typically incorporate protein and phosphorus restriction, supplement with potassium and Omega-3 fatty acids, and address metabolic acidosis. Compared to "maintenance" diets, these modifications appear to benefit cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is limited data in cats justifying the specific amounts of the nutrients used in these diets, and there is little evidence supporting protein restriction in cats with CKD. Energy intake, maintenance of body weight, and muscle and body condition need to be addressed, and may take precedence over special diets. Further research is needed to better define optimum diets for cats with CKD. PMID:27593575

  4. Use of pentosan polysulphate in cats with idiopathic, non-obstructive lower urinary tract disease: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallius, Barbro M; Tidholm, Anna E

    2009-06-01

    Idiopathic feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) is a common clinical entity where different treatments, for example glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as pentosan polysulphate (PPS), are advocated. However, few treatments have been investigated by well-controlled clinical trials. This paper compares the use of PPS in FLUTD compared to placebo. Of the 18 cats in the experiment, nine were treated with PPS and nine were treated with placebo with subcutaneous injections of 3mg/kg PPS or placebo day 1, 2, 5 and 10. The study was double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled. Revaluation was performed after 5 and 10 days, 2 weeks, 2, 6 and 12 months. There were no statistically significant differences concerning clinical signs between groups during treatment or at re-evaluation, except for pretreatment stressful events where PPS-treated cats had experienced significantly more stressful events compared to cats treated with placebo before entering the study. Six cats (33%) showed recurrence of clinical signs during the entire study period, and only one of these cats had more than one recurrent episode. One cat (placebo) was euthanased 7 days after initial treatment because of recurrence of clinical signs. Another cat (placebo) was euthanased due to other reasons after 6 months. At 2 weeks two cats (placebo and PPS) showed clinical signs. At 2 months re-evaluation one cat showed mild clinical signs. At 6 and 12 months all remaining 16 cats were healthy. Idiopathic, non-obstructive FLUTD is a self-limiting disease with good short-term and excellent long-term prognosis without treatment. Whether or not PPS may be beneficial in a subpopulation of cats with continuous or frequently recurring clinical signs may be elucidated in forthcoming double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled trials including only this subpopulation of cats. PMID:18996037

  5. Use of pentosan polysulphate in cats with idiopathic, non-obstructive lower urinary tract disease: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallius, Barbro M; Tidholm, Anna E

    2009-06-01

    Idiopathic feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) is a common clinical entity where different treatments, for example glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as pentosan polysulphate (PPS), are advocated. However, few treatments have been investigated by well-controlled clinical trials. This paper compares the use of PPS in FLUTD compared to placebo. Of the 18 cats in the experiment, nine were treated with PPS and nine were treated with placebo with subcutaneous injections of 3mg/kg PPS or placebo day 1, 2, 5 and 10. The study was double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled. Revaluation was performed after 5 and 10 days, 2 weeks, 2, 6 and 12 months. There were no statistically significant differences concerning clinical signs between groups during treatment or at re-evaluation, except for pretreatment stressful events where PPS-treated cats had experienced significantly more stressful events compared to cats treated with placebo before entering the study. Six cats (33%) showed recurrence of clinical signs during the entire study period, and only one of these cats had more than one recurrent episode. One cat (placebo) was euthanased 7 days after initial treatment because of recurrence of clinical signs. Another cat (placebo) was euthanased due to other reasons after 6 months. At 2 weeks two cats (placebo and PPS) showed clinical signs. At 2 months re-evaluation one cat showed mild clinical signs. At 6 and 12 months all remaining 16 cats were healthy. Idiopathic, non-obstructive FLUTD is a self-limiting disease with good short-term and excellent long-term prognosis without treatment. Whether or not PPS may be beneficial in a subpopulation of cats with continuous or frequently recurring clinical signs may be elucidated in forthcoming double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled trials including only this subpopulation of cats.

  6. Chronic inflammatory and non-inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in cats: diagnostic advantages of full-thickness intestinal and extraintestinal biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Sven; Harder, Jasmine; Nolte, Ingo; Marsilio, Sina; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion

    2010-02-01

    An evaluation of histological findings in full-thickness biopsies from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and extraintestinal samples of 43 cats with chronic GIT disease signs was performed. In the majority of cases (46.5%) inflammatory bowel disease, ie, lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis/colitis (32.6%), eosinophilic gastroenterocolitis (11.6%) and mixed inflammatory infiltration (2.3%), was diagnosed. Furthermore, in four animals non-inflammatory mucosal band-shaped fibrosis (9.3%), and in 10 cats (23.3%) a diffuse lymphoma, was found. Six cats displayed only a gastritis (7.0%) or lymphangiectasia (7.0%), respectively. In two cats a mast cell tumour (4.7%) was diagnosed. In one cat no histopathological lesions were found. The availability of transmural biopsies from all segments of the intestine and the collection of extraintestinal samples, especially mesenteric lymph nodes, is especially helpful for diagnosing intestinal tumours such as lymphomas and tumours of mast cell origin.

  7. Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Schubach, Armando; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Barros, Mônica Bastos de Lima; Wanke, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an emerging zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1998 to 2003, 497 humans and 1,056 cats with culture-proven sporotrichosis were studied. A total of 421 patients, 67.4% with a history of a scratch or bite, reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis.

  8. Relationship of glomerular filtration rate based on serum iodixanol clearance to IRIS staging in cats with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    IWAMA, Ryosuke; SATO, Tsubasa; Katayama, Masaaki; Shimamura, Shunsuke; SATOH, Hiroshi; ICHIJO, Toshihiro; FURUHAMA, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    We examined the correlation between the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated from an equation based on the serum iodixanol clearance technique and International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats. The equation included the injection dose, sampling time, serum concentration and estimated volume of distribution (Vd) of the isotonic, nonionic, contrast medium iodixanol as a test tracer. The percent changes in the median basal GFR values calculated ...

  9. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine as Kidney Function Biomarkers in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, J.A.; Obare, E.; Yerramilli, M.; Jewell, D.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) has been shown to be an accurate and precise biomarker for calculating estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in humans, as well as a more sensitive biomarker than serum creatinine concentration (sCr) for assessing renal dysfunction. Objectives The purpose of this retrospective study was to report on the utility of measuring serum SDMA concentrations in cats for detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD) before diagnosis by conventional measurem...

  10. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate in cats with chronic kidney disease undergoing chemical restraint during hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Karine Kleine Figueiredo dos Santos; Daniel Paulino Junior; Julio César Cambraia Veado; Juliana de Abreu Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Dialysis is one of the used methods for treatment of Acute Renal Injury (ARI) and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) to replace the function of the kidneys when refers to blood depuration. Hemodialysis removes toxins accumulated in the body directly from the blood, being a useful alternative therapy for dogs and cats with CKD in advanced stages. Because of the difficulty on handling the patient feline, this procedure requires sedation. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the safety o...

  11. Prevalence of the polycystic kidney disease and renal and urinary bladder ultrasonographic abnormalities in Persian and Exotic Shorthair cats in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazzi, Mattia; Volta, Antonella; Gnudi, Giacomo; Bottarelli, Ezio; Gazzola, Margherita; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2007-10-01

    The ultrasonographic findings of kidneys, liver and urinary bladder of 288 Persian and 44 Exotic Shorthair clinically normal cats that underwent screening for polycystic kidney disease (PKD) between July 2003 and December 2005 were reviewed. Cats were divided into two groups, one including cats aged /=9 months (group 2). Cats were classified as PKD-positive when at least one renal cyst was found. One hundred and thirty-six cats (41.0%) had more than one cyst in at least one kidney. The prevalence of PKD was similar in both groups. Eight PKD-positive cats had cystic livers (5.9%). Other renal abnormalities included a pelvic calculus and a medullary rim sign (MRS). The difference in prevalence of an MRS in group 2 compared to group 1 and the difference between PKD-positive and -negative cats in group 2 were not significant. There was no difference in mean kidney length between PKD-positive and -negative cats in group 2. Urinary bladder anomalies were principally represented by urinary sediment, with prevalence significantly higher in group 2. No difference was detected in group 2 between PKD-positive and -negative cats. In conclusion feline PKD is common in Italy. The ultrasonographic findings of MRS and urinary bladder sediment did not correlate with feline PKD. Urinary bladder sediment is common in Persians and Exotic Shorthairs and more likely in adults. PMID:17498994

  12. Scratch direction and threshold force in nanoscale scratching using atomic force microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ampere A.; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Jou, Shyankay; Nishimura, Shinya; Shirakashi, Jun-ichi

    2011-09-01

    The nanoscaled tip in an AFM (atomic force microscope) has become an effective scratching tool for material removing in nanofabrication. In this article, the characteristics of using a diamond-coated pyramidal tip to scratch Ni-Fe thin film surfaces was experimentally investigated with the focus on the evaluation of the influence of the scratch or scan direction on the final shape of the scratched geometry as well as the applied scratch force. Results indicated that both the scratched profile and the scratch force were greatly affected by the scratch direction. It has been found that, to minimize the formation of protuberances along the groove sides and to have a better control of the scratched geometry, the tip face should be perpendicular to the scratching direction, which is also known as orthogonal cutting condition. To demonstrate the present findings, three groove patterns have been scratched with the tip face perpendicular to the scratching direction and very little amount of protuberances was observed. The threshold scratch force was also predicted based on the Hertz contact theory. Without considering the surface friction and adhesive forces between the tip and substrate, the threshold force predicted was twice smaller than the measurement value. Finally, recommendations for technical improvement and research focuses are provided.

  13. Effect of pre-cardiac and adult stages of Dirofilaria immitis in pulmonary disease of cats: CBC, bronchial lavage cytology, serology, radiographs, CT images, bronchial reactivity, and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray Dillon, A; Tillson, D M; Wooldridge, A; Cattley, R; Hathcock, J; Brawner, W R; Cole, R; Welles, B; Christopherson, P W; Lee-Fowler, T; Bordelon, S; Barney, S; Sermersheim, M; Garbarino, R; Wells, S Z; Diffie, E B; Schachner, E R

    2014-11-15

    of all pulmonary arteries and a random pattern of parenchymal disease with severe lesions immediately adjacent to normal areas. Analysis of CT 3D reconstruction and Hounsfield units demonstrated lung disease consistent with restrictive pulmonary fibrosis with an interstitial infiltrate, absence of air trapping, and decrease in total lung volume in Group IU as compared to Groups UU and PreS I. The clinical implications of this study are that cats pretreated with selamectin 1 month before D. immitis L3 infection did not become serologically positive and did not develop pulmonary arterial hypertrophy and myofibrosis.

  14. Experimental and numerical study on scratching test

    OpenAIRE

    Öpöz, Tahsin; Chen, Xun

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents recent investigation of the material removal mechanism in single grit grinding test. Single grit scratches were generated experimentally by using CBN grit on En24T steel and compared with numerical simulation by using finite element modelling (FEM). The material removal mechanism was observed along the scratch length to understand the effectiveness of ploughing and cutting mechanism throughout the scratch. Experiments showed that cutting is efficient at first half of the s...

  15. Scratch in special education: programming for all

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Escribano, Carmen; Sánchez-Montoya, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to encourage teachers and educators to use Scratch in their classrooms with special education students. Scratch is a visual, easy to use, and free programming language which promotes active and constructive learning. To encourage teachers to use this program we offer other teachers' experiences with different abilities and learning style students and a list of assistive technology resources to make Scratch accessible to all. We also suggest other ways to use this...

  16. Molecular characterization and virus neutralization patterns of severe, non-epizootic forms of feline calicivirus infections resembling virulent systemic disease in cats in Switzerland and in Liechtenstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Barbara; Spiri, Andrea M; Meli, Marina L; Samman, Ayman; Hoffmann, Karolin; Sydler, Titus; Cattori, Valentino; Graf, Felix; Diserens, Kevin A; Padrutt, Isabelle; Nesina, Stefanie; Berger, Alice; Ruetten, Maja; Riond, Barbara; Hosie, Margaret J; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2016-01-15

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) infections are associated with oral ulceration, chronic stomatitis and a limping syndrome. Epizootic outbreaks of virulent systemic disease (VSD) have been reported in the USA and Europe. Here, the molecular characterization and neutralization patterns of FCV isolates from cases of severe, non-epizootic infection associated with skin ulceration and edema are presented. Samples from eleven symptomatic cats, four in-contact cats and 27 cats with no contact with symptomatic cats were collected and tested for FCV, feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Phylogenetic analyses based on the capsid (VP1) gene of FCV and virus neutralization with antisera raised against four FCV vaccine strains were performed. Nine kittens and two adult cats in two shelters and two veterinary clinics in four geographically distinct locations in Switzerland and Liechtenstein were affected. The cats showed fever, tongue and skin ulceration, head and paw edema, and occasionally jaundice, generalized edema and dyspnea. All symptomatic cats tested FCV-positive but were negative for FHV-1, FeLV and FIV, with the exception of one FIV-positive kitten. All kittens of one litter and both adult cats died. The disease did not spread to cats in the environment. Cats in the environment displayed phylogenetically distinct, but related, FCV strains. Virus neutralization patterns suggested that some cases might have been potentially prevented by vaccination with the optimal vaccine strain. In conclusion, clinicians should be aware of severe, non-epizootic forms of FCV infections with initial clinical presentations similar to VSD. PMID:26711049

  17. Comparison between ultrasound and genetic testing for the early diagnosis of polycystic kidney disease in Persian and Exotic Shorthair cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazzi, Mattia; Volta, Antonella; Gnudi, Giacomo; Cozzi, Maria C; Strillacci, Maria G; Polli, Michele; Longeri, Maria; Manfredi, Sabrina; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2009-06-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (AD-PKD) is common in Persians and Persians-related breeds. The aims of this study were to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of early ultrasound examination and to compare ultrasound and genetic testing for early diagnosis. Sixty-three Persians and seven Exotic Shorthairs were considered. All underwent ultrasonographic and genetic testing (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay) between 2.5 and 3.5 months of age (10-14 weeks). With ultrasound, 41.4% showed renal cysts, while 37.1% were PKD positive by genetic testing and DNA sequencing. Six cats with at least one renal cyst were negative by genetic testing, while only one cat negative at ultrasound resulted positive at genetic test. DNA sequencing of three polycystic cats, negative by genetic test, revealed they were heterozygous for the mutation. Agreement was described by Cohen's kappa that resulted 0.85, considering genetic test and DNA sequencing. Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound were 96.2% and 91%, respectively. Sensitivity was higher and specificity lower than reported previously. The higher sensitivity could be due to improved technical capabilities of ultrasound machines and transducers. Other causes of PKD could explain the lower specificity. In conclusion, ultrasound resulted in a reliable diagnostic method for feline AD-PKD1 at early age and it should always be used with genetic testing, in order to reach a complete screening programme and eventually to identify other genetic mutations. PMID:19046910

  18. Discovery of new feline paramyxoviruses in domestic cats with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieg, Michael; Heenemann, Kristin; Rückner, Antje; Burgener, Iwan; Oechtering, Gerhard; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses constitute a large family of enveloped RNA viruses including important pathogens in veterinary and human medicine. Recently, feline paramyxoviruses, genus morbillivirus, were detected in cats from Hong Kong and Japan. Here we describe the discovery of several new feline paramyxovirus

  19. The Scratch Programming Language and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, John; Resnick, Mitchel; Rusk, Natalie; Silverman, Brian; Eastmond, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that allows users (primarily ages 8 to 16) to learn computer programming while working on personally meaningful projects such as animated stories and games. A key design goal of Scratch is to support self-directed learning through tinkering and collaboration with peers. This article explores how the…

  20. Comparison of upper gastrointestinal radiographic findings to histopathologic observations: a retrospective study of 41 dogs and cats with suspected small bowel infiltrative disease (1985 to 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was the intent of this study to define which, if any, radiographic observations corresponded with specific causes of diffuse infiltrative small bowel disease and if radiographic findings could differentiate inflammatory disease from neoplastic disease and either of them from normal. Bowel spasticity, luminal narrowing, and thumb printing tend to indicate the presence of tumor more often than inflammatory disease. Increased bowel gas in cats and barium adhesion in dogs and cats suggest that a component of enteritis is present. Decreased bowel gas in dogs is more often associated with obstructive disease, but is not helpful in differentiating diffuse inflammatory disease from diffuse neoplastic disease. While several observations that can foster differentiation of neoplastic from inflammatory disease were found, this study also indicated that the UGI lacks a high degree of predictive value other than to indicate the presence of infiltrative small bowel disease

  1. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  2. Scratch resistance of a polycarbonate + organoclay nanohybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A polycarbonate-based nanohybrid has been created containing 1 wt% of Bentone 2010, an organically modified montmorillonite. A micro-section on the nanohybrid obtained using focused ion beam (FIB and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM was employed to observe the orientation of the nanoclay inside a polycarbonate (PC matrix in the cross-section FIB-milled face. A micro-scratch tester was used to measure the scratch resistance in terms of residual (healing depth Rh under progressive load and in sliding wear. Effects of the number of scratches, normal load and scratch velocity have been evaluated as a function of nanoclay orientation. In sliding wear (multiple scratching along the same groove, our nanohybrid reaches residual depth values that remain constant after a certain number of scratches, a manifestation of strain hardening. The number of scratches to induce strain hardening decreases as the normal applied load increases. SEM was used to characterize deformation and wear mechanisms that operate on contacts and the results related to the wear data.

  3. The epidemiology of bite and scratch injuries by vertebrate animals in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pet and wildlife populations are a potential source of various public health problems, and injuries and complications due to animal bites and scratches are the most obvious. As no population based data on the frequency of animal bites were available at a national level in Switzerland, a study was conducted by the Swiss Sentinel Surveillance Network. The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence of medical consultations due to bite and scratch injuries in humans caused by vertebrate animals, to identify possible risk factors, and to assess bite management habits in primary health care. An annual bite and scratch incidence rate of 325 per 100,000 population was estimated. Consultations peaked during the summer months and geographical differences in the reported incidence were observed. Dogs accounted for more than 60% and cats for about 25% of all cases reported. Animal bites and scratches were frequent in persons under 20 years of age. In most ages, the incidence was higher among women than among men, but not in children under the age of ten years. The incidence of cat bites was especially high in adult women. Bites to the head and neck were most frequent in infants and young children and accounted for approximately one third of the reported cases in this age group. Patients sought medical care principally for primary wound care (52.0%) and for vaccination advice (29.6%). Rabies postexposure prophylaxis was initiated in 1.1% of patients. Wound infection was reported in 10.9% of cases, with cat bites/scratches being more often infected than injuries due to dogs. Hospitalization was reported in 0.3% of patients. Data from the emergency department of two district hospitals showed that head and neck injuries were more frequent in out-patients and a higher proportion of persons presented with wound infections (14.1%). The hospitalization rate for emergency department visits was 4.7%. Animal bites and scratches are common events in Switzerland. They

  4. State of cat genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren; Driscoll, Carlos; Pontius, Joan; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    Our knowledge of cat family biology was recently expanded to include a genomics perspective with the completion of a draft whole genome sequence of an Abyssinian cat. The utility of the new genome information has been demonstrated by applications ranging from disease gene discovery and comparative genomics to species conservation. Patterns of genomic organization among cats and inbred domestic cat breeds have illuminated our view of domestication, revealing linkage disequilibrium tracks consequent of breed formation, defining chromosome exchanges that punctuated major lineages of mammals and suggesting ancestral continental migration events that led to 37 modern species of Felidae. We review these recent advances here. As the genome resources develop, the cat is poised to make a major contribution to many areas in genetics and biology.

  5. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis

  6. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration in the Diagnosis of the Rare Disease of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Lale; Daniel Soto; Patricia G. Wasserman

    2014-01-01

    Langerhan’s cell histiocytosis (LCH) results from the proliferation of immunophenotypically and functionally immature, morphologically rounded Langerhan’s cells along with eosinophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, and, commonly, multinucleated giant cells. Here we report a case in a 6-year-old boy of differential diagnoses including dermatopathic lymphadenitis (DL), parasitic infection, Kimura’s disease, hypersensitivity reactions, cat-scratch disease, sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphad...

  7. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European countri

  8. Isolation of Sporothrix schenkii from the nails of healthy cats Isolamento de Sporothrix schenckii de unhas de gatos sadios

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Leonardo de Souza; Patrícia da Silva Nascente; Márcia de Oliveira Nobre; Ana Raquel Mano Meinerz; Mário Carlos Araújo Meireles

    2006-01-01

    Many cases of sporotrichosis in cats were diagnosed in the town of Rio Grande, RS, Brazil, caused mainly by inoculation due to scratches. In this work, we evaluated the frequency of Sporothrix schenckii in the nails of healthy cats living together with cats showing clinical sporotrichosis. The isolation of the fungus was carried out pressing unwashed nails of the forelimbs of 24 cats (48 paws) directly onto the surface of Mycobiotic Agar in Petri dishes. S. schenckii was isolated from seven (...

  9. Safety and efficacy of intravenous infusion of allogeneic cryopreserved mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of chronic kidney disease in cats: results of three sequential pilot studies

    OpenAIRE

    Quimby, Jessica M; Webb, Tracy L; Habenicht, Lauren M; Dow, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to improve renal function in rodent models of chronic kidney disease (CKD), in part by reducing intrarenal inflammation and suppressing fibrosis. CKD in cats is characterized by tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis, and thus treatment with MSCs might improve renal function and urinary markers of inflammation in this disease. Therefore, a series of pilot studies was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy o...

  10. Routine and specialized laboratory testing for the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, G Diane

    2010-09-01

    The diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases can be challenging. The first step is recognition that the disease involves the neuromuscular system (muscle, neuromuscular junction, peripheral nerve, and ventral horn cells of the spinal cord). Many neuromuscular diseases share clinical signs and cannot be distinguished based on clinical examination. Routine laboratory screening, including a CBC, biochemical profile, and urinalysis, can identify some of the most common systemic abnormalities that cause muscle weakness and myalgia, such as hypo- and hyperglycemia, electrolyte disorders, or thyroid abnormalities, and may suggest a specific diagnosis, such as diabetes mellitus, hypo- or hyperadrenocorticism, renal failure, or hypothyroidism. Increased creatine kinase activity, increased cardiac troponin I concentration, and myoglobinuria are useful in detecting skeletal and cardiac muscle damage. Identification of acetylcholine receptor antibodies is diagnostic for acquired myasthenia gravis. For primary muscle or peripheral nerve diseases, tissue biopsy is the most direct way to determine specific pathology, correctly classify the disease, and determine the course of additional laboratory testing. For example, inflammatory, necrotizing, dystrophic, metabolic, or congenital myopathies require different laboratory testing procedures for further characterization. Many neuromuscular diseases are inherited or breed-associated, and DNA-based tests may already be established or may be feasible to develop after the disorder has been accurately characterized. This review focuses on both routine and specialized laboratory testing necessary to reach a definitive diagnosis and determine an accurate prognosis for neuromuscular diseases. PMID:20726955

  11. Congenital and inherited neurologic diseases in dogs and cats: Legislation and its effect on purchase in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Passantino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many of the congenital neurologic diseases can result in incapacity or death of the animal. Some of them, such as idiopathic epilepsy and hydrocephalus, exhibit breed or familial predisposition and a genetic basis was proved or suggested. Some diseases can be presumptively diagnosed after a detailed signalment (breed predisposition, history (e.g. family history because many of these defects have familial tendencies, and through physical exam; other diagnostic methods (radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, electrophysiologic tests, etc. can provide supportive evidence for the congenital defect and help to confirm the diagnosis. Some cases can lead to civil law-suits when the lesions are congenital, but not easily recognizable, or when the lesions are hereditary but tend to became manifest only after some time (more than 12 months after the date of purchase, e.g., after the vice-free guarantee period has expired. Moreover, quite frequently an early diagnosis is not made because there are delays in consulting the veterinarian or the general practitioner veterinarian does not perceive subtle signs. This study was designed to focus on the medico-legal aspects concerning the buying and selling in Italy of dogs and cats affected by congenital and hereditary neurologic diseases that could constitute vice in these animals. While adequate provisions to regulate in detail the various aspects of pet sale have still to be drawn up by legislators, it may be helpful to involve breeders, by obliging them by contract to extend guarantees in the case of hereditary lesions, including neurologic diseases.

  12. Congenital and inherited neurologic diseases in dogs and cats: Legislation and its effect on purchase in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passantino, Annamaria; Masucci, Marisa

    2016-05-01

    Many of the congenital neurologic diseases can result in incapacity or death of the animal. Some of them, such as idiopathic epilepsy and hydrocephalus, exhibit breed or familial predisposition and a genetic basis was proved or suggested. Some diseases can be presumptively diagnosed after a detailed signalment (breed predisposition), history (e.g. family history because many of these defects have familial tendencies), and through physical exam; other diagnostic methods (radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, electrophysiologic tests, etc.) can provide supportive evidence for the congenital defect and help to confirm the diagnosis. Some cases can lead to civil law-suits when the lesions are congenital, but not easily recognizable, or when the lesions are hereditary but tend to became manifest only after some time (more than 12 months after the date of purchase, e.g., after the vice-free guarantee period has expired). Moreover, quite frequently an early diagnosis is not made because there are delays in consulting the veterinarian or the general practitioner veterinarian does not perceive subtle signs. This study was designed to focus on the medico-legal aspects concerning the buying and selling in Italy of dogs and cats affected by congenital and hereditary neurologic diseases that could constitute vice in these animals. While adequate provisions to regulate in detail the various aspects of pet sale have still to be drawn up by legislators, it may be helpful to involve breeders, by obliging them by contract to extend guarantees in the case of hereditary lesions, including neurologic diseases. PMID:27284217

  13. CAT 与mMRC 在慢性阻塞性肺疾病临床评价中的价值%Value of CAT and mMRC in clinical evaluation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭媛媛; 张旭华; 陈娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the health status ,dyspnea and exercise endurance in the patients with chronic obstructive pul-monary disease(COPD) by the CAT scale ,modified medical research council(mMRC) dyspnea scale and 6-min walk test(6MWT) and to analyze the correlation between their evaluation results with the percentage (FEV1% pred) of the forced expiratory volume at 1 second(FEV1) in the predict value and whether complicating pulmonary hypertension (PH) .Methods 70 patients with COPD were performed the examinations of the lung function ,CAT scale ,mMRC score and 6MWT .The correlation among the various e-valuation systems and between each evaluation system with the severity of the pulmonary function airway limitation were compre -hensively evaluated .The CAT scores ,mMRC scores and 6 min walking distance(6MWD) were compared between the COPD com-plicating PH group and the simple COPD group .Results The CAT scale was negatively correlated with 6MWD(r= -0 .623 ,P0 .05) .The CAT scores had statistical difference between the COPD complicating PH group and the simple COPD group (P<0 .01) .6MWD had the highest accuracy for screening COPD whether complicating PH ,followed by CAT .The diagnostic cut-off point by adopting CAT for judging the risk of COPD complicating PH was 21 .Conclusion The CAT scale has good correlation with 6MWD and no correlation with FEV1% pred .The CAT scale is more suitable for the overall assessment of the total severity of COPD .Patients with the high CAT scores have higher risk of suffering from PH .%目的:应用慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)评估测试量表(CAT)或改良英国医学研究理事会呼吸困难指数(mMRC)分级以及6分钟步行试验(6MWT)评价COPD患者健康状况、呼吸困难程度和运动耐力,并分析其评分结果与COPD患者第1秒用力呼气量占预计值百分比(FEV1% pred)及是否合并肺动脉高压(PH)的相关性。方法对70例确诊COPD患者进行CAT、mMRC评分及6

  14. Multi-micronucleus cells related with viral diseases, detected in the study of children affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells with multiple chromosome aberrations have been observed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Different explanation have proposed, included hot particle induction in persons related to the Chernobyl accident. The frequency of chromosome aberration and micronuclei were established in 14 Ukrainian children with different hematological disorders. They arrived in Cuba thanks to the program by means of which medical attention is offered to children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. At least 500 metaphases and bi-nucleate cells were analyzed in each case. The detection of 4 cells with 7-11 micronuclei in a 14 year old boy with cat scratch disease was the most significant cytogenetical finding. The viral origin of the cat scratch disease has been reported, this suggested a viral etiology of the cells with multiple micronuclei. No rogue cells were detected. Cells with multiple micronuclei or rogue cells were not found in other patients from this group. (authors). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch--A Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utting, Ian; Cooper, Stephen; Kolling, Michael; Maloney, John; Resnick, Mitchel

    2010-01-01

    This article distills a discussion about the goals, mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim to support the acquisition and development of computing concepts (problem solving and programming) in pre-University and non-technical students: Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a special session on the topic at the…

  16. Programming by Choice: Urban Youth Learning Programming with Scratch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, John; Peppler, Kylie; Kafai, Yasmin B.; Resnick, Mitchel; Rusk, Natalie

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes Scratch, a visual, block-based programming language designed to facilitate media manipulation for novice programmers. We report on the Scratch programming experiences of urban youth ages 8-18 at a Computer Clubhouse--an after school center--over an 18-month period. Our analyses of 536 Scratch projects collected during this…

  17. Maximizing the diagnostic utility of endoscopic biopsy in dogs and cats with gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jergens, Albert E; Willard, Michael D; Allenspach, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Flexible endoscopy has become a valuable tool for the diagnosis of many small animal gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, but the techniques must be performed carefully so that the results are meaningful. This article reviews the current diagnostic utility of flexible endoscopy, including practical/technical considerations for endoscopic biopsy, optimal instrumentation for mucosal specimen collection, the correlation of endoscopic indices to clinical activity and to histopathologic findings, and new developments in the endoscopic diagnosis of GI disease. Recent studies have defined endoscopic biopsy guidelines for the optimal number and quality of diagnostic specimens from different regions of the gut. They also have shown the value of ileal biopsy in the diagnosis of canine and feline chronic enteropathies, and have demonstrated the utility of endoscopic biopsy specimens beyond routine hematoxylin and eosin histopathological analysis, including their use in immunohistochemical, microbiological, and molecular studies. PMID:27387727

  18. Cat Scan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> A man takes his motionless dog to the vet."Doc,I think my dog is dead.”The vet looks the dog over, goes into a backroom,and comes out with a cat.He places the caton the table next to the dog.The cat walks aroundand sniffs at the dog.The dog does not move.The

  19. Dense distributed processing in a hindlimb scratch motor network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzulaitis, Robertas; Hounsgaard, Jørn Dybkjær

    2014-01-01

    elegans), we show that ventral horn interneurons in mid-thoracic spinal segments are functionally integrated in the hindlimb scratch network. First, mid-thoracic interneurons receive intense synaptic input during scratching and behave like neurons in the hindlimb enlargement. Second, some mid......-thoracic interneurons activated during scratching project descending axons toward the hindlimb enlargement. Third, elimination of mid-thoracic segments leads to a weakening of scratch rhythmicity. We conclude that densely innervated interneurons in mid-thoracic segments contribute to hindlimb scratching and may be part...

  20. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Pistello; Grazia Guidi; Natasa Tozon; Alessandro Poli

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some...

  1. Optimization of cell motility evaluation in scratch assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotsulyak N. Ya.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A scratch test is one of the most popular methods of classical cell migration assay in a monolayer culture. At the same time, the scratch assay has some disadvantages that can be easily corrected. Aim. Optimization the existent scratch assay on the base of detection of scratch wound surface area and the length of the field of observation which is more objective and less time consuming. Methods. Scratch assay. Results. The modification of scratch assay enables to perform measurement more accurately and rapidly. This approach is more simple and eliminates the main disadvantages of the classical method. Conclusions. The procedure of scratch wound width measurement calculated on the base of detection of cell free area and the length of the field of observation is more effective than the classical wound healing assay. It will be useful for the estimation of cell migration dynamics in monolayer culture for a wide range of live cell based experiments.

  2. Phenotypical characterization, distribution and quantification of different mast cell subtypes in transmural biopsies from the gastrointestinal tract of cats with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Sven; Harder, Jasmine; Nolte, Ingo; Marsilio, Sina; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion

    2010-10-15

    In this study subtypes, distribution and number of mast cells were investigated within mucosa and submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract of 24 cats with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in comparison to 11 control cats. Paraffin sections of formalin-fixed transmural gastrointestinal biopsies from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon were examined. Mast cells were phenotyped and quantified based on their chymase and tryptase content, by applying a combined enzyme-histochemical and immunohistochemical double-labeling technique and on their heparin content by a metachromatic staining method (kresylecht-violet, MC(KEV)). Mast cells containing both chymase and tryptase were not found in any of the samples examined. Furthermore, in the stomach neither chymase (MC(C)) nor tryptase (MC(T)) bearing mast cells were detected. In cats with lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis or enterocolitis elevated numbers of MC(T) or MC(C) were identified in comparison to controls mainly located in the inflamed segments. The highest quantity of MC(C) was found in cats with eosinophilic gastroenterocolitis or enterocolitis in comparison to other IBD forms, but only minor numbers of MC(T) were detected in these cases. In cats with fibrosing enteropathy (FE) a decrease of MC(C) and mast cells containing heparin was detected in affected segments, while increased numbers of MC(T) were detected in all locations. The elevation in the number of MC(T) was higher in unaffected areas than in fibrotic regions. Regarding all IBD cases higher counts of MC(C) were found especially in the inflamed locations, whereas in unaffected segments increased numbers of MC(T) were detected. The clear predominance of MC(C) and MC(T) within the mucosa and of MC(KEV) within the submucosa of all cats examined possibly represents differences of the cytokine milieu within the intestinal layers. In FE, mast cells are possibly pivotal for the containment of the inflammatory process because of their antiinflammatory

  3. Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch - A Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Utting, Ian; Cooper, Stephen; Kölling, Michael; Maloney, John; Resnick, Mitchel

    2010-01-01

    This article distills a discussion about the goals, mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim to support the acquisition and development of computing concepts (problem solving and programming) in pre-University and non-technical students: Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a special session on the topic at the 2010 ACM SIGCSE Symposium on Computer Science Education and continued during the creation of the resulting Special Issue of the ACM Transactions on...

  4. Scratch evaluation on a high performance polymer

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUEZ, Vanessa; SUKUMARAN, Jacob; PEREZ DELGADO, Yeczain; STAIA, Mariana; IOST, Alain; DE BAETS, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The authors wish to thank the participating communities, the Laboratory of Mechanics surfaces and materials processing, University Lille for the access and 84 usage of its research facility. Present research is financially sponsored by Found for Scientific Research of the Flemish Community (FWO) and the Ghent University Research Board. The scratching process is a well know concept and is usually defined as a kind of surface abrasion, where plastic deformation is promoted by relative fricti...

  5. Cats as a Risk for Transmission of Antimicrobial Drug-resistant Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; De Buck, Jeroen; Rychlik, Ivan; Hradecka, Helena; Collard, Jean-Marc; Wildemauwe, Christa; Heyndrickx, Marc; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether cats were a risk for transmission of Salmonella to humans, we evaluated the excretion of Salmonella by pet cats. Rectal-swab specimens were taken from 278 healthy house cats, from 58 cats that died of disease, and from 35 group-housed cats. Group-housed cats were kept in one room with three cat trays and a common water and feed tray. Eighteen (51.4%) of 35 group-housed cats, 5 (8.6%) of 58 diseased cats (5/58), and 1 (0.36%) of 278 healthy house cats excreted Salmonella. ...

  6. Cat's Claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Cat's Claw Share: On This Page Introduction What the ... More Information Key References © Steven Foster Common Names: cat’s claw, uña de gato Latin Name: Uncaria tomentosa, ...

  7. My Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王悦; 李成梅

    2002-01-01

    The name of my cat is Naty. This year he is one year old. He isvery fat, but he is very nice. He has a big round white head. His mouth and nose are small. His eyes are interesting. In the day,they are small and black,but at night they are big and blue.

  8. 猫抓病性淋巴结炎的病理诊断和鉴别诊断%The diagnosis of pathology and differentiation to lymphadenitis in cat scratch disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁水琴; 平金良

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨猫抓病(CSD)临床病理特征和鉴别要点,以提高对CSD的认识.方法收集22例CSD淋巴结作活检,并进行Warthin-Starry银染法染色.结果镜下淋巴结内见星形微脓疡肉芽肿,Warthin-Starry染色17例阳性.结论病理学特征和临床病史密切结合,辅以Warthin-Starry染色是提高CSD诊断水平的关键.

  9. Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimerink Johan R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness for flea- and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the natural cycle of Bartonella spp. and the transmission of these bacteria to humans is unclear. Rickettsia spp. have also been reported from as well ticks as also from fleas. However, to date no flea-borne Rickettsia spp. were reported from the Netherlands. Here, the presence of Bartonellaceae and Rickettsiae in ectoparasites was investigated using molecular detection and identification on part of the gltA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Results The zoonotic Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis were detected for the first time in Dutch cat fleas. B. henselae was found in cat fleas and B. schoenbuchensis in ticks and keds feeding on deer. Two Bartonella species, previously identified in rodents, were found in wild mice and their fleas. However, none of these microorganisms were found in 1719 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Notably, the gltA gene amplified from DNA lysates of approximately 10% of the questing nymph and adult ticks was similar to that of an uncultured Bartonella-related species found in other hard tick species. The gltA gene of this Bartonella-related species was also detected in questing larvae for which a 16S rRNA gene PCR also tested positive for "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii". The gltA-gene of the Bartonella-related species found in I. ricinus may therefore be from this endosymbiont. Conclusions We conclude that the risk of acquiring Cat Scratch Disease or a related bartonellosis from questing ticks in the Netherlands is negligible. On the other hand fleas and deer keds are probable vectors for associated Bartonella species between animals and might also transmit Bartonella spp. to humans.

  10. The acoustics and performance of DJ scratching, Analysis and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Falkenberg Hansen, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the analysis and modeling of scratching, in other words, the DJ (disk jockey) practice of using the turntable as a musical instrument. There has been experimental use of turntables as musical instruments since their invention, but the use is now mainly ascribed to the musical genre hip-hop and the playing style known as scratching. Scratching has developed to become a skillful instrument-playing practice with complex musical output performed by DJs. The impact on popula...

  11. black cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜铁梅

    2016-01-01

    The black cat is a masterpiece of short fiction of Poe. He successfully solved the problem of creating of the horror effect by using scene description, symbol, repetition and first-person narrative methods. And created a complete and unified mysterious terror, achieved the effect of shocking. This paper aims to discuss the mystery in-depth and to enrich the research system in Poe’s novels.

  12. Management of hypertension in a geriatric cat

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism and chronic renal disease occur commonly in geriatric cats, often in association with potentially life-threatening primary or secondary hypertension. Early treatment of hypertension minimizes damage to vital organs. This case illustrates the complexity of managing hypertension in a geriatric cat with both hyperthyroidism and renal disease.

  13. Scratch behavior of high speed steels for hot rolls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhou; Dale Sun; Changsheng Liu; Chunguang Li; Lisong Yao

    2008-01-01

    The scratch behaviors of two high speed steels (HSS) for hot rolls were studied by a Micro-combi Tester, and the emphasis was placed on researching the relations between the microstructure and the scratch resistance property of different HSS. The experimental results indicate that during the scratch process, the carbides are embedded into the matrix, the penetration depth of different HSS is closely related with the matrix hardness, i.e., the higher the matrix hardness, the better the scratch resistance property; and in the matrix, the fine, dispersive carbides are beneficial to form steady friction between the indenter and the scratched materials, but the coarser carbides are easier to fall into pieces.

  14. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  15. Schroedinger's cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a 'matrix format' (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and 'Schroedinger's cat' symbolizes this broader perspective. (author)

  16. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. PMID:24726694

  17. Radio-iodine treatment of hyperthyroid cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-two elderly domestic shorthaired cats (mean age 12.9 years) were treated with radioiodine (131I). The dose of 131I administered ranged from 39 mBq to 134 mBq. Twenty-eight cats became euthyroid after treatment, one became hypothyroid and three remained hyperthyroxaemic. Two of the hyperthyroxaemic cats were successfully re-treated with 131I. Five cats died from concurrent diseases within one year of treatment. The administration of a dose of 131I selected by assessing the severity of the clinical signs, the size of the thyroid gland(s) and the serum level of thyroxine was an effective treatment for hyperthyroidism

  18. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some things you ...

  19. The radiographic appearance of pulmonary histoplasmosis in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study of 18 cats with pulmonary histoplasmosis was conducted to evaluate radiographic patterns of disease and to determine age, breed, and sex distributions. All cats had active disease confirmed by biopsy/aspiration cytology (lung, bone marrow, peripheral lymph nodes, pleural fluid) or necropsy examination. Cats 3 years of age or less had the highest incidence of disease; females outnumbered males 2 to 1. Radiographically, most cats had an interstitial pattern which appeared as a fine, diffuse or linear pattern, or as a more distinct nodular pattern. An alveolar pattern was an uncommon radiographic finding. Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy and calcified lymph nodes or pulmonary parenchymal lesions were not identified in these cats

  20. Experimental proliferative glomerulonephritis in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, S A; Stokes, C R; Lucke, V M

    1992-01-01

    A model of chronic serum sickness was used to induce immune-complex glomerulonephritis in seven experimental cats, by daily intravenous inoculation of an increasing dose (5 to 35 mg) of human serum albumin (HSA). At week four, two of the seven animals developed anterior uveitis. At week 23, two different animals developed the subcutaneous oedema characteristic of the nephrotic syndrome (NS), whilst the other five cats appeared clinically normal. The kidneys were examined at necropsy by light microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy. The glomeruli of four animals (three with both proteinuria and uraemia, and one with proteinuria only) showed morphological changes under light microscopy. The abnormalities suggested that a diffuse mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) had been induced in three cats and diffuse membranoproliferative GN induced in another. Ultrastructural studies revealed electron-dense deposits (immune-complexes) in six of the seven cats. Two cats without glomerular abnormalities by light microscopy had mesangial deposits and three cats with mesangial proliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial and/or subepithelial sites. The single cat with membranoproliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial, subepithelial and intramembranous sites. Immunohistological examination (peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique) showed that HSA and immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM) were deposited in the glomeruli of these cats. Deposits were the most dense in cats with more severe renal lesions. Deposits of IgM were most abundant. An extensive cellular infiltrate, comprising macrophages, neutrophils and plasma cells, was observed only in the four animals which showed abnormalities in glomerular ultrastructure. The disease induced in these cats thus appears to differ from the membranous nephropathy previously described in the cat and bears a close resemblance to immune complex (IC) disease in man. In view of the relatively few specific

  1. Structural and functional changes of neuronal and glial components of the feline enteric nervous system in cats with chronic inflammatory and non-inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Sven; Nolte, Ingo; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion

    2011-12-01

    Immunohistochemical examinations of the enteric nervous system (ENS) were performed on biopsies of healthy cats and compared to findings in cats suffering from inflammatory bowel disease or intestinal lymphoma. In lymphocytic-plasmacytic enterocolitis all affected samples had significant reductions in glial fibrillary acidic protein and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and mostly of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) possibly reflecting alterations in enteric glial cells and neurons. In cases with eosinophilic gastroenterocolitis significantly reduced phosphorylated neurofilament (PN) expression was present suggesting a disturbance in neuronal cytoskeleton, whereas cats with fibrosing enteropathy had reduced expression of NSE, non-phosphorylated neurofilaments (NPN), PN and VIP, possibly reflecting neuronal disturbances. In cases with intestinal lymphoma only the reduction in PN and the increase in NPN were obvious suggesting direct damage or interference of neoplastic cells with enteric neurons. In conclusion, structural and functional alterations of the ENS may contribute to clinically evident signs of vomiting and/or diarrhea.

  2. Computed Tomographic Findings in Cats with Mycobacterial Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Major, Alison; Holmes, Andrea; Warren-Smith, Christopher; Lalor, Stephanie; Littler, Rebecca; Schwarz, Tobias; Gunn-Moore, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe the CT imaging findings associated with confirmed mycobacterial infection in cats.Methods: CT images from 20 cats with confirmed mycobacterial disease were retrospectively reviewed. Five cats underwent conscious full-body CT in a VetMouseTrapTM device. All other cats had thoracic CT performed under general anaesthesia, with the addition of CT investigation of the head/neck, abdomen and limbs in some cases.Results: Mycobacterial infection...

  3. Materiality of a simulation: Scratch reading machine, 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Saper

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Using Bob Brown's reading machine and the prepared texts for his machine, called readies, both designed in 1930, as an example of scratch turntablist techniques, suggests an alternative to narrow definitions of literacy and new ways to appreciate the history of scratch techniques. Brown's machine resembles the turntablist’s ability to rapidly shift reading (its direction, speed, and repetition rather than slowly flipping the pages of a book. Punctuation marks, in the readies, become visual analogies. For movement we see em-dashes (— that also, by definition, indicate that the sentence was interrupted or cut short. The old uses of punctuation, such as employment of periods to mark the end of a sentence, disappear. The result looks like a script for a turntablist’s performance, and dj Herc starts to sound like a reading teacher. An online simulation of Brown's machine, http://www.readies.org, reproduce, or approximate, the motion, scratch, jerking, flickering, and visual effects produced or illuminated with the machine. Those supplemental aspects of reading are always already part of reading. The supplement (movement, visuality, mechanicity to traditional notions of literacy usually remain part of an implicate process. The reading machine and scratch techniques are not simply a new conduit for the same supposedly natural process. The scratch reading highlights what Jacques Derrida calls the "virtual multimedia" (of reading print on paper. The increasing prevalence, even omnipresent and [to some critics] epidemic, use of text(ing machines, something outside or beside traditional literacy, the scratch-meaning becomes foregrounded. Brown's machine puts the natural process of reading under erasure or scratch (simply by adjusting the speed, direction, and layout. dj Herc did the same for music.

  4. Experimental Infection of Cats and Dogs with West Nile Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Austgen, Laura E.; Bowen, Richard A.; Bunning, Michel L.; Davis, Brent S.; Mitchell, Carl J.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.

    2004-01-01

    Domestic dogs and cats were infected by mosquito bite and evaluated as hosts for West Nile virus (WNV). Viremia of low magnitude and short duration developed in four dogs but they did not display signs of disease. Four cats became viremic, with peak titers ranging from 103.0 to 104.0 PFU/mL. Three of the cats showed mild, non-neurologic signs of disease. WNV was not isolated from saliva of either dogs or cats during the period of viremia. An additional group of four cats were exposed to WNV o...

  5. Is inflammatory bowel disease in dogs and cats associated with a Th1 or Th2 polarization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Romy M; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2015-12-15

    Mucosal immunity involves complex interactions to generate either immune tolerance or active immune responses. An imbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that drive the recruitment of immune cells to the intestinal mucosa are a key characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease in humans, where distinctive helper-T-lymphocyte profiles help to discriminate between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. This review evaluates the current veterinary literature to determine whether a Th1/Th2 (and possibly also Th17) polarization also exists in canine and feline inflammatory bowel disease.

  6. Generation of Scratches and Their Effects on Laser Damage Performance of Silica Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaguo; Ye, Hui; Yuan, Zhigang; Liu, Zhichao; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Zhe; Zhao, Shijie; Wang, Jian; Xu, Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Scratches are deleterious to precision optics because they can obscure and modulate incident laser light, which will increase the probability of damage to optical components. We here imitated the generation of brittle and ductile scratches during polishing process and endeavored to find out the possible influence of scratches on laser induced damage. Brittle scratches can be induced by spiking large sized abrasives and small abrasives may only generate ductile scratches. Both surface roughness and transmittivity are degraded due to the appearance of brittle scratches while ductile scratches make little difference to surface roughness and transmittance. However, ductile and brittle scratches greatly increase the density of damage about one order of magnitude relative to unscratched surface. In particular, ductile scratches also play an unignorable role in laser induced damage, which is different from previous knowledge. Furthermore, ZrO2 and Al2O3 polished surfaces appear to perform best in terms of damage density. PMID:27703218

  7. The Role of DmCatD, a Cathepsin D-Like Peptidase, and Acid Phosphatase in the Process of Follicular Atresia in Dipetalogaster maxima (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a Vector of Chagas' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyria, Jimena; Fruttero, Leonardo L.; Nazar, Magalí; Canavoso, Lilián E.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the involvement of DmCatD, a cathepsin D-like peptidase, and acid phosphatase in the process of follicular atresia of Dipetalogaster maxima, a hematophagous insect vector of Chagas’ disease. For the studies, fat bodies, ovaries and hemolymph were sampled from anautogenous females at representative days of the reproductive cycle: pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis as well as early and late atresia. Real time PCR (qPCR) and western blot assays showed that DmCatD was expressed in fat bodies and ovaries at all reproductive stages, being the expression of its active form significantly higher at the atretic stages. In hemolymph samples, only the immunoreactive band compatible with pro-DmCatD was observed by western blot. Acid phosphatase activity in ovarian tissues significantly increased during follicular atresia in comparison to pre-vitellogenesis and vitellogenesis. A further enzyme characterization with inhibitors showed that the high levels of acid phosphatase activity in atretic ovaries corresponded mainly to a tyrosine phosphatase. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase were associated with yolk bodies in vitellogenic follicles, while in atretic stages they displayed a different cellular distribution. DmCatD and tyrosine phosphatase partially co-localized with vitellin. Moreover, their interaction was supported by FRET analysis. In vitro assays using homogenates of atretic ovaries as the enzyme source and enzyme inhibitors demonstrated that DmCatD, together with a tyrosine phosphatase, were necessary to promote the degradation of vitellin. Taken together, the results strongly suggested that both acid hydrolases play a central role in early vitellin proteolysis during the process of follicular atresia. PMID:26091289

  8. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that ...

  9. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  10. Discospondylitis in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence and causative agents of discospondylitis in cats are unknown. This report describes a cat with radiologic changes consistent with discospondylitis and concurrent urinary tract infection. As in dogs, discospondylitis should be the primary rule out for vertebral end plate lysis in cats

  11. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  12. Scratch as a computational modelling tool for teaching physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victor; Hernandez, Maria Isabel

    2015-05-01

    The Scratch online authoring tool, which features a simple programming language that has been adapted to primary and secondary students, is being used more and more in schools as it offers students and teachers the opportunity to use a tool to build scientific models and evaluate their behaviour, just as can be done with computational modelling programs. In this article, we briefly discuss why Scratch could be a useful tool for computational modelling in the primary or secondary physics classroom, and we present practical examples of how it can be used to build a model.

  13. El Scratch com a eina de modelització computacional

    OpenAIRE

    López Simó, Víctor; Hernández Rodríguez, María Isabel

    2013-01-01

    La plataforma virtual Scratch, que compta amb un llenguatge de programació senzill i adaptat per alumnes de primària i secundària, té cada vegada més adeptes en els centres educatius, ja que representa una oportunitat com a eina per a que alumnat i professorat puguin construir models científics escolars i avaluar el seu comportament. En aquest article discutirem per què Scratch pot arribar a ser una bona eina per a la modelització computacional en els cursos de ciències de primària i secundàr...

  14. Calentamiento global con Scratch y escuelas eficientes con Arduino

    OpenAIRE

    Ainzua Cemborain, José Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo final de máster está formado por dos proyectos con metodología de aprendizaje basado en proyectos (ABP). El primero de ellos se realiza en la asignatura de Tecnología y en coordinación con la asignatura de Ciencias Naturales, y el segundo únicamente para Tecnología. En la primera parte del proyecto se analiza la metodología ABP utilizada y se compara con la tradicional. Posteriormente se estudian las tres herramientas utilizadas en este proyecto como son; Scratch, Scratch for...

  15. Intestinal obstruction by trichobezoars in five cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrs, V R; Beatty, J A; Tisdall, P L; Hunt, G B; Gunew, M; Nicoll, R G; Malik, R

    1999-12-01

    Between 1997 and 1999, five domestic crossbred cats (four long haired, one short haired) presented with a palpable abdominal mass and were shown to have small intestinal trichobezoars at laparotomy or necropsy. Hair balls were associated with partial or complete intestinal obstruction and were situated in the proximal jejunum to distal ileum. In four cats obstructions were simple, while the remaining cat had a strangulating obstruction. Three of the cats were 10 years or older, and two were less than 4 years. In the three older cats abdominal neoplasia was suspected and investigations were delayed or declined in two of these cats because of a perceived poor prognosis. Predisposing factors identified in this series of cats included a long-hair coat, flea allergy dermatitis, inflammatory bowel disease and ingestion of non-digestible plant material. This report shows that the ingestion of hair is not always innocuous and that intestinal trichobezoars should be considered in the differential diagnoses of intestinal obstruction and intra-abdominal mass lesions, particularly in long-haired cats.

  16. Dr. Scratch: Análisis Automático de Proyectos Scratch para Evaluar y Fomentar el Pensamiento Computacional

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-León, Jesús; Robles, Gregorio; Román-González, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Una de las barreras de entrada de la programación informática en las escuelas es la falta de herramientas que ayuden al profesorado en la evaluación de los proyectos del alumnado. Con el objetivo de resolver esta situación, este artículo presenta Dr. Scratch, una aplicación web que permite a educadores y alumnos analizar automáticamente proyectos Scratch, el lenguaje de programación más utilizado globalmente en educación primaria y secundaria, para comprobar si se han programado correctamente...

  17. Investigation on Scratch Resistance of Thin Films Coated on Resin Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; LIU Jin-long; WANG Qing-liang

    2004-01-01

    Resin lens are very popular in glasses market. Many technologies have been developed to coat different thin films on resin lens to strengthen its resistance to scratch or wear, but little of the scratch failure mechanism of such thin films are reported. This paper presented the results of several scratch tests performed on three resin lenses coated with different thin films at the normal loads of 98 mN and 49 mN and at sliding velocity of 0.003 3 m/s and 0.001 7 m/s, and the observation of the scratch tracks on the resin lens by SEM. It shows that the resin lenses coated with different thin films have different scratch resistance and different scratch failure mechanism, and the scratch resistance varies at the two different loads and sliding velocity. The experiment provides a new method to evaluate the scratch resistance of resin lens.

  18. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, A M; Battersby, I A; Faena, M; Fews, D; Darke, P G G; Ferasin, L

    2005-03-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a disease characterised by infiltration of the myocardium by adipose and fibrous tissue. The disease is an important cause of sudden death in humans, but has rarely been described in animals. This report describes ARVC in two cats with right-sided congestive heart failure. One cat had also experienced previous episodes of syncope. Standard six-lead and 24-hour (Holter) electrocardiogram recording revealed complete atrioventricular block and multiform ventricular ectopics in both cats, with the addition of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular bigeminy and R-on-T phenomenon in one of them. On echocardiography, the right ventricle and atrium were massively dilated and hypokinetic. The survival times of the cats were three days and 16 days following diagnosis. Histopathology in one case revealed fibro-fatty infiltration of the myocardium, predominantly affecting the right ventricular free wall. PMID:15789811

  19. Synchronization in Scratch: A Case Study with Education Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolos, Dimitris; Komis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    The Scratch programming language is an introductory programming language for students. It is also a visual concurrent programming language, where multiple threads are executed simultaneously. Synchronization in concurrent languages is a complex task for novices to understand. Our research is focused on strategies and methods applied by novice…

  20. Scratch as a Computational Modelling Tool for Teaching Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victor; Hernandez, Maria Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The Scratch online authoring tool, which features a simple programming language that has been adapted to primary and secondary students, is being used more and more in schools as it offers students and teachers the opportunity to use a tool to build scientific models and evaluate their behaviour, just as can be done with computational modelling…

  1. Scratch's Third Body: Video Talks Back to Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldsmith, Leo

    2015-01-01

    abstractEmerging in the UK in the 1980s, Scratch Video established a paradoxical union of mass-media critique, Left-wing politics, and music-video and advertising aesthetics with its use of moving-image appropriation in the medium of videotape. Enabled by innovative professional and consumer video t

  2. Effects of Using Alice and Scratch in an Introductory Programming Course for Corrective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Kai

    2014-01-01

    Scratch, a visual programming language, was used in many studies in computer science education. Most of them reported positive results by integrating Scratch into K-12 computer courses. However, the object-oriented concept, one of the important computational thinking skills, is not represented well in Scratch. Alice, another visual programming…

  3. Raising awareness of common problems in older cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-13

    The need to actively look for signs of disease in older cats was discussed during a recent conference held by the International Society of Feline Medicine (ISFM) in Malta. Delegates heard that many older cats could be suffering from diseases associated with ageing but might show only subtle clinical signs. Suzanne Jarvis reports. PMID:27516559

  4. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian;

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  5. Disease: H00326 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available animal scratches and bites. Human bartonellosis is a group of diseases with a rap...idly increasing clinical spectrum. At least six Bartonella species are responsible for human diseases as well as zoonotic diseases

  6. Prevalence of heartworm infection in cats with signs of cardiorespiratory abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine prevalence of heartworm infection in a population of pet cats with cardiorespiratory abnormalities and to determine relative usefulness of clinical signs and tests in diagnosis of heartworm disease. Prospective case series. 100 client-owned cats with clinical signs of cardiorespiratory abnormalities. Cats were evaluated using CBC, modified Knott test, ELISA for serologic detection of heartworm antigen and antibodies to heartworms, thoracic radiography, and echocardiography. Cats were considered infected if they had circulating microfilaria, heartworm antigens in serum, or if heartworms were detected by echocardiography or on necropsy. Cats were considered suspicious for infection if they had 2 of the following: serum antibodies to heartworms, eosinophilia or basophilia, or indicative radiographic findings. 9 cats were infected with heartworms, resulting in a prevalence of 9%; 26 cats had evidence of heartworm exposure (i.e., serum antibodies to heartworms). Twenty cats were considered suspicious for heartworm infection. Some outdoor exposure was reported twice as often in heartworm-infected cats, compared with noninfected and suspicious cats. However, a third of infected cats were reportedly housed totally indoors. Cough and dyspnea were strong indicators of heartworm disease. Eight of 9 infected cats had serum antibodies to heartworms and heartworm antigen in serum. Thoracic radiography and echocardiography indicated heartworm infection in 6 and 7 of the 9 cats, respectively. Cough or dyspnea may indicate heartworm disease in cats; serologic tests, echocardiography, and radiography are most useful diagnostic procedures. Although living indoors is protective, it may not preclude heartworm infection in cats

  7. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nils Peterson

    Full Text Available Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs and bird conservation professionals (BCPs across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators. Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.

  8. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals. PMID:22970269

  9. Wrist actigraphy for scratch detection in the presence of confounding activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Johanna; Austin, Daniel; Sack, Robert; Hayes, Tamara L

    2011-01-01

    Scratching is a symptom of many dermatological disorders, especially atopic dermatitis. For the development of anti-itch medications, there is a need for objective measures of scratching. Wrist actigraphy (monitoring wrist and hand movements with micro-accelerometers) is a promising method for assessing scratching; however, currently available technology has a limited capacity to discriminate scratching from other similar movements. In this study, we investigated methods to improve the specificity of actigraphy for scratch detection on movement data collected from subjects using the PAM-RL actigraph. A k-means cluster analysis was used to differentiate scratching from walking and restless sleep, which are potential confounds for nighttime scratching. Features used in the analysis include variance, peak frequency, autocorrelation value at one lag, and number of counts above 0.01 g's. The k-means cluster analysis exhibited a high sensitivity (0.90 ± 0.10) and specificity for walking (0.98 ± 0.05) and restless sleep (0.88 ± 0.06), respectively, demonstrating the separability of these activities. This work indicates that the features described here can be used to develop a classifier that discriminates scratch from other activities. The described method of scratch detection shows promise as an objective method for assessing scratching movements in clinical trials and longitudinal studies of scratch. PMID:22255131

  10. Brain's reward circuits mediate itch relief. a functional MRI study of active scratching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru D P Papoiu

    Full Text Available Previous brain imaging studies investigating the brain processing of scratching used an exogenous intervention mimicking scratching, performed not by the subjects themselves, but delivered by an investigator. In real life, scratching is a conscious, voluntary, controlled motor response to itching, which is directed to the perceived site of distress. In this study we aimed to visualize in real-time by brain imaging the core mechanisms of the itch-scratch cycle when scratching was performed by subjects themselves. Secondly, we aimed to assess the correlations between brain patterns of activation and psychophysical ratings of itch relief or pleasurability of scratching. We also compared the patterns of brain activity evoked by self-scratching vs. passive scratching. We used a robust tridimensional Arterial Spin Labeling fMRI technique that is less sensitive to motion artifacts: 3D gradient echo and spin echo (GRASE--Propeller. Active scratching was accompanied by a higher pleasurability and induced a more pronounced deactivation of the anterior cingulate cortex and insula, in comparison with passive scratching. A significant involvement of the reward system including the ventral tegmentum of the midbrain, coupled with a mechanism deactivating the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG, suggests that itch modulation operates in reverse to the mechanism known to suppress pain. Our findings not only confirm a role for the central networks processing reward in the pleasurable aspects of scratching, but also suggest they play a role in mediating itch relief.

  11. Ultrastructural myocardial changes in seven cats with spontaneous hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Hyttel, Poul;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats and shares clinical and pathological characteristics with human HCM. Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms underlying development of spontaneous feline HCM. ANIMALS: The study population consisted...... of seven cats diagnosed with HCM and eight age-matched cats with no evidence of cardiac disease. METHODS: Fresh myocardial biopsies taken from the middle of the left ventricular posterior free wall were obtained and examined with transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Electron microscopic examination...... showed ultrastructural aberrations of the myocardial cytoarchitecture and of the interstitium in the seven cats with HCM. In the most severely affected cats the myofibrils were disorganized and subsarcolemmal mitochondria were depleted. In control cats, contraction band artifacts were commonly seen...

  12. Selective palladium electrochemical deposition onto AFM-scratched silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santinacci, L.; Djenizian, T.; Hildebrand, H.; Ecoffey, S.; Mokdad, H.; Campanella, T.; Schmuki, P

    2003-09-30

    The present work investigates the selective electrochemical deposition of palladium nano-structures into scratches produced through thin oxide layers covering p-Si (1 0 0) surfaces. Using an atomic force microscope equipped with a single-crystalline diamond tip scratches in the 100 nm range were produced through a 10 nm thick dry oxide layer. Pd deposition was carried out in PdCl{sub 2} (0.01 g l{sup -1})+HCl (0.1 M) by cathodic potential steps. Investigation of the palladium nucleation and growth processes onto silicon surfaces is presented. Under optimized conditions sub-100 nm palladium structures can be obtained with a very high selectivity.

  13. Adherence and scratching resistance of nanometric titania films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiO2 films has been used to extend the wear resistance in bearing, seals for pumps and bone prostheses. In this study was analyzed the conventional hardness and scratch toughness. The scratching test equipment used was developed at the Laboratory of materials Labmat / UFSC. The tests were performed on Titania films deposited on glass plates and ceramics via reactive DC magnetron sputtering. The films were deposited by 10, 15 and 60 min. One of the samples has a titanium metal film of a few nanometers thick between the substrate and the Titania film, the oxide has been deposited for 30 min. At this rang of tests loads the deposited films show good adhesion to substrate, there was no cracking or spalling of the film. (author)

  14. Computed tomography of nonanesthetized cats with upper airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Krystina; O'Brien, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Upper airway obstruction is a potentially life-threatening problem in cats and for which a noninvasive, sensitive method rapid diagnosis is needed. The purposes of this prospective study were to describe a computed tomography (CT) technique for nonanesthetized cats with upper airway obstruction, CT characteristics of obstructive diseases, and comparisons between CT findings and findings from other diagnostic tests. Ten cats with clinical signs of upper airway obstruction were recruited for the study. Four cats with no clinical signs of upper airway obstruction were recruited as controls. All cats underwent computed tomography imaging without sedation or anesthesia, using a 16-slice helical CT scanner and a previously described transparent positional device. Three-dimensional (3D) internal volume rendering was performed on all CT image sets and 3D external volume rendering was also performed on cats with evidence of mass lesions. Confirmation of upper airway obstruction was based on visual laryngeal examination, endoscopy, fine-needle aspirate, biopsy, or necropsy. Seven cats were diagnosed with intramural upper airway masses, two with laryngotracheitis, and one with laryngeal paralysis. The CT and 3D volume-rendered images identified lesions consistent with upper airway disease in all cats. In cats with mass lesions, CT accurately identified the mass and location. Findings from this study supported the use of CT imaging as an effective technique for diagnosing upper airway obstruction in nonanesthetized cats. PMID:23441677

  15. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  16. Hyperadrenocorticism in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, C A; Nachreiner, R F; Dunstan, R W; Dalley, J B

    1987-03-01

    A diabetic cat with hyperadrenocorticism had polydipsia, polyuria, ventral abdominal alopecia, thin dry skin, and a pendulous abdomen. Results of laboratory testing indicated persistent resting hypercortisolemia, hyperresponsiveness of the adrenal glands (increased cortisol concentration) to ACTH gel, and no suppression of cortisol concentrations after administration of dexamethasone at 0.01 or 1.0 mg/kg of body weight. Necropsy revealed a pituitary gland tumor, bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, hepatic neoplasia, and demodicosis. Adrenal gland function was concurrently assessed in 2 cats with diabetes mellitus. One cat had resting hypercortisolemia, and both had hyperresponsiveness to ACTH gel (increased cortisol concentration) at one hour. After administration of dexamethasone (0.01 and 1.0 mg/kg), the diabetic cats appeared to have normal suppression of cortisol concentrations. The effects of mitotane were investigated in 4 clinically normal cats. Adrenocortical suppression of cortisol production occurred in 2 of 4 cats after dosages of 25, 37, and 50 mg/kg. Three cats remained clinically normal throughout the study. One cat experienced vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia.

  17. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A ...

  18. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de ...

  19. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  20. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats – clarification regarding genetic testing

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, L.A.; Grahn, R. A.; Genova, F; M. Beccaglia; Hopwood, J J; M. Longeri

    2016-01-01

    The release of new DNA-based diagnostic tools has increased tremendously in companion animals. Over 70 different DNA variants are now known for the cat, including DNA variants in disease-associated genes and genes causing aesthetically interesting traits. The impact genetic tests have on animal breeding and health management is significant because of the ability to control the breeding of domestic cats, especially breed cats. If used properly, genetic testing can prevent the production of dis...

  1. Children’s Civic Engagement in the Scratch Online Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarose Roque

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In public discourse, and in the governance of online communities, young people are often denied agency. Children are frequently considered objects to protect, safeguard, and manage. Yet as children go online from very early ages, they develop emergent forms of civic and political engagement. Children appropriate the affordances of digital platforms in order to discuss, connect, and act with their peers and in their communities. In this paper, we analyze civic engagement in Scratch Online, a creative community where children from around the world learn programming by designing and sharing interactive media projects. We explore the ways that young Scratch community members connect with issues of global importance, as well as with local topics and questions of community governance. We develop a typology of the strategies they use to express themselves, engage with their peers, and call for action. We then analyze the reaction of the community, including other Scratch members and adult moderators, and draw key lessons from these examples in order to describe guidelines for educators and designers who would like to support children’s rights to civic engagement in online learning environments.

  2. Viscoelastic-Viscoplastic Modelling of the Scratch Response of PMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kermouche

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at understanding how to model the time-dependent behavior of PMMA during a scratch loading at a constant speed and at middle strain levels. A brief experimental study is first presented, consisting of the analysis of microscratches carried out at various scratching velocities and normal loads. The loading conditions have been chosen in such a way that neither (viscoelasticity nor (viscoplasticity of the PMMA may be neglected a priori. The main analyzed parameter is the tip penetration depth measured during the steady state. Then, a finite element model is used to investigate the potential of classical elastic-viscoplastic constitutive models to reproduce these experimental results. It is mainly shown that these models lead to unsatisfying results. More specifically, it is pointed out here that the time-independent Young modulus used in such models is not suitable. To take into account this feature, a viscoelastic-viscoplastic model based on the connection in series of a viscoelastic part with a viscoplastic part is proposed. It is shown that it leads to more acceptable results, which points out the importance of viscoelasticity in the scratch behavior of solid polymers.

  3. Concentration of D-dimers in healthy cats and sick cats with and without disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholen, Inger; Weingart, Christiane; Kohn, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to measure concentrations of D-dimers in 48 cats with various diseases and in 20 healthy cats to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity for D-dimers to diagnose disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The cats were classified as having DIC if an underlying disease and at least three of the following criteria were present: thrombocytopenia, prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time or thrombin time, schistocytes and/or a reduced antithrombin activity. D-dimer concentrations were measured using a semi-quantitative latex agglutination (LA) test (Accuclot D-Dimer, Sigma Diagnostics). The D-dimer test was positive for 8/12 cats with DIC and for 16/36 sick cats without DIC. D-dimers were negative for all healthy control cats. The comparison of the sick cats with DIC and those without DIC revealed a specificity and sensitivity of the D-dimer test of 56% and 67%; a comparison of the results for healthy cats and cats with DIC revealed a specificity and sensitivity of 100% and 67%, respectively. The D-dimer LA test is only of limited value for the diagnosis of DIC in cats.

  4. Disease: H01059 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ted from humans infected by dog or cat bites, scratches or licks. The infection presents as fulminant sepsis, endocarditis...ion, env_factor) Sandoe JA Capnocytophaga canimorsus endocarditis. J Med Microbiol 53:245-8 (2004) PMID:7588

  5. In vitro susceptibility of antifungal drugs against Sporothrix brasiliensis recovered from cats with sporotrichosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Gremião, Isabella Dib Ferreira; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-03-01

    Sporotrichosis is an important subcutaneous mycosis of humans and animals. Classically, the disease is acquired upon traumatic inoculation of Sporothrix propagules from contaminated soil and plant debris. In addition, the direct horizontal transmission of Sporothrix among animals and the resulting zoonotic infection in humans highlight an alternative and efficient rout of transmission through biting and scratching. Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex and is responsible for the long-lasting outbreak of feline sporotrichosis in Brazil. However, antifungal susceptibility data of animal-borne isolates is scarce. Therefore, this study evaluated the in vitro activity of amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, and ketoconazole against animal-borne isolates of S. brasiliensis. The susceptibility tests were performed through broth microdilution (M38-A2). The results show the relevant activity of itraconazole, amphotericin B, and ketoconazole against S. brasiliensis, with the following MIC ranges: 0.125-2, 0.125-4 and 0.0312-2 μg/ml, respectively. Caspofungin was moderately effective, displaying higher variation in MIC values (0.25-64 μg/ml). Voriconazole (2-64 μg/ml) and fluconazole (62.5-500 μg/ml) showed low activity against S. brasiliensis strains. This study contributed to the characterization of the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of strains of S. brasiliensis recovered from cats with sporotrichosis, which have recently been considered the main source of human infections.

  6. Prevalence Of Igg Antibodies To Encephalitozoon Cuniculi, Toxoplasma Gondii, And Sarcocystis Neurona In Domestic Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Hsing-Ho Vasha

    2010-01-01

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona are intracellular parasites that infect a wide range of mammalian host species including domestic cats. The prevalence of antibodies to these parasites in cats was examined using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay. E. cuniculi targets the kidneys of rabbits but the prevalence of disease in cats is unknown. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common cause of illness in cats. T. gondii is a widespread parasite of c...

  7. On the combined use of scratch tests and CLA profilometry for the characterization of polyester powder coatings: Influence of scratch load and speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, M.; Gisario, A.; Lusvarghi, L.; Bolelli, G.; Rubino, G.

    2008-09-01

    The prediction of the mechanical properties of polyester powder coatings is of paramount importance, as they have to undergo a wide variety of forces and deformations during their service life. Determine the response of polymeric coatings to the actual loading conditions can be, however, very troublesome as their properties are function of the material physical state, rate-dependence and yield and break behaviour. Further, the characterization of soft, contaminated organic surfaces such as polymers can often cause severe problems with reliability and imaging accuracy due to instrumental artefacts. This is therefore the context in which this paper investigates the capability of multiple parameters scratch tests joined with non-contact CLA profilometry and FE-SEM to detect the scratch response of polyester powder coatings for protective and decorative outdoor applications. Scratch tests with blunt contact geometry were used to evaluate the response of polyester coatings baked at different time-temperature programs and, so, at different stages of their curing process. In particular, being such coatings highly non-linear in their response to mechanical stress or strain, the influence from scratch load and speed was carefully taken into account. Analytical evaluations of the experimental results led to good correlations between the extent of the deformed zone after scratch, scratch parameters and curing operational settings. This allows mapping the scratch response of the polyester topcoats to broad ranges of both scratch parameters and curing conditions.

  8. Nano-scale stick-slip friction model for the chatter scratch generated by chemical mechanical polishing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Jin; Yang, Ji Chul; Yoon, Bo Un; Lee, Hyeon-Deok; Kim, Taesung

    2012-07-01

    Although Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) process is a still promising technology for the fabrication of the next generation devices, CMP-induced defects tackle further development of CMP process. In particular, even nano-sized scratches generated by CMP process kill the device directly. However mechanism of scratch formation was not clearly understood yet. CMP-induced scratches are classified as razor, chatter mark and skipping scratch. Among them, chatter mark scratch (or chatter scratch) is the most critical defect for the device yield loss. Chatter scratch has a periodic pattern of scars, which is reminiscent of a stick-slip friction pattern. Based on that similarity, stick-slip model was proposed in this paper in order to explain how chatter scratch is formed. And controlling parameters for chatter scratch are defined. During stick period the friction force that exceeds the yield strength of wafer surface makes chatter scratch and the distance between chatter marks is determined by slip period.

  9. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease: an unusual association with acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Feliciano da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, also known as histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis of unknown etiopathogenesis, is a self-limited disease which frequently appears as feverish lymphadenomegaly, thus creating the need for differential diagnosis with lymphoma, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, infectious mononucleosis, cat-scratch disease, and toxoplasmosis with lymphonodal impairment. However, there are cases in which it may evolve with complications such as aseptic meningitis, cerebellar ataxia, and aseptic myocarditis. We are presenting a case of a 24-year-old man who had an initial picture of arthralgia, evening fever and adenomegaly. Kikuchi disease was diagnosed through lymph node biopsy with immunohistochemistry and evolves with severe systemic manifestations, such as pericarditis with cardiac tamponade, pneumonitis, hepatitis, and acute kidney failure - the latter has not been reported in literature yet. There was significant improvement of the clinical picture with prednisone

  10. Tetrathyridiosis in a domestic shorthair cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Dahlem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Case summary This report describes the clinical and parasitological findings in a domestic shorthair cat with isolated thoracic tetrathyridiosis. The cat was a stray from Malta that had lived in Germany for several years since as an indoor-only cat. Therefore, the process of infection remains very unusual. In this case it must be considered that the cat had been infected years previously while in Malta, and had lived at least 4 years without any clinical signs. It was possible to diagnose this uncommon disease and initiate an effective treatment with fenbendazole, praziquantel and supportive care. Clinical signs, as well as radiographic findings, were regressive with this treatment. Relevance and novel information Tetrathyridiosis is a rare finding in cats, especially in Germany, but it seems to be a potential differential diagnosis of pleural effusion. Mesocestoides corti, which was the causative parasite in this case, has not previously been isolated in Germany. Because tetrathyridiosis is only diagnosed post mortem in most cases, little is known about effective therapeutic options. Furthermore, clinical signs of this disease can be absent for several years and can potentially be triggered by neoplastic conditions or immunosuppression. Tetrathyridiosis seems to be a treatable disease that can be controlled by adequate antiparasitic therapy.

  11. Scratch-induced microplasticity and microcracking in zirconium diboride-silicon carbide composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Dipankar [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Subhash, Ghatu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)], E-mail: subhash@ufl.edu; Radhakrishnan, Ramachandran; Sudarshan, Tirumalai S. [Materials Modification Inc. 2721-D Merrilee Dr., Fairfax, VA 22031 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    A ZrB{sub 2}-5 wt.%SiC composite, consolidated using the plasma pressure compaction technique, was subjected to scratch loads in the range of 50-250 mN using a Berkovich nanoindenter. Microstructural analysis revealed that the scratch grooves consisted of numerous slip bands oriented at random angles to the scratch direction and microcracks oriented perpendicular to the scratch direction. The observed features were rationalized using an elastic stress field due to the combined Boussinesq- and Cerruti-field solutions. The analysis revealed that maximum shear stress occurs ahead of the scratch tool whereas the maximum principal tensile stress occurs in the wake of the scratch tool. Accordingly, it was argued that the slip bands occurred first in the region ahead of the scratch tool due to maximum shear stress while the microcracks developed later due to maximum tensile stress in the wake of the scratch tool. This result was further confirmed by the existence of slip bands ahead of the scratch tip at the exit end of the scratch grooves.

  12. European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but seems to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control ...

  13. [Passive immunization in dogs and cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Michèle; Friedl, Yvonne; Hartmann, Katrin

    2016-08-17

    Antibodies play an important role in the defense against infectious diseases. Passive immunization provides immediate protection through transfer of exogenous antibodies to a recipient. It is mainly used for prophylaxis in dogs and cats that failed to receive maternal antibodies through the colostrum or when there is an acute risk to acquire infectious diseases. Only a small number of placebo-controlled studies have been published regarding the therapeutic use of passive immunization in small animals. While positive effects were reported in cats with acute virus infections of the upper respiratory tract and in dogs with distemper, no statistically significant influence could be demonstrated in the treatment of canine parvovirosis. Prospective, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled studies using adequate numbers of patients are warranted for a definitive statement regarding the therapeutic and prophylactic use of passive immunization in dogs and cats. PMID:27410719

  14. Membranous nephropathy in the cat: a clinical and pathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G; Spencer, A J; Thompson, H; Fisher, E W

    1979-07-28

    A series of 13 cases of feline membranous nephropathy is presented. Two groups were distinguished clinically; eight cats had the nephrotic syndrome and five others were in renal failure but not nephrotic. The definitive diagnosis was based on histological, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural examinations of renal tissue obtained at renal biopsy or necropsy. Glomerular lesions were classified according to the degree of glomerular change into three distinct groups; mild, moderately severe and advanced. A relationship was established between the mild and moderately severe groups and cats with the nephrotic syndrome, and the advanced group and cats in renal failure. Diuretic therapy was satisfactory in initial control of oedema in the nephrotic cases. Monitoring of previously nephrotic cats for up to three years indicated that the disease is progressive, although in some cases it is sufficiently slow for a cat to live a relatively normal life without continuing treatment. The prognosis for cats presented in renal failure is hopeless. PMID:552741

  15. Vitamin D intoxication caused by ingestion of commercial cat food in three kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Astrid; Katzenberger, Julia; Groth, Anna; Dorsch, Roswitha; Koelle, Petra; Hartmann, Katrin; Weber, Karin

    2013-08-01

    Two siblings, a 6-month-old sexually intact male weighing 2.5 kg (cat 1) and a sexually intact female (cat 2) British Shorthair cat weighing 2.3 kg, were examined because of a 3-week history of polyuria, lethargy and laboured breathing. One year previously, another sibling (cat 3) had been presented because of similar, yet more severe, clinical signs at the age of 5 months. Physical examination revealed lethargy, dehydration and polypnoea with slightly increased inspiratory effort. Diagnostic investigation revealed severe hypercalcaemia (cats 1-3), renal azotaemia (cats 1 and 3) and a radiologically generalised miliary interstitial pattern of the lungs (cats 1-3) attributable to hypervitaminosis D caused by ingestion of commercial cat food. Cat 3 was euthanased. Cats 1 and 2 were treated with isotonic saline solution (180 ml/kg IV daily), sucralfate (30 mg/kg PO q12h), terbutaline (only cat 1: 0.1 mg/kg SC q4h), furosemide (1.5 mg/kg IV q8h) and tapering doses of prednisolone. Cat 2 was normal on day 14. Cat 1 had stable renal disease and was followed up to day 672. The radiological generalised military interstitial pattern of the lungs had improved markedly. Excessive cholecalciferol-containing commercially available cat food poses a great hazard to cats. Supportive treatment may result in long-term survival and improvement of radiological pulmonary abnormalities.

  16. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  17. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  18. Resolving Schrodinger's cat

    OpenAIRE

    Hobson, Art

    2016-01-01

    Schrodinger's famous cat has long been misunderstood. According to quantum theory and experiments with entangled systems, an entangled state such as the Schrodinger's cat state is neither a superposition of states of either subsystem nor a superposition of compound states of the composite system, but rather a nonlocal superposition of correlations between pairs of states of the two subsystems. The entangled post-measurement state that results from an ideal measurement is not paradoxical, but ...

  19. Haemobartonellosis in Van Cats

    OpenAIRE

    AKKAN, Hasan Altan; Karaca, Mehmet; TÜTÜNCÜ, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine prevalence of Haemobartonella felis in Van cats. 121 Van cats (82 female, 39 male, aged 1-9 years) were the materials of the study. To determine biochemical and haematological parameters, 2 ml blood with and without anticoagulant were taken according to technique from vena cephalica antebrachii. H. felis was detected in blood smears preparations of 18 (14.88%) by Papenheim staining. Among biochemical parameters aspartate amino transferase (AST), al...

  20. Development of a scratch electrode system in high temperature high pressure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A rapid scratch electrode system in high temperature water has been built. • Repassivation kinetics of Alloy 690 was studied in high temperature water. • The slope of log i(t) vs. 1/Q(t) shows stress corrosion cracking susceptibility. - Abstract: The scratch electrode system in high temperature high pressure (HTHP) water has been built. The design temperature and design pressure of this system are 350 °C and 20 MPa respectively, and the maximum scratch speed is 3.3 m/s. By using this scratch electrode system, the repassivation kinetics of Alloy 690 in high temperature pressurized water with different dissolved hydrogen (DH) at 300 °C is studied. The research results justify that the scratch electrode system is valid and the scratch technique in HTHP water is a new effective and reliable method to study the SCC susceptibility of nuclear materials

  1. Stories from the scratch community: connecting with ideas, interests, and people

    OpenAIRE

    Resnick, Mitchel; Brennan, Karen Ann

    2013-01-01

    This special session aims to provoke discussion about new strategies for engaging young people in computer programming, drawing on experiences of educators and young people using the Scratch programming environment and online communities. The session will combine several different formats, including research presentations and analysis by two members of the team that develops and supports Scratch, short presentations and demonstrations by five educators and young people working with Scratch, a...

  2. A Simple Strategy to Start Domain Ontology from Scratch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Wolff Gersberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming the usage of Domain Ontology as an educational tool for neophyte students and focusing in a fast and easy way to start Domain Ontology from scratch, the semantics are set aside to identify contexts of concepts (terms to build the ontology. Text Mining, Link Analysis and Graph Analysis create an abstract rough sketch of interactions between terms. This first rough sketch is presented to the expert providing insights into and inspires him to inform or communicate knowledge, through assertive sentences. Those assertive sentences subsidize the creation of the ontology. A web prototype tool to visualize the ontology and retrieve book contents is also presented.

  3. A certified reference material for the scratch test

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, R.; Meneve, J.; Dyson, G.; Teer, D. G.; Jennett, N.M.; P Harris; Stebut, J. von; Comte, C.; Feuchter, P.; Cavaleiro, A; Ronkainen, H.; Holmberg, K; Beck, U.; Reiners, G.; Ingelbrecht, C. D.

    2003-01-01

    Adhesion and other mechanical behaviour of coatings is at present routinely tested in industry and research organisations using the scratch test. The test has been the subject of a European Standard prEN 1071-3:2000 established by the European Standards Committee CEN TC184 WG5. A previous European project on the development and validation of test methods for thin hard coatings--FASTE--revealed that uncertainties in the Rockwell C stylus tip shape represent a major source of error for the scra...

  4. Nanocomposite TiSiBC Hard Coatings with High Resistance to Wear, Fracture and Scratching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, P.; Nyati, G.; Singh, R. J.; Mishra, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    The sliding wear under fretting condition, scratch adhesion, deformation behavior during micro- and nanoscratch studies have been studied for nanocomposite TiSiBC hard coating deposited on steel substrate by magnetron sputtering. The nanocomposite coatings having hardness and modulus around 30 and 300 GPa, respectively, showed a very significant decrease in fretting wear as compared to the uncoated steel. Pileup occurred along the sides of the scratch track due to plastic deformation of the substrate at the scratch load; however, cracks were not seen in films. The coefficient of friction remained scratch, higher wear resistance, higher toughness and low coefficient of friction.

  5. Irregular Firing and High-Conductance States in Spinal Motoneurons during Scratching and Swimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzulaitis, Robertas; Hounsgaard, Jorn; Alaburda, Aidas

    2016-01-01

    in general. Here we compare conductance and firing patterns in spinal motoneurons during network activity for scratching and swimming in an ex vivo carapace-spinal cord preparation from adult turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). The pattern and relative engagement of motoneurons are distinctly different...... in scratching and swimming. Nevertheless, we found increased synaptic fluctuations in membrane potential, irregular firing, and increased conductance in spinal motoneurons during scratch and swim network activity. Our finding indicates that intense synaptic activation of motoneurons is a general feature...... not only during scratching but also during swimming. Our findings suggest that irregular firing and high-conductance states could be a general feature for motor behaviors....

  6. Scratch resistance anisotropy in biaxially oriented polypropylene and poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, H.-Y.; Walzak, M. J.; McIntyre, N. S.

    2006-12-01

    Using a diamond-tipped stylus, scratch tests were conducted on biaxially oriented polypropylene and poly(ethylene terephthalate) films in the two draw directions, i.e., the machine-direction (MD) and the transverse-direction (TD) along which the draw ratios are different. Atomic force microscopy study of those scratches revealed a significant anisotropy in the scratch resistance between the MD and TD for both of the polymer films. We confirmed that the scratch resistance of polymer strands is closely related to the draw ratios, which determine the mechanical strength and optical clarity of biaxially oriented polymer films.

  7. Management of obesity in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelmkjaer KM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten M Hoelmkjaer, Charlotte R Bjornvad Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Obesity is a common nutritional disorder in cats, especially when they are neutered and middle-aged. Obesity predisposes cats to several metabolic and clinical disorders, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, lameness, and skin disease. Prevention and treatment of obesity is therefore of great importance in veterinary practice. Correct assessment of body composition is important for recognizing early states of obesity and for monitoring success of weight-loss programs. Various methods for assessing body composition have been proposed, of which a 9-point body-condition score has been validated in cats, and is possibly the most simple to use in the clinic; however, for extremely obese individuals, it is less useful. When calculating the appropriate daily caloric intake for a weight-loss plan, the aim is to maintain a safe weight-loss rate, increasing the chance of preserving lean body mass and decreasing the risk of developing hepatic lipidosis, while also producing a sufficient weight-loss rate to keep owners motivated. A weight-loss rate of 0.5%–2% per week is recommended, which for a cat that needs to lose 3 kg body weight results in an anticipated time for reaching the target weight of 24–60 weeks. There are several purpose-made weight-loss diets available. The optimal composition of a weight-loss diet for cats is unknown, but most of the available products have lower caloric density, an increased nutrient:energy ratio, and higher protein and fiber content. Regular follow-up visits allow the caloric intake to be adjusted based on progress, and possibly increase the chance of success. This review discusses the risk factors for and consequences of obesity, and gives directions for formulating a weight-loss plan, including daily caloric

  8. Avian Influenza H5N1 in Naturally Infected Domestic Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Songserm, Thaweesak; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Jam-on, Rungroj; Sae-Heng, Namdee; Meemak, Noppadol; Pariyothorn, Nuananong; Payungporn, Sunchai; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2006-01-01

    We report H5N1 virus infection in a domestic cat infected by eating a pigeon carcass. The virus isolated from the pigeon and the cat showed the same cluster as the viruses obtained during the outbreak in Thailand. Since cats are common house pets, concern regarding disease transmission to humans exists.

  9. Radiographic and 2-D echocardiographic findings in eighteen cats experimentally exposed to D. immitis via mosquito bites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen cats were exposed to Dirofilaria immitis infected mosquitoes. Thoracic radiography was performed prior to exposure and at 5, 7, and 9 month intervals following exposure. Immunologic testing for adult heartworm antigen was performed on days 168, 195, 210, 224, 237, 254 and 271 post infection. Necropsies were performed on all cats. Adult heartworms were found in 61% of the exposed cats. Radiographic findings in heartworm positive cats included bronchointerstitial lung disease, lobar pulmonary arterial enlargement and pulmonary hyperinflation. In most heartworm positive cats, lobar arterial enlargement resolved as the disease progressed while pulmonary hyperinflation progressively became more common. Pulmonary patterns in heartworm positive cats remained abnormal throughout the study while abnormal pulmonary patterns resolved in over 50% of the heartworm negative cats. Cardiomegaly was seen in less than 50% of the cats with adult heartworms at necropsy. This study suggests that the radiographic appearance of heartworm disease is variable and radiographic changes are dependent on the time post infection at which cats are evaluated. Echocardiographic examinations were randomly performed on 16 of 18 cats. Heartworms were identified in 7 cats. No false positive identifications were made. Persistent pulmonary disease accompanied by resolving vascular disease in heartworm cats with pulmonary hyperinflation may be difficult to distinguish from cats with feline allergic lung. Echocardiograms may be helpful in identifying adult heartworms in cats in which the radiographic signs or immunodiagnostic data are insufficient to provide a diagnosis

  10. Adhesion scratch testing - A round-robin experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, A. J.; Valli, J.; Steinmann, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Six sets of samples, TiN coated by chemical or physical vapor deposition methods (CVD or PVD) onto cemented carbide or high-speed steel (HSS), and TiC coated by CVD onto cemented carbide have been scratch tested using three types of commercially available scratch adhesion tester. With exception of one cemented carbide set, the reproducibility of the critical loads for any given set with a given stylus is excellent, about + or - 5 percent, and is about + or - 20 percent for different styli. Any differences in critical loads recorded for any given sample set can be attributed to the condition of the stylus (clean, new, etc.), the instrument used, the stylus itself (friction coefficient, etc.), and the sample set itself. One CVD set showed remarkably large differences in critical loads for different styli, which is thought to be related to a mechanical interaction between stylus and coating which is enhanced by a plastic deformability in the film related to the coating microstructure. The critical load for TiN on HSS increases with coating thickness, and differences in frictional conditions led to a systematic variation in the critical loads depending on the stylus used.

  11. Subsurface Damage in Scratch Testing of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ben; WU Dongjiang; GAO Hang; KANG Renke; GUO Dongming

    2009-01-01

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) is an important electro-optic crystal, often used for frequency conversion and Pockels cells in large aperture laser systems. To investigate the influence of anisotropy to the depth of subsurface damage and the profiles of cracks in subsurface of KDP crystal, an experimental study was made to obtain the form of subsurface damage produced by scratches on KDP crystal in [100], [120] and [110] crystal directions on (001) crystal plane. The results indicated that there were great differences between depth and crack shape in different directions. For many slip planes in KDP, the plastic deformation and cracks generated under pressure in the subsurfacewerecomplex. Fluctuations of subsurface damage depth at transition point were attributed to the deformation of the surface which consumed more energy when the surface deformation changed from the mixed region of brittle and plastic to the complete brittle region along the scratch. Also, the process of subsurface damage from shallow to deep, from dislocation to big crack in KDP crystal with the increase of radial force and etch pit on different crystal plane were obtained. Because crystallographic orientation and processing orientation was different, etching pits on (100) crystal plane were quadrilateral while on (110) plane and (120) plane were trapezoidal and triangular, respectively.

  12. [Treatment of inter-specific aggression in cats with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprauer, S

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the redirected, inter-specific aggression of a Maine Coon cat, which was principally directed towards the owners. The cat reacted towards different, nonspecific sounds with abrupt aggressive behaviour and injured the victims at this juncture with moderate scratching and biting. Exclusively using behaviour therapy did not achieve the desired result, thus the therapy was supported with pharmaceuticals. The cat orally received the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluvoxamine at an initial dosage of 0.5mg/kg BW once daily. After 4 weeks the application rate was increased to 1.0 mg/kg BW once daily. The medication did not cause any side effects. Together with the behaviour-modulating therapy, carried out parallel to the medication therapy, the aggressive behaviour problem of the cat was resolved. After administration for a period of 63 weeks the fluvoxamine therapy was discontinued by gradually reducing the dose without recurrence of the aggressive behaviour. PMID:23242225

  13. Relationship between Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine Concentration and Glomerular Filtration Rate in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Braff, J.; Obare, E.; Elliott, J.; Yerramilli, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Direct measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the preferred method to assess renal function in cats, but it is not widely used in the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In cats with CKD, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) has been shown to increase and to correlate with plasma creatinine concentrations. Hypothesis In cats, reduced GFR corresponds with increased serum SDMA concentration. Animals The study group consisted of ten client‐owned cats whose GFR had been...

  14. Survey of Helicobacter infection in domestic and feral cats in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Ghil, Heh-Myung; Yoo, Jong-Hyeon; Jung, Woo-Sung; CHUNG, Tae-Ho; Youn, Hwa-Young; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2009-01-01

    Discovery of Helicobacter (H.) pylori has led to a fundamental change in our understanding of gastric diseases in humans. Previous studies have found various Helicobacter spp. in dogs and cats, and pets have been questioned as a zoonotic carrier. The present study surveyed the Helicobacter infections and investigated the presence of H. felis and H. pylori infections in domestic and feral cats in Korea. Sixty-four domestic cats and 101 feral cats were selected from an animal shelter. Saliva an...

  15. Ultrasonographic features of intestinal adenocarcinoma in five cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenocarcinoma, followed by lymphosarcoma, are the most common feline intestinal neoplasms. Clinicopathological, survey radiographic, and ultrasonographic findings of five cats with intestinal adenocarcinoma are reported. An abdominal mass was palpable in all five cats, but the mass could be localized to bowel in only two cats. Radiographically an abdominal mass was detected in only one cat. Ultrasonographically there was a segmental intestinal mural mass in all five cats. The mass was characterized by circumferential bowel wall thickening with transmural loss of normal sonographic wall layers. In one cat, the circumferential symmetric hypoechoic bowel wall thickening was similar to that reported for segmental lymphoma. In the other four cats, the sonographic features of the thickened bowel wall were varied, being mixed echogenicity and asymmetric in 3 cats and mixed echogenicity and symmetric in one. The results of the present report suggest that sonographic observation of mixed echogenicity segmental intestinal wall thickening in the cat represents adenocarcinoma rather than lymphosarcoma, although other infiltrative diseases should be considered

  16. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems. PMID:15998496

  17. Cat infected by a variant of bat rabies virus in a 29-year disease-free urban area of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Midori Morikawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: After 29 years, rabies was detected in a cat in Curitiba, southern Brazil. METHODS: The fluorescent antibody test (FAT and mouse inoculation test (MIT were performed on central nervous system (CNS samples. RESULTS: Direct immunofluorescence was negative, but the biological test was positive and rabies virus was characterized as variant 4 (from Tadarida brasiliensis. CONCLUSIONS: Reappearance of rabies in domestic animals warns of sylvatic-aerial risk of infection and the necessity of monitoring bats in historically rabies-free areas.

  18. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  19. Molecular typing of Sporothrix schenckii isolates from cats in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Okubo, Miki; Siew, Han Hock; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological data on the aetiologic agents of feline sporotrichosis in Malaysia have not been reported, though human sporotrichosis in Malaysia is reported to be transmitted primarily via cat scratch. To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first study of the molecular epidemiology of Sporothrix schenckii isolates from cats with sporotrichosis in Malaysia. In the present work, we characterised 18 clinical isolates from cats in Malaysia based on molecular properties, including sequence analyses of the calmodulin gene and the rDNA ITS region and selective PCR of mating type (MAT) loci. In this study, isolates from feline sporotrichosis were identified as a S. schenckii sensu stricto by sequence analyses of the calmodulin gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Notably, phylogenetic analysis of the ITS confirmed assignment to clinical clade D (and not C) of S. schenckii sensu stricto. Therefore, clinical clade D of S. schenckii sensu stricto appeared to be the prevailing source of feline sporotrichosis in Malaysia. The ratio of MAT1-1-1:MAT1-2-1 in these Malaysian isolates was found to be 1 : 0. This result suggested that a clonal strain of S. schenckii is the prevailing causative agent of feline sporotrichosis in Malaysia.

  20. Using Scratch: An Integrated Problem-Solving Approach to Mathematical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    "Scratch" is a media-rich digital environment that utilises a building block command structure to manipulate graphic, audio, and video aspects. It incorporates elements of Logo including "tinkerability" in the programming process. In "Scratch" students use geometric and measurement concepts such as coordinates, angle, and length measurements. It…

  1. Effects of Annotations and Homework on Learning Achievement: An Empirical Study of Scratch Programming Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Addison Y. S.; Huang, Chester S. J.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Ding, T. J.; Hsieh, Y. Z.

    2015-01-01

    In Taiwan elementary schools, Scratch programming has been taught for more than four years. Previous studies have shown that personal annotations is a useful learning method that improve learning performance. An annotation-based Scratch programming (ASP) system provides for the creation, share, and review of annotations and homework solutions in…

  2. A method for predicting critical load evaluating adhesion of coatings in scratch testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xi-fang(陈溪芳); YAN Mi(严密); YANG De-ren(杨德人); HIROSE Yukio

    2003-01-01

    In this paper based on the experiment principle of evaluating adhesion property by scratch testing, the peeling mechanism of thin films is discussed by applying contact theory and surface physics theory. A mathematical model predicting the critical load is proposed for calculating critical load as determined by scratch testing. The factors for correctly evaluating adhesion of coatings according to the experimental data are discussed.

  3. Scratch Hardness and Wear Performance of Laser-Melted Steels : Effects of Anisotropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurs, H. de; Minholts, G.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1989-01-01

    Effects of the orientation of dendrites on the scratch hardness and wear performance of laser-melted steels have been investigated. Scratch experiments have been carried out with a Vickers indenter and wear experiments with a pin-on-disk tester. The deformed structure is investigated, using transmis

  4. Scratching around stress: hierarchy and reconciliation make the difference in wild brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagi, Elisabetta; Norscia, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    The scratching-stress linkage has been demonstrated in monkeys and apes but never in strepsirrhines, either in the wild or in captivity. We analysed data collected on a 14-animal group of Eulemur fulvus in the Berenty forest (South Madagascar, March-July 2008). We applied a protocol (same weather conditions, time slot, social/activity context, forest quadrat, and subgroup formation) involving four conditions, under which we recorded the scratching response: predation attempt, reconciled conflict, non-reconciled conflict, and control. We found that the scratching-stress linkage remains valid in strepsirrhines. Scratching increased after predatory attacks by the hawk Polyboroides radiatus and intra-group aggressions and decreased after reconciliation, probably buffering post-conflict stress. Scratching negatively correlated with the linear hierarchy, but only in the absence of stressful events. Compared to aggressions, predation attempts induced a greater increase in scratching, with dominants showing the highest differential increase. Thus, scratching is sensitive to different kinds of homeostasis perturbation (predation/aggression) and does not simply provide all-or-nothing information. Following a theoretical framework based on previous cortisol analyses, we showed that scratching and hormonal data converge in indicating that the stress profile of a species is shaped by its social network features.

  5. ServCat Sensitivity Guidelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This guide covers sensitivity in ServCat. This document provides technical guidance on how sensitivity fields work in ServCat, and provides suggestions on what...

  6. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5% recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program.

  7. Deformation of SS 304 LN during Scratch Test and Influence on Evolution of Coefficient of Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satender Kataria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An AISI 304 LN nuclear grade forged, metallographically polished specimen was subjected to progressive load scratch tests using a spheroconical indenter at three different scratch speeds 1, 3, and 27 mm/min. The present study attempts to address the evolution of coefficient of friction with scratch speed invoking its correlation with scratch induced deformation in the specimen. At higher scratch speeds, plastic deformation rates were higher which caused friction coefficient to be of higher magnitude. This was correlated with dynamically obtained high resolution optical images that revealed deformation driven microstructural alterations. These alterations significantly influenced the evolution of friction coefficient which was intimately related to plasticity of the surface.

  8. Optically transparent, scratch-resistant, diamond-like carbon coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Ming; Lee, Deok-Hyung; Nastasi, Michael A.; Walter, Kevin C.; Tuszewski, Michel G.

    2003-06-03

    A plasma-based method for the deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings is described. The process uses a radio-frequency inductively coupled discharge to generate a plasma at relatively low gas pressures. The deposition process is environmentally friendly and scaleable to large areas, and components that have geometrically complicated surfaces can be processed. The method has been used to deposit adherent 100-400 nm thick DLC coatings on metals, glass, and polymers. These coatings are between three and four times harder than steel and are therefore scratch resistant, and transparent to visible light. Boron and silicon doping of the DLC coatings have produced coatings having improved optical properties and lower coating stress levels, but with slightly lower hardness.

  9. Scratch,想说爱你很容易

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾忠良

    2011-01-01

    机房里,可爱的小黄猫在屏幕上快乐地跃动。时进时退,时快时慢。那奶声奶气的猫叫声,让人心情大好。机房里竟然有猫叫,没搞错吧?不要疑惑,这就是Scratch的神奇了。这个来自麻省理工学院的编程软件,脱去了编程神秘的外衣,增添了搭积木般的快乐。与她亲密接触了一段时间的孩子们,都会不由自主地说,Scratch,想说爱你很容易!

  10. Simulation of SU-8 frequency-driven scratch drive actuators

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso, David

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the simulation of Scratch Drive Actuators (SDAs) for micro-robotic applications. SDAs use electrostatic forces to generate motion on top of an interdigitated electrode array. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate several design geometries and micro-actuator configurations using ConventorWare®\\'s finite element analysis module. The study performed investigates the SDAs modal and electrostatic behavior and the effects of linking two or more SDAs together in a microrobot device. In addition, the interdigitated electrode array performance, used for power delivery, was studied by changing the thickness of its dielectric layer. We present our observations based on these studies, which will aid in the understanding and development of future SDA designs. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Development of untethered SU-8 polymer scratch drive microrobots

    KAUST Repository

    Valencia, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design, simulation, fabrication and testing of novel, untethered SU-8 polymer microrobots based on scratch drive actuators (SDAs). The design consists of two 100×120×10μm linked SDAs, individually operated close to their resonant frequencies. The resonant frequency and deflection behavior of an individual SDA can be controlled by its shape, thickness, and stiffening design features. As a result, paired SDAs can be actuated individually or simultaneously by a multifrequency driving signal, allowing for two-dimensional displacement. The fabrication process uses SU-8 as structural material and PMGI as sacrificial material. The SU-8 provides a flexible material for the SDA\\'s plates as well as the bushing. Finally, a Cr/Au layer is blanket deposited to provide electrical conductivity.

  12. Standardization of a Volumetric Displacement Measurement for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, K. W. Jr.; Kobrick, R. L.; Klaus, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    A limitation has been identified in the existing test standards used for making controlled, two-body abrasion scratch measurements based solely on the width of the resultant score on the surface of the material. A new, more robust method is proposed for analyzing a surface scratch that takes into account the full three-dimensional profile of the displaced material. To accomplish this, a set of four volume- displacement metrics was systematically defined by normalizing the overall surface profile to denote statistically the area of relevance, termed the Zone of Interaction. From this baseline, depth of the trough and height of the plowed material are factored into the overall deformation assessment. Proof-of-concept data were collected and analyzed to demonstrate the performance of this proposed methodology. This technique takes advantage of advanced imaging capabilities that allow resolution of the scratched surface to be quantified in greater detail than was previously achievable. When reviewing existing data analysis techniques for conducting two-body abrasive scratch tests, it was found that the ASTM International Standard G 171 specified a generic metric based only on visually determined scratch width as a way to compare abraded materials. A limitation to this method was identified in that the scratch width is based on optical surface measurements, manually defined by approximating the boundaries, but does not consider the three-dimensional volume of material that was displaced. With large, potentially irregular deformations occurring on softer materials, it becomes unclear where to systematically determine the scratch width. Specifically, surface scratches on different samples may look the same from a top view, resulting in an identical scratch width measurement, but may vary in actual penetration depth and/or plowing deformation. Therefore, two different scratch profiles would be measured as having identical abrasion properties, although they differ

  13. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School ... Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  14. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System ... Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  15. Chemodectoma in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 10-year-old, spayed female, domestic shorthair cat was presented for evaluation of a thoracic mass. Radiographs demonstrated a 4 by 5-cm mass dorsal to the heart. Cytology of specimens obtained by ultrasound-guided needle aspiration was compatible with a neuroendocrine tumor. Scintigraphy, thoracic exploratory, and histology were used to identify the mass as an aortic body chemodectoma

  16. Coxofemoral luxations in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a retrospective study, 79 untreated luxations of the coxofemoral joint in cats were recorded over a 12-year period. Twenty-nine of these cases were available for follow-up, of which 13 were re-examined clinically and radiologically. It was found that the maximum incidence of the injury occurred from one to three years of age. Follow-up radiographs showed that the cats had developed nearthroses of various degrees located dorsally on the ilium. The degree of nearthrosis formation was not consistently correlated with the length of the observation time. Radiological signs of decreased bone density of the proximal femur may be caused by reduced weightbearing related to changes in biomechanical function and altered blood supply in the luxated limb. Almost two-thirds of the re-examined animals presented some kind of locomotor dysfunction on clinical examination. Limb function improved with time. The best clinical results appeared to be in cats that were immature at the time of injury and developed nearthrosis similar to a normal coxofemoral joint. All the cats available to this study showed acceptable functional results and had a normal level of activity according to the owners

  17. Oligopsonistic Cats and Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Dewit, Dr. Gerda; Leahy, Dr. Dermot

    2005-01-01

    We study the strategic investment behaviour of oligopsonistic rivals in the labour market. Under wage competition, firms play "puppy dog" with productivityaugmenting investment and "fat cat" with supply-enhancing investment. Under employment competition, investing strategically always involves playing "top dog".

  18. The Fishing Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅飞; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 A cat goes fishing every day. He wants to eat fish, but he can't catch any fish. One day, he goes to the river as usual. Suddenly, a fish comes out. He catches the fish and putsthe fish in the basket. He's very happy, but he forgest to put the lid on the basket.

  19. Membranous nephropathy in sibling cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G

    1983-08-20

    Membranous nephropathy was diagnosed in two sibling cats from the same household. Both cases presented with the nephrotic syndrome but 33 months elapsed before the second cat became ill, by which time the first cat had been in full clinical remission for over a year. PMID:6623883

  20. Clinicopathological and ultrasonographic features of cats with eosinophilic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Samuel; Penninck, Dominique G; Keating, John H; Webster, Cynthia R L

    2014-12-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis (EE) in cats is poorly characterized. The aim of the current study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic findings in cats with histologic evidence of eosinophilic inflammation on gastrointestinal biopsy. Twenty-five cats with tissue eosinophilia on surgical (10) or endoscopic (15) biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract, having an abdominal ultrasound performed within 48 h of biopsy acquisition, were enrolled. History, clinical presentation, clinical pathology and abdominal ultrasound findings were reviewed. Intestinal biopsies were evaluated by a single pathologist and separated into two groups based on the degree of eosinophilic infiltrate: mild (cats), or moderate/marked (>10 eosinophils/HPF, 14/25 cats). The former were considered primary lymphoplasmacytic or lymphocytic inflammatory bowel disease (LPE) with subtle eosinophilic infiltrates, and the latter to have EE. Signalment, history and clinical signs were similar in all cats. Only cats with EE (6/14) had palpably thickened intestines. The only distinguishing clinicopathological feature of cats with EE was the presence of peripheral eosinophilia (6/14). On ultrasound, when compared with cats with LPE, cats with EE had a greater mean jejunal wall thickness (3.34 mm ± 0.72 mm vs 4.07 mm ± 0.58 mm, respectively) and an increased incidence of thickening of the muscularis layer (1/11 and 11/14, respectively). In conclusion, ultrasonographic evidence of a prominent intestinal muscularis layer, palpably thickened intestines and peripheral eosinophilia can serve as biomarkers for the presence of EE in cats with chronic intestinal signs.

  1. The Cat nRules

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2004-01-01

    The nRules that are developed in another paper are applied to two versions of the Schrodinger cat experiment. In version I the initially conscious cat is made unconscious by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In version II the initially unconscious cat is awakened by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In both cases an observer is permitted to check the statues of the cat at any time during the experiment. In all cases the nRules correctly and unambiguously predict the conscious experience of the cat and the observer. Keywords: brain states of observer, stochastic choice, state reduction, wave collapse.

  2. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome.

  3. Evaluation of the scratch collapse test for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanji, H S; Becker, S J E; Mudgal, C S; Jupiter, J B; Ring, D

    2014-02-01

    This prospective study measured and compared the diagnostic performance characteristics of various clinical signs and physical examination manoeuvres for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), including the scratch collapse test. Eighty-eight adult patients that were prescribed electrophysiological testing to diagnose CTS were enrolled in the study. Attending surgeons documented symptoms and results of standard clinical manoeuvres. The scratch collapse test had a sensitivity of 31%, which was significantly lower than the sensitivity of Phalen's test (67%), Durkan's test (77%), Tinel's test (43%), CTS-6 lax (88%), and CTS-6 stringent (54%). The scratch test had a specificity of 61%, which was significantly lower than the specificity of thenar atrophy (96%) and significantly higher than the specificity of Durkan's test (18%) and CTS-6 lax (13%). The sensitivity of the scratch collapse test was not superior to other clinical signs and physical examination manoeuvers for CTS, and the specificity of the scratch collapse test was superior to that of Durkan's test and CTS-6 lax. Further studies should seek to limit the influence of a patient's clinical presentation on scratch test performance and assess the scratch test's inter-rater reliability.

  4. Crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics by the scratch test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhongjun; Liu, Congcong; Wang, Haorong; Yang, Xue; Fang, Fengzhou; Tang, Junjie

    2016-12-01

    To eliminate the negative effects of surface flaws and subsurface damage of glass-ceramics on clinical effectiveness, crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics were studied by single and double scratch experiments conducted using an ultra-precision machine. A self-manufactured pyramid shaped single-grit tool with a small tip radius was used as the scratch tool. The surface and subsurface crack propagations and interactions, surface morphology and material removal mechanism were investigated. The experimental results showed that the propagation of lateral cracks to the surface and the interaction between the lateral cracks and radial cracks are the two main types of material peeling, and the increase of the scratch depth increases the propagation angle of the radial cracks and the interaction between the cracks. In the case of a double scratch, the propagation of lateral cracks and radial cracks between paired scratches results in material peeling. The interaction between adjacent scratches depends on the scratch depth and separation distance. There is a critical separation distance where the normalized material removal volume reaches its peak. These findings can help reduce surface flaws and subsurface damage induced by the grinding process and improve the clinical effectiveness of glass-ceramics used as biological substitute and repair materials.

  5. Evaluation of the scratch collapse test for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanji, H S; Becker, S J E; Mudgal, C S; Jupiter, J B; Ring, D

    2014-02-01

    This prospective study measured and compared the diagnostic performance characteristics of various clinical signs and physical examination manoeuvres for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), including the scratch collapse test. Eighty-eight adult patients that were prescribed electrophysiological testing to diagnose CTS were enrolled in the study. Attending surgeons documented symptoms and results of standard clinical manoeuvres. The scratch collapse test had a sensitivity of 31%, which was significantly lower than the sensitivity of Phalen's test (67%), Durkan's test (77%), Tinel's test (43%), CTS-6 lax (88%), and CTS-6 stringent (54%). The scratch test had a specificity of 61%, which was significantly lower than the specificity of thenar atrophy (96%) and significantly higher than the specificity of Durkan's test (18%) and CTS-6 lax (13%). The sensitivity of the scratch collapse test was not superior to other clinical signs and physical examination manoeuvers for CTS, and the specificity of the scratch collapse test was superior to that of Durkan's test and CTS-6 lax. Further studies should seek to limit the influence of a patient's clinical presentation on scratch test performance and assess the scratch test's inter-rater reliability. PMID:23855039

  6. Feline leukaemia virus and its clinical effects in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, L

    1975-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection is common among cats where contact is high. The virus can be transmitted readily between cats. It causes a variety of haemopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms; the most common types are alimentary, multicentric and thymic lymphosarcoma and lymphatic leukaemia. The virus is involved in the aetiology of certain other diseases including anaemia, glomerulonephritis and an immunosuppressive syndrome which predisposes cats to intercurrent infections. Many infected cats mount an immune response and do not suffer from any of these. The immune status is shown by serum antibody levels to feline leukaemia virus associated cell membrane antigens. Cats with a titre of 32 or more are most unlikely to suffer any ill effects and may eliminate the virus infection. The outcome of infection in an individual cat depends on the immunological competence of the cat, the dose of virus received and its ability to induce immunosuppression. FeLV infection can be detected by examination of tissues by electron microscopy, and by culture of virus from plasma and other tissues. In the United States, a method is now in use for the detection of leukaemia virus antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes; this is carried out on ordinary blood films. Successful prototype vaccines have been developed against FeLV. This paper describes the natural history of the virus, the diseases in which it is implicated and discusses recently developed diagnostic methods. PMID:163515

  7. Systematic review of ground reaction force measurements in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabl, E; Bockstahler, B

    2015-10-01

    Although orthopaedic abnormalities in cats are frequently observed radiographically, they remain clinically underdiagnosed, and kinetic motion analysis, a fundamental aspect of orthopaedic research in dogs and horses, is not commonly performed. More information obtained with non-invasive measurement techniques to assess normal and abnormal gait in cats would provide a greater insight into their locomotion and biomechanics and improve the objective measurement of disease alterations and treatment modalities. In this systematic review, 12 previously performed studies that investigated ground reaction force measurements in cats during locomotion were evaluated. The aims of these studies, the measurement methods and equipment used, and the outcomes of parameters used to assess both sound and diseased cats are summarised and discussed. All reviewed studies used pressure sensitive walkways to gain data and all provided an acclimatisation period as a prerequisite for measurements. In sound cats during walking, the forelimb peak vertical force was greater than in the hindlimb and the peak vertical force in the hindlimb was greater in cats than in dogs. This review confirms that ground reaction forces can be used to evaluate lameness and treatment effects in the cat. PMID:26118478

  8. Validation of Proposed Metrics for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Analysis Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate a set of standardized metrics proposed for characterizing a surface that has been scratched from a two-body abrasion test. This is achieved by defining a new abrasion region termed Zone of Interaction (ZOI). The ZOI describes the full surface profile of all peaks and valleys, rather than just measuring a scratch width as currently defined by the ASTM G 171 Standard. The ZOI has been found to be at least twice the size of a standard width measurement, in some cases considerably greater, indicating that at least half of the disturbed surface area would be neglected without this insight. The ZOI is used to calculate a more robust data set of volume measurements that can be used to computationally reconstruct a resultant profile for detailed analysis. Documenting additional changes to various surface roughness parameters also allows key material attributes of importance to ultimate design applications to be quantified, such as depth of penetration and final abraded surface roughness. Data are presented to show that different combinations of scratch tips and abraded materials can actually yield the same scratch width, but result in different volume displacement or removal measurements and therefore, the ZOI method is more discriminating than the ASTM method scratch width. Furthermore, by investigating the use of custom scratch tips for our specific needs, the usefulness of having an abrasion metric that can measure the displaced volume in this standardized manner, and not just by scratch width alone, is reinforced. This benefit is made apparent when a tip creates an intricate contour having multiple peaks and valleys within a single scratch. This work lays the foundation for updating scratch measurement standards to improve modeling and characterization of three-body abrasion test results.

  9. The Cheshire Cat revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Vento, V

    1998-01-01

    The concept of effective field theory leads in a natural way to a construction principle for phenomenological sensible models known under the name of the Cheshire Cat Principle. We review its formulation in the chiral bag scenario and discuss its realization for the flavor singlet axial charge. Quantum effects inside the chiral bag induce a color anomaly which requires a compensating surface term to prevent breakdown of color gauge invariance. The presence of this surface term allows one to derive in a gauge-invariant way a chiral-bag version of the Shore-Veneziano two-component formula for the flavor-singlet axial charge of the proton. We show that one can obtain a striking Cheshire-Cat phenomenon with a negligibly small singlet axial charge.

  10. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bar...

  11. Material Removal and Specific Energy in the Dynamic Scratching of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Lin, H.-T.; Wereszczak, A.A.

    2006-11-30

    Mechanical responses of three gamma titanium aluminides (TiAls) (denoted as Alloy A, Alloy B and Alloy C) subjected to dynamic scratching were studied by using a single-grit pendulum (rotating) scratch tester. The maximum depth of groove was {approx} 0.07 mm, and the scratch velocity was {approx} 1.0 m/s. Normal and tangential forces were monitored. The material removal mechanisms were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the scratches were measured by using a laser profilometer. The mechanical properties of the tested TiAls were characterized by the instantaneous specific energy, scratch resistance and scratch hardness as related to the groove depth. Extensive thermal softening was observed in the dynamic scratch test of the TiAls, which facilitated both the detachment of developing chips and pile-up of material on side ridges. Sizable fractures were observed in the transverse direction in the tested TiAls; these fractures tended to participate in the chip formation, depending on the microstructure of the TiAl and the size of the scratch groove. Specific energy and scratch hardness are depth-dependent to various degrees for the TiAls tested. The material removal might be subjected to different mechanisms, but the overall material response can be effectively characterized by the HEM (Hwang, Evans and Malkin) model and the PSR (proportional specimen resistance) model. The depth-independent specific energy and scratch hardness can be used to screen candidate materials for the applications that are scratch-dominated versus impact-dominated. Among the three tested TiAls, the TiAl with larger colony or grain size exhibits a stronger capability of energy dissipation during material removal (higher depth-independent specific energy), while the TiAl with smaller colony size shows a higher resistance to indentation (higher depth-independent scratch hardness). The observations and conclusions in this study can serve as a base line for the further

  12. Material Removal and Specific Energy in the Dynamic Scratching of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL

    2006-11-01

    Mechanical responses of three gamma titanium aluminides (TiAls) (denoted as Alloy A, Alloy B and Alloy C) subjected to dynamic scratching were studied by using a single-grit pendulum (rotating) scratch tester. The maximum depth of groove was ~ 0.07 mm, and the scratch velocity used was ~ 1.0 m/s. Normal and tangential forces were monitored. The material removal mechanisms were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the scratches were measured by using a laser profilometer. The mechanical properties of the tested TiAls were characterized by the instantaneous specific energy, scratch resistance and scratch hardness as related to the depth of groove. Extensive thermal softening was observed in the dynamic scratch of the tested TiAls, which facilitated both the detachments of developing chips and the pile-ups of materials on side ridges. Sizable fractures were observed in the transverse direction on the tested TiAls; these fractures tended to participate in the chip formation, depending on the microstructure of the TiAl and the size of the scratch groove. Specific energy and scratch hardness are depth-dependent to various degrees for the tested TiAls. The materiel removal might be subjected to different mechanisms, but the overall response of materials can be effectively characterized by the HEM (Hwang, Evans and Malkin) model and the PSR (proportional specimen resistance) model. The obtained depth-independent specific energy and scratch hardness can be used to screen the candidate materials for the specific purpose depending on whether the application is scratch-dominant or impact-dominant. Among the three tested TiAls, the TiAl with larger colony or grain size exhibits a stronger capability of energy dissipation in the material loss or material removal (higher depth-independent specific energy), while the TiAl with smaller colony size show a higher resistance against the indentation (higher depth-independent scratch hardness). The observations and

  13. Increased activity of pre-motor network does not change the excitability of motoneurons during protracted scratch initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzulaitis, Robertas; Alaburda, Aidas; Hounsgaard, Jørn Dybkjær

    2013-01-01

    of their intrinsic excitability. Here we employed an experimental paradigm of protracted scratch initiation in the integrated carapace-spinal cord preparation of adult turtles (Chrysemys scripta elegans). The protracted initiation of scratch network activity allows us to investigate the excitability of motoneurons...... and pre-motor network activity in the time interval from the start of sensory stimulation until the onset of scratch activity. Our results suggest that increased activity in the pre-motor network facilitates the onset of scratch episodes but does not change the excitability of motoneurons at the onset...... of scratching....

  14. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF TOOTH RESORPTION IN CATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Linda G; Wilkinson, Thomas E; White, Tammy L; Farnsworth, Raelynn K; Potter, Kathleen A

    2016-09-01

    Tooth resorption is the most common dental disease in cats and can be a source of oral pain. The current clinical gold standard for diagnosis includes a combination of oral exam and dental radiography, however early lesions are not always detected. Computed tomography (CT) of the skull, including the dental arches, is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure, however the appearance of tooth resorption on CT and the diagnostic ability of CT to detect tooth resorption have not been evaluated. The purpose of this prospective, descriptive, diagnostic accuracy study was to characterize the CT appearance of tooth resorption in a sample of affected cats and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CT for tooth resorption compared to the clinical gold standard of oral exam and intraoral dental radiography. Twenty-eight cat cadaver specimens were recruited for inclusion. Each specimen was evaluated using oral exam, intraoral dental radiography, and computed tomography (four different slice thicknesses). Each tooth was evaluated for the presence or absence of tooth resorption. Teeth with lesions and a subset of normal teeth were evaluated with histopathology. On CT, tooth resorption appeared as irregularly marginated hypoattenuating defects in the mineral attenuating tooth components, most commonly involving the root or cementoenamel junction. Sensitivity for CT detection of tooth resorption was fair to poor (42.2-57.7%) and specificity was good to excellent (92.8-96.3%). Findings from this study indicated that CT has high specificity but low sensitivity for detection of tooth resorption in cats.

  15. Implementation of a feral cat management program on a university campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kathy L; Slater, Margaret R

    2002-01-01

    In August 1998, Texas AM University implemented on campus a trap-test-vaccinate-alter-return-monitor (TTVARM) program to manage the feral cat population. TTVARM is an internationally recognized term for trapping and neutering programs aimed at management of feral cat populations. In this article we summarize results of the program for the period August 1998 to July 2000. In surgery laboratories, senior veterinary students examined cats that were humanely trapped once a month and tested them for feline leukemia and feline immunodeficiency virus infections, vaccinated, and surgically neutered them. They euthanized cats testing positive for either infectious disease. Volunteers provided food and observed the cats that were returned to their capture sites on campus and maintained in managed colonies. The program placed kittens and tame cats for adoption; cats totaled 158. Of the majority of 158 captured cats, there were less kittens caught in Year 2 than in Year 1. The proportion of tame cats trapped was significantly greater in Year 2 than in Year 1. The prevalence found for feline leukemia and feline immunodeficiency virus ELISA test positives was 5.8% and 6.5%, respectively. Following surgery, 101 cats returned to campus. The project recaptured, retested, and revaccinated more than one-fourth of the cats due for their annual vaccinations. The program placed 32 kittens, juveniles, and tame adults for adoption. The number of cat complaints received by the university's pest control service decreased from Year 1 to Year 2.

  16. Luxation of the radial carpal bone in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of radial carpal bone luxation in the cat and its management is described. Open reduction was performed and surgically maintained, in combination with repair of rupture of the short radial collateral ligament and joint capsule. The carpus was supported for one month following surgery by application of transarticular external fixation. Four months after treatment the cat was sound, despite evidence of degenerative joint disease. The mechanism of luxation appears to be analogous to that seen in the dog

  17. How much information can be obtained from tracking the position of the leading edge in a scratch assay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stuart T; Simpson, Matthew J; McElwain, D L Sean

    2014-08-01

    Moving cell fronts are an essential feature of wound healing, development and disease. The rate at which a cell front moves is driven, in part, by the cell motility, quantified in terms of the cell diffusivity D, and the cell proliferation rate λ. Scratch assays are a commonly reported procedure used to investigate the motion of cell fronts where an initial cell monolayer is scratched, and the motion of the front is monitored over a short period of time, often less than 24 h. The simplest way of quantifying a scratch assay is to monitor the progression of the leading edge. Use of leading edge data is very convenient because, unlike other methods, it is non-destructive and does not require labelling, tracking or counting individual cells among the population. In this work, we study short-time leading edge data in a scratch assay using a discrete mathematical model and automated image analysis with the aim of investigating whether such data allow us to reliably identify D and λ. Using a naive calibration approach where we simply scan the relevant region of the (D, λ) parameter space, we show that there are many choices of D and λ for which our model produces indistinguishable short-time leading edge data. Therefore, without due care, it is impossible to estimate D and λ from this kind of data. To address this, we present a modified approach accounting for the fact that cell motility occurs over a much shorter time scale than proliferation. Using this information, we divide the duration of the experiment into two periods, and we estimate D using data from the first period, whereas we estimate λ using data from the second period. We confirm the accuracy of our approach using in silico data and a new set of in vitro data, which shows that our method recovers estimates of D and λ that are consistent with previously reported values except that that our approach is fast, inexpensive, non-destructive and avoids the need for cell labelling and cell counting.

  18. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  19. Health and behavioral survey of over 8000 Finnish cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katariina Vapalahti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalences of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases with a prevalence of 28% and dental calculus and gingivitis (21% and 8%, respectively were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23% and asthma (19%. Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems such as the skin (12%, the urinary system (12%, the digestive tract (11%, eyes, (10%, the musculoskeletal system (10%, and genitals of female cats (17%. Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%, tail kink (4%, feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (FORL (4%, urinary tract infections (4%, as well as caesarean section (6% and stillborn kittens (6% among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease (PKD, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  20. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A.; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research. PMID:27622188

  1. Health and Behavioral Survey of over 8000 Finnish Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapalahti, Katariina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Joensuu, Tara A; Tiira, Katriina; Tähtinen, Jaana; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalence of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases, with a prevalence of 28%, and dental calculus and gingivitis (21 and 8%, respectively) were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23%) and asthma (19%). Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems, such as the skin (12%), the urinary system (12%), the digestive tract (11%), eyes (10%), the musculoskeletal system (10%), and genitals of female cats (17%). Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%), tail kink (4%), feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (4%), urinary tract infections (4%), as well as cesarean section (6%) and stillborn kittens (6%) among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease, progressive retinal atrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  2. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats - clarification regarding genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Genova, Francesca; Beccaglia, Michela; Hopwood, John J; Longeri, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The release of new DNA-based diagnostic tools has increased tremendously in companion animals. Over 70 different DNA variants are now known for the cat, including DNA variants in disease-associated genes and genes causing aesthetically interesting traits. The impact genetic tests have on animal breeding and health management is significant because of the ability to control the breeding of domestic cats, especially breed cats. If used properly, genetic testing can prevent the production of diseased animals, causing the reduction of the frequency of the causal variant in the population, and, potentially, the eventual eradication of the disease. However, testing of some identified DNA variants may be unwarranted and cause undo strife within the cat breeding community and unnecessary reduction of gene pools and availability of breeding animals. Testing for mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI (MPS VI) in cats, specifically the genetic testing of the L476P (c.1427T>C) and the D520N (c.1558G>A) variants in arylsulfatase B (ARSB), has come under scrutiny. No health problems are associated with the D520N (c.1558G>A) variant, however, breeders that obtain positive results for this variant are speculating as to possible correlation with health concerns. Birman cats already have a markedly reduced gene pool and have a high frequency of the MPS VI D520N variant. Further reduction of the gene pool by eliminating cats that are heterozygous or homozygous for only the MPS VI D520N variant could lead to more inbreeding depression effects on the breed population. Herein is debated the genetic testing of the MPS VI D520N variant in cats. Surveys from different laboratories suggest the L476P (c.1427T>C) disease-associated variant should be monitored in the cat breed populations, particularly breeds with Siamese derivations and outcrosses. However, the D520N has no evidence of association with disease in cats and testing is not recommended in the absence of L476P genotyping. Selection

  3. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats - clarification regarding genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Genova, Francesca; Beccaglia, Michela; Hopwood, John J; Longeri, Maria

    2016-07-02

    The release of new DNA-based diagnostic tools has increased tremendously in companion animals. Over 70 different DNA variants are now known for the cat, including DNA variants in disease-associated genes and genes causing aesthetically interesting traits. The impact genetic tests have on animal breeding and health management is significant because of the ability to control the breeding of domestic cats, especially breed cats. If used properly, genetic testing can prevent the production of diseased animals, causing the reduction of the frequency of the causal variant in the population, and, potentially, the eventual eradication of the disease. However, testing of some identified DNA variants may be unwarranted and cause undo strife within the cat breeding community and unnecessary reduction of gene pools and availability of breeding animals. Testing for mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI (MPS VI) in cats, specifically the genetic testing of the L476P (c.1427T>C) and the D520N (c.1558G>A) variants in arylsulfatase B (ARSB), has come under scrutiny. No health problems are associated with the D520N (c.1558G>A) variant, however, breeders that obtain positive results for this variant are speculating as to possible correlation with health concerns. Birman cats already have a markedly reduced gene pool and have a high frequency of the MPS VI D520N variant. Further reduction of the gene pool by eliminating cats that are heterozygous or homozygous for only the MPS VI D520N variant could lead to more inbreeding depression effects on the breed population. Herein is debated the genetic testing of the MPS VI D520N variant in cats. Surveys from different laboratories suggest the L476P (c.1427T>C) disease-associated variant should be monitored in the cat breed populations, particularly breeds with Siamese derivations and outcrosses. However, the D520N has no evidence of association with disease in cats and testing is not recommended in the absence of L476P genotyping. Selection

  4. Fifth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifth disease is a viral infection caused by parvovirus B19. The virus only infects humans; it's not the same parvovirus that dogs and cats can get. Fifth disease mostly affects children. Symptoms can include a low ...

  5. HEMANGIOMA HEPÁTICO PRIMÁRIO EM GATA PERSA COM DOENÇA RENAL POLICÍSTICA PRIMARY HEPATIC HEMANGIOMA IN PERSIAN CAT WITH POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemiro Amaro da Silva Júnior

    2008-07-01

    great possibility of the rupture, hipovolemic shock and death. Because of its rarity in felines, the aim of case report was describes a primary hepatic hemangioma in a female Persian cat aged ten which the clinical symptoms initially observed were: abdominal volume increase, intermittent vomiting, apathy, anorexia and irregular ruts. Radiographic exam revealed the presence of radiopaque tissues in the liver. The hepatic ultrasound exhibited irregular shape, heterogeneous and hyperechogenic parenchyma, presenting hollowed areas which suggests neoplasm and cysts. Macroscopically it was observed ascite, hepatic steatosis and a neoplastic mass measuring about 12 x 8 cm, in addition to a considerable number of cysts. Polycystic kidneys and ovaries and cystic endometrial hyperplasia were also noticed. Microscopically was diagnosed in the liver: cysts limited by endothelial cells and delicate capsule of connective tissue, steatosis and periportal mononuclear linfocitary hepatitis with biliar ducts proliferation. The tumoral mass rose from the hepatic capsule of the conjunctive tissue. It was characterized by vascular sprouts originated from the endothelial cells with anastomosis and vessels expansion begin on superficial areas. Primary hepatic hemangioma cavernous/capillary was diagnosed. PD was diagnosed in ovarian, uterine and renal tissue.

    KEY WORDS: Cat, liver, vascular tumor.

  6. Effectiveness of feeding large kibbles with mechanical cleaning properties in cats with gingivitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, HE; Theyse, LFH; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Dijkshoorn, NA; Logan, EI; Picovet, P

    2005-01-01

    Effectiveness of feeding large kibbles with mechanical cleaning properties in cats with gingivitis periodontal disease is the most common acquired oral disease in cats. it starts with plaque accumulation and gingivitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different types of ki

  7. The scratch test - Different critical load determination techniques. [adhesive strength of thin hard coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekler, J.; Hintermann, H. E.; Steinmann, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Different critical load determination techniques such as microscopy, acoustic emission, normal, tangential, and lateral forces used for scratch test evaluation of complex or multilayer coatings are investigated. The applicability of the scratch test to newly developed coating techniques, systems, and applications is discussed. Among the methods based on the use of a physical measurement, acoustic emission detection is the most effective. The dynamics ratio between the signals below and above the critical load for the acoustic emission (much greater than 100) is well above that obtained with the normal, tangential, and lateral forces. The present commercial instruments are limited in load application performance. A scratch tester able to apply accurate loads as low as 0.01 N would probably overcome most of the actual limitations and would be expected to extend the scratch testing technique to different application fields such as optics and microelectronics.

  8. Comparison of material structures and scratch strength of thin films of glass mirrors and automobile windscreens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several types of European and Asian automobile windscreens coated with single and multilayer fixing fluxes and silver thin films were studied, and their material structures and their scratch properties were compared with glass mirrors' by the authors. The realized laboratory tests had shown very strong influences of cracks and bubbles in the microstructures of fixing thin film layers and silver coatings on scratch resistance, acoustic emission and micro-hardness of the coatings both on glass mirrors and automobile windscreens. To examine the material structure of flux thin film layers and silver coatings scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used. The scratch resistance, acoustic emission, nucleation and propagation of cracks were studied by an optical digital mechanical scratch tester

  9. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Matsuura, Shinobu; Fujino, Yasuhito; Nakajima, Mayumi; Takahashi, Masashi; Nakashima, Ko; Sakai, Yusuke; Uetsuka, Koji; Ohno, Koichi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2008-10-01

    Two cats showing chronic vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss were found to have leukocytosis with marked eosinophilia. Both cats were diagnosed with hypereosinophilic syndrome by the findings of increased eosinophils and their precursors in the bone marrow, eosinophilic infiltration into multiple organs, and exclusion of other causes for eosinophilia. Although cytoreductive chemotherapy with hydroxycarbamide and prednisolone was performed, these two cats died 48 days and 91 days after the initial presentation. PMID:18981665

  10. Rate-dependent toughness in soft materials via microscopic scratch testing

    OpenAIRE

    Akono, Ange-Therese; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2014-01-01

    Although fracture processes are rate-sensitive in a wide variety of biological and engineering systems, such as protein materials and bulk metallic glasses, the exact contribution of the prescribed mechanical loading rate to the measured fracture resistance is not fully understood. In this study, we formulate a novel energy-based framework for crack propagation in nonlinear viscous solids, using microscopic scratch tests. The scratch test consists in pushing a tool across the surface of a wea...

  11. FRICTION ANALYSIS ON SCRATCH DEFORMATION MODES OF VISCO-ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Setiyana; Imam Syafaat; Jamari Jamari; DikJoe Schipper

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of abrasion resistance and associated surfaces deformation mechanisms is of primary importance in materials engineering and design. Instrumented scratch testing has proven to be a useful tool for characterizing the abrasion resistance of materials. Using a conical indenter in a scratch test may result in different deformation modes, like as elastic deformation, ironing, ductile ploughing and cutting. This paper presents the friction analysis of some deformation modes of visco-el...

  12. High temperature scratch testing of hard PVD coatings deposited on surface treated tool steel

    OpenAIRE

    Pujante, Jaume; Vilaseca, Montserrat; Casellas, Daniel; Riera Colom, María Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Scratch testing is one of the most usual characterisation techniques for systems with thin hard coatings. Scratch tests are performed at run at room temperature, due to the risk of degradation of the indenter diamond tip at high temperature and added test complexity. However, results obtained at room temperature may differ from the final system performance in high temperature applications, due to factors such as substrate thermal softening. In this work, a simple and a robust test for the...

  13. Conditions for Multi-functionality in a Rhythm Generating Network Inspired by Turtle Scratching

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Abigail C.; Rubin, Jonathan E

    2015-01-01

    Rhythmic behaviors such as breathing, walking, and scratching are vital to many species. Such behaviors can emerge from groups of neurons, called central pattern generators, in the absence of rhythmic inputs. In vertebrates, the identification of the cells that constitute the central pattern generator for particular rhythmic behaviors is difficult, and often, its existence has only been inferred. For example, under experimental conditions, intact turtles generate several rhythmic scratch moto...

  14. Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Interobserver Reliability of the Blinded Scratch-Collapse Test

    OpenAIRE

    Blok, Robin D.; Becker, Stéphanie J. E.; Ring, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The reliability of the scratch-collapse test for diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has not been tested by independent investigators. This study measured the reliability of the scratch-collapse test comparing the treating hand surgeon and blinded evaluators. We performed a prospective observational study of 41 patients with a provisional diagnosis of CTS or a combination of CTS and cubital tunnel syndrome and prescribed electrodiagnostic testing. The treating hand surgeon performed the...

  15. Feline infectious peritonitis with neurologic involvement: clinical and pathological findings in 24 cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medical records of 24 cats with histopathologically diagnosed feline infectious peritonitis involving the nervous system were reviewed. Seventeen cats had historical, clinical, and pathological findings of systemic disease. Twelve cats had focal signs of central nervous system dysfunction. Twelve cats had multifocal signs including seizures, nystagmus, head tilt, vestibular or cerebellar ataxia, paresis, and proprioceptive loss with a preponderance of caudal fossa signs. Computed tomography of the brain revealed hydrocephalus in two cats. Examination of cerebrospinal fluid revealed pyogranulomatous pleocytosis in fivecats; the tap was nonproductive in five cats. Findings on histopathological examination of appropriate tissues included nephritis, hepatitis, and pleuritis. Neuropathological findings included ependymitis, choroid plexitis, meningitis, encephalitis, and myelitis. Hydrocephalus was seen in 18 cats on necropsy

  16. The Cat oRules

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2004-01-01

    The oRules of state reduction are applied to the case of the Schrodinger cat experiment. It is shown that these rules can unambiguously describe the conscious state of the cat, as well as an outside observer at any time during the experiment. Two versions of the experiment are considered. In version I, the conscious cat is made unconscious by a mechanism that is triggered by a radioactive decay. In version II, the sleeping cat is made conscious by an alarm clock that is triggered by a radioactive decay.

  17. The Cat nRules

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    The nRules that are developed in another paper are applied to two versions of the Schrodinger cat experiment. In version I the initially conscious cat is made unconscious by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In version II the initially unconscious cat is awakened by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In both cases an observer is permitted to check the statues of the cat at any time during the experiment. In all cases the nRules correctly and unambiguousl...

  18. Genetic susceptibility to feline infectious peritonitis in Birman cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovko, Lyudmila; Lyons, Leslie A; Liu, Hongwei; Sørensen, Anne; Wehnert, Suzanne; Pedersen, Niels C

    2013-07-01

    Genetic factors are presumed to influence the incidence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), especially among pedigreed cats. However, proof for the existence of such factors has been limited and mainly anecdotal. Therefore, we sought evidence for genetic susceptibility to FIP using feline high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Birman cats were chosen for GWAS because they are highly inbred and suffer a high incidence of FIP. DNA from 38 Birman cats that died of FIP and 161 healthy cats from breeders in Denmark and USA were selected for genotyping using 63K SNPs distributed across the feline genome. Danish and American Birman cats were closely related and the populations were therefore combined and analyzed in two manners: (1) all cases (FIP) vs. all controls (healthy) regardless of age, and (2) cases 1½ years of age and younger (most susceptible) vs. controls 2 years of age and older (most resistant). GWAS of the second cohort was most productive in identifying significant genome-wide associations between case and control cats. Four peaks of association with FIP susceptibility were identified, with two being identified on both analyses. Five candidate genes ELMO1, RRAGA, TNFSF10, ERAP1 and ERAP2, all relevant to what is known about FIP virus pathogenesis, were identified but no single association was fully concordant with the disease phenotype. Difficulties in doing GWAS in cats and interrogating complex genetic traits were discussed. PMID:23619280

  19. Changes in renal function in cats following treatment of hyperthyroidism using 131I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W H; Daniel, G B; Legendre, A M; Gompf, R E; Grove, C A

    1997-01-01

    BUN, serum creatinine, and urine specific gravity values. It was concluded that significant declines in renal function occur after treatment of hyperthyroidism and this decline is clinically important in cats with renal disease. Pretreatment measurement of GFR is valuable in detecting subclinical renal disease and in predicting which cats may have clinically important declines in renal function following treatment. PMID:9238796

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FRACTURE WORK FOR DUCTILE FILM UNDERGOING THE MICRO-SCRATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏悦广; 赵满洪; 唐山

    2002-01-01

    The interface adhesion strength (or interface toughness) of a thinfilm/substrate system is often assessed by the micro-scratch test. For a brittle filmmaterial, the interface adhesion strength is easily obtained through measuring thescratch driving forces. However, to measure the interface adhesion strength (or in-terface toughness) for a metal thin film material (the ductile material) by the micro-scratch test is very difficult, because intense plastic deformation is involved and theproblem is a three-dimensional elastic-plastic one. In the present research, usinga double-cohesive zone model, the failure characteristics of the thin film/substratesystem can be described and further simulated. For a steady-state scratching pro-cess, a three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element method based on the doublecohesive zone model is developed and adopted, and the steady-state fracture workof the total system is calculated. The parameter relations between the horizontaldriving forces (or energy release rate of the scratching process) and the separationstrength of thin film/substrate interface, and the material shear strength, as well asthe material parameters are developed. Furthermore, a scratch experiment for theAl/Si film/substrate system is carried out and the failure mechanisms are explored.Finally, the prediction results are applied to a scratch experiment for the Pt/NiOmaterial system given in the literature.

  1. Scratch lottery tickets are a poor incentive to respond to mailed questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finsen Vilhjalmur

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that the enclosure of money with a mailed questionnaire increases the response rate significantly. We evaluated scratch lottery tickets as an alternative to cash. Methods 1500 randomly selected Norwegians between the ages of 40 and 65 years were sent a short questionnaire. 250 received one lottery scratch ticket worth 20 Norwegian kroner (approximately 3 US$ together with the questionnaire, 250 received two scratch tickets, and 250 were promised two scratch tickets if they replied within one week. A fourth group of 250 persons received a 50 kroner banknote with the questionnaire. The remaining 500 letters served as controls. Results The overall response rate after 6 weeks was 77%. Logistic regression analysis showed that only the 50 kroner group had a response rate that was statistically significantly higher than the controls (p Conclusion It is possible that the recipients scratched their cards before completing the questionnaire, and that it was a disincentive for the majority that they did not win anything. Lottery scratch tickets are no substitute for cash as an incentive to respond to a questionnaire.

  2. cats and dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜玉秀

    2003-01-01

    有这样一则英语成语:“To rain cats anddogs.”如果望文生义,则会被译为“下猫下狗”,因而会弄出许多笑话来,这应当是值得引以为戒的。其实这句成语的真正含义是:“下倾盆大雨”。那么下雨为什么会与cats和dogs联系在一起呢?

  3. Coherent Backscatter Opposition Effect from Scratches on Solid Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, B. W.; Piatek, J. L.; Nelson, R. M.; Smythe, W. D.; Hale, A. S.

    2003-05-01

    Shepard and Arvidson [1] discovered that the solid surfaces of rocks exhibit an opposition effect. We have measured the phase curve of a natural surface of a piece of solid basalt between 0.05 and 5 degrees in circularly polarized light using the JPL long arm goniometer and confirmed that it has an opposition effect. The circular polarization ratio (CPR) increased with decreasing phase angle, consistent with a coherent backscatter opposition effect (CBOE) Recent laboratory investigations of the CBOE in planetary regolith analogs [2,3,4] have revealed that the width of the peak is remarkably insensitive to particle size, in strong contrast to theoretical expectations. We have hypothesized that one of the reasons for this might be that multiple scattering between irregularities, such as scratches, on the surfaces of a particle could cause coherent backscatter, in addition to scattering between particles. To test this hypothesis we ground the surface of a piece of plate glass with 5 micrometer abrasive and measured its phase curve. As the phase angle decreases, the intensity increases and the CPR decreases, consistent with specular reflection. However, near zero phase there is a nonlinear rise about 2 degrees wide superimposed on the linear specular peak accompanied by an increase in CPR, showing that coherent backscatter is occuring. A piece of commercial diffusing glass exhibited the same phenomena. These results support our hypothesis and also provide a possible explanation for the observations of opposition effects from the solid surfaces of rocks. This research was supported by a grant from NASA's PGG Program References cited: [1] Shepard and Arvidson, Icarus, 141, 172-178 (1999). [2] Nelson et al, Icarus, 147, 545-558 (2000). [3] Nelson et al, Planet. Space Sci., 50, 849-856 (2002). [4] Piatek et al, Abstract, DPS Conference (2003).

  4. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  5. Feasibility of radial and circumferential strain analysis using 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Hiroshi; Isogai, Tomomi; Aoki, Takuma; Wakao, Yoshito; Fujii, Yoko

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of strain analysis using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in cats and to evaluate STE variables in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Sixteen clinically healthy cats and 17 cats with HCM were used. Radial and circumferential strain and strain rate variables in healthy cats were measured using STE to assess the feasibility. Comparisons of global strain and strain variables between healthy cats and cats with HCM were performed. Segmental assessments of left ventricle (LV) wall for strain and strain rate variables in cats with HCM were also performed. As a result, technically adequate images were obtained in 97.6% of the segments for STE analysis. Sedation using buprenorphine and acepromazine did not affect any global strain nor strain rate variable. In LV segments of cats with HCM, reduced segmental radial strain and strain rate variables had significantly related with segmental LV hypertrophy. It is concluded that STE analysis using short axis images of LV appeared to be clinically feasible in cats, having the possibility to be useful for detecting myocardial dysfunctions in cats with diseased heart. PMID:25373881

  6. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  7. [Glomerulonephritis in dogs and cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinacher, M; Frese, K

    1991-04-01

    Immunohistology and special staining of plastic sections allow diagnosis and differentiation of subtypes of glomerulonephritis in dogs. Frequency and clinical importance of these forms of glomerulonephritis vary significantly. In cats, glomerulonephritis occurs frequently in FIV-positive cats but is rare in animals suffering from persistent FeLV infection or FIP. PMID:2068715

  8. Lumbosacral agenesis in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle C Hybki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Lumbosacral agenesis is a rare congenital condition reported in children. We report a 17-week-old female domestic shorthair cat with lumbosacral agenesis on whole-body radiographs. The cat was euthanized shortly thereafter presentation. A necropsy was not permitted. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported feline case of lumbosacral agenesis.

  9. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  10. College Students and Their Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  11. Activation of the KCa3.1 channel contributes to traumatic scratch injury-induced reactive astrogliosis through the JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Mengni; Dou, Fangfang; Lu, Qin; Yu, Zhihua; Chen, Hongzhuan

    2016-06-15

    Reactive astrogliosis is widely considered to contribute to pathogenic responses to stress and brain injury and to diseases as diverse as ischemia and neurodegeneration. We previously found that expression of the intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa3.1) involved in TGF-β-activated astrogliosis. In the present study, we investigated whether migration of cortical astrocytes following mechanical scratch injury involves the KCa3.1 channel, which contributes to Ca(2+)-mediated migration in other cells. We found that scratch injury increased the expression of KCa3.1 protein in reactive astrocytes. Application of the KCa3.1 blocker TRAM-34 decreased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and slowed migration in a concentration-dependent manner. Application of the Ca(2+) chelators, EGTA and BAPTA-AM, also slowed the migration of astrocytes. Blockade or genetic deletion of KCa3.1 both slowed and dramatically reduced the scratch injuries induced the sharp rise in astrocytes Ca(2+) concentrations. The scratch injury-induced phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun proteins was also attenuated both by blockade of KCa3.1 with TRAM-34 and in KCa3.1(-/-) astrocytes. Using KCa3.1 knockout mice, we further confirmed that deletion of KCa3.1 reduced expression of GFAP in an in vivo stab wound model. Taken together, our findings highlight a novel role for KCa3.1 in phenotypic modulation of reactive astrocytes and in astrocyte mobilization in response to mechanical stress, providing a potential target for therapeutic intervention in brain injuries.

  12. Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a cat is often an incidental finding on a routine thoracic or abdominal radiograph. Clinical signs are nonspecific-usually respiratory (dyspnea) or gastrointestinal(vomiting or diarrhea). Some of the cats with this anomaly are asymptomatic. The physical examination may be normal: muffled heart sounds are the most common abnormality noted during a physical examination. Cats of many breeds are affected, although 26% of reported cases were inPersians. Age of the cat at diagnosis ranged from 6 days to 14 years. Thirty of the 52 reported cases were in females. Diagnostic studies used to confirm the diagnosis included echocardiography, upper gastrointestinal study, ultrasonography, angiography, positive-contrast peritoneography, and laparotomy. Surgical correction was reportedly successful in 22 of 25 cats

  13. CAT-generation of ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Ueckerdt, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of generating all ideals of a poset. It is a long standing open problem, whether or not the ideals of any poset can be generated in constant amortized time, CAT for short. We refine the tree traversal, a method introduced by Pruesse and Ruskey in 1993, to obtain a CAT-generator for two large classes of posets: posets of interval dimension at most two and so called locally planar posets. This includes all posets for which a CAT-generator was known before. Posets of interval dimension at most two generalize both, interval orders and 2-dimensional posets. Locally planar posets generalize for example posets with a planar cover graph. We apply our results to CAT-generate all $c$-orientations of a planar graph. As a special case this is a CAT-generator for many combinatorial objects like domino and lozenge tilings, planar spanning trees, planar bipartite perfect matchings, Schnyder woods, and others.

  14. Are Cats and Dogs the Major Source of Endotoxin in Homes?

    OpenAIRE

    Ownby, Dennis R.; Peterson, Edward L.; Wegienka, Ganesa; Woodcroft, Kimberley J.; Nicholas, Charlotte; Zoratti, Edward; Johnson, Christine C.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that exposure to cats and dogs during early childhood reduces the risk of allergic disease, possibly by increasing home endotoxin exposure. This study asked the question of whether cats and dogs are the dominant influence on dust endotoxin concentrations in homes after considering other variables reportedly associated with endotoxin. The presence of cats or dogs in homes, household and home characteristics, and dust endotoxin concentrations from 5 locations wer...

  15. Population Ecology of Free-Roaming Cats and Interference Competition by Coyotes in Urban Parks

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrt, Stanley D.; Evan C Wilson; Brown, Justin L.; Chris Anchor

    2013-01-01

    Free-roaming cats are a common element of urban landscapes worldwide, often causing controversy regarding their impacts on ecological systems and public health. We monitored cats within natural habitat fragments in the Chicago metropolitan area to characterize population demographics, disease prevalence, movement patterns and habitat selection, in addition to assessing the possible influence of coyotes on cats. The population was dominated by adults of both sexes, and 24% of adults were in re...

  16. Medical treatment of neuro diseases of dogs and cats / Fármacos utilizados no tratamento das afecções neurológicas de cães e gatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Cassimiro da Costa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the current literature regarding medical management of neurological diseases of dogs and cats is presented. The indications, doses, and duration of the recommended treatment of several medications are reviewed. The authors have reviewed analgesic, antibiotic, anticonvulsants, barbiturates, anticolinesterasics, antifungals, antifibrinolytics, steroidal and non-steroidal antiinflammatory, antineoplastics, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, antidepressants, free radical scavengers, diuretics, drugs used in the treatment of micturition disorders, phytotherapeutics, nutraceuticals, muscle relaxant and vitamins.Este trabalho compreende uma revisão da literatura, dos diferentes fármacos utilizados na terapêutica das afecções neurológicas de cães e gatos, assim como sua indicação, dosagens, e duração do tratamento. Nesse contexto incluíram-se analgésicos, antibióticos, anticonvulsivantes, barbitúricos, anticolinesterásicos, antifúngicos, antifibrinolíticos, antiinflamatórios esteróides e não esteróides, antineoplásicos, antipsicóticos, ansiolíticos, antidepressivos, antioxidantes e varredores de radicais livres, diuréticos, fármacos utilizados nos distúrbios da micção, fitoterápicos, modificadores do metabolismo articular (nutracêuticos, relaxantes musculares e vitaminas.

  17. Effect of tool profile and fatigue loading on the local hardness around scratches in clad and unclad aluminium alloy 2024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoindentation has been used to study the hardness changes produced by scratching of aluminium alloy AA2024, with and without a clad layer of pure aluminium. The hardness was mapped around scratches made with diamond tools of different profiles. One tool produced significant plastic damage with associated hardening at the scratch root, whilst the other produced a 'cleaner' cut with no hardening. The different behaviours are attributed to whether the tool makes the scratch by a 'cutting' or a 'ploughing' mechanism. The degree of plastic damage around the scratches has been correlated with peak broadening data obtained using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. There was no change observed in the local hardness around the scratch with fatigue loading.

  18. How cats lap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Roman; Reis, Pedro; Jung, Sunghwan; Aristoff, Jeffrey

    2010-11-01

    We studied the lapping of the domestic cat (Felis catus) by combining high-speed photography with a laboratory model of lapping. We found that Felis catus laps by a subtle mechanism based on water adhesion to the dorsal side of the tongue and the creation of a liquid column, exploiting inertia to defeat gravity and pull liquid into the mouth. The competition between inertia and gravity controls the pinch-off time of the column, determining the optimal lapping frequency, f. Felis catus was found to operate near the optimum and theoretical analysis yielded a scaling, f ˜M-1/6, of lapping frequency with animal mass, M. This prediction was verified by measuring lapping frequency across felids, from ocelots to lions, suggesting that the lapping mechanism is conserved among felines.

  19. Výuka základů programování v prostředí Scratch

    OpenAIRE

    Krejsa, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The work deals with programming education on primary schools in Scratch programme. Investigation was carried out by questionnaire on primary school in theoretic part. The investigation shows the facts relating to teaching programming. Scratch is compared with Baltík and Imagine Logo, which are the most commonly used on primary schools. The work also includes an analysis of teaching materials that are available for teaching Scratch. Results of the analysis of teaching materials are shown in a ...

  20. Urine-marking and ground-scratching by free-ranging Arctic Wolves, Canis lupus arctos, in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Urine-marking and ground-scratching were observed in an Arctic Wolf (Canis lupus) pack on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, during 16 summers between 1986 and 2005. All previously known urination postures and ground-scratching by breeding males and females were seen, and incidence of marking and scratching was greatest when non-pack wolves were present. Observations of urine-marking of food remains supported the conclusion from a captive Wolf study that such marking signals lack of edible food.

  1. Radiographic patterns of pulmonary metastasis in 25 cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoracic radiographs of 25 cats with pulmonary metastatic disease and confirmed primary tumors were reviewed retrospectively. Pulmonary patterns of metastasis were divided into three categories, described as well-defined interstitial nodules, ill-defined interstitial nodules or a diffuse pulmonary pattern. The latter consisted of an alveolar pattern with or without ill-defined pulmonary nodules and/or pleural effusion. More cats presented with pulmonary metastatic disease in the category of either ill-defined nodules (n = 10) or a diffuse pattern (n = 7). Within this group, the most commonly represented primary tumor was mammary gland adenocarcinoma

  2. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its ass...

  3. A nanometric cushion for enhancing scratch and wear resistance of hard films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib-Vainshtein, Katya; Girshevitz, Olga; Sukenik, Chaim N; Barlam, David; Cohen, Sidney R

    2014-01-01

    Scratch resistance and friction are core properties which define the tribological characteristics of materials. Attempts to optimize these quantities at solid surfaces are the subject of intense technological interest. The capability to modulate these surface properties while preserving both the bulk properties of the materials and a well-defined, constant chemical composition of the surface is particularly attractive. We report herein the use of a soft, flexible underlayer to control the scratch resistance of oxide surfaces. Titania films of several nm thickness are coated onto substrates of silicon, kapton, polycarbonate, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The scratch resistance measured by scanning force microscopy is found to be substrate dependent, diminishing in the order PDMS, kapton/polycarbonate, Si/SiO2. Furthermore, when PDMS is applied as an intermediate layer between a harder substrate and titania, marked improvement in the scratch resistance is achieved. This is shown by quantitative wear tests for silicon or kapton, by coating these substrates with PDMS which is subsequently capped by a titania layer, resulting in enhanced scratch/wear resistance. The physical basis of this effect is explored by means of Finite Element Analysis, and we suggest a model for friction reduction based on the "cushioning effect" of a soft intermediate layer.

  4. Diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome: interobserver reliability of the blinded scratch-collapse test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Robin D; Becker, Stéphanie J E; Ring, David C

    2014-06-01

    The reliability of the scratch-collapse test for diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has not been tested by independent investigators. This study measured the reliability of the scratch-collapse test comparing the treating hand surgeon and blinded evaluators. We performed a prospective observational study of 41 patients with a provisional diagnosis of CTS or a combination of CTS and cubital tunnel syndrome and prescribed electrodiagnostic testing. The treating hand surgeon performed the scratch-collapse test. Next, the test was administered by one of the six observers, unaware of the patient's symptoms and the diagnosis made by treating hand surgeon. The kappa statistic (κ) was used to calculate the interrater reliability between the treating hand surgeons and blinded scratchers. The agreement between the blinded observers and the hand surgeons on the scratch-collapse test was substantial 0.63 (95 % CI, 0.34-0.87; p scratch test in our sample was 32 %. In a small study with a spectrum bias favoring electrophysiologically confirmed CTS the reliability was lower than that reported by the inventors of the test, but was still substantial. We propose a larger study of patients with a greater variety of electrodiagnostic test results using fewer observers with more experience.

  5. A nanometric cushion for enhancing scratch and wear resistance of hard films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Gotlib-Vainshtein

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Scratch resistance and friction are core properties which define the tribological characteristics of materials. Attempts to optimize these quantities at solid surfaces are the subject of intense technological interest. The capability to modulate these surface properties while preserving both the bulk properties of the materials and a well-defined, constant chemical composition of the surface is particularly attractive. We report herein the use of a soft, flexible underlayer to control the scratch resistance of oxide surfaces. Titania films of several nm thickness are coated onto substrates of silicon, kapton, polycarbonate, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. The scratch resistance measured by scanning force microscopy is found to be substrate dependent, diminishing in the order PDMS, kapton/polycarbonate, Si/SiO2. Furthermore, when PDMS is applied as an intermediate layer between a harder substrate and titania, marked improvement in the scratch resistance is achieved. This is shown by quantitative wear tests for silicon or kapton, by coating these substrates with PDMS which is subsequently capped by a titania layer, resulting in enhanced scratch/wear resistance. The physical basis of this effect is explored by means of Finite Element Analysis, and we suggest a model for friction reduction based on the "cushioning effect” of a soft intermediate layer.

  6. Diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome: interobserver reliability of the blinded scratch-collapse test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Robin D; Becker, Stéphanie J E; Ring, David C

    2014-06-01

    The reliability of the scratch-collapse test for diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has not been tested by independent investigators. This study measured the reliability of the scratch-collapse test comparing the treating hand surgeon and blinded evaluators. We performed a prospective observational study of 41 patients with a provisional diagnosis of CTS or a combination of CTS and cubital tunnel syndrome and prescribed electrodiagnostic testing. The treating hand surgeon performed the scratch-collapse test. Next, the test was administered by one of the six observers, unaware of the patient's symptoms and the diagnosis made by treating hand surgeon. The kappa statistic (κ) was used to calculate the interrater reliability between the treating hand surgeons and blinded scratchers. The agreement between the blinded observers and the hand surgeons on the scratch-collapse test was substantial 0.63 (95 % CI, 0.34-0.87; p scratch test in our sample was 32 %. In a small study with a spectrum bias favoring electrophysiologically confirmed CTS the reliability was lower than that reported by the inventors of the test, but was still substantial. We propose a larger study of patients with a greater variety of electrodiagnostic test results using fewer observers with more experience. PMID:24876682

  7. Quarantine protects Falkland Islands (Malvinas) cats from feline coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addie, Diane D; McDonald, Mike; Audhuy, Stéphane; Burr, Paul; Hollins, Jonathan; Kovacic, Rémi; Lutz, Hans; Luxton, Zoe; Mazar, Shlomit; Meli, Marina L

    2012-02-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Since 2002, when 20 cats on the Falkland Islands were found to be FCoV seronegative, only seronegative cats could be imported. Between 2005-2007, 95 pet and 10 feral cats tested negative by indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) analysis using two strains of type II FCoV, two transmissible gastroenteritis virus assays, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and rapid immunomigration test. Twenty-four samples (23%) showed non-specific fluorescence, mostly attributable to anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). The reason for ANA was unclear: reactive samples were negative for Erhlichia canis antibodies; seven were feline immunodeficiency virus positive, but 15 were negative. It was not possible to determine retrospectively whether the cats had autoimmune disease, hyperthyroidism treatment, or recent vaccination which may also cause ANA. The FCoV/ FIP-free status of the Falkland Islands cats should be maintained by FCoV testing incoming cats. However, ANA can complicate interpretation of IFA tests.

  8. Short colon in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 11-year-old male Japanese domestic cat was referred to the veterinary hospital with a chronic diarrhea and signs of pain and vocalization when defecating. The cat has discharged unformed feces throughout his life. Morphological diagnosis of short colon was made radiographically after barium enema. The ileocolic junction and cecum was located to the left of the midline at the proximal end of the descending colon. Additional endoscopic examination demonstrated the difference in visual structures of the mucosal surface and in histological structures on mucosal biopsy specimens, between the colon and ileum. This is the first report of short colon in a cat in Japan

  9. Studying Cat (Felis catus Diabetes: Beware of the Acromegalic Imposter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn J M Niessen

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring diabetes mellitus (DM is common in domestic cats (Felis catus. It has been proposed as a model for human Type 2 DM given many shared features. Small case studies demonstrate feline DM also occurs as a result of insulin resistance due to a somatotrophinoma. The current study estimates the prevalence of hypersomatotropism or acromegaly in the largest cohort of diabetic cats to date, evaluates clinical presentation and ease of recognition. Diabetic cats were screened for hypersomatotropism using serum total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; radioimmunoassay, followed by further evaluation of a subset of cases with suggestive IGF-1 (>1000 ng/ml through pituitary imaging and/ or histopathology. Clinicians indicated pre-test suspicion for hypersomatotropism. In total 1221 diabetic cats were screened; 319 (26.1% demonstrated a serum IGF-1>1000 ng/ml (95% confidence interval: 23.6-28.6%. Of these cats a subset of 63 (20% underwent pituitary imaging and 56/63 (89% had a pituitary tumour on computed tomography; an additional three on magnetic resonance imaging and one on necropsy. These data suggest a positive predictive value of serum IGF-1 for hypersomatotropism of 95% (95% confidence interval: 90-100%, thus suggesting the overall hypersomatotropism prevalence among UK diabetic cats to be 24.8% (95% confidence interval: 21.2-28.6%. Only 24% of clinicians indicated a strong pre-test suspicion; most hypersomatotropism cats did not display typical phenotypical acromegaly signs. The current data suggest hypersomatotropism screening should be considered when studying diabetic cats and opportunities exist for comparative acromegaly research, especially in light of the many detected communalities with the human disease.

  10. The effect of Scratch environment on student’s achievement in teaching algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tekerek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of Scratch environment in teaching algorithm in elementary school 6th grade Information and Communication Technologies course was examined. The research method was experimental method. Control group, pretest-posttest design of experimental research method and a convenience sample consisting of 60 6th grade students were used. The research instrument was achievement test to determine the effect of Scratch on learning algorithm. During the implementation process experiment group studied using Scratch and control group studied with traditional methods. The data was analyzed using independent-samples t-test, paired-samples t-test and ANCOVA statistics. According to findings there is no statically significant difference between posttest achievement scores of experiment and control groups. Similarly, In terms of gender there isn’t a statically significant difference between posttest scores of experiment and control groups.

  11. Screen Cage Ion Plating (SCIP) and scratch testing of polycrystalline aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, Talivaldis; Sliney, Harold E.; Deadmore, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    A screen cage ion plating (SCIP) technique was developed to apply silver films on electrically nonconducting aluminum oxide. It is shown that SCIP has remarkable throwing power; surfaces to be coated need not be in direct line of sight with the evaporation source. Scratch tests, employing a diamond stylus with a 200 micro m radius tip, were performed on uncoated and on silver coated alumina. Subsequent surface analysis show that a significant amount of silver remains on the scratched surfaces, even in areas where high stylus load produced severe crack patterns in the ceramic. Friction coefficients were lowered during the scratch tests on the coated alumina indicating that this modification of the ion planting process should be useful for applying lubricating films of soft metals to electrical insulating materials. The very good throwing power of SCIP also strongly suggests general applicability of this process in other areas of technology, e.g., electronics, in addition to tribology.

  12. Correlation of lung function and CAT score to nutritional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%慢性阻塞性肺疾病肺功能、CAT 评分等与营养状况的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄潘文; 文红; 张平

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨慢阻肺患者肺功能、血气分析、CAT 评分与营养状况的关系。方法将我院2012年6月-2014年6月间收治的500例慢阻肺患者按微型营养评定法进行营养状况评定,分为营养良好组、营养不良危险组、营养不良组,比较不同营养状况下慢阻肺患者的肺功能及 CAT 评分,探讨慢阻肺肺功能、血气分析、CAT 评分与营养状况的相关性。结果营养状况越好的患者,肺功能各项指标越好,FVC%、FEV1%、MVV%、MMF%越高(P <0.01);患者营养状况越好,血气分析越好,PaO2、SaO2越高,PaCO2越低(P <0.01);CAT 评分也越低(P <0.01);通过对各指标与 MNA 值的 Pearson 相关分析得出,FEV1%、MVV%、MMF%、PaO2与 MNA 值呈正相关,PaCO2、CAT 与 MNA 值呈负相关。结论慢阻肺患者的肺功能、血气分析、CAT 评分与营养状况间存在显著相关性,提高患者的营养状况可有效改善患者的病情与预后。%Objective To investigate the correlation of lung function and CAT score to nutritional status of COPD patients. Methods 500 COPD patients were given nutritional status assessment according to mini nutritional assessment method, and then they were divided into the good nutrition group, the malnutrition risk group, and the malnutrition group. Their lung function and CAT scores were compared among the three groups. Results The pa-tients with better nutritional status had higher value of FVC% , FEV1% , MVV% and MMF% , better blood gas anal-ysis and lower CAT scores (P < 0. 01). Pearson correlation analysis of each index and MNA value showed that MNA was positively correlated with FEV1% , MVV% , MMF% and PaO2 , and negatively correlated with PaCO2 and CAT. Conclusion The nutritional status of COPD patients is closely related with lung function, blood gas analysis and CAT scores, it can effectively improve the condition and prognosis by improving their nutritional status.

  13. A spectrum of hypereosinophilic syndromes exemplified by six cats with eosinophilic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, M

    1981-03-01

    Of six cats with eosinophilic enteritis, two had lesions confined to the intestinal tract, and four had varied disseminated eosinophilic infiltration of other organs. The lesions in these cats are similar to those of the hypereosinophilic syndrome in man. A feline hypereosinophilic syndrome is proposed, consisting of eosinophilic enteritis, disseminated eosinophilic disease, and eosinophilic leukemia. PMID:7467078

  14. Umbilical cord blood transplantation in hematologic diseases in patients over 15 years old: long-term experience at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, P; Nervi, B; Bertin, P; Poggi, H; Lagos, M; Selman, C; Pizarro, I; Jara, V; Wiestruck, A; Barriga, F

    2013-01-01

    Most patients who require a sibling stem cell transplantation do not have a matched donor. In our experience, only 1/3 patients have a matched unrelated donor (MUD); therefore, the majority of the patients will require umbilical cord blood (UCB). Patients treated for hematologic diseases with UCB transplants were included. UCB selection and conditioning regimens were performed according to the Minnesota group. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, infection prevention, and patient care were performed according to institutional guidelines. We analyzed patients and graft demography, neutrophil and platelet recovery, chimerism kinetics, GVHD incidence, overall (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and transplant-related mortality (TRM). We included 29 patients with a median age of 34.8 years (range 15-55). Eighteen were male and the median weight was 72.6 kg (range 54-100). Nineteen patients had acute leukemia. Myeloablative (MA) conditioning was used in 27 patients. Seventeen received double UCB (DUCB) grafts. Median total nucleated cell (10(7)/kg) was 4.2 (range 3.9-4.9) and 4.4 (range 2.8-6.3) for single UCB (SUCB) and DUCB transplants, respectively. Median time for neutrophil engraftment was 24.7 (range 14-43) and 25.8 days (range 14-52) after SUCB and DUCB transplants, respectively. Median time for platelet engraftment was 147 (range 30-516) and 81 days (range 37-200) after SUCB and DUCB transplants, respectively. All the patients receiving MA conditioning had >95% chimerism shortly after transplant. Cumulative incidence of grades II-IV and III-IV acute GVHD was 41% and 20%, respectively. Localized chronic GVHD was seen in 14% of the patients. Median follow-up was 16.7 months (range 1-63). Five-year OS and PFS were 38% and 39%, respectively. One-year TRM was 42%. UCB transplantation is associated with potential cure of hematologic malignancies and our results are similar to other series. Studies are needed to decrease mortality and improve immune

  15. Micro-scale Abrasion and Medium Load Multiple Scratch Tests of PVD Coatings.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Poulat; H. Sun & D.G. Teer

    2004-01-01

    Micro-scale abrasion testing is widely used to determine the abrasion resistance of thin film coatings; it is a simple technique that can easily be used as part of a quality control procedure, but it has got the disadvantage of not allowing an easy study of the wear mechanisms involved: it is difficult to estimate the load applied on each abrasive particles in the contact between the loaded ball and the specimen. The possibility of using progressive loading scratch testing, a method widely used to assess the adhesion of thin film coatings, to model the abrasive wear of coatings has been studied in the past; the use of multiple scratch tests to study the wear mechanisms corresponding to a single abrasion scratch event has also been studied in the case of bulk materials (ceramics and hard metals). Two coatings, deposited by Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating (CFUBMSIP) on ASP23 powder metallurgy steel substrate are chosen to be representative of the use of protective coatings in industry: titanium nitride, which is widely used to prevent tool wear, and TCL Graphit-iCTM, which is widely used as a wear resistant solid lubricant coating. The two coatings are first characterised by using a standard quality control procedure: their thickness is determined by the cap grinding method, their adhesion by progressive loading scratch. Then micro-scale abrasion tests performed with a slurry at a concentration which promotes grooving wear, and medium load multiple scratch tests performed with diamond indenters are completed; the results of these tests are analysed and compared to determine if there is any correlation between the two sets of results; the multiple scratch tests wear tracks are also observed to determine the wear mechanisms involved.

  16. Multi-Scale Scratch Analysis in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its Geological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanyun; Yang, Wencai; Yu, Changqing

    2016-04-01

    Multi-scale scratch analysis on a regional gravity field is a new data processing system for depicting three-dimensional density structures and tectonic features. It comprises four modules including the spectral analysis of potential fields, multi-scale wavelet analysis, density distribution inversion, and scratch analysis. The multi-scale scratch analysis method was applied to regional gravity data to extract information about the deformation belts in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which can help reveal variations of the deformation belts and plane distribution features from the upper crust to the lower crust, provide evidence for the study of three-dimensional crustal structures, and define distribution of deformation belts and mass movement. Results show the variation of deformation belts from the upper crust to the lower crust. The deformation belts vary from dense and thin in the upper crust to coarse and thick in the lower crust, demonstrating that vertical distribution of deformation belts resembles a tree with a coarse and thick trunk in the lower part and dense and thin branches at the top. The dense and thin deformation areas in the upper crust correspond to crustal shortening areas, while the thick and continuous deformation belts in the lower crust indicate the structural framework of the plateau. Additionally, the lower crustal deformation belts recognized by the multi-scale scratch analysis coincide approximately with the crustal deformation belts recognized using single-scale scratch analysis. However, deformation belts recognized by the latter are somewhat rough while multi-scale scratch analysis can provide more detailed and accurate results.

  17. Osteoma of the oral and maxillofacial regions in cats: 7 cases (1999-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiani, Nadine; Arzi, Boaz; Johnson, Eric G; Murphy, Brian; Verstraete, Frank J M

    2011-06-01

    Objective-To describe clinical features of oral and maxillofacial osteomas in cats. Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-7 cats with oral or maxillofacial osteoma or both. Procedures-Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, history, clinical signs, physical examination findings, diagnostic imaging findings, results of serum biochemical analyses and histologic testing, surgical procedures performed, and perioperative complications. Outcome was determined on the basis of follow-up telephone interviews of owners. Results-Cats ranged from 1 to 23 years of age. Clinical signs were observed in 5 cats and were attributed to the presence of the mass. Diagnostic imaging (radiography and computed tomography) and histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of osteoma. Three cats were euthanatized; 1 cat was treated by mandibulectomy, 1 was treated by maxillectomy, and 2 were treated by debulking. At the time of follow-up at least 1 year after surgery, all 4 treated cats were alive, with owners reporting an acceptable quality of life. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Osteoma of the oral and maxillofacial regions is an uncommon tumor in cats. Most cats are examined during an advanced stage of the disease, when treatment options may be limited. Although osteoma is a benign tumor, the recommendation is to perform a clinical evaluation, diagnostic imaging, biopsy, and treatment early in the disease process, when less invasive surgical approaches may be feasible.

  18. Fundamentals of ServCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This training manual for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Catalog (ServCat) provides detailed instructions on searching for records, creating records, and...

  19. Nano-scratch study of molecular deposition (MD) films on silicon wafer using nanoindentation~1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Experiment of the molecular deposition (MD) films with and without alkyl terminal de-posited on the silicon wafer were conducted by using nanoindentation. It was found that MD filmsand alkyl terminated MD films exhibit higher critical load (scratch resistance or adhesive strength)and lower coefficient of friction compared with the silicon substrate. Critical load (scratch resis-tance) increases with the number of layers, and coefficients of friction of those MD film with alkylterminal are still best for the same layer of MD film.

  20. Programar para prevenir : o uso do Scratch na segurança na internet

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Ana João Ribeiro; Coutinho, Clara Pereira

    2013-01-01

    O ambiente de programação Scratch, criado pelo MIT em 2007, permite criar facilmente histórias interativas, animações, jogos, música e arte e partilhar essas criações na web. O presente artigo apresenta um projeto de intervenção pedagógica supervisionada, com uma componente investigativa, que envolveu a utilização do Scratch, como estratégia para promover o desenvolvimento de competências e estruturar conhecimentos relativos à Segurança na Internet. O estudo foi implementado numa ...

  1. Programar para prevenir : o uso do Scratch aplicado à segurança na Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Ana João Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Relatório de estágio de mestrado em Ensino de Informática O ambiente de programação Scratch, criado pelo MIT em 2007, permite criar facilmente histórias interativas, animações, jogos, música e arte e partilhar essas criações na web. Este relatório apresenta o projeto de intervenção pedagógica supervisionada, com uma componente investigativa, que envolveu a utilização do Scratch, como estratégia para promover o desenvolvimento de competências e estruturar conhecimentos relativos...

  2. Diseño de videojuegos clásicos con Scratch

    OpenAIRE

    VILLAESCUSA VINADER, SAMUEL

    2015-01-01

    [ES] El presente trabajo se centra en la elaboración de cinco de los grandes videojuegos de la historia (Pong, Space Invaders, Asteroids, Pac Man y Donkey Kong) mediante el uso del lenguaje de programación Scratch. Los cuales, una vez finalizados, serán incluidos en la página web del Museo de Informática de la Escola Tècnica Superior d´Enginyeria Informàtica con el objetivo de demostrar la potencia del lenguaje Scratch, y así animar a más usuarios a usarlo para aprender program...

  3. Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Izumi; Majima, Masataka

    1999-01-01

    Subcutaneous injection of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior of the back of male ddY mice elicited dose-dependent scratching of the injected site with the forepaws and hindpaws.Up to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid induced no significant increase in vascular permeability at the injection site as assessed by a dye leakage method.Bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor antagonists, FR173657 and Hoe140, significantly decreased the frequency of scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid.Treatment...

  4. Seizures and epilepsy in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Moore SA

    2014-01-01

    Sarah A Moore Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Seizures are a common presenting complaint in cats, although causes and options for the treatment of seizures in this species have been historically poorly described in the veterinary literature. Seizure manifestation in cats may be different than what is typically seen in dogs, but the underlying causes of seizure activity are the same. These include primary epilepsies, structura...

  5. Food hypersensitivity in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medleau, L; Latimer, K S; Duncan, J R

    1986-09-15

    Food hypersensitivity was diagnosed in a 4-year-old Siamese cat. Clinical signs included intense erythema, with alopecia, excoriations, erosions, and crusts involving the ventral portion of the abdomen, inguinal region, medial aspect of each thigh, and cranial and lateral aspects of all 4 limbs. The cat was intensely pruritic. Histologically, there was cutaneous mast cell hyperplasia and diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the dermis. Blood eosinophilia also was found. Clinical signs resolved after exclusive feeding of a hypoallergenic diet.

  6. Properties of squeezed Schroedinger cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we investigate some statistical properties of the even and odd squeezed (squeezed Schroedinger cat) states. The quasi-probability distribution functions especially W(α) and Q(α) are calculated and discussed for these states. The phase distribution function is discussed. A generation scheme is proposed for either the squeezed generalized Schroedinger cat, or the squeezed number state. (author). 35 refs, 5 figs

  7. Sarcocystis sp. encephalomyelitis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, Tricia M; Holman, Patricia J; Pitoc, George A; Packer, Rebecca A; Thompson, Craig A; Raskin, Rose E

    2010-03-01

    A 5-month-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for spinal pain, ataxia, and anisocoria. Neuroanatomic localization indicated diffuse or multifocal central nervous system disease. On cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neutrophilic pleocytosis and intracellular protozoal merozoites were observed. The merozoites were oval, 2-4 microm in width and 4-6 microm in length, and had linear arrays of nuclear material concentrated at one pole. Serum was positive for Sarcocystis sp. antibodies and negative for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The organism was determined to be either Sarcocystis neurona or Sarcocystis dasypi based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 ribosomal RNA genomic region. Clinical disease resolved following treatment with 3 different protocols for protozoal infection. This case is the first to demonstrate the antemortem diagnosis and survival of a domestic cat with Sarcocystis sp.-associated encephalomyelitis. Clinicians and cytopathologists should include Sarcocystis sp. as a differential for feline inflammatory central nervous system disease characterized by neutrophilic pleocytosis. PMID:19548967

  8. Acquired retinal folds in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, A D

    1976-06-01

    Retinal folds were found in 5 cats. The apparent cause of the folding was varied: in 1 cat the folds appeared after a localized retinal detachment; in 2 cats the condition accompanied other intraocular abnormalities associated with feline infectious peritonitis; 1 cat had active keratitis, and the retinal changes were thought to have been injury related; and 1 cat, bilaterally affected, had chronic glomerulonephritis. PMID:945253

  9. Echocardiographic Findings in 11 Cats with Acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, J A; Lunn, K.F.; Bright, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Information regarding cardiac changes in domestic cats with acromegaly is limited. Hypothesis/Objectives The objective of this study was to describe the echocardiographic findings in cats with acromegaly. Animals Eighteen cats diagnosed with acromegaly at Colorado State University between 2008 and 2012. Of these 18 cats, 11 had echocardiography performed. Methods A retrospective review of medical records was made to identify cats with acromegaly that also had echocardiography perfo...

  10. Schrodinger's cat: much ado about nothing

    CERN Document Server

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    In this note I briefly discuss the Schrodinger's cat Gedankenexperiment. By analysing the information flow in the system I show that no entanglement exists between the atom and the cat. The atom and the cat are connected only through a classical information channel (detector clicks $\\rightarrow$ poison is released $\\rightarrow$ cat is dead). No amount of local operations and classical communication can entangle the atom and the cat. Consequently, the paradox disappears.

  11. Renal effects of Dirofilaria immitis in experimentally and naturally infected cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, C E; Vaden, S L; Arther, R G; Ciszewski, D K; Davis, W L; Ensley, S M; Chopade, N H

    2011-03-22

    Canine heartworm infection has been associated with glomerular disease and proteinuria. We hypothesized that proteinuria, likely due to glomerular damage, would also be found in cats experimentally and naturally infected with Dirofilaria immitis. Two populations of cats were evaluated, including 80 that were each experimentally infected with 60 infective heartworm larvae as part of a drug safety study, and 31 that were naturally infected with D. immitis. Each had a control population with which to be compared. In the experimentally infected group, we evaluated urine from 64 cats. Ten of these cats were shown to have microalbuminuria 8 months post infection. No cat refractory to infection with larvae and no cats from the control group demonstrated microalbuminuria. All 10 microalbuminuric cats were shown to have significant proteinuria, as measured by the urine protein:creatinine ratio. There was a subtle, but significant, association between worm burden and proteinuria, and although the presence of adult heartworms was required for the development of proteinuria, both microfilaremic and amicrofilaremic cats were affected. Neither the presence of circulating heartworm antibodies and antigen nor the presence of antigenuria predicted the development of proteinuria. Both heavily infected cats (5-25 adult heartworms) and cats with worm burdens compatible with natural infections (1-4 adult heartworms) developed proteinuria, and the relative numbers of cats so affected were similar between heavily and more lightly infected cats. Naturally infected cats, for which only dipstick protein determinations were available, were shown to have a significantly greater incidence of proteinuria (90% vs 35%) than did those in an age- and gender-matched control population. Additionally, the proteinuria in heartworm-infected cats was 3- to 5-fold greater in severity. We conclude that cats infected with mature adult heartworms are at risk for developing proteinuria and that this is

  12. [Feline leishmaniasis: what's the epidemiological role of the cat?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancianti, F

    2004-06-01

    Feline leishmaniasis (FL) is a quite uncommon feature. Clinical disease has been described in cats since nineties begin. More than 40 reports in world literature have been referred, but the clinical cases have been only recently well defined. Most of the reports focus on infected cats living in endemic areas, even if, more recently FL due to Leishmania infantum was found in Sao Paulo State, in Brazil where autochthonous human or canine leishmaniasis cases have never reported. In Europe clinical cases of FL have been described from Portugal, France, Spain and Italy from 1996 to 2002. When a typing of the etiological agent was performed L. infantum was identified in all reported cases. In some endemic areas serological surveys have also been carried out in cats, using IHAT in Egypt, Western blot in France or IFAT in Italy. Sixty Egyptian cats had low serological antibody titers, from 1/32 to 1/128, in the endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis of Alpes Maritimes 12 out of 97 (12.5%) cats showed antibodies versus antigens 14 and/or 18 kDa of L. infantum. A previous survey by means of IFAT in Liguria and Toscana on 110 and 158 feline sera respectively reports a seroprevalence of 0.9% with low titer, while sera from Sicily seem to be positive at higher dilutions. Animals living in an endemic area can develop specific antibodies against leishmania and, in our experience, they can be evidentiated by means of IFAT. The antibody titers appear to be lower in affected cats than in dogs, even if the number of clinical cases is very scanty. PCR tests on feline blood samples are in progress, but preliminary results confirm the presence of leishmania DNA in such specimens. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the more frequent form in cats and it was reported from several countries. Typical signs include nodular to ulcer or crusty lesions on the nose, lips, ears, eyelids, alopecia: clinical signs of cutaneous FL are unspecific and in endemic area this infection must be taken into account

  13. Improving the scratch resistance of sol-gel metal oxide coatings cured at 250 C through use of thermogenerated amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langanke, J.; Arfsten, N.; Buskens, P.; Habets, R.; Klankermayer, J.; Leitner, W.

    2013-01-01

    Scratch resistant sol-gel metal oxide coatings typically require a thermal post-treatment step (curing process) at temperatures between 400 and 700 C. In this report, we demonstrate that the in situ generation of amines within sol-gel films facilitates the preparation of scratch resistant metal oxid

  14. Major Parasitic Zoonoses Associated with Dogs and Cats in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baneth, G.; Thamsborg, S M; Otranto, D;

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most important zoonotic infectious diseases are associated with parasites transmitted from companion animals to man. This review describes the main parasitic zoonoses in Europe related to dogs and cats, with particular emphasis on their current epidemiology. Toxoplasmosis, leishmaniosis...

  15. Comparison of periodontal pathogens between cats and their owners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.E. Booij-Vrieling; W.A. van der Reijden; D.J. Houwers; W.E.A.J. de Wit; C.J. Bosch-Tijhof; L.C. Penning; A.J. van Winkelhoff; H.A.W. Hazewinkel

    2010-01-01

    The periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are strongly associated with periodontal disease and are highly prevalent in humans with periodontitis. Porphyromonas and Tannerella spp. have also been isolated from the oral cavity of cats. The oral microflora in animals w

  16. Nutrition and the skeletal health of dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbee, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the influence of nutrition on skeletal health was studied. Obesity is a common disease in companion animal practice. In dogs and cats obesity often exacerbates osteoarthritis (OA). Although in humans we consider obesity as a serious health issue, in companion animals we proved that o

  17. Will a hiding box provide stress reduction for shelter cats?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke, Claudia; Godijn, L.M.; van der Leij, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis sylvestris catus) can experience serious stress in shelters. Stressful experiences can have a major impact on the cats’ welfare and may cause higher incidences of infectious diseases in the shelters due to raised cortisol levels causing immuno deficiency.Though several studies s

  18. Hepatozoonosis in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lloret, Albert; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    2015-01-01

    OVERVIEW: Hepatozoonosis of domestic cats has been reported in several countries, mainly as a subclinical infection. DISEASE AGENT: Infection has been described mostly in areas where canine infection is present and, in recent years, Hepatozoon felis has been identified as a distinct species by molec

  19. Identification of the presence of the mutation of the gene of PKD not associated with mutation of MYBPC3-A31P of HCM in Persian cats – Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Vanesa Kutz de Arruda; Mariana Isa Poci Palumbo; Priscilla Macedo de Souza; José Paes de Oliveira-Filho; Alexandre Secorun Borges; Maria Lucia Gomes Lourenço

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a hereditary autosomal dominant disorder that mainly affects Persian cats; it is an important cause of chronic kidney disease in this species. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats, and there is evidence of a genetic origin in some breeds. Although neither of these disorders is rare in cats, according to our literature review, this is the first report of the concomitant occurrence of PKD and HCM in Persian cats in Brazil.

  20. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    Full Text Available People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding, revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01. All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05 and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist

  1. Dragonfly: strengthening programming skills by building a game engine from scratch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claypool, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Computer game development has been shown to be an effective hook for motivating students to learn both introductory and advanced computer science topics. While games can be made from scratch, to simplify the programming required game development often uses game engines that handle complicated or frequently used components of the game. These game engines present the opportunity to strengthen programming skills and expose students to a range of fundamental computer science topics. While educational efforts have been effective in using game engines to improve computer science education, there have been no published papers describing and evaluating students building a game engine from scratch as part of their course work. This paper presents the Dragonfly-approach in which students build a fully functional game engine from scratch and make a game using their engine as part of a junior-level course. Details on the programming projects are presented, as well as an evaluation of the results from two offerings that used Dragonfly. Student performance on the projects as well as student assessments demonstrates the efficacy of having students build a game engine from scratch in strengthening their programming skills.

  2. Designing an intranet from scratch to sketch: experiences from techniques used in the IDEnet project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berndtsson, Johan

    1999-01-01

    , participatory design and human-computer interaction. This paper discusses the use of one technique from each of these research areas in the development of an intranet (IDEnet) from `scratch to sketch' at the Department of Computer Science and Business Administration (IDE) in the University College of Karlskrona...

  3. Microstructure and Scratch Resistance of TaC Dense Ceramic Layer on an Iron Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nana; Xu, Yunhua; Zhong, Lisheng; Yan, Honghua; Ovcharenko, Vladimir E.

    2016-06-01

    A tantalum carbide dense ceramic layer with a thickness of ~20 μm was produced on the surface of an iron matrix using an in situ technique. The morphology, microstructure, and phase composition of the layer were characterized by means of SEM, TEM, and XRD. The results show fairly agglomerated and uniformly sized (~200 nm) TaC particulates with a face-cantered cubic structure. The values of nano-hardness for the surface and cross section of reinforcing layer can be as high as 29.5 ± 0.6 and 26.7 ± 0.1 GPa, respectively, which were analyzed using a nano-indentation apparatus. Moreover, the scratch resistance of the layer was measured by scratch tests under a progressively increasing load of 0-100 N. A high critical load of 90.4 N is obtained. It is worthy to note that there are only cracking, slight splitting, and small flaking pits (even at the maximum load) all over the whole scratch process, namely the reinforcing layer can protect the iron matrix from serious abrasion effectively. In addition, the excellent scratch resistance and mechanism are discussed in detail.

  4. Scratch test induced shear banding in high power laser remelted metallic glass layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, D. T. A.; Ocelik, V.; de Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2007-01-01

    Laser remelted surface layers of a Cu-based metallic glass forming alloy have been produced with fully amorphous depths up to 350 mu m for single track widths of around 1.3 mm and have been checked by transmission of synchrotron radiation. They have been subjected to indentation hardness and scratch

  5. A method for predicting critical load evaluating adhesion of coatings in scratch testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈溪芳; 严密; 杨德人; HIROSEYukio

    2003-01-01

    In this paper based on the experiment principle of evaluating adhesion property by scratch testing, the peeling mechanism of thin films is discussed by applying contact theory and surface physics theory. A mathematical model predicting the critical load is proposed for calculating critical load as determined byscratch testing. The factors for correctly evaluating adhesion of coatings according to the experimental data arediscussed.

  6. Proprioceptive control of extensor activity during fictive scratching and weight support compared to fictive locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, M C; Enriquez-Denton, M; Hultborn, H

    1999-12-15

    At rest, extensor group I afferents produce oligosynaptic inhibition of extensor motoneurons. During locomotor activity, however, such inhibition is replaced by oligosynaptic excitation. Oligosynaptic excitation from extensor group I afferents plays a crucial role in the regulation of extensor activity during walking. In this study we investigate the possibility that this mechanism also regulates extensor muscle activity during other motor tasks. We show that the reflex pathways responsible for extensor group I oligosynaptic excitation during fictive locomotion can be activated during both fictive scratching and fictive weight support (tonic motor activity induced by contralateral scratching). These observations suggest that the excitatory group I oligosynaptic reflex pathways are open for transmission during several forms of motor activities. We also show that extensor group I input during fictive scratching can affect the amplitude and the timing of extensor activity in a pattern similar to that observed during locomotion. Most likely these effects involve the activation of the excitatory group I oligosynaptic reflex pathways. Accordingly, it is suggested that extensor group I oligosynaptic excitation during motor activities other than locomotion is also used to regulate extensor muscle activity. Furthermore, the similarity of effects from extensor group I input on the rhythmicity during scratching and locomotion supports the hypothesis that both rhythms are generated by a common network.

  7. Imaging diagnosis: fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klang, Andrea; Kneissl, Sibylle; Glänzel, Romana; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    A 1-year-old female cat was presented for progressive alopecia, gait abnormalities, and stiffness. Radiography demonstrated multiple calcified lesions within the soft tissues of the cervical and thoracic spine, shoulder, and limbs. Postmortem computed tomography provided more detailed information on the distribution, pattern, and extension of lesions. In addition, computed tomography helped guide sample selection for histopathology. The final diagnosis was fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. This is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by fibrosis and heterotopic bone formation in connective tissues. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing this disease in a European cat.

  8. Self Inflicted Dermatological Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ertuğrul H. Aydemir

    2010-01-01

    This group of diseases are characterised with the aggravated types of stress releasing behaviors like scratching, picking, squeezing, and sucking. Lichen simplex chronicus, prurigo nodularis, neurotic excoriations, trichotillomani, and onychotillomani are the diseases in this group. Depression, anxiety, and obsesif compulsive disease are the main underlying psychologic diseases. They need a skillfull psychiatric approach in addition to dermatologic treatment, and should be treated with patien...

  9. Self Inflicted Dermatological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul H. Aydemir

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This group of diseases are characterised with the aggravated types of stress releasing behaviors like scratching, picking, squeezing, and sucking. Lichen simplex chronicus, prurigo nodularis, neurotic excoriations, trichotillomani, and onychotillomani are the diseases in this group. Depression, anxiety, and obsesif compulsive disease are the main underlying psychologic diseases. They need a skillfull psychiatric approach in addition to dermatologic treatment, and should be treated with patience in a long duration.

  10. Feeders of Free-Roaming Cats: Personal Characteristics, Feeding Practices, and Data on Cat Health and Welfare in an Urban Setting of Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Idit; Raz, Tal; Even Zor, Yehonatan; Bachowski, Yuval; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRCs) and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for decision making concerning FRC population control strategies. The current study surveyed 222 FRC feeders who responded to a municipal trap-neuter-return (TNR) campaign in an Israeli central urban setting. The aim of the study was to describe their personal characteristics, feeding practices, and the FRC populations they feed. Feeders were divided into four groups according to the number of cats they claimed to feed per day (group 1: fed up to 5 cats, group 2: fed 6-10 cats, group 3: fed 11-20 cats, and group 4: fed ≥21 cats). Most feeders were women (81%), with a median age of 58 years (range 18-81). The feeders reported an overall feeding of 3337 cats in 342 different feeding locations. Feeders of group 4 comprised 15.31% (n = 34) of all feeders but fed 56% (n = 1869) of the FRC in 37.42% (n = 128) of the feeding locations. "Heavy" feeders (groups 3 and 4) reported that they traveled significantly longer distances in order to feed the cats. Commercial dry food consisted of 90% of the food they provided, with 66% of them feeding once a day, with less food per cat per day than the other feeder groups. Interestingly, "heavy" feeders were usually singles, had on average fewer siblings, a clear preference for owning cats as pets, and lived in lower income neighborhoods. According to the feeders' reports on the FRC populations they fed, 69.7% (2325/3337) cats were neutered and 11.8% (395/3337) were kittens. In addition, they reported that 1.6% (54/3337) of the cats were limping, 2% (67/3337) suffered from a systemic disease, 4% (135/3337) had skin lesions, and 3.9% (130/3337) were suffering from a chronic disability. Abundance of kittens and morbidity rate were

  11. Feeders of free-roaming cats: personal characteristics, feeding practices and data on cat health and welfare in an urban setting of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idit eGunther

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRC and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for decision making concerning FRC population control strategies. The current study surveyed 222 FRC feeders who responded to a municipal trap-neuter-return (TNR campaign in an Israeli central urban setting. The aim of the study was to describe their personal characteristics, feeding practices and the FRC populations they feed. Feeders were divided into four groups according to the number of cats they claimed to feed per day (group 1: fed up to five cats; group 2: fed six to 10 cats; group 3: fed 11-20 cats; group 4: fed ≥21 cats. Most feeders were women (81%, with a median age of 58 years (range 18-81. The feeders reported an overall feeding of 3,337 cats in 342 different feeding locations. Feeders of group 4 comprised of 15.31% (n=34 of all feeders, but fed 56% (n=1869 of the FRC in 37.42% (n=128 of the feeding locations. 'Heavy' feeders (groups 3 and 4 reported that they traveled significantly longer distances in order to feed the cats. Commercial dry food consisted of 90% of the food they provided, with 66% of them feeding once a day, with less food per cat per day than the other feeder groups. Interestingly, 'heavy' feeders were usually singles, had on average fewer siblings, a clear preference for owning cats as pets and lived in lower income neighborhoods. According to the feeders' reports on the FRC populations they fed, 69.7% (2325/3337 cats were neutered and 11.8% (395/3337 were kittens. In addition, they reported that 1.6% (54/3337 of the cats were limping, 2% (67/3337 suffered from a systemic disease, 4% (135/3337 had skin lesions, and 3.9% (130/3337 were suffering from a chronic disability. Abundance of kittens and morbidity rate were significantly and

  12. Feeders of Free-Roaming Cats: Personal Characteristics, Feeding Practices, and Data on Cat Health and Welfare in an Urban Setting of Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Idit; Raz, Tal; Even Zor, Yehonatan; Bachowski, Yuval; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRCs) and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for decision making concerning FRC population control strategies. The current study surveyed 222 FRC feeders who responded to a municipal trap-neuter-return (TNR) campaign in an Israeli central urban setting. The aim of the study was to describe their personal characteristics, feeding practices, and the FRC populations they feed. Feeders were divided into four groups according to the number of cats they claimed to feed per day (group 1: fed up to 5 cats, group 2: fed 6-10 cats, group 3: fed 11-20 cats, and group 4: fed ≥21 cats). Most feeders were women (81%), with a median age of 58 years (range 18-81). The feeders reported an overall feeding of 3337 cats in 342 different feeding locations. Feeders of group 4 comprised 15.31% (n = 34) of all feeders but fed 56% (n = 1869) of the FRC in 37.42% (n = 128) of the feeding locations. "Heavy" feeders (groups 3 and 4) reported that they traveled significantly longer distances in order to feed the cats. Commercial dry food consisted of 90% of the food they provided, with 66% of them feeding once a day, with less food per cat per day than the other feeder groups. Interestingly, "heavy" feeders were usually singles, had on average fewer siblings, a clear preference for owning cats as pets, and lived in lower income neighborhoods. According to the feeders' reports on the FRC populations they fed, 69.7% (2325/3337) cats were neutered and 11.8% (395/3337) were kittens. In addition, they reported that 1.6% (54/3337) of the cats were limping, 2% (67/3337) suffered from a systemic disease, 4% (135/3337) had skin lesions, and 3.9% (130/3337) were suffering from a chronic disability. Abundance of kittens and morbidity rate were

  13. Tissue distribution of amyloid deposits in Abyssinian cats with familial amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartola, S P; Tarr, M J; Benson, M D

    1986-07-01

    The tissue distribution of amyloid deposits was studied in 15 related Abyssinian cats with familial amyloidosis. There was interstitial medullary amyloidosis in the kidneys of all 15 cats but only 11 had detectable glomerular involvement. The thyroid glands, stomach and colon were affected in all cats examined. Most of the cats also had amyloid deposits in the small intestine, spleen, heart, adrenals, pancreas, liver, lymph nodes and bladder. In 50 per cent or fewer of the cats examined, there was involvement of the parathyroids, lung and gonads. The central nervous system was not involved in any of the 3 cats evaluated. In 8 of the cats, no concurrent inflammatory disease could be detected. The tissue distribution of amyloid deposits resembled that found in other breeds of domestic cats with systemic amyloidosis. Despite the wide tissue distribution of amyloid deposits, clinical signs were related to renal amyloidosis. Familial amyloidosis in the Abyssinian cat may represent a valuable spontaneous animal model for the study of Familial Mediterranean Fever in man and the pathogenesis of reactive amyloidosis in general. PMID:3734172

  14. Survey of Helicobacter infection in domestic and feral cats in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghil, Heh-Myung; Yoo, Jong-Hyeon; Jung, Woo-Sung; Chung, Tae-Ho; Youn, Hwa-Young; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2009-03-01

    Discovery of Helicobacter (H.) pylori has led to a fundamental change in our understanding of gastric diseases in humans. Previous studies have found various Helicobacter spp. in dogs and cats, and pets have been questioned as a zoonotic carrier. The present study surveyed the Helicobacter infections and investigated the presence of H. felis and H. pylori infections in domestic and feral cats in Korea. Sixty-four domestic cats and 101 feral cats were selected from an animal shelter. Saliva and feces were evaluated by Helicobacter genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genus-specific PCR positive samples were further evaluated for H. felis and H. pylori using specific primer pairs. Thirty-six of 64 (56.3%) samples from domestic cats and 92 of 101 (91.1%) samples from feral cats were PCR positive; the positive rate of feces samples was higher than that of saliva samples in both groups. H. felis and H. pylori species-specific PCR was uniformly negative. The prevalence of Helicobacter spp. in feral cats was approximately two-fold higher than that of domestic cats. The fecal-oral route may be more a common transmission route not only between cats but also in humans. PMID:19255526

  15. Energy requirements of adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Emma N; Thomas, David G; Morris, Penelope J; Hawthorne, Amanda J

    2010-04-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out in order to establish the energy requirements of adult cats. Publications that identified cat body weight (BW) were used to generate allometric relationships between energy requirements and BW of healthy adult cats, using log-log linear regression. Energy requirements were expressed in kcal/kg BW to be consistent with those reported by the National Research Council. Mean maintenance energy requirements were 55.1 (se 1.2) kcal/kg BW (115 treatment groups). Three allometric equations were identified to predict the energy requirements for maintenance of BW in the cat based on BW: light (53.7 kcal/kg BW- 1.061), normal (46.8 kcal/kg BW- 1.115) and heavy (131.8 kcal/kg BW- 0 .366). When reported on lean mass, the allometric equation revealed maintenance requirements were 58.4 kcal/kg lean mass- 1.140 (adjusted R2 0.694; thirty-six treatment groups). The present review suggests that values for maintenance energy requirements based on BW alone may not be an accurate prediction and more detailed information on the age, sex and neuter status, BW and composition would enhance the ability to interpret the maintenance energy requirements of cats.

  16. Epidemiology of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis in cats hospitalized in a veterinary teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyak, Jonathan M; Sharp, Claire R

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiology of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis in cats hospitalized in a veterinary teaching hospital. DESIGN Observational study. ANIMALS 246 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES During a 3-month period, daily treatment records were evaluated for all hospitalized cats. Information extracted included signalment, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, diagnostic test results, diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, and outcome (survival or death). Cats were classified into 1 of 4 disease categories (sepsis [confirmed infection and SIRS], infection [confirmed infection without SIRS], noninfectious SIRS [SIRS without a confirmed infection], and no SIRS [no SIRS or infection]). RESULTS Of the 246 cats, 26 and 3 were hospitalized 2 and 3 times, respectively; thus, 275 hospitalizations were evaluated. When SIRS was defined as the presence of ≥ 2 of 4 SIRS criteria, 17 cats had sepsis, 16 had infections, 81 had noninfectious SIRS, and 161 were classified in the no SIRS category at hospital admission. The prevalence of sepsis at hospital admission was 6.2 cases/100 admissions. Four cats developed sepsis while hospitalized, resulting in a sepsis incidence rate of 1.5 cases/100 hospital admissions. Four of 17 cats with sepsis at hospital admission and 3 of 4 cats that developed sepsis while hospitalized died or were euthanized, resulting in a mortality rate of 33.3% for septic cats; 239 hospitalizations resulted in survival, 28 resulted in euthanasia, and 8 resulted in death. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that many hospitalized cats have evidence of SIRS and some have sepsis. In cats, sepsis is an important clinical entity with a high mortality rate. PMID:27308883

  17. Conditions for Multi-functionality in a Rhythm Generating Network Inspired by Turtle Scratching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abigail C; Rubin, Jonathan E

    2015-12-01

    Rhythmic behaviors such as breathing, walking, and scratching are vital to many species. Such behaviors can emerge from groups of neurons, called central pattern generators, in the absence of rhythmic inputs. In vertebrates, the identification of the cells that constitute the central pattern generator for particular rhythmic behaviors is difficult, and often, its existence has only been inferred. For example, under experimental conditions, intact turtles generate several rhythmic scratch motor patterns corresponding to non-rhythmic stimulation of different body regions. These patterns feature alternating phases of motoneuron activation that occur repeatedly, with different patterns distinguished by the relative timing and duration of activity of hip extensor, hip flexor, and knee extensor motoneurons. While the central pattern generator network responsible for these outputs has not been located, there is hope to use motoneuron recordings to deduce its properties. To this end, this work presents a model of a previously proposed central pattern generator network and analyzes its capability to produce two distinct scratch rhythms from a single neuron pool, selected by different combinations of tonic drive parameters but with fixed strengths of connections within the network. We show through simulation that the proposed network can achieve the desired multi-functionality, even though it relies on hip unit generators to recruit appropriately timed knee extensor motoneuron activity, including a delay relative to hip activation in rostral scratch. Furthermore, we develop a phase space representation, focusing on the inputs to and the intrinsic slow variable of the knee extensor motoneuron, which we use to derive sufficient conditions for the network to realize each rhythm and which illustrates the role of a saddle-node bifurcation in achieving the knee extensor delay. This framework is harnessed to consider bistability and to make predictions about the responses of the

  18. Conditions for Multi-functionality in a Rhythm Generating Network Inspired by Turtle Scratching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abigail C; Rubin, Jonathan E

    2015-12-01

    Rhythmic behaviors such as breathing, walking, and scratching are vital to many species. Such behaviors can emerge from groups of neurons, called central pattern generators, in the absence of rhythmic inputs. In vertebrates, the identification of the cells that constitute the central pattern generator for particular rhythmic behaviors is difficult, and often, its existence has only been inferred. For example, under experimental conditions, intact turtles generate several rhythmic scratch motor patterns corresponding to non-rhythmic stimulation of different body regions. These patterns feature alternating phases of motoneuron activation that occur repeatedly, with different patterns distinguished by the relative timing and duration of activity of hip extensor, hip flexor, and knee extensor motoneurons. While the central pattern generator network responsible for these outputs has not been located, there is hope to use motoneuron recordings to deduce its properties. To this end, this work presents a model of a previously proposed central pattern generator network and analyzes its capability to produce two distinct scratch rhythms from a single neuron pool, selected by different combinations of tonic drive parameters but with fixed strengths of connections within the network. We show through simulation that the proposed network can achieve the desired multi-functionality, even though it relies on hip unit generators to recruit appropriately timed knee extensor motoneuron activity, including a delay relative to hip activation in rostral scratch. Furthermore, we develop a phase space representation, focusing on the inputs to and the intrinsic slow variable of the knee extensor motoneuron, which we use to derive sufficient conditions for the network to realize each rhythm and which illustrates the role of a saddle-node bifurcation in achieving the knee extensor delay. This framework is harnessed to consider bistability and to make predictions about the responses of the

  19. Scratching the First Teflon Presidency: Frank Kent vs. Franklin Roosevelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasky, Marvin N.

    While the typical pantheon of journalism history heroes is made up almost entirely of individuals who campaigned for more governmental regulation and increased social liberalism, there is also an opposing tradition in American journalism, one based on the premise that governmental cures are in most cases worse than the diseases they are designed…

  20. Mucolipidosis type II in a domestic shorthair cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seven-month-old, female domestic shorthair cat was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Zurich, with abnormal facial features, retarded growth and progressive hindlimb paresis. On physical examination the cat had a flat, broad face with hypertelorism, frontal bossing, small ears and thickened upper and lower eyelids. The corneas of both eyes were clear and the pupils were dilated. The skin was generally thickened, most prominently on the dorsal aspect of the neck. Radiography of the entire skeleton revealed a severely deformed spinal column, bilateral hip luxation with hip dysplasia, an abnormally shaped skull and generalised decreased bone opacity. The clinical features and radiographic changes were suggestive of mucopolysaccharidosis. The toluidine blue spot test on a urine sample, however, was negative for glycosaminoglycans. Further biochemical investigations revealed a deficiency of the enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase (GlcNAc-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.8.17) in peripheral leukocytes and an elevation of many lysosomal enzymes in the serum of the cat which is diagnostic for mucolipidosis type II. Histology and electron microscopy of different tissues are briefly summarised. The findings of this cat, the first reported case of mucolipidosis type II are compared with other similar storage diseases described in the cat

  1. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI in a Siamese/short-haired European cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, B; Marino, F; Mazzullo, G; Trusso, A; De Maria, R; Amedeo, S; Divari, S; Castagnaro, M

    2002-10-01

    A 3-year-old Siamese/short-haired European cat was referred for clinical disease characterized by dwarfism, facial dysmorphia, paralysis, small and curled ears, corneal clouding and large areas of alopecia. X-ray examination showed multiple bone dysplasia. On the basis of clinical features a form of mucopolysaccharidosis was suspected. The cat, killed at the owner's request, presented several severe skeletal deformities such as long caudal limbs, enlarged thorax with sunken breastbone, vertebral ankylosis in many spinal segments and visceral involvement. Histologically, the cat showed diffuse vacuolization and enlargement of cells in cartilage, bone and visceral organs. Ultrastructurally, membrane-bound vacuoles were filled with fibrillar and fluffy-material or concentrically whorled lamellae. Arylsulphatase B activity was 3.24 nm/mg/h in the affected cat and 30.6 in a normal age-matched control (NC). The L-iduronidase activity was slightly increased. Quantitation of total glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) revealed a 4.5-fold increase in the affected cat as compared with NC, while electrophoretic run of specific GAGs [chondroitin sulphate (CA); hyaluronan (HA); heparan sulphate (HS); dermatan sulphate (DS); keratan sulphate (KS)] performed on a cellulose acetate sheet, showed a striking increase in the DS band. On densitometric analysis of the electrophoretic run stained with Alcian Blue 8GX, the absorption of DS was eight-fold increased as compared with NC. The clinical and morphological features, and the biochemical findings, were consistent with the diagnosis of feline mucopolysaccharidosis VI.

  2. On Schr\\"odinger's cat

    CERN Document Server

    de Silva, Nalin

    2010-01-01

    Schr\\"odinger's cat appears to have been harassed in a chamber during the past eighty years or so by interpreting the role of the observer as a person, who sets an experiment and then observes results, may be after some time. The realist position tells us that the physical processes would take place independent of the observer with well defined properties, whereas the positivist position wants us to believe that nothing can be said of a system when it is not being observed. In this paper we question both these positions and also the assumption that the atom and the cat are entangled and further whether the atom could be considered to be in a state of decay and not decay. We let the cat either out of the bag (chamber) or rest in peace with or without the atom or the observer.

  3. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats. PMID:26218243

  4. Radiographic Evaluation of Pulmonary Pattern Changes in 27 Cats and 58 Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    TEMİZSOYLU, Mustafa Doğa

    2003-01-01

    This study sought to determine the roles and effectiveness of findings obtained from radiographic examinations of lungs in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases and to place radiographic findings into routine practice in dogs and cats. Fifty-eight dogs and 27 cats of different breeds, sexes and ages suspected of having pulmonary disease were used as the study materials after clinical examination and anamnesis. The pulmonary radiographies of these cases were appropriately taken and radiographic ...

  5. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if my pet has a tapeworm infection? Although cats and dogs are rarely ill as a result of a ... and outdoor environments. Have your veterinarian treat your dogs and cats promptly if they have tapeworms. Clean up after ...

  6. The Nucleon as a Holographic Cheshire Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Zahed, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The Cheshire cat principle emerges naturally from the holographic approach of the nucleon in terms of a bulk instanton. The cat hides in the holographic direction. I briefly review the one-nucleon problem in the holographic limit.

  7. The nucleon as a holographic Cheshire cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cheshire cat principle emerges naturally from the holographic approach of the nucleon in terms of a bulk instanton. The cat hides in the holographic direction. I briefly review the one-nucleon problem in the holographic limit

  8. Degenerative mucinotic mural folliculitis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, T L; Olivry, T; Vitale, C B; Power, H T

    2001-10-01

    A novel form of mural folliculitis is described in seven cats. Clinically, all cats exhibited generalized alopecia with scaling or crusting that was more pronounced over the head, neck, and shoulders. The face and muzzle of all cats was unusually thickened. Six of seven cats were progressively lethargic but did not demonstrate any other consistent systemic abnormalities. Histologically, there was severe mixed inflammation of the wall of the follicular isthmus in all cats, accompanied by some follicular destruction in five cats. Sebaceous glands were not affected. All cats had variable, but often striking, follicular mucin deposition, as well as epidermal hyperkeratosis and crusting. The cause of the severe mural folliculitis was not identified, and all cats responded poorly to immunomodulating therapy. Follicular mucinosis may be a nonspecific finding, likely reflective of the follicular lymphocytic milieu, and does not always herald follicular lymphoma.

  9. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  10. Effect of Polyprenyl Immunostimulant on the survival times of three cats with the dry form of feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Alfred M; Bartges, Joseph W

    2009-08-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is considered a fatal disease. Three cats with dry form FIP were treated with Polyprenyl Immunostimulant. Two of the three cats are still on treatment and are alive and well 2 years after diagnosis. The third cat survived 14 months but was treated for only 4.5 months. Further studies are necessary to assess the potential of the Polyprenyl Immunostimulant.

  11. Dirac Cat States in Relativistic Landau Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Bermudez, A.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Solano, E.

    2007-01-01

    We show that a relativistic version of Schrodinger cat states, here called Dirac cat states, can be built in relativistic Landau levels when an external magnetic field couples to a relativistic spin 1/2 charged particle. Under suitable initial conditions, the associated Dirac equation produces unitarily Dirac cat states involving the orbital quanta of the particle in a well defined mesoscopic regime. We demonstrate that the proposed Dirac cat states have a purely relativistic origin and cease...

  12. Halal Cat Food for the World Market

    OpenAIRE

    Amir H.M.S; Razauden Z; Harisun Y; Ida I.M; Mona Z

    2014-01-01

    Currently, University Technology Malaysia (UTM) is engaged with a well-known private company in Malaysia to develop halal cat food for the world. A team of scientists from UTM was formed for the development of cat food from preparing palatants to producing canned cat and kibbled cat food formulation on a commercial scale to fulfil the vast market demand, as well as to act as contract manufacturer for this private company. Financial aid is made available by the university and Malaysian governm...

  13. Escore de condição corporal como indicador do prognóstico de gatos com doença renal crônica Body condition score as an indicator of prognosis for cats with chronic renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Nobre e Castro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A caquexia tem sido relacionada à maior mortalidade de pacientes com doença renal crônica, tanto em humanos, como em animais. O escore de condição corporal (ECC pode ser utilizado em conjunto com o peso para melhor avaliação da composição corporal desses animais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi de correlacionar o escore de condição corporal com o prognóstico de felinos com doença renal crônica. Avaliaram-se 110 felinos idosos, dos quais 70 apresentavam-se hígidos (Grupo I e 40 apresentavam doença renal crônica (Grupo II. No grupo I, apenas 5,7% dos gatos apresentaram ECC abaixo do ideal e destes nenhum foi classificado como caquético. No grupo II, 70% dos gatos apresentaram ECC abaixo do ideal, dos quais 32,5% eram caquéticos. A taxa de mortalidade no grupo II foi significantemente maior naqueles caquéticos. O ECC abaixo do considerado ideal indica um prognóstico desfavorável nos pacientes com doença renal crônica.Cachexia has been associated with higher mortality in patients with chronic renal disease both in human and veterinary medicine. Body condition score (BCS can be used along with body weight for a better evaluation of a patient's body composition. The objective of this study was to associate body condition score with prognosis of cats with chronic renal disease. One hundred and ten elderly cats were evaluated; of which 70 were healthy (Group I and 40 had been diagnosed with chronic renal disease (Group II. In Group I, only 5.7% of the cats presented a BCS below ideal, though none were found to be cachectic. In Group II, 70% of the cats presented a BCS below ideal, where 32.5% were cachectic. Mortality was significantly higher within the cachectic patients of Group II. BCS below ideal indicates a poor prognosis for patients with chronic renal disease.

  14. Genitourinary dysplasia in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A six-month-old kitten had congenital urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence due to urethral hypoplasia and associated uterine hypoplasia and vaginal aplasia. Diagnosis was based on radiographic examination, surgical exploration and histological examination of the lower urinary tract. Surgical correction resulted in a marked clinical improvement. The cat became fully continent following treatment with phenylpropanolamine

  15. A strange cat in Dublin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  16. Lessons from the Cheshire Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinberg, Donna

    2012-01-01

    "If you don't know where you're going, any road will take you there." This oft-cited but not-quite-accurate quote is from the Lewis Carroll's classic children's tale, Alice in Wonderland. In Carroll's altered reality, the conversation between the disoriented Alice and the mysterious Cheshire Cat actually went like this: "Would you tell me, please,…

  17. Cats & Dogs%猫狗大战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿萌

    2003-01-01

    @@ ( Dogs and cats are permanent enemies. A dog named Bubby is catnapped by the cats. The whole cats' world is shocked and alert. ) Dog Chairman: Gentlemen, a few moments ago I received word of the gravest nature. The key agent working the Brody case has been catnapped. Although he is safe, new must replace him as soon as possible.

  18. Bronchoalveolar lavage as a tool for evaluation of cellular alteration during Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor M. Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL is a procedure that retrieves cells and other elements from the lungs for evaluation, which helps in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to perform this procedure for cellular analysis of BAL fluid alterations during experimental infection with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats. Fourteen cats were individually inoculated with 800 third stage larvae of A. abstrusus and five non-infected cats lined as a control group. The BAL procedure was performed through the use of an endotracheal tube on the nineteen cats with a mean age of 18 months, on 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 270 days after infection. Absolute cell counts in the infected cats revealed that alveolar macrophages and eosinophils were the predominant cells following infection. This study shows that the technique allows us to retrieve cells and first stage larvae what provides information about the inflammatory process caused by aelurostrongylosis.

  19. Radiographic evaluation of cardiac silhouette in healthy Maine Coon cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Sabino de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the size of the heart is important for evaluating cardiac patients, because the increase of the cardiac silhouette in the chest radiography can be indicative of heart disease. The vertebral heart size (VHS method is useful because it allows objective assessment of the limits of cardiac silhouette, and can help assess cardiomegaly and document changes in heart size in response to treatment or disease progression. The aim of this study was to compare VHS values of Maine Coon cats (MCC with values cited in the literature (7.5 ± 0.3 vertebrae obtained in non Maine Coon cats (NMCC. Sixty three MCC underwent the physical examination, electrocardiography, echocardiography, laboratory tests (blood count, biochemistry, including liver and kidney function, and total T4, as well as measurement of blood pressure. Faced with normal results, the cats were positioned in right lateral decubitus (right laterallateral projection, to perform chest radiography. The radiographic examinations were performed using the Fuji computed radiography system. The values of VHS found in the animals of this study were 7.61 ± 0.34 vertebrae with a minimum of 6.9 and of maximum 8.5 vertebrae. Statistical analysis performed by Student’s t test identified a significant difference between the values obtained in this study with those in the literature (p = 0.03 for non Maine Coon cats. The highest values of VHS obtained in MCC may be associated with the size of this giant breed.

  20. Human-related factors regulate the spatial ecology of domestic cats in sensitive areas for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim P Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights, while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms. All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km, using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved. In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. CONCLUSIONS: The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes.

  1. Processing, nano indentation and scratch testing of alumina-coated YTZP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, J.; Anglada, M.; Ferrari, B.; Baudin, C.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, alumina-coated YTZP materials are proposed as means to combine the mechanical reliability of YTZP with the stiffness and hardness of alumina. Additionally, compressive stresses are developed in the alumina coating when cooling from the sintering temperature due to the thermal expansion mismatch between alumina and YTZP. The proposed processing method involves dipping of pre-sintered YTZP specimens in stable alumina suspensions and co-sintering of the dipped specimens. The influence of the processing parameters on the macro and microstructure of the materials has been established. Berkovich indentation has been performed to determine the Young's modulus of the substrates and coatings. The structural integrity of the coatings has been analysed using scratch tests. The Young's modulus. The optimised specimens present high resistance to scratch up to loads of 150 N. (Author)

  2. A study of AFM-based scratch process on polycarbonate surface and grating application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the possibility of applying atomic force microscope (AFM) lithography to draw micro/nano-structures on the surface of a polycarbonate (PC) substrate. We also fabricated a grating structure on the PC surface using the scratch method. An AFM silicon tip coated with a diamond layer was utilized as a cutting tool to scratch the surface of the sample. In order to obtain pattern depth deeper than the control method of interaction force, we used a scanner movement method which the sample scanner moves along the Z-axis. A grating of 100 μm x 150 μm was fabricated by the step and repeat method wherein the sample stage is moved in the direction of the XY-axis. The period and the depth of the grating are 500 and 50 nm, respectively. Light of 632.8 nm wavelength was diffracted on the surface of the PC substrate.

  3. Análise e desenvolvimento de extensões de controlo para o ambiente Scratch

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, João Pedro da Cunha

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Engenharia Informática A Programação Visual permite a construção de programas usando imagens, ícones, entre outros elementos gráficos, em vez da usual escrita de texto. A linguagem Scratch é uma linguagem de programação visual lançada em 2007 pelo MIT Media Lab, que tem vindo a ser usada em contextos de ensino para crianças e em contextos de programação lightweight. O ambiente Scratch foi desenvolvido usando a linguagem de programação por objetos Squeak Smalltalk...

  4. Plasma and urine biochemical changes in cats with experimental immune complex glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, S A; Lucke, V M; Stokes, C R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J

    1991-01-01

    Biochemical changes in plasma and urine were monitored in six cats before and during the induction of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (ICGN) by daily intravenous administration of human serum albumin (HSA). The earliest indication of renal dysfunction in the cats was hypoalbuminaemia, which occurred as early as 13 weeks before cats developed clinical signs of renal disease. Proteinuria occurred 2 to 3 weeks before clinical disease, but was sensitive in predicting renal pathology in two cats that did not develop clinical signs of disease. In addition, increased activities of several urinary enzymes were detected in affected cats, with measurement of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and gamma-glutamyl transferase providing the earliest and most sensitive indication of renal damage. These plasma and urine measurements correlated more closely with the renal pathology, observed at postmortem, than clinical assessment of disease. It was concluded that ICGN in the cat could be diagnosed earliest by measurement of plasma protein concentration, whilst disease progress could be effectively monitored by including assays to measure urine protein and urine enzymes. PMID:1826913

  5. Amyloidosis in black-footed cats (Felis nigripes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terio, K A; O'Brien, T; Lamberski, N; Famula, T R; Munson, L

    2008-05-01

    A high prevalence of systemic amyloidosis was documented in the black-footed cat (Felis nigripes) based on a retrospective review of necropsy tissues (n = 38) submitted as part of ongoing disease surveillance. Some degree of amyloid deposition was present in 33 of 38 (87%) of the examined cats, and amyloidosis was the most common cause of death (26/38, 68%). Amyloid deposition was most severe in the renal medullary interstitium (30/33, 91%) and glomeruli (21/33, 63%). Other common sites included the splenic follicular germinal centers (26/31, 84%), gastric lamina propria (9/23, 39%), and intestinal lamina propria (3/23, 13%). Amyloid in all sites stained with Congo red, and in 13 of 15 (87%) cats, deposits had strong immunoreactivity for canine AA protein by immunohistochemistry. There was no association with concurrent chronic inflammatory conditions (P = .51), suggesting that amyloidosis was not secondary to inflammation. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia, a morphologic indicator of stress that can predispose to amyloid deposition, was similarly not associated (P = .09) with amyloidosis. However, adrenals were not available from the majority of cats without amyloidosis; therefore, further analysis of this risk factor is warranted. Heritability estimation suggested that amyloidosis might be familial in this species. Additionally, tissues from a single free-ranging black-footed cat had small amounts of amyloid deposition, suggesting that there could be a predilection for amyloidosis in this species. Research to identify the protein sequence of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the black-footed cat is needed to further investigate the possibility of an amyloidogenic SAA in this species.

  6. A Scratch-like visual programming system for Microsoft Windows Phone 8

    OpenAIRE

    Harzl, Annemarie; Neidhoefer, Philipp; Rock, Valentin; Schafzahl, Maximilian; Slany, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Pocket Code is a free and open source mobile visual programming system for the Catrobat language. It allows users, starting from the age of eight, to develop games and animations with their smartphones. Children can create programs with their Android phone, iPhone, Windows Phone, or other smartphone with an HTML5 browser. No notebook or desktop computer is needed. Pocket Code is inspired by, but distinct from, the Scratch programming system developed by the Lifelong Kindergarten Group at the ...

  7. The Effects of Teaching Programming via Scratch on Problem Solving Skills: A Discussion from Learners' Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    The Effects of Teaching Programming via Scratch on Problem Solving Skills: A Discussion from Learners' Perspective; GÜLBAHAR, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Computer programming is perceived as an important competence for the development of problem solving skills in addition to logical reasoning. Hence, its integration throughout all educational levels, as well as the early ages, is considered valuable and research studies are carried out to explore the phenomenon in more detail. In light of these facts, this study is an exploratory effort to investigate the effect of Scratch programming on 5th grade primary school students' problem solving skill...

  8. A Survey of Scratch-Pad Memory Management Techniques for low-power and -energy

    OpenAIRE

    Idrissi Aouad, Maha; Zendra, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    ICOOOLPS'2007 was co-located with the 21st European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP'2007). International audience Scratch-Pad Memories (SPMs) are considered to be effective in helping reduce memory energy consumption. However, the variety of SPM management techniques complicates the choice of the right one to implement. In this paper, we first give a synthesis on existing SPM management techniques for low-power and -energy outlining their comparative advantages, drawbac...

  9. Organic ultrathin film adhesion on compliant substrate using scratch test technique

    OpenAIRE

    Boddaert, Xavier; Covarel, Grégory; Ben Saïd, Bassem; Mattei, Mylene; Benaben, Patrick; Bois, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    International audience Many adhesion test techniques have been developed to measure the adhesion energy of thin films but they are hard to implement in the case of submicron organic thin films deposited on a flexible substrate. Recently the feasibility and repeatability of the scratch test technique as a tool for testing the adhesion and the damage behaviour of ultra-thin films on polymer substrates has been demonstrated. However, direct comparison of the critical load between samples was ...

  10. Standard Test Method for Intensity of Scratches on Aerospace Transparent Plastics

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the visual inspection of shallow or superficial scratches on the surface of aerospace transparent plastic materials. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Comparison of the effects of long-term pimobendan and benazepril administration in normal cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Yuichi; Machida, Noboru; Toda, Noriko; Tominaga, Yoshinori; Takemura, Naoyuki

    2016-08-01

    Pimobendan (PIMO) can cause adverse effects, such as mitral valve degeneration, in dogs; however, it is unclear whether these effects occur in cats. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether PIMO or benazepril produces adverse cardiac effects in healthy cats. This was a blinded, randomized, prospective parallel study. Twelve cats were randomly divided into two groups of six cats, namely, an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor group that received benazepril and a PIMO group. Cats were administered their respective treatments for 506 days, and we evaluated cardiac parameters, blood biochemistry and glomerular filtration rates during that time. At the end of the trial, the cats were euthanized, and histopathological examinations were performed by a pathologist who was blinded to the treatment groups. No significant changes were observed in any of the parameters measured in either of the groups. In particular, no significant cardiac lesions were observed in either of the groups. In healthy cats, neither PIMO nor benazepril appears to cause cardiac lesions, but future studies are needed to examine the effects of PIMO in cats with heart disease. PMID:26972332

  12. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Assis Braga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5% cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4% cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned.

  13. Gait and jump analysis in healthy cats using a pressure mat system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, Sarah M; Bergh, Anna K

    2015-06-01

    Physical orthopaedic examination in cats does not always reveal signs of lameness and no objective gait analysis method has yet been standardised for use in cats. The aims of the present study were to define appropriate parameters for pressure mat analyses during walk and jump, and to define reference values for gait parameters of healthy cats. Further, the distribution of the vertical force within the paws and the influence of a non-centred head position were investigated. The hypothesis was that cats have a symmetrical gait, a front/hindlimb asymmetry similar to dogs, and that peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) have high intraclass correlation coefficients, confirming the reliability of these parameters. Data for walking (n = 46) showed gait symmetry indices of close to 1.0, besides PVF front/hind (1.3 ± 0.2). The PVF front/hind for jumping cats (n = 16) was 1.7 ± 0.6. Results from the distribution of the vertical force within the paw (n = 39) showed that the main weight during a strike is transferred from the caudal towards the craniomedial part of the paw. The findings support the hypothesis that healthy cats have similar gait symmetry to healthy dogs and that PVF and VI are reliable gait parameters. In conclusion, the present study provides a reference interval for healthy cats. Further studies are needed to investigate gait parameters in cats with orthopaedic disease.

  14. Dietary dissolution of urinary calculi in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A young adult, castrated male DSH cat was admitted for pollakiuria, hematuria and dysuria. The cat was being fed a commercial dry grocery brand cat food. Radiographs demonstrated multiple radiodense cystic calculi and urinalysis showed hematuria but no crystalluria. A tentative diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis was made. The cat was fed s/d® Feline food exclusively. Clinical signs disappeared within a week and no calculi were visible radiographically within three weeks. s/d® Feline food was continued an additional two weeks. This case study shows that s/d® Feline therapeutic food can be used to successfully manage struvite urolithiasis in cats

  15. My Experience of Feeding a Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔琳

    2006-01-01

    I liked cat very much. In my old opinion, cat was cute and gentle. One day, my friend asked me to feed the cat for him. So I went to his house in order to take care of his cat. His neighbor was an old woman. When I was doing some cleaning, the old woman asked me if I needed some help. Suddenly, the cat stretched out its sharp claws, and clawed me and bit me with its sharp teeth. WowA It was too abrupt. The old woman got scared. “It goes crazyA” I said and asked her to get out of the room, otherwise she woul...

  16. Hologravure as a computer-generated and laser engraved scratch hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augier, Ángel G.; Sánchez, Raúl B.

    2011-01-01

    We presented "hologravure" as the generalization of a scratch hologram, generated by computer from a three-dimensional (3D) model by using an appropriate software, and laser-drawing with a conventional engraver-laser system. For making this type of computer-generated hologram, neither diffractive optics, nor mask pattern or photo-reduction of a transparency onto a high resolution film plate is needed. The shape of a 3D virtual object is encoded in a two-dimensional (2D) multiple circular-scratch drawing. A computer program was created for generating the holograms. Hologravures representing several 3D models are engraved on different materials, and the quality of the lines traced by the CO 2 laser is considered. Sheets of acrylic, polycarbonate, glass and thermo-resistant pieces of acetate were tested. Reconstructed images of all this computer-generated and laser engraved holograms and also of computer assisted and hand-drawn scratch holograms, synthesized by means of the same software are shown.

  17. The Effects of Teaching Programming via Scratch on Problem Solving Skills: A Discussion from Learners' Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Effects of Teaching Programming via Scratch on Problem Solving Skills: A Discussion from Learners' Perspective

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Computer programming is perceived as an important competence for the development of problem solving skills in addition to logical reasoning. Hence, its integration throughout all educational levels, as well as the early ages, is considered valuable and research studies are carried out to explore the phenomenon in more detail. In light of these facts, this study is an exploratory effort to investigate the effect of Scratch programming on 5th grade primary school students' problem solving skills. Moreover, the researchers wondered what 5th grade primary school students think about programming. This study was carried out in an explanatory sequential mixed methods design with the participation of 49 primary school students. According to the quantitative results, programming in Scratch platform did not cause any significant differences in the problem solving skills of the primary school students. There is only a non-significant increase in the mean of the factor of "self- confidence in their problem solving ability". When the thoughts of the primary students were considered, it can be clearly stated that all the students liked programming and wanted to improve their programming. Finally, most of the students found the Scratch platform easy to use.

  18. Scratch Behaviors of Cr-Coated Zr-Based Fuel Claddings for Accident-Tolerant Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ho; Kim, Il-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Kim, Hyung-Kyu; Koo, Yang-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As the progression of Fukushima accident is worsened by the runaway reaction at a high temperature above 1200 .deg. C, it is essential to ensure the stabilities of coating layers on conventional Zr-based alloys during normal operations as well as severe accident conditions. This is because the failures of coating layer result in galvanic corrosion phenomenon by potential difference between coating layer and Zr alloy. Also, it is possible to damage the coating layer during handling and manufacturing process by contacting structural components of a fuel assembly. So, adhesion strength is one of the key factors determining the reliability of the coating layer on conventional Zr-based alloy. In this study, two kinds of Cr-coated Zr-based claddings were prepared using arc ion plating (AIP) and direct laser (DL) coating methods. The objective is to evaluate the scratch deformation behaviors of each coating layers on Zr alloys. Large area spallation below normal load of about 15 N appeared to be the predominant mode of failure in the AIP coating during scratch test. However, no tensile crack were found in entire stroke length. In DL coating, small plastic deformation and grooving behavior are more dominant scratching results. It was observed that the change of the slope of the COF curve did not coincide with the failure of coating layer.

  19. Interpreting scratch assays using pair density dynamics and approximate Bayesian computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stuart T; Simpson, Matthew J; McElwain, D L Sean; Binder, Benjamin J; Ross, Joshua V

    2014-09-01

    Quantifying the impact of biochemical compounds on collective cell spreading is an essential element of drug design, with various applications including developing treatments for chronic wounds and cancer. Scratch assays are a technically simple and inexpensive method used to study collective cell spreading; however, most previous interpretations of scratch assays are qualitative and do not provide estimates of the cell diffusivity, D, or the cell proliferation rate, λ. Estimating D and λ is important for investigating the efficacy of a potential treatment and provides insight into the mechanism through which the potential treatment acts. While a few methods for estimating D and λ have been proposed, these previous methods lead to point estimates of D and λ, and provide no insight into the uncertainty in these estimates. Here, we compare various types of information that can be extracted from images of a scratch assay, and quantify D and λ using discrete computational simulations and approximate Bayesian computation. We show that it is possible to robustly recover estimates of D and λ from synthetic data, as well as a new set of experimental data. For the first time, our approach also provides a method to estimate the uncertainty in our estimates of D and λ. We anticipate that our approach can be generalized to deal with more realistic experimental scenarios in which we are interested in estimating D and λ, as well as additional relevant parameters such as the strength of cell-to-cell adhesion or the strength of cell-to-substrate adhesion.

  20. The nano-scratch behaviour of different diamond-like carbon film-substrate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Liye [State-Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behaviour of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Lu Jian [LASMIS, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 10010 Troyes (France); Xu Kewei [State-Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behaviour of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China)

    2004-08-07

    The nano-scratch behaviour of diamond-like carbon films on a Ti alloy and Si substrate was evaluated. For both samples, three processes-fully elastic recovery, plastic deformation, and delamination and pulling-off of the films, occur successively with increasing load during scratching. The loads (Lc{sub L}) corresponding to the peeling-off of the films during the up-loading were 75 and 70 mN for Ti alloy and Si. However, the films on Si were delaminated during unloading, and the relevant load (Lc{sub U}) was only 45 mN. This probably originates from the distribution status of the plastic deformation both in the films and the substrates. Therefore, the nano-scratch test can be applied not only to obtain the cracking resistance (Lc{sub L}) characterizing the cohesion strength of films during up-loading but also to determine the delamination resistance (Lc{sub U}) related to the adhesion strength of the film-substrate during unloading.

  1. Enhancing the Scratch Resistance by Introducing Chemical Bonding in Highly Stretchable and Transparent Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chuan Fei; Chen, Yan; Tang, Lu; Wang, Feng; Ren, Zhifeng

    2016-01-13

    Stretchable transparent electrodes are key elements in flexible electronics and e-skins. However, existing stretchable transparent electrodes, including graphene sheets, carbon nanotube, and metal nanowire networks, weakly adheres to the substrate by van der Waals forces. Such electrodes suffer from poor scratch-resistance or poor durability, and this issue has been one of the biggest problems for their applications in industry. Here we show that, by introducing a Au-S bond between a Au nanomesh (AuNM) and the underlying elastomeric substrate, the AuNM strongly adheres to the substrate and can withstand scratches of a pressure of several megapascals. We find that the strong chemical bond, on the other hand, leads to a stiffening effect and localized rupture of the AuNM upon stretching; thus the stretchability is poor. A prestraining process is applied to suppress the localized rupture and has successfully improved the stretchability: electrical resistance of the prestrained AuNM exhibits modest change by one-time stretching to 160%, or repeated stretching to 50% for 25 000 cycles. This conductor is an ideal platform for robust stretchable photoelectronics. The idea of introducing a covalent bond to improve the scratch-resistance may also be applied to other systems including Ag nanowire films, carbon nanotube films, graphene, and so forth. PMID:26674364

  2. DPP IV inhibitor blocks mescaline-induced scratching and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautar, Susan L; Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S; Wozniak, Krystyna M; Wu, Ying; Thomas, Ajit G; Waldon, Daniel; Li, William; Ferraris, Dana; Belyakov, Sergei

    2005-06-28

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) is a ubiquitous membrane-bound enzyme that cleaves the two N-terminal amino acids from peptides with a proline or alanine residue in the second position from the amino end. Potential substrates for DPP IV include several neuropeptides, suggesting a role for DPP IV in neurological processes. We have developed a potent DPP IV inhibitor (IC50 = 30 nM), 1-(2-amino-3-methyl-butyryl)-azetidine-2-carbonitrile (AMAC), which has shown efficacy in two established models of psychosis: mescaline-induced scratching and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity. In the mescaline-induced scratching model, AMAC treatment before mescaline administration reduced the number of scratching paroxysms by 68% (P < 0.01). The compound showed a dose-dependent effect, inhibiting significantly at 6, 20 and 60 mg/kg (37%, 39% and 68%, respectively). In the amphetamine-induced hyperactivity model, 50 and 60 mg/kg AMAC, given before injection of amphetamine, significantly reduced hyper-locomotion by 65% and 76%, respectively. Additionally, AMAC showed no significant activity in binding assays for 20 receptors thought to be involved in the pathology of schizophrenia, including dopamine, serotonin and glutamate. A structurally similar analog, 1-(2-dimethylamino-3-methyl-butyryl)-azetidine-2-carbonitrile (DAMAC), that does not inhibit DPP IV, was inactive in both models. Taken together, these data suggest that the antipsychotic effects of AMAC are the result of DPP IV inhibition.

  3. Improving response rate and quality of survey data with a scratch lottery ticket incentive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Frank

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of data collected in survey research is usually indicated by the response rate; the representativeness of the sample, and; the rate of completed questions (item-response. In attempting to improve a generally declining response rate in surveys considerable efforts are being made through follow-up mailings and various types of incentives. This study examines effects of including a scratch lottery ticket in the invitation letter to a survey. Method Questionnaires concerning oral health were mailed to a random sample of 2,400 adults. A systematically selected half of the sample (1,200 adults received a questionnaire including a scratch lottery ticket. One reminder without the incentive was sent. Results The incentive increased the response rate and improved representativeness by reaching more respondents with lower education. Furthermore, it reduced item nonresponse. The initial incentive had no effect on the propensity to respond after the reminder. Conclusion When attempting to improve survey data, three issues become important: response rate, representativeness, and item-response. This study shows that including a scratch lottery ticket in the invitation letter performs well on all the three.

  4. VARNISH LAYER HARDNESS, SCRATCH RESISTANCE, AND GLOSSINESS OF VARIOUS WOOD SPECIES AS AFFECTED BY HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Çakıcıer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different heat treatment and varnish application combinations on hardness, scratch resistance, and glossiness of wood materials sampled from limba (Terminalia superba, iroko (Chlorophora excelsa, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L., and Anatolian chestnut (Castenea sativa Mill. species. The heat treatment was applied at two levels (150 and 180 oC for both 3 and 6 hour periods. After the heat treatment, four types of varnish (cellulose lacquer, synthetic varnish, polyurethane varnish, and water based varnish were applied, and hardness, scratch resistance, and glossiness of varnish film layers of the treated woods were measured. The effects of heat treatment and varnish combination applications on above mentioned variables were analyzed according to the study design (factorial design with 4 (species x 2 (heat x 2(duration x 4 (varnish = 64 experimental units with 10 samples for each combination of parameters. Glossiness increased on wood samples for all of the four wood species treated with cellulose lacquer and synthetic varnish and across all heating treatments. However, glossiness values were decreased for all the wood species depending on heating temperature and time. Values of hardness and scratch resistance were also decreased for all the four wood species across all the treatment combinations. The results were obtained from the upper surface of the application process and are thought to contribute to the national economy.

  5. Výuka programování v prostředí Scratch a Snap!

    OpenAIRE

    STUDENÝ, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Scratch2.0 is educational, iconic, scripting programming environment focused on children in range of age from 8 to 16, and being developed by Lifelong Kindergarten group on Massachusetts technology institute (MIT). By composing graphical components in the form of various puzzle pieces we create scripts which individual maskots are acting on the scene and externalize our story. To this environment also exists alternative Snap! (previously called BYOB as modification of Scratchs' first generati...

  6. The Role of Central Gastrin-Releasing Peptide and Neuromedin B Receptors in the Modulation of Scratching Behavior in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Pin-Yen; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Bombesin is a pruritogenic agent that causes intense itch-scratching activity in rodents. Bombesin has high affinity for the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptor (GRPr) and the neuromedin B (NMB) receptor (NMBr). The aim of this study was to investigate pharmacologically the ability of GRPr and NMBr to elicit scratching behavior in rats. The intracerebroventricular route was selected for drug delivery because the study focused on supraspinal sites of action. The magnitude and duration of ...

  7. Maine Coon renal screening: ultrasonographical characterisation and preliminary genetic analysis for common genes in cats with renal cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Karine; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Lang, Johann; Leeb, Tosso

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of renal cysts and other renal abnormalities in purebred Maine Coon cats, and to characterise these through genetic typing. Voluntary pre-breeding screening programmes for polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are offered for this breed throughout Switzerland, Germany and other northern European countries. We performed a retrospective evaluation of Maine Coon screening for renal disease at one institution over an 8-year period. Renal ultrasonography was performed in 187 healthy Maine Coon cats. Renal changes were observed in 27 of these cats. Renal cysts were found in seven cats, and were mostly single and unilateral (6/7, 85.7%), small (mean 3.6 mm) and located at the corticomedullary junction (4/6, 66.7%). Sonographical changes indicating chronic kidney disease (CKD) were observed in 10/187 (5.3%) cats and changes of unknown significance were documented in 11/187 (5.9%) cats. All six cats genetically tested for PKD1 were negative for the mutation, and gene sequencing of these cats did not demonstrate any common genetic sequences. Cystic renal disease occurs with a low prevalence in Maine Coons and is unrelated to the PKD observed in Persians and related breeds. Ultrasonographical findings compatible with CKD are not uncommon in juvenile Maine Coons. PMID:23735675

  8. Maine Coon renal screening: ultrasonographical characterisation and preliminary genetic analysis for common genes in cats with renal cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Karine; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Lang, Johann; Leeb, Tosso

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of renal cysts and other renal abnormalities in purebred Maine Coon cats, and to characterise these through genetic typing. Voluntary pre-breeding screening programmes for polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are offered for this breed throughout Switzerland, Germany and other northern European countries. We performed a retrospective evaluation of Maine Coon screening for renal disease at one institution over an 8-year period. Renal ultrasonography was performed in 187 healthy Maine Coon cats. Renal changes were observed in 27 of these cats. Renal cysts were found in seven cats, and were mostly single and unilateral (6/7, 85.7%), small (mean 3.6 mm) and located at the corticomedullary junction (4/6, 66.7%). Sonographical changes indicating chronic kidney disease (CKD) were observed in 10/187 (5.3%) cats and changes of unknown significance were documented in 11/187 (5.9%) cats. All six cats genetically tested for PKD1 were negative for the mutation, and gene sequencing of these cats did not demonstrate any common genetic sequences. Cystic renal disease occurs with a low prevalence in Maine Coons and is unrelated to the PKD observed in Persians and related breeds. Ultrasonographical findings compatible with CKD are not uncommon in juvenile Maine Coons.

  9. "I was that close": Investigating Players' Reactions to Losses, Wins, and Near-Misses on Scratch Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Madison; Graydon, Candice; Dixon, Mike J

    2016-03-01

    While scratch cards are a popular, accessible, and inexpensive form of gambling, very little is known about how they affect and influence the player. This study sought to understand the physiological and subjective experience of scratch card play, with special emphasis on the effect of near-miss outcomes (i.e. uncovering two out of three "grand prize" symbols needed to win said prize), which are remarkably prevalent in scratch card games. Thirty-eight undergraduate students from the University of Waterloo each played two custom scratch card games and experienced three types of outcomes (losses, wins and near-misses) while their skin conductance levels (SCLs) and post-reinforcement pauses were recorded. Each participant also rated each outcome in terms of its subjective level of arousal, valence, and frustration. Our results indicate that players interpreted near-misses as negatively valenced, highly arousing, frustrating losses, and were faster to move onto the next game following this type of outcome than following winning outcomes. Additionally, near-miss outcomes were associated with the largest amount of change in SCLs as the outcome was revealed. This work has implications for the problem gambling literature as it provides evidence of the frustration hypothesis of near-misses in scratch cards, and is the first study to examine the physiological and psychological experiences of scratch card players.

  10. Association of feline leukemia virus with lymphosarcoma and other disorders in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, S M; Hardy, W D; Essex, M

    1975-03-01

    Two hundred fifty Boston cats with disorders such as lymphosarcoma, myeloproliferative disease, anemia, glomerulonephritis, pregnancy abnormalities, feline infectious peritonitis, toxoplasmosis, and various bacterial infections were examined for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) by immunofluorescence. Antibody titers against feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (FOCMA) were tested in 133 of these cats. The tests for FeLV and FOCMA antibody were also conducted among healthy cats not known to have been exposed to FeLV, as well as among healthy cats from households where FeLV was known to be present. Most of the cats with lymphosarcoma and the other aforementioned disorders were infected with FeLV and low FOCMA antibody titers. Healthy cats known to have been exposed to FeLV were often viremic, but those that remained healthy were able to develop high FOCMA antibody titers. Healthy cats without known prior exposure to FeLV were unlikely to be viremic but often had detectable FOCMA antibody titers, indicating that some exposure occurs under natural conditions in the Boston area. The association of FeLV with infections other than lymphosarcoma was assumed to be caused by the immunosuppresive effect of FeLV, thus allowing development of disease. PMID:163223

  11. Polioencephalomalacia and Heart Failure Secondary to Presumptive Thiamine Deficiency, Hepatic Lipidosis, and Starvation in 2 Abandoned Siamese Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, H; Himsworth, C; Britton, A

    2016-07-01

    Two 4-year-old spayed female Siamese cats were seized by the British Columbia Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals after confinement to an abandoned housing unit without food for 9 weeks. One cat was found dead, and the second was euthanized within 24 hours due to neurologic deterioration despite therapy. Polioencephalomalacia of the caudal colliculus, hepatic lipidosis, cachexia, and congestive heart failure with cardiomyocyte atrophy were identified in both cats through postmortem examination and attributed to a prolonged period of starvation. Brain lesions were likely the result of thiamine deficiency (Chastek paralysis), which can be associated with both malnutrition and liver disease. This case highlights the importance of thiamine supplementation during realimentation of cats with hepatic lipidosis. Heart failure resulting from cachexia may have contributed to the death of the first cat and the morbidity of the second cat.

  12. Polioencephalomalacia and Heart Failure Secondary to Presumptive Thiamine Deficiency, Hepatic Lipidosis, and Starvation in 2 Abandoned Siamese Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, H; Himsworth, C; Britton, A

    2016-07-01

    Two 4-year-old spayed female Siamese cats were seized by the British Columbia Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals after confinement to an abandoned housing unit without food for 9 weeks. One cat was found dead, and the second was euthanized within 24 hours due to neurologic deterioration despite therapy. Polioencephalomalacia of the caudal colliculus, hepatic lipidosis, cachexia, and congestive heart failure with cardiomyocyte atrophy were identified in both cats through postmortem examination and attributed to a prolonged period of starvation. Brain lesions were likely the result of thiamine deficiency (Chastek paralysis), which can be associated with both malnutrition and liver disease. This case highlights the importance of thiamine supplementation during realimentation of cats with hepatic lipidosis. Heart failure resulting from cachexia may have contributed to the death of the first cat and the morbidity of the second cat. PMID:26792845

  13. FRICTION ANALYSIS ON SCRATCH DEFORMATION MODES OF VISCO-ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiyana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of abrasion resistance and associated surfaces deformation mechanisms is of primary importance in materials engineering and design. Instrumented scratch testing has proven to be a useful tool for characterizing the abrasion resistance of materials. Using a conical indenter in a scratch test may result in different deformation modes, like as elastic deformation, ironing, ductile ploughing and cutting. This paper presents the friction analysis of some deformation modes of visco-elastic-plastic behaving polymer materials, especially PEEK (poly ether ether ketone.In general, it is accepted that the friction consist of an adhesion and a deformation component, which can be assumed to be independent to each others. During a scratch test, the friction coefficient is influenced by some parameters, such as the sharpness of indenter, the deformation modes and the degree of elastic recovery. Results show that the adhesion component strongly influences the friction in the elastic and ironing deformation mode (scratching with a blunt cone, friction for the cutting deformation mode (scratching with a sharp cone is dominantly influenced by the deformation component. From the analysis, it can be concluded that the adhesion friction model is suitable for ironing - elastic deformation mode and the deformation friction model with elastic recovery is good for cutting mode. Moreover, the ductile ploughing mode is combination of the adhesion and plastic deformation friction model. ANALISIS FRIKSI PADA BENTUK DEFORMASI AKIBAT GORESAN PADA MATERIAL VISKO-ELASTIK-PLASTIK. Pemahaman tentang ketahanan abrasi dan deformasi permukaan  yang  menyertainya merupakan hal yang penting dalam rekayasa dan disain material. Peralatan uji gores terbukti ampuh untuk menyatakan ketahanan abrasi dari material. Pemakaian indenter kerucut dalam uji gores akan menghasilkan beberapa bentuk deformasi seperti halnya deformasi elastik, penyetrikaan, plowing dan pemotongan

  14. Ototoxicity in dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E.; Schacht, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of “ototoxicity” in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows us to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy.

  15. Comparative examination of cats with feline leukemia virus-associated enteritis and other relevant forms of feline enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipar, A; Kremendahl, J; Jackson, M L; Reinacher, M

    2001-07-01

    Cats with feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-associated enteritis (FAE), enteritis of other known viral etiology (parvovirus [PV], enteric coronavirus [CoV]), and enteritis of unknown etiology with histologic features similar to those of FAE and PV enteritis (EUE) and FeLV-negative and FeLV-positive cats without enterocyte alterations were examined. Amount and types of infiltrating leukocytes in the jejunum and activity and cellular constituents of mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow were determined. PV and CoV infections were confirmed by immunohistologic demonstration of PV and CoV antigen, ultrastructural demonstration of viral particles in the intestinal content, and in situ hybridization for PV genome. FeLV infection was detected by immunohistology for gp70, p27, and p15E. Latent FeLV infection was excluded by polymerase chain reaction methods for exogenous FeLV DNA. Enterocyte lesions involved the crypts in cats with PV enteritis, FAE, and EUE and the villous tips in cats with CoV enteritis. Inflammatory infiltration was generally dominated by mononuclear cells and was moderate in the unaltered intestine and in cats with PV enteritis and marked in cats with FAE, CoV enteritis, and EUE. In cats with EUE, myeloid/histiocyte antigen-positive macrophages were relatively numerous, suggesting recruitment of peripheral blood monocytes. Lymphoid tissues were depleted in cats with PV enteritis and with EUE but were normal or hyperplastic in cats with FAE. Bone marrow activity was decreased in cats with PV enteritis; in cats with FAE or EUE and in FeLV-positive cats without enterocyte alterations, activity was slightly increased. In cats with FAE and PV enteritis, a T-cell-dominated response prevailed. EUE showed some parallels to human inflammatory bowel disease, indicating a potential harmful effect of infiltrating macrophages on the intestinal epithelium.

  16. Schroedinger's Cat is not Alone

    CERN Document Server

    Gato, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the `Complete Wave Function' and deduce that all living beings, not just Schroedinger's cat, are actually described by a superposition of `alive' and `dead' quantum states; otherwise they would never die. Therefore this proposal provides a quantum mechanical explanation to the world-wide observation that we all pass away. Next we consider the Measurement problem in the framework of M-theory. For this purpose, together with Schroedinger's cat we also place inside the box Rasputin's cat, which is unaffected by poisson. We analyse the system identifying its excitations (catons and catinos) and we discuss its evolution: either to a classical fight or to a quantum entanglement. We also propose the $BSV\\Psi$ scenario, which implements the Complete Wave Function as well as the Big Bang and the String Landscape in a very (super)natural way. Then we test the gravitational decoherence of the entangled system applying an experimental setting due to Galileo. We also discuss the Information Loss paradox. For ...

  17. Temporomandibular ankylosis in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the cat is an unusual complication of traumatic lesions involving articular (true ankylosis) or periarticular structures (false ankylosis). Seven cats with true ankylosis of the TMJ (four cases unilateral and three cases bilateral), of which previous trauma had been documented in five cases, were referred to the authors' clinic between September 1991 and October 1996. Radiographic assessment was performed in all cases, using dorsoventral and oblique projections. Five subjects underwent arthroplastic excision of the TMJ and, in the remaining two cases, stretching of the jaws was performed under general anaesthesia. The surgical outcome was satisfactory in all but one case, where partially decreased joint mobility was observed (follow-up time one to five years), but in the two cases where non-surgical treatment was carried out, recurrence of TMJ ankylosis was observed (follow-up time two to five months). In the authors' experience, surgery represents the treatment of choice for TMJ ankylosis in cats. Additional mandibular symphysiotomy can confirm the radiological findings in unilateral cases

  18. Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection in a FIV-positive cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M S; Ball, N W; Love, D N; Canfield, P J; Wigney, D I; Dawson, D; Davis, P E; Malik, R

    1999-03-01

    An 8-year-old FIV-positive Australian cat was presented with coughing, periocular alopecia, pyrexia and inappetence. Skin scrapings demonstrated Demodex cati mites. Antibiotics were administered and it was treated successfully for periocular demodectic mange, but the cat continued to exhibit respiratory signs and lose weight. Further investigation revealed an ascarid infection and active chronic inflammation of undetected cause affecting the lower airways. Repetitive treatment with pyrantel failed to eradicate the ascarid infection. The cat became cachectic and developed moist ulcerative dermatitis of the neck, severe non-regenerative anaemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. Necropsy and histopathology revealed mycobacteriosis affecting skin, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes, liver and kidney. Attempted culture of frozen tissues at a mycobacteria reference laboratory was unsuccessful. Paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissue was retrieved and examined using PCR to amplify part of the 16S rRNA gene. A diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection was made based on the presence of acid fast bacteria in many tissues and partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Although M genavense has been identified previously as a cause of disseminated disease in AIDS patients, this is the first report of infection in a cat. It was suspected that the demodecosis, recurrent ascarid infections and disseminated M genavense infection resulted from an immune deficiency syndrome consequent to longstanding FIV infection.

  19. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  20. Evaluation tests of early renal injury in dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle Coelho Freitas; Júlio César Cambraia Veado; Adriano Bonfim Carregaro

    2014-01-01

    The identification of kidney injury is an important measure that aims to prevent the installation of irreversible changes, such as chronic kidney disease, seen most frequently in dogs and cats. Serum urea and creatinine parameters are routinely assessed, when searching renal failure. However, these values are only changed when 66 to 75% of glomerular filtration rate has been lost. In many situations, an attack of this magnitude may be enough to cause the animal’s death. Evaluations that ident...