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Sample records for cat middle ear

  1. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... secretions from the middle ear Swelling, inflammation and mucus in the eustachian tubes from an upper respiratory ... your baby for at least six months. Breast milk contains antibodies that may offer protection from ear ...

  2. Middle ear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Gangadhara Somayaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is becoming more common in the society living in cities with lot of background noise around, and frequent use of gadgets like mobile phones, MP3s, and IPods are adding to the problem. The loss may involve the conductive or perceptive pathway. Majority of the patients with conductive hearing loss will revert back to normal hearing levels with medical and/or surgical treatment. However, in sensorineural hearing loss, many factors are involved in the management. Though traditionally hearing aids in various forms are the most commonly used modality in managing these patients, there are some drawbacks associated with them. Implantable middle ear amplifiers represent the most recent breakthrough in the management of hearing loss. Middle ear implants are surgically implanted electronic devices that aim to correct hearing loss by stimulating the ossicular chain or middle ear. Of late, they are also being used in the management of congenital conductive hearing loss and certain cases of chronic otitis media with residual hearing loss. The article aims to provide general information about the technology, indications and contraindications, selection of candidates, available systems, and advantages of middle ear implants. (MEI

  3. Middle ear effusion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJSR

    Bone scan showed a hot spot in the right mastoid. Magnetic resonance imaging of the petrous ridges showed an irregular enhancing mass eroding and occupying the middle and inferior aspects of the right petrous temporal bone. This extended into the adjacent occipital bone, occipital condyle and the posterior cranial ...

  4. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otitis media is an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs when there is ... which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes blocked ...

  5. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  6. Prevalence of external ear disorders in Belgian stray cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollez, Anouck; de Rooster, Hilde; Furcas, Alessandra; Vandenabeele, Sophie

    2018-02-01

    Objectives Feline otitis externa is a multifactorial dermatological disorder about which very little is known. The objective of this study was to map the prevalence of external ear canal disorders and the pathogens causing otitis externa in stray cats roaming around the region of Ghent, Belgium. Methods One hundred and thirty stray cats were randomly selected during a local trap-neuter-return programme. All cats were European Shorthairs. This study included clinical, otoscopic and cytological evaluation of both external ears of each cat. Prospective data used as parameters in this study included the sex, age and body condition score of each cat, as well as the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge, and the results of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) Snap tests. Results Remarkably, very few (sub)clinical problems of the external ear canal were found in the stray cat population. Malassezia species was by far the most common organism found in the external ear canals of the 130 stray cats. A total of 96/130 (74%) cats were found to have Malassezia species organisms present in one or both ears based on the cytological examination. No correlation was found between the parameters of sex, age, body condition score, the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge and FIV and FeLV status, and the presence of parasites, bacteria or yeasts. Conclusions and relevance This study provides more information about the normal state of the external ear canal of stray cats. The ears of most stray cats are relatively healthy. The presence of Malassezia species organisms in the external ear canal is not rare among stray cats.

  7. Imaging of the postoperative middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Marc T. [Department of Medical Imaging, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 25 rue Manin, 75940, Paris (France); Ayache, Denis [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Paris (France)

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: (a) to present the principles and the indications of surgical treatment of middle ear pathologies; and (b) to review the imaging findings after middle ear surgery, including the normal postoperative aspects and imaging findings in patients presenting with unsatisfactory surgical results or with suspicion of postoperative complications. This review is intentionally restricted to the most common diseases involving the middle ear: chronic otitis media and otosclerosis. In these specific fields of interest, CT and MR imaging play a very important role in the postoperative follow-up and in the work-up of surgical failures and complications. (orig.)

  8. Verrucous carcinoma of the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, G E; Jurco, S; Alford, B R; McGavran, M H

    1981-01-01

    A case of a highly destructive, cytologically nondysplastic squamous epithelial lesion of the middle ear is presented. The cranial nerve involvement and bone destruction are more extensive than has been seen in cholesteatoma. Cultures are negative for Pseudomonas, and the patient does not have the reported diathesis for malignant otitis externa. The gross and microscopic features are those of verrucous carcinoma. To our knowledge, the middle ear has not been previously reported as a site of involvement by verrucous carcinoma.

  9. Osteoma of the middle ear: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Ji Hwa

    2005-01-01

    Osteomas of the middle ear are exceedingly rare benign neoplasms. To date, only 21 cases have been reported in the literature. They arise from the promontory, the pyramidal process and the ossicles, and they are usually asymptomatic or cause some conductive hearing loss. We report here the CT and pathologic findings in a 38-year-old woman with a benign osteoma of the middle ear along with chronic otitis media

  10. Osteoma of the middle ear: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ji Hwa [College of Medicine, Inje University, Dongrae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Osteomas of the middle ear are exceedingly rare benign neoplasms. To date, only 21 cases have been reported in the literature. They arise from the promontory, the pyramidal process and the ossicles, and they are usually asymptomatic or cause some conductive hearing loss. We report here the CT and pathologic findings in a 38-year-old woman with a benign osteoma of the middle ear along with chronic otitis media.

  11. Sheep as a large animal ear model: Middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péus, Dominik; Dobrev, Ivo; Prochazka, Lukas; Thoele, Konrad; Dalbert, Adrian; Boss, Andreas; Newcomb, Nicolas; Probst, Rudolf; Röösli, Christof; Sim, Jae Hoon; Huber, Alexander; Pfiffner, Flurin

    2017-08-01

    Animals are frequently used for the development and testing of new hearing devices. Dimensions of the middle ear and cochlea differ significantly between humans and commonly used animals, such as rodents or cats. The sheep cochlea is anatomically more like the human cochlea in size and number of turns. This study investigated the middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure (ICSP) in sheep temporal bones, with the aim of characterizing the sheep as an experimental model for implantable hearing devices. Measurements were made on fresh sheep temporal bones. Velocity responses of the middle ear ossicles at the umbo, long process of the incus and stapes footplate were measured in the frequency range of 0.25-8 kHz using a laser Doppler vibrometer system. Results were normalized by the corresponding sound pressure level in the external ear canal (P EC ). Sequentially, ICSPs at the scala vestibuli and tympani were then recorded with custom MEMS-based hydrophones, while presenting identical acoustic stimuli. The sheep middle ear transmitted most effectively around 4.8 kHz, with a maximum stapes velocity of 0.2 mm/s/Pa. At the same frequency, the ICSP measurements in the scala vestibuli and tympani showed the maximum gain relative to the P EC (24 dB and 5 dB, respectively). The greatest pressure difference across the cochlear partition occurred between 4 and 6 kHz. A comparison between the results of this study and human reference data showed middle-ear resonance and best cochlear sensitivity at higher frequencies in sheep. In summary, sheep can be an appropriate large animal model for research and development of implantable hearing devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis ... relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . What is otitis media? Otitis media refers to inflammation of the middle ...

  13. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  14. Prenatal evaluation of the middle ear and diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katorza, Eldad; Nahama-Allouche, Catherine; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Castaigne, Vanina [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Paris (France); Gonzales, Marie; Marlin, Sandrine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Genetique et Embryologie medicales, Paris (France); Galliani, Eva [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Chirurgie maxillo-faciale, Paris (France); Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Rosenblatt, Jonathan [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Centre pluridisciplinaire de diagnostic prenatal, Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    Analysis of the middle ear with fetal MRI has not been previously reported. To show the contribution of fetal MRI to middle ear imaging. The tympanic cavity was evaluated in 108 fetal cerebral MRI examinations (facial and/or cerebral malformation excluded) and in two cases, one of Treacher Collins syndrome (case 1) and the other of oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OUV) spectrum (case 2) with middle ear hypoplasia identified by MRI at 27 and 36 weeks' gestation, respectively. In all 108 fetuses (mean gestational age 32.5 weeks), the tympanic cavity and T2 hypointensity related to the ossicles were well visualised on both sides. Case 1 had micro/retrognathia and bilateral external ear deformity and case 2 had retrognathism with a left low-set and deformed ear. MRI made it possible to recognize the marked hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity, which was bilateral in case 1 and unilateral in case 2. Both syndromes are characterized by craniofacial abnormalities including middle ear hypoplasia, which cannot be diagnosed with US. The middle ear cavity can be visualized with fetal MRI. We emphasize the use of this imaging modality in the diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia. (orig.)

  15. Sub-clinical middle ear malfunctions in elderly patients; prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... absent acoustic reflex. Keywords: Middle ear malfunctions, elderly patients. ... hearing loss, had audiometric changes suggestive of such. We regarded such .... predictors of silent middle ear malfunction (control for Age and Sex). Variable.

  16. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENT Doctor Near You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic ... relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . What is otitis media? Otitis media refers to inflammation of the ...

  17. Pressure equilibration in the penguin middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadé, Jacob; Handrich, Yves; Bernheim, Joelle; Cohen, David

    2008-01-01

    King penguins have a venous structure in the form of a corpus cavernosum (CC) in their middle ear (ME) submucosa. The CC may be viewed as a special organelle that can change ME volume for pressure equilibration during deep-sea diving it is a pressure regulating organelle (PRO). A similar CC and muscles also surround the external ear (EE) and may constrict it, isolating the tympanic membrane from the outside. A CC was previously found also in the ME of marine diving mammals and can be expected to exist in other deep diving animals, such as marine turtles. Marine animals require equalization of middle ear (ME) pressure when diving hundreds or thousands of meters to catch prey. We investigated what mechanism enables king penguins to protect their ME when they dive to great depths. Biopsies and serial sections of the ME and the EE of the deep diving king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) were examined microscopically. It was demonstrated that the penguin ME has an extensive network of small and large submucosal venous sinuses. This venous formation, a corpus cavernosum, can expand and potentially 'flood' the ME almost completely on diving, thus elevating ME pressure and reducing the ME space. The EE has a similar protective mechanism.

  18. Microbiomes of the normal middle ear and ears with chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Shujiro B; Mutai, Hideki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Horii, Arata; Oishi, Naoki; Wasano, Koichiro; Katsura, Motoyasu; Tanaka, Fujinobu; Takiguchi, Tetsuya; Fujii, Masato; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to profile and compare the middle ear microbiomes of human subjects with and without chronic otitis media. Prospective multicenter cohort study. All consecutive patients undergoing tympanoplasty surgery for chronic otitis media or ear surgery for conditions other than otitis media were recruited. Sterile swab samples were collected from the middle ear mucosa during surgery. The variable region 4 of the 16S rRNA gene in each sample were amplified using region-specific primers adapted for the Illumina MiSeq sequencer (Illumina, CA, USA)). The sequences were subjected to local blast and classified using Metagenome@KIN (World Fusion, Tokyo, Japan). In total, 155 participants were recruited from seven medical centers. Of these, 88 and 67 had chronic otitis media and normal middle ears, respectively. The most abundant bacterial phyla on the mucosal surfaces of the normal middle ears were Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The children and adults with normal middle ears differed significantly in terms of middle ear microbiomes. Subjects with chronic otitis media without active inflammation (dry ear) had similar middle ear microbiomes as the normal middle ears group. Subjects with chronic otitis media with active inflammation (wet ear) had a lower prevalence of Proteobacteria and a higher prevalence of Firmicutes than the normal middle ears. The human middle ear is inhabited by more diverse microbial communities than was previously thought. Alteration of the middle ear microbiome may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media with active inflammation. 2b. Laryngoscope, 127:E371-E377, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Drop weld thermal injuries to the middle ear.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keogh, I J

    2009-01-01

    Drop weld injuries to the tympanic membrane and middle ear caused by hot sparks or molten slag are a rare but significant injury. Steel workers and welders who are regularly exposed to flying sparks and molten metal slag are predisposed. This type of transtympanic thermal injury occurs when the slag literally drops into the external auditory canal and burns through the tympanic membrane. A spectrum of severity of injury occurs which includes chronic tympanic membrane perforation, chronic otorrhoea, facial nerve injury and deafness. Chronic tympanic membrane perforation is the most common sequelae and is perhaps one of the most challenging of all perforations to repair The combination of direct thermal injury and foreign body reaction results in continuing or recurrent suppuration. The foreign body reaction is due to the embedding of metal slag in the promontorial mucosa. We present a case of drop weld injury to the left tympanic membrane, resulting in chronic middle ear inflammation, otorrhoea and tympanic perforation. CAT scan clearly demonstrated a metallic promontorial foreign body with localised bone erosion. We emphasise the importance of removing these foreign bodies and recommend a cartilage reinforced underlay tympanoplasty technique to repair these perforations. Transtympanic thermal trauma is a preventable occupational injury, which is best, avoided by earplugs and increased awareness.

  20. Inflammatory diseases of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasquevisque, Gustavo Santos; Andrade, Carlos Ramon de; Boasquevisque, Edson Mendes

    2008-01-01

    Objective: to determine the aspects and frequency of middle ear alterations at computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with clinical suspicion for middle ear inflammatory disease. Material and method: imaging examination results of 95 patients (95 computed tomography and 1 magnetic resonance imaging) were compared with the results of otology, imaging and surgical findings. Results: fifty-two patients had normal imaging results. Forty-three patients had radiologic alterations compared to the physical, otology and histopathologic exams: acute otomastoiditis in 2 patients (4.6%), unilateral chronic otomastoiditis in 9 (21.0%), bilateral chronic otomastoiditis in 2 (4.6%), unilateral cholesteatoma in 26 (60.5%), and bilateral cholesteatoma in 4 (9.3%). Conclusion: computed tomography was able to demonstrate the characteristics of the lesions and found complications in majority of the cases. Magnetic resonance imaging was used only in one patient to rule out scar and cholesteatoma. The knowledge of the clinical and otologic data enables the radiologist to elaborate a more appropriate interpretation of the imaging findings. (author)

  1. Middle ear function in sinonasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Ardakani, Hossein Payedar; Ghazizadeh, Amir Hossain; Movahed, Rahman; Jarahi, Lida; Rajati, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    Nasal airway patency has long been considered a major factor in ear health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sinonasal polyposis on middle ear and eustachian tube (ET) functionality. Forty-four individuals with polyposis, 23 with non-polyposis nasal obstruction, and 23 healthy controls were enrolled. Demographic, clinical and imaging data of all participants were collected and ET function tests and audiologic tests were performed. Hearing loss (p = 0.02), flat tympanogram (p = 0.02), disturbed Toynbee and Valsalva tests (p = 0.01), and the prevalence of allergy (p = 0.04) and purulent nasal discharge (p polyposis group than the other groups. Regression analysis revealed that infection and allergy have more important roles in ET function than the nasal obstruction. Polyposis could impede ET function; however, it is probably not because of its obstructive nature, but because of the associated increased risk of infection.

  2. Advances tomographic in evaluation of middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, Mayara Alves Pinheiro dos; Ledo, Mirelle D'arc Frota; Ribeiro, Marcio Duarte

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography has a key role in the study of hearing, since through it can be evaluated structures not seen by otoscope. In many clinical situations the diagnosis through this test proves limited, being fundamental examination of the associated image reconstructions: multiplanar reconstruction, maximum intensity projection, and volume-rendering technique. The ossicular chain is a complex formed by the ossicles malleus, incus and stapes, situated in the middle ear; it is difficult to view them in orthogonals planes. This review article intends to demonstrate the importance of post-processing the image of the ossicular chain for a better representation of the anatomy and possible diseases. Reformatting of images helps, significantly, to a better visualization of these structures as related congenital malformations, vascular abnormalities, inflammatory conditions, neoplasia and traumas. (author)

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory lesions of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tono, Tetsuya; Saku, Kazuaki; Miyanaga, Satoshi; Kano, Kiyo; Morimitsu, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Yukiko.

    1988-01-01

    Eighteen patients with chronic otitis media, middle ear cholesteatoma, and postoperative inflammatory diseases of the middle ear underwent high resolution computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before surgical exploration of the middle ear. Results showed that CT provides higher detail resolution in middle ear structures, but provides limited density resolution in displaying inflammatory soft tissue lesions. By contrast, MRI differentiates among soft tissue lesions such as fluid-filled spaces, granulation tissues, and cholesteatomatous debris. Cholesterin granulomas show a particularly characteristic signal pattern with a very high intensity area in both T1 and T2 weighted images. It is concluded that MRI is useful in differentiating soft tissue density masses when used in conjunction with CT in middle ear inflammatory diseases. (author)

  4. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  5. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  6. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulay, Apoorva; Akram, Khondoker M; Williams, Debbie; Armes, Hannah; Russell, Catherine; Hood, Derek; Armstrong, Stuart; Stewart, James P; Brown, Steve D M; Bingle, Lynne; Bingle, Colin D

    2016-11-01

    Otitis media (OM), or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME) epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs) at an air-liquid interface (ALI) that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host-pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Mulay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Otitis media (OM, or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs at an air–liquid interface (ALI that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi, suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host–pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development.

  8. The middle ear immune defense changes with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    of this study was to analyze the relationship between age and the mucosal immune system in the middle ear. It is hypothesized that genes involved in the middle ear immune system will change with age. A comprehensive assessment of these genetic differences using the techniques of complementary DNA has not been...... performed. Complementary DNA microarray technology was used to identify immune-related genes differentially expressed between the normal middle ear mucosa of young (10 days old) and adult rats (80 days old). Data were analyzed using tools of bioinformatics. A total of 260 age-related genes were identified...

  9. Laser vibrometer measurements and middle ear prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flock, Stephen T.; Dornhoffer, John; Ferguson, Scott

    1997-05-01

    One of us has developed an improved partial ossicular replacement prosthesis that is easier to implant and, based on pilot clinical measurements, results in better high-frequency hearing as compared to patients receiving one of the alternative prostheses. It is hypothesized that the primary reason for this is because of the relatively light weight (about 25 mg) and low compliance of the prosthesis, which could conceivably result in better high frequency vibrational characteristics. The purpose of our initial work was to develop an instrument suitable for objectively testing the vibrational characteristics of prostheses. We have developed a laser based device suitable for measuring the vibrational characteristics of the oval window or other structures of the middle ear. We have tested this device using a piezoelectric transducer excited at audio frequencies, as well as on the oval window in human temporal bones harvested from cadavers. The results illustrate that it is possible to non-invasively monitor the vibrational characteristics of anatomic structures with a very inexpensive photonic device.

  10. CT analysis of 333 cases of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xin; Li Qiang; Wang Zhenchang; Xian Junfang; Lan Baosen

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the different CT findings of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear, 333 cases including 404 ears with external and middle ear malformations diagnosed by high resolution CT (HRCT) were analysed according to the location and type of the malformation. In 404 ears, there were 364 ears with atresia of external auditory meatus, 40 ears with stenosis of external auditory meatus, 377 ears with malformation of the ossicles, 382 ears with stenosis of tympanum and 333 ears with anterior position of the mastoid segment of the facial canal. HRCT can show the location and type of external and middle ear malformation and provide valuable information for surgery

  11. How minute sooglossid frogs hear without a middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Françoise; Scotti, Thierry; Herzog, Philippe; Gerlach, Justin; Pollet, Nicolas; Aubry, Jean-François

    2013-09-17

    Acoustic communication is widespread in animals. According to the sensory drive hypothesis [Endler JA (1993) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 340(1292):215-225], communication signals and perceptual systems have coevolved. A clear illustration of this is the evolution of the tetrapod middle ear, adapted to life on land. Here we report the discovery of a bone conduction-mediated stimulation of the ear by wave propagation in Sechellophryne gardineri, one of the world's smallest terrestrial tetrapods, which lacks a middle ear yet produces acoustic signals. Based on X-ray synchrotron holotomography, we measured the biomechanical properties of the otic tissues and modeled the acoustic propagation. Our models show how bone conduction enhanced by the resonating role of the mouth allows these seemingly deaf frogs to communicate effectively without a middle ear.

  12. Congenital malformations of the external and middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesling, S.; Omenzetter, M.; Bartel-Friedrich, S.

    2009-01-01

    With the focus on imaging, this paper gives a summarized view of the present knowledge on fields, which are necessary to know for a profound understanding of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear. Typical and less typical combinations of malformed parts of the ear can be derived from the embryogenesis. Clinical signs and audiometric findings lead to diagnosis in congenital aural atresia. Isolated middle ear malformations can be clinically mixed up especially with otosclerosis and tympanosclerosis. Imaging is needed for exact morphological information. In malformations of the external and middle ear, CT is the imaging modality of choice. Requirements on CT-technique as well as radiological findings including classification and pre-surgical rating are described. Morphological CT-correlates of congenital malformations and their differential diagnoses are enlisted and illustrated. The impact of CT-results on therapy is explained and actual therapeutic concepts are briefly presented

  13. Computed tomography of middle ear cholesteatomas without tympanic membrane perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettorre, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    The growth of a middle ear cholesteatoma behind a normal tympanic membrane is a rate though possible event. In such cases, CT may provide useful information for diagnosis. The results are presented of a CT study carried out on 14 patients affected with unilateral conductive hearing loss and with normal tympanic membrane. CT allowed the diagnosis of meddle ear cholesteatoma to be made in all cases. All patients were treated with surgery: 8 of them underwent tympanoplasty and 6 explorative tympanotomy. While the diagnosis of cholesteatoma was confirmed in 13 patients, in 1 case tympanosclerosis was diagnosed. CT diagnosis of middle ear cholesteatoma is based on the demonstration of a low-density soft-tissue mass, in association with bone erosion or ossicular dislocation. The author emphasizes the difficulty of a CT diagnosis of cholesteatoma in the patients with middle ear soft-tissue masses in the absence of bone alterations

  14. Sound pressure gain produced by the human middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, H; Goode, R L

    1995-10-01

    The acoustic function of the middle ear is to match sound passing from the low impedance of air to the high impedance of cochlear fluid. Little information is available on the actual middle ear pressure gain in human beings. This article describes experiments on middle ear pressure gain in six fresh human temporal bones. Stapes footplate displacement and phase were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer before and after removal of the tympanic membrane, malleus, and incus. Acoustic insulation of the round window with clay was performed. Umbo displacement was also measured before tympanic membrane removal to assess baseline tympanic membrane function. The middle ear has its major gain in the lower frequencies, with a peak near 0.9 kHz. The mean gain was 23.0 dB below 1.0 kHz, the resonant frequency of the middle ear; the mean peak gain was 26.6 dB. Above 1.0 kHz, the second pressure gain decreased at a rate of -8.6 dB/octave, with a mean gain of 6.5 dB at 4.0 kHz. Only a small amount of gain was present above 7.0 kHz. Significant individual differences in pressure gain were found between ears that appeared related to variations in tympanic membrane function and not to variations in cochlear impedance.

  15. Serous otitis media (S.O.M.). A bacteriological study of the ear canal and the middle ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabenda, S. I.; Peerbooms, P. G.; van Asselt, G. J.; Feenstra, L.; van der Baan, S.

    1988-01-01

    A bacteriological study of the middle-ear effusions and the ear canals in children with chronic serous otitis media (S.O.M.) was performed. Sixty-eight children (127 ears) were investigated. From this study it appeared that cleansing of the ear canal with 0.5% chlorhexidine in 70% ethanol for 30 s

  16. Poor Oral Hygiene and Middle Ear Infections: Any Relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3–12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was det...

  17. Effect of laryngoscopy on middle ear pressure during anaesthesia induction

    OpenAIRE

    Degerli, Semih; Acar, Baran; Sahap, Mehmet; Horasanlı, Eyup

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The procedure of laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation (LOTI) has many impacts on several parts of the body. But its effect on middle ear pressure (MEP) is not known well. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MEP changes subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube with laryngoscope. Subjects and methods: 44 patients were included in this study with a normal physical examination of ear, nose and throat. A standard general anaesthesia induction without any inhaler agent was perfor...

  18. High resolution computed tomography of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Tokio; Saijo, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    1983-01-01

    High resolution computed tomography was performed in 57 cases with various middle ear diseases (chronic otitis media, otitis media with effusion, acute otitis media and atelectasis). Although further improvement in detectability is necessary in order to discriminate each type of the soft tissue lesions, CT is the most useful method currently available in detecting the small structures and soft tissue lesions of the middle ear. In particular, the lesions at the tympanic isthmus and tympanic fold could very clearly be detected only by CT. In acute otitis media, lesions usually started in the attic and spread to the mastoid air cells. In otitis media with effusion, the soft tissue shadow was ovserved in the attic and mastoid air cell. CT is valuable in diagnosis, evaluation of the treatment and prognosis, and analysis of pathophysiology in the middle ear diseases. (author)

  19. Effect of laryngoscopy on middle ear pressure during anaesthesia induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degerli, Semih; Acar, Baran; Sahap, Mehmet; Horasanlı, Eyup

    2013-01-01

    The procedure of laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation (LOTI) has many impacts on several parts of the body. But its effect on middle ear pressure (MEP) is not known well. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MEP changes subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube with laryngoscope. 44 patients were included in this study with a normal physical examination of ear, nose and throat. A standard general anaesthesia induction without any inhaler agent was performed to the all patients. The MEP measurements for both ears were applied under 1 minute; before induction (BI) and after intubation (AI) with a middle ear analyzer. Also hemodynamic parameters were recorded before induction and after intubation. Of the 44 patients were 25 women and 19 men with a 43.5±15.1 mean age. A statistically significant rise in MEP was seen in all patients subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube (Ptube, size and type of the blades, drugs and face masking time. But on the other hand in our opinion cardiovascular and haemodynamic response to LOTI has the most impact over the middle ear mucosa with mucosal venous congestion.

  20. Middle ear effusion from metastatic carcinoma of the breast | Okpala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcinoma of the breast can metastasise to many organs. Metastasis to the temporal bone is rare and even when it does, it would usually spread to other parts of the body. This is a report of isolated metastasis to the temporal bone with middle ear effusion.

  1. Imaging evaluation of middle ear cholesteatoma: iconographic essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Ana Flavia Assis de; Aburjeli, Bruna de Oliveira Melim; Moreira, Wanderval; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira, E-mail: fauassis@hotmail.com [Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is a relevant and relatively common disease that may have severe consequences. In the present pictorial essay, the authors have selected illustrative examples of multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging depicting the main presentations of cholesteatomas, and describing their characteristics, locations, and major complications. (author)

  2. Water Penetration into Middle Ear Through Ventilation Tubes in Children While Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang

    2009-02-01

    Conclusion: Water penetration into the middle ear through ventilation tubes and middle ear infection are not likely when surface swimming. Children with ventilation tubes can enjoy swimming without protection in clean chlorinated swimming pools.

  3. Middle ear osteoma causing progressive facial nerve weakness: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kate; Bance, Manohar; Carter, Michael; Hong, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Facial nerve weakness is most commonly due to Bell’s palsy or cerebrovascular accidents. Rarely, middle ear tumor presents with facial nerve dysfunction. Case presentation We report a very unusual case of middle ear osteoma in a 49-year-old Caucasian woman causing progressive facial nerve deficit. A subtle middle ear lesion was observed on otoscopy and computed tomographic images demonstrated an osseous middle ear tumor. Complete surgical excision resulted in the partial recovery...

  4. Intra-operative hearing monitoring methods in middle ear surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is a condition affecting millions of people worldwide. Conductive hearing loss (CHL is mainly caused by middle ear diseases. The low frequency area is the pivotal part of speech frequencies and most frequently impaired in patients with CHL. Among various treatments of CHL, middle ear surgery is efficient to improve hearing. However, variable success rates and possible needs for prolonged revision surgery still frustrate both surgeons and patients. Nowadays, increasing numbers of researchers explore various methods to monitor the efficacy of ossicular reconstruction intraoperatively, including electrocochleography (ECochG, auditory brainstem response (ABR, auditory steady state response (ASSR, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE, subjective whisper test, and optical coherence tomography (OCT. Here, we illustrate several methods used clinically by reviewing the literature.

  5. Age effects in the human middle ear: Wideband acoustical measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, M. Patrick; Sanford, Chris A.

    2004-12-01

    Studies that have examined age effects in the human middle ear using either admittance measures at 220 or 660 Hz or multifrequency tympanometry from 200 to 2000 Hz have had conflicting results. Several studies have suggested an increase in admittance with age, while several others have suggested a decrease in admittance with age. A third group of studies found no significant age effect. This study examined 226 Hz tympanometry and wideband energy reflectance and impedance at ambient pressure in a group of 40 young adults and a group of 30 adults with age >=60 years. The groups did not differ in admittance measures of the middle ear at 226 Hz. However, significant age effects were found in wideband energy reflectance and impedance. In particular, in older adults there was a comparative decrease in reflectance from 800 to 2000 Hz but an increase near 4000 Hz. The results suggest a decrease in middle-ear stiffness with age. The findings of this study hold relevance for understanding the aging process in the auditory system, for the establishment of normative data for wideband energy reflectance, for the possibility of a conductive component to presbycusis, and for the interpretation of otoacoustic emission measurements. .

  6. Radiation effect on the middle ear of the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hirofumi; Nishizawa, Shinji; Hiraide, Fumihisa; Inoue, Tetsuzo

    1984-01-01

    It is known that radiation therapy of the head and neck causes otitis media with effusion. Otitis media with effusion was induced in guinea pigs by cobalt-60 irradiation. Twenty guinea pigs with intact drum and normal Preyer reflex were used. We conducted, two experiments as follows: 1) The animals were irradiated with doses of 2,000 rad, 4,000 rad, and 6,000 rad. They were sacrificed seven days after the irradiation. 2) The animals were irradiated with doses of 4,000 rad and sacrificed one day, three days, seven days, and fourteen days after the irradiation. Vascular permeability of the middle ear mucosa was observed by Majno's vascular labelling technique. Pathological change of the middle ear was examined under the light microscope. Vascular permeability increased in three days after 4,000 rad irradiation and small vessels were labelled with carbon particles. Seven days after irradiation, carbon labelling of small vessels was more extensive and extravascular blackening was present in the adjacent tissues. Edematous change of the middle ear mucosa and metaplasia of the epithelial cells were also observed. New bone formation of the tympanic bulla was increased by repeated irradiations. (author)

  7. Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, B.; Goycoolea, M.V.; Schleivert, P.M.; Shea, D.; Schachern, P.; Paparella, M.M.; Carpenter, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the permeability of the middle ear-inner ear interface for macromolecules was carried out in chinchillas with open and obstructed eustachian tubes utilizing tritiated human serum albumin and immunoelectrophoresis. Tritiated albumin was placed in the round window niche area or normal animals and animals in which the eustachian tubes had been obstructed for 24 hours or 14 days. The tritiated albumin was allowed to remain in the middle ear cavity for 24 hours, Samples of middle ear effusion, perilymph, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and measured for radioactivity. Radioactivity was demonstrated in the perilymph. Samples of middle ear effusions and perilymph were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis with goat antihuman albumin. Albumin placed in the round window niche of an experimental animal could be recovered unchanged in the perilymph. The results suggest a pathophysiologic explanation for the association of otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss or endolymphatic hydrops

  8. Carcinoma of the middle ear and external auditory canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, S.S.; Kim, J.A.; Goodchild, N.; Constable, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with malignant tumors of the middle ear and external auditory canal (EAC) were observed at the University of Virginia Hospital from 1956 through 1980. Of 27 patients with carcinoma, 21 had squamous cell carcinoma, 4 had basal cell carcinoma and 2 had adenoid cystic carcinoma. The 27 patients with carcinoma are reviewed with regard to clinical presentation, treatment modality, results and complications. The majority (67%) of patients had a history of chronic ear drainage, 22% had a previous mastoidectomy or polypectomy and 7% had an associated cholesteatoma. Eighty percent of patients with carcinoma limited to EAC were alive and well at 5 years, compared to 43% of patients with involvement of the middle ear. Fifty-six percent of patients without invasion of the petrous bone were alive at 5 years compared to only 20% of patients with petrous bone involvement. The data strongly suggest that survival depends on the extent of disease. The corrected disease free 5 year survival rates were 14% for patients who had surgery alone and 50% for those who had surgery and radiotherapy. Of the three patients with advanced disease who received radiotherapy alone, none survived five years

  9. Anatomic Considerations on the Middle Ear in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Berghes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to explain some aspects of middle ear anatomy in dog. The study was conducted on five dog skulls (different ages from common, large size dogs. The skulls were processed by maceration and submitted to a treatment of mechanical cleaning with perhydrol. The temporal bone was collected first; the external wall was opened carefully to study the tympanic cavity. The ossicles were collected separately and subsequently described. From research carried promontory appears as an elongated projection that separates the oval window and round window. Vestibular window is oval or slightly ovoid shape of a hole, located dorso-medially to the promontory, which communicates with the middle ear vestibule. Cochlearia window appears as a round or circular hole located caudo-lateral to the promontory . it is blocked by a membrane called the tympanum secondary, cavity separating the ramp of the snail. In the ventro-oral cavity openings ductus faringo tympanicum. The osicules sound represented by hammer, anvil and stirrup are articulated with each other and form a chain as a link between the eardrum and vestibular window. Bones are driven by two muscles: the tensor muscle and muscle stirrup eardrum is very thin. osicules ear are relatively large and resemble those of humans. Lenticular bone is the lenticular process of the long arm of anvile.

  10. Modeling Analysis of Biomechanical Changes of Middle Ear and Cochlea in Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Rong Z.; Zhang, Xiangming; Guan, Xiying

    2011-11-01

    A comprehensive finite element (FE) model of the human ear including the ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea was developed using histological sections of human temporal bone. The cochlea was modeled with three chambers separated by the basilar membrane and Reissner's membrane and filled with perilymphatic fluid. The viscoelastic material behavior was applied to middle ear soft tissues based on dynamic measurements of tissues in our lab. The model was validated using the experimental data obtained in human temporal bones and then used to simulate various stages of otitis media (OM) including the changes of morphology, mechanical properties, pressure, and fluid level in the middle ear. Function alterations of the middle ear and cochlea in OM were derived from the model and compared with the measurements from temporal bones. This study indicates that OM can be simulated in the FE model to predict the hearing loss induced by biomechanical changes of the middle ear and cochlea.

  11. Middle cranial fossa approach for the repair of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks to the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuna, Xabier; Navarro, Juan José; García, Leire; Ugarte, Ane; Thomas, Izaskun

    Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks to the middle ear due to tegmen tympani defects can result in hearing loss or hypoacusis and predispose to meningitis as well as other neurological complications. Surgical repair of the defect can be performed through a middle cranial fossa (MCF) approach or a transmastoid approach. We conducted a retrospective study of the patients in our Department due to a spontaneous CSF leak to the middle ear treated using a MCF approach during a 6-year period (2009-2014). Thirteen patients with spontaneous CSF leak to the middle ear were treated with this approach. The primary and first symptom in all of them was conductive hearing loss. In all cases, the defect or defects were closed in a multilayer manner using muscle, temporalis fascia and cortical bone. Minimum follow-up in this series was 14 months, with successful closure in all but one patient (who required reintervention). We found no intra- or postoperative complications due to the craniotomy, and the audiometry improved and normalised in all cases except for the failed case. The MCF approach with a multilayer closure of the defect is an effective technique for repairing spontaneous CSF leaks to the middle ear and for restoring hearing in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  12. Middle ear osteoma causing progressive facial nerve weakness: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kate; Bance, Manohar; Carter, Michael; Hong, Paul

    2014-09-18

    Facial nerve weakness is most commonly due to Bell's palsy or cerebrovascular accidents. Rarely, middle ear tumor presents with facial nerve dysfunction. We report a very unusual case of middle ear osteoma in a 49-year-old Caucasian woman causing progressive facial nerve deficit. A subtle middle ear lesion was observed on otoscopy and computed tomographic images demonstrated an osseous middle ear tumor. Complete surgical excision resulted in the partial recovery of facial nerve function. Facial nerve dysfunction is rarely caused by middle ear tumors. The weakness is typically due to a compressive effect on the middle ear portion of the facial nerve. Early recognition is crucial since removal of these lesions may lead to the recuperation of facial nerve function.

  13. Bone Signaling in Middle Ear Development: A Genome‐Wide Differential Expression Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Bertelsen, Tomas Martin; Friis, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Common middle ear diseases may affect bone behavior in the middle ear air cell system. To understand this pathologic pneumatization, the normal development of bone in the middle ear should be investigated. The objective of this study was to analyze gene expression of bone‐related signaling factor...... of the bulla wall. Anat Rec, 297:2349–2355, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  14. Radiographic appearance of the middle ear after ventral bulla osteotomy in five dogs with otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, D.E.; Walker, L.

    1997-01-01

    Radiographs of the middle ear were made in five dogs 60 to 78 months after ventral bulla osteotomy was performed to treat otitis media. The clinical results of surgery were considered satisfactory in four dogs and unsatisfactory in one. In 4 dogs with satisfactory results, radiographs demonstrated complete reformation of the bulla in 3 operated middle ears (3 dogs), with partial bulla reformation in the three middle ears (3 dogs). Radiographs in one dog with unsatisfactory results showed complete bulla reformation with no increase in lumen opacity. The proliferative bony response obliterating the middle ear previously reported in normal dogs after ventral bulla osteotomy was not seen in any of these patients

  15. Effect of Lead on Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hye Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a ubiquitous metal in the environment, but no studies have examined lead toxicity on the middle ear. Here, we investigated lead toxicity and its mechanism in human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs. Moreover, we investigated the protective effects of amniotic membrane extract (AME and chorionic membrane extract (CME against lead toxicity in HMEECs. Cell viability was analyzed using the cell counting kit, and reactive oxygen species (ROS activity was measured using a cellular ROS detection kit. After lead(II acetate trihydrate treatment, mRNA levels of various genes were assessed by semiquantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Following treatment with AME or CME after lead exposure, the changes in cell viability, ROS activity, and gene expression were analyzed. Exposure to >100 μg/mL of lead(II acetate trihydrate caused a significant decrease in cell viability and increased ROS production in HMEECs. Lead exposure significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and mucins. Administration of AME or CME restored cell viability, reduced ROS activity, and ameliorated mRNA levels. Our findings suggest that environmental lead exposure is related to the development of otitis media, and AME and CME may have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects against lead toxicity.

  16. Effect of Formaldehyde on Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hye Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (FA is a familiar indoor air pollutant found in everything from cosmetics to clothing, but its impact on the middle ear is unknown. This study investigated whether FA causes cytotoxicity, inflammation, or induction of apoptosis in human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs. Cell viability was investigated using the trypan blue assay and a cell counting kit (CCK-8 in HMEECs treated with FA for 4 or 24 h. The expression of genes encoding the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and mucin (MUC5AC was analyzed using RT-PCR. Activation of the apoptosis pathway was determined by measuring mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, cytochrome oxidase, caspase-9/Mch6/Apaf 3, and Caspase-Glo® 3/7 activities. The CCK-8 assay and trypan blue assay results showed a reduction in cell viability in FA-treated HMEECs. FA also increased the cellular expression of TNF-α and MUC5AC and reduced the activities of MMP and cytochrome oxidase. Caspase-9 activity increased in cells stimulated for 4 h, as well as caspase-3/7 activity in cells stimulated for 24 h. The decreased cell viability, the induction of inflammation and mucin gene expression, and the activation of the apoptosis pathway together indicate a link between environmental FA exposure and the development of otitis media.

  17. Middle-Ear Microsurgery Simulation to Improve New Robotic Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Kazmitcheff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Otological microsurgery is delicate and requires high dexterity in bad ergonomic conditions. To assist surgeons in these indications, a teleoperated system, called RobOtol, is developed. This robot enhances gesture accuracy and handiness and allows exploration of new procedures for middle ear surgery. To plan new procedures that exploit the capacities given by the robot, a surgical simulator is developed. The simulation reproduces with high fidelity the behavior of the anatomical structures and can also be used as a training tool for an easier control of the robot for surgeons. In the paper, we introduce the middle ear surgical simulation and then we perform virtually two challenging procedures with the robot. We show how interactive simulation can assist in analyzing the benefits of robotics in the case of complex manipulations or ergonomics studies and allow the development of innovative surgical procedures. New robot-based microsurgical procedures are investigated. The improvement offered by RobOtol is also evaluated and discussed.

  18. Role of bacterial biofilm in development of middle ear effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Sedeek Abd El-Salam; Ibrahim, Ahmed Aly; Talaat, Iman Mamdoh; El-Alkamy, Soliman Samy Abd El-Raouf; Youssef, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    Biofilms have been implicated in the development of several chronic upper respiratory tract infections. Role of bacterial biofilms has been well studied in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis. However, its impact on development of middle ear effusion is still a matter of debate. To study the extent of surface adenoid biofilm and evaluate its role in the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media with effusion in children. The study was carried out on 40 children in Alexandria Main University Hospital between 1 and 16 years of age without sex predilection, who were divided into two groups. The first group (20 children) had otitis media with effusion associated with adenoid hypertrophy, whereas the second group (20 children) had adenoid hypertrophy without middle ear effusion. Adenoidectomy with ventilation tube insertion was done for group 1 cases, whereas, only Adenoidectomy was done for group 2 cases. The samples were processed for the detection of biofilms by scanning electron microscopy. The biofilm formation was graded according to extension. Biofilm formation was detected on all samples for group 1. Adenoids removed from patients with otitis media with effusion had higher-grade biofilm formation than the other group (P 0.0001). No correlation was found between adenoid size and biofilm formation. In pediatric population, adenoid surface biofilm formation may be involved in the pathogenesis otitis media with effusion.

  19. Carcinoma of the external auditory canal and middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfreundner, Leo; Schwager, Konrad; Willner, Jochen; Baier, Kurt; Bratengeier, Klaus; Brunner, Franz Xaver; Flentje, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate therapeutic modalities used at our institutions regarding local control, disease-free survival and actuarial survival in carcinoma of the external auditory canal and middle ear, in an attempt to provide guidelines for therapy. Methods and Materials: A series of 27 patients with carcinoma of the external auditory canal and middle ear treated between 1978 and 1997 in our institutions were analyzed with particular reference to tumor size and its relation to surrounding tissues, patterns of neck node involvement, surgical procedures, and radiation techniques employed. Clinical endpoints were freedom from local failure, overall survival, and disease-free survival. The median follow-up was 2.7 years (range 0.1-17.9 years). Results: Treatment by surgery and radiotherapy resulted in an overall 5-year survival rate of 61%. According to the Pittsburgh classification, the actuarial 5-year survival rate for early disease (T1 and T2 tumors) was 86%, for T3 tumors 50%, and T4 stages 41%. Patients with tumors limited to the external auditory canal had a 5-year survival rate of 100%, patients with tumor invasion of the temporal bone 63%, and patients with tumor infiltration beyond the temporal bone 38%. The rate of freedom from local recurrence was 50% at 5 years. Unresectability by dural and cerebral infiltration, and treatment factors such as complete resection or resection with tumor beyond surgical margins are of prognostic relevance. All patients with dural invasion died within 2.2 years. The actuarial 5-year survival rate of patients with complete tumor resection was 100%, but 66% in patients with tumor beyond surgical margins. 192 Iridium high-dose-rate (HDR) afterloading brachytherapy based on three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT)-treatment planning was an effective tool in management of local recurrences following surgery and a full course of external beam radiotherapy. Conclusion: Surgical resection followed by radiotherapy adapted to stage

  20. Serous otitis media and immunological reactions in the middle ear mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Baan, S.; Seldenrijk, C. A.; Henzen-Logmans, S. C.; Drexhage, H. A.

    1988-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study was performed on the middle ear mucosa of 21 children with chronic serous otitis media (SOM). In 86% of the patients a highly organized lymphatic tissue was found in the middle ear mucosa which can be regarded as part of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).

  1. MEMS capacitive accelerometer-based middle ear microphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Darrin J; Zurcher, Mark A; Semaan, Maroun; Megerian, Cliff A; Ko, Wen H

    2012-12-01

    The design, implementation, and characterization of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive accelerometer-based middle ear microphone are presented in this paper. The microphone is intended for middle ear hearing aids as well as future fully implantable cochlear prosthesis. Human temporal bones acoustic response characterization results are used to derive the accelerometer design requirements. The prototype accelerometer is fabricated in a commercial silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MEMS process. The sensor occupies a sensing area of 1 mm × 1 mm with a chip area of 2 mm × 2.4 mm and is interfaced with a custom-designed low-noise electronic IC chip over a flexible substrate. The packaged sensor unit occupies an area of 2.5 mm × 6.2 mm with a weight of 25 mg. The sensor unit attached to umbo can detect a sound pressure level (SPL) of 60 dB at 500 Hz, 35 dB at 2 kHz, and 57 dB at 8 kHz. An improved sound detection limit of 34-dB SPL at 150 Hz and 24-dB SPL at 500 Hz can be expected by employing start-of-the-art MEMS fabrication technology, which results in an articulation index of approximately 0.76. Further micro/nanofabrication technology advancement is needed to enhance the microphone sensitivity for improved understanding of normal conversational speech.

  2. Use of the nine-step inflation/deflation test and resting middle-ear pressure range as predictors of middle-ear barotrauma in aircrew members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, A; Abousetta, A

    2014-07-01

    To explore the role of the nine-step inflation/deflation tympanometric test and resting middle-ear pressure range as predictors of barotrauma in aircrew members. A prospective, non-randomised study was conducted on 100 aircrew members. Resting middle-ear pressure was measured and the nine-step inflation/deflation test performed on all subjects before flights. Subjects were allocated to two groups according to resting middle-ear pressure range (group A, within the range of +26 to +100 and -26 to -100 mmH2O; group B, -25 to +25 mmH2O). All aircrew members were assessed after flights regarding the presence and the grade of barotrauma. In both groups, the sensitivity and specificity values of the entire post-inflation/deflation test were close to those of the post-deflation part of the test. The post-deflation test had a higher negative predictive value than the post-inflation test. Ears with resting middle-ear pressure lower than -55 mmH2O experienced barotrauma, regardless of good or poor post-inflation or post-deflation test results. In an aircrew member, a resting middle-ear pressure within the range of -55 and +50 mmH2O, together with good post-deflation test results, are considered reliable predictors for fitness to fly.

  3. Handheld tympanometer measurements in conscious dogs for the evaluation of the middle ear and auditory tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, George M; Fernandes, Asia J

    2015-06-01

    Otitis externa is frequently accompanied by otitis media, yet it can be difficult to evaluate the tympanum, middle ear and auditory tube without the use of advanced radiographic imaging. The objective was to develop techniques for tympanometry testing in conscious dogs and to present normative data for clinical use of this equipment to enable assessment of the tympanum, middle ear and auditory tube. Sixteen hounds (14 female) from a school teaching colony. Dogs were gently restrained in a standing position. After cleaning of the ear canal, a tympanometer probe tip extension was placed in the vertical canal and automated testing performed using a handheld device. Both ears were tested in all dogs. Acceptable recordings were obtained from both ears of 13 dogs, from one ear in each of two dogs and from neither ear of one dog, resulting in data from 28 of 32 (88%) ears. Otoscopic examination confirmed the absence of inflammation or any other obvious explanation for the noncompliant dogs. No significant differences were seen between ears for any measure. Normative data are reported for peak compliance, peak compliance pressure, gradient and ear canal volume. Tympanograms can be recorded in conscious dogs to assist in the evaluation of the middle ear structures. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. Real ear unaided gain and its relation with the equivalent volume of the external and middle ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastos, Bárbara Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Old age is associated with changes in the characteristics of the middle ear transmission system and in external ear resonance, and these carry implications for the hearing aid (HA verification process for which targets and measures of the real ear insertion gain (REIG are used. Aim: To compare the real ear unaided gain (REUG and the equivalent volumes of the external ear (VeqEE and the middle ear (VeqME between elderly and adult patients. Methods: This is a retrospective study in which the medical records of 28 elderly patients (aged between 61 and 102 years, average hearing thresholds between 38.75 and 85 dB HL and 23 adult patients (aged 20-59, mean hearing thresholds between 31.25 and 116.25 dB HL with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and no history of middle ear abnormalities were analyzed. Immittance measurements (VeqEE, VeqME, and pressure of the peak of maximum compliance and the REUG (frequency and amplitude of the primary peak were recovered for a total of 40 ears. These data were compared between elderly and adults as well as between men and women, using Student's t test. Correlations (Pearson between immittance and REUG data were also verified. Results: No statistically significant differences (p < 0.01 were found for immittance and REUG data between elderly and adults, or between men and women. A negative and weak but significant correlation was observed between the REUG primary peak and VeqEE. Conclusion: Hearing aid verification can be performed with target and measures of the REIG in the elderly population.

  5. Middle ear cavity morphology is consistent with an aquatic origin for testudines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L Willis

    Full Text Available The position of testudines in vertebrate phylogeny is being re-evaluated. At present, testudine morphological and molecular data conflict when reconstructing phylogenetic relationships. Complicating matters, the ecological niche of stem testudines is ambiguous. To understand how turtles have evolved to hear in different environments, we examined middle ear morphology and scaling in most extant families, as well as some extinct species, using 3-dimensional reconstructions from micro magnetic resonance (MR and submillimeter computed tomography (CT scans. All families of testudines exhibited a similar shape of the bony structure of the middle ear cavity, with the tympanic disk located on the rostrolateral edge of the cavity. Sea Turtles have additional soft tissue that fills the middle ear cavity to varying degrees. When the middle ear cavity is modeled as an air-filled sphere of the same volume resonating in an underwater sound field, the calculated resonances for the volumes of the middle ear cavities largely fell within testudine hearing ranges. Although there were some differences in morphology, there were no statistically significant differences in the scaling of the volume of the bony middle ear cavity with head size among groups when categorized by phylogeny and ecology. Because the cavity is predicted to resonate underwater within the testudine hearing range, the data support the hypothesis of an aquatic origin for testudines, and function of the middle ear cavity in underwater sound detection.

  6. First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi fakhim, Shahin; Naderpoor, Masoud; Mousaviagdas, Mehrnoosh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal. Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection. Conclusion: It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear. PMID:25320705

  7. First branchial cleft fistula associated with external auditory canal stenosis and middle ear cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi Fakhim, Shahin; Naderpoor, Masoud; Mousaviagdas, Mehrnoosh

    2014-10-01

    First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal. This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection. It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear.

  8. Eustachian tube function and middle ear barotrauma associated with extremes in atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, T; Ueda, H; Yanagita, N

    1996-11-01

    Eustachian tube (ET) function was studied by means of sonotubometry and tubotympano-aerodynamography (TTAG) prior to and following exposure to hypobaric or hyperbaric conditions. Forty normal adults were subjected to hypobaric pressure. Fifty adults who underwent hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy also were studied. Following hypobaric exposure, 14 of 80 ears (17.5%) exhibited middle ear barotrauma. Following hyperbaric exposure, 34 of 100 ears (34%) exhibited middle ear barotrauma. Dysfunction of the ET, characterized by altered active and passive opening capacity, was more prevalent following exposure to extremes in atmospheric pressure compared to baseline. The ET function, which was impaired after the first HBO treatment, improved gradually over the next 2 hours. Overall, however, ET function was worse after the seventh treatment. The patients who developed barotrauma exhibited worse ET function prior to hypobaric or hyperbaric exposure. Thus, abnormal ET function can be used to predict middle ear barotrauma prior to exposure to hypobaric or hyperbaric atmospheric pressure.

  9. The malleable middle ear: an underappreciated player in the evolution of hearing in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Manley, Geoffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    The middle ear of tetrapods (limbed vertebrates) originated from nonauditory structures, and has been modified by adaptations arising from the lifestyle of the tetrapods. These accessory structures for the inner ear increased the sensitivity to airborne sound, the frequency range of hearing, and ...

  10. Evaluation of immittance testing for the identification of middle ear pathology in South African mineworkers.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Habig, A

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated immittance measures, specifically tympanometry and acoustic reflex testing, for the identification of middle ear pathology among South African mineworkers. The outcomes of medical history reviews, otoscopy, tympanometry, acoustic...

  11. Association of microRNA 146 with middle ear hyperplasia in pediatric otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Tina L; Yan, Justin; Khampang, Pawjai; MacKinnon, Alexander; Hong, Wenzhou; Johnston, Nikki; Kerschner, Joseph E

    2016-09-01

    Toll-like receptor signaling activated by bacterial otitis media pathogens in the middle ear has been shown to play a key role in OM susceptibility, pathogenesis and recovery. Recent studies implicate microRNA 146 (miR-146) in regulation of inflammation via negative feedback of toll-like receptor signaling (TLR) in a wide variety of tissues, however its involvement in otitis media is unknown. Human middle ear epithelial cells were stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin 1 beta or tumor necrosis factor alpha, for two to twenty-four hours. Middle ear biopsies were collected from children with otitis media with effusion (n = 20), recurrent otitis media (n = 9), and control subjects undergoing cochlear implantation (n = 10). miR-146a, miR-146b expression was assayed by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Expression of miR-146 targets involved in TLR signaling, IRAK1 and TRAF6, was assayed by qPCR in middle ear biopsies. Middle ear biopsies were cryosectioned and epithelial thickness measured by a certified pathologist. Proinflammatory cytokines induced expression of miR-146 in middle ear epithelial cells in vitro. Middle ear miR-146a and miR-146b expression was elevated in otitis media patients relative to control subjects and correlated with middle ear epithelial thickness. A trend towards inverse correlation was observed between miR-146 and TRAF6 expression in the clinical population. This report is the first to assess miRNA expression in a clinical population with OM. Findings herein suggest miR-146 may play a role in OM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. a Middle-Ear Reverse Transfer Function Computed from Vibration Measurements of Otoacoustic Emissions on the Ear Drum of the Guinea PIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalhoff, Ernst; Turcanu, Diana; Gummer, Anthony W.

    2009-02-01

    Using distortion products measured as vibration of the umbo and as sound pressure in the ear canal of guinea pigs, we calculated the corresponding reverse transfer function. We compare the measurements with a middle-ear model taken from the literature and adapted to the guinea pig. A reasonable fit could be achieved. We conclude that the reverse transfer function will be useful to aid fitting a middle-ear model to measured transfer functions of human subjects.

  13. Recovery time for inflamed middle ear mucosa in chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakır, Onur; Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Damar, Murat; Akyıldız, İlker; Eliçora, Sultan Şevik; Erdem, Duygu

    2016-01-01

    The present study shows that 2-3 weeks after medical treatment the status of middle ear mucosa in draining ears is similar to that of dry ears for at least 3 months. To measure the time required for an inflamed middle ear mucosa to return into optimal state after appropriate medical treatment in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). To assess optimal timing for elective surgical treatment of draining ears in uncomplicated CSOM. In this prospective study, the Eustachian tube (ET) mucociliary clearance time (MCT) was used as the method to demonstrate the status of middle ear mucosa. In group 1 (28 patients) ET-MCT was measured in ears that were free of drainage for at least 3 months. In Group 2 (21 patients), ET-MCT was measured in draining ears, who responded to 10-14 days medical treatment, at presentation, after 10 days and 1 month. The ET-MCT was 8.63 ± 1.32 min in group 1 and 28.96 ± 8.19 min in group 2 at presentation; and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The ET-MCT was 14.76 ± 5.11 min after 10 days and 9.31 ± 2.33 min after 1 month in group 2. The ET-MCT was indifferent between groups 1 and 2 after 1 month (p = 0.235).

  14. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the inner ear and middle ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Hisashi; Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Zhao, Pengfei; Maeda, Yukihide; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Significant expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its receptor (CD74) was observed in both the middle ear and inner ear in experimental otitis media in mice. Modulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its signaling pathway might be useful in the management of inner ear inflammation due to otitis media. Inner ear dysfunction secondary to otitis media has been reported. However, the specific mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the middle ear and inner ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media. BALB/c mice received a transtympanic injection of either lipopolysaccharide or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The mice were sacrificed 24 h after injection, and temporal bones were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, histologic examination, and immunohistochemistry. PCR examination revealed that the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice showed a significant up-regulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in both the middle ear and inner ear as compared with the PBS-injected control mice. The immunohistochemical study showed positive reactions for macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in infiltrating inflammatory cells, middle ear mucosa, and inner ear in the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice.

  15. Middle ear disease in Danish toddlers attending nursery day-care – Applicability of OM-6, disease specific quality of life and predictors for middle ear symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Indius, J. H.; Alqaderi, S. K.; Kjeldsen, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    -care aged 6–36 months were enrolled in the study. Caregivers were asked to recall the child's history of symptoms related to middle ear infection. The Danish version of otitis media-6 questionnaire was used to measure the children's quality of life. Data from children treated with ventilating tubes were...... included from a previously published study. Logistic regression was applied for determining possible predictors for experiencing ear related symptoms. Results: The study had an 87% response rate, with a total of 342 children included. At the inclusion 32 (9%) children were included in the 4-week group and...

  16. Outer- and middle-ear contributions to presbycusis in the Brown Norway rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Michael Anne; Bateman, Kristin; Cannuscio, Joseph F; Saunders, James C

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of the outer and middle ears to the hearing loss associated with presbycusis in Brown Norway rats. Animals were formed into two groups; young adults (2-3 months old) and aged animals (approximately 34 months old). Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were obtained with the outer ear intact or surgically removed. Tympanic membrane (TM) velocity transfer functions were measured from the umbo with the outer ear removed. The length of the auditory meatus, TM surface area, and TM thickness were quantified. The ABR thresholds were 17-26 dB less sensitive in the aged animals between 8.0 and 40.0 kHz when the outer ear was intact. A significant and reliable reduction in the aged rat velocity transfer function of 5-8 dB occurred between 10.0 and 32.0 kHz, while the low frequency velocity response was only a few decibels greater in the younger animals. The ABR threshold differences between young adult and aged ears were compensated by removing the outer/middle ear effects of aging to reveal a purely sensorineural component of presbycusis. The outer and middle ear effects were calculated directly when the ABR and TM velocity data were obtained with the outer ear removed. The outer ear intact condition was modeled in order to compare the ABR data obtained with the outer ear intact with the TM velocity data obtained with the outer removed. With either procedure, removal of the age-related contributions of the outer and middle ear to the ABR threshold resulted in similar age-related ABR threshold shifts between the two age groups. The pure sensorineural threshold shift component of the ABR response was restricted to frequencies between 5.0 and 20.0 kHz and reached a maximum of approximately 15 dB. These results support the conclusion that there is an outer- and middle-ear contribution to the threshold loss defining presbycusis. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Cartilage island on stapes: autologous PORP in the hypoventilated middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess-Erga, Jeanette; Engelen, Bart Lambertus Henricus Jozef; Vassbotn, Flemming Slinning

    2017-04-01

    The most common technique in sound restoration of the middle ear is prosthetic surgery. Hypoventilation of the middle ear may cause adhesive otitis or atelectasis resulting in a higher risk of prosthetic extrusion rate and recurrence of the underlying cholesteatoma. We report long-term results using an island of tragal cartilage as an autologous PORP in selected patients with poor middle ear ventilation. Retrospective chart reviews were performed for procedures involving 52 patients between year 2000 and 2009. All patients that underwent surgery using tragal cartilage interposed between the suprastructure of the stapes and the tympanic membrane were included in this study. Audiological parameters using four frequencies, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz, according to AAO-HNS guidelines, were assessed pre-and postoperatively. The hearing results on different PTA frequencies were also investigated. We report long-term follow-up of patients with hypoventilated middle ear with a success rate of 71% (ABG <20%). With regards to the ABG, the low frequency component (5 and 1 kHz) showed a significantly (p < 0.05) larger improvement of mean values after surgery as compared to the high-frequency component (2 and 3 kHz). Cartilage island PORP on stapes is a stable and efficient method for selected patients with chronic middle ear disease.

  18. Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in human middle ear cholesteatoma and chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Zhao, Pengfei; Kataoka, Yuko; Yoshinobu, Junko; Maeda, Yukihide; Ishihara, Hisashi; Higaki, Takaya; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays an important role in the pathogenesis of middle ear diseases. Modulation of inflammasome-mediated inflammation may be a novel therapeutic strategy for cholesteatoma and chronic otitis media. NLRP3 inflammasome is a critical molecule mediating interleukin (IL)-1β responses. However, the expression of NLRP3 in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma and chronic otitis media has not been fully examined. This study sought to assess the expression of NLRP3, ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain and a pyrin domain), and caspase-1 in middle ear tissues in patients with cholesteatoma or chronic otitis media. Middle ear tissue samples were obtained from patients with cholesteatoma or chronic otitis media. Control middle ear samples were collected during cochlear implant surgery of patients without middle ear inflammation. The expression of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and immunohistochemical study. The levels of mRNA of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 were significantly elevated in cholesteatoma and chronic otitis media as compared with that of normal controls. The proteins of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 were observed in infiltrating inflammatory cells in cholesteatoma and chronic otitis media.

  19. Modeling sound transmission of human middle ear and its clinical applications using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-I Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new finite element (FE model of human right ear, including the accurate geometry of middle ear ossicles, external ear canal, tympanic cavity, and mastoid cavity. The FE model would be suitable to study the dynamic behaviors of pathological middle ear conditions, including changes of stapedial ligament stiffness, tensor tympani ligament (TTL, and tympanic membrane (TM stiffness and thickness. Increasing stiffness of stapedial ligament has substantial effect on stapes footplate movement, especially at low frequencies, but less effect on umbo movement. Softer TTL will result in increasing umbo and stapes footplate displacement, especially at low frequencies (f1500 Hz. As (TM thickness was increased, the umbo displacement was reduced, especially at very low frequencies (f<600 Hz. Otherwise, the stapes displacement was reduced at all frequencies.

  20. High-resolution computed tomography of cholesteatoma of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kiyoshi; Fukusumi, Akio; Okudera, Toshio; Kato, Toshihiko; Soda, Toyoji

    1988-01-01

    The high-resolution computed tomography (CT) appearances of 72 consecutive cases (92 ears) of chronic otomastoiditis were reviewed. The cholesteatomas were verified surgically and/or otologically in 35 of these 92 ears. Discussion was made with special emphasis on the differential diagnosis of cholesteatoma of the middle ear from the non-cholesteatoma otitis media. The CT findings suggestive of cholesteatoma were as follows: the definitive findings was of a soft-tissue opacity filling Purssak's space, with a medial displacement of the malleus and the incus; the possible findings were 1) a bony erosion of the wall of the middle ear cavity, 2) a partial or complete disappearance of the malleus and/or the incus, and 3) an opacification of Purssak's space and the superomedial aspect of the external auditory meatus. (author)

  1. First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahin abdollahi fakhim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal.   Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection.   Conclusion:  It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear.

  2. Macroscopic description of the external and middle ear of paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro L. Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Paca (Cuniculus paca, one of the largest rodents of the Brazilian fauna, has inherent characteristics of its species which can conribute as a new option for animal experimantation. As there is a growing demand for suitable experimental models in audiologic and otologic surgical research, the gross anatomy and ultrastructural ear of this rodent have been analyzed and described in detail. Fifteen adult pacas from the Wild Animals Sector herd of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp-Jaboticabal, were used in this study. After anesthesia and euthanasia, we evaluated the entire composition of the external ear, registering and ddescribing the details; the temporal region was often dissected for a better view and detailing of the tympanic bulla which was removed and opened to expose the ear structures analyzed mascroscopically and ultrastructurally. The ear pinna has a triangular and concave shape with irregular ridges and sharp apex. The external auditory canal is winding in its path to the tympanic mebrane. The tympanic bulla is is on the back-bottom of the skull. The middle ear is formed by a cavity region filled with bone and membranous structures bounded by the tympanic membrane and the oval and round windows. The tympanic membrane is flat and seals the ear canal. The anatomy of the paca ear is similar to the guinea pig and from the viewpoint of experimental model has major advantages compared with the mouse ear.

  3. Study the Effect of Nasal Obstruction Surgery (Septoplasty on Eustachian Tube Function and Middle Ear Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Davari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Deviation of the nasal septum is a common cause of unilateral or bilateral nasal airway obstruction and may follow nasal and midface trauma. Patient complaints of airway obstruction that are consistent with intranasal physical findings often lead to septoplasty and turbinate surgery. Severe nasal septal deviation leads to complete nasal obstruction and disturbs air passage from nostrils, however the effect of septal deviation and nasal obstruction surgery (septoplasty on Eustachian tube function and middle ear pressure is controversial and isn’t clear. Whereas many of surgeons do not believe the considerable effect of septoplasty on Eustachian tube function and middle ear pressure, so they do not recommend this procedure before middle ear surgery. On the other hand, some have an idea that septoplasty has significant effect on middle ear pressure suggesting this procedure before ear surgery like tympanoplasty.   Methods: This prospective analytical-descriptive study was conducted on seventy patients from 18 to 65 years of age who underwent septoplasty due to severe septal deviation leading to nasal obstruction in Beesat Hospital during one year (2012-2013. Middle ear pressure and Eustachian tube function on the septal deviated side and contralateral side before and after septoplasty (3 to 6 months later were measured through tympanometry and Eustachian tube function test (Toynbee test. The comparison between pre- and postoperative ETF tests and middle ear pressures was assessed using Paired –T test and p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.   Results : This study revealed that comparison between mean values of pressure in the deviated and contralateral side has no significant statistical difference before and after septoplasty. Also comparison between Eustachian function in the deviated side and contralateral side showed no significant difference before and after septoplasty.

  4. The ototoxic effect of intratympanic terbinafine applied in the middle ear of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Otomycosis is defined as an infection of the external ear canal with fungal agents. The treatment of the disease is cleansing and drying of the external ear canal, identification and treatment of any predisposing factors and application of topical antifungal agents. Terbinafine is used as an antifungal agent to treat otomycosis. We proposed to investigate the probable ototoxic effect of terbinafine solution on auditory brain stem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) when applied intratympanically in the middle ear of rats. Methods The experiment was performed on 30 female Wistar albino rats. Thirty animals were divided into three groups of 10 animals each. 1% terbinafine solution was administered to the first group (group T). The second group (group G) was administered 40 mg/ml gentamicin solution (ototoxic control). The third group (group S) was administered saline solution (negative control). Baseline DPOAE measurements and ABR testing from the left ears were obtained from the animals in all groups under general anesthesia. Ear solutions were applied in the middle ear intratympanically with a dental needle. Treatment was initiated after baseline measurements and repeated once every two days for fifteen days. Results Pre and post-treatment DPOAE responses for all tested frequencies of group T and Group S showed no statistically significant difference. However, the group G demonstrated a significant change in ABR thresholds and DPOAE responses. Conclusions Terbinafine solution is a broad spectrum antifungal agent effective in the treatment of otomycosis. The present study demonstrated that its direct administration in the middle ear of rats does not affect inner ear function as measured by ABR and DPOAE responses. PMID:23663536

  5. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of pathologic conditions of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroldi, R.; Farina, D.; Palvarini, L.; Marconi, A.; Gadola, E.; Menni, K.; Battaglia, G.

    2001-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an excellent technique for demonstrating even small abnormalities of the thin and complex bony structures of the middle ear. For this reason, it is the modality of choice in the study of conductive hearing loss (CHL). However, not every patient complaining of CHL requires a CT study. In fact, established indications encompass complex conditions, such as the complications of acute and chronic otomastoiditis, the postoperative ear in chronic otomastoiditis or in the localization of prosthetic devices, and the assessment of congenital or vascular anomalies. Particularly, the precise extent of bone erosion associated with cholesteatoma is correctly demonstrated by high resolution CT. Conversely, although fistulization through the tegmen tympani or the posterior wall of temporal bone is usually detectable by CT, the actual involvement of meninges and veins are better assessed by magnetic resonance (MR). MR is also indicated when complicated inflammatory lesions are suspected to extend into the inner ear or towards the sigmoid sinus or jugular vein. Neoplasms arising from or extending into the middle ear require the use of both techniques as their combined data provide essential information. Most important data for surgical planning concern the destruction of thin bony structures and the relationships of the lesion with the dura and surrounding vessels. DSA and interventional vascular techniques maintain an essential role in the presurgical work-up and embolization of paragangliomas extended into the middle ear

  6. In vivo imaging of middle-ear and inner-ear microstructures of a mouse guided by SD-OCT combined with a surgical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Nam Hyun; Jang, Jeong Hun; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun

    2014-01-01

    We developed an augmented-reality system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) with a surgical microscope. By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and OCT, we could simultaneously acquire OCT and microscope views. The system was tested to identify the middle-ear and inner-ear microstructures of a mouse. Considering the probability of clinical application including otorhinolaryngology, diseases such as middle-ear effusion were visualized using in vivo mouse and OCT images simultaneously acquired through the eyepiece of the surgical microscope during surgical manipulation using the proposed system. This system is expected to realize a new practical area of OCT application. PMID:24787787

  7. Anomalous vessel in the middle ear: the role of CT and MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, J.G.M.P.; Iffenecker, C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Doyon, D.; Attal, P.

    1998-01-01

    An 8-year-old child was examined because of conductive hearing loss with a retrotympanic mass on otoscopy. CT and MR angiography showed a large inferior tympanic artery traversing the hypotympanum and joining a thin, irregular internal carotid artery with a normal middle meningeal artery. These investigations, coupled with knowledge of the embryological development allowed a diagnosis of a complex vascular anomaly in the middle ear and avoided potential surgical complications. (orig.)

  8. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  9. Microbiological profile from middle ear and nasopharynx in patients suffering from chronic active mucosal otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, S.F.; Sheikh, N.A.; Aleem, A.; Farooq, M.; Nadeem, K.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic otitis media is described as a tympanic membrane perforation and ear discharge for more than six weeks duration. Ascending infection from the nasopharynx into the middle ear cleft has been attributed to prevent resolution of chronic otitis media. This research aims to determine the association between the microbiological flora of the nasopharynx with that of the middle ear in patients suffering from chronic (active) mucosal otitis media. Methods: Our study is a hospital-based cross-sectional survey. It was conducted from December 2015 to February 2017 at the Department of ENT, Combined Military Hospital, Abbottabad. Ear and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 65 patients of chronic active mucosal otitis media and sent for microbiological analysis. Microbiological culture and sensitivity test was performed to identify the microbial spectrum of each specimen. Performa bearing the result of otoscopy, aspirate and swabs were completed for middle ear and the nasopharyngeal culture with reference to each patient. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's chi square analysis were performed using SPSS-22. Results: Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are foremost micro-organisms found in otorrhea culture isolated from patients of chronic active mucosal otitis media. Majority of the cultures from nasopharynx of these patients did not reveal any growth after incubation for 48 hours. Conclusion: A statistically insignificant association exists between the microbiological spectrum of the middle ear and the nasopharynx of patients suffering from chronic active mucosal otitis media. Micro organisms' exposure from a perforated tympanic membrane remains leading cause of persistent otorrhea, rather than ascending infection through the Eustachian tube. (author)

  10. the effect of cd4 count level on the middle ear dynamics of hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... THE EFFECT OF CD4 COUNT LEVEL ON THE MIDDLE EAR DYNAMICS OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS .... compliance and pressure values were the ones causing ... of sound wave than in the control group (non-HIV infected ...

  11. The Effects of Age at Cleft Palate Repair on Middle Ear Function and Hearing Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qun; Zhu, Hongping; Luo, Yi; Zhou, Zhibo; Ma, Lian; Ma, Xiaoran; Fu, Yuan

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the age effects of cleft palate repair on middle ear function and hearing level in patients who underwent cleft palate repair at different ages by audiologic examination. Medical histories were gathered in detail, and audiologic tests (ie, tympanometry and pure tone hearing threshold) were conducted in 126 patients after palatoplasty. The patients were divided into the following 4 groups according to their ages when they underwent cleft palate repair: group I (0-3 years, 73 patients), group II (4-7 years, 29 patients), group III (8-11 years, 16 patients), and group IV (12 years and older, 8 patients). The data regarding tympanograms, hearing levels, and the average hearing thresholds of each group were analyzed using chi-square tests. The prevalence of middle ear dysfunction and hearing loss in the patients who underwent palatoplasty before 3 years old (27.4% and 2.0% respectively) was significantly lower than that in patients who underwent palatopalsty at 12 years or older (75.0% and 43.7%, respectively). Linear-by-linear association revealed that the prevalences of middle ear dysfunction and hearing loss among the 4 groups were significantly different ( P cleft palate repair. From an audiologist's perspective, palatoplasty at an early age is very beneficial in helping children with cleft palates acquire better middle ear function and hearing level.

  12. Influenza A virus alters pneumococcal nasal colonization and middle ear infection independently of phase variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, John T; Blevins, Lance K; Pang, Bing; King, Lauren B; Perez, Antonia C; Murrah, Kyle A; Reimche, Jennifer L; Alexander-Miller, Martha A; Swords, W Edward

    2014-11-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is both a widespread nasal colonizer and a leading cause of otitis media, one of the most common diseases of childhood. Pneumococcal phase variation influences both colonization and disease and thus has been linked to the bacteria's transition from colonizer to otopathogen. Further contributing to this transition, coinfection with influenza A virus has been strongly associated epidemiologically with the dissemination of pneumococci from the nasopharynx to the middle ear. Using a mouse infection model, we demonstrated that coinfection with influenza virus and pneumococci enhanced both colonization and inflammatory responses within the nasopharynx and middle ear chamber. Coinfection studies were also performed using pneumococcal populations enriched for opaque or transparent phase variants. As shown previously, opaque variants were less able to colonize the nasopharynx. In vitro, this phase also demonstrated diminished biofilm viability and epithelial adherence. However, coinfection with influenza virus ameliorated this colonization defect in vivo. Further, viral coinfection ultimately induced a similar magnitude of middle ear infection by both phase variants. These data indicate that despite inherent differences in colonization, the influenza A virus exacerbation of experimental middle ear infection is independent of the pneumococcal phase. These findings provide new insights into the synergistic link between pneumococcus and influenza virus in the context of otitis media. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma of the middle ear arising from CSOM: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Davanageri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma occurring in a background of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM is a rare complication. It runs an aggressive course. Hence early identification is significant to prevent disease progression and to improve the survival rate. Subjecting granulation tissue from middle ear for histopathologic examination is of importance to rule out associated malignant change.

  14. Clinical investigation of flat panel CT following middle ear reconstruction: a study of 107 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaoui, K. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Ruprecht Karls University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Heidelberg (Germany); Kromeier, J. [St. Josefs Hospital, RkK, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Neudert, M.; Beleites, T.; Zahnert, T. [University Hospital Dresden, Technical University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Dresden (Germany); Laszig, R.; Offergeld, C. [University Hospital Freiburg, Albert Ludwigs University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    After middle ear reconstruction using partial or total ossicular replacement prostheses (PORP/TORP), an air-bone gap (ABG) may persist because of prosthesis displacement or malposition. So far, CT of the temporal bone has played the main role in the diagnosis of reasons for postoperative insufficient ABG improvement. Recent experimental and clinical studies have evaluated flat panel CT (fpCT) as an alternative imaging technique that provides images with high isovolumetric resolution, fewer metal-induced artefacts and lower irradiation doses. One hundred and seven consecutive patients with chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma underwent reconstruction by PORP (n = 52) or TORP (n = 55). All subjects underwent preoperative and postoperative audiometric testing and postoperative fpCT. Statistical evaluation of all 107 patients as well as the sole sub-assembly groups (PORP or TORP) showed a highly significant correlation between hearing improvement and fpCT-determined prosthesis position. FpCT enables detailed postoperative information on patients with middle ear reconstruction. FpCT is a new imaging technique that provides immediate feedback on surgical results after reconstructive middle ear surgery. Specific parameters evaluated by fpCT may serve as a predictive tool for estimated postoperative hearing improvement. Therefore this imaging technique is suitable for postoperative quality control in reconstructive middle ear surgery. (orig.)

  15. Panel 2: Anatomy (Eustachian Tube, Middle Ear, and Mastoid-Anatomy, Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Cuneyt M; Luntz, Michal; Takahashi, Haruo; Ghadiali, Samir N; Swarts, J Douglas; Teixeira, Miriam S; Csákányi, Zsuzsanna; Yehudai, Noam; Kania, Romain; Poe, Dennis S

    2017-04-01

    Objective In this report, we review the recent literature (ie, past 4 years) to identify advances in our understanding of the middle ear-mastoid-eustachian tube system. We use this review to determine whether the short-term goals elaborated in the last report were achieved, and we propose updated goals to guide future otitis media research. Data Sources PubMed, Web of Science, Medline. Review Methods The panel topic was subdivided, and each contributor performed a literature search within the given time frame. The keywords searched included middle ear, eustachian tube, and mastoid for their intersection with anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, and pathology. Preliminary reports from each panel member were consolidated and discussed when the panel met on June 11, 2015. At that meeting, the progress was evaluated and new short-term goals proposed. Conclusions Progress was made on 13 of the 20 short-term goals proposed in 2011. Significant advances were made in the characterization of middle ear gas exchange pathways, modeling eustachian tube function, and preliminary testing of treatments for eustachian tube dysfunction. Implications for Practice In the future, imaging technologies should be developed to noninvasively assess middle ear/eustachian tube structure and physiology with respect to their role in otitis media pathogenesis. The new data derived from these structure/function experiments should be integrated into computational models that can then be used to develop specific hypotheses concerning otitis media pathogenesis and persistence. Finally, rigorous studies on medical or surgical treatments for eustachian tube dysfunction should be undertaken.

  16. CT and MR imaging after middle ear surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesling, Sabrina; Bootz, F.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the current value of imaging in patients after stapes surgery and surgery after chronic otitis media including cholesteatoma. Possibilities and limits of computed tomography (CT) and MRI are described and most important investigation parameters are mentioned. After otosclerosis surgery, CT is the method of first choice in detection of reasons for vertigo and/or recurrent hearing loss in the later postoperative phase. CT may show the position and condition of prosthesis, scarring around the prosthesis and otospongiotic foci. Sometimes, it gives indirect hints for perilymphatic fistulas and incus necrosis. MRI is able to document inner ear complications. CT has a high negative predictive value in cases with a free cavity after mastoidectomy. Localized opacities or total occlusion are difficult to distinguish by CT alone. MRI provides important additional information in the differentiation of cholesterol granuloma, cholesteatoma, effusion, granulation and scar tissue

  17. CT and MR imaging after middle ear surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, Sabrina E-mail: sabrina.koesling@medizin.uni-halle.de; Bootz, F

    2001-11-01

    This article describes the current value of imaging in patients after stapes surgery and surgery after chronic otitis media including cholesteatoma. Possibilities and limits of computed tomography (CT) and MRI are described and most important investigation parameters are mentioned. After otosclerosis surgery, CT is the method of first choice in detection of reasons for vertigo and/or recurrent hearing loss in the later postoperative phase. CT may show the position and condition of prosthesis, scarring around the prosthesis and otospongiotic foci. Sometimes, it gives indirect hints for perilymphatic fistulas and incus necrosis. MRI is able to document inner ear complications. CT has a high negative predictive value in cases with a free cavity after mastoidectomy. Localized opacities or total occlusion are difficult to distinguish by CT alone. MRI provides important additional information in the differentiation of cholesterol granuloma, cholesteatoma, effusion, granulation and scar tissue.

  18. Elastic fiber-mediated enthesis in the human middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Tetsuaki; Shibata, Shunichi; Katori, Yukio; Ohtsuka, Aiji; Murakami, Gen; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2012-10-01

    Adaptation to constant vibration (acoustic oscillation) is likely to confer a specific morphology at the bone-tendon and bone-ligament interfaces at the ear ossicles, which therefore represent an exciting target of enthesis research. We histologically examined (i) the bone attachments of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles and (ii) the annular ligament of the incudostapedial joint obtained from seven elderly donated cadavers. Notably, both aldehyde-fuchsin and elastic-Masson staining demonstrated that the major fibrous component of the entheses was not collagen fibers but mature elastic fibers. The positive controls for elastic fiber staining were the arterial wall elastic laminae included in the temporal bone materials. The elastic fibers were inserted deeply into the type II collagen-poor fibrocartilage covering the ear ossicles. The muscle tendons were composed of an outer thin layer of collagen fibers and an inner thick core of elastic fibers near the malleus or stapes. In the unique elastic fiber-mediated entheses, hyaluronan, versican and fibronectin were expressed strongly along the elastic fibers. The hyaluronan seemed to act as a friction-reducing lubricant for the elastic fibers. Aggrecan was labeled strongly in a disk- or plica-like fibrous mass on the inner side of the elastic fiber-rich ligament, possibly due to compression stress from the ligament. Tenascin-c was not evident in the entheses. The elastic fiber-mediated entheses appeared resistant to tissue destruction in an environment exposed to constant vibration. The morphology was unlikely to be the result of age-related degeneration. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  19. Prevention and management of vascular complications in middle ear and cochlear implant surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lella, Filippo; Falcioni, Maurizio; Piccinini, Silvia; Iaccarino, Ilaria; Bacciu, Andrea; Pasanisi, Enrico; Cerasti, Davide; Vincenti, Vincenzo

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study is to illustrate prevention strategies and management of vascular complications from the jugular bulb (JB) and internal carotid artery (ICA) during middle ear surgery or cochlear implantation. The study design is retrospective case series. The setting is tertiary referral university hospital. Patients were included if presented pre- or intraoperative evidence of high-risk anatomical anomalies of ICA or JB during middle ear or cochlear implant surgery, intraoperative vascular injury, or revision surgery after the previous iatrogenic vascular lesions. The main outcome measures are surgical outcomes and complications rate. Ten subjects were identified: three underwent cochlear implant surgery and seven underwent middle ear surgery. Among the cochlear implant patients, two presented with anomalies of the JB impeding access to the cochlear lumen and one underwent revision surgery for incorrect positioning of the array in the carotid canal. Subtotal petrosectomy was performed in all cases. Anomalies of the JB were preoperatively identified in two patients with attic and external auditory canal cholesteatoma, respectively. In a patient, a high and dehiscent JB was found during myringoplasty, while another underwent revision surgery after iatrogenic injury of the JB. A dehiscent ICA complicated middle ear effusion in one case, while in another case, a carotid aneurysm determined a cholesterol granuloma. Rupture of a pseudoaneurysm of the ICA occurred in a child during second-stage surgery and required permanent balloon occlusion without neurological complications. Knowledge of normal anatomy and its variants and preoperative imaging are the basis for prevention of vascular complications during middle ear or cochlear implant surgery.

  20. Specialization for underwater hearing by the tympanic middle ear of the turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Willis, Katie L; Christensen, Christian Bech; Ketten, Darlene; Edds-Walton, Peggy; Fay, Richard R; Madsen, Peter T; Carr, Catherine E

    2012-07-22

    Turtles, like other amphibious animals, face a trade-off between terrestrial and aquatic hearing. We used laser vibrometry and auditory brainstem responses to measure their sensitivity to vibration stimuli and to airborne versus underwater sound. Turtles are most sensitive to sound underwater, and their sensitivity depends on the large middle ear, which has a compliant tympanic disc attached to the columella. Behind the disc, the middle ear is a large air-filled cavity with a volume of approximately 0.5 ml and a resonance frequency of approximately 500 Hz underwater. Laser vibrometry measurements underwater showed peak vibrations at 500-600 Hz with a maximum of 300 µm s(-1) Pa(-1), approximately 100 times more than the surrounding water. In air, the auditory brainstem response audiogram showed a best sensitivity to sound of 300-500 Hz. Audiograms before and after removing the skin covering reveal that the cartilaginous tympanic disc shows unchanged sensitivity, indicating that the tympanic disc, and not the overlying skin, is the key sound receiver. If air and water thresholds are compared in terms of sound intensity, thresholds in water are approximately 20-30 dB lower than in air. Therefore, this tympanic ear is specialized for underwater hearing, most probably because sound-induced pulsations of the air in the middle ear cavity drive the tympanic disc.

  1. Endoscopic middle ear exploration in pediatric patients with conductive hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John M; Hoff, Stephen R

    2017-05-01

    To describe our indications, findings, and outcomes for transcanal endoscopic middle ear exploration in pediatric patients with conductive hearing loss of unknown etiology, without effusions. Prospective case series for all pediatric patients undergoing totally endoscopic transcanal middle ear exploration between April 2012 and October 2015 at a pediatric tertiary care referral hospital. Demographic data, operative findings, and hearing results were reviewed. 21 cases were performed in 20 ears (1 revision). Average age at surgery was 7.98 years and average follow up was 2.1 years. Middle ear pathology identified on CT imaging was confirmed in 55% of cases while identified in 45% of cases where pre-operative imaging was non-diagnostic. 6/20 patients (30%) had an ossicular deformity. 8/20(40%) had bony ossicular fixation. 5/20(25%) had ossicular discontinuity. 2/20(10%) had facial nerve dehiscence impinging on the stapes. 15% had adhesive myringosclerosis or severe granulation causing hearing loss. Prosthetic ossiculoplasty was done in 7/21 (33.3%) of the cases, with 1 TORP, 3 PORPs, and 3 IS joint replacements. Imaging was predictive of intra-operative findings in 13/20 cases (55%). Trainees assisted in 16/21(76%) of cases. The average improvement of PTA was 11.65 dB (range -10 to 36.25), and the average ABG improved 10.19 (range -11.25 to 28.75). There were no perioperative complications or adverse events. The endoscopic transcanal approach for middle ear exploration offers excellent visualization and is one of the best applications for the endoscopes in pediatric otology cases. This is particularly helpful for "unexplained" conductive hearing loss where ossicular deformity/fixation/discontinuity is suspected. The etiology of the conductive hearing loss was definitively found in 100% of cases, and can be repaired in the same sitting when applicable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Replication of type 5 adenovirus promotes middle ear infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the chinchilla model of otitis media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrah, Kyle A.; Turner, Roberta L.; Pang, Bing; Perez, Antonia C.; Reimche, Jennifer L.; King, Lauren B.; Wren, John; Gandhi, Uma; Swords, W. Edward; Ornelles, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviral infection is a major risk factor for otitis media. We hypothesized that adenovirus promotes bacterial ascension into the middle ear through the disruption of normal function in the Eustachian tubes due to inflammation-induced changes. An intranasal infection model of the chinchilla was used to test the ability of type 5 adenovirus to promote middle ear infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae. The hyperinflammatory adenovirus mutant dl327 and the nonreplicating adenovirus mutant H5wt300ΔpTP were used to test the role of inflammation and viral replication, respectively, in promotion of pneumococcal middle ear infection. Precedent infection with adenovirus resulted in a significantly greater incidence of middle ear disease by S. pneumoniae as compared to nonadenovirus infected animals. Infection with the adenovirus mutant dl327 induced a comparable degree of bacterial ascension into the middle ear as did infection with the wild-type virus. By contrast, infection with the nonreplicating adenovirus mutant H5wt300ΔpTP resulted in less extensive middle ear infection compared to the wild-type adenovirus. We conclude that viral replication is necessary for adenoviral-induced pneumococcal middle ear disease. PMID:25251686

  3. Middle ear cavity morphology is consistent with an aquatic origin for testudines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, Katie L; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Ketten, Darlene R

    2013-01-01

    The position of testudines in vertebrate phylogeny is being re-evaluated. At present, testudine morphological and molecular data conflict when reconstructing phylogenetic relationships. Complicating matters, the ecological niche of stem testudines is ambiguous. To understand how turtles have...... evolved to hear in different environments, we examined middle ear morphology and scaling in most extant families, as well as some extinct species, using 3-dimensional reconstructions from micro magnetic resonance (MR) and submillimeter computed tomography (CT) scans. All families of testudines exhibited...... volume resonating in an underwater sound field, the calculated resonances for the volumes of the middle ear cavities largely fell within testudine hearing ranges. Although there were some differences in morphology, there were no statistically significant differences in the scaling of the volume...

  4. Comparative evaluation of coronal images of the middle ear visualized by CT scan and polytomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Masao; Nakai, Yoshiaki; Cho, Kansei; Tanabe, Kyoji; Inoue, Yuichi; Onoyama, Yasuto

    1982-01-01

    We retrospectively analysed the coronal images of the middle ear obtained by multidirectional tomography (polytomography) and computed tomography (CT) in 40 patients. Although CT was capable of demonstrating water density in the middle ear more clearly than polytomography and of delineating a lesion extending even outside of the petrous bone, the diagnostic capability was not much different between the two tomographic techniques. On the other hand, coronal CT scan has a disadvantage in that it usually has to be performed during hyperextension of the neck or while patients are in an uncomfortable hanging head position. We think that CT scan should be utilized only in case with a lesion extending beyond the petrous bone and/or is not well visualized by polytomography. (author)

  5. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  6. Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone with cancer of the middle ear. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Katsunori; Sakai, Makoto; Shinkawa, Atsushi

    1999-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone may occur as a result of radiation therapy for head and neck carcinomas or brain tumors. A 64-year-old female received radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the middle ear 20 years ago, and then she developed osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone. The patient underwent extensive debridement with removal of sequestrations in the temporal bone and adjacent areas, and abscess drainage. Her postoperative course was satisfactory and there was no progression of the disease. (author)

  7. Prophylactic antiemetic effects of midazolam, dexamethasone, and its combination after middle ear surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhdoom, Naeem K; Farid, Magdy F

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the efficacy of the combination of midazolam and dexamethasone, with midazolam and dexamethasone alone, for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in female patients undergoing middle ear surgery. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 80 female patients (mean age 32.6 years), undergoing middle ear surgery with general anesthesia at Ohud Hospital, Madina, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from May 2007 to May 2008. Patients were classified into 4 groups. They received intravenous normal saline (S group), midazolam 0.075 mg/kg (M group), or dexamethasone 10 mg (D group), or a combination of midazolam and dexamethasone (MD group), before the induction of anesthesia. Postoperatively for 24 hours observation and assessment of nausea, vomiting, rescue anti-emetics, and side effects of the study drugs such as headache and drowsiness were carried out. There was a significant difference between the 4 groups. The MD group was the least to develop PONV compared to other groups (p<0.01). Regarding nausea, there was a non-significant difference between the 4 groups, although the MD group developed the least symptoms among the 4 groups, there were no significant differences in pain intensity and side effects such as, headache, dizziness, and drowsiness between the 4 groups. The combination of midazolam 0.075 mg/kg and dexamethasone 10 mg intravenously is better than either drug alone in reducing the incidence of PONV in female patients after middle ear surgery. (author)

  8. Miniature, minimally invasive, tunable endoscope for investigation of the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Michal E; Shrestha, Sebina; Park, Jesung; Applegate, Brian E; Oghalai, John S; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a miniature, tunable, minimally invasive endoscope for diagnosis of the auditory system. The probe is designed to sharply image anatomical details of the middle ear without the need for physically adjusting the position of the distal end of the endoscope. This is achieved through the addition of an electrowetted, tunable, electronically-controlled lens to the optical train. Morphological imaging is enabled by scanning light emanating from an optical coherence tomography system. System performance was demonstrated by imaging part of the ossicular chain and wall of the middle ear cavity of a normal mouse. During the experiment, we electronically moved the plane of best focus from the incudo-stapedial joint to the stapedial artery. Repositioning the object plane allowed us to image anatomical details of the middle ear beyond the depth of field of a static optical system. We also demonstrated for the first time to our best knowledge, that an optical system with an electrowetted, tunable lens may be successfully employed to measure sound-induced vibrations within the auditory system by measuring the vibratory amplitude of the tympanic membrane in a normal mouse in response to pure tone stimuli.

  9. Laser Doppler velocimetry for measurement of nonlinearity in the vibrations of the middle ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, John; Dirckx, Joris

    2014-05-01

    At audible Frequencies and at sound pressure below 96 dB SPL the mammalian middle ear is known to behave as an almost entirely linear system. However, as we go to higher sound pressure levels, smaller nonlinear distortions begin to appear, and increase with increasing pressure level. Some modern hearing aids seek to remedy hearing impairment by amplifying sounds to sound pressure levels as high as 130 or 140 dB SPL. Thus at these levels the small nonlinear distortions can become significant, and understanding their behaviour could help us to improve the design of these hearing aids. In order to measure the tiny vibration amplitudes of the middle ear, and to detect the even smaller nonlinear distortions, a very sensitive measurement and analysis method is needed. The tiny vibration amplitudes of the middle ear can easily be measured with laser vibrometry. Thanks to the highly linear response of LDV, the technique is also able to measure small nonlinearities. To detect the nonlinear distortions we developed a sophisticated measurement and analysis method based on the use of multisine excitation signals. These signals are specially designed to measure nonlinear systems. We will describe our set up and our stimulation and analysis method in detail, we will then go on to present some results of measurements at different points along the ossicular chain.

  10. Comparison of Carina active middle-ear implant with conventional hearing aids for mixed hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaş, V A; Gündüz, B; Karamert, R; Cevizci, R; Düzlü, M; Tutar, H; Bayazit, Y A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the auditory outcomes of Carina middle-ear implants with those of conventional hearing aids in patients with moderate-to-severe mixed hearing loss. The study comprised nine patients (six males, three females) who underwent middle-ear implantation with Carina fully implantable active middle-ear implants to treat bilateral moderate-to-severe mixed hearing loss. The patients initially used conventional hearing aids and subsequently received the Carina implants. The hearing thresholds with implants and hearing aids were compared. There were no significant differences between: the pre-operative and post-operative air and bone conduction thresholds (p > 0.05), the thresholds with hearing aids and Carina implants (p > 0.05), or the pre-operative (mean, 72.8 ± 19 per cent) and post-operative (mean, 69.9 ± 24 per cent) speech discrimination scores (p > 0.05). One of the patients suffered total sensorineural hearing loss three months following implantation despite an initial 38 dB functional gain. All except one patient showed clinical improvements after implantation according to quality of life questionnaire (Glasgow Benefit Inventory) scores. Acceptance of Carina implants is better than with conventional hearing aids in patients with mixed hearing loss, although both yield similar hearing amplification. Cosmetic reasons appear to be critical for patient acceptance.

  11. HB-EGF expression as a potential biomarker of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shumin; Wang, Xiaoli; Ren, Hongmiao; Liu, Xiaoyu; Ren, Jihao; Liu, Wei

    2017-08-01

    The heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) plays an essential role in the development and invasiveness of cholesteatoma. This study may help to realize the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma and make HB-EGF a promising target for drug intervention of cholesteatoma. To detect HB-EGF expression in human surgical specimens of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma and analyze its functional role as a regulator of epithelial keratinocytes hyperproliferation. A total of 34 patients who underwent surgical treatment for middle ear cholesteatoma were recruited in the study. The mRNA and protein expression of HB-EGF in middle ear cholesteatoma tissues and normal postauricular skin tissues was investigated by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. The correlation between bone resorption degree and HB-EGF expression was also analyzed. On average, compared with normal postauricular skin, expression of HB-EGF mRNA in the cholesteatoma epithelium was significantly elevated 2.41-fold by RT-qPCR, and HB-EGF protein significantly upregulated 2.32-fold by western blot. Positive HB-EGF immunostaining observed in the basal and suprabasal layers of cholesteatoma epithelium was significantly stronger than in normal postauricular skin. Meanwhile, an obviously positive correlation between HB-EGF protein expression and bone resorption degree was discovered.

  12. Into the dark: patterns of middle ear adaptations in subterranean eulipotyphlan mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyabu, Daisuke; Hosojima, Misato; Endo, Hideki

    2017-09-01

    Evolution of the middle ear ossicles was a key innovation for mammals, enhancing the transmission of airborne sound. Radiation into various habitats from a terrestrial environment resulted in diversification of the auditory mechanisms among mammals. However, due to the paucity of phylogenetically controlled investigations, how middle ear traits have diversified with functional specialization remains unclear. In order to identify the respective patterns for various lifestyles and to gain insights into fossil forms, we employed a high-resolution tomography technique and compared the middle ear morphology of eulipotyphlan species (moles, shrews and hedgehogs), a group that has radiated into various environments, such as terrestrial, aquatic and subterranean habitats. Three-dimensional geometric morphometric analysis was conducted within a phylogenetically controlled framework. Quantitative shapes were found to strongly reflect the degree of subterranean lifestyle and weakly involve phylogeny. Our analyses demonstrate that subterranean adaptation should include a relatively shorter anterior process of the malleus, an enlarged incus, an enlarged stapes footplate and a reduction of the orbicular apophysis. These traits arguably allow improving low-frequency sound transmission at low frequencies and inhibiting the low-frequency noise which disturbs the subterranean animals in hearing airborne sounds.

  13. Correlative mRNA and protein expression of middle and inner ear inflammatory cytokines during mouse acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trune, Dennis R; Kempton, Beth; Hausman, Frances A; Larrain, Barbara E; MacArthur, Carol J

    2015-08-01

    Although the inner ear has long been reported to be susceptible to middle ear disease, little is known of the inflammatory mechanisms that might cause permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Recent studies have shown inner ear tissues are capable of expressing inflammatory cytokines during otitis media. However, little quantitative information is available concerning cytokine gene expression in the inner ear and the protein products that result. Therefore, this study was conducted of mouse middle and inner ear during acute otitis media to measure the relationship between inflammatory cytokine genes and their protein products with quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Balb/c mice were inoculated transtympanically with heat-killed Haemophilus influenzae and middle and inner ear tissues collected for either quantitative RT-PCR microarrays or ELISA multiplex arrays. mRNA for several cytokine genes was significantly increased in both the middle and inner ear at 6 h. In the inner ear, these included MIP-2 (448 fold), IL-6 (126 fold), IL-1β (7.8 fold), IL-10 (10.7 fold), TNFα (1.8 fold), and IL-1α (1.5 fold). The 24 h samples showed a similar pattern of gene expression, although generally at lower levels. In parallel, the ELISA showed the related cytokines were present in the inner ear at concentrations higher by 2-122 fold higher at 18 h, declining slightly from there at 24 h. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to a number of these cytokines demonstrated they occurred in greater amounts in the inner ear tissues. These findings demonstrate considerable inflammatory gene expression and gene products in the inner ear following acute otitis media. These higher cytokine levels suggest one potential mechanism for the permanent hearing loss seen in some cases of acute and chronic otitis media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of the tensor veli palatini muscle in the development of cleft palate-associated middle ear problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidsieck, David S P; Smarius, Bram J A; Oomen, Karin P Q; Breugem, Corstiaan C

    2016-09-01

    Otitis media with effusion is common in infants with an unrepaired cleft palate. Although its prevalence is reduced after cleft surgery, many children continue to suffer from middle ear problems during childhood. While the tensor veli palatini muscle is thought to be involved in middle ear ventilation, evidence about its exact anatomy, function, and role in cleft palate surgery is limited. This study aimed to perform a thorough review of the literature on (1) the role of the tensor veli palatini muscle in the Eustachian tube opening and middle ear ventilation, (2) anatomical anomalies in cleft palate infants related to middle ear disease, and (3) their implications for surgical techniques used in cleft palate repair. A literature search on the MEDLINE database was performed using a combination of the keywords "tensor veli palatini muscle," "Eustachian tube," "otitis media with effusion," and "cleft palate." Several studies confirm the important role of the tensor veli palatini muscle in the Eustachian tube opening mechanism. Maintaining the integrity of the tensor veli palatini muscle during cleft palate surgery seems to improve long-term otological outcome. However, anatomical variations in cleft palate children may alter the effect of the tensor veli palatini muscle on the Eustachian tube's dilatation mechanism. More research is warranted to clarify the role of the tensor veli palatini muscle in cleft palate-associated Eustachian tube dysfunction and development of middle ear problems. Optimized surgical management of cleft palate could potentially reduce associated middle ear problems.

  15. Mass distribution and rotational inertia of "microtype" and "freely mobile" middle ear ossicles in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Danielle; Taraskin, Sergei N; Mason, Matthew J

    2011-12-01

    The middle ears of seven species of rodents, including four hamster species, were examined under light microscopy and through micro-CT imaging. Hamsters were found to possess a spectrum of ossicular morphologies ranging from something approaching "freely mobile" (Mesocricetus) to something nearer the "microtype" (Cricetulus), although no hamster has an orbicular apophysis of the malleus. Rats, mice and Calomyscus were found to have typically microtype ossicles. To explore the functional effects of these morphological differences, CT scan data were used to calculate the magnitudes of the moments of inertia and positions of the centres of mass and principal rotational axes for the malleus-incus complexes. Microtype species were found to have much greater ossicular inertias, relative to size, about the "anatomical axis" extending between anterior process of the malleus and short process of the incus; ossicular centres of mass were displaced further from this axis. Calculated inertial values were then put into an existing model of middle ear function (Hemilä et al., 1995), in order to see whether the more accurate data would improve predictions of upper hearing limits. For the rat and mouse they did, but this was not so for the hamster Mesocricetus. This might indicate that the inner rather than the middle ear limits hearing in this species, or might simply reflect other shortcomings of the model. Functional differences appear to exist even among rodent ears of the same general type, but the adaptive significance of these differences remains enigmatic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of pars flaccida in human middle ear sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritomo, H; Goode, R L; Gonzalez, J

    1988-04-01

    The role of the pars flaccida in middle ear sound transmission was studied with the use of twelve otoscopically normal, fresh, human temporal bones. Peak-to-peak umbo displacement in response to a constant sound pressure level at the tympanic membrane was measured with a noncontacting video measuring system capable of repeatable measurements down to 0.2 micron. Measurements were made before and after pars flaccida modifications at 18 frequencies between 100 and 4000 Hz. Four pars flaccida modifications were studied: (1) acoustic insulation of the pars flaccida to the ear canal with a silicone rubber baffle, (2) stiffening the pars flaccida with cyanoacrylate cement, (3) decreasing the tension of the pars flaccida with a nonperforating incision, and (4) perforation of the pars flaccida. All of the modifications (except the perforation) had a minimal effect on umbo displacement; this seems to imply that the pars flaccida has a minor acoustic role in human beings.

  17. Changes in microvascular permeability of the middle ear mucosa following the occulsion of the eustachian tube of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yasutaka

    1988-01-01

    Serial changes in submucosal microvascular permeability of the middle ear and the response to histamine after occlusion of the eustachian tube were functionally investigated using radioisotope in rabbits with experimentally induced otitis media with effusion. Tritium water was administered through intravenous injection and transference of tritium water into the middle ear cavity was measured by radioactivity of the middle ear perfusate. Morphological changes were concurrently examined for comparison. Vascular permeability, as measured one, 7, and 14 days after occlusion of the eustachian tube, increased with time. A histological study showed an edematous hypertrophy of the submucosal tissue of the middle ear, suggesting a noticeable increase in microvascular permeability. The response of the middle ear mucosa to histamine, which was added to the fluid for perfusion, gradually decreased after occlusion of the eustachian tube, although the effect of histamine tended to persist for a long time, irrespective of the amount of administration. The results indicated that the mucosal membrane of the middle ear has a noticeable permeability at least up to 14 days after occlusion, and that histamine may be responsible for the increase of submucosal microvascular permeability not only in the normal middle ear cavity but also in otitis media with effusion which results in the persistance of the disease. The presence of factors permeable to the blood, other than histamine, caused microvascular peameability to increase, probably resulting in chronic or irreversible inflammation. This may be explained by markedly proliferative or parenchymatous connective tissues observed 7 and l0 weeks after occlusion. It should be noted that surgical treatment be performed as early as possible in the case of otitis media with effusion. (Namekawa, K) 80 refs

  18. Limits on normal cochlear 'third' windows provided by previous investigations of additional sound paths into and out of the cat inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosowski, John J; Bowers, Peter; Nakajima, Hideko H

    2018-03-01

    While most models of cochlear function assume the presence of only two windows into the mammalian cochlea (the oval and round windows), a position that is generally supported by several lines of data, there is evidence for additional sound paths into and out of the inner ear in normal mammals. In this report we review the existing evidence for and against the 'two-window' hypothesis. We then determine how existing data and inner-ear anatomy restrict transmission of sound through these additional sound pathways in cat by utilizing a well-tested model of the cat inner ear, together with anatomical descriptions of the cat cochlear and vestibular aqueducts (potential additional windows to the cochlea). We conclude: (1) The existing data place limits on the size of the cochlear and vestibular aqueducts in cat and are consistent with small volume-velocities through these ducts during ossicular stimulation of the cochlea, (2) the predicted volume velocities produced by aqueducts with diameters half the size of the bony diameters match the functional data within ±10 dB, and (3) these additional volume velocity paths contribute to the inner ear's response to non-acoustic stimulation and conductive pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Congenital malformations of the external and middle ear: high-resolution CT findings of surgical import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, J.D.; Faerber, E.N.

    1985-01-01

    The external auditory canal, middle ear, and bulk of the ossicular chain develop from the first branchial groove, first and second branchial arches, and first pharyngeal pouch. Embryologic development of these structures is complex and only rarely are two anomalies identical. This study includes 11 cases of unilateral external auditory canal atresia and two cases of bilateral atresia. Eight cases (four bilateral) of isolated congenital ossicular anomalies are also included. Emphasis is placed on findings of surgical import. All patients were studied with computed tomography only, because it was believed that the bony and soft-tissue detail achieved is superior to that with conventional multidirectional tomography

  20. Unusual association of congenital middle ear cholesteatoma and first branchial cleft anomaly: management and embryological concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicollas, R; Tardivet, L; Bourlière-Najean, B; Sudre-Levillain, I; Triglia, J M

    2005-02-01

    To report two cases of an undescribed association of first branchial cleft fistula and middle ear congenital cholesteatoma and to discuss management and embryological hypothesis. Retrospective study and review of the literature Both patients were young girls free of past medical or surgical history. Surgical removal of the first cleft anomaly found in the two cases a fistula routing underneath the facial nerve. Both cholesteatomas were located in the hypotympanum, mesotympanum. In one case, an anatomical link between the two malformations was clearly identified with CT scan. The main embryological theories and classification are reviewed. A connection between Aimi's and Michaels' theories (congenital cholesteatoma) and Work classification might explain the reported clinical association.

  1. The clinical efficacy of 1 mm-slice CT of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Kazuhiro; Noiri, Teruhisa; Doi, Katsumi; Koizuka, Izumi; Tanaka, Hisashi; Mishiro, Yasuo; Okumura, Shin-ichi; Kubo, Takeshi

    2000-01-01

    The efficacy of the preoperative 1 mm-slice CT for evaluating the condition of the ossicular chain and the facial canal was assessed. CT findings were compared with the operative findings of middle ears in 120 cases of chronic otitis media or cholesteatoma that underwent tympanoplasty. The reliability of 1 mm-slice CT in detecting any defect of the ossicular chain was much superior to those of 2 mm-slice CT previously reported, and the difference between them is essential for preoperative information. On the other hand, thinner slice than 1 mm may be unnecessary, especially in routine use. (author)

  2. Role of the middle ear muscle apparatus in mechanisms of speech signal discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, B. S.; Bazarov, V. G.; Sachenko, S. V.

    1980-01-01

    A method of impedance reflexometry was used to examine 101 students with hearing impairment in order to clarify the interrelation between speech discrimination and the state of the middle ear muscles. Ability to discriminate speech signals depends to some extent on the functional state of intraaural muscles. Speech discrimination was greatly impaired in the absence of stapedial muscle acoustic reflex, in the presence of low thresholds of stimulation and in very small values of reflex amplitude increase. Discrimination was not impeded in positive AR, high values of relative thresholds and normal increase of reflex amplitude in response to speech signals with augmenting intensity.

  3. The clinical efficacy of 1 mm-slice CT of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kazuhiro; Noiri, Teruhisa [Kawanishi Municipal Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Doi, Katsumi; Koizuka, Izumi; Tanaka, Hisashi; Mishiro, Yasuo; Okumura, Shin-ichi; Kubo, Takeshi

    2000-02-01

    The efficacy of the preoperative 1 mm-slice CT for evaluating the condition of the ossicular chain and the facial canal was assessed. CT findings were compared with the operative findings of middle ears in 120 cases of chronic otitis media or cholesteatoma that underwent tympanoplasty. The reliability of 1 mm-slice CT in detecting any defect of the ossicular chain was much superior to those of 2 mm-slice CT previously reported, and the difference between them is essential for preoperative information. On the other hand, thinner slice than 1 mm may be unnecessary, especially in routine use. (author)

  4. Clinico-radiologic considerations of middle ear fractures and its complications, about eight cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, J.C.; Medina, E.; Goulao, A.; Monteiro, S.

    1985-01-01

    Eight cases of middle ear fractures are studied. The fracture deslocation of the ossicula, the lesions of facial canal and the meningocerebral complications associated with continuity solution of the 'tegmens' were characterized by computed tomography (CT - 'target program'). The CT with cisternography using contrast media hydrosoluble is also a method to determinate the place of the otoliquorrhea. The conclusion is that the CT image reconstruction by algorithms that has high powers of resolution and contrast are today indispensable to diagnosis and surgical planement of the deafness, facial palsy and tympanic hernia of the brain and arachnoidea cisterns. (Author) [pt

  5. Effects of middle ear quasi-static stiffness on sound transmission quantified by a novel 3-axis optical force sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrev, Ivo; Sim, Jae Hoon; Aqtashi, Baktash; Huber, Alexander M; Linder, Thomas; Röösli, Christof

    2018-01-01

    Intra-operative quantification of the ossicle mobility could provide valuable feedback for the current status of the patient's conductive hearing. However, current methods for evaluation of middle ear mobility are mostly limited to the surgeon's subjective impression through manual palpation of the ossicles. This study investigates how middle ear transfer function is affected by stapes quasi-static stiffness of the ossicular chain. The stiffness of the middle ear is induced by a) using a novel fiber-optic 3-axis force sensor to quantify the quasi-static stiffness of the middle ear, and b) by artificial reduction of stapes mobility due to drying of the middle ear. Middle ear transfer function, defined as the ratio of the stapes footplate velocity versus the ear canal sound pressure, was measured with a single point LDV in two conditions. First, a controlled palpation force was applied at the stapes head in two in-plane (superior-inferior or posterior-anterior) directions, and at the incus lenticular process near the incudostapedial joint in the piston (lateral-medial) direction with a novel 3-axis PalpEar force sensor (Sensoptic, Losone, Switzerland), while the corresponding quasi-static displacement of the contact point was measured via a 3-axis micrometer stage. The palpation force was applied sequentially, step-wise in the range of 0.1-20 gF (1-200 mN). Second, measurements were repeated with various stages of stapes fixation, simulated by pre-load on the stapes head or drying of the temporal bone, and with severe ossicle immobilization, simulated by gluing of the stapes footplate. Simulated stapes fixation (forced drying of 5-15 min) severely decreases (20-30 dB) the low frequency (4 kHz) response. Stapes immobilization (gluing of the footplate) severely reduces (20-40 dB) the low and mid frequency response (force (Force-displacement measurements around the incudostapedial joint showed quasi-static stiffness in the range of 200-500 N/m for normal middle

  6. Conductive hearing loss and middle ear pathology in young infants referred through a newborn universal hearing screening program in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, Sreedevi; Aithal, Venkatesh; Kei, Joseph; Driscoll, Carlie

    2012-10-01

    Although newborn hearing screening programs have been introduced in most states in Australia, the prevalence of conductive hearing loss and middle ear pathology in the infants referred through these programs is not known. This study was designed to (1) evaluate the prevalence of conductive hearing loss and middle ear pathology in infants referred by a newborn hearing screening program in north Queensland, (2) compare prevalence rates of conductive hearing loss and middle ear pathology in indigenous and nonindigenous infants, and (3) review the outcomes of those infants diagnosed with conductive hearing loss and middle ear pathology. Retrospective chart review of infants referred to the Audiology Department of The Townsville Hospital was conducted. Chart review of 234 infants referred for one or both ears from a newborn hearing screening program in north Queensland was conducted. A total of 211 infants attended the diagnostic appointment. Review appointments to monitor hearing status were completed for 46 infants with middle ear pathology or conductive hearing loss. Diagnosis of hearing impairment was made using an age-appropriate battery of audiological tests. Results were analyzed for both initial and review appointments. Mean age at initial diagnostic assessment was 47.5 days (SD = 31.3). Of the 69 infants with middle ear pathology during initial diagnostic assessment, 18 had middle ear pathology with normal hearing, 47 had conductive hearing loss, and 4 had mixed hearing loss. Prevalence of conductive hearing loss in the newborns was 2.97 per 1,000 while prevalence of middle ear pathology (with or without conductive hearing loss) was 4.36 per 1,000. Indigenous Australians or Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) infants had a significantly higher prevalence of conductive hearing loss and middle ear pathology than non-ATSI infants (35.19 and 44.45% vs 17.83 and 28.66%, respectively). ATSI infants also showed poor resolution of conductive hearing loss

  7. A micropower miniature piezoelectric actuator for implantable middle ear hearing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Mills, Robert; Luo, Hongyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Hou, Wensheng; Wang, Lijun; Brown, Stuart I; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a small actuator using a miniature piezoelectric stack and a flextensional mechanical amplification structure for an implantable middle ear hearing device (IMEHD). A finite-element method was used in the actuator design. Actuator vibration displacement was measured using a laser vibrometer. Preliminary evaluation of the actuator for an IMEHD was conducted using a temporal bone model. Initial results from one temporal bone study indicated that the actuator was small enough to be implanted within the middle ear cavity, and sufficient stapes displacement can be generated for patients with mild to moderate hearing losses, especially at higher frequency range, by the actuator suspended onto the stapes. There was an insignificant mass-loading effect on normal sound transmission (actuator was attached to the stapes and switched off. Improved vibration performance is predicted by more firm attachment. The actuator power consumption and its generated equivalent sound pressure level are also discussed. In conclusion, the actuator has advantages of small size, lightweight, and micropower consumption for potential use as IMHEDs.

  8. Identification of specific gene expression profiles in fibroblasts derived from middle ear cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Mamoru; Kojima, Hiromi; Wada, Kota; Tsukidate, Toshiharu; Okada, Naoko; Saito, Hirohisa; Moriyama, Hiroshi

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the role of fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. Tissue specimens were obtained from our patients. Middle ear cholesteatoma-derived fibroblasts (MECFs) and postauricular skin-derived fibroblasts (SFs) as controls were then cultured for a few weeks. These fibroblasts were stimulated with interleukin (IL) 1alpha and/or IL-1beta before gene expression assays. We used the human genome U133A probe array (GeneChip) and real-time polymerase chain reaction to examine and compare the gene expression profiles of the MECFs and SFs. Six patients who had undergone tympanoplasty. The IL-1alpha-regulated genes were classified into 4 distinct clusters on the basis of profiles differentially regulated by SF and MECF using a hierarchical clustering analysis. The messenger RNA expressions of LARC (liver and activation-regulated chemokine), GMCSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), epiregulin, ICAM1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1), and TGFA (transforming growth factor alpha) were more strongly up-regulated by IL-1alpha and/or IL-1beta in MECF than in SF, suggesting that these fibroblasts derived from different tissues retained their typical gene expression profiles. Fibroblasts may play a role in hyperkeratosis of middle ear cholesteatoma by releasing molecules involved in inflammation and epidermal growth. These fibroblasts may retain tissue-specific characteristics presumably controlled by epigenetic mechanisms.

  9. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  10. Middle ear implant in conductive and mixed congenital hearing loss in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Stéphane; Denoyelle, Françoise; Farinetti, Anne; Garabedian, Erea-Noel; Triglia, Jean-Michel

    2012-12-01

    Active middle ear implant can be used in children and adolescents with congenital hearing loss. The authors report their experience with the semi implantable Medel Vibrant Soundbridge(®) (VSB) in the audiologic rehabilitation of such patients. In this retrospective study, audiological and surgical data of 10 children (10.5±4 years) implanted with 12 VSB in 2 tertiary cares ENT Departments were analysed. Two children with bilateral external auditory canal (EAC) atresia and mixed hearing loss (mean air conduction (AC) thresholds=65dB HL) were bilaterally implanted. Eight children presented with microtia associated with EAC atresia bilaterally (n=3) and unilaterally (n=5). All of them had a conductive hearing loss in the implanted ear (mean (AC) thresholds were 58.75dB HL preoperatively). The Floating Mass Transducer was crimped on the long process of the incus (n=8) or on the suprastructure of the stapes (n=4). There were no intra- or postoperative surgical complications. All the children wore their implants after 5 weeks. Postoperative mean bone conduction (BC) thresholds were unchanged. The mean aided thresholds with VSB (four frequencies warble tones at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) were 28dB HL (± 10). Word discrimination threshold in quiet conditions in free field with the VSB unilaterally activated was 50% at 38dB SPL (± 9). The results indicate that satisfaction of the children and their parents is very encouraging but surgeons should be cautious with this new approach in relation to the pinna reconstruction and to possible risks to inner ear and facial nerve. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Histological study of the external, middle and inner ear of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, A; Aupperle, H; Seeger, J; Kubick, C; Schusser, G F

    2015-12-01

    Clinical, anatomical and histological aspects of the equine acoustic organ have been poorly investigated and illustrated in literature so far. It is understood that an intact acoustic organ and hearing function are of vital importance for the well-being of flight animals like horses. The knowledge of the acoustic organ is usually transferred analogously from other mammals to horses. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed and complete histological description of the healthy equine auditory organ, and to determine its congruity to other mammalians. Anatomical dissections and histological preparations were carried out on ten cadaver heads. Specimens of various parts of the equine acoustic organ were taken and evaluated histologically. The histological composition of external, middle and inner ear structures are predominantly congruent to those of other mammals, especially to human beings. Unique inwardly directed rete pegs within the osseous ear canal and the prominent tensor tympani muscle are described for the first time. Results obtained in this study can be employed as references for further research on the equine acoustic organ and improve the understanding of the clinical development of hearing loss, otitis externa/media/interna or tympanosclerosis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Segmentation and reconstruction of the 3D geometry of the middle and inner ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yanfei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical model of the ear is of great importance in the design of ossicular prosthesis, cochlear implant electrodes, as well as for the preoperative planning and navigation of surgery. By means of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT and technology of 3D reconstruction, an anatomical model of the middle and inner ear was built. Region of interest includes the ossicular chain (malleus, incus, and stapes, cochlea (scala vestibule-ST, scala tympani-ST, basilar membrane-BM, spiral ligament-SL and osseous spiral lamina-OSL, tympanic membrane-TM, oval window membrane-OWM, round window membrane-OWM and stapedial annular ligament-SAL. The micro-CT images of a cadaver’s temporal bone were acquired by “SkyScan 1076” (Kontich, Belgium, www.skyscan.be and then reconstructed to cross-section images by SkyScan NRecon™ (v1.6.10.4. The image processing and 3D geometry reconstruction of temporal bone were performed by software Mimics® (v14.0, Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium. The obtained structures are measured and validated against literature data and the results are in good agreement.

  13. Feedback characteristics between implantable microphone and transducer in middle ear cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman Woo, S H; Woo, Seong Tak; Song, Byung Seop; Cho, Jin-Ho

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of implantable hearing aids, implementation and acoustic sensing strategy of the implantable microphone becomes an important issue; among the many types of implantable microphone, placing the microphone in middle ear cavity (MEC) has advantages including simple operation and insensitive to skin touching or chewing motion. In this paper, an implantable microphone was implemented and researched feedback characteristic when both the implantable microphone and the transducer were placed in the MEC. Analytical and finite element analysis were conducted to design the microphone to have a natural frequency of 7 kHz and showed good characteristics of SNR and sensitivity. For the feedback test, simple analytical and finite element analysis were calculated and compared with in vitro experiments (n = 4). From the experiments, the open-loop gain and feedback factor were measured and the minimum gain margin measured as 14.3 dB.

  14. Piezoelectric Actuator with Frequency Characteristics for a Middle-Ear Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Ho; Cho, Jin-Ho

    2018-05-24

    The design and implementation of a novel piezoelectric-based actuator for an implantable middle-ear hearing aid is described in this paper. The proposed actuator has excellent low-frequency output characteristics, and can generate high output in a specific frequency band by adjusting the mechanical resonance. The actuator consists of a piezoelectric element, a miniature bellows, a cantilever membrane, a metal ring support, a ceramic tip, and titanium housing. The optimal structure of the cantilever-membrane design, which determines the frequency characteristics of the piezoelectric actuator, was derived through finite element analysis. Based on the results, the piezoelectric actuator was implemented, and its performance was verified through a cadaveric experiment. It was confirmed that the proposed actuator provides better performance than currently used actuators, in terms of frequency characteristics.

  15. Predominant Bacteria Detected from the Middle Ear Fluid of Children Experiencing Otitis Media: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chinh C; Massa, Helen M; Thornton, Ruth B; Cripps, Allan W

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is amongst the most common childhood diseases and is associated with multiple microbial pathogens within the middle ear. Global and temporal monitoring of predominant bacterial pathogens is important to inform new treatment strategies, vaccine development and to monitor the impact of vaccine implementation to improve progress toward global OM prevention. A systematic review of published reports of microbiology of acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) from January, 1970 to August 2014, was performed using PubMed databases. This review confirmed that Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, remain the predominant bacterial pathogens, with S. pneumoniae the predominant bacterium in the majority reports from AOM patients. In contrast, H. influenzae was the predominant bacterium for patients experiencing chronic OME, recurrent AOM and AOM with treatment failure. This result was consistent, even where improved detection sensitivity from the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) rather than bacterial culture was conducted. On average, PCR analyses increased the frequency of detection of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae 3.2 fold compared to culture, whilst Moraxella catarrhalis was 4.5 times more frequently identified by PCR. Molecular methods can also improve monitoring of regional changes in the serotypes and identification frequency of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae over time or after vaccine implementation, such as after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Globally, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae remain the predominant otopathogens associated with OM as identified through bacterial culture; however, molecular methods continue to improve the frequency and accuracy of detection of individual serotypes. Ongoing monitoring with appropriate detection methods for OM pathogens can support development of improved vaccines to provide protection from the complex combination of otopathogens within

  16. Predominant Bacteria Detected from the Middle Ear Fluid of Children Experiencing Otitis Media: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chinh C.; Massa, Helen M.; Thornton, Ruth B.; Cripps, Allan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is amongst the most common childhood diseases and is associated with multiple microbial pathogens within the middle ear. Global and temporal monitoring of predominant bacterial pathogens is important to inform new treatment strategies, vaccine development and to monitor the impact of vaccine implementation to improve progress toward global OM prevention. Methods A systematic review of published reports of microbiology of acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) from January, 1970 to August 2014, was performed using PubMed databases. Results This review confirmed that Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, remain the predominant bacterial pathogens, with S. pneumoniae the predominant bacterium in the majority reports from AOM patients. In contrast, H. influenzae was the predominant bacterium for patients experiencing chronic OME, recurrent AOM and AOM with treatment failure. This result was consistent, even where improved detection sensitivity from the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) rather than bacterial culture was conducted. On average, PCR analyses increased the frequency of detection of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae 3.2 fold compared to culture, whilst Moraxella catarrhalis was 4.5 times more frequently identified by PCR. Molecular methods can also improve monitoring of regional changes in the serotypes and identification frequency of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae over time or after vaccine implementation, such as after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Conclusions Globally, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae remain the predominant otopathogens associated with OM as identified through bacterial culture; however, molecular methods continue to improve the frequency and accuracy of detection of individual serotypes. Ongoing monitoring with appropriate detection methods for OM pathogens can support development of improved vaccines to provide protection from the

  17. Anatomical variants of tympanic compartments and their aeration pathways involved in the pathogenesis of middle ear inflammatory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MANIU, ALMA; CATANA, IULIU V.; HARABAGIU, OANA; PETRI, MARIA; COSGAREA, MARCEL

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this article is to review the anatomy of middle ear compartments and folds and to demonstrate through anatomical evidence their presence at birth. Additionally, their role in the obstructions of middle ear ventilatory pathway is highlighted. Methods Ninety-eight adult temporal bones, with no history of auricular disease and fifteen newborn temporal bones were studied by micro dissection. Documentation was done by color photography using the operation microscope Results Our micro-dissections have showed that mucosal folds from the middle ear are steadily present since birth, given that they were found in all newborn temporal bones. The mucosal folds in our normal adult material, showed some variations including membrane defects but they were constantly present. Our micro dissections showed that the epitympanic diaphragm consisted, in addition to malleal ligamental folds and ossicles, of only two constantly present folds: the tensor tympani fold and the incudomalleal fold. When the tensor fold is complete the only ventilation pathway to the anterior epitympanic space is through the isthmus, whereas its absence creates an efficient additional aeration route from the Eustachian tube to the epitympanum. Conclusions The goal of surgery in the chronic pathology of the middle ear should be restoration of normal ventilation of the attical-mastoid area. This is possible by removing the tensor fold and restoring the functionality of the isthmus tympani. PMID:26527977

  18. Treatment of middle ear ventilation disorders: sheep as animal model for stenting the human Eustachian tube--a cadaver study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicitas Miller

    Full Text Available Eustachian tube disorders can lead to chronic otitis media with consecutive conductive hearing loss. To improve treatment and to develop new types of implants such as stents, an adequate experimental animal model is required. As the middle ear of sheep is known to be comparable to the human middle ear, the dimensions of the Eustachian tube in two strains of sheep were investigated. The Eustachian tube and middle ear of half heads of heathland and blackface sheep were filled with silicone rubber, blended with barium sulfate to induce X-ray visibility. Images were taken by digital volume tomography. The tubes were segmented, and a three-dimensional model of every Eustachian tube was generated. The lengths, diameters and shapes were determined. Additionally, the feasibility of endoscopic stent implantation and fixation was tested in cadaver experiments. The length of the tube between ostium pharyngeum and the isthmus and the diameters were comparable to published values for the human tube. The tube was easily accessible through the nose, and then stents could be implanted and fixed at the isthmus. The sheep appears to be a promising model for testing new stent treatments for middle ear ventilation disorders.

  19. Middle ear influence on otoacoustic emissions. I : Noninvasive investigation of the human transmission apparatus and comparison with model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avan, P; Buki, B; Maat, B; Dordain, M; Wit, HP

    Evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAEs) are generated within the cochlea in response to external sounds, and they can be acoustically detected in the external auditory meatus after backward propagation through the middle ear. In addition to being used to probe the cochlear mechanisms, they are expected

  20. Listening to the ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, Christopher A.

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  1. Increasing rate of middle ear ventilation tube insertion in children in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    ventilation tube insertions distributed among 269,459 different children were identified. From 1997 to 2010 the age standardized incidence rate in 0-15-year-olds increased from 26 to 40 per 1000 person years with an estimated annual increase of 2.0% (95% confidence interval 1.9-2.1%). The largest increase...... in incidence rate was found in 1-year-olds with an annual increase of 4.5% (95% confidence interval 4.4-4.6%). Age-specific incidence rates remained at maximum around the age of 14 months throughout the period. The cumulative incidence proportion for the 2010 birth cohort by the time they reach the age of 5......OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence rates of middle ear ventilation tube insertion in children aged 0 to 15 years in Denmark from 1997 to 2010. METHODS: Using two national registers, the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish National Patient Register, practically all cases of middle...

  2. Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Healthy Pets, Healthy People About Pets & People Pets & Other Animals Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard ... pets CDC Podcasts Zoonoses in the Bedroom CDC People Can Catch Diseases from Their Pets CDC Helpful books and references Cat-associated outbreaks ...

  3. In vivo areal modulus of elasticity estimation of the human tympanic membrane system: modelling of middle ear mechanical function in normal young and aged ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaihede, Michael Lyhne; Donghua, Liao; Gregersen, H.

    2007-01-01

    The quasi-static elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system can be described by the areal modulus of elasticity determined by a middle ear model. The response of the tympanic membrane to quasi-static pressure changes is determined by its elastic properties. Several clinical problems are r...... finite element analyses. In vivo estimates of Young's modulus in this study were a factor 2-3 smaller than previously found in vitro. No significant age-related differences were found in the elastic properties as expressed by the areal modulus....

  4. High-resolution numerical model of the middle and inner ear for a detailed analysis of radio frequency absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Gernot; Ueberbacher, Richard; Samaras, Theodoros; Jappel, Alexandra; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Tschabitscher, Manfred; Mazal, Peter R

    2007-01-01

    In order to enable a detailed analysis of radio frequency (RF) absorption in the human middle and inner ear organs, a numerical model of these organs was developed at a spatial resolution of 0.1 mm, based on a real human tissue sample. The dielectric properties of the liquids (perilymph and endolymph) inside the bony labyrinth were measured on samples of ten freshly deceased humans. After inserting this model into a commercially available numerical head model, FDTD-based computations for exposure scenarios with generic models of handheld devices operated close to the head in the frequency range 400-3700 MHz were carried out. For typical output power values of real handheld mobile communication devices the obtained results showed only very small amounts of absorbed RF power in the middle and inner ear organs. Highest absorption in the middle and inner ear was found for the 400 MHz irradiation. In this case, the RF power absorbed inside the labyrinth and the vestibulocochlear nerve was as low as 166 μW and 12 μW, respectively, when considering a device of 500 mW output power operated close to the ear. For typical mobile phone frequencies (900 MHz and 1850 MHz) and output power values (250 mW and 125 mW) the corresponding values of absorbed RF power were found to be more than one order of magnitude lower than the values given above. These results indicate that temperature-related biologically relevant effects on the middle and inner ear, induced by the RF emissions of typical handheld mobile communication devices, are unlikely

  5. Three-dimensional reconstruction and modeling of middle ear biomechanics by high-resolution computed tomography and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Fone; Chen, Peir-Rong; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Liu, Tien-Chen

    2006-05-01

    To present a systematic and practical approach that uses high-resolution computed tomography to derive models of the middle ear for finite element analysis. This prospective study included 31 subjects with normal hearing and no previous otologic disorders. Temporal bone images obtained from 15 right ears and 16 left ears were used for evaluation and reconstruction. High-resolution computed tomography of temporal bone was performed using simultaneous acquisition of 16 sections with a collimated slice thickness of 0.625 mm. All images were transferred to an Amira visualization system for three-dimensional reconstruction. The created three-dimensional model was translated into two commercial modeling packages, Patran and ANSYS, for finite element analysis. The characteristic dimensions of the model were measured and compared with previously published histologic section data. This result confirms that the geometric model created by the proposed method is accurate except that the tympanic membrane is thicker than when measured by the histologic section method. No obvious difference in the geometrical dimension between right and left ossicles was found (P > .05). The three-dimensional model created by finite element method and predicted umbo and stapes displacements are close to the bounds of the experimental curves of Nishihara's, Huber's, Gan's, and Sun's data across the frequency range of 100 to 8000 Hz. The model includes a description of the geometry of the middle ear components and dynamic equations of vibration. The proposed method is quick, practical, low-cost, and, most importantly, noninvasive as compared with histologic section methods.

  6. External unit for a semi-implantable middle ear hearing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garverick, S L; Kane, M; Ko, W H; Maniglia, A J

    1997-06-01

    A miniaturized, low-power external unit has been developed for the clinical trials of a semi-implantable middle ear electromagnetic hearing device (SIMEHD) which uses radio-frequency telemetry to couple sound signals to the internal unit. The external unit is based on a commercial hearing aid which provides proven audio amplification and compression. Its receiver is replaced by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which: 1) adjusts the direct-current bias of the audio input according to its peak value; 2) converts the audio signal to a one-bit digital form using sigma-delta modulation; 3) modulates the sigma-delta output with a radio-frequency (RF) oscillator; and 4) drives the external RF coil and tuning capacitor using a field-effect transistor operated in class D. The external unit functions as expected and has been used to operate bench-top tests to the SIMEHD. Measured current consumption is 1.65-2.15 mA, which projects to a battery lifetime of about 15 days. Bandwidth is 6 kHz and harmonic distortion is about 2%.

  7. Effect of acrolein, a hazardous air pollutant in smoke, on human middle ear epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Jun; Lee, Jong Dae; Lee, Byung Don; Chae, Sung Won; Park, Moo Kyun

    2013-10-01

    Acrolein is a hazardous air pollutant. Tobacco smoke and indoor air pollution are the main causes of human exposure. Acrolein has been shown to cause cytotoxicity in the airways and induce inflammation and mucin production in pulmonary cells. We investigated whether acrolein caused cytotoxicity, induced inflammation or increased expression of mucin in immortalized human middle ear epithelial cell lines (HMEECs). Cytotoxicity following acrolein treatment was investigated using the MTT assay, flow cytometry, and Hoechst 33342 staining of HMEECs. We measured expression of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 and the mucin gene MUC5AC using semi-quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Exposure to >50 μg/mL acrolein caused a decrease in cell viability. Acrolein induced apoptosis and necrosis at 50 μg/mL. Acrolein at 5-50 μg/mL increased expression of TNF-α and COX-2, as shown by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Acrolein exposure at 5-50 μg/mL for 2-24h increased MUC5AC expression, as determined by RT-PCR. Acrolein decreased cell viability, induced an inflammatory response, and increased mucin gene expression in HMEECs. These findings support the hypothesis that acrolein, a hazardous air pollutant in tobacco smoke and ambient air, is a risk factor for otitis media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hearing loss and potential hazards of metallic middle-ear implants in NMR-magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huettenbrink, K.B.

    1987-01-01

    Concurrent with the expanding clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, patients with metallic middle-ear implants will certainly be exposed to this strong magnetic field in the future. To determine potential hazards, associated with movements of steel- or Platinium stapes-prostheses, several tests were performed in a 0.5 tesla NMR unit and the induced forces were calculated. Although the commonly used paramagnetic steel-wire or platinium-alloys will not dislodge in vivo, ferromagnetic prostheses may present a hazardous risk. Prior to exposure to the magnetic field, information about the implanted material should therefore be obtained. A side-effect of the induced current flow is the attenuation of the sound-vibrations of the stapes prosthesis. This, 5-10 dB impairment of transmission develops only at a certain position of the patient's head, when the prosthesis vibrates perpendicularly to the magnetic field's Z-axis. Patients with a metallic prosthesis should be informed about this purely physical, harmless phenomenon prior to entering the NMR-cylinder. (orig.) [de

  9. Implementation of a transcutaneous charger for fully implantable middle ear hearing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H; Yoon, Y; Lee, C; Park, I; Song, B; Cho, J

    2005-01-01

    A transcutaneous charger for the fully implantable middle ear hearing device (F-IMEHD), which can monitor the charging level of battery, has been designed and implemented. In order to recharge the battery of F-IMEHD, the electromagnetic coupling between primary coil at outer body and secondary coil at inner body has been used. Considering the implant condition of the F-IMEHD, the primary coil and the secondary coil have been designed. Using the resonance of LC tank circuit at each coil, transmission efficiency was increased. Since the primary and the secondary coil are magnetically coupled, the current variation of the primary coil is related with the impedance of internal resonant circuit. Using the principle mentioned above, the implanted module could transmit outward the information about charging state of battery or coupling between two coils by the changing internal impedance. As in the demonstrated results of experiment, the implemented charger has supplied the sufficient operating voltage for the implanted battery within about 10 mm distance. And also, it has been confirmed that the implanted module can transmit information outward by control of internal impedance.

  10. Original Solution for Middle Ear Implant and Anesthetic/Surgical Management in a Child with Severe Craniofacial Dysmorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bianchin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the novel solution adopted in positioning middle ear implant in a child with bilateral congenital aural atresia and craniofacial dysmorphism that have posed a significant challenge for the safe and correct management of deafness. A five-year-old child, affected by a rare congenital disease (Van Maldergem Syndrome, suffered from conductive hearing loss. Conventional skin-drive bone-conduction device, attached with a steel spring headband, has been applied but auditory restoration was not optimal. The decision made was to position Vibrant Soundbridge, a middle ear implant, with an original surgical application due to hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity. Intubation procedure was complicated due to child craniofacial deformities. Postoperative hearing rehabilitation involved a multidisciplinary team, showing improved social skills and language development.

  11. Dexmedetomidine infusion during middle ear surgery under general anaesthesia to provide oligaemic surgical field: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumkum Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Middle ear surgery requires bloodless surgical field for better operating conditions, deep level of anaesthesia and rapid emergence. Recent studies suggest that α2 agonists could provide desired surgical field, sedation and analgesia. The present study was aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of dexmedetomidine infusion as anaesthetic adjuvant during middle ear surgery using operating microscope. Methods: Sixty four adult patients aged 18-58 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists Grades I and II, of both gender were randomised into two comparable equal groups of 32 patients each for middle ear surgery under general anaesthesia with standard anaesthetic technique. After induction of general anaesthesia, patients of Group I were given dexmedetomidine infusion of 0.5 μg/kg/h and patients of Group II were given placebo infusion of normal saline. Isoflurane concentration was titrated to achieve a systolic blood pressure 30% below the baseline value. All patients were assessed intra-operatively for bleeding at surgical field, haemodynamic changes, awakening time and post-operative recovery. Results: Statistically significant reduction was observed in the required percentage of isoflurane (0.8 ± 0.6% to maintain the systolic blood pressure 30% below the baseline values in patients receiving dexmedetomidine infusion when compared to those receiving placebo infusion (1.6 ± 0.7%. Patients receiving dexmedetomidine infusion had statistically significant lesser bleeding at surgical field (P < 0.05. The mean awakening time and recovery from anaesthesia did not show any significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine infusion can be safely used to provide oligaemic surgical field for better visualization using operating microscope for middle ear surgery.

  12. Three Methods for Estimating the Middle-Ear Muscle Reflex (MEMR) Using Otoacoustic Emission (OAE) Measurement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Lynne Marshall Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory Approved and Released by: S. M. WECHSLER , CAPT, MC, USN Commanding Officer...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A sensitive measure of the middle-ear muscle reflex (MEMR) is needed when making other sensitive audiological tests ...where activating the MEMR could confound and confuse test results. In this report we document and describe three related methods for making this

  13. First report of a Staphylococcus caprae isolated from middle ear fluid of an infant with recurrent acute otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Mazur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus caprae was originally isolated from goat milk. This uncommon coagulase-negative staphylococcus, usually associated with animals, has only infrequently been detected in human clinical specimens. Its association with acute otitis media has not been demonstrated so far. The study reports the first isolation of S. caprae from the middle ear fluid of a 12-month-old infant with recurrent, bilateral acute otitis media. Biochemical traits and susceptibility pattern of the isolated strain are also presented

  14. Original Solution for Middle Ear Implant and Anesthetic/Surgical Management in a Child with Severe Craniofacial Dysmorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Bianchin; Lorenzo Tribi; Aronne Reverzani; Patrizia Formigoni; Valeria Polizzi

    2015-01-01

    We describe the novel solution adopted in positioning middle ear implant in a child with bilateral congenital aural atresia and craniofacial dysmorphism that have posed a significant challenge for the safe and correct management of deafness. A five-year-old child, affected by a rare congenital disease (Van Maldergem Syndrome), suffered from conductive hearing loss. Conventional skin-drive bone-conduction device, attached with a steel spring headband, has been applied but auditory restoration ...

  15. Prognostic value of bone involvement in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the external and middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiga, Hideaki; Ito, Makoto; Uramoto, Naoki; Hatano, Miyako; Miwa, Takaki; Furukawa, Mitsuru

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of the external and middle ear squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is extremely rare in the head and neck cancer with less than 1%. Therefore, the correlation between the staging classification and the prognosis has not been clear. Prognostic factors for patients with the external and middle ear SCC were assessed in the initial clinical symptoms and radiographic imaging. 13 patients with the external and middle ear SCC (5 male and 8 female) that had been treated at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kanazawa University hospital from 2000 to 2006 were selected for this study. The radiation therapy followed surgery in ten patients. One patient received the radical cure irradiation before surgery. Two patients received a surgical excision alone. The temporal bone involvement and the parotid gland involvement in the radiographic image (computed tomography imaging and/or magnetic resonance imaging) were assessed. Clinical symptoms (otalgia, hearing disturbance, tinnitus, vertigo and facial nerve palsy) before treatment were reviewed based on the medical record. The correlation of those clinical factors and T staging in the Pittsburgh classification with overall survival was statistically assessed. The temporal bone involvement significantly correlated with worse prognosis. However, parotid gland involvement did not influence the prognosis. Moreover, statistically significant difference in T staging of the Pittsburgh classification (T1·T2 vs. T3·T4) was not found. The temporal bone involvement in the radiographic image was a prognostic factor for patients with the external and middle ear SCC. Pittsburgh classification needs to be modified because the bony part of the external auditory canal involvement is considered as T2 stage and the soft tissue involvement is defined as T4 stage. (author)

  16. Prognostic value of bone involvement in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the external and middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiga, Hideaki; Ito, Makoto; Uramoto, Naoki; Hatano, Miyako; Miwa, Takaki; Furukawa, Mitsuru [Kanazawa Univ., Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2007-05-15

    The incidence of the external and middle ear squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is extremely rare in the head and neck cancer with less than 1%. Therefore, the correlation between the staging classification and the prognosis has not been clear. Prognostic factors for patients with the external and middle ear SCC were assessed in the initial clinical symptoms and radiographic imaging. 13 patients with the external and middle ear SCC (5 male and 8 female) that had been treated at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kanazawa University hospital from 2000 to 2006 were selected for this study. The radiation therapy followed surgery in ten patients. One patient received the radical cure irradiation before surgery. Two patients received a surgical excision alone. The temporal bone involvement and the parotid gland involvement in the radiographic image (computed tomography imaging and/or magnetic resonance imaging) were assessed. Clinical symptoms (otalgia, hearing disturbance, tinnitus, vertigo and facial nerve palsy) before treatment were reviewed based on the medical record. The correlation of those clinical factors and T staging in the Pittsburgh classification with overall survival was statistically assessed. The temporal bone involvement significantly correlated with worse prognosis. However, parotid gland involvement did not influence the prognosis. Moreover, statistically significant difference in T staging of the Pittsburgh classification (T1{center_dot}T2 vs. T3{center_dot}T4) was not found. The temporal bone involvement in the radiographic image was a prognostic factor for patients with the external and middle ear SCC. Pittsburgh classification needs to be modified because the bony part of the external auditory canal involvement is considered as T2 stage and the soft tissue involvement is defined as T4 stage. (author)

  17. Acute mastoiditis in children: Middle ear cultures may help in reducing use of broad spectrum antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Catarina; Salgueiro, Ana Bárbara; Luís, Catarina; Correia, Paula; Brito, Maria João

    2017-01-01

    Acute mastoiditis (AM) is a suppurative infection of the mastoid air cells, representing the most frequent complication of acute otitis media. AM remains an important entity in children due to its potential complications and sequelae. We aim to describe the cases of AM admitted at our department, identify risk factors potentially associated with complications and analyse the changes in clinical approach of AM over time. Case review of clinical files of children admitted with acute mastoiditis from June 1996 to May 2013 at a Lisbon metropolitan area hospital. Data was divided into two groups (prior and after May 2005) in order to evaluate changes in AM approach over the years. 135 AM episodes were included. The median age was 3.8 years and 42% children were less than 24 months of age. Symptoms at presentation included fever (69%), ear pain (56%) and otorrhea (40%). Complications occurred in 22% patients and were more common in children under 24 months (33% vs 15%, p ≤ 0.01). Leukocyte count was significantly higher in children with complications (16.7 vs 14.5 × 10 9 /μL, p ≤ 0.05) as was C-Reactive Protein value (13 vs 6.3 mg/dL, p ≤ 0.001). There was a significant association between the development of complications and C-Reactive Protein value at admission (OR 1.892; IC95%: 1.018-2.493, p ≤ 0.01). The optimal cut-off value was 7.21 mg/dL. Over time there was a significant increase in middle ear cultures obtained by tympanocentesis during surgery (2% vs 16%, p ≤ 0,01) and also a decrease in the use of broad spectrum antibiotherapy as initial treatment (52% vs 25%,p ≤ 0,001). Children under 24 months, with high leukocyte count or with high C-Reactive Protein value should be monitored closely since complications tend to be more frequent. A CRP value of 7.21 mg/dL at admission seems to be a good cut-off to monitor children for potential complications. Throughout the period analysed more cultures were performed allowing identification of

  18. Congestion of mastoid mucosa and influence on middle ear pressure - Effect of retroauricular injection of adrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooken Jensen, Pernille Vita; Gaihede, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Micro-CT scanning of temporal bones has revealed numerous retroauricular microchannels, which connect the outer bone surface directly to the underlying mastoid air cells. Their structure and dimensions have suggested a separate vascular supply to the mastoid mucosa, which may play a role in middle ear (ME) pressure regulation. This role may be accomplished by changes in the mucosa congestion resulting in volumetric changes, which ultimately affect the pressure of the enclosed ME gas pocket (Boyle's law). Further, such mucosa congestion may be susceptible to α-adrenergic stimulation similar to the mucosa of the nose. The purpose of our study was to investigate these hypotheses by recording the ME pressure in response to adrenergic stimulation administered by retroauricular injections at the surface of the microchannels. In a group of 20 healthy adults we measured the ME pressure by tympanometry initially in the sitting position, and then in the supine position over a 5 min period with 30 s intervals. In each subject, the study included 1) a control reference experiment with no intervention, 2) a control experiment with subcutaneously retroauricular injection of 1 ml isotonic NaCl solution, and 3) a test experiment with subcutaneously retroauricular injection of 1 ml NaCl-adrenaline solution. In both control experiments the ME pressure displayed an immediate increase in response to changing body position; this pressure increase remained stable for the entire period up to five minutes. In the test experiments the ME pressure also showed an initial pressure increase, but it was followed by a distinct significant pressure decrease with a maximum after 90 s. The test group was injected with both a 5 and 10% adrenaline solution, but the responses appeared similar for the two concentrations. Subcutaneous retroauricular injection of adrenaline caused a significant pressure decrease in ME pressure compared with control ears. This may be explained by the microchannels

  19. Microarray analysis of gene expression alteration in human middle ear epithelial cells induced by micro particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Jun; Kwon, Jee Young; Park, Moo Kyun; Seo, Young Rok

    2013-10-01

    The primary aim of this study is to reveal the effect of particulate matter (PM) on the human middle ear epithelial cell (HMEEC). The HMEEC was treated with PM (300 μg/ml) for 24 h. Total RNA was extracted and used for microarray analysis. Molecular pathways among differentially expressed genes were further analyzed by using Pathway Studio 9.0 software. For selected genes, the changes in gene expression were confirmed by real-time PCR. A total of 611 genes were regulated by PM. Among them, 366 genes were up-regulated, whereas 245 genes were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes were mainly involved in cellular processes, including reactive oxygen species generation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell differentiation, inflammatory response and immune response. Down-regulated genes affected several cellular processes, including cell differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis and cell migration. A total of 21 genes were discovered as crucial components in potential signaling networks containing 2-fold up regulated genes. Four genes, VEGFA, IL1B, CSF2 and HMOX1 were revealed as key mediator genes among the up-regulated genes. A total of 25 genes were revealed as key modulators in the signaling pathway associated with 2-fold down regulated genes. Four genes, including IGF1R, TIMP1, IL6 and FN1, were identified as the main modulator genes. We identified the differentially expressed genes in PM-treated HMEEC, whose expression profile may provide a useful clue for the understanding of environmental pathophysiology of otitis media. Our work indicates that air pollution, like PM, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of otitis media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Middle Ear Mechanics of Cartilage Tympanoplasty Evaluated by Laser Holography and Vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnisalo, Antti A.; Cheng, Jeffrey T.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Hulli, Nesim; Harrington, Ellery J.; Hernandez-Montes, Maria S.; Furlong, Cosme; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Goals To assess the effects of thickness and position of cartilage used to reconstruct the tympanic membrane (TM) using a novel technique, time-averaged laser holography. Background Cartilage is commonly used in TM reconstruction to prevent formation of retraction pockets. The thickness, position, and shape of the cartilage graft may adversely affect TM motion and hearing. We sought to systematically investigate these parameters in an experimental setting. Methods Computer-assisted optoelectronic laser holography was used in 4 human cadaveric temporal bones to study sound-induced TM motion for 500 Hz to 8 kHz. Stapes velocity was measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer. Baseline (control) measurements were made with the TM intact. Measurements were repeated after a 0.5- or 1.0-mm-thick oval piece of conchal cartilage was placed on the medial TM surface in the posterior-superior quadrant. The cartilage was rotated so that it was either in contact with the bony tympanic rim and manubrium or not. Results At frequencies less than 4 kHz, the cartilage graft had only minor effects on the overall TM fringe patterns. The different conditions had no effects on stapes velocity. Greater than 4 kHz, TM motion was reduced over the grafted TM, both with 0.5- and 1.0-mm-thick grafts. No significant differences in stapes velocity were seen with the 2 different thicknesses of cartilage compared with control. Conclusion Computer-assisted optoelectronic laser holography is a promising technique to investigate middle ear mechanics after tympanoplasty. Such positioning may prevent postoperative TM retraction. These findings and conclusions apply to cartilage placed in the posterior-superior TM quadrant. PMID:19779389

  1. In vivo areal modulus of elasticity estimation of the human tympanic membrane system: modelling of middle ear mechanical function in normal young and aged ears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaihede, Michael; Liao Donghua; Gregersen, Hans

    2007-01-01

    The quasi-static elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system can be described by the areal modulus of elasticity determined by a middle ear model. The response of the tympanic membrane to quasi-static pressure changes is determined by its elastic properties. Several clinical problems are related to these, but studies are few and mostly not comparable. The elastic properties of membranes can be described by the areal modulus, and these may also be susceptible to age-related changes reflected by changes in the areal modulus. The areal modulus is determined by the relationship between membrane tension and change of the surface area relative to the undeformed surface area. A middle ear model determined the tension-strain relationship in vivo based on data from experimental pressure-volume deformations of the human tympanic membrane system. The areal modulus was determined in both a younger (n = 10) and an older (n = 10) group of normal subjects. The areal modulus for lateral and medial displacement of the tympanic membrane system was smaller in the older group (mean = 0.686 and 0.828 kN m -1 , respectively) compared to the younger group (mean = 1.066 and 1.206 kN m -1 , respectively), though not significantly (2p = 0.10 and 0.11, respectively). Based on the model the areal modulus was established describing the summated elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system. Future model improvements include exact determination of the tympanic membrane area accounting for its shape via 3D finite element analyses. In vivo estimates of Young's modulus in this study were a factor 2-3 smaller than previously found in vitro. No significant age-related differences were found in the elastic properties as expressed by the areal modulus

  2. In vivo areal modulus of elasticity estimation of the human tympanic membrane system: modelling of middle ear mechanical function in normal young and aged ears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaihede, Michael [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Liao Donghua [Centre of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Gregersen, Hans [Centre of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2007-02-07

    The quasi-static elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system can be described by the areal modulus of elasticity determined by a middle ear model. The response of the tympanic membrane to quasi-static pressure changes is determined by its elastic properties. Several clinical problems are related to these, but studies are few and mostly not comparable. The elastic properties of membranes can be described by the areal modulus, and these may also be susceptible to age-related changes reflected by changes in the areal modulus. The areal modulus is determined by the relationship between membrane tension and change of the surface area relative to the undeformed surface area. A middle ear model determined the tension-strain relationship in vivo based on data from experimental pressure-volume deformations of the human tympanic membrane system. The areal modulus was determined in both a younger (n = 10) and an older (n = 10) group of normal subjects. The areal modulus for lateral and medial displacement of the tympanic membrane system was smaller in the older group (mean = 0.686 and 0.828 kN m{sup -1}, respectively) compared to the younger group (mean = 1.066 and 1.206 kN m{sup -1}, respectively), though not significantly (2p = 0.10 and 0.11, respectively). Based on the model the areal modulus was established describing the summated elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system. Future model improvements include exact determination of the tympanic membrane area accounting for its shape via 3D finite element analyses. In vivo estimates of Young's modulus in this study were a factor 2-3 smaller than previously found in vitro. No significant age-related differences were found in the elastic properties as expressed by the areal modulus.

  3. Dissection of the Auditory Bulla in Postnatal Mice: Isolation of the Middle Ear Bones and Histological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Ayako; Kuroda, Yukiko; Kanzaki, Sho; Matsuo, Koichi

    2017-01-04

    In most mammals, auditory ossicles in the middle ear, including the malleus, incus and stapes, are the smallest bones. In mice, a bony structure called the auditory bulla houses the ossicles, whereas the auditory capsule encloses the inner ear, namely the cochlea and semicircular canals. Murine ossicles are essential for hearing and thus of great interest to researchers in the field of otolaryngology, but their metabolism, development, and evolution are highly relevant to other fields. Altered bone metabolism can affect hearing function in adult mice, and various gene-deficient mice show changes in morphogenesis of auditory ossicles in utero. Although murine auditory ossicles are tiny, their manipulation is feasible if one understands their anatomical orientation and 3D structure. Here, we describe how to dissect the auditory bulla and capsule of postnatal mice and then isolate individual ossicles by removing part of the bulla. We also discuss how to embed the bulla and capsule in different orientations to generate paraffin or frozen sections suitable for preparation of longitudinal, horizontal, or frontal sections of the malleus. Finally, we enumerate anatomical differences between mouse and human auditory ossicles. These methods would be useful in analyzing pathological, developmental and evolutionary aspects of auditory ossicles and the middle ear in mice.

  4. An overview of changes in pressure values of the middle ear using impedance audiometry among diver candidates in a hyperbaric chamber before and after a pressure test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoraga, J. S.; Bramantyo, B.; Bardosono, S.; Simanungkalit, S. H.; Basiruddin, J.

    2017-08-01

    Impedance audiometry is not yet routinely used in pressure tests, especially in Indonesia. Direct exposure to pressure in a hyperbaric chamber is sometimes without any assessment of the middle ear or the Eustachian tube function (ETF) of ventilation. Impedance audiometry examinations are important to assess ETF ventilation. This study determined the middle ear pressure value changes associated with the ETF (ventilation) of prospective divers. This study included 29 prospective divers aged 20-40 years without conductive hearing loss. All subjects underwent a modified diving impedance audiometry examination both before and after the pressure test in a double-lock hyperbaric chamber. Using the Toynbee maneuver, the values obtained for changes of pressure in the middle ear were significant before and after the pressure test in the right and left ears: p < 0.001 and p = 0.018, respectively. The impedance audiometry examination is necessary for the selection of candidate divers undergoing pressure tests within a hyperbaric chamber.

  5. Transmucosal gas-loss rates in middle ears initially filled with O2 or CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Romain E; Vérillaud, Benjamin; Ars, Bernard; Tran Ba Huy, Patrice; Herman, Philippe; Ar, Amos

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the role of different gases in clearance of gas in the middle ear cavity (ME) by its mucosal blood flow. A rat model was used to measure gas volume changes in the ME cavity at constant pressure without ventilation. We disturbed the normal gas composition of the ME by filling it with O 2 or CO 2 , measured the consequent changes in gas volume over time and compared these results with previously obtained ones for air and N 2 . The first 5 min of the primary transient phase (phase I) for O 2 or CO 2 was characterized by a volume loss decrease of -0.49 ± 0.34 μL and -46.28 ± 8.49 μL, respectively, with volume loss increase for air and N 2 differing greatly, at +0.17 ± 0.17 and +2.31 ± 0.81, respectively. The CO 2 value of -46.28 μL showed that a volume of gas equivalent to that of the ME cleft volume was eliminated within the first 5 min. In the second phase (phase II), all gases showed a linear decrease in volume, which presumably represents a steady-state gas loss rate. However, the gas loss rate of -0.307 ± 0.170 μL min -1 for O 2 -filled MEs was significantly higher than the mean of -0.124 μL min -1 for all other gases. We used a previously established mathematical model to calculate the effective ME mucosal blood flow rate under steady-state (phase II) conditions. The blood flow results for O 2 -filled MEs differed greatly from those of the other gases (89.0 ± 49.28 vs. 26.5 μL min -1 , on average), which suggest that the model used to calculate blood flow should be modified if used with O 2 -filled MEs. Further work should involve a comparison of our method with different methods to verify ME blood flow rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of nasopharyngeal culture in identification of pathogens in middle ear fluid in chronic otitis media with effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eser O

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chronic otitis media with effusion (OME is the leading cause of hearing loss during childhood. In bacterial etiology of OME, the most frequent pathogens responsible are Haemophilus influenzae followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis . This study aimed at evaluating the accuracy of nasopharyngeal (NP specimens in the identification of pathogens in the middle ear fluid (MEF in patients with OME. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional, case-control study, 95 MEFs and 53 NP secretion specimens were obtained from 53 children. As a control group, 102 NP specimens were taken from children having an operation other than an otological disease. Conventional culture methods and multiplex-PCR method have been used to determine the etiology of OME; NP carriage between cases and control groups were compared using conventional culture methods. Pearson Chi-Square and Fisher′s Exact tests were used in statistical analysis. Results : Bacteria were isolated by culture in 37.9% of MEF specimens, 14.7% of which belonged to the group H. influenzae , S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis. PCR was positive in 30.5% specimens targeting the same pathogens. There was a two-fold increase in carriage rate of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in patients than controls for each pathogen. Conclusion: PCR is a more reliable method to detect middle ear pathogens in MEF in comparison with the conventional culture methods. The NP colonization wasn′t found to be an indicator of the pathogen in MEF although middle ear pathogens colonize more in nasopharynx of diseased children.

  7. Middle ear bones of a mid-gestation ruminant foetus extracted from x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costeur, Loic; Mennecart, Bastien; Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg

    2016-10-01

    The timing of ossification of middle ear ossicles has been extensively studied in humans. This is an exception since it is vastly unknown in the +5000 extant species of placentals. As a preliminary approach, a cow foetus (around 115 days of gestation) was visualized using X-ray microtomography (μCT) and the ossicles including stapes, incus, and malleus could be extracted from the data set. All three bones have already undergone substantial ossification, which allow comparison to adult middle ear bones. Their ossification at this stage parallels ossification in humans at a comparable stage of gestation. While full ossification is not yet achieved almost all the morphological characters of the ossicles are observed. Bone tissue is still very porous, the stapes does not have the characteristic plate-like footplate, the lenticular process of the incus is missing and the manubrium of the malleus is very thin and not yet complete. Despite all this, the ossicles are articulate with each other and perfectly with the bony labyrinth. The stapes footplate is positioned on the oval window but is smaller than the latter while it should perfectly fit to transmit sound vibrations to the cochlea. All ossicles, especially the stapes, have not yet reached adult size, while the bony labyrinth already has. This is the first detailed description of a set of middle ear bones in a placental at mid-gestation based on high-resolution μCT. Similarities in ossification timing with humans encourage more work to be done on foetuses to understand if a general rule for placental mammals exists.

  8. Middle Ear Exploration Results in Suspected Otosclerosis Cases Referred to Amir-Almomenin and Golsar Hospitals, Rasht, 2001-2011: Are Ossicular and Footplate Area Anomalies Rare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadman Nemati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Otosclerosis is a disease of bony labyrinth. Structural changes in the labyrinth often cause ossicular fixation, and thus conductive hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate middle ear exploration findings and frequency of ossicular and footplate area anomalies in patients with suspected otosclerosis referred to Amiralmomenin and Golsar Hospitals in Rasht, Iran.   Materials and Methods: In 47 patients undergone middle ear exploration in Amiralmomenin and Golsar hospitals from April 2001 to March 2011, the intraoperative findings, and other data were extracted from the medical records of the patients. The data was analyzed using SPSS 17 software.   Results: Frequency of fixation of stapes, malleus, and incus by age and sex in patients undergoing middle ear exploration showed that stapes had been fixed in 39 patients, malleus in 6 patients, and incus in 21 patients. Analysis of data showed that there was no significant association between sex and age with fixation of any of ossicles (P>0/05. Middle ear anomalies were seen in 16 cases (34.0%. Overhanging of facial nerve in 4 cases, thick stapedial crura in 5 cases, and perilymph gusher in 2 cases were the most frequent anomalies.   Conclusion:  This study show that the results of middle ear explorations in our patients in the north of Iran is somehow different from the typical otosclerotic cases, although the frequency of ossicular anomalies is better to be evaluated and compared in different areas of Iran, and other countries. 

  9. Olivocochlear efferent vs. middle-ear contributions to the alteration of otoacoustic emissions by contralateral noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buki, B; Wit, HP; Avan, P

    2000-01-01

    The medial olivocochlear efferent bundle is the key element of a bilateral efferent reflex activated by sound in either ear and acting directly on cochlear outer hair cells (OHC) via numerous cholinegic synapses. It probably contributes to regulating the mechanical activity of the cochlea

  10. Proteomic Characterization of Middle Ear Fluid Confirms Neutrophil Extracellular Traps as a Predominant Innate Immune Response in Chronic Otitis Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Val

    Full Text Available Chronic Otitis Media (COM is characterized by middle ear effusion (MEE and conductive hearing loss. MEE reflect mucus hypersecretion, but global proteomic profiling of the mucosal components are limited.This study aimed at characterizing the proteome of MEEs from children with COM with the goal of elucidating important innate immune responses.MEEs were collected from children (n = 49 with COM undergoing myringotomy. Mass spectrometry was employed for proteomic profiling in nine samples. Independent samples were further analyzed by cytokine multiplex assay, immunoblotting, neutrophil elastase activity, next generation DNA sequencing, and/or immunofluorescence analysis.109 unique and common proteins were identified by MS. A majority were innate immune molecules, along with typically intracellular proteins such as histones and actin. 19.5% percent of all mapped peptide counts were from proteins known to be released by neutrophils. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting demonstrated the presence of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs in every MEE, along with MUC5B colocalization. DNA found in effusions revealed unfragmented DNA of human origin.Proteomic analysis of MEEs revealed a predominantly neutrophilic innate mucosal response in which MUC5B is associated with NET DNA. NETs are a primary macromolecular constituent of human COM middle ear effusions.

  11. Ex vivo evaluation of ferromagnetism for metallic ocular and middle-ear prostheses exposed to a 1.5-T MR imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellock, F.G.; Schatz, C.; Shelton, C.; Brown, B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines ferromagnetism by measuring deflection angles for nine different metallic ocular and middle-ear biomedical implants exposed to a 1.5-T MR imager. Deflection angles were determined at the bore of a 1.5-t MR imager for two ocular (Fatio eyelid wire 0.008, Fatio eyelid wire 0.01) and seven middle-ear (House tantalum single loop, House tantalum double loop, IRP, Schuknecht tef-wire piston, Austin tytan piston, McGee piston, Robinson stapes prosthesis) biomedical implants. A previously described, standardized methodology was used to measure deflection angles. Deflection angles for the biomedical implants were 90 degrees for the first ocular implant, over 90 degrees for the second, and 0 degrees (no deflection measured) for the seven middle-ear implants

  12. Vibrant SoundBridge application to middle ear windows versus conventional hearing aids: a comparative study based on international outcome inventory for hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atas, Ahmet; Tutar, Hakan; Gunduz, Bulent; Bayazıt, Yıldırım A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the outcomes of satisfaction of the patients who used hearing aids preceding the vibrant sound bridge (VSB) application on middle ear windows (14 oval window and 5 round window). Nineteen adult patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss were included in the study. All patients used behind the ear hearing aids on the site which was selected for VSB application. The patients used hearing aids for at least 3 months before the VSB operation. The floating mass transducer (FMT) was placed on one of the middle ear windows (oval or round) in VSB operation. The patients were evaluated with International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) preoperatively after at least 3 months trial of conventional hearing aid and postoperatively after 3 months use of VSB. No perioperative problem was encountered. The total score of IOI-HA was significantly higher with VSB compared with conventional hearing aids (p 0.05). The IOI-HA scores were significantly higher with the middle ear implant than the conventional hearing aid regarding benefit and residual participation restrictions (p < 0.05). Although the scores for quality of life assessment was similar between VSB and hearing aid use, there was a superiority of VSB in terms of benefit and residual participation restrictions as well as overall IOI-HA scores as the FMT was placed on one of the middle ear windows.

  13. Preoperative evaluation of the congenital aural atresia on computed tomography; an analysis of the severity of the deformity of the middle ear and mastoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasar, Mustafa [Gulhane Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik-Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: tasarmus@yahoo.com; Yetiser, Sertac [Gulhane Medical School, Department of ORL and HNS (Turkey); Yildirim, Duzgun [Gulhane Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik-Ankara (Turkey); Bozlar, Ugur [Gulhane Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik-Ankara (Turkey); Tasar, M. Aysin [Ankara Hospital, Department of Pediatrics (Turkey); Saglam, Mutlu [Gulhane Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik-Ankara (Turkey); Ugurel, M. Sahin [Gulhane Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik-Ankara (Turkey); Battal, Bilal [Gulhane Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik-Ankara (Turkey); Ucoz, Taner [Gulhane Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik-Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    Objective: To compare the development of temporal bone in normal and atretic ears and to assess some radiological landmarks that could be important in the hearing restoration interventions in such patients. Material and methods: Thirty-five patients with 40 atretic external ears were evaluated with temporal bone CT and compared to a control group of 40 normal ears retrospectively. Using comparable slice levels in all patients, the course and the caliper of the facial canal, the surface area of the incus and malleus, the level of mastoid aeration, the location and anteroposterior diameters of the jugular bulb and sigmoid sinus, the direction and the caliber of the tympanic bony part of the Eustachian tube, area of the middle ear cavity, distance from facial nerve to incudomalleolar joint, to the vestibule and to the jugular bulb were included in the assessment. Non-parametric and parametric statistical tests were used for comparison. Results: In atretic ears middle ear sectional area was found to be smaller at the equivalent plane as compared to control subjects (mean area index: 19.3 mm{sup 2} versus 47.4 mm{sup 2}). Mastoid aeration was low in general and the ossicles in the atretic ears were hypoplastic (mean ossicular sectional area: 8.3 mm{sup 2} versus 11 mm{sup 2}). The distance from the jugular bulb to the facial nerve was significantly lower (mean: 6.2 mm versus 6.8 mm) (p < 0.05) in the atretic ears. Facial canal caliber, distance from the facial canal to the incudomalleolar joint and distance from the facial canal to the vestibule in the atretic ears (means: 1.49, 2.93 and 1.82, respectively) did not show statistically significant difference from the control subjects (means: 1.44, 2.91 and 1.83, respectively) (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusion: External ear atresia is significantly associated with middle ear and mastoid abnormalities. The ossicles were underdeveloped which always have to be considered during reconstructive surgery. Radiologically, in the

  14. Domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The familiar domestic cat is not native to southern California and is considered an invasive spe-cies by biologists and conservation organizations. When owners abandon their cats, wild or feral populations may arise, as they have in San Diego County. Cats’ pelage color, tail length, and hair thickness vary widely, given human fascination with breeding diverse phenotypes, but all have a typical felid body with upright ears, forward-looking eyes adapted for nocturnal foraging, protractible claws, and a sinuous, flexible body. Cats allowed outdoors and feral cats kill and eat a wide variety of vertebrates such as small mammals, birds, and reptiles

  15. Pharmacokinetics of flomoxef in mucosal tissue of the middle ear and mastoid following intravenous administration in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, H; Kimura, T; Takeda, T; Kishimoto, S; Oguma, T; Shimamura, K

    1990-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of flomoxef in serum and in the mucosal tissue of the middle ear and mastoid were studied in 9 patients undergoing tympanoplasties. All patients received 1 g of flomoxef intravenously. Flomoxef levels in serum and in mucosal tissue were determined by a bioassay method. The peak value of mean concentrations of flomoxef in the mucosal tissue was 30.3 +/- 11.7 micrograms/ml at 10 min after the administrations. Pharmacokinetic analyses showed that the concentration of flomoxef in the mucosal tissue was over 1.56 micrograms/ml (which is the MIC90 for the common pathogens of otitis media) for more than 2 h and decreased parallel with serum concentration with a half-life of about 40 min.

  16. Ribotyping of strains of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis cultured from the nasopharynx and middle ear of children with otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, K; Sørensen, C H; Colding, H

    1998-01-01

    Moraxella (Branhaomella) catarrhalis is frequently present in the nasopharyngeal microflora of small children, especially during episodes of acute otitis media . By means of ribotyping (restriction endonuclease analysis of chromosomal DNA combined with rRNA probing), we studied the genetic...... heterogeneity of 78 cultures of M. catarrhalis obtained from different localities in the nasopharynx of nine young children with secretory otitis media. Using HindIII and PstI as endonucleases, five different ribotypes were recognized, representing at least five different genotypes of M. catarrhalis....... The distribution of these types was found to be almost identical to the distribution among 16 M. catarrhalis strains cultured from middle ear exudates of 16 children with acute otitis media. Ribotype HAPA was found in two-thirds of all the cultures investigated, and 44% of the children harboured more than one...

  17. The effect of flying and low humidity on the admittance of the tympanic membrane and middle ear system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Robert Peter

    2013-10-01

    Many passengers experience discomfort during flight because of the effect of low humidity on the skin, eyes, throat, and nose. In this physiological study, we have investigated whether flight and low humidity also affect the tympanic membrane. From previous studies, a decrease in admittance of the tympanic membrane through drying might be expected to affect the buffering capacity of the middle ear and to disrupt automatic pressure regulation. This investigation involved an observational study onboard an aircraft combined with experiments in an environmental chamber, where the humidity could be controlled but could not be made to be as low as during flight. For the flight study, there was a linear relationship between the peak compensated static admittance of the tympanic membrane and relative humidity with a constant of proportionality of 0.00315 mmho/% relative humidity. The low humidity at cruise altitude (minimum 22.7 %) was associated with a mean decrease in admittance of about 20 % compared with measures in the airport. From the chamber study, we further found that a mean decrease in relative humidity of 23.4 % led to a significant decrease in mean admittance by 0.11 mmho [F(1,8) = 18.95, P = 0.002], a decrease of 9.4 %. The order of magnitude for the effect of humidity was similar for the flight and environmental chamber studies. We conclude that admittance changes during flight were likely to have been caused by the low humidity in the aircraft cabin and that these changes may affect the automatic pressure regulation of the middle ear during descent.

  18. The expression and correlation of Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 in serous middle ear effusion fluids of pediatric patients-a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hyun Jin; Choe, Ji Won; Chang, Moon Young; Kim, Kyung Soo; Lee, Sei Young; Mun, Seog-Kyun

    2017-10-01

    Several cytokines and innate immune-associated molecules are present in middle ear effusions, but damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in middle ear effusion have not been studied. Therefore, we evaluated the role of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in the development of otitis media with effusion (OME). Serous middle ear effusions from 22 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with OME and underwent ventilation tube insertion from June 2015 to March 2017 were evaluated in our study. The levels of Hsp 90, 70, 27, IL-8, and TNF-α in effusion fluids were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The associations between the levels of these molecules and the degree of tympanic membrane inflammation were statistically evaluated. Finally, the relationships among these molecules were also evaluated. Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 were detected in all middle ear effusions, but Hsp 90 was detected in only five effusion fluid samples. IL-8 was also detected in all middle ear effusions, but TNF-α was detected in only four effusion fluid samples. When we compared the degree of tympanic membrane inflammation with the levels of Hsp 70, Hsp 27, and IL-8, which were detected in all effusion fluids, we could not find statistical significance. However, Hsp 70, Hsp 27, and IL-8 were significantly associated with each other (p effusions. Furthermore, the levels of Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 were positively correlated with each other, and were also positively associated with the neutrophil chemoattractant, IL-8. Our findings suggested that Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 might be involved in the pathophysiology of pediatric OME. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Aerobic bacteria from mucous membranes, ear canals, and skin wounds of feral cats in Grenada, and the antimicrobial drug susceptibility of major isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Harry; Matthew, Vanessa; Fountain, Jacqueline; Snell, Alicia; Doherty, Devin; King, Brittany; Shemer, Eran; Oliveira, Simone; Sharma, Ravindra N

    2011-03-01

    In a 2-year period 54 feral cats were captured in Grenada, West Indies, and a total of 383 samples consisting of swabs from rectum, vagina, ears, eyes, mouth, nose and wounds/abscesses, were cultured for aerobic bacteria and campylobacters. A total of 251 bacterial isolates were obtained, of which 205 were identified to species level and 46 to genus level. A commercial bacterial identification system (API/Biomerieux), was used for this purpose. The most common species was Escherichia coli (N=60), followed by Staphylococcus felis/simulans (40), S. hominis (16), S. haemolyticus (12), Streptococcus canis (9), Proteus mirabilis (8), Pasteurella multocida (7), Streptococcus mitis (7), Staphylococcus xylosus (7), S. capitis (6), S. chromogenes (4), S. sciuri (3), S. auricularis (2), S. lentus (2), S. hyicus (2), Streptococcus suis (2) and Pseudomonas argentinensis (2). Sixteen other isolates were identified to species level. A molecular method using 16S rRNA sequencing was used to confirm/identify 22 isolates. Salmonella or campylobacters were not isolated from rectal swabs. E. coli and S. felis/simulans together constituted 50% of isolates from vagina. S. felis/simulans was the most common species from culture positive ear and eye samples. P. multocida was isolated from 15% of mouth samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common isolates from nose and wound swabs. Staphylococcus aureus, or S. intemedius/S. pseudintermedius were not isolated from any sample. Antimicrobial drug resistance was minimal, most isolates being susceptible to all drugs tested against, including tetracycline. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oval window transport of Gd-dOTA from rat middle ear to vestibulum and scala vestibuli visualized by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jing; Poe, Dennis; Ramadan, Usama Abo; Pyykkö, Ilmari

    2012-02-01

    We tested our hypothesis that the oval window (OW) potentially functions as a route to carry substances from the middle ear to the vestibulum and then the scala vestibuli through the annular ligament across the stapediovestibular joint. Gd-DOTA was either injected into the lateral attic compartment of rats with a high-performance polyimide tube in a selective OW delivery group, or administered to the middle ear cavity of two groups of rats in which the OW was either sealed or not sealed. The dynamic uptake of Gd-DOTA in the inner ear was visualized with a 4.7-T magnetic resonance imaging machine. In the selective OW delivery group, Gd-DOTA appeared in the vestibulum and in the basal turn of the scala vestibuli but not in the scala tympani on T1-weighted images acquired at 10 minutes after Gd-DOTA administration (the earliest available time point of magnetic resonance imaging). In the sealed-OW group, immediate uptake of Gd-DOTA was absent in the vestibulum and scala vestibuli. Measurement of the signal ratio of the vestibulum to that of the scala tympani showed that selective OW delivery induced the greatest signal ratio and that sealing of the OW induced the lowest signal ratio. The OW is a genuine and efficient pathway to transport Gd-DOTA from the middle ear to the vestibulum.

  1. Functional results of Vibrant Soundbridge middle ear implants in conductive and mixed hearing losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardeschi, Daniele; Hoffman, Caroline; Benchaa, Tarek; Labassi, Samia; Beliaeff, Michel; Sterkers, Olivier; Grayeli, Alexis Bozorg

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the results of Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) in conductive or mixed hearing loss. Twenty-five adult patients (29 ears) with a mixed or conductive hearing loss and various etiologies were included in this retrospective study. The preoperative ipsilateral pure tone average was 71 ± 3.0 dB, and the average bone conduction threshold was 42 ± 2.8 dB (n = 29). The transducer was placed on the long apophysis of the incus (n = 16), in the round window (n = 10) or on the stapes (n = 3). No complications were noted. The bone conduction threshold remained unchanged. VSB was activated in all cases. The postoperative pure tone average without VSB was 63 ± 3.9 dB (n = 24) and with VSB in free-field condition 24 ± 2.1 dB (n = 22). VSB is safe and efficacious for auditory rehabilitation in conductive and mixed hearing losses. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Forward and reverse middle ear frequency responses with various terminal loads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thejane, T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa Jacoba E. Smit and Fulufhelo V. Nelwamondo CSIR-Modelling and Digital Sciences, Pretoria, South Africa ABSTRACT An analog network model of the human middle... the acoustic reflex action and the annular ligament effects [2] in analog electrical 149 . circuits. These components have been excluded from the model in Figure 1 since the study focuses on OAEs. 2.2 Cochlear Impedance Load The cochlear input impedance...

  3. Otopathogens Detected in Middle Ear Fluid Obtained during Tympanostomy Tube Insertion: Contrasting Purulent and Non-Purulent Effusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Robert C.; Kirse, Daniel J.; Evans, Adele K.; Whigham, Amy S.; Peters, Timothy R.; Poehling, Katherine A.; Swords, William E.; Reid, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    Otitis media is a prominent disease among children. Previous literature indicates that otitis media is a polymicrobial disease, with Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis and Moraxella catarrhalis being the most commonly associated bacterial pathogens. Recent literature suggests that introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines has had an effect on the etiology of otitis media. Using a multiplex PCR procedure, we sought to investigate the presence of the aforementioned bacterial pathogens in middle ear fluid collected from children undergoing routine tympanostomy tube placement at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center during the period between January 2011 and March 2014. In purulent effusions, one or more bacterial organisms were detected in ~90% of samples. Most often the presence of H. influenzae alone was detected in purulent effusions (32%; 10 of 31). In non-purulent effusions, the most prevalent organism detected was A. otitidis (26%; 63 of 245). Half of the non-purulent effusions had none of these otopathogens detected. In purulent and non-purulent effusions, the overall presence of S. pneumoniae was lower (19%; 6 of 31, and 4%; 9 of 245, respectively) than that of the other pathogens being identified. The ratio of the percentage of each otopathogen identified in purulent vs. non-purulent effusions was >1 for the classic otopathogens but not for A. otitidis. PMID:26039250

  4. Influence of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Acute Otitis Media with Severe Middle Ear Inflammation: A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Hirotoshi; Tsumura, Shigeru; Kunimoto, Masaru; Noda, Masuhiro; Chikuie, Daisuke; Noda, Chieko; Yamashita, Mariko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hidemasa; Tashiro, Toru; Iwata, Kazuhiro; Kono, Takashi; Tsumura, Kaoru; Sumiya, Takahiro; Takeno, Sachio; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese guidelines for acute otitis media in children recommend classifying acute otitis media by age, manifestations and local findings, and also recommend myringotomy for moderate-grade cases with severe local findings, severe-grade cases, and treatment-resistant cases. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was released in Japan in February 2010. In Hiroshima City, public funding allowing free inoculation with this vaccine was initiated from January 2011, and the number of vaccinated individuals has since increased dramatically. This study investigated changes in the number of myringotomies performed to treat acute otitis media during the 5-year period from January 2008 to December 2012 at two hospitals and five clinics in the Asa Area of Hiroshima City, Japan. A total of 3,165 myringotomies for acute otitis media were performed. The rate of procedures per child-year performed in otitis media in 1-year-old infants decreased significantly in the 2 years after the introduction of public funding for heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared to all years before introduction (potitis media in reducing the financial burden of myringotomy. In addition, this vaccine may help prevent acute otitis media with severe middle ear inflammation in 1-year-old infants.

  5. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic ODK-0901 test for detection of pneumococcal antigen in middle ear fluids and nasopharyngeal secretions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneki Hotomi

    Full Text Available Since the incidence of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae has been increasing at an astonishing rate throughout the world, the need for accurate and rapid identification of pneumococci has become increasingly important to determine the appropriate antimicrobial treatment. We have evaluated an immunochromatographic test (ODK-0901 that detects pneumococcal antigens using 264 middle ear fluids (MEFs and 268 nasopharyngeal secretions (NPSs. A sample was defined to contain S. pneumoniae when optochin and bile sensitive alpha hemolytic streptococcal colonies were isolated by culture. The sensitivity and specificity of the ODK-0901 test were 81.4% and 80.5%, respectively, for MEFs from patients with acute otitis media (AOM. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity were 75.2% and 88.8%, respectively, for NPSs from patients with acute rhinosinusitis. The ODK-0901 test may provide a rapid and highly sensitive evaluation of the presence of S. pneumoniae and thus may be a promising method of identifying pneumococci in MEFs and NPSs.

  6. Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression Alteration in Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cells Induced by Asian Sand Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Yoon Young; Park, Moo Kyun; Kwon, Jee Young; Seo, Young Rok; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun

    2015-12-01

    The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the gene expression profile of Asian sand dust (ASD)-treated human middle ear epithelial cell (HMEEC) using microarray analysis. The HMEEC was treated with ASD (400 µg/mL) and total RNA was extracted for microarray analysis. Molecular pathways among differentially expressed genes were further analyzed. For selected genes, the changes in gene expression were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. A total of 1,274 genes were differentially expressed by ASD. Among them, 1,138 genes were 2 folds up-regulated, whereas 136 genes were 2 folds down-regulated. Up-regulated genes were mainly involved in cellular processes, including apoptosis, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Down-regulated genes affected cellular processes, including apoptosis, cell cycle, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. The 10 genes including ADM, CCL5, EDN1, EGR1, FOS, GHRL, JUN, SOCS3, TNF, and TNFSF10 were identified as main modulators in up-regulated genes. A total of 11 genes including CSF3, DKK1, FOSL1, FST, TERT, MMP13, PTHLH, SPRY2, TGFBR2, THBS1, and TIMP1 acted as main components of pathway associated with 2-fold down regulated genes. We identified the differentially expressed genes in ASD-treated HMEEC. Our work indicates that air pollutant like ASD, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of otitis media.

  7. A comparison of high resolution CT scan of temporal bone and operative findings in middle ear cholesteatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Tae Beom; Seong, Hun; Cheon, Mal Soon; Kim, Hack Jin; Jang, Keung Jae; Chun, Byung Hee [Dae Dong General Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    To evaluate the value of HRCT imaging in middle ear cholesteatoma, we prospectively analysed the CT images in 28 surgically proven cases with cholesteatomas regarding main site of lesion, ossicular change, facial nerve exposure and fistula formation. The most common main site of lesion was the epitympanum (92.8%). The results of sensitivity, positive predictability, and accuracy by CT imagings were as follows: for ossicular involvement, 94.1%, 88.8%, and 86.2% in malleus, 96.0%, 88.8%, and 85.7% in incus, 81.2%, 81.2%, and 78.5% in stapes; for facial nerve exposure, 66.6%, 57.1%, and 81.2%: for fistula formation, 100%, 75.0%, and 96.4%, respectively. In conclusion, the temoral bone HRCT imaging is an accurate preoperative method in detecting main lesion site, ossicular involvement, fistula formation. Because of the low sensitivity and positive predictability in detecting facial nerve exposure, it is necessary to correlate the HRCT images with the clinical status.

  8. Middle and inner ear malformations in mutation-proven branchio-oculo-facial (BOF) syndrome: case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Melissa T; Blaser, Susan; Papsin, Blake; Meschino, Wendy; Reardon, Willie; Klatt, Regan; Babul-Hirji, Riyana; Milunsky, Jeff; Chitayat, David

    2012-08-01

    Hearing impairment is common in individuals with branchio-oculo-facial (BOF) syndrome. The majority of described individuals have conductive hearing impairment due to malformed ossicles and/or external canal stenosis or atresia, although a sensorineural component to the hearing impairment in BOF syndrome is increasingly being reported. Sophisticated computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone has revealed middle and inner ear malformations in three previous reports. We present middle and inner ear abnormalities in three additional individuals with mutation-proven BOF syndrome. We suggest that temporal bone CT imaging be included in the medical workup of a child with BOF syndrome, in order to guide management. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Synergistic effect of interleukin 1 alpha on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced up-regulation of human beta-defensin 2 in middle ear epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Raekil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently showed that beta-defensins have antimicrobial activity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and that interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha up-regulates the transcription of beta-defensin 2 (DEFB4 according to new nomenclature of the Human Genome Organization in human middle ear epithelial cells via a Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway. Based on these observations, we investigated if human middle ear epithelial cells could release IL-1 alpha upon exposure to a lysate of NTHi and if this cytokine could have a synergistic effect on beta-defensin 2 up-regulation by the bacterial components. Methods The studies described herein were carried out using epithelial cell lines as well as a murine model of acute otitis media (OM. Human cytokine macroarray analysis was performed to detect the released cytokines in response to NTHi exposure. Real time quantitative PCR was done to compare the induction of IL-1 alpha or beta-defensin 2 mRNAs and to identify the signaling pathways involved. Direct activation of the beta-defensin 2 promoter was monitored using a beta-defensin 2 promoter-Luciferase construct. An IL-1 alpha blocking antibody was used to demonstrate the direct involvement of this cytokine on DEFB4 induction. Results Middle ear epithelial cells released IL-1 alpha when stimulated by NTHi components and this cytokine acted in an autocrine/paracrine synergistic manner with NTHi to up-regulate beta-defensin 2. This synergistic effect of IL-1 alpha on NTHi-induced beta-defensin 2 up-regulation appeared to be mediated by the p38 MAP kinase pathway. Conclusion We demonstrate that IL-1 alpha is secreted by middle ear epithelial cells upon exposure to NTHi components and that it can synergistically act with certain of these molecules to up-regulate beta-defensin 2 via the p38 MAP kinase pathway.

  10. General health, otitis media, nasopharyngeal carriage and middle ear microbiology in Northern Territory Aboriginal children vaccinated during consecutive periods of 10-valent or 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Amanda J; Wigger, Christine; Beissbarth, Jemima; Woltring, Donna; Andrews, Ross; Chatfield, Mark D; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi; Morris, Peter S

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to monitor the prevalence of suppurative otitis media in remote Indigenous communities after introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in October 2011. We previously reported a decline in suppurative OM following replacement of PCV7 by 10-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10) in October 2009. We continued regular surveillance in remote Indigenous communities between February 2010 and August 2013. This analysis reports the general health, otitis media (OM), nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and middle ear microbiology in children less than 36 months of age who received a primary course of at least two doses of PHiD-CV10 or PCV13, and not more than one dose of another pneumococcal vaccine. Mean ages of 511 PHiD-CV10- and 140 PCV13-vaccinated children were 19 and 13 months, respectively. Most children received 3-dose non-mixed PCV schedules. At the time of assessment, general health was poor and prevalence of risk factors was high in both groups: overall, around 14% of children had scabies, 20% had impetigo, 59% had runny nose and 39% had cough. Average household size was 8 persons, and 60% of the mothers smoked. Bilaterally normal middle ears were detected in 10% and 7%, respectively. OM with effusion (OME), almost all bilateral, was diagnosed in 52% and 50%, any suppurative OM (acute OM or any tympanic membrane perforation [TMP]) in 37% and 41%, and TMP in 14% and 12%, respectively. Children in the PCV13 group had significantly less NP carriage of combined Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) (62% versus 51%) but significantly more polymicrobial (Spn and NTHi) middle ear cultures (12% versus 43%), and significantly less Staphylococcus aureus-positive middle ears (40% versus 7%). Although NP carriage of pneumococcal serotype 19A was low in the PCV13 group, serotypes 19F and 23F persist. The general health, particularly ear health, of little children

  11. Ear Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of different injuries can affect the outer ear. Cauliflower ear (subperichondrial hematoma) A blunt blow to the ... to a deformed ear. This deformity, called a cauliflower ear, is common among wrestlers, boxers, and rugby ...

  12. Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal and Middle Ear: Treatment Outcomes, Marginal Misses, and Perspective on Target Delineation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wan-Yu [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Sung-Hsin [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Szu-Huai; Tsai, Chiao-Ling [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chia-Hsien Cheng, Jason [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hong, Ruey-Long [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ya-Fang [Department of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Lin, Kai-Nan; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping [Department of Otolaryngology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chong, Fok-Ching [Graduate Institute of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chun-Wei, E-mail: cwwang@ntuh.gov.tw [Graduate Institute of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To report outcomes of the rare disease of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external auditory canal (EAC) and middle ear treated with surgery and postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Failure patterns related to spatial dose distribution were also analyzed to provide insight into target delineation. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of the records of 11 consecutive patients with SCC of the EAC and middle ear who were treated with curative surgery and postoperative IMRT at one institution between January 2007 and February 2010. The prescribed IMRT dose was 60 to 66 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. Three patients also received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and 1 patient received concurrent oral tegafur/uracil. The median follow-up time was 19 months (range, 6-33 months). Results: Four patients had locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year locoregional control rate of 70.7%. Among them, 1 patient had persistent disease after treatment, and 3 had marginal recurrence. Distant metastasis occurred in 1 patient after extensive locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year distant control rate of 85.7%. The estimated 2-year overall survival was 67.5%. The three cases of marginal recurrence were near the preauricular space and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, adjacent to the apex of the ear canal and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, and in the postauricular subcutaneous area and ipsilateral parotid nodes, respectively. Conclusions: Marginal misses should be recognized to improve target delineation. When treating SCC of the EAC and middle ear, care should be taken to cover the glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint and periauricular soft tissue. Elective ipsilateral parotid irradiation should be considered. The treatment planning procedure should also be refined to balance subcutaneous soft-tissue dosimetry and toxicity.

  13. Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal and Middle Ear: Treatment Outcomes, Marginal Misses, and Perspective on Target Delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wan-Yu; Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Szu-Huai; Tsai, Chiao-Ling; Chia-Hsien Cheng, Jason; Hong, Ruey-Long; Chen, Ya-Fang; Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Lin, Kai-Nan; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Chong, Fok-Ching; Wang, Chun-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report outcomes of the rare disease of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external auditory canal (EAC) and middle ear treated with surgery and postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Failure patterns related to spatial dose distribution were also analyzed to provide insight into target delineation. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of the records of 11 consecutive patients with SCC of the EAC and middle ear who were treated with curative surgery and postoperative IMRT at one institution between January 2007 and February 2010. The prescribed IMRT dose was 60 to 66 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. Three patients also received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and 1 patient received concurrent oral tegafur/uracil. The median follow-up time was 19 months (range, 6–33 months). Results: Four patients had locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year locoregional control rate of 70.7%. Among them, 1 patient had persistent disease after treatment, and 3 had marginal recurrence. Distant metastasis occurred in 1 patient after extensive locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year distant control rate of 85.7%. The estimated 2-year overall survival was 67.5%. The three cases of marginal recurrence were near the preauricular space and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, adjacent to the apex of the ear canal and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, and in the postauricular subcutaneous area and ipsilateral parotid nodes, respectively. Conclusions: Marginal misses should be recognized to improve target delineation. When treating SCC of the EAC and middle ear, care should be taken to cover the glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint and periauricular soft tissue. Elective ipsilateral parotid irradiation should be considered. The treatment planning procedure should also be refined to balance subcutaneous soft-tissue dosimetry and toxicity.

  14. Pressure buffering by the tympanic membrane. In vivo measurements of middle ear pressure fluctuations during elevator motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padurariu, Simona; de Greef, Daniël; Jacobsen, Henrik; Nlandu Kamavuako, Ernest; Dirckx, Joris J; Gaihede, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The tympanic membrane (TM) represents a pressure buffer, which contributes to the overall pressure regulation of the middle ear (ME). This buffer capacity is based on its viscoelastic properties combined with those of the attached ossicular chain, muscles and ligaments. The current work presents a set of in vivo recordings of the ME pressure variations normally occurring in common life: elevator motion. This is defined as a situation of smooth ambient pressure increase or decrease on a limited range and at a low rate of pressure change. Based on these recordings, the purpose was a quantitative analysis of the TM buffer capacity including the TM compliance. The pressure changes in seven normal adult ME's with intact TM's were continuously recorded directly inside the ME cavity during four different elevator trips using a high precision instrument. The TM buffer capacity was determined by the ratio between the changes in ME and the ambient pressure. Further, the ME volumes were calculated by Boyle's Law from pressure recordings during inflation-deflation tests; subsequently the TM compliance could also be calculated. Finally, the correlation between the ME volume and buffer function was determined. Twenty-one elevator trips could be used for the analysis. The overall mean TM pressure buffering capacity was 23.3% (SEM = 3.4), whereas the mean overall compliance was 28.9 × 10 -3  μL/Pa (SEM = 4.8). A strong negative linear correlation was found between the TM buffer capacity and the ME volumes (R 2  = 0.92). These results were in fair agreement with the literature obtained in clinical as well as temporal bone experiments, and they provide an in vivo reference for the normal ME function as well as for ME modeling. The TM buffer capacity was found more efficient in smaller mastoids. Possible clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Middle Ear Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Go All Around Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Health Issues ... AOM is small on average, and must be balanced against potential harm of ... serious or life threatening. The average preschooler carries around 1 to ...

  16. Comparison of the Effect of Ondansetrone - Dexamethasone, Dexamethasone – Metoclopeamide and Ondansetron - Normal Saline in Decreasing Post Operative Nausa and Vomitting (PONV after Middle Ear Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddadi Soudabeh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of post-operative nausea and vomitting (PONV is increased after middle ear surgery and it may complicate and interact with reconstruction after surgery, so prevention and treatment of these complications are necessary.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of anti-emetic combinations in decreasing the PONV after middle ear surgery.Materials and methods: This double blind clinical trial was carried out during 2007-2008 on 111 patients of 15-45 years old with ASA I-II who were candidates for elective middle ear surgery under general anesthesia. The patients were divided into three groups. Patients in the ON group received Ondansetrone 0.1mg/kg + Nacl 0.9% 2cc, OD group received Ondansetrone 0.1mg/kg + Dexamethasone 0.15mg/kg and MD group received Dexamethasone 0.15mg/kg+ Metoclopramide 0.15mg/kg intravenously just before the end of surgery. The patients were evaluated for nausea, vomiting, need of anti-emetic drugs and drug dosage in recovery, 1-6, 6-12 and 12-24 hours after operation and then all data were statistically analyzed by SPSS software, Chi-square, ANOVA and t- Test. P<0.05 was significant.Results: There were no significant differences among three groups in age and sex. The incidence of PONV among 3 groups was not significantly different during 24 hours after operation. (P=0.271 but the incidence of PONV in the first six hours was different among 3 groups (P=0.007 (ON: 8.1%, OD: 0%, MD: 21.6%. Also Metoclopramide consumption was significant between three groups. Conclusion: This study showed that the need to anti-emetic drugs in first 6 hours was the least in OD group, but the difference in the incidence of PONV was not significant otherwise.

  17. A COMPARISON OF TWO DIFFERENT DOSES OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE INFUSION DURING MAINTENANCE OF GENERAL ANAESTHESIA IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING SPINE SURGERIES, FUNCTIONAL ENDOSCOPIC SINUS SURGERY AND MIDDLE EAR SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study is undertaken to compare the hemodynamic effects and reduction in the doses of volatile anaesthetics and muscle relaxants using two different doses of dexmedetomidine infusion during maintenance of anaesthesia in spine, functional endoscopic sinus surgery and middle ear surgeries. METHODS Sixty patients are randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 each. After shifting to the operation theatre baseline vitals were recorded. Anesthesia induced with thiopentone sodium and intubation done with the help of succinylcholine and maintained with oxygen, nitrous oxide and isoflurane. After 1 min of intubation, maintenance infusion of dexmedetomidine (0.4 mcg/kg/hr and 0.7 mcg/kg/hr for patients allotted in 2 separate groups was started and stopped 15 min before end of surgery. Hemodynamic parameters and any reduction in the doses of volatile anaesthetics and muscle relaxants was noted. RESULTS Dexmedetomidine infusion (0.4 mcg/kg/hr and 0.7 mcg/kg/hr in both groups reduced the requirements of muscle relaxants and volatile anaesthetics. Hemodynamic stability was better in the group receiving 0.4 mcg/kg/hr. Patients receiving 0.7 mcg/kg/hr had higher incidence of hypotension, bradycardia and delayed emergence from anaesthesia. CONCLUSION Dexmedetomidine infusion at 0.4 mcg/kg/hr during maintenance of anaesthesia in spine surgery, FESS and middle ear surgery would be good option to reduce the requirements of volatile anaesthetics, muscle relaxants and for better hemodynamic stability. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY: Primary Objective To compare and evaluate the hemodynamic effects and reduction in requirements of volatile anaesthetics and muscle relaxants with two different doses of dexmedetomidine infusion during maintenance of general anaesthesia in patients undergoing spine, FESS and middle ear surgeries.

  18. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  19. Swimmer's Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eardrum Taking Care of Your Ears Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Your Ears What's Earwax? How Do Pain Relievers Work? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  20. Differential Gene Expression in the Otic Capsule and the Middle Ear-An Annotation of Bone-Related Signaling Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle C.; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Friis, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis: A number of bone-related genes may be responsible for the unique suppression of perilabyrinthine bone remodeling. Background: Bone remodeling is highly inhibited around the inner ear space most likely because of osteoprotegerin (OPG), which is a well-known potent inhibitor of osteocla...

  1. Detection of ossicular chain abnormalities using CT imaging. Comparison of axial and virtual middle ear endoscopic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Motomichi; Kamagata, Masaki; Harada, Kuniaki; Shirase, Ryuji; Oomoto, Hidechika; Himi, Tetsuo

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of axial and three-dimensional imaging (virtual endoscopy) with helical CT for the detection of ossicular chain abnormalities. In 15 patients who had traumatic ossicular dislocation, disruption, and congenital ossicular defect and anomaly, axial helical CT scanning of the temporal bone was performed with GE HSA. Axial and three-dimensional imaging was carried out in normal ears (15 ears) and abnormal ears (10 ears), for the detection of ossicular chain abnormalities. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis using a continuous reporting scale. Furthermore, ROC testing was done to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the detection of ossicular chain abnormalities. Diagnostic accuracy in the detection of ossicular chain abnormalities with three-dimensional imaging (A z =0.967, SD=0.022) was not significantly better than that of axial imaging (A z =0.930, SD=0.046); however, the interobserver standard deviation was better for three-dimensional imaging. Three-dimensional imaging resulted in an increase in true positive cases and a decrease in false negatives. Three-dimensional imaging also showed higher sensitivity and accuracy. In the evaluation of ossicular chain abnormalities, three-dimensional imaging (virtual endoscopy) is useful and provides additional information. Three-dimensional imaging may have an important role in diagnostic procedures and/or preoperative evaluation in otology. (author)

  2. Neutrophil extracellular traps and bacterial biofilms in middle ear effusion of children with recurrent acute otitis media--a potential treatment target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth B Thornton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacteria persist within biofilms on the middle ear mucosa of children with recurrent and chronic otitis media however the mechanisms by which these develop remain to be elucidated. Biopsies can be difficult to obtain from children and their small size limits analysis. METHODS: In this study we aimed to investigate biofilm presence in middle ear effusion (MEE from children with recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM and to determine if these may represent infectious reservoirs similarly to those on the mucosa. We examined this through culture, viability staining and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH to determine bacterial species present. Most MEEs had live bacteria present using viability staining (32/36 and all effusions had bacteria present using the universal FISH probe (26/26. Of these, 70% contained 2 or more otopathogenic species. Extensive DNA stranding was also present. This DNA was largely host derived, representing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs within which live bacteria in biofilm formations were present. When treated with the recombinant human deoxyribonuclease 1, Dornase alfa, these strands were observed to fragment. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial biofilms, composed of multiple live otopathogenic species can be demonstrated in the MEEs of children with rAOM and that these contain extensive DNA stranding from NETs. The NETs contribute to the viscosity of the effusion, potentially contributing to its failure to clear as well as biofilm development. Our data indicates that Dornase alfa can fragment these strands and may play a role in future chronic OM treatment.

  3. Geranisetron versus gabapentin in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting after middle ear surgery in adults: A double-blinded randomized clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Heidari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV after middle ear surgery is high. In this study we want to compare the effects of intravenous granisetron and oral gabapentin as a premedication before surgery on the incidence and severity of PONV after middle ear surgery in adult patents. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 90 patients that were randomly divided into the three groups of 30 in each. Group I received granisetron 3 mg iv 2 minutes before induction of anesthesia; Group II received oral gabapentin 300 mg 1 hour before anesthesia and Group III received placebo. The incidence and severity of PONV were recorded each 15 minutes in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU and each 8 hours until 24 hours after discharge from the PACU. Result: The incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting at different time intervals in Groups I and Group II was significantly lower compared with Group III (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in the incidence of side effects of study drug administration including respiratory depression, apnea, extra pyramidal disorders, drowsiness, dizziness, vertigo and headache in three groups. Conclusion: The study was shown that using gabapentin and granisetron have equal anti-emetic effects, but significant differences were seen between these two groups compared to the control group. These submit the efficiency of these drugs in preventing PONV.

  4. Differences in innate immune response gene regulation in the middle ear of children who are otitis prone and in those not otitis prone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Janet; Pichichero, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Acute otitis media (AOM) causes an inflammatory response in the middle ear. We assessed differences in innate immune responses involved in bacterial defense at onset of AOM in children who were stringently defined as otitis prone (sOP) and children not otitis prone (NOP). Study Design: Innate immune genes analysis from middle ear fluid (MEF) samples of children. Methods: Genes of toll-like receptors (TLR), nod-like and retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors, downstream effectors important for inflammation and apoptosis, including cytokines and chemokines, were studied from MEF samples by using a real-time polymerase chain reaction array. Protein levels of differentially regulated genes were measured by Luminex. Results: Gene expression in MEF among children who were sOP was significantly different in upregulation of interleukin 8, secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3, and in downregulation of interferon regulatory factor 7 and its related signaling molecules interferon alpha, Toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 2, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, and mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 compared with children who were NOP. Differences in innate gene regulation were similar when AOM was caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Conclusion: Innate-immune response genes are differentially regulated in children who were sOP compared with children with NOP. PMID:28124644

  5. [The anatomical features of the middle ear exerting the influence on the formation of exudative otitis media in the breast-fed infants of different gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matroskin, A G; Rakhmanova, I V; Dreval', A A; Kislyakov, A N; Vladimirov, A I

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the anatomical features of the structure of the middle ear and eustachian tube in the breast-fed infants of different gestational age that may be responsible for the formation of exudates (fluids). We have examined 150 temporal bones obtained from the children's cadavers that were allocated to three groups as follows: 50 temporal bones obtained at weeks 26-30 weeks of gestation (group 1), 44 bones 31-36 weeks of gestation (group 2), and 37-40 weeks of gestation (full-term babies, group 3),The analysis of the data obtained on an individual bases revealed either increase or decreases in the selected characteristics of the eustachian tube in comparison with the respective average values as well as the well apparent predominance of a single change or a combination of alteration of several parameters in one case in 26-30 weeks and 31-36 weeks groups. No significant changes were found in group 1. It is concluded that the presence of a single change or a combination of two or three abnormal changes in the parameters of the bone structures of the eustachian tube can affect the development of the secretory process in the middle ear especially in the children born after 36 weeks of pregnancy.

  6. Long-range, wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography with GPU accelerated digital lock-in Doppler vibrography for real-time, in vivo middle ear diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Dan; Farrell, Joshua; Brown, Jeremy; Bance, Manohar; Adamson, Robert

    2016-11-01

    We present the design, implementation and validation of a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for real-time imaging of the human middle ear in live patients. Our system consists of a highly phase-stable Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg-reflector laser along with a real-time processing engine implemented on a graphics processing unit. We use the system to demonstrate, for the first time in live subjects, real-time Doppler measurements of middle ear vibration in response to sound, video rate 2D B-mode imaging of the middle ear and 3D volumetric B-mode imaging. All measurements were performed non-invasively through the intact tympanic membrane demonstrating that the technology is readily translatable to the clinic.

  7. Ear wax

    Science.gov (United States)

    See your provider if your ears are blocked with wax and you are unable to remove the wax. Also call if you have an ear wax blockage and you develop new symptoms, such as: Drainage from the ear Ear pain Fever Hearing loss that continues after you clean the wax

  8. Ear Pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  9. A Study of Relationship between the Acoustic Sensitivity of Vestibular System and the Ability to Trigger Sound-Evoked Muscle Reflex of the Middle Ear in Adults with Normal Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Emami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The vestibular system is sound sensitive and the sensitivity is related to the saccule. The vestibular afferents are projected to the middle ear muscles (such as the stapedius. The goal of this research was studying the relationship between the vestibular hearing and the sound-evoked muscle reflex of the middle ear to 500 HZ. Materials & Methods: This study was a cross sectional-comparison done in audiology department of Sheikholreis C‍‍linic (Hamadan, Iran. The study groups consisted of thirty healthy people and thirty patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Inclusion criteria of the present study were to have normal hearing on pure tone audiometry, acoustic reflex, and speech discrimination scores. Based on ipsilateral acoustic reflex test at 500HZ, they were divided to normal and abnormal groups. Then they were evaluated by cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs and finally classified in three groups (N Normal ear , (CVUA Contra lateral vertiginous ear with unaffected saccular sensitivity to sound,(IVA Ipsilateral vertiginous ear with affected saccular sensitivity to sound. Results: Thirty affected ears (IVA with decreased vestibular excitability as detected by ab-normal cVEMPs, revealed abnormal findings of acoustic reflex at 500HZ. Whereas, both un-affected (CVUA and normal ears (N had normal results. Multiple comparisons of mean values of cVEMPs (p13,n23 and acoustic reflex at500HZ among the three groups were sig-nificant. The correlation between acoustic reflex at 500HZ and p13 latencies was significant. The n23 latencies showed significant correlation with acoustic reflex at 500HZ. Conclusion: The vestibular sensitivity to sound retains the ability to trigger sound-evoked re-flex of the middle ear at 500 HZ. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2:99-104

  10. The LuxS/AI-2 Quorum-Sensing System of Streptococcus pneumoniae Is Required to Cause Disease, and to Regulate Virulence- and Metabolism-Related Genes in a Rat Model of Middle Ear Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh K. Yadav

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx of children, and from nasopharynx it could migrate to the middle ear and causes acute otitis media (AOM. During colonization and AOM, the pneumococcus forms biofilms. In vitro biofilm formation requires a functional LuxS/AI-2 quorum-sensing system. We investigated the role of LuxS/AI-2 signaling in pneumococcal middle ear infection, and identified the genes that are regulated by LuxS/AI-2 during pneumococcal biofilm formation.Methods:Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type and an isogenic D39ΔluxS strain were utilized to evaluate in vitro biofilm formation, and in vivo colonization and epithelial damage using a microtiter plate assay and a rat model of pneumococcal middle ear infection, respectively. Biofilm structures and colonization and epithelial damage were evaluated at the ultrastructural level by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Microarrays were used to investigate the global genes that were regulated by LuxS/AI-2 during biofilm formation.Results: The biofilm biomass and density of D39ΔluxS were significantly (p < 0.05 lower than those of D39 wild-type. SEM and confocal microscopy revealed that D39ΔluxS formed thin biofilms in vitro compared with D39 wild-type. The in vivo model of middle ear infection showed that D39ΔluxS resulted in ~60% less (p < 0.05 bacterial colonization than the wild-type. SEM analysis of the rat middle ears revealed dense biofilm-like cell debris deposited on the cilia in wild-type D39-infected rats. However, little cell debris was deposited in the middle ears of the D39ΔluxS-inoculated rats, and the cilia were visible. cDNA-microarray analysis revealed 117 differentially expressed genes in D39ΔluxS compared with D39 wild-type. Among the 66 genes encoding putative proteins and previously characterized proteins, 60 were significantly downregulated, whereas 6 were upregulated. Functional annotation revealed that genes involved in

  11. Comparison of palanosetron, granisetron and ondansetron as anti-emetics for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing middle ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anjana; Saha, Debdas; Hembrom, Bani P; Roy, Amit; Naaz, Anjum

    2011-05-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of palanosetron (0.25 mg), granisetron (3.0 mg) and ondansetron (8.0 mg) used as anti-emetics for the prevention of postoperative nausea/vomiting in patients undergoing middle ear surgery. The study was done among 75 adult patients (age group 30-45 years) of which 50 were males and rest (25) females, all of ASA I and ASA II. The patients were randomly allocated into 3 equal groups: Group I (n = 25) received injection palanosetron (0.25 mg) IV, group II (n = 25) received injection granisetron (3 mg) IV and group III (n = 25) received injection ondansetron (8.0 mg) IV at the end of the surgical procedure. A standard general anaesthesia technique was employed. Emetic episodes and safety assessments were performed during two periods of 0-6 hours in the postanaesthesia care unit and 6-24 hours in the ward after anaesthesia. The incidence of emesis-free patients during the 0-6 hours period was 100% for group I; 72% for group II and 56% for group III. During the 6-24 hours period incidence of emesis-free patients were 96% for group I; 56% for group II and 32% for group III. So to conclude, a single dose of palanosetron (0.25 mg) is a superior anti-emetic to granisetron (3.0 mg) or ondansetron (8.0 mg) in complete prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after middle ear surgery during the first 24 hours period.

  12. Ear examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be present. The eardrum is a light-gray color or a shiny pearly-white. Light should ... discharge or bleeding Alternative Names Otoscopy Images Ear anatomy Medical findings based on ear anatomy Otoscopic exam ...

  13. Ear Problems in Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear, otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.

  14. Chronic suppurative otitis media, middle ear pathology and corresponding hearing loss in a cohort of Greenlandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avnstorp, Magnus Balslev; Homøe, Preben; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Otitis media (OM) has been observed at elevated prevalence rates in Greenlandic children. OM associated hearing loss (HL) may compromise the children's linguistic skills, social development and educational achievements. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the prevalence of chronic suppurative...... otitis media (CSOM), otitis media with effusion (OME) and tympanic membrane sequelae of OM, and compared the corresponding hearing thresholds. METHODS: In 2010 we examined a cohort of 223 Greenlandic children aged 4-10 years by video otoscopy, tympanometry and tested hearing thresholds for the low......-frequencies: 500, 1000 and 2000Hz and the high-frequencies: 4000 and 6000Hz. HL was categorized according to the worst hearing ear and was compared within the groups: CSOM, OME, tympanic membrane sequelae of OM and normal. RESULTS: Of 207 children, 5.8% had CSOM, 13.9% had OME and 55.6% had tympanic membrane...

  15. Chronic suppurative otitis media, middle ear pathology and corresponding hearing loss in a cohort of Greenlandic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avnstorp, Magnus Balslev; Homøe, Preben; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jensen, Ramon Gordon

    2016-04-01

    Otitis media (OM) has been observed at elevated prevalence rates in Greenlandic children. OM associated hearing loss (HL) may compromise the children's linguistic skills, social development and educational achievements. We investigated the prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), otitis media with effusion (OME) and tympanic membrane sequelae of OM, and compared the corresponding hearing thresholds. In 2010 we examined a cohort of 223 Greenlandic children aged 4-10 years by video otoscopy, tympanometry and tested hearing thresholds for the low-frequencies: 500, 1000 and 2000Hz and the high-frequencies: 4000 and 6000Hz. HL was categorized according to the worst hearing ear and was compared within the groups: CSOM, OME, tympanic membrane sequelae of OM and normal. Of 207 children, 5.8% had CSOM, 13.9% had OME and 55.6% had tympanic membrane sequelae of OM. The median pure tone average in low-frequencies/high-frequencies were: CSOM: 34.2/31.3dB, OME: 23.3/22.5dB, Sequelae of OM: 13.3/15dB and normal ears: 11.7/12.5dB. We found a significant difference (pchildren a HL>15dB in any frequency was found, while 6.5% suffered from a bilateral low-frequency HL>25dB. The severity of OM significantly corresponded to increased HL. The burden of CSOM and HL remains high in young Greenlandic children. Aggressive treatment with antibiotics, improved hearing rehabilitation, sound field amplification in classrooms and otosurgical capacity should be further promoted in Greenland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. COMMON INFECTIONS OF THE EAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    tion of the skin covering the tympanic membrane and deep exter- nal canal, and the production of ... of combination steroid/antifungal/antibiotic ointment (e.g.. Kenacomb) with a cotton bud ..... protection to the delicate middle ear structures.

  17. Ear infection - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the back of the throat. Normally, this tube drains fluid that is made in the middle ear. ... allows air to get in so fluids can drain more easily. Usually the tubes fall out by themselves. Those that don't ...

  18. Long-term results of middle fossa plugging of superior semicircular canal dehiscences: clinically and instrumentally demonstrated efficiency in a retrospective series of 16 ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Hans; Bonnard, Damien; Castetbon, Vincent; Franco-Vidal, Valérie; Darrouzet, Patricia; Darrouzet, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to report the surgical outcome after middle fossa approach (MFA) plugging in patients suffering from a superior semi-circular canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome. This is a retrospective case review. Tertiary referral center. Sixteen ears in 13 patients with a SCD syndrome suffering from severe and disabling vestibular symptoms with a bony dehiscence on CT scan >3 mm and decreased threshold of cervical vestibular evoked potentials (cVEMPs). We assessed preoperatively: clinical symptoms, hearing, cVEMPs threshold, size of dehiscence and videonystagmography (VNG) with caloric and 100 Hz vibratory tests. Postoperatively, we noted occurrences of neurosurgical complication, evolution of audiological and vestibular symptoms, and evaluation of cVEMP data. Tullio's phenomenon was observed in 13 cases (81.3 %) and subjectively reported hearing loss in seven (43.7 %). All patients were so disabled that they had to stop working. No neurosurgical complications were observed in the postoperative course. In three cases (16.6 %), an ipsilateral and transitory immediate postoperative vestibular deficit associated with a sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) was noted, which totally resolved with steroids and bed rest. All patients were relieved of audiological and vestibular symptoms and could return to normal activity with a mean follow-up of 31.1 months (range 3-95). No patient had residual SNHL. cVEMPs were performed in 14 ears postoperatively and were normalized in 12 (85.7 %). Two of the three patients operated on both sides kept some degree of unsteadiness and oscillopsia. MFA plugging of the superior semi-circular canal is an efficient and non-hearing deteriorating procedure.

  19. MRI for the diagnosis of recurrent middle ear cholesteatoma in children - can we optimize the technique? Preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffray, Anne; Guesmi, Myriam; Nebbia, Jean Francois; Leloutre, Beatrice; Bailleux, Sonanda; Maschi, Claude [Fondation Lenval, Nice (France)

    2013-04-15

    Recurrent cholesteatoma after surgical excision occurs frequently in children. Until recently, a surgical second look was mandatory and considered as standard reference. MRI including a delayed T1 sequence after gadolinium injection and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has proved its efficiency but has been evaluated mainly in adults. Our purpose was to evaluate the accuracy of DWI to diagnose recurrence of cholesteatoma in children. We evaluated prospectively with MRI 20 ears in 18 children who had had surgery for cholesteatoma. We compared DWI and delayed T1-weighted images following gadolinium administration with intraoperative or follow-up findings. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of each sequence for the diagnosis of recurrent cholesteatoma. Sensitivity to diagnose recurrent cholesteatoma was 87% for both DWI and delayed post-gadolinium sequences, specificity was 71% and 83%, respectively. Adding both sequences, the sensitivity was 87%, the specificity 100%. There was one false negative probably due to small size recurrence. In our series, DWI was reliable to diagnose recurrent cholesteatoma in children and allows avoiding surgery when negative. However, because small recurrences less than 5 mm may be missed, follow-up must be prolonged (5 years). (orig.)

  20. Internally Coupled Ears in Living Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Matthew James

    2015-01-01

    It is generally held that the right and left middle ears of mammals are acoustically isolated from each other, such that mammals must rely on neural computation to derive sound localisation cues. There are, however, some unusual species in which the middle ear cavities intercommunicate, in which case each ear might be able to act as a pressure-difference receiver. This could improve sound localisation at lower frequencies. The platypus Ornithorhynchus is apparently unique among mammals in tha...

  1. Your Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More on this topic for: Kids Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? Senses Experiment: Model Eardrum Going to the Audiologist What's Earwax? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  2. Discontinuity of the incudo-stapedial joint within a fully aerated middle ear and mastoid on computed tomography: A clinico-radiological study of its aetiology and clinical consequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, S.E.J.; Pai, I.; Jiang, D.; Spiers, A.J.D.; Fitzgerald-O'Connor, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the aetiology and clinical consequences of incudo-stapedial (IS) discontinuity when it is demonstrated on computed tomography (CT) within a fully aerated middle ear and mastoid. Methods and materials: Patients with CT evidence of IS discontinuity within a fully aerated middle ear and mastoid were prospectively identified. Clinical history, otoscopic findings, audiometry, and CT data were evaluated. Predefined criteria were used to determine the likely aetiology of IS discontinuity, whether it was diagnosed prior to the CT study, and the clinical consequences in terms of degree of conductive hearing loss and requirement for surgical correction. The range of CT appearances was evaluated. Results: The IS discontinuity in 34/36 ears was felt to be due to incus erosion secondary to chronic otitis, on the basis of clinical history and otoscopic findings. The IS discontinuity was rarely evident prior to CT with long-process deficiency being identified in only 5/36 cases. The mean air bone gap was only 22.5 dB. The ossicular defect was surgically addressed in only four cases. The incus deficiency was confined to the lower-third on CT in 19/36 cases. Conclusion: When IS discontinuity is demonstrated within a fully aerated middle ear and mastoid, the most likely aetiology is of acquired incus erosion due to chronic otitis media. The IS discontinuity on CT is usually not evident otoscopically. It usually results in only mild conductive hearing loss and the ossicular discontinuity was rarely surgically addressed in the present series.

  3. The Galker test of speech reception in noise; associations with background variables, middle ear status, hearing, and language in Danish preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritsen, Maj-Britt Glenn; Söderström, Margareta; Kreiner, Svend; Dørup, Jens; Lous, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    We tested "the Galker test", a speech reception in noise test developed for primary care for Danish preschool children, to explore if the children's ability to hear and understand speech was associated with gender, age, middle ear status, and the level of background noise. The Galker test is a 35-item audio-visual, computerized word discrimination test in background noise. Included were 370 normally developed children attending day care center. The children were examined with the Galker test, tympanometry, audiometry, and the Reynell test of verbal comprehension. Parents and daycare teachers completed questionnaires on the children's ability to hear and understand speech. As most of the variables were not assessed using interval scales, non-parametric statistics (Goodman-Kruskal's gamma) were used for analyzing associations with the Galker test score. For comparisons, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. Interrelations were adjusted for using a non-parametric graphic model. In unadjusted analyses, the Galker test was associated with gender, age group, language development (Reynell revised scale), audiometry, and tympanometry. The Galker score was also associated with the parents' and day care teachers' reports on the children's vocabulary, sentence construction, and pronunciation. Type B tympanograms were associated with a mean hearing 5-6dB below that of than type A, C1, or C2. In the graphic analysis, Galker scores were closely and significantly related to Reynell test scores (Gamma (G)=0.35), the children's age group (G=0.33), and the day care teachers' assessment of the children's vocabulary (G=0.26). The Galker test of speech reception in noise appears promising as an easy and quick tool for evaluating preschool children's understanding of spoken words in noise, and it correlated well with the day care teachers' reports and less with the parents' reports. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pro-inflammatory interleukins in middle ear effusions from atopic and non-atopic children with chronic otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Stankiewicz-Szymczak, Wanda

    2016-06-01

    Chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) is associated with irreversible changes in the middle ear, sometimes leading to hearing loss and abnormal language development in children. While the pathogenesis of OME is not fully understood, inflammatory and allergic factors are thought to be involved. The study aimed to investigate the role of cytokines in the local development of chronic OME, and assess differences in the cytokine profiles between atopic and non-atopic children. 84 atopic and non-atopic children with chronic OME (mean age of 6 years 7 months) were studied. Age-matched children with hypertrophy of the adenoids and Eustachian tube dysfunction served as the control group. The number of past acute otitis media (AOM) episodes, their age, and the type of effusion were recorded for all children. Pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8) were determined and the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the patients' effusions was examined. High concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were found in the effusions in all children with chronic OME, with the highest levels observed in the non-atopic group. The atopic group showed persistently high IL-1β levels, while in the non-atopic children, IL-1β and TNF-α levels positively correlated with the patient's age and the number of past AOM episodes. Pathogenic bacteria were more frequently isolated from effusions in non-atopic children. In both atopic and non-atopic children, pro-inflammatory cytokines are found at high concentrations. This argues in favor of instituting anti-inflammatory management for treating OME, regardless of atopy.

  5. Monitored anaesthesia care – Comparison of nalbuphine/dexmedetomidine versus nalbuphine/propofol for middle ear surgeries: A double-blind randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao Nallam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Middle ear surgeries (MESs are usually performed under sedation with local anaesthesia and can be well tolerated by the patient with minimal discomfort. In the present study, we compare the effect of nalbuphine/dexmedetomidine combination with nalbuphine/propofol on sedation and analgesia in monitored anaesthesia care. Methods: One hundred adult patients undergoing MESs under monitored anaesthesia care (MAC were randomly allocated into two groups. All patients in both groups received injection nalbuphine 50 μg/kg intravenously (IV. Group D received a bolus dose of injection dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg IV over 10 min followed by an infusion started at 0.4 μg/kg/h IV. Group P received a bolus dose of injection propofol 0.75 mg/kg followed by an infusion started at 0.025 mg/kg/min IV. Sedation was titrated to Ramsay Sedation Score (RSS of 3. Patient's mean arterial pressure, heart rate, saturation peripheral pulse and need for intraoperative rescue sedation/analgesia were recorded and compared. The data analysis was carried out with Z test and Chi-square test. Results: Mean RSS was significantly more in Group D (4.24 ± 1.54 as compared to Group P (2.58 ± 0.95. Overall VAS score was also significantly less in Group D (3.5 ± 1.7 than in Group P (5.4 ± 1.8. In total, 16 patients (32% in Group D had hypotension whereas 7 patients (14% only in Group P had hypotension. Conclusion: Nalbuphine/dexmedetomidine combination is superior to nalbuphine/propofol in producing sedation and decreasing VAS in patients undergoing MESs under MAC. Better surgeon and patient satisfaction were observed with nalbuphine/dexmedetomidine. Haemodynamics need to be closely monitored.

  6. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as cleft palate , genetic conditions such as Down syndrome , or other illnesses such as immune system disorders. How Can I Help My Child Feel Better? With or without antibiotic treatment, you can help to ease discomfort by giving ...

  7. Cosmetic ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  8. Interconnections between the Ears in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Albert S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the nonmammalian vertebrates (anurans, lizards, crocodiles, and some bird species) have large, continuous air spaces connecting the middle ears and acoustically coupling the eardrums. Acoustical coupling leads to strongly enhanced directionality of the ear at frequencies where diffraction...... cues are negligible in small-sized animals. The chapter reviews the peripheral basis of directionality in these animal groups....

  9. Recent inner ear specialization for high-speed hunting in cheetahs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohé, Camille; Lee, Beatrice; Flynn, John J

    2018-02-02

    The cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, is the fastest living land mammal. Because of its specialized hunting strategy, this species evolved a series of specialized morphological and functional body features to increase its exceptional predatory performance during high-speed hunting. Using high-resolution X-ray computed micro-tomography (μCT), we provide the first analyses of the size and shape of the vestibular system of the inner ear in cats, an organ essential for maintaining body balance and adapting head posture and gaze direction during movement in most vertebrates. We demonstrate that the vestibular system of modern cheetahs is extremely different in shape and proportions relative to other cats analysed (12 modern and two fossil felid species), including a closely-related fossil cheetah species. These distinctive attributes (i.e., one of the greatest volumes of the vestibular system, dorsal extension of the anterior and posterior semicircular canals) correlate with a greater afferent sensitivity of the inner ear to head motions, facilitating postural and visual stability during high-speed prey pursuit and capture. These features are not present in the fossil cheetah A. pardinensis, that went extinct about 126,000 years ago, demonstrating that the unique and highly specialized inner ear of the sole living species of cheetah likely evolved extremely recently, possibly later than the middle Pleistocene.

  10. Pathogenesis of otitis externa and otitis media in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Nikola

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of the outer and middle ear (Otitis externa and Otitis media are a frequent clinical problem which is mostly approached in the wrong way. We believe that the approach to a diseased ear in dogs or cats by practicing veterinarians in our country is most often incorrect. Namely, the conventional approach to inflammation of the outer ear is narrowed down to cleaning the ear, usually with cotton wool and hydrogen peroxide, and then by applying ear drops for veterinary or human use over the next few days. A somewhat more conscientious approach implies treatment using antibiotics, topical and/or systemic, but based on an antibiogram. If the presence of a foreign body is suspected, the veterinarian will use an otoscope, and this is where the entire diagnostic approach in our conditions usually ends. Such procedures most often fail to resolve the problem, so that the disease recurs after a certain time or becomes chronic recurrent Otitis externa, which is one of the biggest problems in dog dermatology. Experience shows that veterinarians here are generally not familiar with the pathogenesis of outer and middle ear infection, and that this is the reason why they approach diagnostics and therapy in the wrong way. The most important thing is to have in mind that bacteria and fungi linked with a pathological process in the ear canal are merely opportunistic microorganisms, and never primary pathogens, themselves responsible for Otitis externa. Antibiotic or antimycotic treatment does not cure the basic disease which led to the inflammation, but only its consequences. A large number of factors involved in the inflammation of the outer or middle ear are traditionally divided into primary, predisposing, secondary, and underlying. The basis for the successful treatment of Otitis externa and Otitis media is the recognition, elimination or control of the primary factors (atopy, nutritive allergy, keratinization disorders, parasitic infestations. The

  11. Cochlear aqueduct flow resistance is not constant during evoked inner ear pressure change in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, HP; Feijen, RA; Albers, FWJ

    Inner ear fluid pressure was measured during 6.25 mHz square wave middle ear pressure manipulation, with a perforated tympanic membrane. After a negative-going middle ear pressure change the calculated flow resistance of the inner ear pressure release routes (mainly the cochlear aqueduct) was

  12. A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of the effect of chlorpheniramine on the response of the nasal airway, middle ear and eustachian tube to provocative rhinovirus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, W J; McBride, T P; Skoner, D P; Maddern, B R; Gwaltney, J M; Uhrin, M

    1988-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of chlorpheniramine in relieving the symptoms and attenuating the pathophysiologic correlates of a rhinovirus "common cold." Forty healthy, adult, nonatopic subjects were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: active drug and placebo. On study Day 0, all subjects were challenged intranasally with rhinovirus type 39 (dose = 100 TCID50). Subjects were cloistered from Day 2 to Day 7, at which time they were treated with either chlorpheniramine or placebo. From 3 days before challenge to study Day 19, subjects had nasal patency assessed by rhinomanometry, eustachian tube function assessed by the 9-step test and sonotubometry, middle ear pressure assessed by tympanometry and nasal clearance assessed by the dyed-saccharin technique. Symptom diaries were maintained throughout the period of follow-up. During cloister, symptoms also were scored by interview, nasal secretions were quantified and nasal washings were performed for viral culture. Results showed that 19 (95%) subjects in the active-treatment group and 18 (90%) subjects in the placebo-treatment group shed virus. Symptomatic colds were observed in 63% of the active-treated and 83% of the placebo-treated subjects. Symptoms increased on Day 1 and peaked at Days 4 to 5. Detrimental changes in other measured functions consistent with those previously reported were observed. During the period of treatment, significant differences in the average symptom scores favoring the active-treatment group were observed for sneezing. Also, weight of expelled secretions was greater and mucociliary clearance rate less on some cloister days for the placebo-treated group. No significant differences between treatment groups in the objective measures of nasal congestion or the response of the middle ear and eustachian tube were documented.

  13. Ear Disorders in Scuba Divers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Azizi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available History of underwater diving dates back to antiquity. Breath-hold technique in diving was known to the ancient nations. However, deep diving progressed only in the early decades of the 19th century as the result of advancements in efficient underwater technologies which subsequently led to invention of sophisticated sets of scuba diving in the 20th century. Currently, diving is performed for various purposes including commercial, recreational, military, underwater construction, oil industry, underwater archeology and scientific assessment of marine life. By increasing popularity of underwater diving, dive-related medical conditions gradually became more evident and created a new challenge for the health care professionals, so that eventually, a specialty the so-called “diving medicine” was established. Most of the diving-associated disorders appear in the head and neck. The most common of all occupational disorders associated with diving are otologic diseases. External otitis has been reported as the most common otolaryngologic problem in underwater divers. Exostosis of the external ear canal may be formed in divers as the result of prolonged diving in cold waters. Other disorders of the ear and paranasal sinuses in underwater divers are caused by barometric pressure change (i.e., barotraumas, and to a lesser extent by decompression sickness. Barotrauma of the middle ear is the most prevalent barotrauma in divers. The inner ear barotraumas, though important, is less common. The present paper is a brief overview of diving-related ear disorders particularly in scuba divers.

  14. Play it by Ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology.......The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology....

  15. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  16. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  17. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... can lead to an infection. Dry skin or eczema , scratching the ear canal, vigorous ear cleaning with ...

  18. Taking Care of Your Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audiologist Perforated Eardrum What's Hearing Loss? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? Swimmer's Ear Your Ears What's Earwax? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  19. 3D visualisation of the middle ear and adjacent structures using reconstructed multi-slice CT datasets, correlating 3D images and virtual endoscopy to the 2D cross-sectional images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodt, T.; Ratiu, P.; Kacher, D.F.; Anderson, M.; Jolesz, F.A.; Kikinis, R.; Becker, H.; Bartling, S.

    2002-01-01

    The 3D imaging of the middle ear facilitates better understanding of the patient's anatomy. Cross-sectional slices, however, often allow a more accurate evaluation of anatomical structures, as some detail may be lost through post-processing. In order to demonstrate the advantages of combining both approaches, we performed computed tomography (CT) imaging in two normal and 15 different pathological cases, and the 3D models were correlated to the cross-sectional CT slices. Reconstructed CT datasets were acquired by multi-slice CT. Post-processing was performed using the in-house software ''3D Slicer'', applying thresholding and manual segmentation. 3D models of the individual anatomical structures were generated and displayed in different colours. The display of relevant anatomical and pathological structures was evaluated in the greyscale 2D slices, 3D images, and the 2D slices showing the segmented 2D anatomy in different colours for each structure. Correlating 2D slices to the 3D models and virtual endoscopy helps to combine the advantages of each method. As generating 3D models can be extremely time-consuming, this approach can be a clinically applicable way of gaining a 3D understanding of the patient's anatomy by using models as a reference. Furthermore, it can help radiologists and otolaryngologists evaluating the 2D slices by adding the correct 3D information that would otherwise have to be mentally integrated. The method can be applied to radiological diagnosis, surgical planning, and especially, to teaching. (orig.)

  20. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... them because of environmental and lifestyle factors (like attendance at a group childcare, secondhand tobacco smoke exposure, ... View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  1. [HRCT imaging characterized of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear in 45 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinling; Meng, Meijuan; Huan, Yi; Zhang, Jinsong

    2003-10-01

    To explore the high resolution CT (HRCT) image characterized of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear(CAIE), and its value in the diagnosis and treatment of CAIE. The clinic data and axial HRCT scans of CAIE in 45 cases were analyzed. In 45 CAIE patients, most of them were frequently associated with slowly progressive sensorineural hearing loss in childhood, 15 ears were fluctuating hearing loss. Seventeen ears were unilateral semicircular canal paralysis. HRCT showed that Michel type 3 cases(4 ears), Mondini type 25 cases(39 ears). Large vestibular aqueduct malformation not associated with anomalies of inner ears 13 cases(23 ears), anomalies of internal auditory canal 4 cases (5 ears). Thirteen ears were associated with outer and middle ear malformation. HRCT image has the important value in the diagnosis and treatment of CAIE, especially for the excerpt of indication of cochlear implantation.

  2. Cholesteatoma of the external ear canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owen, Hanne H; Rosborg, Jørn; Gaihede, Michael

    2006-01-01

    (n = 2), and otorrhea (n = 1). Similar symptoms were found in secondary EECC, but less pronounced. In total the temporomandibular joint was exposed in 11 cases, while the mastoid and middle ear was invaded in six and three cases, respectively. In one primary case the facial nerve was exposed...

  3. Blind Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arka Chattopadhyay

    2015-08-01

    There’s no way to know whether he was blind from birth or blindness was something he had picked up from his fights with other cats. He wasn’t an urban cat. He lived in a little village, soaked in the smell of fish with a river running right beside it. Cats like these have stories of a different kind. The two-storied hotel where he lived had a wooden floor. It stood right on the riverbank and had more than a tilt towards the river, as if deliberately leaning on the water.

  4. A unique anomaly of the ear: Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum or an isolated disruption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Eleonoor A. R.; Hoogslag, Isabella C. M.; van Spronsen, Erik; Oostra, Roelof J.; Ebbens, Fenna A.

    2017-01-01

    We present a rare case of a neonate with an isolated congenital condition of his right ear involving the outer ear, middle ear, eustachian tube, and the facial nerve, with an external opening into the skull that connects to the oropharynx. Taking this bizarre aspect of the exterior lesion and the

  5. Temporal bone CT analysis of congenital ear anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jung Won; Moon, Min Joo; Sung, Kyu Bo

    1988-01-01

    Authors analysed the CT findings of the congenital ear anomalies of twenty-nine patients for 2 years and 3 months. The results were as follows: 1. Most of the patients were under the age of 20 (82.7%) and prevalent in male (72.4%). 2. Clinically, congenital ear anomalies were detected in 20 patients (68.9%), conductive hearing loss in 4, sensorineural hearing loss in 1, and the remained 4 patients were detected incidentally without clinical symptom. 3. In the cases of unilateral involvement of 20 patients, right ear was more common (12/20). Eight of 9 bilateral involvement showed similar degree. 4. The middle ear malformations were found in 22 patients (75.9%) and bilateral in 4 patients. 26 cases of middle ear malformations had been classified by Frey into 4 groups; Group I in 5, Group II in 9, Graoup III in 9 and Group IV in 3. 5. Incidentally found ear anomaly was lateral semicircular canal formed a single cavity with the vestibule in all patients (5 pts.). 6. Inner ear malformations accompanying sensorineural hearing loss were found in 3 patients with bilateral involvement and middle ear malformations were accompanied in 2 patients. The degree of involvement of labyrinth was variable.

  6. Extranodal non-B, non-T-cell lymphoma with bilateral tympanic bulla involvement in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Kerns

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 9-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat with clinical signs suggestive of chronic recurrent otitis media and recent seizures was presented with multifocal nervous system disease, including bilateral central and/or peripheral vestibular, cerebellar and forebrain deficits. Prior to presentation, there was inadequate improvement after 6 weeks of treatment for bilateral middle ear effusion from which a highly susceptible Staphylococcus species was cultured. This was followed by the development of seizures. Results of a complete blood count and serum chemistry were unremarkable, and a previous feline leukemia virus/feline immunodeficiency virus ELISA was negative. The cat was hospitalized overnight and had multiple seizures. The following morning the cat’s mentation worsened, and the cat lost ventilatory drive after induction for anesthesia in preparation for MRI. A brain herniation event was suspected, and the cat was euthanized prior to further diagnostics. On post-mortem examination both tympanic bullae were filled with a soft, tan-colored material. Histologically, this material was composed of neoplastic lymphocytes. In addition, neoplastic lymphocytes were found in the leptomeninges, brain parenchyma, submandibular lymph nodes and pancreas. The neoplastic lymphocytes were negative for both B- and T-lymphocyte immunohistochemical markers and PCR for antigen receptor rearrangements failed to amplify target DNA, indicating non-B, non-T-cell lymphoma. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first report of lymphoma with confirmed bilateral tympanic bulla involvement in the human and veterinary literature. Neoplasia should be considered in cases of middle-ear effusion that do not improve adequately with appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

  7. Secreção na orelha média em lactentes - ocorrência, recorrência e aspectos relacionados Secretion of middle ear in infants - occurrence, recurrence and related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra de O. Saes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a ocorrência e recorrência de secreção na orelha média e os possíveis fatores associados, em 190 recém-nascidos e lactentes observados nos 2 primeiros anos de vida, participantes de um programa de prevenção, detecção e intervenção interdisciplinar desenvolvido na Clínica de Educação para Saúde da Universidade do Sagrado Coração. MÉTODOS: Os recém-nascidos e lactentes foram submetidos mensalmente a anamnese, otoscopia, avaliação audiológica comportamental por meio de instrumentos sonoros e tons puros (audiometria pediátrica e timpanometria. RESULTADOS: Os resultados revelaram que 68,4% dos lactentes apresentaram um ou mais episódios de secreção na orelha média nos 2 primeiros anos, com maior recorrência para o sexo masculino. A idade de maior ocorrência foi entre 4 e 12 meses. Quanto mais cedo ocorreu o primeiro episódio, maior foi a probabilidade de recorrência. Os meses do ano de maior incidência foram de maio a agosto. Das variáveis estudadas, constatou-se que o período de aleitamento materno exclusivo atuou como um fator protetor. Quanto aos fatores de risco, verificou-se que a presença tabagismo passivo, refluxo gastroesofágico, alergia respiratória esteve relacionada à recorrência de efusão. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados revelaram a importância do acompanhamento auditivo periódico para lactentes nos 2 primeiros anos de vida, considerando ser o período crítico para o processo de maturação do sistema auditivo, no qual privações sensoriais auditivas podem ser responsáveis por seqüelas para o desenvolvimento de fala e linguagem.OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at evaluating the occurrence and recurrence of middle ear secretion and possible associated factors in the first two years of life of 190 newborns and infants, participants in the interdisciplinary prevention, detection, and intervention program at the Clínica de Educação para Saúde of

  8. Hairy ears; Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daifullah Al Aboud

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hair can grow in areas which are not usually hairy in human skin. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM (http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omimhave some entries in this regards. These include ( %139600 – HAIRY ELBOWS, #605130 – HAIRY ELBOWS, SHORT STATURE, FACIAL DYSMORPHISM, AND DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY, 139630 – HAIRY NOSE TIP, 139500 – HAIRY EARS, and 425500 – HAIRY EARS, Y-LINKED. Hairy ears, (Fig. 1, are uncommon trait and it is rare to see a person with very long hair on the ears.

  9. 'Outrunning' the running ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    In even the most experienced hands, an adequate physical examination of the ears can be difficult to perform because of common problems such as cerumen blockage of the auditory canal, an unco- operative toddler or an exasperated parent. The most common cause for a running ear in a child is acute purulent otitis.

  10. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections, swimmer’s ear, and healthy swimming. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) What are the symptoms of swimmer's ear? ... Healthy page. Reference CDC. Estimated burden of acute otitis externa —United States, 2003–2007 . MMWR Morb Mortal ...

  11. Alterations in the Contra lateral Ear in Chronic Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Damghani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic otitis media (COM, a persistent and durable inflammation and infection of the middle ear, is a common disorder. Alterations in the contralateral ear in sufferers have been observed in recent years. Because only a few studies have been reported in this area, we performed this study in order to assess alterations in the contralateral ear of patients with COM.   Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive methods were used in 100 patients with COM who were selected for surgical treatment and admitted to hospital. An information form was completed for all patients including demographic data, medical history of otoscopy and paraclinical examinations such as pure tone audiometry (PTA, tympanometry, Schuller radiography, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT. All data were processed using SPSS (version 18 software and descriptive statistical tests.   Results: According to otoscopy, PTA, tympanometry and graphical analysis, 60% of patients experienced disorders of the contralateral ear. Otoscopy analysis showed 54% of patients had a disorder of the contralateral ear, with the most common disorder being perforation of the ear drum. PTA showed a 48% incidence of contralateral ear problems (85% conductive hearing impairment; 12.5% sensorineural hearing impairment; 1.2% mixed. A total of 73.2% of patients with conductive hearing loss had a problem across all frequencies, while half of the patients with sensorineural hearing impairment had problems at frequencies greater than 1000 Hz. According to tympanometry, 38% of patients had problem in the contralateral ear. HRCT and Schuller graphical analyses indicated 31.5% and 36% occurrence of contralateral ear disorders, respectively.   Conclusion:  More than 50% of patients with COM in one ear have a chance of also presenting with the disease in the other ear. Outcomes of this study and previous studies have shown that COM should not be perceived as a disease limited

  12. Prosthetic ossicular on middle ear: what look?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, Christiane Pena; Ramos, Frederico Rocha Henriques; Pires, Diego Demolinari; Antunes, Augusto Braga Fernandes; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Moreira, Wanderval; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this essay was to demonstrate the normal and pathological CT findings of the post-operative imaging of patients underwent ossicular prosthesis implants. The stapedectomy replaced by prosthesis is considered the 'gold standard' treatment of patients with oval window closure, related to otosclerosis or other inflammatory conditions. Several types of prosthesis are available and the choice depends on the extension of the disease or the surgeon's preferences. Based on extensive literature review, the normal postoperative findings, as well as some surgery inherent complications were described, including among others: perforation of the tympanic membrane, necrosis associated with subluxation/extrusion of the prosthesis, granuloma/cholesteatoma or periprosthetic fibrosis, perilymphatic fistula, facial nerve damage, among other. The knowledge of post-operative and related complications CT findings is extremely useful for head and neck radiologist, but it is essential for an assertive diagnoses a close clinical correlation. (author)

  13. Katsvanga, CAT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Katsvanga, CAT. Vol 1, No 2 (2006) - Articles Eucalyptus species performance under short rotation conditions on the Vumba highlands in Zimbabwe Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1819-3692. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  14. CT of temporal bone - IV. inner ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jae Yoon; Sung, Kyu Bo; Youn, Eun Kyoung; Park, Youn Kyeung; Lee, Young Uk

    1990-01-01

    Temporal bone CT was done in 697 patients from April 1985 to October 1989. The abnormal findings were seen in 453 patients, which were chronic otitis media in 355 patients, fracture in 49 patients and congenital anomaly in 44 patients, etc. The abnormal findings of inner ear were observed on 46 patients. The results were summarized as follows : 1. The incidence of inner ear involvement by chronic otitis media was 7.3% (26/355 : labyrinthine fistula in 17 patients, labyrinthitis ossificans in 9 patients). Labyrinthine fistula was most commonly located on lateral semicircular canal (15/17, 88.2%). 2. Fusion of vestibule with lateral semicircular canal and formation of common cavity was demonstrated incidentally in 5 patients (0.7% of total number of temporal bone CT), and bilateral in 3 patients. 3. The incidence of inner ear anomaly in congenital ear anomaly was 11.4% (5/44). All cases were bilateral and three patients showed associated middle ear anomaly. 4. The incidence of involvement of bony labyrinth in temporal bone fracture was 10.2% (5/49). Labyrinthine fracture was seen all patients of transverse(3) and mixed fracture(1). In longitudinal fracture, labyrinthine fracture was seen in 2.2% (1/45). 5. Others were traumatic labyrinthitis ossificans(1), intracanalicular acoustic neuroma(3) and facial nerve neuroma(1)

  15. Dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes causing acute otitis media isolated from children with spontaneous middle-ear drainage over a 12-year period (1999-2010 in a region of northern Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Alonso

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the serotype and clonal distribution of pneumococci causing acute otitis media (AOM and their relationship with recurrences and mixed infections with other microorganisms under the influence of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7. To do this, all pneumococcal isolates collected from the spontaneous middle-ear drainage of children <5 years old diagnosed of AOM by their pediatrician or their general practitioner from 1999 to 2010 were phenotypically characterized and the most frequent serotypes were genotyped. In the 12-year study, 818 episodes of pneumococcal AOM were detected, mostly (70.5% in children younger than 2 years old. In 262 episodes (32%, the pneumococci were isolated with another bacterium, mainly (n=214 Haemophilus influenzae. Mixed infections were similar in children under or over 2 years old. The most frequent serotypes were 19A (n=227, 27.8%, 3 (n=92, 11.2% and 19F (n=74, 9%. Serotypes included in the PCV7 sharply decreased from 62.4% in the pre-vaccination (1999-2001 to 2.2% in the late post-vaccination period (2008-2010. Serotype diversity steadily increased after the introduction of the PCV7 but decreased from 2008-2010 due to the predominant role of serotype 19A isolates, mostly ST276 and ST320. The prevalence of serotype 3 doubled from 6.1% (20/326 in 1999-2004 to 14.6% (72/492 in 2005-2010. Relapses mainly occurred in male infants infected with isolates with diminished antimicrobial susceptibility. Reinfections caused by isolates with the same serotype but different genotype were frequent, highlighting the need for genetic studies to differentiate among similar strains. In conclusion, the main change in pneumococcal AOM observed after the introduction of the PCV7 was the sharp decrease in vaccine serotypes. Also notable was the high burden of serotype 19A in total pneumococcal AOM before and especially after the introduction of the PCV7, as well as in relapses and

  16. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... otitis. Fungal external otitis (otomycosis), typically caused by Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans, is less common. Boils are ... in the ear. Fungal external otitis caused by Aspergillus niger usually causes grayish black or yellow dots (called ...

  17. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ear infections may get better without antibiotics. Using antibiotics cautiously and with good reason helps prevent the development of bacteria that become resistant to antibiotics. If your doctor prescribes an antibiotic, it’s important ...

  18. Development of an ear cap in chronic suppurative otitis media using additive manufacturing and TRIZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawale, Mahesh B; Kuthe, Abhaykumar; Mawale, Anupama M; Dahake, Sandeep W

    2018-06-01

    The prevalence rate of chronic suppurative otitis media is high and its treatment continues to be a challenge for the otorhinolaryngologists. Due to middle ear infection, there may be pain, hearing loss and spontaneous rupture of the eardrum which results in perforation. Infections can cause a hole in the eardrum as a side effect of otitis media. The patients suffering from ear perforation or having a hole in eardrum require preventing entry of water in the ear. This article describes the development of ear cap using additive manufacturing and TRIZ (a collaborative tool) to prevent the entry of water in the ear during chronic otitis media.

  19. Reflectance Measures from Infant Ears With Normal Hearing and Transient Conductive Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Susan E; Herrmann, Barbara S; Horton, Nicholas J; Amadei, Elizabeth A; Kujawa, Sharon G

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to develop methods to utilize newborn reflectance measures for the identification of middle-ear transient conditions (e.g., middle-ear fluid) during the newborn period and ultimately during the first few months of life. Transient middle-ear conditions are a suspected source of failure to pass a newborn hearing screening. The ability to identify a conductive loss during the screening procedure could enable the referred ear to be either (1) cleared of a middle-ear condition and recommended for more extensive hearing assessment as soon as possible, or (2) suspected of a transient middle-ear condition, and if desired, be rescreened before more extensive hearing assessment. Reflectance measurements are reported from full-term, healthy, newborn babies in which one ear referred and one ear passed an initial auditory brainstem response newborn hearing screening and a subsequent distortion product otoacoustic emission screening on the same day. These same subjects returned for a detailed follow-up evaluation at age 1 month (range 14 to 35 days). In total, measurements were made on 30 subjects who had a unilateral refer near birth (during their first 2 days of life) and bilateral normal hearing at follow-up (about 1 month old). Three specific comparisons were made: (1) Association of ear's state with power reflectance near birth (referred versus passed ear), (2) Changes in power reflectance of normal ears between newborn and 1 month old (maturation effects), and (3) Association of ear's newborn state (referred versus passed) with ear's power reflectance at 1 month. In addition to these measurements, a set of preliminary data selection criteria were developed to ensure that analyzed data were not corrupted by acoustic leaks and other measurement problems. Within 2 days of birth, the power reflectance measured in newborn ears with transient middle-ear conditions (referred newborn hearing screening and passed hearing assessment at age 1 month) was significantly

  20. Purring in cats during auscultation: how common is it, and can we stop it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C J L; Ferasin, L; Ferasin, H; Holmes, M A

    2014-01-01

    When cats purr during examination it is difficult to perform auscultation. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of purring in cats during examination, and identify interventions that could be used to stop purring. Cats seen at a first opinion clinic were enrolled in the study and their purring status recorded. Thirty of the purring cats were exposed to up to three different interventions in an attempt to stop purring in a randomised controlled trial including blowing at the ear, use of an ethanol-based aerosol near the cat and proximity to a running tap. The 30 cats in the trial were subjected to a total of 54 attempts to stop purring, proximity to a running tap caused 17 of 21 (81%) cats to stop purring, blowing at the cat's ears worked in 2 of 15 (13%) cats, spraying an aerosol close to the cat was effective in 9 of 18 (50%) cases. In 2 cats (7%), none of the interventions interrupted purring. This study provides evidence that placing a purring cat near a running tap and in proximity to the discharge of an ethanol-based aerosol are effective measures to stop purring in order to allow auscultation. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  1. Ear, Hearing and Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)......An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)...

  2. Schroedinger's cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubkin, E [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1979-08-01

    The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a matrix format (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and Schroedinger's cat symbolizes this broader perspective.

  3. Schroedinger's cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubkin, E.

    1979-01-01

    The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a 'matrix format' (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and 'Schroedinger's cat' symbolizes this broader perspective. (author)

  4. Lumped parametric model of the human ear for sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Gan, Rong Z

    2004-09-01

    A lumped parametric model of the human auditoria peripherals consisting of six masses suspended with six springs and ten dashpots was proposed. This model will provide the quantitative basis for the construction of a physical model of the human middle ear. The lumped model parameters were first identified using published anatomical data, and then determined through a parameter optimization process. The transfer function of the middle ear obtained from human temporal bone experiments with laser Doppler interferometers was used for creating the target function during the optimization process. It was found that, among 14 spring and dashpot parameters, there were five parameters which had pronounced effects on the dynamic behaviors of the model. The detailed discussion on the sensitivity of those parameters was provided with appropriate applications for sound transmission in the ear. We expect that the methods for characterizing the lumped model of the human ear and the model parameters will be useful for theoretical modeling of the ear function and construction of the ear physical model.

  5. The ear in fetal MRI: what can we really see?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Nuno Canto [Neuroradiology Section C., Campos Costa, Fragosela, Viseu (Portugal); Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Teixeira, Joao [Department of Neuroradiology, Porto (Portugal); Raininko, Raili; Wikstrom, Johan [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability to depict the components of the ear on brain-oriented fetal MRI studies. Retrospective evaluation of the ear in MRI studies was performed post-mortem in 16 fetuses ranging from 15 to 22 gestation weeks (GW), and in 122 examinations in vivo of fetuses ranging from 20 to 38 GW. The cochlea, vestibular apparatus, middle ear, and external auditory canal were separately graded according to the components that were delineated. The components of the inner and middle ear were fully delineated in 100% of the post-mortem examinations, but the external auditory canals were only seen in only 25%. In the in vivo group, the imaging detail was much lower. Cochlear turns could be identified in 75% of the fetuses, the vestibule and the lateral semicircular canals in 72% andossicles in 70%. Before 25 GW, the ability to identify these individual parts was 50%, 30%, and 33%, respectively, and above it was 89%, 93%, and 90%. In most cases, the external auditory canals could only be seen after 29 GW. In fetal MRI studies in vivo, it is possible to depict the components of the ear in the majority of the fetuses, in such a manner as to exclude major malformations. However, MRI might not provide enough detail to rule out pathology of the ear before 25 GW, this being a critical age for pregnancy management in many countries. (orig.)

  6. From Ear to Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  7. Seeing With the Ears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In recent talks, I mentioned how my artist friends often complain that their clients see with their ears. It recently dawned on me that nobody understood what I said, or—worse—got the wrong idea. The audience thinks of bionic devices (Proulx, Stoerig, Ludowig, & Knoll, 2008) or bat echo location

  8. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna ... conditions: Abnormal folds or location of the pinna Low-set ears No opening to the ear canal ...

  9. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  10. Role of skeletal muscle in ear development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rot, Irena; Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; Costain, Willard J; Hong, Paul; Tafra, Robert; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Mrduljas-Djujic, Natasa; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Kablar, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The current paper is a continuation of our work described in Rot and Kablar, 2010. Here, we show lists of 10 up- and 87 down-regulated genes obtained by a cDNA microarray analysis that compared developing Myf5-/-:Myod-/- (and Mrf4-/-) petrous part of the temporal bone, containing middle and inner ear, to the control, at embryonic day 18.5. Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses entirely lack skeletal myoblasts and muscles. They are unable to move their head, which interferes with the perception of angular acceleration. Previously, we showed that the inner ear areas most affected in Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses were the vestibular cristae ampullaris, sensitive to angular acceleration. Our finding that the type I hair cells were absent in the mutants' cristae was further used here to identify a profile of genes specific to the lacking cell type. Microarrays followed by a detailed consultation of web-accessible mouse databases allowed us to identify 6 candidate genes with a possible role in the development of the inner ear sensory organs: Actc1, Pgam2, Ldb3, Eno3, Hspb7 and Smpx. Additionally, we searched for human homologues of the candidate genes since a number of syndromes in humans have associated inner ear abnormalities. Mutations in one of our candidate genes, Smpx, have been reported as the cause of X-linked deafness in humans. Our current study suggests an epigenetic role that mechanical, and potentially other, stimuli originating from muscle, play in organogenesis, and offers an approach to finding novel genes responsible for altered inner ear phenotypes.

  11. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  12. An uncommon experience during removal of a foreign body from ear of a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Kumar Ghosh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A difficult to extract geoid bead was successfully removed from the middle ear cavity by threading it with monofilament polypropylene without drill-out of the bony annulus or widening the isthmus of the external auditory canal.

  13. Response of cat cerebellar vermis induced by sound. I. Influence of drugs on responses of single units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Tarnecki, R

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were done on the cats under Chloralose and/or Nembutal anesthesia. A click was used as a standard acoustic stimulus. The type of responses of single units from cerebellar vermis lobuli V-VII were analyzed. At least four different types of single unit reactions were observed and one of these - oscillatory - was produced by the presence of Flaxedil simultaneously with Chloralose. The system that controls the activity of the middle-ear-muscles can be suspected as the source of the oscillatory pattern of the cerebellar response. Latencies were found to be constant, independent of anesthesia, but it was necessary to have a low level of Nembutal anesthesia because of the overriding inhibitory influence of Nembutal.

  14. Ear Infection Treatment Shouldn't Be Shortened

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatments might also reduce other side effects. A new NIH-funded study provides some answers—at least for children under age 2. The study enrolled 520 children, ages 6 to 23 months, who had middle-ear infections diagnosed using stringent criteria. Kids were ...

  15. Diagnosis and surgical management of obstructive ureteral calculi in cats: 11 cases (1993-1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyles, A.E.; Stone, E.A.; Gookin, J.; Spaulding, K.; Clary, E.M.; Wylie, K.; Spodnick, G.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate diagnostic methods, surgical treatment, perioperative management, and renal function of cats with obstructive calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Retrospective case series. 11 cats that underwent surgery for removal of calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Medical records were reviewed, and the following information was recorded: signalment; results of physical examination, clinicopathologic analyses, and abdominal imaging; surgical procedure; postoperative management; and results of ureterolith quantitative analysis. Ureteroliths in the proximal portion of the ureter were removed from 5 cats (pyelotomy, 1 cat; unilateral ureterotomy, 2 cats; bilateral ureterotomies, 2 cats). Calculi in the middle and distal part of the ureter were removed by partial ureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy (6 cats). Ten cats recovered from surgery and were discharged from the hospital. One cat died from unknown causes 4 months after surgery, and 1 cat had a nephrectomy elsewhere 5 weeks after ureterolith removal. Eight cats were evaluated 12 to 20 months after surgery. Of these, 2 cats that were markedly azotemic before surgery improved after surgery, and 2 cats developed nephroliths after surgery. Also, of 5 cats that had nephroliths that were not removed at the time of surgery, 4 still had visible nephroliths. One cat had recurrent ureteral obstruction from a ureterolith and persistent urinary tract infection. Ureteroliths or ultrasonographic evidence of ureteral obstruction were not detected in other cats. A combination of microsurgical techniques and intensive postoperative care is necessary to minimize morbidity of cats after removal of a ureterolith. Renal function may improve or stabilize after removal of the ureteral obstruction

  16. Comparison of Ear-Canal Reflectance and Umbo Velocity in Patients with Conductive Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Nakajima, Hideko H.; Pisano, Dominic V.; Röösli, Christof; Hamade, Mohamad A.; Mafoud, Lorice; Halpin, Christopher F.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

    2011-11-01

    Patients who present at hearing clinics with a conductive hearing loss (CHL) in the presence of an intact, healthy tympanic membrane create a unique challenge for otologists. While patient counseling, treatment options, and outcome vary with differing middle-ear pathologies, a non-invasive diagnostic that can differentiate between these pathologies does not currently exist. We evaluated the clinical utility and diagnostic accuracy of two non-invasive measures of middle-ear mechanics: ear-canal reflectance (ECR) and umbo velocity (VU).

  17. Micro-endoscopic ear anatomy of guinea pig applied to experimental surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Bruno Borges de Carvalho; Andrade, José Santos Cruz de; Garcia, Leandro Borborema; Pifaia, Gustavo Ribeiro; Cruz, Oswaldo Laércio Mendonça; Onishi, Ektor Tsuneo; Penido, Norma de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    To describe topographic and endoscopic anatomy of guinea pig ear for development of surgical approaches in experimental studies. Experimental study. Eight adult guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were used in this study. Four animals were described through endoscopic view and four animals were used to describe topographic anatomy. The main structures of middle ear were well identified through endoscopy view: oval and round window, ossicles and vascular structures. Temporal bone position, landmarks and its relations to skull are perceived with topographic description. Topographic anatomic description allowed exposition of temporal bone relations for external surgical approaches. Alternatively, grooves and middle ear structures were identified and may be used to transcanal accesses.

  18. Biocompatibility of Liposome Nanocarriers in the Rat Inner Ear After Intratympanic Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jing; Feng, Hao; Sood, Rohit; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.; Pyykko, Ilmari

    2017-05-01

    Liposome nanocarriers (LPNs) are potentially the future of inner ear therapy due to their high drug loading capacity and efficient uptake in the inner ear after a minimally invasive intratympanic administration. However, information on the biocompatibility of LPNs in the inner ear is lacking. The aim of the present study is to document the biocompatibility of LPNs in the inner ear after intratympanic delivery. LPNs with or without gadolinium-tetra-azacyclo-dodecane-tetra-acetic acid (Gd-DOTA) were delivered to the rats through transtympanic injection. The distribution of the Gd-DOTA-containing LPNs in the middle and inner ear was tracked in vivo using MRI. The function of the middle and inner ear barriers was evaluated using gadolinium-enhanced MRI. The auditory function was measured using auditory brainstem response (ABR). The potential inflammatory response was investigated by analyzing glycosaminoglycan and hyaluronic acid secretion and CD44 and TLR2 expression in the inner ear. The potential apoptosis was analyzed using terminal transferase (TdT) to label the free 3'OH breaks in the DNA strands of apoptotic cells with TMR-dUTP (TUNEL staining). As a result, LPNs entered the inner ear efficiently after transtympanic injection. The transtympanic injection of LPNs with or without Gd-DOTA neither disrupted the function of the middle and inner ear barriers nor caused hearing impairment in rats. The critical inflammatory biological markers in the inner ear, including glycosaminoglycan and hyaluronic acid secretion and CD44 and TLR2 expression, were not influenced by the administration of LPNs. There was no significant cell death associated with the administration of LPNs. The transtympanic injection of LPNs is safe for the inner ear, and LPNs may be applied as a drug delivery matrix in the clinical therapy of sensorineural hearing loss.

  19. Manufacturing and in vivo inner ear visualization of MRI traceable liposome nanoparticles encapsulating gadolinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnunen Paavo KJ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of inner ear diseases remains a problem because of limited passage through the blood-inner ear barriers and lack of control with the delivery of treatment agents by intravenous or oral administration. As a minimally-invasive approach, intratympanic delivery of multifunctional nanoparticles (MFNPs carrying genes or drugs to the inner ear is a future therapy for treating inner ear diseases, including sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL and Meniere's disease. In an attempt to track the dynamics and distribution of nanoparticles in vivo, here we describe manufacturing MRI traceable liposome nanoparticles by encapsulating gadolinium-tetra-azacyclo-dodecane-tetra-acetic acid (Gd-DOTA (abbreviated as LPS+Gd-DOTA and their distribution in the inner ear after either intratympanic or intracochlear administration. Results Measurements of relaxivities (r1 and r2 showed that LPS+Gd-DOTA had efficient visible signal characteristics for MRI. In vivo studies demonstrated that LPS+Gd-DOTA with 130 nm size were efficiently taken up by the inner ear at 3 h after transtympanic injection and disappeared after 24 h. With intracochlear injection, LPS+Gd-DOTA were visualized to distribute throughout the inner ear, including the cochlea and vestibule with fast dynamics depending on the status of the perilymph circulation. Conclusion Novel LPS+Gd-DOTA were visible by MRI in the inner ear in vivo demonstrating transport from the middle ear to the inner ear and with dynamics that correlated to the status of the perilymph circulation.

  20. Discospondylitis in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.; Roberts, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The incidence and causative agents of discospondylitis in cats are unknown. This report describes a cat with radiologic changes consistent with discospondylitis and concurrent urinary tract infection. As in dogs, discospondylitis should be the primary rule out for vertebral end plate lysis in cats

  1. Naturopathic treatment for ear pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrell, E Michael; Cohen, Herman Avner; Kahan, Ernesto

    2003-05-01

    Otitis media is 1 of the most frequent diseases of early infancy and childhood and 1 of the most common reasons for children to visit a physician. In the past 2 decades, there has been a substantial increase in the diagnosis of otitis media worldwide. In the United States, 93% of all children have had at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by 7 years of age. Otalgia is the hallmark of AOM. Most affected children either complain of earache or manifest behavior that the parents interpret as indicating ear pain. Treatment of the ear pain early in the course of AOM decreases both parental anxiety and the child's discomfort and accelerates the healing process. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of naturopathic versus traditional treatment for the management of otalgia commonly associated with AOM in children. The study was designed as a double-blind trial in an outpatient community clinic. A total of 171 children who were aged 5 to 18 years and had otalgia and clinical findings associated with middle-ear infection were studied. The children were randomly assigned to receive treatment with Naturopathic Herbal Extract Ear Drops (NHED) or anesthetic ear drops, with or without amoxicillin. On enrollment, the children were assigned by computer-numbered randomization to receive NHED (contents: allium sativum, verbascum thapsus, calendula flores, hypericum perfoliatum, lavender, and vitamin E in olive oil) 5 drops 3 times daily, alone (group A) or together with a topical anesthetic (amethocaine and phenazone in glycerin) 5 drops 3 times daily (group B), or oral amoxicillin 80 mg/kg/d (maximum 500 mg/dose) divided into 3 doses with either NHED 5 drops 3 times daily (group C) or topical anesthetic 5 drops 3 times daily (group D). A double-blind design was used, and all ear drops were placed in identical bottles. Treatment was initiated by the nurse in all cases. A single physician (M.S.) evaluated and treated all of the patients

  2. Ultrastructural myocardial changes in seven cats with spontaneous hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Hyttel, Poul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats and shares clinical and pathological characteristics with human HCM. Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms underlying development of spontaneous feline HCM. ANIMALS: The study population consisted...... of seven cats diagnosed with HCM and eight age-matched cats with no evidence of cardiac disease. METHODS: Fresh myocardial biopsies taken from the middle of the left ventricular posterior free wall were obtained and examined with transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Electron microscopic examination...... showed ultrastructural aberrations of the myocardial cytoarchitecture and of the interstitium in the seven cats with HCM. In the most severely affected cats the myofibrils were disorganized and subsarcolemmal mitochondria were depleted. In control cats, contraction band artifacts were commonly seen...

  3. Visualization of normal and abnormal inner ear with volume rendering technique using multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hui; Han Ping; Liang Bo; Lei Ziqiao; Liu Fang; Tian Zhiliang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of the volume rendering technique to display the normal and abnormal inner ear structures. Methods: Forty normal earand 61 abnormal inner ears (40 congenital inner ear malformations, 7 labyrinthitis ossificans, and 14 inner ear erosion caused by cholesteatomas) were examined with a MSCT scanner. Axial imaging were performed using the following parameters: 120 kV, 100 mAs, 0.75 mm slice thickness, a pitch factor of 1. The axial images of interested ears were reconstructed with 0.1 mm reconstruction increment and a FOV of 50 mm. The 3D reconstructions were done with volume rendering technique on the workstation. Results: In the subjects without ear disorders a high quality 3D visualization of the inner ear could be achieved. In the patients with inner ear' disorders all inner ear malformations could be clearly displayed on 3D images as follows: (1) Michel deformity (one ear): There was complete absence of all cochlear and vestibular structures. (2) common cavity deformity (3 ears): The cochlea and vestibule were represented by a cystic cavity and couldn't be differentiated from each other. (3)incomplete partition type I (3 ears): The cochlea lacked the entire modiolus and cribriform area, resulting in a cystic appearance. (4) incomplete partition type II (Mondini deformity) (5 ears): The cochlea consisted of 1.5 turns, in which the middle and apical turns coalesced to form a cystic apex. (5) vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (14 ears): Cochlea was normal, vestibule dilated, semicircular canals were absent, hypoplastic or enlarged. (6) dilated vestibular aqueduct (14 ears): The vestibular aqueduct was bell-mouthed. In 7 patients with labyrinthifis ossificans, 3D images failed to clearly show the completeinner ears in 4 ears because of too high ossifications in the membranous labyrinth. In the other 3 ears volume rendering could display the thin cochlea basal turn and the intermittent semicircular canals. In the patients

  4. A RARE PRESENTATION OF FOREIGN BODY IN THE EAR WITH TRAUMATIC DISLOCATION OF THE INCUS IN A FEMALE CHILD: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Santhana Krishnan; Poornima S

    2014-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the middle ear are a rare occurrence. This is a case report of a 5 year old female , with plastic button in the left ear , with history of attempted removal using a metal hook , leading to subtotal perforation of the tympanic membrane and traumatic dislocation of the incus. On surgery a yellow colored plastic button , measuring about 1x 1 cm size was removed from middle ear by retroauricular approach . Myringostapediop...

  5. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics...... of the eardrum. The mere existence of sound transmission to the inner surface does not ensure a useful directional hearing, since a proper amplitude and phase relationship must exist between the sounds acting on the two surfaces of the eardrum. The gain of the sound pathway must match the amplitude and phase...... of the sounds at the outer surfaces of the eardrums, which are determined by diffraction and by the arrival time of the sound, that is by the size and shape of the animal and by the frequency of sound. Many users of hearing aids do not obtain a satisfactory improvement of their ability to localize sound sources...

  6. [Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyfter, W; Colletti, V; Pruszewicz, A; Kopeć, T; Szymiec, E; Kawczyński, M; Karlik, M

    2001-01-01

    The inner part of cochlear implant is inserted into inner ear during surgery through mastoid and middle ear. It is a classical method, used in the majority cochlear centers in the world. This is not a suitable method in case of chronic otitis media and middle ear malformation. In these cases Colletti proposed the middle fossa approach and cochlear implant insertion omitting middle ear structures. In patient with bilateral chronic otitis media underwent a few ears operations without obtaining dry postoperative cavity. Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach was performed in this patient. The bone fenster was cut, temporal lobe was bent and petrosus pyramid upper surface was exposed. When the superficial petrosal greater nerve, facial nerve and arcuate eminence were localised, the cochlear was open in the basal turn and electrode were inserted. The patient achieves good results in the postoperative speech rehabilitation. It confirmed Colletti tesis that deeper electrode insertion in the cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach enable use of low and middle frequencies, which are very important in speech understanding.

  7. Human ear recognition by computer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhanu, Bir; Chen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics deals with recognition of individuals based on their physiological or behavioral characteristics. The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. Unlike the fingerprint and iris, it can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject, although sometimes it may be hidden with hair, scarf and jewellery. Also, unlike a face, the ear is a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. ""Human Ear Recognition by Computer"" is the first book o

  8. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  9. Megaesophagus in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, M; Mahaffey, M B; Parnell, P G; Styles, M E

    1990-03-01

    Megaesophagus was diagnosed in 2 cats. Both had a history of regurgitation, and one was dyspneic. Radiography of the thorax and abdomen revealed generalized megaesophagus and gastric distention with gas. There was no esophageal motility during fluoroscopic observation. The prognosis for cats with megaesophagus is guarded. Although they may be satisfactory pets, cats with this condition should not be used for breeding because the condition is believed to be inherited through recessive genes.

  10. Global Ear. Werke 2001 - 2006

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Dresdenis muusikafestivalil "Global Ear" 23.3.03 esitusel Eesti heliloojate muusika: Helena Tulve "lumineux/opaque", Jaan Rääts "Meditation", Mirjam Tally "Aura", Mati Kuulberg "Sonate Nr.4", Mari Vihmand "Seitsmele"

  11. Anteverted internal auditory canal as an inner ear anomaly in patients with craniofacial microsomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux-Lebeau, Bénédicte; Saliba, Issam

    2014-09-01

    Craniofacial microsomia involves structure of the first and second branchial arches. A wide range of ear anomalies, affecting external, middle and inner ear, has been described in association with this condition. We report three cases of anteverted internal auditory canal in patients presenting craniofacial microsomia. This unique internal auditory canal orientation was found on high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bones. This internal auditory canal anomaly is yet unreported in craniofacial anomalies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Antihypertensive treatment with telmisartan in a cat with amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Desmet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Systemic arterial hypertension is commonly reported in middle-aged-to-older cats. Amlodipine is recommended as the initial antihypertensive drug in cats. In this case report, gingival hyperplasia secondary to the use of amlodipine in a cat is described. Benazepril as a monotherapy was unsuccessful in reducing blood pressure in this cat. After replacement of benazepril by telmisartan, gingival hyperplasia disappeared and blood pressure was well controlled. Relevance and novel information This case report describes the first reported case of reversible gingival hyperplasia as a result of the treatment with amlodipine. It also contains the first published data on the effect of telmisartan in a hypertensive cat.

  13. Management of obesity in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelmkjaer KM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten M Hoelmkjaer, Charlotte R Bjornvad Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Obesity is a common nutritional disorder in cats, especially when they are neutered and middle-aged. Obesity predisposes cats to several metabolic and clinical disorders, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, lameness, and skin disease. Prevention and treatment of obesity is therefore of great importance in veterinary practice. Correct assessment of body composition is important for recognizing early states of obesity and for monitoring success of weight-loss programs. Various methods for assessing body composition have been proposed, of which a 9-point body-condition score has been validated in cats, and is possibly the most simple to use in the clinic; however, for extremely obese individuals, it is less useful. When calculating the appropriate daily caloric intake for a weight-loss plan, the aim is to maintain a safe weight-loss rate, increasing the chance of preserving lean body mass and decreasing the risk of developing hepatic lipidosis, while also producing a sufficient weight-loss rate to keep owners motivated. A weight-loss rate of 0.5%–2% per week is recommended, which for a cat that needs to lose 3 kg body weight results in an anticipated time for reaching the target weight of 24–60 weeks. There are several purpose-made weight-loss diets available. The optimal composition of a weight-loss diet for cats is unknown, but most of the available products have lower caloric density, an increased nutrient:energy ratio, and higher protein and fiber content. Regular follow-up visits allow the caloric intake to be adjusted based on progress, and possibly increase the chance of success. This review discusses the risk factors for and consequences of obesity, and gives directions for formulating a weight-loss plan, including daily caloric

  14. The aquatic tympanic ear: convergent adaptations for underwater hearing in three tetrapods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    pressure, low particle motion medium, and the consequence is that an efficient underwater ear is sensitive to sound pressure. It is often stated that underwater hearing can work efficiently without a middle ear apparatus by bone conduction, since sound is transmitted from water to inner ear tissue...... is modified (cartilaginous or partly cartilaginous). In all three species, the lowest threshold to underwater sound is at this peak frequency and is around 80 dB re 1 µPa. The sensitivity to sound pressure is slightly lower in water than in air, making underwater hearing much more efficient in terms of sound...

  15. Petrified ears in a patient with Keutel syndrome: temporal bone CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Hemant; Blaser, Susan; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Unger, Sheila; Papsin, Blake

    2006-01-01

    We present unusual imaging findings of petrified ears in a 9-year-old girl with Keutel syndrome. The patient presented for a temporal bone study for hearing loss. CT scan showed middle and inner ear abnormalities along with extensive and unsuspected calcification of the external ears and ossicular ligaments. On further investigation, the patient was found to have diffuse cartilage calcification in the larynx and tracheobronchial tree, brachytelephalangism and peripheral pulmonary stenosis suggestive of Keutel syndrome. Confirmation was obtained by mutation analysis. (orig.)

  16. Inner Ear Barotrauma After Underwater Pool Competency Training Without the Use of Compressed Air Case and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Sean; Boujie, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Inner ear barotrauma can occur when the gas-filled chambers of the ear have difficulty equalizing pressure with the outside environment after changes in ambient pressure. This can transpire even with small pressure changes. Hypobaric or hyperbaric environments can place significant stress on the structures of the middle and inner ear. If methods to equalize pressure between the middle ear and other connected gas-filled spaces (i.e., Valsalva maneuver) are unsuccessful, middle ear overpressurization can occur. This force can be transmitted to the fluid-filled inner ear, making it susceptible to injury. Damage specifically to the structures of the vestibulocochlear system can lead to symptoms of vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus. This article discusses the case of a 23-year-old male Marine who presented with symptoms of nausea and gait instability after performing underwater pool competency exercises to a maximum depth of 13 feet, without breathing compressed air. Diagnosis and management of inner ear barotrauma are reviewed, as is differentiation from inner ear decompression sickness. 2016.

  17. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Cat-Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Healthy Pets, Healthy People About Pets & People Pets & Other Animals Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard ... to have CSD and spread it to people, persons with a weakened immune system should ... Play rough with your pets because they may scratch and bite. Allow cats ...

  19. A miniaturized laser-Doppler-system in the ear canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T.; Gerhardt, U.; Kupper, C.; Manske, E.; Witte, H.

    2013-03-01

    Gathering vibrational data from the human middle ear is quite difficult. To this date the well-known acoustic probe is used to estimate audiometric parameters, e.g. otoacoustic emissions, wideband reflectance and the measurement of the stapedius reflex. An acoustic probe contains at least one microphone and one loudspeaker. The acoustic parameter determination of the ear canal is essential for the comparability of test-retest measurement situations. Compared to acoustic tubes, the ear canal wall cannot be described as a sound hard boundary. Sound energy is partly absorbed by the ear canal wall. In addition the ear canal features a complex geometric shape (Stinson and Lawton1). Those conditions are one reason for the inter individual variability in input impedance measurement data of the tympanic membrane. The method of Laser-Doppler-Vibrometry is well described in literature. Using this method, the surface velocity of vibrating bodies can be determined contact-free. Conventional Laser-Doppler-Systems (LDS) for auditory research are mounted on a surgical microscope. Assuming a free line of view to the ear drum, the handling of those laser-systems is complicated. We introduce the concept of a miniaturized vibrometer which is supposed to be applied directly in the ear canal for contact-free measurement of the tympanic membrane surface vibration. The proposed interferometer is based on a Fabry-Perot etalon with a DFB laser diode as light source. The fiber-based Fabry-Perot-interferometer is characterized by a reduced size, compared to e.g. Michelson-, or Mach-Zehnder-Systems. For the determination of the phase difference in the interferometer, a phase generated carrier was used. To fit the sensor head in the ear canal, the required shape of the probe was generated by means of the geometrical data of 70 ear molds. The suggested prototype is built up by a singlemode optical fiber with a GRIN-lens, acting as a fiber collimator. The probe has a diameter of 1.8 mm and a

  20. Human ear detection in the thermal infrared spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Ayman; Bourlai, Thirimachos

    2012-06-01

    In this paper the problem of human ear detection in the thermal infrared (IR) spectrum is studied in order to illustrate the advantages and limitations of the most important steps of ear-based biometrics that can operate in day and night time environments. The main contributions of this work are two-fold: First, a dual-band database is assembled that consists of visible and thermal profile face images. The thermal data was collected using a high definition middle-wave infrared (3-5 microns) camera that is capable of acquiring thermal imprints of human skin. Second, a fully automated, thermal imaging based ear detection method is developed for real-time segmentation of human ears in either day or night time environments. The proposed method is based on Haar features forming a cascaded AdaBoost classifier (our modified version of the original Viola-Jones approach1 that was designed to be applied mainly in visible band images). The main advantage of the proposed method, applied on our profile face image data set collected in the thermal-band, is that it is designed to reduce the learning time required by the original Viola-Jones method from several weeks to several hours. Unlike other approaches reported in the literature, which have been tested but not designed to operate in the thermal band, our method yields a high detection accuracy that reaches ~ 91.5%. Further analysis on our data set yielded that: (a) photometric normalization techniques do not directly improve ear detection performance. However, when using a certain photometric normalization technique (CLAHE) on falsely detected images, the detection rate improved by ~ 4%; (b) the high detection accuracy of our method did not degrade when we lowered down the original spatial resolution of thermal ear images. For example, even after using one third of the original spatial resolution (i.e. ~ 20% of the original computational time) of the thermal profile face images, the high ear detection accuracy of our method

  1. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  2. Ear surgery techniques results on hearing threshold improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Mokhtarinejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone conduction (BC threshold depression is not always by means of sensory neural hearing loss and sometimes it is an artifact caused by middle ear pathologies and ossicular chain problems. In this research, the influences of ear surgeries on bone conduction were evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial study. The ear surgery performed on 83 patients classified in four categories: Stapedectomy, tympanomastoid surgery and ossicular reconstruction partially or totally; Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (PORP and Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (TORP. Bone conduction thresholds assessed in frequencies of 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz pre and post the surgery. Results: In stapedectomy group, the average of BC threshold in all frequencies improved approximately 6 dB in frequency of 2000 Hz. In tympanomastoid group, BC threshold in the frequency of 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz changed 4 dB (P-value < 0.05. Moreover, In the PORP group, 5 dB enhancement was seen in 1000 and 2000 Hz. In TORP group, the results confirmed that BC threshold improved in all frequencies especially at 4000 Hz about 6.5 dB. Conclusion: In according to results of this study, BC threshold shift was seen after several ear surgeries such as stapedectomy, tympanoplasty, PORP and TORP. The average of BC improvement was approximately 5 dB. It must be considered that BC depression might happen because of ossicular chain problems. Therefore; by resolving middle ear pathologies, the better BC threshold was obtained, the less hearing problems would be faced.

  3. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  4. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  5. Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Ministry of’ Defence, Defence Research Information Centre, UK. Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) Report Secufty C"uMiauion tide Onadtiicadon (U. R, Cor S...DRIC T 8485 COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY ( CAT ) F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA, V. TRO1* ISS R 78/4.Rome, 1.5 Mlarch 1978 (from Italian) B Distribution(f...dello Radiazioni ISSN 0390--6477 F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA. V. TROI Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) March 15, 1978). This paper is a review of

  6. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  7. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  8. In-the-Ear Hearing-Instrument Antenna for ISM-Band Body-Centric Ear-to-Ear Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yatman, William H.; Larsen, Lauge K; Kvist, Søren Helstrup

    2012-01-01

    A compact 2.45 GHz slot-loop antenna is implemented for the use in the outer shell of an in-the-ear (ITE) hearing instrument (HI). The antenna is optimized for high ear-to-ear path gain (jS21j). The antenna simulation results are presented for two identical antennas, one placed in the center of e...

  9. Digital Active Noise Reduction Ear Plugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harley, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    .... In contrast to available ANR headsets that implement fixed analog filters, the prototype defines a digital filter that is optimally defined for the user's current acoustical environment. An above-the-ear (ATE) and an in-the-ear (ITE...

  10. External ear: An analysis of its uniqueness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruma Purkait

    2016-06-01

    Hence, the individuality of every ear has been confirmed which may find use in personal identification studies. The study is a step towards providing scientific support for admitting ear evidence in the Court of Law.

  11. Proteomics and the Inner Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isolde Thalmann

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The inner ear, one of the most complex organs, contains within its bony shell three sensory systems, the evolutionary oldest gravity receptor system, the three semicircular canals for the detection of angular acceleration, and the auditory system - unrivaled in sensitivity and frequency discrimination. All three systems are susceptible to a host of afflictions affecting the quality of life for all of us. In the first part of this review we present an introduction to the milestones of inner ear research to pave the way for understanding the complexities of a proteomics approach to the ear. Minute sensory structures, surrounded by large fluid spaces and a hard bony shell, pose extreme challenges to the ear researcher. In spite of these obstacles, a powerful preparatory technique was developed, whereby precisely defined microscopic tissue elements can be isolated and analyzed, while maintaining the biochemical state representative of the in vivo conditions. The second part consists of a discussion of proteomics as a tool in the elucidation of basic and pathologic mechanisms, diagnosis of disease, as well as treatment. Examples are the organ of Corti proteins OCP1 and OCP2, oncomodulin, a highly specific calcium-binding protein, and several disease entities, Meniere's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and perilymphatic fistula.

  12. Ectoparasites in urban stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel: differences in infestation patterns of fleas, ticks and permanent ectoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Baneth, G

    2014-09-01

    In a period cross-sectional study performed to examine ectoparasites on 340 stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel, 186 (54.7%) were infested with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 49 (14.4%) with the cat louse, Felicola subrostratus (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae), 41 (12.0%) with the ear mite, Otodectes cynotis (Astigmata: Psoroptidae), three (0.9%) with the fur mite, Cheyletiella blakei (Trobidiformes: Cheyletidae), two (0.6%) with the itch mite Notoedres cati (Astigmata: Sarcoptidae), and 25 (7.3%) with ticks of the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae), Rhipicephalus turanicus or Haemaphysalis adleri (Ixodida: Ixodidae). A higher number of flea infestations was observed in apparently sick cats (P < 0.05) and in cats aged < 6 months (P < 0.05). The proportion of flea-infested cats (P < 0.01), as well as the number of fleas per infested cat (P < 0.01), was higher in autumn than in other seasons. By contrast with findings in cats with flea infestations, rates of infestation with ticks were higher amongst cats with clinical signs (P < 0.01) and cats aged ≥ 6 months (P < 0.05). The high rates of ectoparasite infestation in the cats studied constitute a risk for the spread of vector-borne infections of zoonotic and veterinary importance. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Mucolipidosis type II in a domestic shorthair cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, M.; Haskins, M.E.; Arnold, S.; Kaser-Hotz, B.; Bosshard, N.U.; Briner, J.; Spycher, M.A.; Gitzelmann, R.; Sommerlade, H.J.; Figura, K. von

    1996-01-01

    A seven-month-old, female domestic shorthair cat was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Zurich, with abnormal facial features, retarded growth and progressive hindlimb paresis. On physical examination the cat had a flat, broad face with hypertelorism, frontal bossing, small ears and thickened upper and lower eyelids. The corneas of both eyes were clear and the pupils were dilated. The skin was generally thickened, most prominently on the dorsal aspect of the neck. Radiography of the entire skeleton revealed a severely deformed spinal column, bilateral hip luxation with hip dysplasia, an abnormally shaped skull and generalised decreased bone opacity. The clinical features and radiographic changes were suggestive of mucopolysaccharidosis. The toluidine blue spot test on a urine sample, however, was negative for glycosaminoglycans. Further biochemical investigations revealed a deficiency of the enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase (GlcNAc-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.8.17) in peripheral leukocytes and an elevation of many lysosomal enzymes in the serum of the cat which is diagnostic for mucolipidosis type II. Histology and electron microscopy of different tissues are briefly summarised. The findings of this cat, the first reported case of mucolipidosis type II are compared with other similar storage diseases described in the cat

  14. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth / For Kids / Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print en español La música ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  15. Ear biometrics in 2D and 3D localization and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Surya

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art techniques and recent research progress on Ear Biometrics. Among the various physiological traits, the reasons for the ear to gain much attention in recent years are many folds. It has been found to be a reliable biometrics for human verification and identification. Ears are remarkably consistent and unlike face, it does not change shape with different expressions or age, and remain fixed in the middle of the side of the head against a predictable background. The book contains figures, tables and plots to illustrate the techniques in an easy and lucid manner. The book also provides an extensive literature on the subject, where readers have the benefit of receiving all the relevant material at one place in a very comprehensive manner. This book caters students, academics, researchers, practitioners who are interested in the field of Ear Biometrics and its applications in face recognition and security.

  16. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  17. Bell inequalities with Schroedinger cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    In the Schrodinger cat gedanken experiment a ''cat'' is in a quantum superposition of two macroscopically distinct states. There is the apparent interpretation that the ''cat'' is not in one state or the other, ''alive'' or ''dead''. Here this interpretation is proved objectively. I propose the following definition of macroscopic reality: first, that the ''cat'' is either dead or alive, the measurement revealing which; second, that measurements on other ''cats'' some distance away cannot induce the macroscopic change, ''dead'' to ''alive'' and vice versa, to the ''cat''. The predictions of quantum mechanics are shown to be incompatible with this premise. (orig.)

  18. Clinical analysis of ear carcinoma treated in the Department of Otolaryngology, Niigata University Hospital. Focus on correlation between treatment method and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Katsuro; Tomita, Masahiko; Takahashi, Sugata; Watanabe, Jun; Matsuyama, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-six patients of ear carcinoma treated in our department were clinically analyzed. Those ear carcinoma patients accounted for 3.5% of all head and neck carcinoma patients. The most common primary site was the external auditory canal (67%), followed by the middle ear (19%) and the auricle (14%). The mean age of the patients was 66 years old, and the male to female ratio was 3:2. The most common chief complaint of the external auditory canal and middle ear carcinoma was otorrhea followed by ear itching and ear ache. Of patients with external auditory canal carcinoma and middle ear carcinoma, 26% had a history of ear surgery, and 35% had a habit of ear-picking. Histopathologically, 94% of the patients were squamous cell carcinoma, and 6% were malignant melanoma. Sixty-two % of squamous cell carcinoma patients underwent surgery, and the remaining 38% had radiotherapy without surgery. Postoperative radiotherapy was added for 67% of the surgery group. Five-year survival rates of the patients with squamous cell carcinoma were 74% for external auditory canal carcinoma, 67% for auricular carcinoma, and 34% for middle ear carcinoma, respectively. The five-year survival rate of the surgery group was 82%, and that of the non-surgery group was 29%. There was a statistical significance between the two groups. No statistical significance was seen between with and without postoperative radiotherapy. In the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in the ear, radical en bloc surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy was considered to be an appropriate treatment strategy. (author)

  19. Sensitive high frequency hearing in earless and partially eared harlequin frogs ()

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Womack, Molly C; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Coloma, Luis A

    2018-01-01

    Harlequin frogs, genus Atelopus, communicate at high frequencies despite most species lacking a complete tympanic middle ear that facilitates high frequency hearing in most anurans and other tetrapods. Here we test whether Atelopus are better at sensing high frequency acoustic sound compared to o...

  20. Imaging of the inner ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, J.W.; Bensimon, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    New computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) techniques allow more detailed anatomic studies of the inner ear. CT is still the best technique to study patients with fractures, congenital malformations and otodystrophies involving the inner ear. During recent years MR imaging has emerged as an excellent method to detect pathology in the internal auditory canal, membranous labyrinth and bony labyrinth and to characterize petrous apex lesions. MR has even proved its value in patients with fractures and congenital malformations making the diagnosis of, for instance, labyrinthine concussion and absence of the vestibulocochlear nerve possible. The diagnosis of acute/chronic labyrinthitis and intralabyrinthine tumors has also became possible. However, MR and CT are often complementary, as is the case in patients with mixed hearing loss, congenital malformations and petrous apex lesions. (orig.) [de

  1. Tympanosclerosis of the middle ear: radiologic-surgical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Won Jin; Park, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ro; Seong, Jin Yong; Song, Soon Young; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kim, Yong Soo; Park, Choong Ki; Tae, Kyung

    1998-01-01

    Tympanosclerosis is a common problem causing conductive hearing loss accompanied by chronic otitis media. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of tympanosclerosis, and correlate them with the surgical findings. The CT scans of 17 patients with surgically-proven tympanosclerosis and those of a control group of 34 patients with nontympanosclerotic chronic otitis media were reviewed. According to their location, they were assigned to one of three groups; tympanic membrane, epitympanum, or ossicles. Tympanosclerosis usually appears on CT as ossicular thickening, narrowing of the epitympanum, calcification of the tympanic membrane and/or tympanic cavity. CT is very helpful in evaluating ossicular involvement and determining the appropriate surgical treatment of tympanosclerosis. (author). 13 refs., 4 figs

  2. CHRONIC OTITIS MEDIA WITH MIDDLE EAR CHOLESTEATOMA – CASEREPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Četina

    2008-02-01

    The case is interesting because in one patient three different complications are present(labyrinth fistula, destruction of facial nerve bony canal and skull base with dura exposure.There are also some data about surgery approaches, hearing results and discussionabout complications

  3. Tympanosclerosis of the middle ear: radiologic-surgical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Won Jin; Park, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ro; Seong, Jin Yong; Song, Soon Young; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kim, Yong Soo; Park, Choong Ki; Tae, Kyung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-02-01

    Tympanosclerosis is a common problem causing conductive hearing loss accompanied by chronic otitis media. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of tympanosclerosis, and correlate them with the surgical findings. The CT scans of 17 patients with surgically-proven tympanosclerosis and those of a control group of 34 patients with nontympanosclerotic chronic otitis media were reviewed. According to their location, they were assigned to one of three groups; tympanic membrane, epitympanum, or ossicles. Tympanosclerosis usually appears on CT as ossicular thickening, narrowing of the epitympanum, calcification of the tympanic membrane and/or tympanic cavity. CT is very helpful in evaluating ossicular involvement and determining the appropriate surgical treatment of tympanosclerosis. (author). 13 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Arthritis of the middle ear in ankylosing spondylitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Magarò, M; Ceresia, G; Frustaci, A

    1984-01-01

    A case of ankylosing spondylitis with aortic valve disease and hearing loss is described. A series of radiographic and audiometric investigations showed the hearing loss to be of a conductive type. It seemed most likely that the hearing loss was related to an inflammatory involvement of the ossicular joints due to the primary disease. No other case of conductive hearing loss has previously been reported due to otoarthritis in ankylosing spondylitis. This is important both theoretically and pr...

  5. Effects of Acoustic Impulses on the Middle Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    reflexive MEMC measurements, and verification of the integrity of the cranial nerves supplying the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles (CNVII and CNV...of new (or revising existing) damage risk criteria and health hazard assessment methods for exposure to high-level acoustic impulses such as...exposures to acoustic impulses. This information is necessary for the development of new (or revision of existing) damage risk criteria and health hazard

  6. Effects of Acoustic Impulses on the Middle Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    experienced by users of military and civilian law enforcement weapon systems , civilian recreational hunting and shooting, and industrial high-level...acoustic impulses such as experienced by users of military and civilian law enforcement weapon systems , civilian recreational hunting and shooting... system . The mean wideband tympanogram resonance frequency was around 700 to 760 Hz, with a trend toward lower mean resonance frequencies among

  7. Crystallized Schroedinger cat states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanos, O.; Lopez-Pena, R.; Man'ko, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Crystallized Schroedinger cat states (male and female) are introduced on the base of extension of group construction for the even and odd coherent states of the electromagnetic field oscillator. The Wigner and Q functions are calculated and some are plotted for C 2 , C 3 , C 4 , C 5 , C 3v Schroedinger cat states. Quadrature means and dispersions for these states are calculated and squeezing and correlation phenomena are studied. Photon distribution functions for these states are given explicitly and are plotted for several examples. A strong oscillatory behavior of the photon distribution function for some field amplitudes is found in the new type of states

  8. E-Z-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, U.; Dinnetz, G.; Andersson, I.

    1984-01-01

    A new barium sulphate suspension, E-Z-CAT, for use as an oral contrast medium at computed tomography of the abdomen has been compared with the commonly used water-soluble iodinated contrast medium Gastrografin as regards patient tolerance and diagnostic information. The investigation was conducted as an unpaired randomized single-blind study in 100 consecutive patients. E-Z-CAT seems to be preferred because of its better taste, its lesser tendency to cause diarrhoea, and for usage in patients who are known to be hypersensitive to iodinated contrast media. The diagnostic information was the same for both contrast media. (Auth.)

  9. Ectoparasites of dogs and cats in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimiter; Visser, Martin; Knaus, Martin; Lindner, Thomas; Rehbein, Steffen

    2009-11-01

    One hundred eighty-one dogs and 26 short-hair cats from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania were examined for ectoparasite infestation. The dogs were examined on several occasions from 2005 through 2009 representing three seasons: winter (December-February), spring (March-May), and summer (June-August); the cats were examined in late autumn (November). In addition, deep ear swab specimens of 30 dogs were examined for ear mites. The arthropod ectoparasite fauna of the dogs included two tick species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes ricinus), three mite species (Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis, Otodectes cynotis, and Demodex canis), three flea species (Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides felis, and Pulex irritans), and one louse species (Trichodectes canis). In the dogs, rates of infestation were 23.8% for R. sanguineus, 0.6% for I. ricinus, 4.4% for S. scabiei var. canis, 6.7% for O. cynotis, 0.6% for D. canis, 75.7% for C. canis, 5.0% for C. felis, 8.3% for P. irritans, and 6.6% for T. canis. Mixed infestation with two or three species of ectoparasites was recorded on 38.1% of the dogs. Fleas infested 75.7% dogs (geometric mean, 3.96; range, 1-80) and were observed in winter, spring, and summer with increasing prevalences of 64.3%, 75.9%, and 100%. Ticks parasitized 24.3% of the dogs (geometric mean, 0.41; range, 1-331). R. sanguineus ticks were recorded on 34.2% and 50% of the dogs examined in spring and summer, respectively, but were absent on the dogs during winter except for a single I. ricinus specimen observed. Prevalence of infestation with R. sanguineus, S. scabiei var. canis, C. felis, P. irritans, and T. canis did not differ between dogs 6 months of age; however, prevalence of infestation with C. canis was significantly (p 6 months old. There was no difference between the sexes for the prevalences of infestation with those parasites. The examination of the cats revealed infestation with only one species of ectoparasite, C. felis (prevalence, 100

  10. Juvenile hyperthyroidism in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jana M; Ehrhart, E J; Sisson, D D; Jones, M A

    2003-01-01

    An 8-month-old, male domestic shorthaired cat presented for chronic weight loss, intermittent dyspnea, chronic diarrhea, hyperactivity, and weakness. The cat had a palpable thyroid nodule and increased serum total thyroxine and 3,5,3' triiodothyronine levels. The cat was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism, and a unilateral thyroidectomy was performed followed by radioactive iodine at a later date. The clinical signs resolved following radioactive iodine, and the cat subsequently developed clinical hypothyroidism.

  11. Tracheal collapse in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.C.; O'Brien, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two cats examined bronchoscopically to discover the cause of tracheal collapse were found to have tracheal obstruction cranial to the collapse. Cats with this unusual sign should be examined bronchoscopically to ascertain whether there is an obstruction, as the cause in these 2 cats was distinct from the diffuse airway abnormality that causes tracheal collapse in dogs

  12. Coxofemoral luxations in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Aparicio, F.J.; Fjeld, T.O.

    1993-01-01

    In a retrospective study, 79 untreated luxations of the coxofemoral joint in cats were recorded over a 12-year period. Twenty-nine of these cases were available for follow-up, of which 13 were re-examined clinically and radiologically. It was found that the maximum incidence of the injury occurred from one to three years of age. Follow-up radiographs showed that the cats had developed nearthroses of various degrees located dorsally on the ilium. The degree of nearthrosis formation was not consistently correlated with the length of the observation time. Radiological signs of decreased bone density of the proximal femur may be caused by reduced weightbearing related to changes in biomechanical function and altered blood supply in the luxated limb. Almost two-thirds of the re-examined animals presented some kind of locomotor dysfunction on clinical examination. Limb function improved with time. The best clinical results appeared to be in cats that were immature at the time of injury and developed nearthrosis similar to a normal coxofemoral joint. All the cats available to this study showed acceptable functional results and had a normal level of activity according to the owners

  13. Immune-Mediated Inner Ear Disease: Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penêda, José Ferreira; Lima, Nuno Barros; Monteiro, Francisco; Silva, Joana Vilela; Gama, Rita; Condé, Artur

    2018-03-07

    Immune Mediated Inner Ear Disease (IMIED) is a rare form of sensorineural bilateral hearing loss, usually progressing in weeks to months and responsive to immunosuppressive treatment. Despite recent advances, there is no consensus on diagnosis and optimal treatment. A review of articles on IMIED from the last 10 years was conducted using PubMed ® database. IMIED is a rare disease, mostly affecting middle aged women. It may be a primary ear disease or secondary to autoimmune systemic disease. A dual immune response (both cellular and humoral) seems to be involved. Cochlin may be the inner ear protein targeted in this disease. Distinction from other (core common) forms of neurosensory hearing loss is a challenge. Physical examination is mandatory for exclusion of other causes of hearing loss; audiometry identifies characteristic hearing curves. Laboratory and imaging studies are controversial since no diagnostic marker is available. Despite recent research, IMIED diagnosis remains exclusive. Steroids are the mainstay treatment; other therapies need further investigation. For refractory cases, cochlear implantation is an option and with good relative outcome. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Early and late surgical site infections in ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastier, P L; Leroyer, C; Lashéras, A; Rogues, A-M; Darrouzet, V; Franco-Vidal, V

    2016-04-01

    A retroauricular approach is routinely used for treating chronic otitis media. The incidence of surgical site infections after ear surgery is around 10% in contaminated or dirty procedures. This observational prospective study describes surgical site infections after chronic otitis media surgery with the retroauricular approach and investigated their potential predictive factors. This observational prospective study included patients suffering from chronic otitis media and eligible for therapeutic surgery with a retroauricular approach. During follow-up, surgical site infections were defined as "early" if occurring within 30 days after surgery or as "late" if occurring thereafter. The data of 102 patients were analysed. Concerning early surgical site infections, four cases were diagnosed (3.9%) and a significant association was found with preoperative antibiotic therapy, wet ear at pre-operative examination, class III (contaminated) in the surgical wound classification, NNIS (National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance) index > 1, and oral post-operative antibiotic use. Seven late surgical site infections were diagnosed (7.1%) between 90 and 160 days after surgery and were significantly correlated to otorrhoea during the 6 months before surgery, surgery duration ≤60 minutes, canal wall down technique and use of fibrin glue. Surgical site infections after chronic otitis media surgery seem to be associated with factors related to the inflammatory state of the middle ear at the time of surgery in early infections and with chronic inflammation in late infections. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  15. Cutpoints for screening blood glucose concentrations in healthy senior cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve-Johnson, Mia K; Rand, Jacquie S; Vankan, Dianne; Anderson, Stephen T; Marshall, Rhett; Morton, John M

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the reference interval for screening blood glucose in senior cats, to apply this to a population of obese senior cats, to compare screening and fasting blood glucose, to assess whether screening blood glucose is predicted by breed, body weight, body condition score (BCS), behaviour score, fasting blood glucose and/or recent carbohydrate intake and to assess its robustness to changes in methodology. Methods The study included a total of 120 clinically healthy client-owned cats aged 8 years and older of varying breeds and BCSs. Blood glucose was measured at the beginning of the consultation from an ear/paw sample using a portable glucose meter calibrated for cats, and again after physical examination from a jugular sample. Fasting blood glucose was measured after overnight hospitalisation and fasting for 18-24 h. Results The reference interval upper limit for screening blood glucose was 189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l). Mean screening blood glucose was greater than mean fasting glucose. Breed, body weight, BCS, behaviour score, fasting blood glucose concentration and amount of carbohydrate consumed 2-24 h before sampling collectively explained only a small proportion of the variability in screening blood glucose. Conclusions and relevance Screening blood glucose measurement represents a simple test, and cats with values from 117-189 mg/dl (6.5-10.5 mmol/l) should be retested several hours later. Cats with initial screening blood glucose >189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l), or a second screening blood glucose >116 mg/dl (6.4 mmol/l) several hours after the first, should have fasting glucose and glucose tolerance measured after overnight hospitalisation.

  16. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caney, S.M.A.; Holt, P.E.; Day, M.J.; Rudorf, H.; Gruffydd-Jones, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis

  17. Aetiology and pathogenesis of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in cats by histological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessely, Marlis; Reese, Sven; Schnabl-Feichter, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine histologically intact and ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in cats, in order to evaluate whether degeneration is a prerequisite for rupture. Methods We performed a histological examination of 50 intact and 19 ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in cadaver or client-owned cats, respectively, using light microscopy. Cats with stifle pathology were further divided into five age groups in order to investigate the relationship of changes in the ligament with lifespan. Cats with ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments were divided into two groups according to medical history (with presumed history of trauma or without any known history of trauma) in order to investigate the relationship of ligament rupture with a traumatic event. Data from 200 healthy cats were selected randomly and reviewed to make a statistical comparison of cats with and without cranial cruciate ligament rupture (reference group). Results On histological examination, the intact cranial cruciate ligaments showed basic parallel arrangement of the collagen fibres, with no relation to age. While cats of a more advanced age showed fibrocartilage in the middle of the cranial cruciate ligament - a likely physiological reaction to compression forces over the lifespan - degenerative changes within the fibrocartilage were absent in all cases, regardless of age or rupture status. Cats suffering from cranial cruciate ligament rupture without history of trauma were significantly older than cats in the reference group. Conclusions and relevance This study showed that differentiation of fibrocartilage in the middle of the cranial cruciate ligament is likely a physiological reaction to compressive forces and not a degenerative change associated with greater risk of rupture in advanced age. This finding in cats is distinct from the known decrease in differentiation of fibrocartilage in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Furthermore, the histological examination

  18. Preoperative diagnosis and surgical strategy in congenital auditory ossicular malformation of 26 ears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Yuji; Naito, Yasushi; Shinohara, Shogo; Fujiwara, Keizo; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Risa; Kishimoto, Ippei

    2012-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 26 ears of 21 subjects having auditory ossicular malformation and who had undergone auditory reconstruction between April 2004 and December 2010 at our clinic. We checked preoperative condition, pathological classification, surgical procedure, and hearing improvement. We could predict pathological conditions precisely from preoperative computed tomography (CT), including incudostapedial disconnection (9/12, 75%) and malleus and/or incus fixation (7/12, 58%), which tended to be present in external ear malformation, and stapes footplate fixation (0/12, 0%). We could not, however, predict complex malformation (0/8, 0%). Overall success was 90% (18/20) in the 20 ears observed for at least 1 year. In the 2 ears without improved hearing, the first had congenital cholesteatoma and no stapes superstructure, was treated with type IV tympanoplasty. The second had malleus, incus, and stapes fixation and discontinuity between the incus and stapes, and was treated with type III tympanoplasty and stapes mobilization. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult in mixed congenital auditory ossicular malformation, especially stapes footplate fixation, possibly requiring unexpected procedures, with a poor hearing outcome. Preoperative status must thus be evaluated precisely using hearing, tympanometry, acoustic reflex test, and CT. Temporal bone CT and external ear findings are useful in diagnosing middle-ear malformation. Subjects' informed consent should also be obtained due to the possible need for changing procedure based on findings during surgery. (author)

  19. Endoscopic and minimally-invasive ear surgery: A path to better outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Pollak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of endoscopic ear surgery techniques promises to change the way we approach ear surgery. In this review paper, we explore the current evidence, seek to determine the advantages of endoscopic ear surgery, and see if these advantages are both measureable and meaningful. The wide field of view of the endoscope allows the surgeon to better visualize the various recesses of the middle ear cleft. Endoscopes make it possible to address the target pathology transcanal, while minimizing dissection or normal tissue done purely for exposure, leading to the evolution of minimally-invasive ear surgery and reducing morbidity. When used in chronic ear surgery, endoscopy appears to have the potential to significantly reduce cholesteatoma recidivism rates. Using endoscopes as an adjunct can increase the surgeon's confidence in total cholesteatoma removal. By doing so, endoscopes reduce the need to reopen the mastoid during second-look surgery, help preserve the canal wall, or even change post-cholesteatoma follow-up protocols by channeling more patients away from a planned second-look.

  20. CT and MR imaging of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear and internal auditory canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, Jan W.; Offeciers, Erwin F.; Foer, Bert de; Govaerts, Paul; Kuhweide, Rudy; Somers, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The embryology of the inner ear must be known as many of the inner ear malformations present as a result of the arrest during the various stages of embryology. These malformations are described in this 'embryologic' perspective and specific names for certain malformations are no longer used. Both CT and MR can be used to look at inner ear malformations but often both techniques are complementary. However, CT is preferred when associated middle- or external ear malformations must be excluded. Magnetic resonance is preferred when subtle changes in the membranous labyrinth or abnormalities of the nerves in the internal auditory canal must be visualised. The CT and MR technique must however be adapted as more and more subtle congenital malformations can only be seen when the right technique is used. The heavily T2-weighted gradient-echo or fast spin-echo MR techniques are mandatory if malformations of the inner ear must be excluded. The purpose of this paper is to describe the techniques used to study these patients and to give an overview of the most frequent and important congenital malformations which can be found in the inner ear and internal auditory canal/cerebellopontine angle

  1. Imunoexpressão da citoqueratina 16 e do antígeno nuclear Ki-67 no colesteatoma adquirido da orelha média Expression patterns of cytokeratin 16 and the nuclear antigen Ki-67 in acquired middle ear cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina S. B. Pereira

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Ocolesteatoma da orelha média é caracterizado pela presença de epitélio escamoso estratificado queratinizado nesta cavidade, causando destruição óssea e podendo levar a complicações. Algumas substâncias como a citoqueratina 16 e o Ki-67, marcadores de proliferação celular, vêm sendo utilizadas para estudar essa doença. A CK 16 é um filamento protéico, situado no citoplasma das células epiteliais, característico de epitélios hiperproliferativos. O Ki-67 é um antígeno nuclear que aparece nas células em estágio de proliferação. Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a imunoexpressão da CK 16 e do Ki-67 no colesteatoma adquirido. Forma de estudo: Clínico prospectivo. Material e Método: Foram colhidas amostras de colesteatoma de 31 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia otológica, sendo 20 adultos e 11 crianças, no período de 1998 e 2000. Essas amostras foram submetidas à análise histológica e imuno-histoquímica para estudo da expressão da CK 16 e do Ki-67 na matriz do colesteatoma. Resultado: A análise dos resultados mostrou a presença da CK 16 nas camadas suprabasais da matriz do colesteatoma e, do Ki-67, na camada basal, estendendo-se para as camadas suprabasais e, inclusive, para a camada apical da matriz. A reação aos anticorpos anti-CK 16 e Ki-67 foi heterogênea. A correlação entre a CK 16 e o Ki-67 suprabasal com variáveis morfológicas, como acantose do epitélio e hiperplasia da camada basal formando cones epiteliais em direção à perimatriz, foi positiva e significativa. Também houve relação positiva e significativa entre a CK 16 e o Ki-67 suprabasal e apical. Conclusão: Esses resultados permitem concluir que o colesteatoma tem características hiperproliferativas, expressando a CK 16 e o Ki-67 na sua matriz.Introduction: Cholesteatomas of the middle ear are characterized by the presence of stratified squamous epithelium in this cavity presenting with highly invasive

  2. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Liu

    Full Text Available The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  3. Infestation of a bird and two cats by larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinckney, R D; Kanton, K; Foster, C N; Steinberg, H; Pellitteri, P

    2001-09-01

    The larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), commonly known as the Indian meal moth, often cause enormous losses in stored food supplies. We present three clinical case reports of accidental infestation by P. interpunctella larvae in two domestic cats and one parakeet. A larva gained entry into the avian host and subsequently migrated to the brain. It was alive, covered with "silk-like" fibers and confirmed to be a fourth instar. Plodia interpunctella larvae were excised with forceps from the subcutaneous tissues of the ear and neck of two cats in a different household. Previous reports of infestation by P. interpunctella larvae in vertebrates are unknown.

  4. Ear malformations, hearing loss and hearing rehabilitation in children with Treacher Collins syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Francisco; Coutinho, Miguel Bebiano; Ferreira, João Pinto; Sousa, Cecilia Almeida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the main ear malformations, hearing loss and auditory rehabilitation in children with Treacher Collins syndrome. We performed a retrospective study of 9 children with Treacher Collins syndrome treated in a central hospital between January 2003 and January 2013. This study showed a high incidence of malformations of the outer and middle ear, such as microtia, atresia or stenosis of the external auditory canal, hypoplastic middle ear cavity, dysmorphic or missing ossicular chain. Most patients had bilateral hearing loss of moderate or high degree. In the individuals studied, there was functional improvement in patients with bone-anchored hearing aids in relation to conventional hearing aids by bone conduction. Treacher Collins syndrome is characterized by bilateral malformations of the outer and middle ear. Hearing rehabilitation in these children is of utmost importance, and bone-anchored hearing aids is the method of choice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of normalized pulse volume in the outer ear as a simple measure of sympathetic activity using warm and cold pressor tests: towards applications in ambulatory monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jihyoung; Matsumura, Kenta; Yamakoshi, Takehiro; Tanaka, Naoto; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi; Rolfe, Peter; Kim, Kyungho

    2013-01-01

    Normalized pulse volume (NPV) derived from the ear has the potential to be a practical index for monitoring daily life stress. However, ear NPV has not yet been validated. Therefore, we compared NPV derived from an index finger using transmission photoplethysmography as a reference, with NPV derived from a middle finger and four sites of the ear using reflection photoplethysmography during baseline and while performing cold and warm water immersion in ten young and six middle-aged subjects. The results showed that logarithmically-transformed NPV (lnNPV) during cold water immersion as compared with baseline values was significantly lower, only at the index finger, the middle finger and the bottom of the ear-canal. Furthermore, lnNPV reactivities (ΔlnNPV; the difference between baseline and test values) from an index finger were significantly related to ΔlnNPV from the middle finger and the bottom of the ear-canal (young: r = 0.90 and 0.62, middle-aged: r = 0.80 and 0.58, respectively). In conclusion, these findings show that reflection and transmission photoplethysmography are comparable methods to derive NPV in accordance with our theoretical prediction. NPV derived from the bottom of the ear-canal is a valid approach, which could be useful for evaluating daily life stress. (paper)

  6. Effects of strain and age on ear wound healing and regeneration in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Costa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Round holes in the ears of MRL mice tend to close with characteristics of regeneration believed to be absent in other mouse strains (e.g., C57BL/6. We evaluated the kinetics and the histopathology of ear wound closure in young (8 weeks old C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. We also used middle-aged (40 weeks old C57BL/6 mice to evaluate the influence of aging on this process. A circular through-and-through hole was made in the ear, photographs were taken at different times after injury and wound area was measured with digital analysis software. The percentages of closed area measured on day 100 were: 23.57 ± 8.66% for young BALB/c mice, 56.47 ± 7.39% for young C57BL/6 mice, and 75.31 ± 23.65% for middle-aged C57BL/6 mice. Mice were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 5, 25, 44, and 100 for histological evaluation with hematoxylin and eosin, Gomori’s trichrome, periodic acid-Schiff, or picrosirius red staining. In young mice of both strains, healing included re-epithelialization, chondrogenesis, myogenesis, and collagen deposition. Young C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice differed in the organization of collagen fibers visualized using picrosirius-polarization. Sebaceous glands and hair follicles regenerated and chondrogenesis was greater in young C57BL/6 mice. In middle-aged C57BL/6 mice all aspects of regeneration were depressed. The characteristics of regeneration were present during ear wound healing in both young BALB/c and young C57BL/6 mice although they differed in intensity and pattern. Greater ear wound closure in middle-aged C57BL/6 mice was not correlated with regeneration.

  7. Hybrid Cat Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Barrieu, Pauline; Louberge, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Natural catastrophes attract regularly the attention of media and have become a source of public concern. From a financial viewpoint, natural catastrophes represent idiosyncratic risks, diversifiable at the world level. But for reasons analyzed in this paper reinsurance markets are unable to cope with this risk completely. Insurance-linked securities, such as cat bonds, have been issued to complete the international risk transfer process, but their development is disappointing so far. This pa...

  8. A retrospective study of 77 cats with severe hepatic lipidosis: 1975-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, S A; Crawford, M A; Guida, L; Erb, H N; King, J

    1993-01-01

    The physical, clinicopathologic, and survival rates of 77 cats with severe spontaneous hepatic lipidosis are detailed in this report. Cats were subdivided into groups designated as idiopathic lipidosis if no other disease process was recognized, or secondary lipidosis if another disease process was diagnosed. Cats were also subdivided into groups designated as survivors or nonsurvivors on the basis of successful recuperation at 4 months after initial diagnosis. Differences between disease and survival groups were evaluated for significance. Overall, more female cats and middle-aged cats were affected. Presenting complaints of vomiting, anorexia, weakness, and weight loss were common. Physical assessment of most cats showed obvious hepatomegaly, jaundice, dehydration, and a weight loss > or = 25% of usual body weight. Neurobehavioral signs indicative of hepatic encephalopathy, other than ptyalism and depression, were rare. Clinicopathologic features are characterized by hyperbilirubinemia and increased activities of serum ALT, AST, and ALP, with only small if any increase in gamma GT activity. Clinical features distinguishing cats with hepatic lipidosis from those with other serious cholestatic disorders include absence of hyperglobulinemia and low gamma GT activity relative to ALP activity. Although coagulation tests were abnormal in 45% of cats tested (n = 44), few cats showed clinical bleeding tendencies. Most cats received prophylactic vitamin K1 therapy. Forty two cats received aggressive nutritional and supportive care and of these 55% survived. Cats with idiopathic disease were significantly younger, had significantly higher ALP activity and bilirubin concentration, and had a slightly better survival rate than cats with secondary lipidosis. Low PCV, hypokalemia, and an older age were significantly related to nonsurvival. Because of the variety of diets and food supplements used in case management, the influence of nutritional factors on survival could not be

  9. Objective Audiometry using Ear-EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Kidmose, Preben

    Recently, a novel electroencephalographic (EEG) method called ear-EEG [1], that enable recording of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) from a personalized earpiece was introduced. Initial investigations show that well established AEPs, such as ASSR and P1-N1-P2 complex can be observed from ear-EEG...

  10. Congenital malformation of inner ear, single cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Pazmino, Julio Cesar; Marrugo Pardo, Gilberto Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Congenital malformations of the inner ear are rare conditions, but their detection requires high diagnostic accuracy. In this report we describe the case of a patient with single or common cavity, discuss the corresponding radiological images, describe the treatment of this patient with a cochlear implant, and review the classification and differential diagnosis of the other anomalies of the inner ear.

  11. Coupled ears in lizards and crocodilians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine E; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Bierman, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Lizard ears are coupled across the pharynx, and are very directional. In consequence all auditory responses should be directional, without a requirement for computation of sound source location. Crocodilian ears are connected through sinuses, and thus less tightly coupled. Coupling may improve th...... range is reviewed in the light of current theories of sound localization....

  12. Local cloning of CAT states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Ramij

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case. -- Highlights: → We analyze the (im)possibility of exact cloning of orthogonal CAT states under LOCC. → We also classify the set of CAT states that can(not) be cloned by LOCC. → No set of orthogonal CAT states can be cloned by LOCC with help of similar CAT state. → Any two orthogonal n-qubit GHZ-states can be cloned by LOCC with help of a GHZ state.

  13. X-linked deafness, stapes gushers and a distinctive defect of the inner ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, P.D. (Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, London (United Kingdom)); Reardon, W.; Pembrey, M. (Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)); Bellman, S. (Hospital for Sick Children, London (United Kingdom)); Luxom, L. (National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom))

    1991-08-01

    We have made genetic linkage studies in 7 pedigrees in whom deafness was inherited in an X-linked manner. All patients had a full range of audiometric and vestibular function tests. Thin section high resolution CT in two planes was used to assess the state of the middle and inner ears. We found a distinctive inner ear deformity in some of the deaf males. Moreover, some of the obligate feamle carriers seem to have a milder form of the same anomaly associated with slight hearing loss. Genetic studies on some of the deaf males with apparently normal inner ear anatomy suggest a different locus on the X chromosome and hence a different pathogenesis for the deafness. (orig./GDG).

  14. X-linked deafness, stapes gushers and a distinctive defect of the inner ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, P.D.; Reardon, W.; Pembrey, M.; Bellman, S.; Luxom, L.

    1991-01-01

    We have made genetic linkage studies in 7 pedigrees in whom deafness was inherited in an X-linked manner. All patients had a full range of audiometric and vestibular function tests. Thin section high resolution CT in two planes was used to assess the state of the middle and inner ears. We found a distinctive inner ear deformity in some of the deaf males. Moreover, some of the obligate feamle carriers seem to have a milder form of the same anomaly associated with slight hearing loss. Genetic studies on some of the deaf males with apparently normal inner ear anatomy suggest a different locus on the X chromosome and hence a different pathogenesis for the deafness. (orig./GDG)

  15. A Model for the representation of Speech Signals in Normal and Impaired Ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    hearing was modelled as a combination of outer- and inner hair cell loss. The percentage of dead inner hair cells was calculated based on a new computational method relating auditory nerve fibre thresholds to behavioural thresholds. Finally, a model of the entire auditory nerve fibre population......A model of human auditory periphery, ranging from the outer ear to the auditory nerve, was developed. The model consists of the following components: outer ear transfer function, middle ear transfer function, basilar membrane velocity, inner hair cell receptor potential, inner hair cell probability...... of neurotransmitter release and auditory nerve fibre refractoriness. The model builds on previously published models, however, parameters for basilar membrane velocity and inner hair cell probability of neurotransmitter release were successfully fitted to model data from psychophysical and physiological data...

  16. Air-Leak Effects on Ear-Canal Acoustic Absorbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Kopun, Judy G.; Gorga, Michael P.; Neely, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Accurate ear-canal acoustic measurements, such as wideband acoustic admittance, absorbance, and otoacoustic emissions, require that the measurement probe be tightly sealed in the ear canal. Air leaks can compromise the validity of the measurements, interfere with calibrations, and increase variability. There are no established procedures for determining the presence of air leaks or criteria for what size leak would affect the accuracy of ear-canal acoustic measurements. The purpose of this study was to determine ways to quantify the effects of air leaks and to develop objective criteria to detect their presence. Design: Air leaks were simulated by modifying the foam tips that are used with the measurement probe through insertion of thin plastic tubing. To analyze the effect of air leaks, acoustic measurements were taken with both modified and unmodified foam tips in brass-tube cavities and human ear canals. Measurements were initially made in cavities to determine the range of critical leaks. Subsequently, data were collected in ears of 21 adults with normal hearing and normal middle-ear function. Four acoustic metrics were used for predicting the presence of air leaks and for quantifying these leaks: (1) low-frequency admittance phase (averaged over 0.1–0.2 kHz), (2) low-frequency absorbance, (3) the ratio of compliance volume to physical volume (CV/PV), and (4) the air-leak resonance frequency. The outcome variable in this analysis was the absorbance change (Δabsorbance), which was calculated in eight frequency bands. Results: The trends were similar for both the brass cavities and the ear canals. ΔAbsorbance generally increased with air-leak size and was largest for the lower frequency bands (0.1–0.2 and 0.2–0.5 kHz). Air-leak effects were observed in frequencies up to 10 kHz, but their effects above 1 kHz were unpredictable. These high-frequency air leaks were larger in brass cavities than in ear canals. Each of the four predictor variables

  17. Pathology of carbon monoxide poisoning in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhakumari, Arya; Poppenga, Robert H; Pesavento, J Brad; Uzal, Francisco A

    2018-03-05

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a common cause of poisoning in human beings has also been implicated in the death of animals. Though there are multiple studies on CO poisoning and relevant lethal blood COHb concentrations in humans, there are no reliable reports of diagnostic lethal carboxyhemoglobin percentage of saturation (COHb%) in cats. Additionally, due to shared housing environments, exposures to companion animals can be a surrogate for lethal exposures in human beings and provide valuable information in concurrent forensic investigations. Two adult Singapura brown ticked cats were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory (CAHFS) for necropsy and diagnostic work-up. These animals were found dead along with their two deceased owners. Similar lesions were observed in both cats. At necropsy, gross lesions consisted of multifocal, large, irregular, bright red spots on the skin of the abdomen and the inner surface of ear pinnae, bright red muscles and blood. The carcasses, and tissues fixed in formalin retained the bright red discoloration for up to two weeks. Microscopic lesions included diffuse pulmonary congestion and edema, and multifocal intense basophilia of cardiomyocytes mostly affecting whole fibers or occasionally a portion of the fiber. Based on the clinical history,gross and microscopic changes, cyanide or carbon monoxide poisoning was suspected. Blood samples analyzed for carbon monoxide showed 57 and 41% carboxyhemoglobin COHb%. Muscle samples were negative for cyanide. There are no established reference values for lethal COHb concentration in cats. The COHb % values detected in this case which fell within the lethal range reported for other species, along with the gross lesions and unique histological findings in the heart suggest a helpful criteria for diagnosis of CO intoxication associated death in cats. This case demonstrates that since pets share the same environment as human beings and often are a part of their activities

  18. Diprosopia in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camón, J; Ruberte, J; Ordóñez, G

    1990-05-01

    A diprosopic cat is described. In the head, two snouts, three eyes and two pinnae were present. The mandible was single and immobile because labial skin of both upper lips and single lower lip was partly fused. Superimposition of upper and lower dental arches was impossible and the mouths remained permanently open. Two incomplete oral cavities were present and the two tongues were joined at their base. The brain was duplicated in part. In the cranium only occipital and temporal bones were normal, the basisphenoid was bifurcated and the remaining bones were duplicated. Embryological mechanisms are discussed.

  19. Acceleration induced water removal from ear canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hosung; Averett, Katelee; Jung, Sunghwan

    2017-11-01

    Children and adults commonly experience having water trapped in the ear canals after swimming. To remove the water, individuals will shake their head sideways. Since a child's ear canal has a smaller diameter, it requires more acceleration of the head to remove the trapped water. In this study, we theoretically and experimentally investigated the acceleration required to break the surface meniscus of the water in artificial ear canals and hydrophobic-coated glass tubes. In experiments, ear canal models were 3D-printed from a CT-scanned human head. Also, glass tubes were coated with silane to match the hydrophobicity in ear canals. Then, using a linear stage, we measured the acceleration values required to forcefully eject the water from the artificial ear canals and glass tubes. A theoretical model was developed to predict the critical acceleration at a given tube diameter and water volume by using a modified Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Furthermore, this research can shed light on the potential of long-term brain injury and damage by shaking the head to push the water out of the ear canal. This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant CBET-1604424.

  20. European bat Lyssavirus transmission among cats, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Mailles, Alexandra; Boisseleau, Didier; Delmas, Olivier; Biron, Charlotte; Bouchier, Christiane; Capek, Isabelle; Muller, Michel; Ilari, Frédéric; Lefranc, Tanguy; Raffi, François; Goudal, Maryvonne; Bourhy, Hervé

    2009-02-01

    We identified 2 cases of European bat lyssavirus subtype 1 transmission to domestic carnivores (cats) in France. Bat-to-cat transmission is suspected. Low amounts of virus antigen in cat brain made diagnosis difficult.

  1. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, ... an infected cat may have defecated. What is toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a microscopic ...

  2. Ear Structures of the Naked Mole-Rat, Heterocephalus glaber, and Its Relatives (Rodentia: Bathyergidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Mason

    Full Text Available Although increasingly popular as a laboratory species, very little is known about the peripheral auditory system of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber. In this study, middle and inner ears of naked mole-rats of a range of ages were examined using micro-computed tomography and dissection. The ears of five other bathyergid species (Bathyergus suillus, Cryptomys hottentotus, Fukomys micklemi, Georychus capensis and Heliophobius argenteocinereus were examined for comparative purposes. The middle ears of bathyergids show features commonly found in other members of the Ctenohystrica rodent clade, including a fused malleus and incus, a synovial stapedio-vestibular articulation and the loss of the stapedius muscle. Heterocephalus deviates morphologically from the other bathyergids examined in that it has a more complex mastoid cavity structure, poorly-ossified processes of the malleus and incus, a 'columelliform' stapes and fewer cochlear turns. Bathyergids have semicircular canals with unusually wide diameters relative to their radii of curvature. How the lateral semicircular canal reaches the vestibule differs between species. Heterocephalus has much more limited high-frequency hearing than would be predicted from its small ear structures. The spongy bone forming its ossicular processes, the weak incudo-stapedial articulation, the columelliform stapes and (compared to other bathyergids reduced cochlear coiling are all potentially degenerate features which might reflect a lack of selective pressure on its peripheral auditory system. Substantial intraspecific differences were found in certain middle and inner ear structures, which might also result from relaxed selective pressures. However, such interpretations must be treated with caution in the absence of experimental evidence.

  3. Ear Structures of the Naked Mole-Rat, Heterocephalus glaber, and Its Relatives (Rodentia: Bathyergidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Matthew J; Cornwall, Hannah L; Smith, Ewan St J

    2016-01-01

    Although increasingly popular as a laboratory species, very little is known about the peripheral auditory system of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber. In this study, middle and inner ears of naked mole-rats of a range of ages were examined using micro-computed tomography and dissection. The ears of five other bathyergid species (Bathyergus suillus, Cryptomys hottentotus, Fukomys micklemi, Georychus capensis and Heliophobius argenteocinereus) were examined for comparative purposes. The middle ears of bathyergids show features commonly found in other members of the Ctenohystrica rodent clade, including a fused malleus and incus, a synovial stapedio-vestibular articulation and the loss of the stapedius muscle. Heterocephalus deviates morphologically from the other bathyergids examined in that it has a more complex mastoid cavity structure, poorly-ossified processes of the malleus and incus, a 'columelliform' stapes and fewer cochlear turns. Bathyergids have semicircular canals with unusually wide diameters relative to their radii of curvature. How the lateral semicircular canal reaches the vestibule differs between species. Heterocephalus has much more limited high-frequency hearing than would be predicted from its small ear structures. The spongy bone forming its ossicular processes, the weak incudo-stapedial articulation, the columelliform stapes and (compared to other bathyergids) reduced cochlear coiling are all potentially degenerate features which might reflect a lack of selective pressure on its peripheral auditory system. Substantial intraspecific differences were found in certain middle and inner ear structures, which might also result from relaxed selective pressures. However, such interpretations must be treated with caution in the absence of experimental evidence.

  4. Inner-ear sound pressures near the base of the cochlea in chinchilla: Further investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The middle-ear pressure gain GMEP, the ratio of sound pressure in the cochlear vestibule PV to sound pressure at the tympanic membrane PTM, is a descriptor of middle-ear sound transfer and the cochlear input for a given stimulus in the ear canal. GMEP and the cochlear partition differential pressure near the cochlear base ΔPCP, which determines the stimulus for cochlear partition motion and has been linked to hearing ability, were computed from simultaneous measurements of PV, PTM, and the sound pressure in scala tympani near the round window PST in chinchilla. GMEP magnitude was approximately 30 dB between 0.1 and 10 kHz and decreased sharply above 20 kHz, which is not consistent with an ideal transformer or a lossless transmission line. The GMEP phase was consistent with a roughly 50-μs delay between PV and PTM. GMEP was little affected by the inner-ear modifications necessary to measure PST. GMEP is a good predictor of ΔPCP at low and moderate frequencies where PV ⪢ PST but overestimates ΔPCP above a few kilohertz where PV ≈ PST. The ratio of PST to PV provides insight into the distribution of sound pressure within the cochlear scalae. PMID:23556590

  5. Optimising magnetic resonance image quality of the ear in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Davina; Lüpke, Matthias; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Klopmann, Thilo; Nolte, Ingo; Seifert, Hermann

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an examination protocol for magnetic resonance imaging, in order to display diagnostically important information of the canine middle and inner ear. To ensure that this protocol could also be used as a basis for determining pathological changes, the anatomical structures of the ear were presented in detail. To minimise stress through anaesthesia in live animals, preliminary examinations were carried out on four dog cadavers. During these initial examinations, three-dimensional (3D) sequences proved to be superior to two-dimensional ones. Therefore, only 3D sequences were applied for the main examinations performed on six clinically healthy Beagles. The anonymised MR images were rated by three experienced reviewers using a five-point scale. The most valuable sequence was a T2-weighted CISS sequence (TR = 16.7 ms, TE = 8.08 ms). This sequence proved to be most suitable for illustrating the inner ear structures and enabled good tissue contrasts. The sequence ranked second best was also a T2-weighted DESS sequence (TR = 19 ms, TE = 6 ms), allowing the imaging of the tympanic cavity and enabling 3D reconstruction due to its isotropic voxels. Due to low contrast and strong noise, the other sequences (TSE, FISP, MP RAGE) were not suitable for anatomical illustration of the middle and inner ear.

  6. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-10-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, its impact on library staff and services, and factors that influence the diffusion of new technology.

  7. Systemic Cat Scratch Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Liao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic cat scratch disease (CSD is often associated with prolonged fever and microabscesses in the liver and/or spleen. We report a case of systemic CSD with hepatic, splenic and renal involvement in an aboriginal child in Taiwan. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl had an intermittent fever for about 17 days, and complained of abdominal pain, headache and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple tiny hypodense nodular lesions in the spleen and both kidneys. Laparotomy revealed multiple soft, whitishtan lesions on the surface of the liver and spleen. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the spleen showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells and occasional Langhans' giant cells, strongly suggestive of Bartonella henselae infection. History revealed close contact with a cat. B. henselae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the tissue specimen, and the single antibody titer against B. henselae was greater than 1:2048. These results confirmed the diagnosis of visceral CSD caused by B. henselae. The patient's symptoms resolved after treatment with rifampin and tetracycline. This case illustrates the need for inclusion of systemic CSD in patients with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain.

  8. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  9. Lumbosacral agenesis in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle C Hybki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Lumbosacral agenesis is a rare congenital condition reported in children. We report a 17-week-old female domestic shorthair cat with lumbosacral agenesis on whole-body radiographs. The cat was euthanized shortly thereafter presentation. A necropsy was not permitted. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported feline case of lumbosacral agenesis.

  10. College Students and Their Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  11. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  12. Efficacy of fluralaner against Otodectes cynotis infestations in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taenzler, Janina; de Vos, Christa; Roepke, Rainer K A; Frénais, Régis; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2017-01-16

    The efficacy of fluralaner for the treatment of Otodectes cynotis infestations in dogs and cats was evaluated after oral (dogs) or topical administration (dogs and cats). Twenty-four dogs and sixteen cats were experimentally infested with O. cynotis and randomly allocated to equal sized groups (n = 8/group). Dog groups were treated once, either orally with fluralaner at a minimum dose of 25 mg/kg body weight, topically with fluralaner at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight or topically with saline solution (control). Cat groups were treated once, either topically with fluralaner at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight or topically with saline solution. Ears of all animals were examined otoscopically for live visible mites and the amount of debris and cerumen before, and 14 and 28 days after treatment. Twenty-eight days after treatment, animals were sedated and both ears were flushed to obtain the total number of live mites per animal. The efficacy was calculated, based on the results of the ear flushing, by comparing mean live mite counts in the fluralaner treated groups versus the saline solution treated group. A single topical treatment of cats with fluralaner reduced the mean mite counts by 100% (P dogs with fluralaner reduced the mean mite counts by 99.8% (P Cats treated topically with fluralaner had no mites visible during otoscopic examination at either 14 or 28 days after treatment. All dogs treated orally or topically with fluralaner had no mites visible during otoscopic examination at 28 days after treatment. At 14 days after treatment, only 1-2 mites were visible in three dogs (oral treatment: 2 dogs, topical treatment: 1 dog). All fluralaner-treated animals showed improvement in the amount of cerumen exudation compared with observations performed before treatment. No treatment related adverse events were observed in any dogs or cats enrolled in these studies. In this study, fluralaner administered topically to cats and orally or topically to dogs was

  13. Blepharitis due to in a cat from northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pimenta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Case summary We report a clinical case of blepharitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans yeasts in a 2-year-old stray cat from northern Portugal (Vila Real without concurrent naso-ocular signs. Ophthalmological examination revealed mucopurulent discharge from an open wound in the right upper and lower lids. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a normal anterior segment, and intraocular pressure was within the normal reference interval. No fundoscopic alterations were detected in either eye by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopic examination. Cytological examination of an appositional smear showed numerous polymorphic neutrophils and macrophages, together with spherical yeast cells compatible with Cryptococcus species. Molecular analysis by means of PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism identified C neoformans genotype VNI. The cat was treated with itraconazole, and amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, combined with a commercial ear ointment and an imidacloprid/moxidectin spot-on application for bilateral parasitic otitis caused by Otodectes cynotis . One month after treatment, the clinical signs were completely resolved. Localised cutaneous lesions, as in the present case, probably result from contamination of cat-scratch injuries with viable encapsulated yeasts. Relevance and novel information This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first clinical report of feline blepharitis due to C neoformans without concurrent naso-ocular signs. The current findings, together with those from recent reports of the infection in domestic animals, should alert the veterinary community both in Portugal and in Europe to this underdiagnosed disease.

  14. Expression of Cat Podoplanin in Feline Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Shunsuke; Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive tumor in cats; however, molecular-targeted therapies against this tumor, including antibody therapy, have not been developed. Sensitive and specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against highly expressed membrane proteins are needed to develop antibody therapies. Podoplanin, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is expressed in many human malignant tumors, including brain tumor, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, mesothelioma, and oral cancer. Podoplanin binds to C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2) and activates platelet aggregation, which is involved in cancer metastasis. Until now, we have established several mAbs against podoplanin in humans, mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, cattle, and cats. We have reported podoplanin expression in canine melanoma and squamous cell carcinomas using an anti-dog podoplanin mAb PMab-38. In this study, we investigated podoplanin expression in 40 feline squamous cell carcinomas (14 cases of mouth floor, 13 of skin, 9 of ear, and 4 of tongue) by immunohistochemical analysis using an anti-cat podoplanin mAb PMab-52, which we recently developed by cell-based immunization and screening (CBIS) method. Of the total 40 cases, 38 (95%) showed positive staining for PMab-52. In particular, 12 cases (30%) showed a strong membrane-staining pattern of squamous cell carcinoma cells. PMab-52 can be useful for antibody therapy against feline podoplanin-expressing squamous cell carcinomas.

  15. Cranial anatomy and detection of ischemic stroke in the cat by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, F.S.; Pykett, I.L.; Kistler, J.P.; Vielma, J.; Brady, T.J.; Hinshaw, W.S.; Goldman, M.R.; Newhouse, J.H.; Pohost, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) images of cat heads were obtained using a small, experimental imaging system. As a prelude to the study of experimental ischemic brain infarction, the normal cat head was imaged for identification of anatomical features. Images of one cat which had undergone ligation of the middle cerebral artery three weeks previously showed brain changes associated with chronic ischemic stroke and compared favorably with findings on computed tomography (CT). The NMR images have millimetric spatial resolution. NMR parameters inherent in the tissues provide intensity variations and are sufficiently sensitive to yield contrast resolution surpassing that of CT

  16. Structural Metadata Research in the Ears Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yang; Shriberg, Elizabeth; Stolcke, Andreas; Peskin, Barbara; Ang, Jeremy; Hillard, Dustin; Ostendorf, Mari; Tomalin, Marcus; Woodland, Phil; Harper, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Both human and automatic processing of speech require recognition of more than just words. In this paper we provide a brief overview of research on structural metadata extraction in the DARPA EARS rich transcription program...

  17. Mozart ear: diagnosis, treatment, and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ken; Yotsuyanagi, Takatoshi; Saito, Tamotsu; Isogai, Noritaka; Mori, Hiromasa; Itani, Yoshihito

    2011-11-01

    Mozart ear is a congenital auricular deformity, which is mainly characterized by a bulging appearance of the anterosuperior portion of the auricle, a convexly protruded cavum conchae, and a slit-like narrowing of the orifice of the external auditory meatus. It is said to be uncommon, and because no one has yet fully described neither the disease nor the treatment, the concept of Mozart ear has not been unified. This report describes a case of a 13-year-old girl presented with an unusual congenital deformity which showed the features of Mozart ear. It is an extremely rare deformity that only about 4 clinical cases have been reported in medical literature thereby a treatment method has not been fully discussed. For surgical correction of our cases, we excised deformed conchal cartilage, turned it over, regrafted, and maintained a cosmetically positive result. We also reviewed and described the origin, current concept, and treatment method of Mozart ear.

  18. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  19. Three dimensional and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear. Normal ears and anomaly scanned with 3D-CISS sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edamatsu, Hideo; Uechi, Yoko; Honjyo, Shiro; Yamashita, Koichi; Tonami, Hisao.

    1997-01-01

    The MRI system used in this study was a new scanning sequence, 3D-CISS (Three dimensional-constructive interference in steady state) with 1.5 Tesla. Ten normal ears and one ear with Mondini type anomaly were scanned and reconstructed. In imagings of normal inner ears, the cochlea has three spiral layers; basal, middle and apical turns. Each turn was separated into three parts; the scala vestibuli, osseous spiral lamina and scala tympani. Three semicircular ducts, utricle and saccule were also reconstructed in one frame. In the inner ear of Mondini anomaly, 3D MRI showed cochlear aplasia, hypoplasia of semicircular ducts and widely dilated vestibule. The imaging was identical with findings of ''common cavity''. The anomaly was easily recognized in 3D MRI more than in 2D imagings. The detailed and cubic imagings of the Mondini anomaly in 3D MRI could not be observed with conventional 2D MRI. 3D MRI is not invasive method and can scan a target very quickly. (author)

  20. Commissioning of n_TOF EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    The construction of the second beam line and experiment area (EAR2) of the n_TOF facility is currently ongoing and scheduled to be completed by July 2014. An extensive series of measurements is planned in order to determine the beam characteristics like the neutron flux, the spatial beam profile and the resolution function, as well as the response of several detectors considered for use in future measurements at EAR2. A rigorous study of backgrounds will be undertaken in various conditions.

  1. Emission of sound from the mammalian inner ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Tobias; Stefanovic, Aleksandra; Nin, Fumiaki; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2013-03-01

    The mammalian inner ear, or cochlea, not only acts as a detector of sound but can also produce tones itself. These otoacoustic emissions are a striking manifestation of the mechanical active process that sensitizes the cochlea and sharpens its frequency discrimination. It remains uncertain how these signals propagate back to the middle ear, from which they are emitted as sound. Although reverse propagation might occur through waves on the cochlear basilar membrane, experiments suggest the existence of a second component in otoacoustic emissions. We have combined theoretical and experimental studies to show that mechanical signals can also be transmitted by waves on Reissner's membrane, a second elastic structure within the cochea. We have developed a theoretical description of wave propagation on the parallel Reissner's and basilar membranes and its role in the emission of distortion products. By scanning laser interferometry we have measured traveling waves on Reissner's membrane in the gerbil, guinea pig, and chinchilla. The results accord with the theory and thus support a role for Reissner's membrane in otoacoustic emission. T. R. holds a Career Award at the Scientific Interface from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund; A. J. H. is an Investigator of Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

  2. Toxoplasmosis : Beware of Cats !!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Kumari Baithalu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropozoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes widespread human and animal diseases, mostly involving central nervous system. Human acquires toxoplasmosis from cats, from consuming raw or undercooked meat and from vertical transmission to the fetus through placenta from mother during pregnancy. Socio-epidemiological as well as unique environmental factors also plays a significant role in transmission of this infection. Preventive measures should be taken into account the importance of culture, tradition, and beliefs of people in various communities more than solving poverty and giving health education. Therefore the focus of this article is to create public awareness regarding sense of responsibility of looking after pets to prevent such an important zoonotic disease. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 247-249

  3. Ear-to-Ear On-Body Channel Fading in the ISM-band for Tangentially-Polarized Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The ear-to-ear on-body channel fading has been studied in the ISM-band. The ear-to-ear path gain was measured on six persons in an indoor environment for a duration of 200 s. The channel fading has been characterized in terms of empirical cumulative distribution functions (CDF), average fade...

  4. Statistical Shape Analysis of the Human Ear Canal with Application to In-the-Ear Hearing Aid Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is about the statistical shape analysis of the human ear canal with application to the mechanical design of in-the-ear hearing aids. Initially, it is described how a statistical shape model of the human ear canal is built based on a training set of laser-scanned ear impressions. A thin...

  5. CAT-D-T tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Blue, T.; Miley, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    The domains of plasma fuel cycles bounded by the D-T and Cat-D, and by the D-T and SCD modes of operation are examined. These domains, referred to as, respectively, the Cat-D-T and SCD-T modes of operation, are characterized by the number (γ) of tritons per fusion neutron available from external (to the plasma) sources. Two external tritium sources are considered - the blankets of the Cat-D-T (SCD-T) reactors and fission reactors supported by the Cat-D-T (SCD-T) driven hybrid reactors. It is found that by using 6 Li for the active material of the control elements of the fission reactors, it is possible to achieve γ values close to unity. Cat-D-T tokamaks could be designed to have smaller size, higher power density, lower magnetic field and even lower plasma temperature than Cat-D tokamaks; the difference becomes significant for γ greater than or equal to .75. The SCD-T mode of operation appears to be even more attractive. Promising applications identified for these Cat-D-T and SCD-T modes of operation include hybrid reactors, fusion synfuel factories and fusion reactors which have difficulty in providing all their tritium needs

  6. [Musical hallucinosis following infarction of the right middle cerebral artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, J; Guegan-Massardier, E; Levillain, D; Lemarchand, M; Mihout, B; Hannequin, D

    2001-03-01

    A 44-year-old woman demonstrated a musical hallucinosis four months after a massive infarction in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery. This musical hallucinosis consisting of familiar tunes, was continuous and perceived by both ears. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, middle and late auditory evoked potentials suggested that right Heschl's gyrus and associative areas were imparied. Audiometry demonstrated a low right transmission deafness. The hallucinosis was persistent for seven months and stopped just after hemorrhage of the right ear. This case gives the opportunity to review the different mechanisms responsible for musical hallucinosis.

  7. Clinical, radiographic, and bronchial cytologic features of cats with bronchial disease: 65 cases (1980-1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moise, N.S.; Wiedenkeller, D.; Yeager, A.E.; Blue, J.T.; Scarlett, J.

    1989-01-01

    Medical records, radiographs, and bronchial cytologic abnormalities of 65 cats with bronchial disease were reviewed. Bronchial disease was defined as abnormality of the lower airways to the exclusion of disease originating or mainly involving the alveoli, interstitium, vasculature, or pleura. Cats with bronchial disease were more likely to be female and older. Siamese cats were over represented and had more chronic disease. In order of frequency, the following clinical signs were reported: coughing, dyspnea, occasional sneezing, wheezing, and vomiting. Radiography revealed prominent bronchial markings, with some cats having collapse of the middle lobe of the right lung (n = 7), overinflation of the lungs (n = 9), or aerophagia (n = 13). Of 65 bronchial washes, 58 were considered exudative, with the predominant cell type being eosinophil in 24%, neutrophil in 33%, macrophage in 22%, and mixed population of cells in 21%. Cultures for bacteria were considered positive in 24% of the cats. Circulating eosinophilia was not helpful in predicting the predominant cell type in bronchial cytologic exudates. Hyperproteinemia without dehydration was present in a third of the cats, indicating an immunologic response. Half the cats had resolution of clinical signs, whereas half the cats required continuing medication with bronchodilators, antimicrobial agents, or corticosteroids

  8. Sonography of cat scratch disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, David M; Jacobson, Jon A; Downie, Brian; Biermann, J Sybil; Kim, Sung Moon; Yablon, Corrie M

    2015-03-01

    To characterize the sonographic features of cat scratch disease and to identify features that allow differentiation from other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. After Institutional Review Board approval was obtained, patients who underwent sonography for a medial epitrochlear mass or lymph node were identified via the radiology information system. Patients were divided into 2 groups: cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease, based on pathologic results and clinical information. Sonograms were retrospectively reviewed and characterized with respect to dimension, shape (round, oval, or lobular), symmetry, location (subcutaneous or intramuscular), multiplicity, echogenicity (anechoic, hypoechoic, isoechoic, hyperechoic, or mixed), hyperechoic hilum (present or absent), adjacent anechoic or hypoechoic area, hyperemia (present or absent), pattern of hyperemia if present (central, peripheral, or mixed), increased posterior through-transmission (present or absent), and shadowing (present or absent). Sonographic findings were compared between the patients with and without cat scratch disease. The final patient group consisted of 5 cases of cat scratch disease and 16 cases of other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. The 2 sonographic findings that were significantly different between the cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease cases included mass asymmetry (P = .0062) and the presence of a hyperechoic hilum (P = .0075). The other sonographic findings showed no significant differences between the groups. The sonographic finding of an epitrochlear mass due to cat scratch disease most commonly is that of a hypoechoic lobular or oval mass with central hyperemia and a possible adjacent fluid collection; however, the presence of asymmetry and a hyperechoic hilum differentiate cat scratch disease from other etiologies. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. Retrospective study of ear findings of dogs submitted to cranial tomography in FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu; Estudo retrospectivo dos achados otologicos de caes submetidos a tomografia craniana na FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Oliveira, Hugo Salvador de; Belotta, Alexandra Frey; Santos, Debora Rodrigues dos; Zardo, Karen Maciel; Mamprim, Maria Jaqueline; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: viviam.babicsak@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria

    2012-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an important imaging modality in the diagnosis of ear alterations, especially those affecting the middle ear. In this retrospective study, in which the cranial CT scans of 151 dogs were evaluated, the most common finding was the mineralization of the external auditory cartilage, followed by secretions in external and middle ear and tissue in these two regions. The average age of affected animals ranged from 6-9 years. Mixed breed dogs were the most affected animals, followed by cockers, boxers, poodles, labrador retrievers, german shepherds and pit bulls. (author)

  10. Body lift, drag and power are relatively higher in large-eared than in small-eared bat species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Bats navigate the dark using echolocation. Echolocation is enhanced by external ears, but external ears increase the projected frontal area and reduce the streamlining of the animal. External ears are thus expected to compromise flight efficiency, but research suggests that very large ears may mi....... The result of this trade-off would be the eco-morphological correlation in bat flight, with large-eared bats generally adopting slow-flight feeding strategies....

  11. NRPC ServCat priorities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This document lists the Natural Resource Program Center’s priority ServCat documents. It is recommended that these documents- which include annual narrative reports,...

  12. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jason B.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs—location, number of human dwellings, and urban area—to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities. PMID:29489854

  13. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Coe, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs-location, number of human dwellings, and urban area-to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities.

  14. Acetaminophen Toxicosis in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Burçak

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen causes serious problems as toxication in cats in spite of being an effective and reliable analgesic and antipyretic in humans. A six months-old female cat suffering from cough was presented to examination to International Pet Hospital/Tirana/Albania when no result was obtained after one  acetaminophen tablet had been administered in order to heal the disease. Depression, grey and cyanotic mucous membranes and tongue, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypothermia were primary clinical sign...

  15. Properties of squeezed Schroedinger cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obada, A.S.F.; Omar, Z.M.

    1995-09-01

    In this article we investigate some statistical properties of the even and odd squeezed (squeezed Schroedinger cat) states. The quasi-probability distribution functions especially W(α) and Q(α) are calculated and discussed for these states. The phase distribution function is discussed. A generation scheme is proposed for either the squeezed generalized Schroedinger cat, or the squeezed number state. (author). 35 refs, 5 figs

  16. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  17. Ear Acupuncture in European Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gori

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body's dysfunction through stimulation of definite points on the ear. Rudimentary forms of acupuncture which probably arose during the Stone Age have survived in many parts of the world right down to present day. It was used in the ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece and all the Mediterranean area. It is a microacupuncture technique similar to reflexology, and was first described in France in 1950 by Paul Nogier who is considered the Father of modern ear acupuncture. It was speculated that the technique works because groups of pluripotent cells contain information from the whole organism and create regional organization centers representing different parts of the body. Nevertheless stimulation of a reflex point in the ear seems relieve symptoms of distant pathologies. Modern research is confirming the efficacy of ear acupuncture for analgesia and anxiety related disease, while tobacco dependence and other substance abuse still need confirmation. Actually main methodological problems with auricular acupuncture are that exist too many maps with little agreement regarding point location in the ear, and that the correspondence or reflex systems does not correlated with modern knowledge of anatomy and physiology.

  18. A dominant TRPV4 variant underlies osteochondrodysplasia in Scottish fold cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, B; Alamri, S; Darby, W G; Adhikari, B; Lattimer, J C; Malik, R; Wade, C M; Lyons, L A; Cheng, J; Bateman, J F; McIntyre, P; Lamandé, S R; Haase, B

    2016-08-01

    Scottish fold cats, named for their unique ear shape, have a dominantly inherited osteochondrodysplasia involving malformation in the distal forelimbs, distal hindlimbs and tail, and progressive joint destruction. This study aimed to identify the gene and the underlying variant responsible for the osteochondrodysplasia. DNA samples from 44 Scottish fold and 54 control cats were genotyped using a feline DNA array and a case-control genome-wide association analysis conducted. The gene encoding a calcium permeable ion channel, transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 4 (TRPV4) was identified as a candidate within the associated region and sequenced. Stably transfected HEK293 cells were used to compare wild-type and mutant TRPV4 expression, cell surface localisation and responses to activation with a synthetic agonist GSK1016709A, hypo-osmolarity, and protease-activated receptor 2 stimulation. The dominantly inherited folded ear and osteochondrodysplasia in Scottish fold cats is associated with a p.V342F substitution (c.1024G>T) in TRPV4. The change was not found in 648 unaffected cats. Functional analysis in HEK293 cells showed V342F mutant TRPV4 was poorly expressed at the cell surface compared to wild-type TRPV4 and as a consequence the maximum response to a synthetic agonist was reduced. Mutant TRPV4 channels had a higher basal activity and an increased response to hypotonic conditions. Access to a naturally-occurring TRPV4 mutation in the Scottish fold cat will allow further functional studies to identify how and why the mutations affect cartilage and bone development. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. JS-X syndrome: A multiple congenital malformation with vocal cord paralysis, ear deformity, hearing loss, shoulder musculature underdevelopment, and X-linked recessive inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Hans L J; Brooks, Alice S; Smit, Liesbeth S

    2015-07-01

    We report on a family with a not earlier described multiple congenital malformation. Several male family members suffer from laryngeal obstruction caused by bilateral vocal cord paralysis, outer and middle ear deformity with conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, facial dysmorphisms, and underdeveloped shoulder musculature. The affected female members only have middle ear deformity and hearing loss. The pedigree is suggestive of an X-linked recessive inheritance pattern. SNP-array revealed a deletion and duplication on Xq28 in the affected family members. A possible aetiology is a neurocristopathy with most symptoms expressed in structures derived from branchial arches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Are two ears not better than one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Rachel A; Killion, Mead; Mennite, Monica A; Chisolm, Theresa H

    2012-03-01

    The decision to fit one or two hearing aids in individuals with binaural hearing loss has been debated for years. Although some 78% of U.S. hearing aid fittings are binaural (Kochkin , 2010), Walden and Walden (2005) presented data showing that 82% (23 of 28 patients) of their sample obtained significantly better speech recognition in noise scores when wearing one hearing aid as opposed to two. To conduct two new experiments to fuel the monaural/binaural debate. The first experiment was a replication of Walden and Walden (2005), whereas the second experiment examined the use of binaural cues to improve speech recognition in noise. A repeated measures experimental design. Twenty veterans (aged 59-85 yr), with mild to moderately severe binaurally symmetrical hearing loss who wore binaural hearing aids were recruited from the Audiology Department at the Bay Pines VA Healthcare System. Experiment 1 followed the procedures of the Walden and Walden study, where signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss was measured using the Quick Speech-in-Noise (QuickSIN) test on participants who were aided with their current hearing aids. Signal and noise were presented in the sound booth at 0° azimuth under five test conditions: (1) right ear aided, (2) left ear aided, (3) both ears aided, (4) right ear aided, left ear plugged, and (5) unaided. The opposite ear in (1) and (2) was left open. In Experiment 2, binaural Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustic Research (KEMAR) manikin recordings made in Lou Malnati's pizza restaurant during a busy period provided a typical real-world noise, while prerecorded target sentences were presented through a small loudspeaker located in front of the KEMAR manikin. Subjects listened to the resulting binaural recordings through insert earphones under the following four conditions: (1) binaural, (2) diotic, (3) monaural left, and (4) monaural right. Results of repeated measures ANOVAs demonstrated that the best speech recognition in noise performance was

  1. MRI measurement for inner ear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuling; Liu Huaijun; Chi Chen; Qin Ruiping; Shi Zhaoxia

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To reconstruct the image of inner ear by using 3D-FASE heavily T 2 WI, and to establish MRI measurement criterion of inner ear structures. Methods: One hundred and six inner ears of 53 healthy volunteers underwent MRI heavily T2-weighted axial scanning by using 3D fast advanced spin echo sequence. All the original images were transferred to an online workstation. Analyze AVW software was used for image post-processing. All the structures of inner ear were reconstructed, rotated from various angles and measured by using maximum intensity projection (MIP). Results: (1) All the structures of inner ear and internal auditory channel (IAC) could be visualized clearly by using 3D-FASE heavily T 2 WI. (2) Using analysis of variance, there was no age, side or race-related difference in inner ear volume, but it was bigger in male than in female [(0.242 ± 0.0236) mm 3 (male) versus (0.226 ± 0.021) mm 3 (female)]. There was no age, side-related differences in three semicircular canal height and vestibule vertical diameter, but, again, they were bigger in male than in female. The height of upper, lateral and posterior semicircular canal were (5.511 ± 0.626) mm (male) versus (5.167 ± 0.357) mm (female); (3.763 ± 0.495) mm (male) versus (3.446 ± 0.405) mm (female); (5.227 ± 0.547) mm (male) versus (4.786 ± 0.500) mm (female). There was no age, sex or side-related differences in three semicircular canal diameter and cochlea. The diameter of upper, lateral and posterior semicircular canal were (1.06 ± 0.119) mm, (1.14 ± 0.181) mm, and (1.22 ± 0.196)mm; the external diameter of cochlea basal turn was (6.520 ± 0.475) mm, the diameter of cochlea basal turn was (1.413 ± 0.144) mm, and cochlea height was (4.100 ± 0.405) mm. Conclusion: (1) For the first time, the MRI measurement criterion of inner ear structures is established. (2) Vestibule and three semicircular canal of inner ear are bigger in male than in female

  2. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-08-01

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Agreement between auricular and rectal measurements of body temperature in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marlos G; Carareto, Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Valdo A; Aquino, Monally C C

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of body temperature is a routine part of the clinical assessment of a patient. However, this procedure may be time-consuming and stressful to most animals because the standard site of temperature acquisition remains the rectal mucosa. Although an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature, evidence is still lacking regarding agreement between these two methods in cats. In this investigation, we evaluated the agreement between temperatures measured in the rectum and ear in 29 healthy cats over a 2-week period. Temperatures were measured in the rectum (using digital and mercury-in-glass thermometers) and ear once a day for 14 consecutive days, producing 406 temperature readings for each thermometer. Mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar between methods, and Bland-Altman plots showed small biases and narrow limits of agreement acceptable for clinical purposes. The interobserver variability was also checked, which indicated a strong correlation between two near-simultaneous temperature readings. Results are consistent with auricular thermometry being a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for assessing core body temperature in healthy cats.

  4. Multislice spiral computed tomography imaging in congenital inner ear malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui; Han, Ping; Liang, Bo; Tian, Zhi-liang; Lei, Zi-qiao; Kong, Wei-jia; Feng, Gan-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of multislice spiral computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of congenital inner ear malformations. Forty-four patients with sensorineural hearing loss were examined on a Somatom Sensation 16 (Siemens) CT scanner. The 3-dimensional reconstructions and multiplanar reformation (MPR) were performed using the volume-rendering technique (VRT) on the workstation. Of the 44 patients examined for this study, 25 patients were found to be normal and 19 patients (36 ears) were diagnosed with congenital inner ear malformations. Of the malformations, the axial, MPR, and VRT images can all display the site and degree in 33 of the ears. Volume-rendering technique images were superior to the axial images in displaying the malformations in 3 ears with small lateral semicircular canal malformations. The common malformations were Michel deformity (1 ear), common cavity deformity (3 ears), incomplete partition I (3 ears), incomplete partition II (Mondini deformity) (5 ears), vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (14 ears), enlarged vestibular aqueduct (16 ears, 6 of which had other malformations), and internal auditory canal malformation (8 ears, all accompanied by other malformations). Multislice spiral CT allows a comprehensively assessment of various congenital inner ear malformations through high-quality MPR and VRT reconstructions. Volume-rendering technique images can display the site and degree of the malformation 3-dimensionally and intuitionisticly. This is very useful to the cochlear implantation.

  5. Innervation of the cow's inner ear derived from micro-computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costeur, Loic; Mennecart, Bastien; Khimchenko, Anna; Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg

    2017-09-01

    The innervation of the inner ear has been thoroughly investigated in humans and in some animal models such as the guinea pig, the rabbit, the cat, the dog, the rat, the pig and some monkeys. Ruminant inner ears are still poorly known and their innervation was never investigated despite its potential interest in phylogenetic reconstructions. Following earlier works on the ontogeny of the cow's ear, we expand our understanding of this structure by reconstructing the fine innervation pattern of the inner ear of the cow in two ontogenetic stages, at 7 months gestation and at an adult age. Since we work on dry skeletal specimens, only the endocast of the innervation inside the petrosal bone was reconstructed up to the internal acoustic meatus. The paths of the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves could be reconstructed together with that of the spiral ganglion canal. The nerves have a very fibrous pattern. The bony cavities of the ampular and utricular branches of the vestibulocochlear nerve could also be reconstructed. Our observations confirm that not all bony structures are present in foetal stages since the branch of cranial nerve VII is not visible on the foetus but very broad on the adult stage. The fibrous pattern within the modiolus connecting the spiral canal to the cochlear nerve is also less dense than in the adult stage. The shape of the branch of cranial nerve VII is very broad in the cow ending in a large hiatus Fallopii; this, together with the above-mentioned particularities, could constitute relevant observations for phylogenetical purposes when more data will be made available.

  6. Feasibility and acceptability of training community health workers in ear and hearing care in Malawi: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulwafu, Wakisa; Kuper, Hannah; Viste, Asgaut; Goplen, Frederik K

    2017-10-11

    To assess the feasibility and acceptability of training community health workers (CHWs) in ear and hearing care, and their ability to identify patients with ear and hearing disorders. Cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT). Health centres in Thyolo district, Malawi. Ten health centres participated, 5 intervention (29 CHWs) and 5 control (28 CHWs). Intervention CHWs received 3 days of training in primary ear and hearing care, while among control CHWs, training was delayed for 6 months. Both groups were given a pretest that assessed knowledge about ear and hearing care, only the intervention group was given the posttest on the third day of training. The intervention group was given 1 month to identify patients with ear and hearing disorders in their communities, and these people were screened for hearing disorders by ear, nose and throat clinical specialists. Primary outcome measure was improvement in knowledge of ear and hearing care among CHWs after the training. Secondary outcome measures were number of patients with ear or hearing disorders identified by CHWs and number recorded at health centres during routine activities, and the perceived feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. The average overall correct answers increased from 55% to 68% (95% CI 65 to 71) in the intervention group (phearing disorders were identified by CHWs and 860 patients attended the screening camps, of whom 400 had hearing loss (73 patients determined through bilateral fail on otoacoustic emissions, 327 patients through audiometry). Where cause could be determined, the most common cause of ear and hearing disorders was chronic suppurative otitis media followed by impacted wax. The intervention was perceived as feasible and acceptable to implement. Training was effective in improving the knowledge of CHW in ear and hearing care in Malawi and allowing them to identify patients with ear and hearing disorders. This intervention could be scaled up to other CHWs in low-income and

  7. Compound effects of inhaling pure oxygen and lifting height on ear baric function in a hypobaric chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-qing WEN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the ear baric function between 4000m altitude chamber test with inhaling air and 6900m altitude chamber test with inhaling pure oxygen. Methods Eleven healthy male volunteers attended two tests as two groups by self-comparison. As the air group the volunteers inhaled air at 4000m, while as the pure oxygen group they inhaled pure oxygen at 6900m altitude, and the time interval between the two tests was more than two weeks. During the test, the volunteers breathed air or pure oxygen at random for 1h, and then were exposed at a speed of 20m/s to the target altitude for 5min. Hereafter they were sent back to the ground at the same speed. The changes of subjective symptoms, degree of tympanic congestion, acoustic immitance index and pure-tone auditory threshold were recorded before and after the test. The acoustic impedance index and pure-tone threshold were statistically analyzed. Results Four volunteers (4 ears in air group and 7 volunteers (7 ears in pure oxygen group reported ear pain in altitude chamber exposures, respectively. The pain-triggering altitude was higher in the pure oxygen group. Immediately after tests, there were 3 (3 ears and 5 volunteers (5 ears with Ⅲ degree congestion of the tympanic membrane in the two groups respectively. Four volunteers (6 ears developed gradually aggravated hemorrhages after altitude exposure. And the tympanic membrane congestion difference between groups was statistically significant at 3 and 24h after tests (P<0.01. The type A tympanogram appeared in 11 (15 ears and 11 (14 ears volunteers respectively immediately after tests. The increase of static compliance value was significantly greater in pure oxygen group than in air group immediately after tests (P<0.05, the decrease of middle ear pressure was more significant in pure oxygen group than in air group at 3 and 24h after tests (P<0.05. Both the two altitude exposure tests resulted in eustachian tube dysfunction. At 3 and

  8. Manual accuracy in comparison with a miniature master slave device--preclinical evaluation for ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, A; Hofer, M; Dittrich, E; Neumuth, T; Haase, R; Strauss, M; Dietz, A; Lüth, T; Strauss, G

    2011-01-01

    Manual accuracy in microsurgery is reduced by tremor and limited access. A surgical approach through the middle ear also puts delicate structures at risk, while the surgeon is often working at an unergonomic position. At this point a micromanipulator could have a positive influence. A system was developed to measure "working accuracy", time and precision during manipulation in the middle ear. 10 ENT-surgeons simulated a perforation of the stapedial footplate on a modified 3D print of a human skull in a mock OR. Each trial was repeated more than 200 times aiming manually and using a micro-manipulator. Data of over 4000 measurements was tested and graphically processed. Work strain was evaluated with a questionnaire. Accuracy for manual and micromanipulator perforation revealed a small difference. Learning curves showed a stronger decrease both in deviation and time when the micromanipulator was used. Also a lower work strain was apparent. The micromanipulator has the potential as an aiding device in ear surgery.

  9. Fascioperichondrial Flap with a Proximal Base Combined with Prominent Ear Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heval Selman Özkan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this article, we present a personalized surgical technique to relocate a fascioperichondrial flap with a proximal base as an additional measure to improve results and hide sharp edges which frequently occur following traditional otoplasty. Materials and Methods: Fascioperichondrial flap with a proximal base prepared from the dorsal side was transposed to the anterior helix and conchal excision side and secured with stitches to hide visible edges and reinforce Furnas sutures. Nine patients operated for prominent ear deformity using this modification were included in the study and follow-up period was at least 6 months. Conchal mastoid distances were calculated from the superior and middle third of the ears before and after the operation, also in follow-up controls to determine the efficiency of the method. Results: There were no suture extrusions, skin necrosis or infection. The mean difference for both the upper and middle third of the ears were considerably lower (p≤0.05 at the end of six month after the operation. There were no visible skin edges and discomfort described by the patients. Conclusion: Fascioperichondrial flap with a proximal base repositioning to conchal side is an easy procedure that can be applied simply as an adjunct to traditional techniques. Addition of this flap provides an additional tissue to reinforce suture repair and, the results seem to be more durable and strong. Another main advantage of this flap is eliminating the unnatural visible breakpoints in the conchal bowl.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Repeated Exposure to Cruciferous Allyl Nitrile in Sensitizer-Induced Ear Edema in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanii, Hideji; Sugitani, Kayo; Saijoh, Kiyofumi

    2016-02-29

    Skin sensitizers induce allergic reactions through the induction of reactive oxygen species. Allyl nitrile from cruciferous vegetables has been reported to induce antioxidants and phase II detoxification enzymes in various tissues. We assessed the effects of repeated exposure to allyl nitrile on sensitizer-induced allergic reactions. Mice were dosed with allyl nitrile (0-200 µmol/kg), and then received a dermal application of 1 of 3 sensitizers on the left ear or 1 of 2 vehicles on the right ear. Quantitative assessment of edema was carried out by measuring the difference in weight between the portions taken from the right and left ears. We tested enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in ears. Repeated exposure to allyl nitrile reduced edemas induced by glutaraldehyde and by 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), but not by formaldehyde. The repeated exposure decreased levels of TBARS, a marker of oxidative stress, induced by glutaraldehyde and by DNCB, but not by formaldehyde. Allyl nitrile elevated SOD levels for the 3 sensitizers, and CAT levels for formaldehyde and DNCB. Allyl nitrile also increased GPx levels for formaldehyde and DNCB, but not for glutaraldehyde. The reduced edemas were associated with changes in oxidative stress levels and antioxidant enzymes. Repeated exposure to allyl nitrile reduced allergic reactions induced by glutaraldehyde and by DNCB, but not by formaldehyde. This reduction was associated with changes in ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities.

  11. Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about ear tube surgery; Tympanostomy - what to ask your doctor; Myringotomy - what ... other treatments? What are the risks of the surgery? Is it safe to wait before getting ear ...

  12. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric Obesity ... self-esteem, and isolation from their peers. Pediatric obesity and otolaryngic problems Otolaryngologists, or ear, nose, and ...

  13. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric ... of self-esteem, and isolation from their peers. Pediatric obesity and otolaryngic problems Otolaryngologists, or ear, nose, ...

  14. Body lift, drag and power are relatively higher in large-eared than in small-eared bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2017-10-01

    Bats navigate the dark using echolocation. Echolocation is enhanced by external ears, but external ears increase the projected frontal area and reduce the streamlining of the animal. External ears are thus expected to compromise flight efficiency, but research suggests that very large ears may mitigate the cost by producing aerodynamic lift. Here we compare quantitative aerodynamic measures of flight efficiency of two bat species, one large-eared ( Plecotus auritus ) and one small-eared ( Glossophaga soricina ), flying freely in a wind tunnel. We find that the body drag of both species is higher than previously assumed and that the large-eared species has a higher body drag coefficient, but also produces relatively more ear/body lift than the small-eared species, in line with prior studies on model bats. The measured aerodynamic power of P. auritus was higher than predicted from the aerodynamic model, while the small-eared species aligned with predictions. The relatively higher power of the large-eared species results in lower optimal flight speeds and our findings support the notion of a trade-off between the acoustic benefits of large external ears and aerodynamic performance. The result of this trade-off would be the eco-morphological correlation in bat flight, with large-eared bats generally adopting slow-flight feeding strategies. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Headaches from ear, nose and throat diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reck, R.

    1984-01-01

    Headaches are a frequent symptom in ENT-patients. The complex sensory innervation of the ear, nose and paranasal sinuses is demonstrated. Heterotopic or referred pain must be differentiated from homotopic pain that is experienced at the point of injury. The nervous pathways of heterotopic otalgia are shown. The quality of pain of the most common rhinological and otological diseases is reported. (orig.) [de

  16. DNA isolation from rat tail or ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    This protocol describes a rapid procedure for isolating DNA from rat tail or ear punches. The simplest version of the protocol can be scaled for use in 96-well (deep-well) plates. The quality of the DNA is sufficient for any polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping approach.

  17. The first neutron beam hits EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    On 25 July 2014, about a year after construction work began, the Experimental Area 2 (EAR2) of CERN’s neutron facility n_TOF recorded its first beam. Unique in many aspects, EAR2 will start its rich programme of experimental physics this autumn.   The last part of the EAR2 beamline: the neutrons come from the underground target and reach the top of the beamline, where they hit the samples. Built about 20 metres above the neutron production target, EAR2 is in fact a bunker connected to the n_TOF underground facilities via a duct 80 cm in diameter, where the beamline is installed. The feet of the bunker support pillars are located on the concrete structure of the n_TOF tunnel and part of the structure lies above the old ISR building. A beam dump located on the roof of the building completes the structure. Neutrons are used by physicists to study neutron-induced reactions with applications in a number of fields, including nuclear waste transmutation, nuclear technology, nuclear astrop...

  18. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

  19. Clinical review of inner ear malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokai, Hiromi; Oohashi, Masami; Ishikawa, Kazuo; Harada, Kouji; Hiratsuka, Hitoshi; Ogasawara, Makoto; Miyashita, Souji; Terayama, Yoshihiko

    2003-01-01

    We had 126 patients with inner ear malformation diagnosed with temporal bone computed tomography (CT) scans at Azabu Triology Hospital between 1996 and 2002. We classified cases of inner ear malformation according to Jackler et al. The incidence of inner ear malformation in our series was as follows; labyrinthine anomalies 61% (isolated lateral semicircular canal dysplasia 56%, compound semicircular canal dysplasia 4%, semicircular canal aplasia 1%), cochlear anomalies 24%, enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct 12%, narrow internal auditory canal 2%, complete labyrinthine aplasia 1%, enlargement of the cochlear aqueduct 0%. The most frequent anomaly was isolated lateral semicircular canal dysplasia. We did not detect any significant clinical features in this anomaly. There were 2 patients with cochlear anomalies who had past histories of meningitis. Some patients with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct had frequent attacks of fluctuating hearing. Clinically it is important to detect patients with inner ear malformation such as cochlear anomalies and enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct usually accompanied by congenital sensorineural hearing loss. For patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss, we recommend temporal bone CT scan. (author)

  20. The inner ear produces a natriuretic hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1996-01-01

    Cytoplasmic granules have been demonstrated in epithelial cells from the endolymphatic sac, an extraosseus part of the inner ear located in the posterior cranial fossa. Intravenously infused extracts from endolymphatic sacs in anesthetized rats elicited a potent natriuresis and diuresis without e...

  1. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner “gatekeepers” could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats. PMID:26218243

  2. Bacteriology of chronic discharging ears in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Ear swabs of discharging ears aseptically collected from 102 patients of various age groups attending Ear, Nose, and Throat out-patient clinic at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital were cultured for bacterial agents using blood agar, chocolate agar and MacConkey agar. Culture plates were incubated ...

  3. Inner ear malformations in siblings presenting with vestibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the association between inner ear abnormalities and progressive sensorineural hearing loss is well known, vestibular signs or loss of vestibular function in these ... We provide a brief overview of the latest classification of these inner ear defects as well as a review of the literature pertaining to children with inner ear ...

  4. Influence of Ear Surface Area on Heat Tolerance of Composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative importance of ear surface area on heat tolerance of composite rabbit population was evaluated. The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, climatic data were recorded to obtain categorical heat stress index. Physiological parameters, growth performance, ear length and ear width of the rabbits ...

  5. Review of thymic pathology in 30 cats and 36 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M J

    1997-09-01

    Data are presented from 30 cats and 36 dogs in which thymic disease was recognised clinically or on postmortem examination. The diagnoses included thymic lymphoma (19 cats, 12 dogs), thymoma (five cats, 18 dogs), thymic branchial cyst formation or cystic change (one cat, four dogs), thymic hyperplasia (two cats), congenital hypoplasia (one cat, one dog), thymic haemorrhage (one cat, one dog) and thymic amyloidosis (one cat). Thymic lymphoma occurred in younger dogs and cats, and was recorded equally among domestic shorthaired and purebred (especially Siamese) cats. Eight cats with thymic lymphoma were tested for feline leukaemia virus and four were positive. Thymoma occurred more frequently in older cats and dogs, and in Labradors and German shepherd dogs. Thymic tumours were associated with paraneoplastic hypercalcaemia (six dogs), megaoesophagus (two dogs) or interface dermatitis with basement membrane immune complex deposition (one cat). Non-neoplastic thymic diseases were associated with myasthenia gravis (one cat), pemphigus foliaceus (one cat) and superficial necrolytic dermatitis (one cat).

  6. Diagnosis and medical treatment of otitis externa in the dog and cat : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Jacobson

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Otitis externa is no longer viewed as an isolated disease of the ear canal, but is a syndrome that is often a reflection of underlying dermatological disease. Causes are classified as predisposing (increase the risk of otitis ; primary (directly induce otitis, secondary (contribute to otitis only in an abnormal ear or in conjunction with predisposing factors and perpetuating (result from inflammation and pathology in ear, prevent resolution of otitis. Common primary causes include foreign bodies, hypersensitivity (particularly atopy and food allergy, keratinisation disorders (most commonly primary idiopathic seborrhoea and hypothyroidism and earmites, particularly in cats. A systematic diagnostic procedure is required to identify causes and contributing factors. This should include history, clinical examination, otoscopy and cytology in all cases and culture and sensitivity as well as otitis media assessment and biopsy in severe and recurrent cases. Ancillary tests may be required depending on the underlying cause. Treatment consists of identifying and addressing predisposing and primary factors ; cleaning the ear canal ; topical therapy ; systemic therapy where necessary ; client education ; follow-up ; and preventive and maintenance therapy as required.

  7. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  8. Anthropometric growth study of the ear in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shichun; Li, Dianguo; Liu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yibiao; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Duyin; Pan, Bo

    2018-04-01

    A large number of anthropometric studies of the auricle have been reported in different nations, but little data were available in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to analyze growth changes in the ear by measuring the width and length of ears in a Chinese population. A total of 480 participants were enrolled and classified into 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 9-, 12-, 14-, and 18-year groups (half were boys and half were girls in each group). Ear length, ear width, body weight, and body length were measured and recorded; ear index was calculated according to ear length and ear width. The growth of auricle and differences between genders were analyzed. Growth of ear in relation to body height and weight and the degree of emphasis on the length and width of the auricle were also analyzed. Ear length and width increased with age. Ear length achieved its mature size in both 14-year-old males and females. Ear width reached its mature size in males at 7 years and in females at 5 years. Different trends of ear index were shown between males and females. People in this population paid more attention to the length than the width of the auricle. The data indicated that ear development followed increase in age. There were gender and ethnic difference in the development of ear. These results may have potential implications for the diagnosis of congenital malformations, syndromes, and planning of ear reconstruction surgery. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inner ear pressure changes following square wave intracranial or ear canal pressure manipulation in the same guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalen, E; Wit, H; Segenhout, H; Albers, F

    Inner ear pressure was measured in scala tympani with a micropipette during square wave pressure manipulation of the intracranial compartment and, subsequently, of the external ear canal (EEC) in the same guinea pig. As expected, the combination of the cochlear aqueduct and the inner ear behaves as

  10. Hearing with an atympanic ear: good vibration and poor sound-pressure detection in the royal python, Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2012-01-15

    Snakes lack both an outer ear and a tympanic middle ear, which in most tetrapods provide impedance matching between the air and inner ear fluids and hence improve pressure hearing in air. Snakes would therefore be expected to have very poor pressure hearing and generally be insensitive to airborne sound, whereas the connection of the middle ear bone to the jaw bones in snakes should confer acute sensitivity to substrate vibrations. Some studies have nevertheless claimed that snakes are quite sensitive to both vibration and sound pressure. Here we test the two hypotheses that: (1) snakes are sensitive to sound pressure and (2) snakes are sensitive to vibrations, but cannot hear the sound pressure per se. Vibration and sound-pressure sensitivities were quantified by measuring brainstem evoked potentials in 11 royal pythons, Python regius. Vibrograms and audiograms showed greatest sensitivity at low frequencies of 80-160 Hz, with sensitivities of -54 dB re. 1 m s(-2) and 78 dB re. 20 μPa, respectively. To investigate whether pythons detect sound pressure or sound-induced head vibrations, we measured the sound-induced head vibrations in three dimensions when snakes were exposed to sound pressure at threshold levels. In general, head vibrations induced by threshold-level sound pressure were equal to or greater than those induced by threshold-level vibrations, and therefore sound-pressure sensitivity can be explained by sound-induced head vibration. From this we conclude that pythons, and possibly all snakes, lost effective pressure hearing with the complete reduction of a functional outer and middle ear, but have an acute vibration sensitivity that may be used for communication and detection of predators and prey.

  11. Inner ear manifestations in CHARGE: Abnormalities, treatments, animal models, and progress toward treatments in auditory and vestibular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Daniel I; Tawfik, Kareem O; Martin, Donna M; Raphael, Yehoash

    2017-12-01

    The inner ear contains the sensory organs for hearing and balance. Both hearing and balance are commonly affected in individuals with CHARGE syndrome (CS), an autosomal dominant condition caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in the CHD7 gene. Semicircular canal dysplasia or aplasia is the single most prevalent feature in individuals with CHARGE leading to deficient gross motor skills and ambulation. Identification of CHD7 as the major gene affected in CHARGE has enabled acceleration of research in this field. Great progress has been made in understanding the role of CHD7 in the development and function of the inner ear, as well as in related organs such as the middle ear and auditory and vestibular neural pathways. The goals of current research on CHD7 and CS are to (a) improve our understanding of the pathology caused by CHD7 pathogenic variants and (b) to provide better tools for prognosis and treatment. Current studies utilize cells and whole animals, from flies to mammals. The mouse is an excellent model for exploring mechanisms of Chd7 function in the ear, given the evolutionary conservation of ear structure, function, Chd7 expression, and similarity of mutant phenotypes between mice and humans. Newly recognized developmental functions for mouse Chd7 are shedding light on how abnormalities in CHD7 might lead to CS symptoms in humans. Here we review known human inner ear phenotypes associated with CHD7 pathogenic variants and CS, summarize progress toward diagnosis and treatment of inner ear-related pathologies, and explore new avenues for treatment based on basic science discoveries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  13. Diagnostic Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-21

    IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Diagnostic Exercise - Neurologic Disorder in a Cat 12...and identify by block number) This report documents the fifth reported occurrance of cerebral phaeophyphomycosis in cats . Because mycotic...Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat Ronald C. Bell United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick

  14. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  15. Groups acting on CAT(0) cube complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Niblo, Graham A.; Reeves, Lawrence

    1997-01-01

    We show that groups satisfying Kazhdan's property (T) have no unbounded actions on finite dimensional CAT(0) cube complexes, and deduce that there is a locally CAT(-1) Riemannian manifold which is not homotopy equivalent to any finite dimensional, locally CAT(0) cube complex.

  16. Numerical Model on Sound-Solid Coupling in Human Ear and Study on Sound Pressure of Tympanic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wen-juan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of three-dimensional finite-element model of the whole auditory system includes external ear, middle ear, and inner ear. The sound-solid-liquid coupling frequency response analysis of the model was carried out. The correctness of the FE model was verified by comparing the vibration modes of tympanic membrane and stapes footplate with the experimental data. According to calculation results of the model, we make use of the least squares method to fit out the distribution of sound pressure of external auditory canal and obtain the sound pressure function on the tympanic membrane which varies with frequency. Using the sound pressure function, the pressure distribution on the tympanic membrane can be directly derived from the sound pressure at the external auditory canal opening. The sound pressure function can make the boundary conditions of the middle ear structure more accurate in the mechanical research and improve the previous boundary treatment which only applied uniform pressure acting to the tympanic membrane.

  17. Ear care: an update for nurses (part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Millward, K.

    2017-01-01

    A healthy ear is vital not just for hearing, but for balance and for full engagement with the community. In the first of two articles, Kat Millward reviews the anatomy of the ear, outlines methods of dealing with cerumen, and discusses methods of assessment and diagnosis\\ud \\ud Our ears are essential for both hearing and balance. Up to 4% of the population will have difficulties with their ears relating to impacted cerumen and many of them will present in primary care with ear discomfort or h...

  18. Cat-scratch disease osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heye, S.; Matthijs, P.; Campenhoudt, M. van; Wallon, J.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a patient who presented with osteomyelitis of a rib and adjacent abscess as a rare and atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease. Radiographic findings showed an osteolytic lesion with adjacent mass. Biopsy, serology and polymerase chain reaction technique are essential for the final diagnosis. Prognosis is excellent with full recovery. (orig.)

  19. A strange cat in Dublin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  20. Religiosidad catódica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ignacio Sierra G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estos apuntes se refieren a que en estos últimos tiempos ha habido un resurgimiento del fenómeno religioso de diversas maneras, incluso sorprendentes. Al aproximarse el tercer milenio, la posmodernidad religiosa disputa parte de la pantalla electrónica con el melodrama religioso: hoy estamos viviendo una religiosidad mediática, una religiosidad catódica.

  1. EUROmediCAT signal detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given, Joanne E; Loane, Maria; Luteijn, Johannes Michiel

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate congenital anomaly (CA)-medication exposure associations produced by the new EUROmediCAT signal detection system and determine which require further investigation. METHODS: Data from 15 EUROCAT registries (1995-2011) with medication exposures at the chemical substance (5th level...

  2. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Stella, Judith L.; Croney, Candace C.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could hel...

  3. A Rare Case of Petrified Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E. Buikema

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcification or ossification of the auricle, also referred to as petrified ear, is a rare diagnosis in dermatology. In medical literature, it has most often been attributed to trauma, hypothermia and frostbite, or hypercalcemia secondary to a metabolic or endocrine disorder, such as Addison's disease. Here, we report the clinical and radiologic findings of a 79-year-old African American male whose unilateral petrified auricle was an incidental finding. He had a preceding history of hyperparathyroidism and subsequent hypercalcemia treated with a subtotal parathyroidectomy three years prior to presentation. In addition to laboratory analysis, a history and physical examination was performed which revealed no other signs of hypercalcemia. Radiologic studies demonstrated partial ossification of the external auricular cartilage on the left side. The patient was diagnosed with the rare occurrence of a petrified ear. In light of this case, we provide a discussion concerning the possible etiologies of this diagnosis including appropriate patient evaluation and possible treatment recommendations.

  4. Dietary dissolution of urinary calculi in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A young adult, castrated male DSH cat was admitted for pollakiuria, hematuria and dysuria. The cat was being fed a commercial dry grocery brand cat food. Radiographs demonstrated multiple radiodense cystic calculi and urinalysis showed hematuria but no crystalluria. A tentative diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis was made. The cat was fed s/d® Feline food exclusively. Clinical signs disappeared within a week and no calculi were visible radiographically within three weeks. s/d® Feline food was continued an additional two weeks. This case study shows that s/d® Feline therapeutic food can be used to successfully manage struvite urolithiasis in cats

  5. Stevens–Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis caused by cefadroxil in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sartori

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 5-year-old, spayed female, indoor-only domestic shorthair cat was referred with an acute history of multifocal cutaneous and mucocutaneous erosive-ulcerative lesions and skin detachment. The lesions occurred on the seventh day of therapy with cefadroxil. Erosive-ulcerative and occasionally crusted lesions were apparent on the medial and lateral canthus of both eyes, ventral neck, abdomen, perivulvar region, periungual skin and medial aspect of the front and hindlimbs. Diffuse and severe exfoliation was present on the dorsum and tail base and in both external ear canals. The cat was also dehydrated, tachycardic and febrile. Histopathological examination revealed extensive epidermal ulceration, interface dermatitis with vacuolar degeneration, apoptosis at multiple epidermal levels and basal, suprabasal and spinous dermoepidermal detachment. The histopathological diagnosis was consistent with Stevens–Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN. The recently reported Algorithm of Drug Causality in Epidermal Necrolysis (ALDEN, currently used in human medicine, was applied and a score of +6 was calculated; this supported the view that SJS/TEN in this cat was very likely to be associated with cefadroxil administration. Relevance and novel information This clinical communication reports cefadroxil as a very probable cause of SJS/TEN in a cat; the ALDEN was applied in this case and supported diagnosis.

  6. Ear embryonic rabdomiosarcoma. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueto, L.; Canabal, A.; Blanco, A.; Sabate, J.

    2002-01-01

    A case of embryonic rabdomiosarcoma in the ear of a 5-year-old girl who initially shows clinical symptoms of otitis media. The CT reveals a dense lesion of soft tissue which shows up slightly in the right external auditory channel. Also of interest were osteolytic areas in the petrous, clivus and zygomatic arch. A hypointensive lesion with marked enhancement after Gd-DPTA injection is observed. Discussed are the imaging methods used in the diagnosis of this tumor. (Author) 10 refs

  7. ElectroAcoustic Resource Site (EARS)

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Simon; Landy, Leigh

    2002-01-01

    Central to the MTIRC’s electroacoustic music studies focus, EARS is supported by the AHRC’s resource enhancement scheme (ca. £170k) and Unesco (£3k). Beyond its initial goal to create the glossary (~500 entries) and related index (providing a coherent hyperlink structure for the bibliography – ~3000 entries) there are further methodological research imperatives – to offer a web-based resource that: a) Realises an accessible research resource (glossary, keyword index and bibliography) to co...

  8. Structural Metadata Research in the Ears Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    detecting structural information in the word stream (the so-called “structural MDE” portion of the EARS program); other MDE efforts on speaker ... diarization are overviewed in [13]. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. We describe the structural MDE tasks, performance measurement, and corpora...tems have only recently been introduced, with NIST reporting re- sults with the Wilcoxon signed rank test for speaker -level average score differences

  9. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    Full Text Available Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods.

  10. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods.

  11. Pathology of ear hematomas in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Richard; Hélie, Pierre; D'Allaire, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of our study were to describe the pathology of ear hematomas in swine and to add to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of this condition. The pathogenesis of aural hematomas has been studied mainly in dogs; however, disagreements exist about the precise anatomic location of the hemorrhage. Sixteen pigs with ear hematoma at various stages of development were included in this study. The pigs were submitted for routine autopsy for various and unrelated reasons over a period of several years. Based on gross examination, the 16 cases of aural hematomas were subjectively classified as acute (n = 6), subacute (n = 3), and chronic (n = 7). The age of the animals at the time of autopsy ranged from 2 weeks to adulthood, with all acute cases being hematoma developed predominantly in a subperichondral location on both sides of the cartilaginous plate simultaneously. Within these same cases, there were also some areas in which blood-filled clefts had formed within the cartilage itself. Besides fibroplasia, neoformation of cartilage was found to represent a significant part of the repair process. All chronic cases were characterized on cross-section of the ear by the presence of at least 2 distinct, wavy, focally folded, and roughly parallel plates of cartilage separated from each other by fibrous tissue. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Acute pancreatitis in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akol, K G; Washabau, R J; Saunders, H M; Hendrick, M J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence, clinical features, and prognosis of acute pancreatitis in cats with hepatic lipidosis. Of 13 cats histologically diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis between July 1988, and November 1989, 5(38%) were also histologically diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. In cats with hepatic lipidosis alone, the signalment, history, physical examination, and clinicopathologic findings were generally indistinguishable from those of cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis except that cats with acute pancreatitis were more likely to be cachectic and to have coagulation abnormalities. Hepatomegaly was seen on abdominal radiographs in both groups. Of the 5 cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis, abdominal ultrasonography detected 1 cat with a hypoechoic pancreas and 5 with peritoneal effusion; those abnormalities were not seen in cats without concurrent acute pancreatitis. Cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis had only a 20% recovery rate, compared with a 50% recovery rate in cats with hepatic lipidosis alone. We conclude that cats with hepatic lipidosis should be rigorously evaluated for concurrent acute pancreatitis because of 1) the rate of disease coincidence, 2) the inability of signalment, history, physical examination, and clinicopathologic findings to adequately distinguish between hepatic lipidosis and acute pancreatitis, 3) the worse prognosis associated with concurrent acute pancreatitis, and 4) the opposing nutritional strategies for hepatic lipidosis and acute pancreatitis.

  13. Preservation of auditory brainstem response thresholds after cochleostomy and titanium microactuator implantation in the lateral wall of cat scala tympani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, S George; Prewitt, Jessica; Bray, Victor; Aravamudhan, Radhika; Bermeo Blanco, Oscar A; Farmer-Fedor, Brenda L; Ward, Jonette A

    2014-04-01

    The safety of implanting a titanium microactuator into the lateral wall of cat scala tympani was assessed by comparing preoperative and postoperative auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds for 1 to 3 months. The safety of directly stimulating cochlear perilymph with an implantable hearing system requires maintaining preoperative hearing levels. This cat study is an essential step in the development of the next generation of fully implantable hearing devices for humans. Following GLP surgical standards, a 1-mm cochleostomy was drilled into the lateral wall of the scala tympani, and a nonfunctioning titanium anchor/microactuator assembly was inserted in 8 cats. The scala media was damaged in the 1 cat. ABR thresholds with click and 4- and 8-kHz stimuli were measured preoperatively and compared with postoperative thresholds at 1, 2, and 3 months. Nonimplanted ear thresholds were also measured to establish statistical significance for threshold shifts (>28.4 dB). Two audiologists independently interpreted thresholds. Postoperatively, 7 cats implanted in the scala tympani demonstrated no significant ABR threshold shift for click stimulus; one shifted ABR thresholds to 4- and 8-kHz stimuli. The eighth cat, with surgical damage to the scala media, maintained stable click threshold but had a significant shift to 4- and 8-kHz stimuli. This cat study provides no evidence of worsening hearing thresholds after fenestration of the scala tympani and insertion of a titanium anchor/microactuator, provided there is no surgical trauma to the scala media and the implanted device is securely anchored in the cochleostomy. These 2 issues have been resolved in the development of a fully implantable hearing system for humans. The long-term hearing stability (combined with histologic studies) reaffirm that the microactuator is well tolerated by the cat cochlea.

  14. Feline asthma syndrome: a retrospective study of the clinical presentation in 29 cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, B.M.; Foster, D.J.; Fuentes, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    Feline asthma syndrome (FAS) is a clinical condition characterised by recurrent bouts of coughing, wheezing and, or, dyspnoea. While the aetiology is unproven, the condition is believed to involve a type I immediate hypersensitivity reaction to inhaled allergens. In this paper the clinical data from 29 cats, where a diagnosis of FAS was made, are assessed retrospectively. The most common clinical presentation was recurrent bouts of coughing (n = 26) and dyspnoea (n = 21). Radiographic changes were noted in 24 cats, which included increased bronchial (n = 5), interstitial (n = 7) and mixed (n = 12) (bronchial and interstitial) patterns. Right middle lung lobe collapse was noted in two cats. Abnormal bronchial cytology was present in 16 cats. A predominant eosinophilic sample was collected in only three cats. There were minimal changes in differential white cell counts, and mild eosinophilia was found in only five cats. Prednisolone alone was the most effective therapy, although avoidance of putative aeroallergens and antibacterial therapy was effective in some. On the basis of the data from these cases it would appear that the diagnosis of FAS depends largely on the clinical presentation and radiographic findings. The value of ancillary tests in the diagnosis of FAS appears to be limited

  15. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  16. Mapping of cat albumin using monoclonal antibodies: identification of determinants common to cat and dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Y; Hébert, J; Vrancken, E R; Mourad, W

    1989-01-01

    Cat and dog albumins from commercial extracts were used to produce monoclonal antibodies (MoAb). Anti-cat albumin MoAb recognized both cat and dog albumin equally, as did anti-dog albumin MoAb; this confirms cross-reactivity between cat and dog. The MoAb were separated into two groups according to their epitopic specificity; they recognized two overlapping epitopes of cat albumin. Furthermore, by competitive inhibition of radio-allergosorbent test (RAST), it was shown that one MoAb group inhibited significantly the binding of human IgE antibodies (from a pool of 13 patients allergic to both cats and dogs) to insolubilized cat or dog extracts. These observations suggest that murine anti-cat or anti-dog MoAb and human IgE antibodies recognize identical or closely related determinants on cat and dog albumin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2478325

  17. Behaviour Problems of Cats Reared Individually or in Coexistence with other Animals (Cats, Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmecová N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether behaviour problems in indoor cats depend on the number of cats in a household or rearing one or more cats in a household together with a dog. The study was carried out on animals which were divided for the purpose of this study into 4 groups: (1 households with one cat; (2 households with two cats; (3 households with three or more cats; (4 households with one or more cats and a dog. Altogether 91 cats were included in the study. The practical part of this investigation was based on a questionnaire. It was observed that the probability of behaviour problems was not related unambiguously to the number of cats in a household or the company of a dog. The percentage of the occurrence of changed behaviour did not differ significantly between the groups.

  18. Serum and urinary cystatin C in cats with feline immunodeficiency virus infection and cats with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghys, Liesbeth Fe; Paepe, Dominique; Taffin, Elien Rl; Vandermeulen, Eva; Duchateau, Luc; Smets, Pascale My; Delanghe, Joris; Daminet, Sylvie

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate serum cystatin C (sCysC) and urinary cystatin C (uCysC) in cats with hyperthyroidism and cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Thirty cats with FIV, 26 hyperthyroid cats and 28 healthy cats were included. sCysC and uCysC:creatinine (uCysC/uCr) ratio were measured with a human particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay, previously validated for feline CysC measurement. Routine renal variables (serum creatinine [sCr], urine specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio [UPC]) were also measured in the three groups. Cats with hyperthyroidism had significantly higher sCysC and higher uCysC/uCr ratio, lower sCr and a higher UPC than healthy cats. Cats with FIV infection did not show a significantly higher sCysC concentration but had a significantly higher sCr and UPC than healthy cats. uCysC could be detected in only four of them. This study demonstrated that sCysC is increased in cats with hyperthyroidism, in contrast with sCr, but not in cats with FIV. Many hyperthyroid cats, but only four cats with FIV, had an elevated uCysC/uCr ratio. Further studies may reveal if uCysC might be a valuable marker for tubular dysfunction in cats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Differences between vocalization evoked by social stimuli in feral cats and house cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Seong C; Kim, Young K; Park, Se J; Lee, Scott S; Lee, Seung Y; Suh, Euy H; Houpt, Katherine A; Chang, Hong H; Lee, Hee C; Yang, Byung G; Lee, Hyo J

    2011-06-01

    To investigate how socialization can affect the types and characteristics of vocalization produced by cats, feral cats (n=25) and house cats (n=13) were used as subjects, allowing a comparison between cats socialized to people and non-socialized cats. To record vocalization and assess the cats' responses to behavioural stimuli, five test situations were used: approach by a familiar caretaker, by a threatening stranger, by a large doll, by a stranger with a dog and by a stranger with a cat. Feral cats showed extremely aggressive and defensive behaviour in most test situations, and produced higher call rates than those of house cats in the test situations, which could be attributed to less socialization to other animals and to more sensitivity to fearful situations. Differences were observed in the acoustic parameters of feral cats in comparison to those of house cats. The feral cat produced significantly higher frequency in fundamental frequency, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, 3rd quartile frequency of growls and hisses in agonistic test situations. In contrast to the growls and hisses, in meow, all acoustic parameters like fundamental frequency, first formant, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, and 3rd quartile frequency of house cats were of significantly higher frequency than those of feral cats. Also, house cats produced calls of significantly shorter in duration than feral cats in agonistic test situations. These results support the conclusion that a lack of socialization may affect usage of types of vocalizations, and the vocal characteristics, so that the proper socialization of cat may be essential to be a suitable companion house cat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Surgical manipulators in ear surgery: a future vision?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, M; Dietz, A; Strauss, G

    2011-04-01

    Middle ear surgery bears a high risk for injury of difficult to differentiate risk structures. Thus, a precise preparation in this area must be the surgical task. However, there are human (tremor) and systematic limitations (OR setup, narrow access). Assistance systems in terms of manipulators are so far not part of the clinical routine. Although, they could compensate for the above mentioned limitations. MANIPULATORS: This work reviews existing surgical manipulator systems. The expected value is an elevated patient safety through improving surgical accuracy and the reduction of ergonomic deficits. CLINICAL APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT: In clinical application there are simply modified industrial robots, highly complex master slave systems and small miniature master slave systems which are directly located at the patient. A disadvantage of most systems is the limited number of applicable instruments. Often, only especially designed instruments can be used. The goal in development should be to create a compact, short distance operated master slave system. The usability of standard (already available) instruments with an easy integration into the surgical and sterilisation procedure would lower the threshold for acceptance of such systems.The surgeon will remain the key player. He can only work efficiently in an ergonomic environment and will always have the responsibility for the intervention. From the authors perspective, highly automated systems should not be the research goal. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Acetaminophen Toxicosis in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Anvik, J. O.

    1984-01-01

    A seven month old domestic shorthaired male cat was presented with a known history of acetaminophen ingestion. Clinical findings included icterus, depression, hypothermia, tachypnea and pronounced edema of the head and neck. Treatment was aimed at providing substrate to assist in conjugation of the drug and reversing methemoglobinemia. Administration of oral acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid and IV fluids was insufficient in this case due to a delay in initiation of treatment. The salient postmor...

  2. Hypophosphatemia associated with enteral alimentation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, R B; Hohenhaus, A E

    1995-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is uncommon in cats, but it has been reported in association with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis, where it can cause hemolysis, rhabdomyopathy, depression, seizures, and coma. The purpose of this article is to describe 9 cats that developed low serum phosphorus concentrations (alimentation. Serum biochemical analyses from more than 6,000 cats were reviewed. The medical records of all cats with hypophosphatemia were examined for history of enteral alimentation; diabetic cats were excluded from the study. Nine cats, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, were identified. All cats had normal serum phosphorus concentrations before tube feeding began. Onset of hypophosphatemia occurred 12 to 72 hours after initiation of enteral alimentation, and the nadir for phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/dL. Hemolysis occurred in 6 of the 9 cats. Hypophosphatemia secondary to enteral alimentation is an uncommon clinical finding in cats. Cats with high alanine aminotransferase activity, hyperbilirubinemia, and weight loss should be closely monitored for hypophosphatemia during the first 72 hours of enteral alimentation.

  3. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine ( 131 I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of 131 I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of 131 I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that 131 I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined

  4. Odontogenic keratocyst in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Walker, K S; Mohr, F C; Murphy, B

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts are derived from odontogenic epithelium, can be locally invasive and destructive and have been reported rarely in cats. A 16-year-old, male domestic shorthair cat had a 3-year history of a slowly progressive, right mandibular swelling. Intraoral dental radiographs revealed a multilocular, radiolucent, cystic mass within the right mandible that extended from the distal aspect of the canine tooth to the mesial aspect of the fourth premolar tooth. Radiographically, the mass was associated with distortion and regional destruction of the right mandibular bone and resorption of regional tooth roots. Histological examination of an incisional biopsy sample revealed multiple ruptured cysts lined by stratified squamous epithelium of odontogenic origin with luminal parakeratinization and a prominent palisading basal cell layer. The cyst contained abundant orthokeratotic and parakeratotic keratin. The clinical, radiographical and histological features were consistent with a diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst, as seen in man. This is the first report of an odontogenic keratocyst in a cat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in seed oil and protein contents of maize cultivars at different positions on the ear in response to water limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out as split-split plot in 2014 to assess the effects of four irrigation treatments (irrigations after 60, 80, 100 and 120 mm evaporation, respectively on oil and protein changes of maize cultivars (SC704, NS640 and DC303: Late, mid and early maturing cultivars, respectively at different seed positions on the ear (upper, middle and lower positions on the ear. Overall, the highest seed yield was obtained from SC704, followed by NS640 and DC303 cultivars. Seed yield of all cultivars was higher at lower seed position on ear than at middle and upper parts of the ear under different irrigation treatments. The highest oil and protein yields were also recorded for seeds at lower position on the ear. Seed yield of all maize cultivars at various seed positions decreased with increasing irrigation intervals. Oil percentage decreased, but protein percentage increased with decreasing water availability. Water limitation decreased oil and protein yields of maize cultivars. Changes in protein and oil yields of maize cultivars at different seed positions and irrigation treatments were attributed to changes in seed yield.

  6. [Diagnostic value of high-resolution computed tomography imaging in congenital inner ear malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaowei; Ding, Yuanping; Zhang, Jianji; Chen, Ying; Xu, Anting; Dou, Fenfen; Zhang, Zihe

    2007-02-01

    To observe the inner ear structure with volume rendering (VR) reconstruction and to evaluate the role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in congenital inner ear malformations. HRCT scanning was performed in 10 patients (20 ears) without ear disease (control group) and 7 patients (11 ears) with inner ear malformations (IEM group) and the original data was processed with VR reconstruction. The inner ear osseous labyrinth structure in the images generated by these techniques was observed respectively in the normal ears and malformation ears. The inner ear osseous labyrinth structure and the relationship was displayed clearly in VR imaging in the control group,meanwhile, characters and degree of malformed structure were also displayed clearly in the IEA group. Of seven patients (11 ears) with congenital inner ear malformations, the axial, MPR and VR images can display the site and degree in 9 ears. VR images were superior to the axial images in displaying the malformations in 2 ears with the small lateral semicircular canal malformations. The malformations included Mondini deformity (7 ears), vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (3 ears), vestibular aqueduct dilate (7 ears, of which 6 ears accompanied by other malformations) , the internal auditory canal malformation (2 ears, all accompanied by other malformations). HRCT can display the normal structure of bone inner ear through high quality VR reconstructions. VR images can also display the site and degree of the malformations three-dimensionally and intuitively. HRCT is valuable in diagnosing the inner ear malformation.

  7. Immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of desmoglein 1 and 2 in the skin of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragliotta, Vincenzo; Coli, Alessandra; Ricciardi, Maria P; Podestà, Adriano; Abramo, Francesca

    2005-11-01

    To compare the distribution of desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and 2 in skin specimens obtained from dogs and cats to provide information about the possible role of the density of Dsg 1 and 2 in the localization of lesions attributable to pemphigus foliaceus in these 2 species. Skin biopsy specimens obtained from 4 dogs and 4 cats. Biopsy specimens were collected from the muzzle, bridge of the nose, ear, dorsum, abdomen, area adjacent to the teats, and footpads of each animal. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin samples by use of a biotinylated mouse monoclonal anti-Dsg 1 and 2 antibody raised against bovine muzzle. Color development was performed by use of the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method with a chromogenic substrate. Immunohistochemical staining yielded a positive reaction in skin samples obtained from all anatomic sites. The intensity and distribution of staining were related to the number of layers of the stratum spinosum. No differences were detected between samples obtained from dogs and cats. No differences in intensity of Dsg 1 and 2 antigen were observed in the stratum spinosum between skin samples obtained from dogs and cats. Analysis of this result suggests that factors other than the distribution of Dsg may be responsible for the differences in localization of primary clinical lesions in dogs and cats with pemphigus foliaceus.

  8. Ear biometrics for patient identification in global health: a cross-sectional study to test the feasibility of a simplified algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Elizabeth J; Johnson, Courtney; Milton, Jacqueline N; Gill, Christopher J

    2016-11-02

    One of the greatest public health challenges in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is identifying people over time and space. Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in developing electronic approaches to addressing this problem, with mobile technology at the forefront of these efforts. We investigate the possibility of biometrics as a simple, cost-efficient, and portable solution. Common biometrics approaches include fingerprinting, iris scanning and facial recognition, but all are less than ideal due to complexity, infringement on privacy, cost, or portability. Ear biometrics, however, proved to be a unique and viable solution. We developed an identification algorithm then conducted a cross sectional study in which we photographed left and right ears from 25 consenting adults. We then conducted re-identification and statistical analyses to identify the accuracy and replicability of our approach. Through principal component analysis, we found the curve of the ear helix to be the most reliable anatomical structure and the basis for re-identification. Although an individual ear allowed for high re-identification rate (88.3%), when both left and right ears were paired together, our rate of re-identification amidst the pool of potential matches was 100%. The results of this study have implications on future efforts towards building a biometrics solution for patient identification in LMICs. We provide a conceptual platform for further investigation into the development of an ear biometrics identification mobile application.

  9. Presbycusis: do we have a third ear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Luis Roque; Escada, Pedro

    Age-related hearing changes are the most frequent cause of sensorineural hearing loss in adults. In the literature no studies exist concerning the importance of speechreading in individuals with presbycusis. Equally, no such studies have been carried out with speakers of the Portuguese (Portugal) language. To evaluate whether the intelligibility of words in presbycusis is improved by speechreading, in such a way that looking at the interlocutor's face while he is talking functions like a "third ear", and to determine the statistical relevance of the intelligibility improvement by speechreading. Eleven individuals (22 ears) with bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss compatible with presbycusis were evaluated. The subjects were aged between 57 and 82 years, with an average of 70±11.51 years and median of 69.5 years. A complete medical and audiological profile of each patient was created and all patients were submitted to a vocal audiogram, without and with observation of the audiologist's face. A descriptive and analytical statistical analysis was performed (Shapiro-Wilk and t pairs tests) adopting the significance level of 0.05 (5%). We noticed better performance in intelligibility with speechreading. The p-value was zero (ppresbycusis in this study, performed better on spoken word intelligibility when the hearing of those words was associated with speechreading. This phenomenon helps in such a way that observation of the interlocutor's face works like a "third ear". Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Analytical model of internally coupled ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vossen, Christine; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Leo van Hemmen, J

    2010-01-01

    Lizards and many birds possess a specialized hearing mechanism: internally coupled ears where the tympanic membranes connect through a large mouth cavity so that the vibrations of the tympanic membranes influence each other. This coupling enhances the phase differences and creates amplitude...... additionally provides the opportunity to incorporate the effect of the asymmetrically attached columella, which leads to the activation of higher membrane vibration modes. Incorporating this effect, the analytical model can explain measurements taken from the tympanic membrane of a living lizard, for example...

  11. A review of feral cat control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sheilah A

    2008-08-01

    Animal overpopulation including feral cats is an important global problem. There are many stakeholders involved in the feral cat debate over 'what to do about the problem', including those who consider them a nuisance, the public at risk from zoonotic disease, people who are concerned about the welfare of feral cats, those concerned with wildlife impacts, and the cats themselves. How best to control this population is controversial and has ranged from culling, relocation, and more recently 'trap neuter return' (TNR) methods. Data support the success of TNR in reducing cat populations, but to have a large impact it will have to be adopted on a far greater scale than it is currently practised. Non-surgical contraception is a realistic future goal. Because the feral cat problem was created by humans, concerted educational efforts on responsible pet ownership and the intrinsic value of animals is an integral part of a solution.

  12. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hye-Joo

    2016-01-01

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effect on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. - Highlights: • VDR signaling is involved in ear development. • Knockdown of vdrb causes inner ear malformations during embryogenesis. • Knockdown of vdrb affects otic placode induction. • Knockdown of vdrb reduces the number of sensory hair cells in the inner ear. • Knockdown of vdrb disrupts balance and motor coordination.

  13. Ear replanatation: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Božikov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total ear amputation is a rare accident. The most common causes are traffic accidents (33 %, followed by fights (28 %. In 1980, Pennington et al. reported the first successful microsurgical ear replantation in a 29-year old man.Methods: An English literature review of trauma cases of total ear amputation showed only 13 successful replantations with arterial and venous microanastomoses. We present a case report of successful total ear replantation with arterial and vein microanastomoses in a 17-year old boy.Results: Our ear replantation with both arterial and venous anastomoses performed was successful and we achieved an excellent aesthetic outcome.Conclusion: The reason for such a low number of successful ear replantations is technical challenge due to small vessel diameter, difficult vessel identification, vessel approach and concomitant avulsion injury. The best aesthetic result in ear reconstruction is achieved by microsurgical replantation. The surgical technique depends on the intraoperative findings. Since ear replantation is a very challenging procedure, a microsurgeon needs to discuss with the patient the risk of partial/total necrosis of the replanted ear and the possibilities of other reconstructive options.

  14. Incorporating anthropometry into design of ear-related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bor-Shong

    2008-01-01

    To achieve mass customization and collaborative product design, human factors and ergonomics should play a key development role. The purpose of this study was to provide product designers with the anthropometic dimensions of outer ears for different demographic data, including gender and age. The second purpose was to compare the dimensions of various ear-related products (i.e., earphone, bluetooth earphone and ear-cup earphone) with the anthropometic database and recommend appropriate solutions for design. Two hundred subjects aged 20-59 was selected for this study and divided into four age stratifications. Further, three different dimensions of the outer ear (i.e., the earhole length, the ear connection length and the length of the pinna) were measured by superimposed grid photographic technique. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the effects of gender, and age on ear dimensions. The results showed that all ear dimensions had significant gender effects. A comparison between the anthropometric dimensions and those of current products revealed that most current ear-related products need to be redesigned using anthropometric data. The shapes of earhole and pinna are not circular. Consequently, ear products need to be elongated so that users may feel more comfortably and not have the product slip off easily.

  15. Does acupuncture ameliorate motor impairment after stroke? An assessment using the CatWalk gait system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Sun, Ning; Yang, Jing-Wen; Zheng, Yang; Zhu, Wen; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Xue-Rui; Shi, Guang-Xia; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2017-07-01

    The effect of acupuncture on gait deficits after stroke is uncertain. This animal study was designed to determine whether acupuncture improves gait impairment following experimentally induced ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. After 7 days' of acupuncture treatment, assessment of gait changes using the CatWalk automated gait analysis system was performed. Comparison of the CatWalk gait parameters among the groups showed that gait function was impaired after ischemic stroke and acupuncture treatment was effective in improving a variety of gait parameters including intensity, stance and swing time, swing speed and stride length at postoperative day 8. This study demonstrates a beneficial effect of acupuncture on gait impairment in rats following ischemic stroke. Further studies aimed to investigate the effects of acupuncture at different stages during stroke using the CatWalk system are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ear-to-Ear On-Body Channel Model for Hearing Aid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    that the head is mod- eled more accurately, and the radiation pattern is sampled in more points. The model is able to take the on-body radiation pattern of the antenna, as well as arbitrary he ad contours into account. The model is validated by the use of measurements and Ansys HFSS simulations on the specific......The deterministic ear-to-ear on-body channel is modeled by the use of a number of elliptically shaped paths. The semi-major axes of the elliptica lly shaped paths are adjusted such that they trace the outline of the head. The path gain converges when the number of paths is increased, su ch...... anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) head. The model is used with a g enetic algorithm in order to synthesize a radiation pattern that is optimal for use with the ear-to-ear on-body channel. The radiation pattern is synthesized in terms of the spherical wave expansion coefficients of the hypothetical small antenna...

  17. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh.

  18. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at a...

  19. CAT-ASVAB Technical Bulletin Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    CAT -ASVAB Technical Bulletin #1 Personnel Testing Division Defense Manpower Data Center March 2006 Report...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CAT -ASVAB Technical Bulletin #1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Hetter, R. D. "Psychometric Procedures for Administering CAT -ASVAB" (pp. 131-140) Chapter 4 Hetter, R. D., & Sympson J. B. "Item Exposure

  20. Channel CAT: A Tactical Link Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS CHANNEL CAT : A TACTICAL LINK ANALYSIS TOOL by Michael Glenn Coleman September 1997 Thesis...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED September 1997 Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHANNEL CAT : A TACTICAL LINK ANALYSIS TOOL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...tool, the Channel Capacity Analysis Tool (Channel CAT ), designed to provide an automated tool for the anlysis of design decisions in developing client

  1. CAT/RF Simulation Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-11

    IVSS-2003-MAS-7 CAT /RF Simulation Lessons Learned Christopher Mocnik Vetronics Technology Area, RDECOM TARDEC Tim Lee DCS Corporation...developed a re- configurable Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) simulation for the Crew integration and Automation Test bed ( CAT ) and Robotics Follower (RF...Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) experiments. This simulation was developed as a component of the Embedded Simulation System (ESS) of the CAT

  2. Controlled Archaeological Test Site (CATS) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CATS facility is at the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), Champaign, IL. This 1-acre test site includes a variety of subsurface features carefully...

  3. Radio-iodine treatment of hyperthyroid cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.R.; Cayzer, J.; Dillon, E.A.; Smidt, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-two elderly domestic shorthaired cats (mean age 12.9 years) were treated with radioiodine (131I). The dose of 131I administered ranged from 39 mBq to 134 mBq. Twenty-eight cats became euthyroid after treatment, one became hypothyroid and three remained hyperthyroxaemic. Two of the hyperthyroxaemic cats were successfully re-treated with 131I. Five cats died from concurrent diseases within one year of treatment. The administration of a dose of 131I selected by assessing the severity of the clinical signs, the size of the thyroid gland(s) and the serum level of thyroxine was an effective treatment for hyperthyroidism

  4. Association between Characteristics of Cats and Satisfaction of Owners who Adopted Cats from an Animal Hospital in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONODERA, Nodoka; UCHIDA, Keiko; KAKUMA, Yoshie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A follow-up questionnaire survey was conducted with 29 cat owners who adopted cats from an animal hospital in Japan. Physical characteristics were found to be important factors for the owners when choosing a cat. There were significant differences between impression of the cat for the owners at present and images of their ideal cats, and the levels of aggression and activeness of the cats at present were rated higher than their ideal cats. A significant negative correlation was found between the degree of satisfaction with the cat and occurrence of house soiling; thus, some behavioral problems may deteriorate the relationship between the owner and the cat. PMID:24419973

  5. Sedative and antinociceptive effects of dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine after oral transmucosal or intramuscular administration in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porters, Nathalie; Bosmans, Tim; Debille, Mariëlla; de Rooster, Hilde; Duchateau, Luc; Polis, Ingeborgh

    2014-01-01

    To compare sedation and antinociception after oral transmucosal (OTM) and intramuscular (IM) administration of a dexmedetomidine-buprenorphine combination in healthy adult cats. Randomized, 'blinded' crossover study, with 1 month washout between treatments. Six healthy neutered female cats, weighing 5.3-7.5 kg. A combination of dexmedetomidine (40 μg kg(-1) ) and buprenorphine (20 μg kg(-1) ) was administered by either the OTM (buccal cavity) or IM (quadriceps muscle) route. Sedation was measured using a numerical rating scale, at baseline and at various time points until 6 hours after treatment. At the same time points, analgesia was scored using a dynamic and interactive visual analogue scale, based on the response to an ear pinch, and by the cat's response to a mechanical stimulus exerted by a pressure rate onset device. Physiological and adverse effects were recorded, and oral pH measured. Signed rank tests were performed, with significance set at p < 0.05. Data are presented as median and range. There were no differences in sedation or antinociception scores between OTM and IM dosing at any of the time points. Nociceptive thresholds increased after both treatments but without significant difference between groups. Buccal pH remained between 8 and 8.5. Salivation was noted after OTM administration (n = 2) and vomiting after both OTM (n = 4), and IM (n = 3) dosing. In healthy adult cats, OTM administration of dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine resulted in comparable levels of sedation and antinociception to IM dosing. The OTM administration may offer an alternative route to administer this sedative-analgesic combination in cats. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  6. Induced thermal resistance in the mouse ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.P.; Coultas, P.G.; Field, S.B.

    1979-01-01

    The mouse ear (pinna) was used to investigate the effect of two hyperthermic treatments. Heating was by immersion in hot water at 43.5 0 C. A single treatment of about 50 minutes was required to cause necrosis in 50% of the ears treated. When heat treatment was given in two equal fractions the total heating time had to be increased if the interval between fractions was greater than four hours. By 24 hours a total treatment of about 100 minutes was required, indicating almost complete recovery from the first heating. Priming treatments at 43.5 0 C induced thermal resistance to a second heat treatment at 43.5 0 C. Maximum resistance was observed one day after a 20 minute priming and two days after a 40 minute priming, when the heating time had to be increased to 120 minutes, an increase by a factor of 2.4. Shorter priming treatments induced less resistance, the minimum heating time to produce an effect being two minutes. In all cases the effect decreased during the next four to five days. These results indicate that the reduced response of tissues to fractionated hyperthermia is due both to the repair of sublethal heat damage and induction of thermal resistance. (author)

  7. Wearable ear EEG for brain interfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Eric D.; Walker, Nicholas; Danko, Amanda S.

    2017-02-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) measuring electrical activity via electroencephalogram (EEG) have evolved beyond clinical applications to become wireless consumer products. Typically marketed for meditation and neu- rotherapy, these devices are limited in scope and currently too obtrusive to be a ubiquitous wearable. Stemming from recent advancements made in hearing aid technology, wearables have been shrinking to the point that the necessary sensors, circuitry, and batteries can be fit into a small in-ear wearable device. In this work, an ear-EEG device is created with a novel system for artifact removal and signal interpretation. The small, compact, cost-effective, and discreet device is demonstrated against existing consumer electronics in this space for its signal quality, comfort, and usability. A custom mobile application is developed to process raw EEG from each device and display interpreted data to the user. Artifact removal and signal classification is accomplished via a combination of support matrix machines (SMMs) and soft thresholding of relevant statistical properties.

  8. Enhanced visualization of inner ear structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczyk, Kazimierz; Kucharski, Tomasz; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Bruzgielewicz, Antoni

    2004-07-01

    Recently surgery requires extensive support from imaging technologies in order to increase effectiveness and safety of operations. One of important tasks is to enhance visualisation of quasi-phase (transparent) 3d structures. Those structures are characterized by very low contrast. It makes differentiation of tissues in field of view very difficult. For that reason the surgeon may be extremly uncertain during operation. This problem is connected with supporting operations of inner ear during which physician has to perform cuts at specific places of quasi-transparent velums. Conventionally during such operations medical doctor views the operating field through stereoscopic microscope. In the paper we propose a 3D visualisation system based on Helmet Mounted Display. Two CCD cameras placed at the output of microscope perform acquisition of stereo pairs of images. The images are processed in real-time with the goal of enhancement of quasi-phased structures. The main task is to create algorithm that is not sensitive to changes in intensity distribution. The disadvantages of existing algorithms is their lack of adaptation to occuring reflexes and shadows in field of view. The processed images from both left and right channels are overlaid on the actual images exported and displayed at LCD's of Helmet Mounted Display. A physician observes by HMD (Helmet Mounted Display) a stereoscopic operating scene with indication of the places of special interest. The authors present the hardware ,procedures applied and initial results of inner ear structure visualisation. Several problems connected with processing of stereo-pair images are discussed.

  9. Movement of the external ear in human embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagurasho, Miho; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Kose, Katsumi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2012-02-01

    External ears, one of the major face components, show an interesting movement during craniofacial morphogenesis in human embryo. The present study was performed to see if movement of the external ears in a human embryo could be explained by differential growth. In all, 171 samples between Carnegie stage (CS) 17 and CS 23 were selected from MR image datasets of human embryos obtained from the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos. The three-dimensional absolute position of 13 representative anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, from MRI data was traced to evaluate the movement between the different stages with identical magnification. Two different sets of reference axes were selected for evaluation and comparison of the movements. When the pituitary gland and the first cervical vertebra were selected as a reference axis, the 13 anatomical landmarks of the face spread out within the same region as the embryo enlarged and changed shape. The external ear did move mainly laterally, but not cranially. The distance between the external and internal ear stayed approximately constant. Three-dimensionally, the external ear located in the caudal ventral parts of the internal ear in CS 17, moved mainly laterally until CS 23. When surface landmarks eyes and mouth were selected as a reference axis, external ears moved from the caudal lateral ventral region to the position between eyes and mouth during development. The results indicate that movement of all anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, can be explained by differential growth. Also, when the external ear is recognized as one of the facial landmarks and having a relative position to other landmarks such as the eyes and mouth, the external ears seem to move cranially. © 2012 Kagurasho et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  10. Periaortic lymphoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bree

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 14-year-old neutered male Siamese cat was presented with a 3 month history of lethargy, inappetence, dehydration, hindlimb ataxia and intermittent proprioceptive deficits in the hindlimbs. Physical examination revealed low body condition score (1.75/5, pallor and bilateral basilar grade II/VI systolic heart murmur. Neurological examination revealed hindlimb ataxia, severe atrophy of the hindlimb musculature, intermittent hindlimb proprioceptive deficits and normoreflexia. Clinicopathological investigations revealed non-regenerative anaemia (haematocrit 0.17 l/l; reference interval [RI] 0.24–0.45 l/l and increased feline pancreatic lipase concentration (Spec fPL test [IDEXX] 8.3 μg/l; RI 0.1–3.5 μg/l. Feline leukaemia virus antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus antibody tests were negative. Thoracic and abdominal imaging revealed a soft tissue structure in the area of the thoracoabdominal aorta. CT confirmed a periaortic contrast-enhancing mass extending from the level of T9–L2, with associated intervertebral infiltration at the level of T11–T12. Post-mortem examination confirmed the presence of a solid, white, multinodular, well-demarcated mass encircling the aorta extending from T9–L2. Based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry, a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma was made. Lymphoma was also identified histopathologically within the kidneys and spleen. Evidence of mild Wallerian degeneration was present within the spinal cord, indicating compression at the level of the periaortic mass. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first report of periaortic lymphoma in the cat. Although periaortic tumours are exceptionally rare in veterinary medicine, lymphoma should be considered as a differential in cats.

  11. On Schr\\"odinger's cat

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva, Nalin

    2010-01-01

    Schr\\"odinger's cat appears to have been harassed in a chamber during the past eighty years or so by interpreting the role of the observer as a person, who sets an experiment and then observes results, may be after some time. The realist position tells us that the physical processes would take place independent of the observer with well defined properties, whereas the positivist position wants us to believe that nothing can be said of a system when it is not being observed. In this paper we q...

  12. In search of Schroedinger's cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, John.

    1984-01-01

    The book explains how the paradox of Schroedinger's cat led to an understanding of reality in quantum physics. The contents of the book is divided into three parts. Part one concerns light, atoms and Bohr's atom. Quantum mechanics is discussed in Part Two, including photons and electrons, matrices and waves, and applications of quanta. The last part deals with chance and uncertainty, paradoxes and possibilities, the experimental proof of the paradoxical reality of the quantum world, and the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. (U.K.)

  13. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European

  14. Overweight adult cats have significantly lower voluntary physical activity than adult lean cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria Rc; Shoveller, Anna K

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of the current pilot study were to evaluate whether body condition score (BCS) and body weight are significantly related to physical activity counts, and to evaluate potential interaction between BCS and voluntary physical activity measured over a 14 day period. Methods Ten (five lean, five overweight), neutered, adult American Shorthair cats were selected for this study (median age 4 ± 0.5 years). Cats with a BCS of ⩽3.0 were considered lean, whereas cats with a BCS >3.0 were considered overweight, using a 5-point scale. Cats were housed in a free-living environment with indoor/outdoor access and were individually fed once daily a commercially available dry extruded diet and allowed 1 h to eat. Voluntary physical activity was measured consecutively for 14 days using the Actical Activity Monitors that were worn parallel to the ribs and attached via a harness. Results Lean cats had a greater mean total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0059), and a greater voluntary physical activity during light ( P = 0.0023) and dark ( P = 0.0446) periods, with overweight cats having 60% of the physical activity of lean cats. Lean cats were more active before feeding and during animal care procedures. These data suggest that lean cats have a greater anticipatory physical activity prior to feeding and are more eager to have social interaction with humans than overweight cats. A significant interaction was observed between day of physical activity measurement and BCS for total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0133) and activity during the light period ( P = 0.0016) where lean cats were consistently more active than overweight cats. In general, cats were more active during weekdays vs weekends. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that overweight cats are less active than lean cats and that voluntary physical activity level appears to be influenced by social interaction with humans.

  15. Identifying position, visibility, dimensions, and angulation of the ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Kasim; Christian, Jayanth; Jeyapalan, Karthigeyan; Natarajan, Shanmuganathan; Banu, Fathima; Veeravalli, Padmanabhan T

    2014-01-01

    We selected 254 subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 yr to assess the ear position, angulations of the ear in relation to the nose, visibility from the frontal view, and dimensions of the ear by using various anthropometric points of the face. Subjects were divided into four groups based on facial form. A reference plane indicator, facial topographical measurements, metal ruler, and digital photography were used. While considering the position of the ear, in all facial forms except square tapering, the most samples showed a tendency for the subaurale being in line with subnasale. Regression analysis showed a tendency to gnathion distance is the most dependent variable with length of the ear kept as a constant predictor, while both interalar distance and exocanthion to endocanthion distance correlate highly significantly to the width of the ear. In all subjects, the visibility of the ear when viewed from the front was an average of 1.5 mm. Regardless of facial form, ear angulation was generally less than nose angulation.

  16. Ad Hoc Constitution of Topical Antibiotics Solution for Ear Dressing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/ Purpose: In the management of chronic suppurative otitis media and otitis externa there are few cases where although an organism is cultured and isolated from the ear, there are either no antibiotic sensitive to the microbiological flora or the sensitive antibiotic is not available in the form of an ear drop, limiting ...

  17. Why do elephants flap their ears? | Wright | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blood flow in the ear of the African elephant Loxodonta africana was measured In anaesthetized animals using the dye dilution technique at the same time as the arterio-venous temperature difference. The calculated heat loss from the ear is shown to be a substantial proportion of the total metabolic heat-loss ...

  18. Economic Evaluation pf Antibacterial Usage in Ear, Nose and Throat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out economic evaluation of antibacterial usage for Ear, Nose and Throat infections in a tertiary health care facility in Nigeria. Methods: Antibacterial utilisation evaluation was carried out retrospectively over one year period by reviewing 122 case notes containing 182 prescriptions of patient with Ear Nose ...

  19. A break-even analysis of major ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, J D; Phillips, J S

    2015-10-01

    To determine variables which affect cost and profit for major ear surgery and perform a break-even analysis. Retrospective financial analysis. UK teaching hospital. Patients who underwent major ear surgery under general anaesthesia performed by the senior author in main theatre over a 2-year period between dates of 07 September 2010 and 07 September 2012. Income, cost and profit for each major ear patient spell. Variables that affect major ear surgery profitability. Seventy-six patients met inclusion criteria. Wide variation in earnings, with a median net loss of £-1345.50 was observed. Income was relatively uniform across all patient spells; however, theatre time of major ear surgery at a cost of £953.24 per hour varied between patients and was the main determinant of cost and profit for the patient spell. Bivariate linear regression of earnings on theatre time identified 94% of variation in earnings was due to variation in theatre time (r = -0.969; P break-even time for major ear surgery of 110.6 min. Theatre time was dependent on complexity of procedure and number of OPCS4 procedures performed, with a significant increase in theatre time when three or more procedures were performed during major ear surgery (P = 0.015). For major ear surgery to either break-even or return a profit, total theatre time should not exceed 110 min and 36 s. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Congenital inner ear malformations without sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, Kumiko; Horiguchi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2008-03-01

    It has been reported that normal hearing is rare in patients with severe inner ear vestibular malformations [Kokai H, Oohashi M, Ishikawa K, Harada K, Hiratsuka H, Ogasawara M et al. Clinical review of inner ear malformation. J Otolaryngol Jpn 2003;106(10):1038-44; Schuknecht HF. Mondini dysplasia. A clinical pathological study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1980;89(Suppl. 65):1-23; Jackler RK, Luxford WM, House WF. Congenital malformations of the inner ear: a classification based on embryogenesis. Laryngoscope 1987;97:2-14; Phelps PD. Congenital lesions of the inner ear, demonstrated by tomography. Arch Otolaryngol 1974;100:11-8]. A 37-year-old woman had combined dysplasia of the posterior and lateral semicircular canals (PSCC, LSCC) with normal cochlear development and normal hearing in both ears. She had complained of dizziness for 8 months. High resolution computed tomography (CT) showed hypogenesis of the bony labyrinth in both ears. Bilateral PSCC and LSCC dysplasia and dilatation of the vestibule were detected. Magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) revealed that the deformity of the PSCC was more severe than the LSCC. Although the caloric test of the left ear elicited no nystagmus and there was reduced response in the right ear, the horizontal vestibulo-occular reflex (VOR) was present. Her dizzy sensation disappeared within 3 months without special treatment. The dizziness attack might have been caused by a temporary breakdown of her peripheral vestibular system.