Holladay, Jon; Hampton, Bryan; Monk, Timothy
The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy-lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) exploration missions. Previous studies have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS and the applicability of commercial off-the-shelf in-space stages for Earth departure. Currently NASA is analyzing the concept of a Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) that will provide LEO insertion and Earth departure burns. This paper will explore candidate in-space stages based on the DUUS design for a wide range of beyond LEO missions. Mission payloads will range from small robotic systems up to human systems with deep space habitats and landers. Mission destinations will include cislunar space, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Given these wide-ranging mission objectives, a vehicle-sizing tool has been developed to determine the size of an Earth departure stage based on the mission objectives. The tool calculates masses for all the major subsystems of the vehicle including propellant loads, avionics, power, engines, main propulsion system components, tanks, pressurization system and gases, primary structural elements, and secondary structural elements. The tool uses an iterative sizing algorithm to determine the resulting mass of the stage. Any input into one of the subsystem sizing routines or the mission parameters can be treated as a parametric sweep or as a distribution for use in Monte Carlo analysis. Taking these factors together allows for multi-variable, coupled analysis runs. To increase confidence in the tool, the results have been verified against two point-of-departure designs of the DUUS. The tool has also been verified against Apollo moon mission elements and other manned space systems. This paper will focus on trading key propulsion technologies including chemical, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), and Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). All of the key performance inputs and relationships will be presented and
Kemp, Gregory E.; Dankanich, John W.; Woodcock, Gordon R.; Wingo, Dennis R.
The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Office initiated a preliminary study to evaluate the performance benefits of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) upper-stage with existing and near-term small launch vehicles. The analysis included circular and elliptical Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) transfers, and LEO to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) applications. SEP subsystem options included state-of-the-art and near-term solar arrays and electric thrusters. In-depth evaluations of the Aerojet BPT-4000 Hall thruster and NEXT gridded ion engine were conducted to compare performance, cost and revenue potential. Preliminary results indicate that Hall thruster technology is favored for low-cost, low power SEP stages, while gridded-ion engines are favored for higher power SEP systems unfettered by transfer time constraints. A low-cost point design is presented that details one possible stage configuration and outlines system limitations, in particular fairing volume constraints. The results demonstrate mission enhancements to large and medium class launch vehicles, and mission enabling performance when SEP system upper stages are mounted to low-cost launchers such as the Minotaur and Falcon 1. Study results indicate the potential use of SEP upper stages to double GEO payload mass capability and to possibly enable launch on demand capability for GEO assets. Transition from government to commercial applications, with associated cost/benefit analysis, has also been assessed. The sensitivity of system performance to specific impulse, array power, thruster size, and component costs are also discussed.
As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama are working to design, develop and implement the SLS Core Stage structural testing. The SLS will have the capability to return humans to the Moon and beyond and its first launch is scheduled for December of 2017. The SLS Core Stage consist of five major elements; Forward Skirt, Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank, Intertank (IT), Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) tank and the Engine Section (ES). Structural Test Articles (STA) for each of these elements are being designed and produced by Boeing at Michoud Assembly Facility located in New Orleans, La. The structural test for the Core Stage STAs (LH2, LOX, IT and ES) are to be conducted by the MSFC Test Laboratory. Additionally, the MSFC Test Laboratory manages the Structural Test Equipment (STE) design and development to support the STAs. It was decided early (April 2012) in the project life that the LH2 and LOX tank STAs would require new test stands and the Engine Section and Intertank would be tested in existing facilities. This decision impacted schedules immediately because the new facilities would require Construction of Facilities (C of F) funds that require congressional approval and long lead times. The Engine Section and Intertank structural test are to be conducted in existing facilities which will limit lead times required to support the first launch of SLS. With a SLS launch date of December, 2017 Boeing had a need date for testing to be complete by September of 2017 to support flight certification requirements. The test facilities were required to be ready by October of 2016 to support test article delivery. The race was on to get the stands ready before Test Article delivery and meet the test complete date of September 2017. This paper documents the past and current design and development phases and the supporting processes, tools, and
McLeland, S M; Cianciolo, R E; Duncan, C G; Quimby, J M
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent in elderly cats. Frequently, a diagnosis is made in later stages of disease, by which time many renal lesions are irreversible. As such, little headway has been made in identifying an etiology and preventing this common disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and severity of both reversible and irreversible histopathologic changes in the kidneys of cats at each stage of CKD and, in addition, to determine if lesion prevalence and character were different between stages. A total of 46 cats with CKD were classified according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) as stage I (3 cats), stage II (16 cats), stage III (14 cats), and stage IV (13 cats). Eleven young, nonazotemic and 10 geriatric, nonazotemic cats were included as controls. The severity of tubular degeneration, interstitial inflammation, fibrosis, and glomerulosclerosis was significantly greater in later stages of CKD compared with early stages of disease. Proteinuria was associated with increased severity of tubular degeneration, inflammation, fibrosis, tubular epithelial single-cell necrosis, and decreased normal parenchyma. Presence of hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis, fibrointimal hyperplasia, or other vascular lesions were not found to be significantly different between hypertensive and normotensive cats. The greater prevalence and severity of irreversible lesions in stage III and IV CKD implies that therapeutic interventions should be targeted at earlier stages of disease. © The Author(s) 2014.
Springer, A. M.; Pokora, D. C.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is studying ways of assuring more reliable and cost effective means to space. One launch system studied was the NLS which included the l l/2 stage vehicle. This document encompasses the aerodynamic characteristics of the 1 l/2 stage vehicle. To support the detailed configuration definition two wind tunnel tests were conducted in the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's 14x14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel during 1992. The tests were a static stability and a pressure test, each utilizing 0.004 scale models. The static stability test resulted in the forces and moments acting on the vehicle. The aerodynamics for the reference configuration with and without feedlines and an evaluation of three proposed engine shroud configurations were also determined. The pressure test resulted in pressure distributions over the reference vehicle with and without feedlines including the reference engine shrouds. These pressure distributions were integrated and balanced to the static stability coefficients resulting in distributed aerodynamic loads on the vehicle. The wind tunnel tests covered a Mach range of 0.60 to 4.96. These ascent flight aerodynamic characteristics provide the basis for trajectory and performance analysis, loads determination, and guidance and control evaluation.
Physics is everywhere . The laws of physics govern the Universe, the Sun, the Earth and even our own lives. In today's rapidly developing society, we are becoming increasingly dependent on high technology - computers, transport, and communication are just some of the key areas that are the result of discoveries by scientists working in physics. But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! [Go to Physics On Stage Website] Beginning in February 2000, three major European research organisations are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , with support from the European Union. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, on the CERN premises at the French-Swiss border near Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge about physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European
Bogdanoff, David W.; Cambier, Jean-Luc; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
The amount of space debris is rapidly increasing and the debris is distributed over a wide variety of orbits. Satellites, manned space vehicles and space stations will have to pay increasing attention to the dangers of impacts with space debris. Various armoring techniques (i.e., double or triple layer armor) will have to tested extensively to determine the most effective armor per unit weight. Intersecting near-earth orbits can lead to impact velocities up to 15 km/sec. Conventional two-stage light gas guns can launch intact, controlled-shape projectiles with a density of 1.2 gm/cc and length- to-diameter ratios of 0.5-1.0 at velocities up to 8-9 km/sec. Higher velocities (10-11 km/sec) can be obtained' for very light projectiles. The higher launch velocities tend to be very severe on the high pressure coupling and barrel of the gun and lead to short component lifetimes. Clearly, the ability to raise the launch velocity of a gun (for reasonably massive projectile shapes) from 8-9 km/sec to 11-13 km/sec (or higher), without reduction of component lifetimes, would have significant benefits. This would allow much better simulation of the higher velocity debris impacts as well as better simulation of high speed re-entry into planetary atmospheres. Several techniques for increasing the launcher muzzle velocity above 8-9 km/sec have been studied using CFD simulations and appear to offer the potential for significant gains. The first technique is to use multiple compressions, instead of a single compression, in the pump tube of the light gas gun. In a sense, this is a kind of pre-heating of the gas in the pump tube; other types of pre-heating have yielded disappointing results in the past. The dynamics of the multiple compression pump tube is very different, however, from the earlier techniques, where the pump tube was typically heated ohmically before the gun 2 cycle was started. In this paper, we present CFD calculations that show that significant increases in muzzle
Ustinov, Eugene A.
A concept of an aero-assisted pre-stage is proposed, which enables launch of both ballistic and aero-assisted launch vehicles from conventional runways. The pre-stage can be implemented as a delta-wing with a suitable undercarriage, which is mated with the launch vehicle, so that their flight directions are coaligned. The ample wing area of the pre-stage combined with the thrust of the launch vehicle ensure prompt roll-out and take-off of the stack at airspeeds typical for a conventional jet airliner. The launch vehicle is separated from the pre-stage as soon as safe altitude is achieved, and the desired ascent trajectory is reached. Nominally, the pre-stage is non-powered. As an option, to save the propellant of the launch vehicle, the pre-stage may have its own short-burn propulsion system, whereas the propulsion system of the launch vehicle is activated at the separation point. A general non-dimensional analysis of performance of the pre-stage from roll-out to separation is carried out and applications to existing ballistic launch vehicle and hypothetical aero-assisted vehicles (spaceplanes) are considered.
Twenty-two stages of the prenatal development of the domestic cat are described for intraspecies comparison in embryological studies. These are assigned to the 15 embryonal periods based on the Nomina Embryologica Veterinaria to make the interspecies comparison possible.
This thesis is concentrated on mobile social network development features and the industry of social networks. The company which this thesis is written for is Guesspoint Ltd. This company is working for the launch of the mobile social network with the same name. The company is based in St.-Petersburg, Russia, but the scale of the future operation is expected to be global. The theoretical part is focused on the scientific explanations of social phenomena and especially on the social networ...
Bordelon, Wayne; Frost, Alonzo; Pritchett, Victor
The Aerodynamic Research Facility (ARF) LGBB (Liquid Glide-back Booster) Stage Separation Test is part of the Multi-Center Second Generation In-House Tool Development Task. The ARF LGBB Stage Separation Test has been completed at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center). It includes the following: PSP (Project Study Plan) Feasibility Test; Isolated Force/Moment Data; Bimese Configuration Force/Moment Data; Schlieren Video. The LGBB Bimese Reference Configuration Analyses and Test Results In-Work to Develop Tools and Database. Preliminary results showed qualitative agreement with CFD (computational fluid dynamics) aerodynamic predictions. The preliminary results exhibit the complex nature of the stage separation aerothermal problem.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ventions proposes the development of a pump-fed, 2-stage nano launch vehicle for low-cost on-demand placement of cube and nano-satellites into LEO. The proposed...
... make great companions and are credited with promoting socialization among the elderly and physically or mentally disabled ... 56(51):1337-40. Update: Recall of Dry Dog and Cat Food Products Associated with Human Salmonella ...
Passos, Valeria Lima; Berger, Martijn P. F.; Tan, Frans E.
The early stage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) refers to the phase of the trait estimation during the administration of only a few items. This phase can be characterized by bias and instability of estimation. In this study, an item selection criterion is introduced in an attempt to lessen this instability: the D-optimality criterion. A…
Waters, Eric D.; Beers, Benjamin; Esther, Elizabeth; Philips, Alan; Threet, Grady E., Jr.
In an effort to better define small launch vehicle design options two approaches were investigated from the small launch vehicle trade space. The primary focus was to evaluate a clustered common core design against a purpose built inline vehicle. Both designs focused on liquid oxygen (LOX) and rocket propellant grade kerosene (RP-1) stages with the terminal stage later evaluated as a LOX/methane (CH4) stage. A series of performance optimization runs were done in order to minimize gross liftoff weight (GLOW) including alternative thrust levels, delivery altitude for payload, vehicle length to diameter ratio, alternative engine feed systems, re-evaluation of mass growth allowances, passive versus active guidance systems, and rail and tower launch methods. Additionally manufacturability, cost, and operations also play a large role in the benefits and detriments for each design. Presented here is the Advanced Concepts Office's Earth to Orbit Launch Team methodology and high level discussion of the performance trades and trends of both small launch vehicle solutions along with design philosophies that shaped both concepts. Without putting forth a decree stating one approach is better than the other; this discussion is meant to educate the community at large and let the reader determine which architecture is truly the most economical; since each path has such a unique set of limitations and potential payoffs.
Stanley, Douglas O.; Powell, Richard W.
Application of advanced technologies to future launch vehicle designs would allow the introduction of a rocket-powered, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch system early in the next century. A fully reusable SSTO vehicle would be quite desirable from an operational standpoint; however, such a vehicle cannot be designed without accompanying technological advances in structure, propulsion, and subsystems. The conceptual design of such a vehicle has recently been completed. This paper examines the abort capabilities of an advanced SSTO launch vehicle which has five main engines. In the event of a single or dual main engine shutdown it was determined when the vehicle could execute return-to-launch-site, abort-to-orbit, or down-range abort maneuvers. Throughout each abort maneuver, vehicle loads are kept within nominal ascent and entry design values.
Marchi, L. O.; Murcia, J. O.; Prado, A. F. B. A.; Solórzano, C. R. H.
The injection of a satellite into orbit is usually done by a multi-stage launch vehicle. Nowadays, the space market demonstrates a strong tendency towards the use of smaller satellites, because the miniaturization of the systems improve the cost/benefit of a mission. A study to evaluate the capacity of the Brazilian Microsatellite Launch Vehicle (VLM) to inject payloads into Low Earth Orbits is presented in this paper. All launches are selected to be made to the east side of the Alcântara Launch Center (CLA). The dynamical model to calculate the trajectory consists of the three degrees of freedom (3DOF) associated with the translational movement of the rocket. Several simulations are performed according to a set of restrictions imposed to the flight. The altitude reached in the separation of the second stage, the altitude and velocity of injection, the flight path angle at the moment of the activation of the third stage and the duration of the ballistic flight are presented as a function of the payload carried.
Larko, Jeffrey M.; Hughes, William O.
The Ares I launch vehicle will be NASA s first new launch vehicle since 1981. Currently in design, it will replace the Space Shuttle in taking astronauts to the International Space Station, and will eventually play a major role in humankind s return to the Moon and eventually to Mars. Prior to any manned flight of this vehicle, unmanned test readiness flights will be flown. The first of these readiness flights, named Ares I-X, is scheduled to be launched in April 2009. The NASA Glenn Research Center is responsible for the design, manufacture, test and analysis of the Ares I-X upper stage simulator (USS) element. As part of the design effort, the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X launch vehicle to its vibroacoustic flight environments must be analyzed. The launch vehicle will be exposed to extremely high acoustic pressures during its lift-off and aerodynamic stages of flight. This in turn will cause high levels of random vibration on the vehicle's outer surface that will be transmitted to its interior. Critical flight equipment, such as its avionics and flight guidance components are susceptible to damage from this excitation. This study addresses the modelling, analysis and predictions from examining the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X upper stage to its vibroacoustic excitations. A statistical energy analysis (SEA) model was used to predict the high frequency response of the vehicle at locations of interest. Key to this study was the definition of the excitation fields corresponding to lift off acoustics and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure fluctuations during flight. The predicted results will be used by the Ares I-X Project to verify the flight qualification status of the Ares I-X upper stage components.
Anjana Mariam Alex
Full Text Available Right from lift-off launch vehicles are subjected to extreme dynamic pressure aero and structure borne excitations. Inter-stage is fundamental to the vehicle as it houses the different control equipments actuators sensors motors and avionic packages. This paper involves the creation of two different models so as to study the correlation using two approaches Finite Element method and Hybrid Method involving Statistical Energy Analysis and Finite Element Analysis. The correlation of the response obtained on the Inter-stage from an acoustic ground test to that from the analytical test results carried out with VA One is also addressed in this paper.
Blom, Philip; Marcillo, Omar; Arrowsmith, Stephen
Infrasound from a four-stage sounding rocket was recorded by several arrays within 100 km of the launch pad. Propagation modeling methods have been applied to the known trajectory to predict infrasonic signals at the ground in order to identify what information might be obtained from such observations. There is good agreement between modeled and observed back azimuths, and predicted arrival times for motor ignition signals match those observed. The signal due to the high-altitude stage ignition is found to be low amplitude, despite predictions of weak attenuation. This lack of signal is possibly due to inefficient aeroacoustic coupling in the rarefied upper atmosphere.
Albertson, Cindy W.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Pamadi, Bandu N.
The development of methodologies, techniques, and tools for analysis and simulation of stage separation dynamics is critically needed for successful design and operation of multistage reusable launch vehicles. As a part of this activity, the Constraint Force Equation (CFE) methodology was developed and implemented in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of POST2/CFE to simulate a complete end-to-end mission. The vehicle configuration selected was the Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) Langley Glide Back Booster (LGBB) bimese configuration, an in-house concept consisting of a reusable booster and an orbiter having identical outer mold lines. The proximity and isolated aerodynamic databases used for the simulation were assembled using wind-tunnel test data for this vehicle. POST2/CFE simulation results are presented for the entire mission, from lift-off, through stage separation, orbiter ascent to orbit, and booster glide back to the launch site. Additionally, POST2/CFE stage separation simulation results are compared with results from industry standard commercial software used for solving dynamics problems involving multiple bodies connected by joints.
Eckmann, James B.; Cotta, Roy B.; Matuszak, Leo W.; Perkins, David R.
Suborbital separation of an expendable upper stage from a small, single-stage Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to transfer spacecraft into Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) was investigated and found to significantly increase spacecraft mass into GEO (over 400%) although operational issues exist. An assessment of propulsion system options for this ``Pop-Up'' Mission was performed to determine the propellant combinations, stage configurations, and propulsion technologies that maximize spacecraft mass and minimize size. Propellants included earth and space storable combinations, cryogenic LH2/LO2, and Class 1.3 solids. Stage configurations employing cylindrical metal and overwrapped tanks, isogrid tanks, and toroidal tanks were considered. Non-toxic earth storable propellants provided comparable performance (5-10%) to existing storables while the use of pressure-fed engines gave about 15% lower performance than pump-fed. Solid stage performance was within 5% of existing storable propellants. Stages employing toroidal tanks packaged more efficiently in length constrained RLV payload bays than 4-cylindrical tank configurations, giving up to 30% greater mass into GEO. The use of Extendable Exit Cones (EEC) for length constrained cases resulted in about 5-10% higher stage performance.
In January 2004, President Bush gave the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) a vision for Space Exploration by setting our sight on a bold new path to go back to the Moon, then to Mars and beyond. In response to this vision, NASA started the Constellation Program, which is a new exploration launch vehicle program. The primary mission for the Constellation Program is to carry out a series of human expeditions ranging from Low Earth Orbit to the surface of Mars and beyond for the purposes of conducting human exploration of space, as specified by the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). The intent is that the information and technology developed by this program will provide the foundation for broader exploration activities as our operational experience grows. The ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) has been designated as the launch vehicle that will be developed as a "first step" to facilitate the aforementioned human expeditions. The CLV Project is broken into four major elements: First Stage, Upper Stage Engine, Upper Stage (US), and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for the design of the CLV and has the prime responsibility to design the upper stage of the vehicle. The US is the second propulsive stage of the CLV and provides CEV insertion into low Earth orbit (LEO) after separation from the First Stage of the Crew Launch Vehicle. The fully integrated Upper Stage is a mix of modified existing heritage hardware (J-2X Engine) and new development (primary structure, subsystems, and avionics). The Upper Stage assembly is a structurally stabilized cylindrical structure, which is powered by a single J-2X engine which is developed as a separate Element of the CLV. The primary structure includes the load bearing liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellant tanks, a Forward Skirt, the Intertank structure, the Aft Skirt and the Thrust Structure. A Systems Tunnel, which carries fluid and
Full Text Available In this paper, Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO Algorithm is proposed for single stage supply chain distribution system with a fixed cost. This paper considers two kinds of cost: a continuous cost, that linearly increases with the amount transported between a supplier and a customer and a fixed cost, which is incurred whenever a non-zero quantity is transported between a supplier and a customer and it is independent of the amount transported. The aim of this paper is to determine the quantities to be distributed to satisfy the customer demand with minimum cost. Since fixed costs results discontinuities in the objective function, solution procedures are become more difficult and are known to be non-deterministic polynomial (NP hard. In this paper Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO Algorithm is proposed for the optimization of single stage supply chain problem to provide optimal or near optimal solution. The results of the proposed model of this paper have been compared with a spanning tree-based Genetic Algorithm and binary coded Genetic Algorithm. Computational results show the superiority of CSO algorithm over other algorithms.
Birkenstock, Benjamin; Kauer, Roy
The Space Launch System (SLS) Program is essential to achieving the Nation's and NASA's goal of human exploration and scientific investigation of the solar system. As a multi-element program with emphasis on safety, affordability, and sustainability, SLS is becoming America's next great ship of exploration. The SLS Core Stage includes avionics, main propulsion system, pressure vessels, thrust vector control, and structures. Boeing manufactures and assembles the SLS core stage at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, LA, a historical production center for Saturn V and Space Shuttle programs. As the transition from design to manufacturing progresses, the importance of a well-executed manufacturing, assembly, and operation (MA&O) plan is crucial to meeting performance objectives. Boeing employs classic techniques such as critical path analysis and facility requirements definition as well as innovative approaches such as Constraint Based Scheduling (CBS) and Cirtical Chain Project Management (CCPM) theory to provide a comprehensive suite of project management tools to manage the health of the baseline plan on both a macro (overall project) and micro level (factory areas). These tools coordinate data from multiple business systems and provide a robust network to support Material & Capacity Requirements Planning (MRP/CRP) and priorities. Coupled with these tools and a highly skilled workforce, Boeing is orchestrating the parallel buildup of five major sub assemblies throughout the factory. Boeing and NASA are transforming MAF to host state of the art processes, equipment and tooling, the most prominent of which is the Vertical Assembly Center (VAC), the largest weld tool in the world. In concert, a global supply chain is delivering a range of structural elements and component parts necessary to enable an on-time delivery of the integrated Core Stage. SLS is on plan to launch humanity into the next phase of space exploration.
Go, Susie; Lawrence, Scott L.; Mathias, Donovan L.; Powell, Ryann
This report documents a study of the historical safety and reliability trends of U.S. space launch vehicles from 1980 to 2015. The launch data history is examined to determine whether propulsion technology choices drove launch system risk and is used to understand how different propulsion system failures manifested into different failure scenarios. The historical data is processed by launch vehicle stage, where a stage is limited by definition to a single propulsion technology, either liquid or solid. Results are aggregated in terms of failure trends and manifestations as a functions of different propulsion stages. Failure manifestations are analyzed in order to understand the types and frequencies of accident environments in which an abort system for a crewed vehicle would be required to operate.
Gores are pie-shaped panels that are welded together to form the dome ends of rocket fuel tanks as shown in figure 1. Replacing aluminum alloy 2219 with aluminum (Al)-lithium (Li) alloy 2195 as the Space Launch System (SLS) cryogenic tank material would save enormous amounts of weight. In fact, it has been calculated that simply replacing Al 2219 gores with Al 2195 gores on the SLS core stage domes could save approximately 3,800 pound-mass. This is because the Al-Li 2195 alloy exhibits both higher mechanical properties and lower density than the SLS baseline Al 2219 alloy. Indeed, the known advantages of Al 2195 led to its use as a replacement for Al 2219 in the shuttle external tank program. The required thicknesses of Al 2195 gores for either SLS core stage tanks or upper stage tanks will depend on the specific design configurations. The required thicknesses or widths may exceed the current experience base in the manufacture of such gores by the stretch-forming process. Accordingly, the primary objective of this project was to enhance the formability of Al 2195 by optimizing the heat treatment and stretch-forming process for gore thicknesses up to 0.75 inches, which envelop the maximum expected gore thicknesses for SLS tank configurations.
Velligan, F. A.; Svendsen, H. O.
An experimental wind tunnel test program was conducted to investigate the subsonic through high supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of the Lockheed delta lifting body orbiter and stage-and-one-half launch vehicle. Analyses and results of these data are presented. A 0.01-scale model of the LS 200-5 system was designed and fabricated for testing in wind tunnels. Orbiter and launch configurations were tested over a speed range of Mach 0.6 to 2.0, whereas only the orbiter was tested over a speed range of Mach 2.3 to 4.6. Six-component force and moment data, base pressures, and schlieren photos were obtained at various angles-of-attack and sideslip. A 0.03-scale model of the orbiter was also designed, fabricated, and tested in a wind tunnel. Six-component force and moment data, base pressure, and a limited amount of tuft flow visualization data were obtained on a variety of configuration combinations.
Butt, Adam; Popp, Christopher G.; Holt, Kimberly A.; Pitts, Hank M.
The Ares I launch vehicle is the selected design, chosen to return humans to the moon, Mars, and beyond. It is configured in two inline stages: the First Stage is a Space Shuttle derived five-segment Solid Rocket Booster and the Upper Stage is powered by a Saturn V derived J-2X engine. During launch, roll control for the First Stage (FS) is handled by a dedicated Roll Control System (RoCS) located on the connecting Interstage. That system will provide the Ares I with the ability to counteract induced roll torque while any induced yaw or pitch moments are handled by vectoring of the booster nozzle. This paper provides an overview of NASA s Ares I FS RoCS cold flow development test program including detailed test objectives, types of tests run to meet those objectives, an overview of the results, and applicable lessons learned. The test article was built and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. The FS RoCS System Development Test Article (SDTA) is a full scale, flight representative water flow test article whose primary objective was to obtain fluid system performance data to evaluate integrated system level performance characteristics and verify analytical models. Development testing and model correlation was deemed necessary as there is little historical precedent for similar large flow, pulsing systems such as the FS RoCS. The cold flow development test program consisted of flight-similar tanks, pressure regulators, and thruster valves, as well as plumbing simulating flight geometries, combined with other facility grade components and structure. Orifices downstream of the thruster valves were used to simulate the pressure drop through the thrusters. Additional primary objectives of this test program were to: evaluate system surge pressure (waterhammer) characteristics due to thruster valve operation over a range of mission duty cycles at various feed system pressures, evaluate temperature transients and heat transfer in the
Kitagawa, Yosuke; Kitagawa, Koki; Nakamiya, Masaki; Kanazaki, Masahiro; Shimada, Toru
The multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) is applied to the multi-disciplinary conceptual design problem for a three-stage launch vehicle (LV) with a hybrid rocket engine (HRE). MOGA is an optimization tool used for multi-objective problems. The parallel coordinate plot (PCP), which is a data mining method, is employed in the post-process in MOGA for design knowledge discovery. A rocket that can deliver observing micro-satellites to the sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) is designed. It consists of an oxidizer tank containing liquid oxidizer, a combustion chamber containing solid fuel, a pressurizing tank and a nozzle. The objective functions considered in this study are to minimize the total mass of the rocket and to maximize the ratio of the payload mass to the total mass. To calculate the thrust and the engine size, the regression rate is estimated based on an empirical model for a paraffin (FT-0070) propellant. Several non-dominated solutions are obtained using MOGA, and design knowledge is discovered for the present hybrid rocket design problem using a PCP analysis. As a result, substantial knowledge on the design of an LV with an HRE is obtained for use in space transportation.
Barnett, Greg; Turpin, Jason; Nettles, Mindy
This task is to hot-fire test an existing Space Launch Mission (SLM) injector that is applicable for all expander cycle engines being considered for the exploration upper stage. The work leverages investment made in FY 2013 that was used to additively manufacture three injectors (fig. 1) all by different vendors..
Full Text Available Fleas cause allergic dermatitis in cats and dogs and therefore warrant control. It has been demonstrated previously that there is marked inhibition of the development of the immature stages of the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis on fleece blankets exposed to cats treated with imidacloprid. This study reports on the efficacy of imidacloprid in suppressing adult flea emergence in carpet exposed to treated cats. Circular discs of carpet pre-seeded with flea eggs and larvae were exposed to 6 untreated control and 6 topically treated (imidacloprid 10 % m/v cats 1 to 2 days after treatment and subsequently fortnightly for 6 weeks. Exposure times on alternate days were either 1 or 6 hours. Adult flea yield from carpets was determined 35 days after exposure. Differences between flea yield on control carpets and those exposed for 1 hour were significant only for days +1 and +14. For the 6-hour exposure, differences were significant at all times except on Day +43. The ability of imidacloprid to suppress the yield of adult fleas on carpets (6-hour exposure steadily declined from 82 % (Day +2 to 12 %(Day +43. For the 1-hour exposure it varied inconsistently between 0 and 83 % over the 6-week study period.
But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! Beginning in February 2000, three major European research establishments  are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), with support from the European Union (EU). Other partners include the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, at CERN, Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge of physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries. "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European countries . In each country, a dedicated National Steering Committee (NSC) is being formed which will be responsible for their own national programme. A list of contact addresses is attached below. "Physics on Stage" is based on a series of high-profile physics-related activities that will inform the European public in general, and European high school physics teachers and media representatives in particular
Caldwell, Richard A
In response to Department of Defense (DoD) requirements for responsive and low-cost space access, this design study provides an objective empty weight analysis of potential reusable launch vehicle (RLV) configurations...
.... In order to improve the performance of the current families of launch vehicles, it is necessary to increase the performance of the rocket motors, and conversely the amount of propellant/oxidizer carried...
Pamadi, Bandu N.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Albertson, Cindy W.; Karlgaard, Christopher D.
The objective of this report is to develop and implement a physics based method for analysis and simulation of multi-body dynamics including launch vehicle stage separation. The constraint force equation (CFE) methodology discussed in this report provides such a framework for modeling constraint forces and moments acting at joints when the vehicles are still connected. Several stand-alone test cases involving various types of joints were developed to validate the CFE methodology. The results were compared with ADAMS(Registered Trademark) and Autolev, two different industry standard benchmark codes for multi-body dynamic analysis and simulations. However, these two codes are not designed for aerospace flight trajectory simulations. After this validation exercise, the CFE algorithm was implemented in Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) to provide a capability to simulate end-to-end trajectories of launch vehicles including stage separation. The POST2/CFE methodology was applied to the STS-1 Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) separation and Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV) separation from the Pegasus booster as a further test and validation for its application to launch vehicle stage separation problems. Finally, to demonstrate end-to-end simulation capability, POST2/CFE was applied to the ascent, orbit insertion, and booster return of a reusable two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle concept. With these validation exercises, POST2/CFE software can be used for performing conceptual level end-to-end simulations, including launch vehicle stage separation, for problems similar to those discussed in this report.
Alexander, Reginald A.; Stanley, Thomas Troy
Presented is a design tool and process that connects several disciplines which are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system and in the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); the thermal protection system (TPS) is linked directly to almost every major system. The propulsion system pushes the vehicle to velocities on the order of 15 times the speed of sound in the atmosphere before pulling up to go to orbit which results high temperatures on the external surfaces of the vehicle. Thermal protection systems to maintain the structural integrity of the vehicle must be able to mitigate the heat transfer to the structure and be lightweight. Herein lies the interdependency, in that as the vehicle's speed increases, the TPS requirements are increased. And as TPS masses increase the effect on the propulsion system and all other systems is compounded. To adequately determine insulation masses for a vehicle such as the one described above, the aeroheating loads must be calculated and the TPS thicknesses must be calculated for the entire vehicle. To accomplish this an ascent or reentry trajectory is obtained using the computer code Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST). The trajectory is then used to calculate the convective heat rates on several locations on the vehicles using the Miniature Version of the JA70 Aerodynamic Heating Computer Program (MINIVER). Once the heat rates are defined for each body point on the vehicle, then insulation thicknesses that are required to maintain the vehicle within structural limits are calculated using Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) models. If the TPS masses are too heavy for the performance of the vehicle the process may be repeated altering the trajectory or some other input to
Herring, Erin S; Smith, Mark M; Robertson, John L
A retrospective study was performed to report the histologic examination results of regional lymph nodes of dogs and cats with oral or maxillofacial neoplasms. Twenty-eight dogs and 3 cats were evaluated. Histologic examination results of standard and serial tissue sectioning of regional lymph nodes were recorded. When available, other clinical parameters including mandibular lymph node palpation, thoracic radiographs, and pre- and postoperative fine needle aspiration of lymph nodes were compared with the histologic results. Squamous cell carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, and melanoma were the most common neoplasms diagnosed in dogs. Squamous cell carcinoma and fibrosarcoma were diagnosed in cats. Of the palpably enlarged mandibular lymph nodes, 17.0% had metastatic disease histologically. Radiographically evident thoracic metastatic disease was present in 7.4% of cases. Preoperative cytologic evaluation of the mandibular lymph node based on fine needle aspiration concurred with the histologic results in 90.5% of lymph nodes examined. Postoperative cytologic evaluation of fine needle aspirates of regional lymph nodes concurred with the histologic results in 80.6% of lymph nodes examined. Only 54.5% of cases with metastatic disease to regional lymph nodes had metastasis that included the mandibular lymph node. Serial lymph node sectioning provided additional information or metastasis detection. Cytologic evaluation of the mandibular lymph node correlates positively with histology, however results may fail to indicate the presence of regional metastasis. Assessment of all regional lymph nodes in dogs and cats with oral or maxillofacial neoplasms will detect more metastatic disease than assessing the mandibular lymph node only.
Trushlyakov Valeriy I.
Full Text Available A method for increasing the safe explosion of the spent orbital stages of a space launch vehicle (SLV with a propulsion rocket engine (PRE based on the gasification of unusable residues propellant and venting fuel tanks. For gasification and ventilation the hot gases used produced by combustion of the specially selected gas generating composition (GGC with a set of physical and chemical properties. Excluding the freezing of the drainage system on reset gasified products (residues propellant+pressurization gas+hot gases in the near-Earth space is achieved by selecting the physical-chemical characteristics of the GGC. Proposed steps to ensure rotation of gasified products due to dumping through the drainage system to ensure the most favorable conditions for propellant gasification residues. For example, a tank with liquid oxygen stays with the orbital spent second stage of the SLV “Zenit”, which shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.
The aim of the researchis the quality operations of the design process at the stage of research works on the development of active on-Board system of the launch vehicles spent stages descent with liquid propellant rocket engines by simulating the gasification process of undeveloped residues of fuel in the tanks. The design techniques of the gasification process of liquid rocket propellant components residues in the tank to the expense of finding and fixing errors in the algorithm calculation to increase the accuracy of calculation results is proposed. Experimental modelling of the model liquid evaporation in a limited reservoir of the experimental stand, allowing due to the false measurements rejection based on given criteria and detected faults to enhance the results reliability of the experimental studies; to reduce the experiments cost.
Ray Dillon, A; Tillson, D M; Wooldridge, A; Cattley, R; Hathcock, J; Brawner, W R; Cole, R; Welles, B; Christopherson, P W; Lee-Fowler, T; Bordelon, S; Barney, S; Sermersheim, M; Garbarino, R; Wells, S Z; Diffie, E B; Schachner, E R
A controlled, blind study was conducted to define the initial inflammatory response and lung damage associated with the death of precardiac stages of Dirofilaria immitis in cats as compared to adult heartworm infections and normal cats. Three groups of six cats each were used: UU: uninfected untreated controls; PreS I: infected with 100 D. immitis L3 by subcutaneous injection and treated topically with selamectin 32 and 2 days pre-infection and once monthly for 8 months); IU: infected with 100 D. immitis L3 and left untreated. Peripheral blood, serum, bronchial lavage, and thoracic radiographic images were collected from all cats on Days 0, 70, 110, 168, and 240. CT images were acquired on Days 0, 110, and 240. Cats were euthanized, and necropsies were conducted on Day 240 to determine the presence of heartworms. Bronchial rings were collected for in vitro reactivity. Lung, heart, brain, kidney, and liver tissues were collected for histopathology. Results were compared for changes within each group. Pearson and Spearman correlations were performed for association between histologic, radiographic, serologic, hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) results. Infected cats treated with selamectin did not develop radiographically evident changes throughout the study, were heartworm antibody negative, and were free of adult heartworms and worm fragments at necropsy. Histologic lung scores and CT analysis were not significantly different between PreS I cats and UU controls. Subtle alveolar myofibrosis was noted in isolated areas of several PreS I cats and an eosinophilic BAL cytology was noted on Days 75 and 120. Bronchial ring reactivity was blunted in IU cats but was normal in PreS I and UU cats. The IU cats became antibody positive, and five cats developed adult heartworms. All cats with heartworms were antigen positive at one time point; but one cat was antibody positive, antigen negative, with viable adult females at necropsy. The CT revealed early involvement
Roche, Joseph M.; Kosareo, Daniel N.
In support of NASA's Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle (ABLV) study, a 25,000-lb payload version of the GTX (formerly Trailblazer) reference vehicle concept was developed. The GTX is a vertical lift-off, reusable, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle concept that uses hypersonic air-breathing propulsion in a rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system to reduce the required propellant fraction. To achieve this goal the vehicle and propulsion system must be well integrated both aerodynamically and structurally to reduce weight. This study demonstrates the volumetric and structural efficiency of a vertical takeoff, horizontal landing, hypersonic vehicle with a circular cross section. A departure from the lifting body concepts, this design philosophy is even extended to the engines, which have semicircular nacelles symmetrically mounted on the vehicle. Material candidates with a potential for lightweight and simplicity have been selected from a set of near term technologies (five to ten years). To achieve the mission trajectory, preliminary weight estimates show the vehicle's gross lift-off weight is 1.26 x 10(exp 6) lb. The structural configuration of the GTX vehicle and its propulsion system are described. The vehicle design benefits are presented, and key technical issues are highlighted.
MacConochie, Ian O.; Stnaley, Douglas O.
A single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle is used to assess the applicability of Soviet Energia high-pressure-hydrocarbon engine to advanced U.S. manned space transportation systems. Two of the Soviet engines are used with three Space Shuttle Main Engines. When applied to a baseline vehicle that utilized advanced hydrocarbon engines, the higher weight of the Soviet engines resulted in a 20 percent loss of payload capability and necessitated a change in the crew compartment size and location from mid-body to forebody in order to balance the vehicle. Various combinations of Soviet and Shuttle engines were evaluated for comparison purposes, including an all hydrogen system using all Space Shuttle Main Engines. Operational aspects of the baseline vehicle are also discussed. A new mass properties program entitles Weights and Moments of Inertia (WAMI) is used in the study.
Full Text Available The septal organ /SO/ (Masera's organ /MO/ is a chemoreceptor presently considered one of three types of olfactory organs (along with the principal olfactory region and vomeronasal organ. Notwithstanding the septal organ having been first described by Rodolfo Masera in 1943, little is known of the properties of sensory neurons or of its functional significance in chemoreception. Until now the septal organ has been described only in laboratory rodents and some marsupials. This work refers to its existence in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris f. catus. The septal organ can be identified at the end of embryonic period - 27 or 28 days of ontogenesis in cats (the 6th developmental stage of Štěrba - coincident with formation of the principal olfactory region in nasal cavity. At 45 days of ontogenesis (the 9th developmental stage of Štěrba, this septal olfactory organ is of circular or oval shape, 120 μm in diameter, in ventral part of septum nasi, lying caudally to the opening of ductus incisivus. The structure of the epithelium of septal olfactory organ is clearly distinct from the respiratory epithelium of the nasal cavity. It varies in thickness, cellular composition, as well as free surface appearance, and even lack the typical structure of sensory epithelium, in this developmental period. Nerve bundles and glandular acini are lacking in the lamina propria mucosae of the septal organ and in the adjacent tissues. Glands appear as the single non-luminized cords of epithelia extending from the surface. The adjacent respiratory epithelium contains numerous goblet cells.
Hank, Joseph M
.... Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) will allow the U.S. to keep a technological advantage over our adversaries, and advances in airbreathing propulsion technology have made it feasible for use in space launch vehicles...
Otte, Neil E.; Lyles, Garry; Reuter, James L.; Davis, Daniel J.
Fielding an integrated launch vehicle system entails many challenges, not the least of which is the fact that it has been over 30 years since the United States has developed a human-rated vehicle - the venerable Space Shuttle. Over time, whole generations of rocket scientists have passed through the aerospace community without the opportunity to perform such exacting, demanding, and rewarding work. However, with almost 50 years of experience leading the design, development, and end-to-end systems engineering and integration of complex launch vehicles, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center offers the in-house talent - both junior- and senior-level personnel - to shape a new national asset to meet the requirements for safe, reliable, and affordable space exploration solutions. The technical personnel are housed primarily in Marshall's Engineering Directorate and are matrixed into the programs and projects that reside at the rocket center. Fortunately, many Apollo-era and Shuttle engineers, as well as those who gained valuable hands-on experience in the 1990s by conducting technology demonstrator projects such as the Delta-Clipper Experimental Advanced, X-33, X-34, and X-37, as well as the short-lived Orbital Space Plane, work closely with industry partners to advance the nation's strategic capability for human access to space. The Ares Projects Office, resident at Marshall, is managing the design and development of America's new space fleet, including the Ares I, which will loft the Orion crew capsule for its first test flight in the 2013 timeframe, as well as the heavy-lift Ares V, which will round out the capability to leave low-Earth orbit once again, when it delivers the Altair lunar lander to orbit late next decade. This paper provides information about the approach to integrating the Ares I stack and designing the upper stage in house, using unique facilities and an expert workforce to revitalize the nation
Kawai, Nobuaki; Tsurui, Kenji; Hasegawa, Sunao; Sato, Eiichi
A single microparticle launching method is described to simulate the hypervelocity impacts of micrometeoroids and microdebris on space structures at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. A microparticle placed in a sabot with slits is accelerated using a rifled two-stage light-gas gun. The centrifugal force provided by the rifling in the launch tube separates the sabot. The sabot-separation distance and the impact-point deviation are strongly affected by the combination of the sabot diameter and the bore diameter, and by the projectile diameter. Using this method, spherical projectiles of 1.0-0.1 mm diameter were launched at up to 7 km/s.
Trushlyakov, V.; Shatrov, Ya.; Sujmenbaev, B.; Baranov, D.
The paper addresses the problem of the launch vehicles (LV) with main liquid propulsion engines launch technogenic impact in different environment areas. Therefore, as the study subjects were chosen the worked-off stages (WS) with unused propellant residues in tanks, the cosmodrome ecological monitoring system, the worked-off stage design and construction solutions development system and the unified system with the "WS+the cosmodrome ecological monitoring system+design and construction solutions development system" feedback allowing to form the optimal ways of the WS design and construction parameters variations for its fire and explosion hazard management in different areas of the environment. It is demonstrated that the fire hazard effects of propellant residues in WS tanks increase the ecosystem disorder level for the Vostochny cosmodrome impact area ecosystem. Applying the system analysis, the proposals on the selection of technologies, schematic and WS design and construction solutions aimed to the fire and explosion safety improvement during the LV worked-off stages with the main liquid propulsion engines operation were formulated. Among them are the following: firstly, the unused propellant residues in tanks convective gasification based on the hot gas (heat carrier) supply in WS tanks after main liquid propulsion engines cutoff is proposed as the basic technology; secondly, the obtained unused propellant residues in WS tanks gasification products (evaporated propellant residues + pressurizing agent + heat carrier) are used for WS stabilization and orientation while descending trajectory moving. The applying of the proposed technologies allows providing fire and explosion safety requirements of LV with main liquid propulsion engines practically.
China's Launch Vehicle technologies have been started since 1950s. With the efforts made by several-generation Chinese Space people, the Long March (LM) Launch Vehicles, China's main space transportation tools, have undergone a development road from conventional propellants to cryogenic propellants, from stage-by-stage to strap-on, from dedicated-launch to multiple-launch, from satellite-launching to space capsule-launching. The LM Launch Vehicles are capable of sending various payloads to different orbits with low cost and high reliability. Till now, the LM Launch Vehicles have conducted 67 launch missions, putting 76 spacecraft into the given orbits since the successful mission made by LM-1 in 1970. Especially, they have performed 22 international commercial satellite-launching missions, sending 27 foreign satellites successfully. The footprints of LM Launch Vehicles reflect the development and progress of Chinese Space Industry. At the beginning of the 21st century, with the development of launch vehicle technology and the economic globalization, it is an inexorable trend that Chinese space industry must participate in the international cooperation and competition. Being faced with both opportunities and challenges, Chinese Space Industry should promote actively the commercial launch service market to increase service quality and improve the comprehensive competition capabilities. In order to maintain the sustaining development of China's launch vehicle technology and to meet the increasing needs in the international commercial launch service market, Chinese space industry is now doing research work on developing new-generation Chinese launchers. The new launchers will be large-scale, powerful and non-contamination. The presence of the new-generation Chinese launchers will greatly speed up the development of the whole space-related industries in China, as well as other parts of the world. In the first part, this paper gives an overview on China Aerospace Science
Gómez, Nélida V.; Fontanals, Adriana; Castillo, Víctor; Gisbert, María A.; Suraniti, Adriana; Mira, Graciela; Pisano, Paola B.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the antiretrovirals: Zidovudine (ZDV) alone; ZDV + Recombinant Human Interferon-α (rHuIFN-α); ZDV + Lamivudine (3TC) and ZDV + valproic acid (Valp) on naturally feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats, in the late phase of the asymptomatic stage of infection. The follow-up was performed over one year, through clinical evaluation and the determination of viral loads and CD4+/CD8+ ratios. Neurological signs were studied by visual and auditory evoked potentials (VEP, AEP) and the responses were abnormal in 80% of the FIV-infected cats. After one year, an improvement in VEP and AEP was observed in the ZDV + Valp group and a worsening in the group receiving ZDV + rHuIFN-α. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio showed a significant increase (both intra and inter-groups) only in ZDV and ZDV + 3TC, between their pre-treatment and one year values, as well as among the other groups. Viral load only showed a significant decrease in ZDV and ZDV + 3TC groups, when comparing the values at one year of treatment vs. pre-treatment values and when the different groups were compared. In addition, the viral load decrease was significantly more pronounced in the ZDV + 3TC vs. ZDV group. We conclude that ZDV and ZDV + 3TC produce significant reductions in viral load and stimulate a recovery of the CD4+/CD8+ ratio, compared with the other protocols. It is clear that the addition of 3TC resulted in a greater reduction in viral load than use of ZDV as a single drug. Therefore, the combination ZDV + 3TC could be more effective than the sole use of ZDV. PMID:22816032
COSMOS-3M is a two stage launcher with liquid propellant rocket engines. Since 1960's COSMOS has launched satellites of up to 1.500kg in both circular low Earth and elliptical orbits with high inclination. The direct SSO ascent is available from Plesetsk launch site. The very high number of 759 launches and the achieved success rate of 97,4% makes this space transportation system one of the most reliable and successful launchers in the world. The German small satellite company OHB System co-operates since 1994 with the COSMOS manufacturer POLYOT, Omsk, in Russia. They have created the joint venture COSMOS International and successfully launched five German and Italian satellites in 1999 and 2000. The next commercial launches are contracted for 2002 and 2003. In 2005 -2007 COSMOS will be also used for the new German reconnaissance satellite launches. This paper provides an overview of COSMOS-3M launcher: its heritage and performance, examples of scientific and commercial primary and piggyback payload launches, the launch service organization and international cooperation. The COSMOS launch service business strategy main points are depicted. The current and future position of COSMOS in the worldwide market of launch services is outlined.
Polzin, David J; Churchill, Julie A
Renal diets have been the mainstay of therapy for cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) for many decades. Clinical trials in cats with CKD have shown them to be effective in improving survival, reducing uremic crises, and improving serum urea nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations. It has shown that, when food intake is adequate, renal diets can maintain body weight and body condition scores for up to 2 years. Although some have questioned whether renal diets provide adequate protein and have advocated feeding higher-protein diets to cats with CKD, there is currently no convincing evidence in support of this proposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... R S T U V W X Y Z Cat's Claw Share: On This Page Background How Much ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about cat’s claw—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources ...
Physics No known feasible concepts. --- •Save $ “Now”. Solar Thermal Upper Stage. •Build “Now”. NTP Upper Stage, Gun Launch. •Research Now. BEP ...Save $ “Now”. NONE. •Build “Now”. Gun Launch. •Research Now. BEP (Laser, Microwave), Launch Assist, Adv. Propellants. •Alternative Missions
Stray cats are afflicted with various parasitic infestations and the infective stages of these parasites may spread infection to other .... Plate V: Photomicrograph of isospora isolated from faecal sample of .... of Intestinal parasites in dogs and cats.
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A Bumper Wac, a combination the V-2 rocket with a WAC Corporal upper stage, awaits launch on July 24, 1950. It was the eighth in the Bumper Project and the vehicle reached the altitude of 393 kilometers. The Bumper was built by the German Rocket experts at the White Sands Proving Ground in New Mexico. In 1950, the last two Bumper launches took place in Florida, at the Long Range Proving Ground, located at Cape Canaveral.
Koenigsmann, Hans; Musk, Elon; Shotwell, Gwynne; Chinnery, Anne
Falcon I is the first in a family of launch vehicles designed by Space Exploration Technologies to facilitate low cost access to space. Falcon I is a mostly reusable, two stage, liquid oxygen and kerosene powered launch vehicle. The vehicle is designed above all for high reliability, followed by low cost and a benign flight environment. Launched from Vandenberg, a standard Falcon I can carry over 1000 lbs to sun-synchronous orbit and 1500 lbs due east to 100 NM. To minimize failure modes, the...
"Understanding how the Sun behaves is of crucial importance to all of us on Earth. It affects our everyday lives" said Roger Bonnet, Director of Science at ESA, who witnessed SOHO's spectacular nighttime launch from Cape Canaveral. "When SOHO begins work in four months time, scientists will, for the first time, be able to study this star 24 hours a day, 365 days a year". The 12 instruments on SOHO will probe the Sun inside out, from the star's very centre to the solar wind that blasts its way through the solar system. It will even listen to sounds, like musical notes, deep within the star by recording their vibrations when they reach the surface. SOHO was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station, Florida, atop an Atlas IIAS rocket, at 09:08 CET on Saturday 2 December 1995. The 1.6 tonne observatory was released into its transfer orbit from the rocket's Centaur upper stage about two hours after launch. It will take four months for the satellite to reach its final position, a unique vantage point, located 1.5 million kilometres from Earth, where the gravitational pull of the Earth and Sun are equal. From here, the Lagrange point, SOHO will have an unobstructed view of the Sun all year round. SOHO's launch was delayed from 23 November because a flaw was discovered in a precision regulator, which throttles the power of the booster engine on the Atlas rocket. The system was replaced and retested before the launch. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. The spacecraft was designed and built in Europe, NASA provided the launch and will operate the satellite from its Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland. European scientists provided eight of the observatory's instruments and US scientists a further three. The spacecraft is part of the international Solar-Terrestrial Science Programme, the next member of which is Cluster, a flotilla of four spacecraft that will study how the Sun affects Earth and surrounding space. Cluster is scheduled for
... with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of chronic lymph node swelling in children.
The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is being built at the Kennedy Space Center in order to successfully launch NASA’s revolutionary vehicle that allows humans to explore further into space than ever before. During my internship, I worked with the Network, Firewall, and Hardware teams that are all contributing to the huge SCCS network project effort. I learned the SCCS network design and the several concepts that are running in the background. I also updated and designed documentation for physical networks that are part of SCCS. This includes being able to assist and build physical installations as well as configurations. I worked with the network design for vehicle telemetry interfaces to the Launch Control System (LCS); this allows the interface to interact with other systems at other NASA locations. This network design includes the Space Launch System (SLS), Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS), and the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). I worked on the network design and implementation in the Customer Avionics Interface Development and Analysis (CAIDA) lab.
Talke, Katrin; Salomo, Søren
have received less attention. This study considers the interdependencies between strategic, internally and externally, directed tactical launch activities and investigates both direct and indirect performance effects. The analysis is based upon data from 113 technological innovations launched...... in industrial markets. The launch strategy and tactics addressing resistance of customers, market players and parties from the broader firm environment are found to have a direct impact on market success. The launch strategy also drives both internally and externally directed launch tactics. For launch tactics...
Launching a new product can be a tense time for a small or large business. There are those moments when you wonder if all of the work done to develop the product will pay off in revenue, but there are many things are can do to help increase the likelihood of a successful product launch. An open-minded consumer-oriented approach is imperative in todayís diverse global marketplace so a firm can identify and serve its target market, minimize dissatisfaction, and stay ahead of competitors. Final consumers purchase for personal, family, or household use. Finally, the kind of information that the marketing team needs to provide customers in different buying situations. In high-involvement decisions, the marketer needs to provide a good deal of information about the positive consequences of buying. The sales force may need to stress the important attributes of the product, the advantages compared with the competition; and maybe even encourage ìtrialî or ìsamplingî of the product in the hope of securing the sale. The final stage is the post-purchase evaluation of the decision. It is common for customers to experience concerns after making a purchase decision. This arises from a concept that is known as ìcognitive dissonance
May, Todd; Lyles, Garry
NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) is gaining momentum programmatically and technically toward the first launch of a new exploration-class heavy lift launch vehicle for international exploration and science initiatives. The SLS comprises an architecture that begins with a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. Its first mission will be the launch of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back. SLS will also launch the first Orion crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a 130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation with the successful completion of the rigorous Key Decision Point C review in 2014. At KDP-C, the Agency Planning Management Council determines the readiness of a program to go to the next life-cycle phase and makes technical, cost, and schedule commitments to its external stakeholders. As a result, the Agency authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015, and a launch readiness date of November 2018. Every SLS element is currently in testing or test preparations. The Program shipped its first flight hardware in 2014 in preparation for Orion's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) launch on a Delta IV Heavy rocket in December, a significant first step toward human journeys into deep space. Accomplishments during 2014 included manufacture of Core Stage test articles and preparations for qualification testing the Solid Rocket Boosters and the RS-25 Core Stage engines. SLS was conceived with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability, while also providing unprecedented capability for human exploration and scientific discovery beyond Earth orbit. In an environment
Lee, Seon Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Han, Moon Hee; Shin, Yong Moon; Choo, Sung Wook; Yu, In Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seung Yull; Kong, Yoon [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
It is important to diagnosis paragonimiasis in early active because it can be dared by chemotherapy. However, it is difficult to make a correct diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis in the early active stage, and the radiographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis have been rarely reported. Thus, this experimental study was designed to produce early active cerebral paragonimiasis and to demonstrate radiologic-pathologic correlations. In 8 cats, 7-8 metacercariae of Paragonimus Westermani were directly introduced into brain parenchyma of each cat's after trephination of the skull. In another 16 cats, the juvenile worms and the adult worms that had developed for varying periods (2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks) in the lunges of another cats were introduced into the brain parenchyma of each cat's with the same procedure described above. Follow -up MR images and chest radiographs were obtained at 2 days, 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after inoculation. The autopsies and histopathological examinations of the cat's brain were undertaken in 22 cats. In 9 cats that were suspected with pulmonary lesion on chest radiograph, the soft tissue radiographs of inflated-fixed lungs were obtained. In one cat with inoculation of adult worm, acute suppurative inflammation of the brain parenchyma was demonstrated. But the other cats with inoculation of adult worm or juvenile worm and the cats with intentional of metacercaris did not reveal any evidence of acute cerebral paragonimiasis. More than half of the introduce metacercariae (5 out of 8 cats) were found in the lung parenchyma, while only 25% (4 out of 16 cats) of the adult worm inoculated cats were. Acute suppurative inflammation suggesting acute stage cerebral paragonimiasis was obtained in one case of adult worm inoculated cat. Most of the inoculated metacercariae and some of the juvenile worms or adult worms were migrated to the lungs.
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Aharonov, Yakir; Popescu, Sandu; Rohrlich, Daniel; Skrzypczyk, Paul
In this paper we present a quantum Cheshire Cat. In a pre- and post-selected experiment we find the Cat in one place, and its grin in another. The Cat is a photon, while the grin is its circular polarization.
Ares I-X Launch Abort System, Crew Module, and Upper Stage Simulator Vibroacoustic Flight Data Evaluation, Comparison to Predictions, and Recommendations for Adjustments to Prediction Methodology and Assumptions
Smith, Andrew; Harrison, Phil
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) has identified a series of tests to provide insight into the design and development of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Ares I-X was selected as the first suborbital development flight test to help meet CxP objectives. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle (FTV) is an early operational model of CLV, with specific emphasis on CLV and ground operation characteristics necessary to meet Ares I-X flight test objectives. The in-flight part of the test includes a trajectory to simulate maximum dynamic pressure during flight and perform a stage separation of the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) from the First Stage (FS). The in-flight test also includes recovery of the FS. The random vibration response from the ARES 1-X flight will be reconstructed for a few specific locations that were instrumented with accelerometers. This recorded data will be helpful in validating and refining vibration prediction tools and methodology. Measured vibroacoustic environments associated with lift off and ascent phases of the Ares I-X mission will be compared with pre-flight vibration predictions. The measured flight data was given as time histories which will be converted into power spectral density plots for comparison with the maximum predicted environments. The maximum predicted environments are documented in the Vibroacoustics and Shock Environment Data Book, AI1-SYS-ACOv4.10 Vibration predictions made using statistical energy analysis (SEA) VAOne computer program will also be incorporated in the comparisons. Ascent and lift off measured acoustics will also be compared to predictions to assess whether any discrepancies between the predicted vibration levels and measured vibration levels are attributable to inaccurate acoustic predictions. These comparisons will also be helpful in assessing whether adjustments to prediction methodologies are needed to improve agreement between the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Iraqi upper air records loaned to NCDC from the Air Force 14th Weather Squadron. Scanned notebooks containing upper air radiosonde launch records and data. Launches...
Images Cat. 1 Cat. 2 (a) Cat. 2 (b) Cat. 2 (c) Cat. 2 (d) Cat. 2 (e) Cat. 2 (f) Cat. 3: 1 (a) Cat. 3: 1 (b) Cat. 3: 2 (a) Cat. 3: 2 (b) Cat. 4: 1 Cat. 4: 2 Cat. 6: 1 (a) Cat. 6: 1 (b) Cat. 6: 2 (a) Cat. 6: 2 (b) Cat. 7: 1 (a) Cat. 7: 1 (b) Cat. 7: 2 (a) Cat. 7: 2 (b) Cat. 8: 1 Cat. 9: 1 Cat. 9: 2 Cat. 10: 1 Cat. 10: 2
The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.
Images Cat. 11 (a) Cat. 11 (b) Cat. 11 (c) Cat. 11 (d) Cat. 12: 1 (a) Cat. 12: 1 (b) Cat. 12: 2 (a) Cat. 12: 2 (b) Cat. 13 Cat. 14 (a) Cat. 14 (b) Cat. 14 (c) Cat. 15 (a) Cat. 15 (b) Cat. 17: 1 Cat. 17: 2 Cat. 18: 1 Cat. 18: 2 Cat. 19: 1 (a) Cat. 19: 1 (b) Cat. 19: 2 (a) Cat. 19: 2 (b) Cat. 20: 1 Cat. 20: 2 (a) Cat. 20: 2 (b) Cat. 21 (a) Cat. 21 (b) Cat. 21 (c) Cat. 21 (d) Cat. 21 (e) Cat. 22 Cat. 24: 1 and 2 Cat. 25: 1 Cat. 25: 2 Cat. 25: 3 Cat. 25: 4
Shahmari, Elham; Molaverdikhani, Karan; Jazebizadeh, Hooman; Bakhtiari Mojaz, Sahar; Taheran, Mahsa
Today different groups started to manufacture cubesats because of the low cost of manufacturing and launching the satellites. With the growth of cubesat manufacturing, the scientist has tried to produce the small launchers to respond the needs of new researchers and young scientists. In 1980 the manufactured the commercial small launcher and starting launch in 1990. Also Russia with improvement of their ballistic missile and performing changes and improvement tried to manufacture small launch...
Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist
This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…
Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine
Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P cats than in healthy cats (P cats suffering from systemic disease (P cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.
Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan
The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.
May, Todd A.; Lyles, Garry M.
NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) is gaining momentum toward the first launch of a new exploration-class heavy lift launch vehicle for international exploration and science initiatives. The SLS comprises an architecture that begins with a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. It will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017. Its first crewed flight follows in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. The SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation with the successful completion of the rigorous Key Decision Point C review in 2014. As a result, the Agency authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. In the NASA project life cycle process, SLS has completed 50 percent of its major milestones toward first flight. Every SLS element manufactured development hardware for testing over the past year. Accomplishments during 2013/2014 included manufacture of core stage test articles, preparations for qualification testing the solid rocket boosters and the RS-25 main engines, and shipment of the first flight hardware in preparation for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) in 2014. SLS was conceived with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability, while also providing unprecedented capability for human exploration and scientific discovery beyond Earth orbit. In an environment of economic challenges, the SLS team continues to meet ambitious budget and schedule targets through the studied use of hardware, infrastructure, and workforce investments the United States made in the last half century, while selectively using new technologies for design, manufacturing, and testing, as well as streamlined management approaches
Cat-scratch disease is a subacute regional lymphadenitis, usually preceded by a history of a cat scratch or exposure to kittens. The disease is caused by Bartonella henselae, and possibly Bartonella quintana, pleomorphic gram-negative rods formerly known as Rochalimaea henselae and Rochalimaea quintana. Ocular involvement is rare and typically manifests as either Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome or neuroretinitis. Patients with neuroretinitis resulting from cat-scratch disease may be asymptomatic or experience mild-to-severe vision loss. The clinical features, angiographic appearance, differential diagnosis, and management of cat-scratch neuroretinitis are discussed. A 30-year-old white woman reported to the eye clinic with painless, decreased vision in the right eye. A diagnosis of cat scratch neuroretinitis was made on the basis of the history of cat scratch, clinical appearance, and angiographic findings. Treatment with oral ciprofloxacin restored vision to normal in 4 weeks. Painless vision loss associated with optic nerve swelling and macular star exudate should alert suspicion of systemic disease. Additional findings--including positive history of a cat scratch, lymphadenopathy, and flu-like symptoms--may indicate Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana infection. While treatment remains controversial, appropriate serology testing may aid in the diagnosis and management of the underlying infection.
This is a story about how the Northwest Indiana urban waters partnership location supported the process to create and open the first handicap accessible canoe and kayak launch in the state of Indiana.
NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc
Sato, Koji; Kondou, Yoshirou
Galaxy Express Corporation (GALEX) is a launch service company in Japan to develop a medium size rocket, GX rocket and to provide commercial launch services for medium/small low Earth orbit (LEO) and Sun synchronous orbit (SSO) payloads with a future potential for small geo-stationary transfer orbit (GTO). It is GALEX's view that small/medium LEO/SSO payloads compose of medium scaled but stable launch market due to the nature of the missions. GX rocket is a two-stage rocket of well flight proven liquid oxygen (LOX)/kerosene booster and LOX/liquid natural gas (LNG) upper stage. This LOX/LNG propulsion under development by Japan's Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), is robust with comparable performance as other propulsions and have future potential for wider application such as exploration programs. GX rocket is being developed through a joint work between the industries and GX rocket is applying a business oriented approach in order to realize competitive launch services for which well flight proven hardware and necessary new technology are to be introduced as much as possible. It is GALEX's goal to offer “Easy Access to Space”, a highly reliable and user-friendly launch services with a competitive price. GX commercial launch will start in Japanese fiscal year (JFY) 2007 2008.
The strategy of launch under attack calls for launching nuclear weapons on warning that attacking weapons are on their way. The political pressures for adopting this strategy are symptomatic of an increasing instability in the nuclear balance. The author describes a Brookings Institute model, which indicates that the problems of decentralized control and precise timing could lead to failures in retargeting procedures. The major concern is that the strategy imposes powerful incentives for preemption as the most promising means of conducting nuclear war.
Mathiason, Candace K; Nalls, Amy V; Seelig, Davis M; Kraft, Susan L; Carnes, Kevin; Anderson, Kelly R; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hoover, Edward A
Domestic and nondomestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), almost certainly caused by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat. Because domestic and free-ranging nondomestic felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in areas affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD), we evaluated the susceptibility of the domestic cat (Felis catus) to CWD infection experimentally. Cohorts of 5 cats each were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or orally (p.o.) with CWD-infected deer brain. At 40 and 42 months postinoculation, two i.c.-inoculated cats developed signs consistent with prion disease, including a stilted gait, weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors, head and tail tremors, and ataxia, and the cats progressed to terminal disease within 5 months. Brains from these two cats were pooled and inoculated into cohorts of cats by the i.c., p.o., and intraperitoneal and subcutaneous (i.p./s.c.) routes. Upon subpassage, feline CWD was transmitted to all i.c.-inoculated cats with a decreased incubation period of 23 to 27 months. Feline-adapted CWD (Fel(CWD)) was demonstrated in the brains of all of the affected cats by Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities in clinically ill cats, which included multifocal T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal hyperintensities, ventricular size increases, prominent sulci, and white matter tract cavitation. Currently, 3 of 4 i.p./s.c.- and 2 of 4 p.o. secondary passage-inoculated cats have developed abnormal behavior patterns consistent with the early stage of feline CWD. These results demonstrate that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to the domestic cat, thus raising the issue of potential cervid-to-feline transmission in nature.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...
Noel, Alexis; Martinez, Andrea; Jung, Hyewon; Tsai, Ting-Wen; Hu, David
A cat's tongue is covered in an array of spines called papillae. These spines are thought to be used in grooming and rasping meat from bones of prey, although no mechanism has been given. We use high-speed video to film a cat removing cat food deeply wedged into a 3-D printed fur mat. We show that the spines on the tongue act as Velcro for particles. The tongue itself is highly elastic. As the cat presses it against a substrate, the tongue flattens and the spines separate. When the tongue is removed from the substrate the spines come together, wedging particles between them. This elasticity-driven entrapment permits the surface of the tongue to act as a carrier for hard to reach particles, and to increase the efficacy of grooming and feeding.
Medvedev, A. A.; Kuzin, A. I.; Karrask, V. K.
vehicles and it is concerned with a further evolution of its launcher fleet in order to meet arising demands of their services customers. Continuing to provide an operation of current "Proton" heavy launch vehicle and "Rockot" small launch vehicle, Khrunichev is carrying out a permanent improvement of these launchers as well as is developing new advanced launch systems. Thus, the `Proton' just has the improved "Proton-M" version, which was successfully tested in a flight, while an improvement of the "Rockot" is provided by a permanent modernization of its "Breeze-KM" upper stage and a payload fairing. Enhancing of the "Proton/Proton-M's" lift capabilities and flexibility of operation is being provided by introduction of advanced upper stages, the "Breeze- M", which was just put into service, and KVRB being in the development. "Angara-1.1" small launcher is scheduled to a launch in 2003. A creation of this family foresees not only a range of small, medium and heavy launch vehicles based on a modular principle of design but also a construction of high-automated launch site at the Russian Plesetsk spaceport. An operation of the "Angara" family's launchers will allow to inject payloads of actually all classes from Russian national territory into all range of applicable orbits with high technical and economic indices. ecological safety of drop zones, Khrunichev is developing the "Baikal" fly-back reusable booster. This booster would replace expendable first stages of small "Angaras" and strap-ons of medium/heavy launchers, which exert a most influence on the Earth's environment. intercontinental ballistic missiles to current and advanced space launch vehicles of various classes. A succession of the gained experience and found technological solutions are shown.
Askins, Bruce; Robinson, Kimberly F.
Major hardware and software for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) began rolling off assembly lines in 2016, setting the stage for critical testing in 2017 and the launch of a major new capability for deep space human exploration. SLS continues to pursue a 2018 first launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). At NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, LA, Boeing completed welding of structural test and flight liquid hydrogen tanks, and engine sections. Test stands for core stage structural tests at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. neared completion. The B2 test stand at NASA's Stennis Space Center, MS, completed major structural renovation to support core stage green run testing in 2018. Orbital ATK successfully test fired its second qualification solid rocket motor in the Utah desert and began casting the motor segments for EM-1. Aerojet Rocketdyne completed its series of test firings to adapt the heritage RS-25 engine to SLS performance requirements. Production is under way on the first five new engine controllers. NASA also signed a contract with Aerojet Rocketdyne for propulsion of the RL10 engines for the Exploration Upper Stage. United Launch Alliance delivered the structural test article for the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage to MSFC for tests and construction was under way on the flight stage. Flight software testing at MSFC, including power quality and command and data handling, was completed. Substantial progress is planned for 2017. Liquid oxygen tank production will be completed at Michoud. Structural testing at Marshall will get under way. RS-25 hotfire testing will verify the new engine controllers. Core stage horizontal integration will begin. The core stage pathfinder mockup will arrive at the B2 test stand for fit checks and tests. EUS will complete preliminary design review. This paper will discuss the technical and programmatic successes and challenges of 2016 and look ahead to plans for 2017.
Marino, Christina L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Vaden, Shelly L; Gruen, Margaret E; Marks, Steven L
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and degenerative joint disease are both considered common in older cats. Information on the co-prevalence of these two diseases is lacking. This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of CKD in two cohorts of cats: cats randomly selected from four evenly distributed age groups (RS group) and cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (DJD group), and to evaluate the concurrence of CKD and DJD in these cohorts. The RS group was randomly selected from four age groups from 6 months to 20 years, and the DJD group comprised cats recruited to four previous DJD studies, with the DJD group excluding cats with a blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine concentration >20% (the upper end of normal) for two studies and cats with CKD stages 3 and 4 for the other two studies. The prevalence of CKD in the RS and DJD groups was higher than expected at 50% and 68.8%, respectively. CKD was common in cats between 1 and 15 years of age, with a similar prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 across age groups in both the RS and DJD cats, respectively. We found significant concurrence between CKD and DJD in cats of all ages, indicating the need for increased screening for CKD when selecting DJD treatments. Additionally, this study offers the idea of a relationship and causal commonality between CKD and DJD owing to the striking concurrence across age groups and life stages. PMID:24217707
Marino, Christina L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Vaden, Shelly L; Gruen, Margaret E; Marks, Steven L
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and degenerative joint disease are both considered common in older cats. Information on the co-prevalence of these two diseases is lacking. This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of CKD in two cohorts of cats: cats randomly selected from four evenly distributed age groups (RS group) and cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (DJD group), and to evaluate the concurrence of CKD and DJD in these cohorts. The RS group was randomly selected from four age groups from 6 months to 20 years, and the DJD group comprised cats recruited to four previous DJD studies, with the DJD group excluding cats with a blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine concentration >20% (the upper end of normal) for two studies and cats with CKD stages 3 and 4 for the other two studies. The prevalence of CKD in the RS and DJD groups was higher than expected at 50% and 68.8%, respectively. CKD was common in cats between 1 and 15 years of age, with a similar prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 across age groups in both the RS and DJD cats, respectively. We found significant concurrence between CKD and DJD in cats of all ages, indicating the need for increased screening for CKD when selecting DJD treatments. Additionally, this study offers the idea of a relationship and causal commonality between CKD and DJD owing to the striking concurrence across age groups and life stages. © ISFM and AAFP 2013.
VanZwieten, Tannen S.
The flight control system for the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) employs a control architecture that evolved from Saturn, Shuttle & Ares I-X while also incorporating modern enhancements. This control system, baselined for the first unmanned launch, has been verified and successfully flight-tested on the Ares I-X rocket and an F/A-18 aircraft. The development of the launch vehicle itself came on the heels of the Space Shuttle retirement in 2011, and will deliver more payload to orbit and produce more thrust than any other vehicle, past or present, opening the way to new frontiers of space exploration as it carries the Orion crew vehicle, equipment, and experiments into new territories. The initial 70 metric ton vehicle consists of four RS-25 core stage engines from the Space Shuttle inventory, two 5- segment solid rocket boosters which are advanced versions of the Space Shuttle boosters, and a core stage that resembles the External Tank and carries the liquid propellant while also serving as the vehicle's structural backbone. Just above SLS' core stage is the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS), based upon the payload motor used by the Delta IV Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV).
Peacock, Rachel E; Hosgood, Giselle; Swindells, Katrin L; Smart, Lisa
To assess for any clinical benefit of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) for permethrin toxicosis in cats by comparing the progression of clinical signs of cats before and after treatment with ILE to cats treated with a saline control. To accomplish this objective, a clinical staging system for cats with permethrin toxicosis was developed and validated. Prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial. University veterinary teaching hospital and 12 private veterinary emergency hospitals. Thirty-four client-owned cats with permethrin toxicosis. A clinical staging system was designed based on abnormalities found on physical examination of cats with permethrin toxicosis. The clinical staging system had 6 stages, ranging from Stage A for cats with no abnormalities to Stage F for cats with grand mal seizures. The system was validated for intraviewer and interviewer variability. Cats in the clinical trial were randomized to receive 15 mL/kg of either intravenous 0.9% saline (control) or 20% ILE over 60 minutes. For each cat, a clinical stage was recorded at set time points before and after the randomized treatment was administered. The distribution of clinical stage stratified over time was compared across treatment groups. The clinical staging system showed excellent repeatability (P = 1.0) and reliability (P = 1.0). In the clinical trial, there was a significant difference in the distribution of clinical stages over time (P permethrin toxicosis in ILE-treated cats improved earlier compared to control cats, suggesting ILE may be a useful adjunctive therapy in the treatment of permethrin toxicosis in cats. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.
Shing, Cherman; Mancini, Donato
During Institutions by Artists, Fillip was pleased to present a series of free, parallel events in the lobby of SFU Woodward’s that investigated the material culture produced by the institutional practices of artists. The Print Centre featured talks, launches, and screenings by conference presenters and attendees. Presented in collaboration with a temporary book store hosted by Motto Books (Berlin).
Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.
The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.
Kamphues, F.G.; Henselmans, R.; Rijnveld, N.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Doelman, N.J.; Nijkerk, M.D.
ESO has developed a concept for a compact laser guide star unit for use in future Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. A small powerful laser is combined with a telescope that launches the beam, creating a single modular unit that can be mounted directly on a large telescope. This approach solves several
EVALUATION OF QUANTITATIVE THYROID SCINTIGRAPHY FOR DIAGNOSIS AND STAGING OF DISEASE SEVERITY IN CATS WITH HYPERTHYROIDISM: COMPARISON OF THE PERCENT THYROIDAL UPTAKE OF PERTECHNETATE TO THYROID-TO-SALIVARY RATIO AND THYROID-TO-BACKGROUND RATIOS.
Peterson, Mark E; Guterl, Jade N; Rishniw, Mark; Broome, Michael R
Thyroid scintigraphy is commonly used for evaluation of cats with hyperthyroidism, with the thyroid-to-salivary ratio (T/S) being the most common method to quantify the degree of thyroid activity and disease. Calculation of thyroid-to-background ratios (T/B) or percent thyroidal uptake of (99m) TcO(-) 4 (TcTU) has only been reported in a few studies. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to evaluate a number of quantitative scintigraphic indices as diagnostic tests for hyperthyroidism, including the T/S, three different T/B, TcTU, and estimated thyroid volume. Of 524 cats referred to our clinic for evaluation of suspected hyperthyroidism, the diagnosis was confirmed (n = 504) or excluded (n = 20) based on results of a serum thyroid panel consisting of thyroxine (T4 ), triiodothyronine (T3 ), free T4 (fT4 ), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. In the hyperthyroid cats, median values for TcTU, T/S, and three T/B ratios were all significantly higher (P hyperthyroidism, but the T/S ratio had the highest test accuracy. The T/S ratio correlated strongly with the TcTU (r = 0.85). However, the TcTU had a higher and more significant correlation (P < 0.01) with serum T4 (r = 0.76 vs. 0.64), T3 (r = 0.77 vs. 0.64), and estimated thyroid volume (r = 0.62 vs. 0.38). Overall, calculation of TcTU is an accurate diagnostic test, but also appears to be the best parameter to predict the functional volume and metabolic activity of the feline adenomatous thyroid gland. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian
: the extra X chromosome of a 39,XXY karyotype introduces the possibility of an orange and a non-orange allele which produce the mixture of orange and non-orange coat spotting known as tortoiseshell. We analyzed the chromosome complement of a fibroblast culture and did histological examinations of testicular...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells...
de Jonge, I
Those forms of behaviour in which cats use their claws are reviewed. Forms of undesirable use of the claws and possible solutions to this problem are discussed. An inquiry among veterinary practitioners showed that nearly fifty per cent of these practitioners refused to declaw cats on principle. Approximately seventy-five per cent of the veterinarians taking part in the inquiry advocated that the Royal Netherlands Veterinary Association should state its position with regard to declawing. It is concluded by the present author that declawing is unacceptable for ethical and ethological reasons.
... trajectory analyses covering launch or ascent of the vehicle through orbital insertion and reentry or descent... launch flight through orbital insertion of an RLV or vehicle stage or flight to outer space, whichever is...
Viertel, Y.; Kinnersley, M.; Schumacher, I.
The GRACE mission and the IRIDIUM mission on ROCKOT launch vehicle are presented. Two identical GRACE satellites to measure in tandem the gravitational field of the earth with previously unattainable accuracy - it's called the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment, or and is a joint project of the U.S. space agency, NASA and the German Centre for Aeronautics and Space Flight, DLR. In order to send the GRACE twins into a 500x500 km , 89deg. orbit, the Rockot launch vehicle was selected. A dual launch of two Iridium satellites was scheduled for June 2002 using the ROCKOT launch vehicle from Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Northern Russia. This launch will inject two replacement satellites into a low earth orbit (LEO) to support the maintenance of the Iridium constellation. In September 2001, Eurockot successfully carried out a "Pathfinder Campaign" to simulate the entire Iridium mission cycle at Plesetsk. The campaign comprised the transport of simulators and related equipment to the Russian port-of-entry and launch site and also included the integration and encapsulation of the simulators with the actual Rockot launch vehicle at Eurockot's dedicated launch facilities at Plesetsk Cosmodrome. The pathfinder campaign lasted four weeks and was carried out by a joint team that also included Khrunichev, Russian Space Forces and Eurockot personnel on the contractors' side. The pathfinder mission confirmed the capability of Eurockot Launch Services to perform the Iridium launch on cost and on schedule at Plesetsk following Eurockot's major investment in international standard preparation, integration and launch facilities including customer facilities and a new hotel. In 2003, Eurockot will also launch the Japanese SERVI'S-1 satellite for USEF. The ROCKOT launch vehicle is a 3 stage liquid fuel rocket whose first 2 stages have been adapted from the Russian SS-19. A third stage, called "Breeze", can be repeatedly ignited and is extraordinarily capable of manoeuvre. Rockot can place
Furnas, Randall B.
The current maximum launch capability for the United States are shown. The predicted Earth-to-orbit requirements for the United States are presented. Contrasting the two indicates the strong National need for a major increase in Earth-to-orbit lift capability. Approximate weights for planned payloads are shown. NASA is studying the following options to meet the need for a new heavy-lift capability by mid to late 1990's: (1) Shuttle-C for near term (include growth versions); and (2) the Advanced Lauching System (ALS) for the long term. The current baseline two-engine Shuttle-C has a 15 x 82 ft payload bay and an expected lift capability of 82,000 lb to Low Earth Orbit. Several options are being considered which have expanded diameter payload bays. A three-engine Shuttle-C with an expected lift of 145,000 lb to LEO is being evaluated as well. The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a potential joint development between the Air Force and NASA. This program is focused toward long-term launch requirements, specifically beyond the year 2000. The basic approach is to develop a family of vehicles with the same high reliability as the Shuttle system, yet offering a much greater lift capability at a greatly reduced cost (per pound of payload). The ALS unmanned family of vehicles will provide a low end lift capability equivalent to Titan IV, and a high end lift capability greater than the Soviet Energia if requirements for such a high-end vehicle are defined.In conclusion, the planning of the next generation space telescope should not be constrained to the current launch vehicles. New vehicle designs will be driven by the needs of anticipated heavy users.
Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru
A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal.
Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug was a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug was capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept depicts the Tug's propulsion module launching a space probe into lunar orbit.
... Help a Child Cope With a Parent's Suicide? Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A What's in ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...
... and Her Guinea Pig Busy Ferrets Take Commitment Dogs and Boys Build Character Together Rescued Bears Get a Second Chance Like Magic, Everyone is Equal On the Back of a Horse Chickens in the City Diseases Cat-Scratch Disease E. coli Infection Ringworm Salmonella ...
... coyotes. If you know the owner of the cat or dog that bit you, ask for their health records. They will show the pet’s vaccination records. It may be a good idea to isolate the pet and monitor it ...
Vaughan, Scott H.; Mullikin, Thomas L.
The original nine minute launch window for Navstar Global Positioning System vehicles allowed a very limited capability to overcome problems late in the countdown sequence. A longer launch window was desired in order to minimize the chance of an aborted launch attempt. However, the methods used to determine the original launch window could not provide an extended window without producing a conflict with the tight tolerances required for the final orbit plane. By taking full advantage of the dynamics and geometry of the plane change maneuver, we have developed a launch window definition that will provide as much as a 32 minute window. This definition maintains tight orbit plane tolerances and identifies all possible launch opportunities. The extended launch window has been in use since the eighth Navstar launch and has been highly successful.
Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom
This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.
Enrico Pierluigi Spugnini; Francesco Menicagli; Michela Pettorali; Alfonso Baldi
A twelve-year-old male castrated domestic shorthair cat was presented for rapidly progressing respiratory distress. The cat was depressed, tachypneic and moderately responsive. Ultrasonography showed a mediastinal mass associated with a significant pleural effusion that needed tapping every five to seven days. Ultrasound guided biopsy yielded a diagnosis of clear cell thymoma upon histopathology. After complete staging procedures, the owner elected to treat the cat with electrochemotherapy (E...
Carneiro, S. H. S.; Teixeira, H. S., Jr.; Pirk, R.; Arruda, J. R. F.
This paper describes the Brazilian satellite launch vehicle modal analysis program being currently performed. A full scale mock-up of the solid propellant four-stage launcher will be tested in five different configurations. To simulate free-free boundary conditions, a pneumatic suspension system was developed, and its influence in the mock-up dynamic behavior was investigated. The theoretical FEM models and preliminary results of the modal test are shown, along with theoretical/experimental correlation discussions.
Calle, Luz M.
Smart, environmentally friendly paint system for early corrosion detection, mitigation, and healing that will enable supportability in KSC launch facilities and ground systems through their operational life cycles. KSC's Corrosion Technology Laboratory is developing a smart, self-healing coating that can detect and repair corrosion at an early stage. This coating is being developed using microcapsules specifically designed to deliver the contents of their core when corrosion starts.
Luciano H. Giovaninni
Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is frequently observed in cats and it is characterized as a multisystemic illness, caused by several underlying metabolic changes, and secondary renal hyperparathyroidism (SRHPT is relatively common; usually it is associated with the progression of renal disease and poor prognosis. This study aimed at determining the frequency of SRHPT, and discussing possible mechanisms that could contribute to the development of SRHPT in cats at different stages of CKD through the evaluation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism, as well as acid-base status. Forty owned cats with CKD were included and divided into three groups, according to the stages of the disease, classified according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS as Stage II (n=12, Stage III (n=22 and Stage IV (n=6. Control group was composed of 21 clinically healthy cats. Increased serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH concentrations were observed in most CKD cats in all stages, and mainly in Stage IV, which hyperphosphatemia and ionized hypocalcemia were detected and associated to the cause for the development of SRHPT. In Stages II and III, however, ionized hypercalcemia was noticed suggesting that the development of SRHPT might be associated with other factors, and metabolic acidosis could be involved to the increase of serum ionized calcium. Therefore, causes for the development of SRHPT seem to be multifactorial and they must be further investigated, mainly in the early stages of CKD in cats, as hyperphosphatemia and ionized hypocalcemia could not be the only factors involved.
Dong, Chen; Zheng, Xingfei; Diao, Ying; Wang, Youwei; Zhou, Mingquan; Hu, Zhongli
Rapid amplification cDNA end (RACE) assay was established to achieve the complete cDNA sequence of a catalase gene (NnCAT) from Nelumbo nucifera. The obtained full-length cDNA was 1666 bp in size and contained a 1476-bp open reading frame. The 3D structural model of NnCAT was constructed by homology modeling. The putative NnCAT possessed all the main characteristic amino acid residues and motifs of catalase (CAT) protein family, and the phylogenetic analysis revealed that NnCAT grouped together with high plants. Moreover, recombinant NnCAT showed the CAT activity (758 U/mg) at room temperature, holding high activity during temperature range of 20-50 °C, then the optimal pH of recombinant protein was assessed from pH 4 to pH 11. Additionally, real-time PCR assay demonstrated that NnCAT mRNA was expressed in various tissues of N. nucifera, with the highest expression in young leaf and lowest level in the root, and mRNA level of NnCAT was significantly augmented in response to short-time mechanical wounding. Different expression pattern of NnCAT gene suggested that NnCAT probably played a defensive role in the initial stages of oxidative stress, regulating the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by extracellular stimuli such as short-time mechanical wounding.
Espí Rito Santo, Rita; Salgado, Catarina; Prata, Filipa; Mouzinho, Ana
Horner's syndrome (HS) is caused by a disruption in the oculosympathetic pathway. Both congenital and acquired HS are unusual in children. Acquired HS can be caused by trauma, surgical intervention, tumours, vascular malformations or infection.We describe the case of a 6-year-old boy who was brought to our emergency department with ptosis, miosis, painful cervical lymphadenopathy and a cat scratch on a hand. The diagnosis of a cat scratch disease was confirmed by serology. A full recovery was observed on antibiotic treatment and cervical lymphadenomegaly reduction 3 weeks later. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Evaluation of the efficacy of topically administered imidacloprid + pyriproxyfen and orally administered spinosad against cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis: Impact of treated dogs on flea life stages in a simulated home environment
Ross Douglas H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, are one of the most common ectoparasites infesting dogs and their environments. This study evaluated the efficacy of imidacloprid + pyriproxyfen (PPF (Advantage® II for Dogs and spinosad (Comfortis® against established C. felis populations in dogs’ simulated home environments. Methods Thirty Beagle dogs were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 dogs each and treated twice (Study Days 0 and 28 with imidacloprid + PPF, spinosad tablets, or a negative control (untreated. Dogs were housed individually in controlled simulated home environments capable of supporting the flea life cycle. Flea infestations were established in these environments by infesting each dog with 100 adult cat fleas on Study Days −21, -16 and 1. The impact of the treatments on fleas in the dogs’ environments were assessed by collecting floor mat samples from each simulated home environment, incubating them for 32 days, and counting the number of emerging adult fleas. On Study Days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56, after collection of the cocoa matting samples, each dog was infested with an additional 5 ± 1 fleas to maintain the environmental infestations. Flea comb counts on dogs were conducted on Study Days 0 (pretreatment and 63. Results From Study Days 7–28, flea infestations in the imidacloprid + PPF environments were significantly lower (p On Study Day 63 all 10 dogs treated with imidacloprid + PPF were flea free, while only one of the 10 spinosad treated dogs was flea free. Flea counts on the other 9 spinosad treated dogs ranged from 3 to 46 fleas/dog (geometric mean = 8.6. A mean of 405 adult fleas/animal were recovered from the control dogs on Study Day 63. Conclusion Flea infestations in environments of dogs treated with imidacloprid + PPF declined more rapidly than in those containing dogs treated with spinosad. Flea infestations were completely eliminated by Study Day 56
Evaluation of the efficacy of topically administered imidacloprid + pyriproxyfen and orally administered spinosad against cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis): Impact of treated dogs on flea life stages in a simulated home environment
Background Cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, are one of the most common ectoparasites infesting dogs and their environments. This study evaluated the efficacy of imidacloprid + pyriproxyfen (PPF) (Advantage® II for Dogs) and spinosad (Comfortis®) against established C. felis populations in dogs’ simulated home environments. Methods Thirty Beagle dogs were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 dogs each and treated twice (Study Days 0 and 28) with imidacloprid + PPF, spinosad tablets, or a negative control (untreated). Dogs were housed individually in controlled simulated home environments capable of supporting the flea life cycle. Flea infestations were established in these environments by infesting each dog with 100 adult cat fleas on Study Days −21, -16 and 1. The impact of the treatments on fleas in the dogs’ environments were assessed by collecting floor mat samples from each simulated home environment, incubating them for 32 days, and counting the number of emerging adult fleas. On Study Days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56, after collection of the cocoa matting samples, each dog was infested with an additional 5 ± 1 fleas to maintain the environmental infestations. Flea comb counts on dogs were conducted on Study Days 0 (pretreatment) and 63. Results From Study Days 7–28, flea infestations in the imidacloprid + PPF environments were significantly lower (p < 0.03) than those in the spinosad environments. Following the second treatment, flea infestations in all the imidacloprid + PPF environments fell to zero for the remainder of the study. In contrast, flea infestations persisted in some of the spinosad environments through the study’s end. On Study Day 63 all 10 dogs treated with imidacloprid + PPF were flea free, while only one of the 10 spinosad treated dogs was flea free. Flea counts on the other 9 spinosad treated dogs ranged from 3 to 46 fleas/dog (geometric mean = 8.6). A mean of 405 adult fleas
Rodier, Sharon; Palm, Steve; Vaughan, Mark; Yorks, John; McGill, Matt; Jensen, Mike; Murray, Tim; Trepte, Chip
With the recent launch of the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) we have the opportunity to acquire a continuous record of space based lidar measurements spanning from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) era to the start of the EarthCARE mission. Utilizing existing well-validated science algorithms from the CALIPSO mission, we will ingest the CATS data stream and deliver high-quality lidar data sets to the user community at the earliest possible opportunity. In this paper we present an overview of procedures necessary to generate CALIPSO-like lidar level 2 data products from the CATS level 1 data products.
A new public website for the LHCb experiment was launched last Friday to coincide with CERN’s Open Day weekend. Designed to provide accessible information on all aspects of the experiment, the website contains images and key facts about the LHCb detector, its design and installation and the international team behind the project. "LHCb is going to be one of the most important b-physics experiments in the world when it starts taking data later this year", explains Roger Forty, the experiment’s deputy spokesperson. "We hope the website will be a valuable resource, enabling people to learn about this fascinating area of research." The new website can be found at: http://cern.ch/lhcb-public
Piland, William M.; Talay, Theodore A.; Stone, Howard W.
A lifting-body Personnel Launch System (PLS) is defined for assured manned access to space for future U.S. space missions. The reusable craft described is configured for reliable and safe operations, maintainability, affordability, and improved operability, and could reduce life-cycle costs associated with placing personnel into orbit. Flight simulations show the PLS to be a very flyable vehicle with very little control and propellant expenditure required during entry. The attention to crew safety has resulted in the design of a system that provides protection for the crew throughout the mission profile. However, a new operations philosophy for manned space vehicles must be adopted to fully achieve low-cost, manned earth-to-orbit transportation.
Palaszewski, Bryan A.
An analysis of several atomic hydrogen launch vehicles was conducted. A discussion of the facilities and the technologies that would be needed for these vehicles is also presented. The Gross Liftoff Weights (GLOW) for two systems were estimated; their specific impulses (I sub sp) were 750 and 1500 lb(sub f)/s/lb(sub m). The atomic hydrogen launch vehicles were also compared to the currently planned Advanced Launch System design concepts. Very significant GLOW reductions of 52 to 58 percent are possible over the Advanced Launch System designs. Applying atomic hydrogen propellants to upper stages was also considered. Very high I(sub sp) (greater than 750 lb(sub f)/s/lb(sub m)) is needed to enable a mass savings over advanced oxygen/hydrogen propulsion. Associated with the potential benefits of high I(sub sp) atomic hydrogen are several challenging problems. Very high magnetic fields are required to maintain the atomic hydrogen in a solid hydrogen matrix. The magnetic field strength was estimated to be 30 kilogauss (3 Tesla). Also the storage temperature of the propellant is 4 K. This very low temperature will require a large refrigeration facility for the launch vehicle. The design considerations for a very high recombination rate for the propellant are also discussed. A recombination rate of 210 cm/s is predicted for atomic hydrogen. This high recombination rate can produce very high acceleration for the launch vehicle. Unique insulation or segmentation to inhibit the propellant may be needed to reduce its recombination rate.
Bradley, Lester M.; Corriveau, John P.; Tindal, Nan E.
White Sands Missile Range has developed a Launch Area Theodolite (LAT) optical tracking system that provides improved Time-Space-Position-Information (TSPI) for the new class of hyper-velocity missiles being developed by the Army. The LAT system consists of a high- performance optical tracking mount equipped with an 8-12 micrometers Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) sensor, a newly designed full-frame pin-registered 35-mm film camera, and an auto- focused 50-in. focal length lens. The FLIR has been integrated with the WSMR in-house developed statistical based automatic video tracker to yield a powerful system for the automatic tracking of missiles from a short standoff distance. The LAT has been designed to replace large fixed-camera arrays for test programs on short-range anti-tank missiles. New tracking techniques have been developed to deal with angular tracking rates that exceed one radian in both velocity and acceleration. Special techniques have been developed to shock the tracking mount at the missile launch to match the target motion. An adaptive servo control technique allows a Type III servo to be used to compensate for the high angular accelerations that are generated by the placement of the LAT mounts along the missile flight path. An automated mode selection adjustment is employed as the missile passes a point perpendicular to the tracking mount to compensate for the requirement to rapidly decelerate the tracking mount and keep the target in the field-of-view of the data camera. This paper covers the design concept for a network of eight LAT mounts, the techniques of automatic video tracking using a FLIR sensor, and the architecture of the servo control algorithms that have allowed the LAT system to produce results to a degree never before achieved at White Sands Missile Range.
Honeycutt, John; Lyles, Garry
NASA is embarked on a new era of space exploration that will lead to new capabilities, new destinations, and new discoveries by both human and robotic explorers. Today, the International Space Station (ISS) and robotic probes are yielding knowledge that will help make this exploration possible. NASA is developing both the Orion crew vehicle and the Space Launch System (SLS) (Figure 1), that will carry out a series of increasingly challenging missions leading to human exploration of Mars. This paper will discuss the development and progress on the SLS. The SLS architecture was designed to be safe, affordable, and sustainable. The current configuration is the result of literally thousands of trade studies involving cost, performance, mission requirements, and other metrics. The initial configuration of SLS, designated Block 1, will launch a minimum of 70 metric tons (mT) (154,324 pounds) into low Earth orbit - significantly greater capability than any current launch vehicle. It is designed to evolve to a capability of 130 mT (286,601 pounds) through the use of upgraded main engines, advanced boosters, and a new upper stage. With more payload mass and volume capability than any existing rocket, SLS offers mission planners larger payloads, faster trip times, simpler design, shorter design cycles, and greater opportunity for mission success. Since the program was officially created in fall 2011, it has made significant progress toward launch readiness in 2018. Every major element of SLS continued to make significant progress in 2015. Engineers fired Qualification Motor 1 (QM-1) in March 2015 to test the 5-segment motor, including new insulation, joint, and propellant grain designs. More than 70 major components of test article and flight hardware for the Core Stage have been manufactured. Seven test firings have been completed with an RS-25 engine under SLS operating conditions. The test article for the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS) has also been completed
Garlick, Dean; Goldfinger, Andrew
The Cheap Auroral Tomographical System (CATS) consists of a large constellation of small, disposable satellites in a near polar orbit. CATS is designed to collect stereoscopic views of the earth environment that will be used for tomographical and earth environmental research. Each satellite will be identical and constructed of high-grade commercial parts, thus significantly reducing the cost of design, fabrication and components. The CATS constellation will be a significant step toward the de...
The NASA developed Ares rockets, named for the Greek god associated with Mars, will return humans to the moon and later take them to Mars and other destinations. In this early illustration, the Ares I is illustrated during lift off. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Orion crew vehicle and its launch abort system. With a primary mission of carrying four to six member crews to Earth orbit, Ares I may also use its 25-ton payload capacity to deliver resources and supplies to the International Space Station (ISS), or to 'park' payloads in orbit for retrieval by other spacecraft bound for the moon or other destinations. Ares I uses a single five-segment solid rocket booster, a derivative of the space shuttle solid rocket booster, for the first stage. A liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen J-2X engine, derived from the J-2 engine used on the second stage of the Apollo vehicle, will power the Ares I second stage. Ares I can lift more than 55,000 pounds to low Earth orbit. The Ares I is subject to configuration changes before it is actually launched. This illustration reflects the latest configuration as of September 2006.
Wilson, Timmy R.
Catastrophic failures of launch vehicles during launch and ascent are currently modeled using equivalent trinitrotoluene (TNT) estimates. This approach tends to over-predict the blast effect with subsequent impact to launch vehicle and crew escape requirements. Bangham Engineering, located in Huntsville, Alabama, assembled a less-conservative model based on historical failure and test data coupled with physical models and estimates. This white paper summarizes NESC's peer review of the Bangham analytical work completed to date.
The government of the Philippines has launched a program to deal with the rapidly growing urban poor population. 60 cities (including Metro Manila) are expected to increase their bloated population by 3.8% over 1990 which would be 27.7 million for 1991. Currently there is an exodus of people from the rural areas and by 2000 half the urban population will be squatters and slum dwellers. Basic services like health and nutrition are not expected to be able to handle this type of volume without a loss in the quality of service. The basic strategy of the new program is to recruit private medical practitioners to fortify the health care delivery and nutrition services. Currently the doctor/urban dweller ration is 1:9000. The program will develop a system to pool the efforts of government and private physicians in servicing the target population. Barangay Escopa has been chosen as the pilot city because it typifies the conditions of a highly populated urban area. The projects has 2 objectives: 1) demonstrate the systematic delivery of health and nutrition services by the private sector through the coordination of the government, 2) reduce mortality and morbidity in the community, especially in the 0-6 age group as well as pregnant women and lactating mothers.
On 29 April, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) will complete its long expedition to the International Space Station on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The Endeavour is set to lift off from NASA’s Kennedy Space Station at 15:47 EST (21:47 CET). Samuel Ting, principal investigator for the AMS project, and Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, visit the Kennedy Space Centre before the AMS launch. Courtesy of NASA and Kennedy Space Center. AMS is a CERN recognised experiment, created by an internal collaboration of 56 institutes. It will be the first large magnetic spectrometer to be used in space, and has been designed to function as an external module on the ISS. AMS will measure cosmic rays without atmospheric interference, allowing researchers on the ground to continue their search for dark matter and antimatter in the Universe. Data collected by AMS will be analysed in CERN’s new AMS Control Centre in Building 946 (due for completion in June 2011). The End...
... role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, ... an infected cat may have defecated. What is toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a microscopic ...
Abstract. Stray cats are afflicted with various parasitic infestations and the infective stages of these parasites may spread infection to other animals including human beings. The study was conducted for a period of one year from March. 2009 to February 2010 to determine the prevalence of parasitic infection in and around ...
Stray cats are afflicted with various parasitic infestations and the infective stages of these parasites may spread infection to other animals including human beings. The study was conducted for a period of one year from March 2009 to February 2010 to determine the prevalence of parasitic infection in and around ...
Grimes, D. W.; Russell, W. A., Jr.; Kraft, J. D.
The evolution of capabilities and the current performance levels of the Delta launch vehicle are outlined. The first payload was the Echo I passive communications satellite, weighing 179 lb, and placed in GEO in 1960. Emphasis since then has been to use off-the-shelf hardware where feasible. The latest version in the 3924 first stage, 3920 second stage, and Pam D apogee kick motor third stage. The Delta is presently equipped to place 2800 lb in GEO, as was proven with the 2717 lb Anik-D1 satellite. The GEO payload placement performance matches the Shuttle's, and work is therefore under way to enhance the Delta performance to handle more massive payloads. Installation of the Castor-IV solid motor separation system, thereby saving mass by utilizing compressed nitrogen, rather than mechanical thrusters to remove the strap-on boosters, is indicated, together with use of a higher performance propellant and a wider nose fairing.
Full Text Available Systemic cat scratch disease (CSD is often associated with prolonged fever and microabscesses in the liver and/or spleen. We report a case of systemic CSD with hepatic, splenic and renal involvement in an aboriginal child in Taiwan. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl had an intermittent fever for about 17 days, and complained of abdominal pain, headache and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple tiny hypodense nodular lesions in the spleen and both kidneys. Laparotomy revealed multiple soft, whitishtan lesions on the surface of the liver and spleen. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the spleen showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells and occasional Langhans' giant cells, strongly suggestive of Bartonella henselae infection. History revealed close contact with a cat. B. henselae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the tissue specimen, and the single antibody titer against B. henselae was greater than 1:2048. These results confirmed the diagnosis of visceral CSD caused by B. henselae. The patient's symptoms resolved after treatment with rifampin and tetracycline. This case illustrates the need for inclusion of systemic CSD in patients with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain.
Lloret, Albert; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin
Cytauxzoon species are apicomplexan haemoparasites, which may cause severe disease in domestic cats, as well as lions and tigers. For many years, cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats was only reported in North and South America, but in recent years the infection has also been seen in Europe (Spain, France and Italy). Cytauxzoon felis is the main species; it occurs as numerous different strains or genotypes and is transmitted via ticks. Therefore, the disease shows a seasonal incidence from spring to early autumn and affects primarily cats with outdoor access in areas where tick vectors are prevalent. Domestic cats may experience subclinical infection and may also act as reservoirs. Cytauxzoonosis caused by C felis in the USA is an acute or peracute severe febrile disease with non-specific signs. Haemolytic anaemia occurs frequently; in some cats neurological signs may occur in late stages. The Cytauxzoon species identified in Europe differ from C felis that causes disease in the USA and are probably less virulent. The majority of infected cats have been healthy; in some cases anaemia was found, but disease as it occurs in the USA has not been reported to date. Diagnosis is usually obtained by Cytauxzoon detection in blood smears and/or fine-needle aspirates from the liver, spleen and lymph nodes. PCR assays are able to detect low levels of parasitaemia and may be used for confirmation. Currently a combination of the antiprotozoal drugs atovaquone and azithromycin is the treatment of choice. Concurrent supportive and critical care treatment is extremely important to improve the prognosis. Cats that survive the infection may become chronic carriers for life. Cats with outdoor access in endemic areas should receive effective tick treatment. © Published by SAGE on behalf of ISFM and AAFP 2015.
Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph
Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…
The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...
Vitor M. Ribeiro
Full Text Available Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL is a procedure that retrieves cells and other elements from the lungs for evaluation, which helps in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to perform this procedure for cellular analysis of BAL fluid alterations during experimental infection with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats. Fourteen cats were individually inoculated with 800 third stage larvae of A. abstrusus and five non-infected cats lined as a control group. The BAL procedure was performed through the use of an endotracheal tube on the nineteen cats with a mean age of 18 months, on 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 270 days after infection. Absolute cell counts in the infected cats revealed that alveolar macrophages and eosinophils were the predominant cells following infection. This study shows that the technique allows us to retrieve cells and first stage larvae what provides information about the inflammatory process caused by aelurostrongylosis.
Apollo 6, the second and last of the unmarned Saturn V test flights, is slowly transported past the Vehicle Assembly Building on the way to launch pad 39-A. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.
Costa, Fernando de Souza; Vieira, Ricardo
This work determines the preliminary mass distribution of hybrid rockets using 98% H2O2 and solid paraffin mixed with aluminum as propellants. An iterative process is used tocalculate the rocket performance characteristics and to determine the inert mass fractionfrom given initial conditions. It is considered a mission to place a 20 kg payload into a 300 km circular equatorial orbit by air launched and ground launched hybrid rockets usingthree stages. The results indicate total initial masses...
A. Ray Dillon
Full Text Available Abstract Background A controlled, blind research study was conducted to define the initial inflammatory response and lung damage associated with the death of immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in cats as compared with cats developing adult heartworm infections and cats on preventive medication. Methods Three groups of cats were utilized, 10 per group. All cats were infected with 100 third-stage (L3 larvae by subcutaneous injection. Group A cats were treated topically with selamectin (Revolution®; Zoetis per label directions at 28 days post infection (PI and once monthly for 8 months. Group B cats were treated orally with ivermectin (Ivomec®; Merial at 150 μg/kg at 70 days PI, then every 2 weeks for 5 months. Group C cats were untreated PI. At baseline (Day 0 and on Days 70, 110, 168, and 240 PI, peripheral blood, serum, bronchial lavage, and thoracic radiographic images were collected on all cats. Upon completion of the study (Day 245, cats were euthanized and necropsies were conducted. Results Results were analyzed statistically between groups by ANOVA and by paired sample T testing for changes within the group over time. The selamectin-treated cats (Group A did not develop radiographically evident changes throughout the study and were free of adult heartworms or worm fragments at necropsy. The heartworm life cycle was abbreviated with oral doses of ivermectin (Group B, shown by the absence of adult heartworms or worm fragments at necropsy. The early stage of immature adult worm in Group B cats, however, did induce severe pulmonary airway, interstitial, and arterial lung lesions, revealing that the abbreviated infection is a significant cause of respiratory pathology in cats. Cats in Groups B and C could not be differentiated based on radiographic changes, serologic antibody titers, complete blood count, or bronchoalveolar lavage cytology at any time point throughout the study. Eighty percent of cats in Group A and 100% of cats in
Reed, John G.; Ragab, Mohamed M.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dinonno, J.; Bodkin, R.; Lowry, Allen; Brierly, Gregory T.; Kelly, John W.
For decades, economic reuse of launch vehicles has been an elusive goal. Recent attempts at demonstrating elements of launch vehicle recovery for reuse have invigorated a debate over the merits of different approaches. The parameter most often used to assess the cost of access to space is dollars-per-kilogram to orbit. When comparing reusable vs. expendable launch vehicles, that ratio has been shown to be most sensitive to the performance lost as a result of enabling the reusability. This paper will briefly review the historical background and results of recent attempts to recover launch vehicle assets for reuse. The business case for reuse will be reviewed, with emphasis on the performance expended to recover those assets, and the practicality of the most ambitious reuse concept, namely propulsive return to the launch site. In 2015, United Launch Alliance (ULA) announced its Sensible, Modular, Autonomous Return Technology (SMART) reuse plan for recovery of the booster module for its new Vulcan launch vehicle. That plan employs a non-propulsive approach where atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) technologies are utilized. Elements of such a system have a wide variety of applications, from recovery of launch vehicle elements in suborbital trajectories all the way to human space exploration. This paper will include an update on ULA's booster module recovery approach, which relies on Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) and Mid-Air Retrieval (MAR) technologies, including its concept of operations (ConOps). The HIAD design, as well as parafoil staging and MAR concepts, will be discussed. Recent HIAD development activities and near term plans including scalability, next generation materials for the inflatable structure and heat shield, and gas generator inflation systems will be provided. MAR topics will include the ConOps for recovery, helicopter selection and staging, and the state of the art of parachute recovery systems using large parafoils
In an effort to be a good manager, it is easy to lose sight of the fact that knowledge workers require a unique approach from their manager. Because nurses are independent and capable individuals that prosper in an environment that recognizes them as knowledge workers, nurse managers often find that traditional management techniques are not sufficient. Trying to manage all of the nurses on a unit as a single group is much like trying to herd cats. It might be less frustrating for the nurse manager to lead gently rather than manage with a firm hand. Warren Bennis suggests that this approach may provide a valuable key to successfully managing in a world of constant change.
Rubina Kumari Baithalu
Full Text Available Anthropozoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes widespread human and animal diseases, mostly involving central nervous system. Human acquires toxoplasmosis from cats, from consuming raw or undercooked meat and from vertical transmission to the fetus through placenta from mother during pregnancy. Socio-epidemiological as well as unique environmental factors also plays a significant role in transmission of this infection. Preventive measures should be taken into account the importance of culture, tradition, and beliefs of people in various communities more than solving poverty and giving health education. Therefore the focus of this article is to create public awareness regarding sense of responsibility of looking after pets to prevent such an important zoonotic disease. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 247-249
Melville, David M; Jacobson, Jon A; Downie, Brian; Biermann, J Sybil; Kim, Sung Moon; Yablon, Corrie M
To characterize the sonographic features of cat scratch disease and to identify features that allow differentiation from other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. After Institutional Review Board approval was obtained, patients who underwent sonography for a medial epitrochlear mass or lymph node were identified via the radiology information system. Patients were divided into 2 groups: cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease, based on pathologic results and clinical information. Sonograms were retrospectively reviewed and characterized with respect to dimension, shape (round, oval, or lobular), symmetry, location (subcutaneous or intramuscular), multiplicity, echogenicity (anechoic, hypoechoic, isoechoic, hyperechoic, or mixed), hyperechoic hilum (present or absent), adjacent anechoic or hypoechoic area, hyperemia (present or absent), pattern of hyperemia if present (central, peripheral, or mixed), increased posterior through-transmission (present or absent), and shadowing (present or absent). Sonographic findings were compared between the patients with and without cat scratch disease. The final patient group consisted of 5 cases of cat scratch disease and 16 cases of other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. The 2 sonographic findings that were significantly different between the cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease cases included mass asymmetry (P = .0062) and the presence of a hyperechoic hilum (P = .0075). The other sonographic findings showed no significant differences between the groups. The sonographic finding of an epitrochlear mass due to cat scratch disease most commonly is that of a hypoechoic lobular or oval mass with central hyperemia and a possible adjacent fluid collection; however, the presence of asymmetry and a hyperechoic hilum differentiate cat scratch disease from other etiologies. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Rossi, Moreno; Messina, Nicoletta; Ariti, Gaetano; Riggio, Francesca; Perrucci, Stefania
An 8-month-old owned European cat showing abdominal pain, fever, distended painful bladder and urinary blockage was presented. Intravenous fluids were immediately administered and, after sedation, a urinary catheter was applied. Blood and urine analysis revealed cystitis and a moderate-to-severe degree of renal failure. About 20 thread-like nematodes, identified as Capillaria plica larvae and fragments of adult stages, were found in the urine sediment. After treatment with an oral formulation of fenbendazole at 25 mg/kg q 12 h for 10 days, urinary signs and bladder worms disappeared. Cases of Capillaria species bladder worms in cats are rarely reported and most infected cats show no clinical signs, presumably because of a low parasite burden. In the present study, feline capillariosis was associated to urethral obstruction, severe difficulties in urination, cystitis and renal failures. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
"Trade and Industry Secretary Patricia Hewitt today launched 'Research Councils UK' - a new strategic partnership that will champion research in science, engineering and technology across the UK" (1 page).
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Launch site infrastructure and space vehicle assets represent multi-billion dollar investments that must be protected. Additionally, personnel and equipment must be...
The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A summary report describing the discussion and recommendations resulting from a multidisciplinary review of the biological program at Cat Island NWR.
Kyong Chol Chou
Full Text Available The airflow along the surface of a launch vehicle together with vase flow of clustered nozzles cause problems which may affect the stability or efficiency of the entire vehicle. The problem may occur when the vehicle is on the launching pad or even during flight. As for such problems, local steady-state loads, overall steady-state loads, buffet, ground wind loads, base heating and rocket-nozzle hinge moments are examined here specifically.
Company Clayton Mowry, President, Arianespace Inc., North American—“Launch Solutions” Elon Musk , CEO and CTO, Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX...President, “Beyond the X Prize,” hearing on Commercial Space Transportation, House Transportation and Infrastructure Aviation Subcommittee, February 9...number. 1. REPORT DATE 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE National Security Space Launch
Suzuki, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Yohei; Yoshimatsu, Hiroki; Teshima, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Koyama, Hidekazu
Objectives Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a primary disorder of the myocardium, is the most common cardiac disease in cats. However, determination of myocardial deformation with two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in cats with various stages of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has not yet been reported. This study was designed to measure quantitatively multidirectional myocardial deformations of cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods Thirty-two client-owned cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 14 healthy cats serving as controls were enrolled and underwent assessment of myocardial deformation (peak systolic strain and strain rate) in the longitudinal, radial and circumferential directions. Results Longitudinal and radial deformations were reduced in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, despite normal systolic function determined by conventional echocardiography. Cats with severely symptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy also had lower peak systolic circumferential strain, in addition to longitudinal and radial strain. Conclusions and relevance Longitudinal and radial deformation may be helpful in the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Additionally, the lower circumferential deformation in cats with severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may contribute to clinical findings of decompensation, and seems to be related to severe cardiac clinical signs. Indices of multidirectional myocardial deformations by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography may be useful markers and help to distinguish between cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and healthy cats. Additionally, they may provide more detailed assessment of contractile function in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
In this note I briefly discuss the Schrodinger's cat Gedankenexperiment. By analysing the information flow in the system I show that no entanglement exists between the atom and the cat. The atom and the cat are connected only through a classical information channel (detector clicks $\\rightarrow$ poison is released $\\rightarrow$ cat is dead). No amount of local operations and classical communication can entangle the atom and the cat. Consequently, the paradox disappears.
Ehrlich, Carl F., Jr.; Potts, Jack; Brown, Jerry; Schell, Ken; Manley, Mary; Chen, Irving; Earhart, Richard; Urrutia, Chuck; Randolph, Ray; Morris, Jim
To assure national leadership in space operations and exploration in the future, NASA must be able to provide cost effective and operationally efficient space transportation. Several NASA studies and the joint NASA/DoD Space Transportation Architecture Studies (STAS) have shown the need for a multi-vehicle space transportation system with designs driven by enhanced operations and low costs. NASA is currently studying an advanced manned launch system (AMLS) approach to transport crew and cargo to the Space Station Freedom. Several single and multiple stage systems from air-breathing to all-rocket concepts are being examined in a series of studies potential replacements for the Space Shuttle launch system in the 2000-2010 time frame. Rockwell International Corporation, under contract to the NASA Langley Research Center, has analyzed a two-stage all-rocket concept to determine whether this class of vehicles is appropriate for the AMLS function. The results of the pre-phase A study are discussed.
Cook, Stephen A.; Vanhooser, Teresa
NASA s Constellation Program is depending on the Ares Projects to deliver the crew and cargo launch capabilities needed to send human explorers to the Moon and beyond. Ares I and V will provide the core space launch capabilities needed to continue providing crew and cargo access to the International Space Station (ISS), and to build upon the U.S. history of human spaceflight to the Moon and beyond. Since 2005, Ares has made substantial progress on designing, developing, and testing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and has continued its in-depth studies of the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. In 2009, the Ares Projects plan to: conduct the first flight test of Ares I, test-fire the Ares I first stage solid rocket motor; build the first integrated Ares I upper stage; continue testing hardware for the J-2X upper stage engine, and continue refining the design of the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. These efforts come with serious challenges for the project leadership team as it continues to foster a culture of ownership and accountability, operate with limited funding, and works to maintain effective internal and external communications under intense external scrutiny.
Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi
A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08 kg. Antenatal scan at 31 weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Rosypal, Alexa C; Ripley, Allyson; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Blagburn, Byron L; Grant, David C; Lindsay, David S
Feline intestinal trichomoniasis caused by Tritrichomonas foetus is associated with large bowel diarrhea in cats from many parts of the world. It has long been recognized as an economically important sexually transmitted disease that causes early abortion in cattle. Isolates of T. foetus from cattle are infectious for the large intestine of cats and isolates of T. foetus from cats are infectious for the reproductive system of cattle. The parasite is maintained by fecal-oral transmission in cats. The present study was conducted to examine the survival of a feline isolate of T. foetus, AUTf-12, under various conditions that are relevant to fecal-oral transmission in cats. Trophozoites were grown in TYM medium and then exposed to water, cat urine, dry cat food, canned cat food, clumping cat litter, or filter paper for various lengths of time and then re-cultured in TYM medium. Trophozoites survived exposure to distilled or tap water for 30 but not 60 min, while they survived for at least 180 min in urine. Trophozoites survived for 30 min on dry cat food but survived for 120-180 min in canned cat food. No survival of trophozoites was observed on cat litter but trophozoites survived for 15 min when placed on filter paper. Our results indicate that T. foetus can survive and be potentially infectious in water, urine, dry cat food and canned cat food. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mehl, N S; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-Uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S; Khalid, M
Effect of a GnRH-agonist (deslorelin) was studied on reproductive function and ovarian luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in prepubertal female cats that were either implanted with 4.7-mg deslorelin (implanted: n = 6) or not (controls: n = 18) or ovariohysterectomized at prepubertal age (prepubertal OVH: n = 6). Body weights, fecal estradiol, and sexual behavior of implanted and control cats were monitored for 48 weeks followed by collection of ovaries and uteri. Ovaries and uteri were collected from control cats at follicular, luteal, and inactive stage (n = 6/group) and from prepubertal OVH cats at prepubertal age. Ovaries and uteri were analyzed for anatomical/histological characteristics. Ovaries were also analyzed for LHR and FSHR expression. Statistical analysis showed higher (P ≤ 0.05) body weight in control than implanted cats only during 22nd to 26th weeks of the study. Estrus was observed in control cats only. Deslorelin reduced (P ≤ 0.05) ovarian weight and number of antral follicles but did not affect endometrial thickness and gland diameter. However, myometrial thickness of implanted cats was significantly lower than control cats at follicular and luteal stage. Ovarian LHR mRNA expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in implanted cats than control cats at follicular stage. FSHR mRNA and LHR protein expression did not differ among the three groups. FSHR protein expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in prepubertal OVH cats and was not affected by deslorelin. In conclusion, deslorelin suppresses reproductive function in prepubertal female cats for at least 48 weeks possibly through a change in the ovarian mRNA expression of LHR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rust, M K; Dryden, M W
The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis, is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. In addition to its annoyance to pets and humans, C. felis felis is responsible for flea bite allergy dermatitis and the transmission of dog tapeworm. The abiotic and biotic factors that affect the development of immature stages are reviewed with special emphasis given to those aspects directly affecting control. Factors influencing host selection and feeding by adults are summarized. Recent studies concerning mating and oviposition, especially as they impact the likelihood of survival by immatures, are discussed. There has been an increase in the number of reports of insecticide resistance in the past ten years. Greater attention has been placed on disrupting larval development in modern IPM programs. The immature stages of the cat flea are extremely susceptible to environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity and insect growth regulators (IGRs). In recent years, the control of cat fleas has increasingly relied on the use of IGRs applied to the host or to the indoor environment. Finally, we discuss advances in pesticide chemistry that provide tools for better control of adult fleas on the host.
Full Text Available People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding, revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01. All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05 and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist
Jean A Hall
Full Text Available A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric cats to evaluate the short- term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA and creatinine (Cr concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil, antioxidants (vitamins C and E, L-carnitine, botanicals (vegetables, highly bioavailable protein, and amino acid supplements. Cats (n = 80 were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort. Cats were included based on age (≥ 9 years, indoor only, neutered, and free of chronic disease. At baseline, all cats had serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months were evaluated. Cats consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum Cr and BUN concentrations across time. Overall, cats consuming owner's-choice foods showed significant increases in serum SDMA concentrations at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.05, whereas in cats consuming test food serum SDMA concentrations did not change. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 23 (28.8% cats had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 6 cats fed test food and 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods. In the 6 cats fed test food, serum SDMA decreased in 3 cats and remained stable in 1 cat, whereas in the 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods, serum SDMA increased in 13 cats and decreased or remained stable in 4 cats. The increase in serum SDMA concentration was significant (P = 0.02 only for cats fed owner's-choice foods. These results suggest that nonazotemic cats with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency when fed a food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate stable renal function compared with cats fed owner's-choice foods. Cats fed owner's-choice foods were more
Hall, Jean A; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E
A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric cats to evaluate the short- term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (vegetables), highly bioavailable protein, and amino acid supplements. Cats (n = 80) were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Cats were included based on age (≥ 9 years), indoor only, neutered, and free of chronic disease. At baseline, all cats had serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months were evaluated. Cats consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum Cr and BUN concentrations across time. Overall, cats consuming owner's-choice foods showed significant increases in serum SDMA concentrations at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.05), whereas in cats consuming test food serum SDMA concentrations did not change. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 23 (28.8%) cats had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 6 cats fed test food and 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods. In the 6 cats fed test food, serum SDMA decreased in 3 cats and remained stable in 1 cat, whereas in the 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods, serum SDMA increased in 13 cats and decreased or remained stable in 4 cats. The increase in serum SDMA concentration was significant (P = 0.02) only for cats fed owner's-choice foods. These results suggest that nonazotemic cats with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate stable renal function compared with cats fed owner's-choice foods. Cats fed owner's-choice foods were more likely to
Hall, Jean A.; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E.
A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric cats to evaluate the short- term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (vegetables), highly bioavailable protein, and amino acid supplements. Cats (n = 80) were fed either test food or owner’s-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Cats were included based on age (≥ 9 years), indoor only, neutered, and free of chronic disease. At baseline, all cats had serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline and after consuming test food or owner’s-choice foods for 3 and 6 months were evaluated. Cats consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum Cr and BUN concentrations across time. Overall, cats consuming owner’s-choice foods showed significant increases in serum SDMA concentrations at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.05), whereas in cats consuming test food serum SDMA concentrations did not change. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 23 (28.8%) cats had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 6 cats fed test food and 17 cats fed owner’s-choice foods. In the 6 cats fed test food, serum SDMA decreased in 3 cats and remained stable in 1 cat, whereas in the 17 cats fed owner’s-choice foods, serum SDMA increased in 13 cats and decreased or remained stable in 4 cats. The increase in serum SDMA concentration was significant (P = 0.02) only for cats fed owner’s-choice foods. These results suggest that nonazotemic cats with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate stable renal function compared with cats fed owner’s-choice foods. Cats fed owner’s-choice foods were
Chen, C N; Chou, C C; Tsai, P S J; Lee, Y J
Indoxyl sulfate is a protein-bound uremic toxin that increases as the severity of impaired renal function increases in humans, laboratory animals, dogs and cats. An elevation of indoxyl sulfate is related to prognosis among people with chronic kidney disease. However, whether indoxyl sulfate is able to predict the progression of chronic kidney disease in dogs and cats has not been previously studied. In the present study, 58 cats and 36 dogs with chronic kidney disease were enrolled. Plasma indoxyl sulfate was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Renal progression was defined as an increase by one International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stage and/or a rise in serum creatinine concentration of 0.5mg/dL during the same stage within a 3-month period. Compared with the non-progression groups, across different stages of renal failure, the baseline plasma indoxyl sulfate concentration was increased in the renal progression group (P<0.05), especially for IRIS stages 2 and 3 animals. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curves of indoxyl sulfate, when predicting renal progression, was above 0.75 for both dogs and cats. Indoxyl sulfate concentrations were also correlated with the increase of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and phosphate and the decrease of hematocrit among cats; while in dogs, concentrations were only correlated with the increase of phosphate concentrations. Indoxyl sulfate served as a biomarker of progression risk in dogs and cats with chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holladay, Jon; Baggett, Keithe; Thrasher, Chad; Bellamy, K. Scott; Feldman, Stuart
Engine-out (EO) is a condition that might occur during flight due to the failure of one or more engines. Protection against this occurrence can be called engine-out capability (EOC) whereupon significantly improved loss of mission may occur, in addition to reduction in performance and increased cost. A standardized engine-out capability has not been studied exhaustively as it pertains to space launch systems. This work presents results for a specific vehicle design with specific engines, but also uniquely provides an approach to realizing the necessity of EOC for any launch vehicle system design. A derived top-level approach to engine-out philosophy for a heavy lift launch vehicle is given herein, based on an historical assessment of launch vehicle capabilities. The methodology itself is not intended to present a best path forward, but instead provides three parameters for assessment of a particular vehicle. Of the several parameters affected by this EOC, the three parameters of interest in this research are reliability (Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC)), vehicle performance, and cost. The intent of this effort is to provide insight into the impacts of EO capability on these parameters. The effects of EOC on reliability, performance and cost are detailed, including how these important launch vehicle metrics can be combined to assess what could be considered overall launch vehicle affordability. In support of achieving the first critical milestone (Mission Concept Review) in the development of the Space Launch System (SLS), a team assessed two-stage, large-diameter vehicles that utilized liquid oxygen (LOX)-RP propellants in the First Stage and LOX/LH2 propellant in the Upper Stage. With multiple large thrust-class engines employed on the stages, engine-out capability could be a significant driver to mission success. It was determined that LOM results improve by a factor of five when assuming EOC for both Core Stage (CS) (first stage) and Upper Stage (US
Turner, Dennis C
This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A. Ray Dillon
Full Text Available Abstract Background Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD in cats is induced by the arrival and death of immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in the pulmonary system and is indistinguishable from mature adult heartworm infection. Methods A controlled, blind research study investigated the long-term (18 months post infection, PI consequences of the inflammatory response associated with the death of immature adult heartworms in cats. Three groups of cats, 10 per group, were infected with 100 third-stage (L3 larvae by subcutaneous injection. Group A cats were treated with selamectin (Revolution®; Zoetis per label directions at 28 days PI and once monthly for 17 months. Group B cats were treated orally with ivermectin (Ivomec®; Merial at 150 μg/kg at 70 days PI, then every 2 weeks for 15 months. Group C cats were untreated PI. At baseline (Day 0 and on Days 70, 110, 168, 240, 309, 380, and 505 PI, peripheral blood, serum, bronchial lavage, and thoracic radiographic images were collected. Results The selamectin-treated cats (Group A and ivermectin-treated cats (Group B were free of heartworms or heartworm fragments at necropsy. All cats became heartworm antibody positive at some time point in the study except for one cat in Group A. Only cats in Group C (all with adult heartworms were heartworm antigen positive. The heartworm antibody titer for Group B was highest on Days 110 to 168 and then decreased over time and 50% were serologically antibody negative on Day 240. Eosinophilic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cytology and peripheral eosinophilia were most pronounced on Day 110 in all cats. Randomly distributed myofibrocytes in the lungs of some Group A cats suggest that precardiac larval stages were affecting the lungs. Radiographs in Group B cats demonstrated partial resolution of the initial HARD reaction but chronic myofibrocyte proliferation was histologically evident 18 months after infection. Conclusion HARD was induced by
McGill, M. J.; Yorks, J. E.; Scott, S.; Kupchock, A.; Selmer, P.
The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a lidar remote sensing instrument developed for deployment to the International Space Station (ISS). The CATS lidar will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosol and cloud distributions and properties. The CATS instrument uses a high repetition rate laser operating at three wavelengths (1064, 532, and 355 nm) to derive properties of cloud/aerosol layers including: layer height, layer thickness, backscatter, optical depth, extinction, and depolarization-based discrimination of particle type. The CATS mission was designed to capitalize on the Space Station's unique orbit and facilities to continue existing Earth Science data records, to provide observational data for use in forecast models, and to demonstrate new technologies for use in future missions. The CATS payload will be installed on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF). The payload is designed to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. The payload is completed and currently scheduled for a mid-2014 launch. The ISS and, in particular, the JEM-EF, is an exciting new platform for spaceborne Earth observations. The ability to leverage existing aircraft instrument designs coupled with the lower cost possible for ISS external attached payloads permits rapid and cost effective development of spaceborne sensors. The CATS payload is based on existing instrumentation built and operated on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft. The payload is housed in a 1.5 m x 1 m x 0.8 m volume that attaches to the JEM-EF. The allowed volume limits the maximum size for the collecting telescope to 60 cm diameter. Figure 1 shows a schematic layout of the CATS payload, with the primary instrument components identified. Figure 2 is a photo of the completed payload. CATS payload cut-away view. Completed CATS payload assembly.
Cléroux, Andréanne; Alexander, Kate; Beauchamp, Guy; Dunn, Marilyn
OBJECTIVE To determine whether urolithiasis is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. ANIMALS 126 cats (59 and 67 with and without urolithiasis, respectively). PROCEDURES Medical records from June 2006 to July 2013 were searched to identify cats that underwent abdominal or focal urinary tract ultrasonography and for which serum creatinine concentration and urine specific gravity data were obtained ≤ 14 days before or after the examination. In cats with (urolithiasis group) and without (control group) urolithiasis, the presence of CKD was determined according to International Renal Interest Society guidelines. Information recorded included signalment, body weight, serum creatinine concentration, and urine specific gravity; when present, the location and number of uroliths were noted. Differences between groups and associations between group and categorical variables were analyzed statistically. RESULTS Age, weight, sex, and breed did not differ between groups. The prevalence of CKD was significantly higher in cats with urolithiasis than in the control group. Among cats with urolithiasis, there was a negative association between CKD and presence of cystoliths. There was no association between urolithiasis and the stage of CKD or between presence of CKD and location of nephroliths in the kidney. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results confirmed a positive association between urolithiasis and CKD in the feline population studied and suggested that cats with urolithiasis should be evaluated for CKD. Further research is warranted to assess the nature of the relationship between CKD and urolithiasis in cats.
Brown, C A; Elliott, J; Schmiedt, C W; Brown, S A
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the most common metabolic disease of domesticated cats, with most affected cats being geriatric (>12 years of age). The prevalence of CKD in cats exceeds that observed in dogs, and the frequency of the diagnosis of CKD in cats has increased in recent decades. Typical histologic features include interstitial inflammation, tubular atrophy, and fibrosis with secondary glomerulosclerosis. In contrast to people and dogs, primary glomerulopathies with marked proteinuria are remarkably rare findings in cats. Although a variety of primary renal diseases have been implicated, the disease is idiopathic in most cats. Tubulointerstitial changes, including fibrosis, are present in the early stages of feline CKD and become more severe in advanced disease. A variety of factors-including aging, ischemia, comorbid conditions, phosphorus overload, and routine vaccinations-have been implicated as factors that could contribute to the initiation of this disease in affected cats. Factors that are related to progression of established CKD, which occurs in some but not all cats, include dietary phosphorus intake, magnitude of proteinuria, and anemia. Renal fibrosis, a common histologic feature of aged feline kidneys, interferes with the normal relationship between peritubular capillaries and renal tubules. Experimentally, renal ischemia results in morphologic changes similar to those observed in spontaneous CKD. Renal hypoxia, perhaps episodic, may play a role in the initiation and progression of this disease. © The Author(s) 2016.
The prelaunch, launch, and landing activities of the STS-7 Space Shuttle mission are highlighted in this video, with brief footage of the deployment of the Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS). The flight crew consisted of: Cmdr. Bob Crippen, Pilot Rich Hauck, and Mission Specialists John Fabian, Dr. Sally Ride, and Norm Thaggart. With this mission, Cmdr. Crippen became the first astronaut to fly twice in a Space Shuttle Mission and Dr. Sally Ride was the first American woman to fly in space. There is a large amount of footage of the Space Shuttle by the aircraft that accompanies the Shuttle launchings and landings.
Quimby, Jessica M; Dowers, Kristy; Herndon, Andrea K; Randall, Elissa K
Objectives The objective was to describe ultrasonographic characteristics of cats with stable chronic kidney disease (CKD) and determine if these were significantly different from cats with pyelonephritis (Pyelo) and ureteral obstruction (UO), to aid in clinical assessment during uremic crisis. Methods Sixty-six cats with stable CKD were prospectively enrolled, as well as normal control cats (n = 10), cats with a clinical diagnosis of Pyelo (n = 13) and cats with UO confirmed by surgical resolution (n = 11). Renal ultrasound was performed and routine still images and cine loops were obtained. Analysis included degree of pelvic dilation, and presence and degree of ureteral dilation. Measurements were compared between groups using non-parametric one-way ANOVA with Dunn's post-hoc analysis. Results In total, 66.6% of CKD cats had measurable renal pelvic dilation compared with 30.0% of normal cats, 84.6% of Pyelo cats and 100% of UO cats. There was no statistically significant difference in renal pelvic widths between CKD cats and normal cats, or CKD cats and Pyelo cats. On almost all measurement categories, UO cats had significantly greater renal pelvic widths compared with CKD cats and normal cats ( P cats. Six percent of stable CKD cats had measurable proximal ureteral dilation on one or both sides vs 46.2% of Pyelo cats and 81.8% of UO cats. There was no statistically significant difference in proximal ureteral width between normal and CKD cats, or between Pyelo and UO cats. There was a statistically significant difference in proximal ureteral width between CKD and Pyelo cats, CKD and UO cats, normal and UO cats, and normal and Pyelo cats. Conclusions and relevance No significant difference in renal pelvic widths between CKD cats and Pyelo cats was seen. These data suggest CKD cats should have a baseline ultrasonography performed so that abnormalities documented during a uremic crisis can be better interpreted.
Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hartmann, Katrin; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin
Cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of cats in Europe. A number of helminth parasites may be involved. The most prevalent lungworm in domestic cats is Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Oslerus rostratus and Troglostrongylus species are found mainly in wild cats. The trichurid Capillaria aerophila has a low host specificity and is not uncommon in cats. Additionally the lung flukes Paragonimus species are reported in many species outside of Europe, including cats. Lungworm infections may be asymptomatic, or cause mild to severe respiratory signs, dependent on the worm species and burden; mixed infections are observed. Kittens can be vertically infected and may develop a more severe disease. Affected cats show a productive cough, mucopurulent nasal discharge, tachypnoea, dyspnoea and, in severe cases, respiratory failure and death. Early diagnosis and treatment greatly improves the prognosis. First-stage larvae can be easily detected in fresh faecal samples; the Baermann migration method is the enrichment technique of choice, but takes 24 h. Lungworm larvae can be found in tracheal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but with less sensitivity than in faeces. Molecular methods have been developed that exhibit high specificity and sensitivity, and allow diagnosis in the prepatent phase. Treatment options include fenbendazole paste, milbemycin oxime/praziquantel and various spot-on formulations. Severe cases should receive prompt medical care in an intensive care unit. Avoiding predation is at present the only preventive measure for pulmonary worms with indirect life cycles. C aerophila has zoonotic potential, causing severe pulmonary disease in humans. Some Paragonimus species are also of zoonotic concern. © Published by SAGE on behalf of ISFM and AAFP 2015.
Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne
People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner “gatekeepers” could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats. PMID:26218243
Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C
People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats.
Cerro, Jeff; Martinovic, Zoran; Su, Philip; Eldred, Lloyd
This paper describes some of the work in progress to develop automated structural weight estimation procedures within the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) of the NASA Langley Research Center. One task of the VAB is to perform system studies at the conceptual and early preliminary design stages on launch vehicles and in-space transportation systems. Some examples of these studies for Earth to Orbit (ETO) systems are the Future Space Transportation System , Orbit On Demand Vehicle , Venture Star , and the Personnel Rescue Vehicle. Structural weight calculation for launch vehicle studies can exist on several levels of fidelity. Typically historically based weight equations are used in a vehicle sizing program. Many of the studies in the vehicle analysis branch have been enhanced in terms of structural weight fraction prediction by utilizing some level of off-line structural analysis to incorporate material property, load intensity, and configuration effects which may not be captured by the historical weight equations. Modification of Mass Estimating Relationships (MER's) to assess design and technology impacts on vehicle performance are necessary to prioritize design and technology development decisions. Modern CAD/CAE software, ever increasing computational power and platform independent computer programming languages such as JAVA provide new means to create greater depth of analysis tools which can be included into the conceptual design phase of launch vehicle development. Commercial framework computing environments provide easy to program techniques which coordinate and implement the flow of data in a distributed heterogeneous computing environment. It is the intent of this paper to present a process in development at NASA LaRC for enhanced structural weight estimation using this state of the art computational power.
Javier, Lauren K; McGuire, Elizabeth A; Middlebrooks, John C
Listeners can perceive interleaved sequences of sounds from two or more sources as segregated streams. In humans, physical separation of sound sources is a major factor enabling such stream segregation. Here, we examine spatial stream segregation with a psychophysical measure in domestic cats. Cats depressed a pedal to initiate a target sequence of brief sound bursts in a particular rhythm and then released the pedal when the rhythm changed. The target bursts were interleaved with a competing sequence of bursts that could differ in source location but otherwise were identical to the target bursts. This task was possible only when the sources were heard as segregated streams. When the sound bursts had broad spectra, cats could detect the rhythm change when target and competing sources were separated by as little as 9.4°. Essentially equal levels of performance were observed when frequencies were restricted to a high, 4-to-25-kHz, band in which the principal spatial cues presumably were related to sound levels. When the stimulus band was restricted from 0.4 to 1.6 kHz, leaving interaural time differences as the principal spatial cue, performance was severely degraded. The frequency sensitivity of cats in this task contrasts with that of humans, who show better spatial stream segregation with low- than with high-frequency sounds. Possible explanations for the species difference includes the smaller interaural delays available to cats due to smaller sizes of their heads and the potentially greater sound-level cues available due to the cat's frontally directed pinnae and higher audible frequency range.
the spectacular and remarkable developments in Space Science & Technology. Thus the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station was established in 1963 to explore the upper atmosphere and ionosphere with sounding rockets. Such scientific studies have an important bearing on the understanding of meteorological ...
The U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission launched the Healthy Border 2020 at the Mexican Embassy in the United States on June 24, 2015. This new initiative aims to strengthening what was accomplished on the previous plan of action entitled Healthy Border 2010.
Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.
The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has analyzed over 2000 Ares V and other heavy lift concepts in the last 3 years. These concepts were analyzed for Lunar Exploration Missions, heavy lift capability to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) as well as exploratory missions to other near earth objects in our solar system. With the pending retirement of the Shuttle fleet, our nation will be without a civil heavy lift launch capability, so the future development of a new heavy lift capability is imperative for the exploration and large science missions our Agency has been tasked to deliver. The majority of the heavy lift concepts analyzed by ACO during the last 3 years have been based on liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) core stage and solids booster stage propulsion technologies (Ares V / Shuttle Derived and their variants). These concepts were driven by the decisions made from the results of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which in turn, led to the Ares V launch vehicle that has been baselined in the Constellation Program. Now that the decision has been made at the Agency level to cancel Constellation, other propulsion options such as liquid hydrocarbon fuels are back in the exploration trade space. NASA is still planning exploration missions with the eventual destination of Mars and a new heavy lift launch vehicle is still required and will serve as the centerpiece of our nation s next exploration architecture s infrastructure. With an extensive launch vehicle database already developed on LOX/LH2 based heavy lift launch vehicles, ACO initiated a study to look at using a new high thrust (> 1.0 Mlb vacuum thrust) hydrocarbon engine as the primary main stage propulsion in such a launch vehicle.
Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.
Named for the Greek god associated with Mars, the NASA developed Ares launch vehicles will return humans to the moon and later take them to Mars and other destinations. In this early illustration, the vehicle depicted on the left is the Ares I. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Orion crew vehicle and its launch abort system. In addition to its primary mission of carrying four to six member crews to Earth orbit, Ares I may also use its 25-ton payload capacity to deliver resources and supplies to the International Space Station (ISS), or to 'park' payloads in orbit for retrieval by other spacecraft bound for the moon or other destinations. The Ares I employs a single five-segment solid rocket booster, a derivative of the space shuttle solid rocket booster, for the first stage. A liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen J-2X engine derived from the J-2 engine used on the second stage of the Apollo vehicle will power the Ares V second stage. The Ares I can lift more than 55,000 pounds to low Earth orbit. The vehicle illustrated on the right is the Ares V, a heavy lift launch vehicle that will use five RS-68 liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen engines mounted below a larger version of the space shuttle external tank, and two five-segment solid propellant rocket boosters for the first stage. The upper stage will use the same J-2X engine as the Ares I. The Ares V can lift more than 286,000 pounds to low Earth orbit and stands approximately 360 feet tall. This versatile system will be used to carry cargo and the components into orbit needed to go to the moon and later to Mars. Both vehicles are subject to configuration changes before they are actually launched. This illustration reflects the latest configuration as of September 2006.
Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.
The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center was tasked to define the thrust requirement of a new liquid oxygen rich staged combustion cycle hydrocarbon engine that could be utilized in a launch vehicle to meet NASA s future heavy lift needs. Launch vehicle concepts were sized using this engine for different heavy lift payload classes. Engine out capabilities for one of the heavy lift configurations were also analyzed for increased reliability that may be desired for high value payloads or crewed missions. The applicability for this engine in vehicle concepts to meet military and commercial class payloads comparable to current ELV capability was also evaluated.
ship to Europe's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. Since then, all the satellite subsystems and scientific instruments have been thoroughly tested and found to be in order. ISO is now waiting its turn to be mated with the Ariane 44P launcher. The launch campaign will resume in early October for a launch on 3 November. Preparations for flight operations by ESA's space operation centre, ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany and the flight control centre at Villafranca, near Madrid, Spain are also in the final stages. Most of the work in the last two months before a launch involves training and performing simulations to prove flight readiness. The scientific community is eagerly awaiting the preliminary results of ISO's first look into space in November. SOHO SOHO arrived at Kennedy Space Centre on 1 August. It was given a welcome by hurricane ERIN, which forced an immediate transfer to its reserved NASA facility just after its transport plane had safely landed. Spacecraft preparation for launch has started with a thorough check of all the systems and instruments onboard SOHO and will proceed with an end-to-end test with the NASA control station at Goddard Spaceflight Centre. Parallel activities are proceeding in Europe on the final testing and inspection of the four reaction wheels which the spacecraft control system uses to keep all its instruments pointed very precisely at the sun. At the end of its preparation, the spacecraft will be mated to its Atlas IIAS launcher, which is due to lift off in the first week of December. CLUSTER All four Cluster spacecraft, together with all ancillary equipment, have now arrived at Europe's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. The spacecraft have been set up for final electrical testing in the Final Assembly Building , a new Ariane 5 facility. Major milestones in the campaign are the start of spacecraft fuelling operations at the beginning of November and the start of integration of the spacecraft with the launch vehicle in mid- December. The
Full Text Available ... Feeling Too Tall or Too Short Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...
Full Text Available ... I Help a Kid Who's Bullied? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...
Full Text Available ... You Go to School? Breast Cancer Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...
Full Text Available ... With Stepparents Be a Green Kid Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...
... Too Tall or Too Short Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for ... what's going on inside your body. The scan itself is painless. All you'll need to ...
Full Text Available ... Too Tall or Too Short Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for ... what's going on inside your body. The scan itself is painless. All you'll need to ...
Full Text Available ... to School? Breast Cancer Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that ...
Little, Susan E; Hostetler, Joe A; Thomas, Jennifer E; Bailey, Keith L; Barrett, Anne W; Gruntmeir, Kaylynn; Gruntmeir, Jeff; Starkey, Lindsay A; Basel, Chris; Blagburn, Byron L
Infection of cats with Dirofilaria immitis causes seroconversion on antibody tests and pulmonary pathology, often without subsequent development of adult heartworms. Consistent administration of topical 10% imidacloprid-1% moxidectin has been shown to result in sustained plasma levels of moxidectin in cats after three to five treatments, a pharmacokinetic behavior known as "steady state". To evaluate the ability of moxidectin at "steady state" to protect cats from subsequent infection with D. immitis, cats (n = 10) were treated with the labeled dose of topical 10% imidacloprid-1% moxidectin for four monthly treatments. Each cat was inoculated with 25 third-stage larvae of D. immitis 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after the last treatment; non-treated cats (n = 9) were inoculated on the same days, serving as infection controls. Blood samples were collected from each cat from 1 month prior to treatment until 7 months after the final inoculation and tested for antibody to, and antigen and microfilaria of, D. immitis. Measurement of serum levels of moxidectin confirmed steady state in treated cats. Cats treated with topical 10% imidacloprid-1% moxidectin prior to trickle inoculation of D. immitis L3 larvae throughout the 28 day post-treatment period remained negative on antibody and antigen tests throughout the study and did not develop gross or histologic lesions characteristic of heartworm infection. A majority of non-treated cats tested antibody positive by 3-4 months post infection (6/9) and, after heat treatment, tested antigen positive by 6-7 months post-infection (5/9). Histologic lesions characteristic of D. immitis infection, including intimal and medial thickening of the pulmonary artery, were present in every cat with D. immitis antibodies (6/6), although adult D. immitis were confirmed in only 5/6 antibody-positive cats at necropsy. Microfilariae were not detected at any time. Taken together, these data indicate that prior treatment with 10% imidacloprid-1
Quimby, Jessica M; Brock, William T; Moses, Kelsey; Bolotin, David; Patricelli, Kayla
Maropitant is commonly used for acute vomiting. A pharmacokinetic and toxicity study in cats indicated that longer term usage appears safe. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of maropitant for management of chronic vomiting and inappetence associated with feline chronic kidney disease (CKD). Forty-one cats with stable International Renal Interest Society Stage II or III CKD, no known concurrent illness, and a complaint of chronic vomiting and inappetence attributed to CKD were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded clinical study. A complete blood count, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, urine culture, T4 and blood pressure were required for entry. Maropitant was administered at a dose of 4 mg orally (median 1.1 mg/kg, range 0.6-2.9 mg/kg) daily for 2 weeks. Owners kept daily logs of vomiting incidence, appetite and activity scores. Physical examination, weight, body condition score and serum biochemistry were performed before and after the trial period. Mann-Whitney statistics were used to compare treatment groups. Thirty-three cats successfully completed the trial: 21 cats received the drug (nine Stage II cats, 12 Stage III cats) and 12 cats received placebo (seven Stage II cats, five Stage III cats). There was a statistically significant decrease in vomiting in cats with CKD that received maropitant (P Cats that received maropitant did not have statistically significant differences in appetite scores, activity scores, weight or serum creatinine compared with placebo. Maropitant was demonstrated to palliate vomiting associated with CKD, and may be helpful in the nutritional management of cats with CKD. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.
Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Supporting Orion's first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration and development. NASA is working to develop this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS program has made in the 2 years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, and the path the program is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability. The paper will explain how, to meet the challenge of a flat funding curve, an architecture was chosen which combines the use and enhancement of legacy systems and technology with strategic new development projects that will evolve the capabilities of the launch vehicle. This approach reduces the time and cost of delivering the initial 70 t Block 1 vehicle, and reduces the number of parallel development investments required to deliver the evolved version of the vehicle. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight
Luis Ignacio Sierra G.
Full Text Available Estos apuntes se refieren a que en estos últimos tiempos ha habido un resurgimiento del fenómeno religioso de diversas maneras, incluso sorprendentes. Al aproximarse el tercer milenio, la posmodernidad religiosa disputa parte de la pantalla electrónica con el melodrama religioso: hoy estamos viviendo una religiosidad mediática, una religiosidad catódica.
"If you don't know where you're going, any road will take you there." This oft-cited but not-quite-accurate quote is from the Lewis Carroll's classic children's tale, Alice in Wonderland. In Carroll's altered reality, the conversation between the disoriented Alice and the mysterious Cheshire Cat actually went like this: "Would you…
Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.
Chang, Ya-Pei; Chiu, Po-Yu; Lin, Chung-Tien; Liu, I-Hsuan; Liu, Chen-Hsuan
Objectives The objective of this study was to determine disease progression, association between neurological signs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and long-term outcome in feline thiamine deficiency associated with defective dry food. Methods The clinical records of 17 cats diagnosed with thiamine deficiency related to a defective dry food were examined and data collected. The thiamine level in the food was analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results The thiamine level in the food was below the recommendation of the National Research Council. Fifteen cats were fed the food exclusively. Prior to the acute development of neurological signs, most cats displayed non-specific signs such as anorexia, lethargy or vomiting. Vestibular signs of varying severity were observed in 94% of the cats, and all but one of these presented with bilateral dysfunction. Other main neurological signs included altered mentation (76%), blindness (59%) and seizures (59%). Moreover, 80% of the cats with seizures presented with cluster seizures or status epilepticus. MRI abnormalities consistent with findings reported in the previous literature were detected in five cases. MRI was unremarkable in one cat with ongoing severe neurological signs even though thiamine had been administered. Most surviving cats recovered rapidly within 2 weeks of treatment and had either returned to normal or had minimal neurological signs at the 2 month follow-up. One cat recovered slowly over 6 months. Most cats with seizures in the initial stage of the disease remained seizure free at the 24 month follow-up. Conclusions and relevance This study documented the association between feline thiamine deficiency and defective dry food. MRI examination provided valuable information in the diagnosis. However, normal MRI findings do not exclude the diagnosis of feline thiamine deficiency, especially once thiamine has been supplemented. MRI findings also may not always reflect the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ventions proposes the development of a pump-fed, 2-stage nano launch vehicle for low-cost on demand placement of cube and nano-satellites into LEO. The proposed...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As minimum cost will be required for a dedicated Nano-Sat Launch Vehicle, a parallel staged, highly modular vehicle architecture is proposed for development. The...
The European Space Agency launched its first Galileo satellite on 28 December 2005.When fully deployed, the Galileo system will provide a European global navigation alternative to the U.S. global positioning system (GPS) and the Russian global navigation satellite system (Glonass).The Galileo system will consist of 30 satellites (27 operational plus three active spare satellites) that are scheduled to be launched and fully operational by the end of 2008.The system will provide real-time positioning within one meter of accuracy and be fully inter-operable with the U.S. and Russian systems. However, unlike GPS and Glonass, Galileo will be under civilian rather than military control.
Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent
Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687
Barker, E; Tasker, S
The haemotropic mycoplasmas (haemoplasmas) are a group of bacteria that can induce anaemia in a wide variety of mammals, including domestic cats and wild felids. Different feline haemoplasma species of varying pathogenicity exist, with the more pathogenic Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) capable of inducing severe haemolytic anaemia, whilst 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (CMhm) and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' (CMt) are infrequently associated with clinical disease. Chronic haemoplasma infections are common and cats are frequently infected by two or more haemoplasmas, complicating the clinical picture. The natural route of transmission of haemoplasma infection between cats has not yet been determined; however, experimental transmission has been demonstrated via both oral and parenteral administration of infected blood. To date the haemoplasmas have been unable to be cultured in vitro, and accurate diagnosis is currently reliant on detection of bacterial DNA using PCR assays. Treatment of clinical haemoplasmosis is focussed on supportive care in combination with empirical treatment with antimicrobials (tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones). A significant number of asymptomatic cats are positive for haemoplasma infection. These cats may play a role in the maintenance of haemoplasma infection within a population, and need to be considered when choosing potential blood donors. Use of PCR assays has provided an accurate method of diagnosing haemoplasma infection and quantifying response to therapy, including in non-feline host animals, as presumed zoonotic haemoplasma infections are now being documented. Recent advances in genome sequencing techniques have allowed the whole genome sequences of the feline haemoplasmas Mhf and CMhm to be derived, as well as a number of non-feline haemoplasma species. These data have aided the identification of antigens for use in the development of serological tests, allowed the proteomic study of haemoplasmas and provided clues as to
United States Navy USS United States’ Ship VBA Visual Basic for Applications VLP VLS Loadout Planner VLS Vertical Launch System...mathematically complex and require training to operate the software. A Visual Basic for Applications ( VBA ) Excel (Microsoft Corporation, 2015...lockheed/data/ms2/documents/laun chers/MK41 VLS factsheet.pdf Microsoft Excel version 14.4.3, VBA computer software. (2011). Redmond, WA: Microsoft
Named for the Greek god associated with Mars, the NASA developed Ares launch vehicles will return humans to the moon and later take them to Mars and other destinations. This is an illustration of the Ares I with call outs. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Orion crew vehicle and its launch abort system. In addition to the primary mission of carrying crews of four to six astronauts to Earth orbit, Ares I may also use its 25-ton payload capacity to deliver resources and supplies to the International Space Station, or to 'park' payloads in orbit for retrieval by other spacecraft bound for the moon or other destinations. Ares I employs a single five-segment solid rocket booster, a derivative of the space shuttle solid rocket booster, for the first stage. A liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen J-2X engine derived from the J-2 engine used on the Apollo second stage will power the Ares I second stage. The Ares I can lift more than 55,000 pounds to low Earth orbit. Ares I is subject to configuration changes before it is actually launched. This illustration reflects the latest configuration as of January 2007.
Kotilainen, Jari K.; Olguín-Iglesias, Alejandro [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); León-Tavares, Jonathan; Baes, Maarten [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281-S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Anórve, Christopher [Facultad de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Espacio de la Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Blvd. de la Americas y Av. Universitarios S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 80010, Culiacán Sinaloa, México (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram; Carrasco, Luis, E-mail: email@example.com [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)
Supermassive black holes launching plasma jets at close to the speed of light, producing gamma-rays, have ubiquitously been found to be hosted by massive elliptical galaxies. Since elliptical galaxies are generally believed to be built through galaxy mergers, active galactic nuclei (AGN) launching relativistic jets are associated with the latest stages of galaxy evolution. We have discovered a pseudobulge morphology in the host galaxy of the gamma-ray AGN PKS 2004-447. This is the first gamma-ray emitter radio-loud AGN found to have been launched from a system where both the black hole and host galaxy have been actively growing via secular processes. This is evidence of an alternative black hole–galaxy co-evolutionary path to develop powerful relativistic jets, which is not merger driven.
A 50th Anniversary Ceremony was held today in honor of the first rocket launch, called Bumper 8, from Pad 3 at Cape Canaveral on July 24, 1950. Among the activities was the launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket (seen here), presentation of a Bumper Award to the Honorable George Kirkpatrick, State Senator, District 5; remarks by Center Director Roy Bridges and Commander, 45th Space Wing, Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit; and a reception at Hangar C. Bumper consisted of a German V-2 missile acting as the booster and a U.S. Army WAC Corporal rocket as the second stage. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.
Hametz, Mark E.; Beaver, Brian A.
A safety risk was identified for the International Space Station (ISS) by The Aerospace Corporation following the launch of GPS IIR-20 (March 24, 2009), when the spent upper stage of the launch vehicle unexpectedly crossed inside the ISS notification box shortly after launch. This event highlighted a 56-hour vulnerability period following the end of the launch Collision Avoidance (COLA) process where the ISS would be unable to react to a conjunction with a newly launched object. Current launch COLA processes screen each launched object across the launch window to determine if an object's nominal trajectory is predicted to pass within 200 km of the ISS (or any other manned/mannable object), resulting in a launch time closure. These launch COLA screens are performed from launch through separation plus I 00 minutes. Once the objects are in orbit, they are cataloged and evaluated as part of routine on-orbit conjunction assessment processes. However, as the GPS IIR-20 scenario illustrated, there is a vulnerability period in the time line between the end of launch COLA coverage and the beginning of standard on-orbit COLA assessment activities. The gap between existing launch and on-orbit COLA processes is driven by the time it takes to track and catalog a launched object, identify a conjunction, and plan and execute a collision avoidance maneuver. For the ISS, the total time required to accomplish an of these steps is 56 hours. To protect human lives, NASA/JSC has requested that an US launches take additional steps to protect the ISS during this "COLA gap" period. The uncertainty in the state of a spent upper stage can be quite large after all bums are complete and all remaining propellants are expelled to safe the stage. Simply extending the launch COLA process an additional 56 hours is not a viable option as the 3-sigma position uncertainty will far exceed the 200 km miss-distance criterion. Additionally, performing a probability of collision (Pc) analysis over this
Trafton, W. C.; Simpson, J.
From a commercial perspective, the ability to justify "leap frog" technology such as reusable systems has been difficult to justify because the estimated 5B to 10B investment is not supported in the current flat commercial market coupled with an oversupply of launch service suppliers. The market simply does not justify investment of that magnitude. Currently, next generation Expendable Launch Systems, including Boeing's Delta IV, Lockheed Martin's Atlas 5, Ariane V ESCA and RSC's H-IIA are being introduced into operations signifying that only upgrades to proven systems are planned to meet the changes in anticipated satellite demand (larger satellites, more lifetime, larger volumes, etc.) in the foreseeable future. We do not see a new fleet of ELVs emerging beyond that which is currently being introduced, only continuous upgrades of the fleet to meet the demands. To induce a radical change in the provision of launch services, a Multinational Government investment must be made and justified by World requirements. The commercial market alone cannot justify such an investment. And if an investment is made, we cannot afford to repeat previous mistakes by relying on one system such as shuttle for commercial deployment without having any back-up capability. Other issues that need to be considered are national science and security requirements, which to a large extent fuels the Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Former Soviet Union, European and United States space transportation entries. Additionally, this system must support or replace current Space Transportation Economies with across-the-board benefits. For the next 10 to 20 years, Multinational cooperation will be in the form of piecing together launch components and infrastructure to supplement existing launch systems and reducing the amount of non-recurring investment while meeting the future requirements of the End-User. Virtually all of the current systems have some form of multinational participation: Sea Launch
Creech, Dennis M.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Philips, Alan D.; Waters, Eric D.; Baysinger, Mike
With a heavy lift launch vehicle as the centerpiece of our nation's next exploration architecture's infrastructure, the Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center initiated a study to examine the utilization of elements derived from a heavy lift launch vehicle for other potential launch vehicle applications. The premise of this study is to take a vehicle concept, which has been optimized for Lunar Exploration, and utilize the core stage with other existing or near existing stages and boosters to determine lift capabilities for alternative missions. This approach not only yields a vehicle matrix with a wide array of capabilities, but also produces an evolutionary pathway to a vehicle family based on a minimum development and production cost approach to a launch vehicle system architecture, instead of a purely performance driven approach. The upper stages and solid rocket booster selected for this study were chosen to reflect a cross-section of: modified existing assets in the form of a modified Delta IV upper stage and Castor-type boosters; potential near term launch vehicle component designs including an Ares I upper stage and 5-segment boosters; and longer lead vehicle components such as a Shuttle External Tank diameter upper stage. The results of this approach to a modular launch system are given in this paper.
Jan S Suchodolski
Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or
Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.
A foundational capability for international human deep-space exploration, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a new spaceflight infrastructure asset, creating opportunities for mission profiles and space systems that cannot currently be executed. While the primary purpose of SLS, which is making rapid progress towards initial launch readiness in two years, will be to support NASA's Journey to Mars, discussions are already well underway regarding other potential utilization of the vehicle's unique capabilities. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS will propel the Orion crew vehicle to cislunar space, while also delivering small CubeSat-class spacecraft to deep-space destinations. With the addition of a more powerful upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a class of secondary payloads, larger than today's CubeSats. Further upgrades to the vehicle, including advanced boosters, will evolve its performance to 130 t in its Block 2 configuration. Both Block 1B and Block 2 also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk, operational costs and/or complexity, shorter transit time to destination or launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. This paper will discuss both the performance and capabilities of Space Launch System as it evolves, and the current state of SLS utilization planning.
Ghys, Liesbeth Fe; Paepe, Dominique; Taffin, Elien Rl; Vandermeulen, Eva; Duchateau, Luc; Smets, Pascale My; Delanghe, Joris; Daminet, Sylvie
The objective of this study was to investigate serum cystatin C (sCysC) and urinary cystatin C (uCysC) in cats with hyperthyroidism and cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Thirty cats with FIV, 26 hyperthyroid cats and 28 healthy cats were included. sCysC and uCysC:creatinine (uCysC/uCr) ratio were measured with a human particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay, previously validated for feline CysC measurement. Routine renal variables (serum creatinine [sCr], urine specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio [UPC]) were also measured in the three groups. Cats with hyperthyroidism had significantly higher sCysC and higher uCysC/uCr ratio, lower sCr and a higher UPC than healthy cats. Cats with FIV infection did not show a significantly higher sCysC concentration but had a significantly higher sCr and UPC than healthy cats. uCysC could be detected in only four of them. This study demonstrated that sCysC is increased in cats with hyperthyroidism, in contrast with sCr, but not in cats with FIV. Many hyperthyroid cats, but only four cats with FIV, had an elevated uCysC/uCr ratio. Further studies may reveal if uCysC might be a valuable marker for tubular dysfunction in cats. © The Author(s) 2015.
Robinson, Kimberly F.; Hefner, Keith; Hitt, David
Designed to meet the stringent requirements of human exploration missions into deep space and to Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a unique new launch capability opening new opportunities for mission design. While SLS's super-heavy launch vehicle predecessor, the Saturn V, was used for only two types of missions - launching Apollo spacecraft to the moon and lofting the Skylab space station into Earth orbit - NASA is working to identify new ways to use SLS to enable new missions or mission profiles. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS is capable of not only propelling the Orion crew vehicle into cislunar space, but also delivering small satellites to deep space destinations. With a 5-meter (m) fairing consistent with contemporary Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELVs), the Block 1 configuration can also deliver science payloads to high-characteristic-energy (C3) trajectories to the outer solar system. With the addition of an upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a new class of secondary payloads, larger than today's cubesats. The evolved configurations of SLS, including both Block 1B and the 130 t Block 2, also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk and operational costs associated with shorter transit time to destination and reduced risk and complexity associated with launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. As this paper will
Yeon, Seong C; Kim, Young K; Park, Se J; Lee, Scott S; Lee, Seung Y; Suh, Euy H; Houpt, Katherine A; Chang, Hong H; Lee, Hee C; Yang, Byung G; Lee, Hyo J
To investigate how socialization can affect the types and characteristics of vocalization produced by cats, feral cats (n=25) and house cats (n=13) were used as subjects, allowing a comparison between cats socialized to people and non-socialized cats. To record vocalization and assess the cats' responses to behavioural stimuli, five test situations were used: approach by a familiar caretaker, by a threatening stranger, by a large doll, by a stranger with a dog and by a stranger with a cat. Feral cats showed extremely aggressive and defensive behaviour in most test situations, and produced higher call rates than those of house cats in the test situations, which could be attributed to less socialization to other animals and to more sensitivity to fearful situations. Differences were observed in the acoustic parameters of feral cats in comparison to those of house cats. The feral cat produced significantly higher frequency in fundamental frequency, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, 3rd quartile frequency of growls and hisses in agonistic test situations. In contrast to the growls and hisses, in meow, all acoustic parameters like fundamental frequency, first formant, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, and 3rd quartile frequency of house cats were of significantly higher frequency than those of feral cats. Also, house cats produced calls of significantly shorter in duration than feral cats in agonistic test situations. These results support the conclusion that a lack of socialization may affect usage of types of vocalizations, and the vocal characteristics, so that the proper socialization of cat may be essential to be a suitable companion house cat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Menicagli, Francesco; Pettorali, Michela; Baldi, Alfonso
A twelve-year-old male castrated domestic shorthair cat was presented for rapidly progressing respiratory distress. The cat was depressed, tachypneic and moderately responsive. Ultrasonography showed a mediastinal mass associated with a significant pleural effusion that needed tapping every five to seven days. Ultrasound guided biopsy yielded a diagnosis of clear cell thymoma upon histopathology. After complete staging procedures, the owner elected to treat the cat with electrochemotherapy (ECT) using systemic bleomycin. Two sessions of ultrasound guided ECT were performed at two week intervals with trains of biphasic electric pulses applied using needle electrodes until complete coverage of the area was achieved. The treatment was well tolerated and resulted in partial remission (PR). Additional sessions were performed on a monthly basis. The cat is still in PR after fourteen months. ECT resulted in improved local control and should be considered among the available adjuvant treatments in pets carrying visceral tumors.
Enrico Pierluigi Spugnini
Full Text Available A twelve-year-old male castrated domestic shorthair cat was presented for rapidly progressing respiratory distress. The cat was depressed, tachypneic and moderately responsive. Ultrasonography showed a mediastinal mass associated with a significant pleural effusion that needed tapping every five to seven days. Ultrasound guided biopsy yielded a diagnosis of clear cell thymoma upon histopathology. After complete staging procedures, the owner elected to treat the cat with electrochemotherapy (ECT using systemic bleomycin. Two sessions of ultrasound guided ECT were performed at two week intervals with trains of biphasic electric pulses applied using needle electrodes until complete coverage of the area was achieved. The treatment was well tolerated and resulted in partial remission (PR. Additional sessions were performed on a monthly basis. The cat is still in PR after fourteen months. ECT resulted in improved local control and should be considered among the available adjuvant treatments in pets carrying visceral tumors.
Mata, C. T.; Rakov, V. A.
Lightning is a major threat to launch facilities. In 2008 and 2009 there have been a significant number of strikes within 5 nautical miles of Launch Complexes 39A and 39B at the Kennedy Space Center. On several occasions, the Shuttle Space Vehicle (SSV) was at the pad. Fortunately, no accidents or damage to the flight hardware occurred, but these events resulted in many launch delays, one launch scrub, and many hours of retesting. For complex structures, such as launch facilities, the design of the lightning protection system (LPS) cannot be done using the lightning protection standard guidelines. As a result, there are some “unprotected” or “exposed” areas. In order to quantify the lightning threat to these areas, a Monte Carlo statistical tool has been developed. This statistical tool uses two random number generators: a uniform distribution to generate origins of downward propagating leaders and a lognormal distribution to generate returns stroke peak currents. Downward leaders propagate vertically downward and their striking distances are defined by the polarity and peak current. Following the electrogeometrical concept, we assume that the leader attaches to the closest object within its striking distance. The statistical analysis is run for a large number of years using a long term ground flash density that corresponds to the geographical region where the structures being analyzed are located or will be installed. The output of the program is the probability of direct attachment to objects of interest with its corresponding peak current distribution. This tool was used in designing the lightning protection system of Launch Complex 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, FL, for NASA’s Constellation program. The tool allowed the designers to select the position of the towers and to design the catenary wire system to minimize the probability of direct strikes to the spacecraft and associated ground support equipment. This tool can be used to evaluate
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Access to space for Small Satellites is enabled by the use of excess launch capacity on existing launch vehicles. A range of sizes, form factors and masses need to...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Access to space for Small Satellites is enabled by the use of excess launch capacity on existing launch vehicles. A range of sizes, form factors and masses of small...
Morrissey, Arthur C.; O'Neill, Stephen T.
Titan launch vehicles have been contributing to the national space accomplishments for more than 20 years. As the U.S. space program has grown, the Titan family has expanded to meet the changing requirements. The dependability and versatility of Titan vehicles have been demonstrated by their selection for various missions, including strategic intercontinental ballistic missile weapon systems, manned Gemini space flights, NASA interplanetary missions, and critical national security programs. This article summarizes the Titan legacy and is an overview of the newest Titan family member - the Titan IV.
Ryan, Robert; Verderaime, V.
Current launch vehicle design emphasis is on low life-cycle cost. This paper applies total quality management (TQM) principles to a conventional systems design analysis process to provide low-cost, high-reliability designs. Suggested TQM techniques include Steward's systems information flow matrix method, quality leverage principle, quality through robustness and function deployment, Pareto's principle, Pugh's selection and enhancement criteria, and other design process procedures. TQM quality performance at least-cost can be realized through competent concurrent engineering teams and brilliance of their technical leadership.
Ray, Sabooj; Mathews, Sheeja; Abraham, Sheena; Pradeep, N.; Vinod, P.
Smart Sensors bring a paradigm shift in the data acquisition mechanism adopted for launch vehicle telemetry system. The sensors integrate signal conditioners, digitizers and communication systems to give digital output from the measurement location. Multiple sensors communicate with a centralized node over a common digital data bus. An in-built microcontroller gives the sensor embedded intelligence to carry out corrective action for sensor inaccuracies. A smart pressure sensor has been realized and flight-proven to increase the reliability as well as simplicity in integration so as to obtain improved data output. Miniaturization is achieved by innovative packaging. This work discusses the construction, working and flight performance of such a sensor.
Ray, Sabooj; Mathews, Sheeja; Abraham, Sheena; Pradeep, N.; Vinod, P.
Smart Sensors bring a paradigm shift in the data acquisition mechanism adopted for launch vehicle telemetry system. The sensors integrate signal conditioners, digitizers and communication systems to give digital output from the measurement location. Multiple sensors communicate with a centralized node over a common digital data bus. An in-built microcontroller gives the sensor embedded intelligence to carry out corrective action for sensor inaccuracies. A smart pressure sensor has been realized and flight-proven to increase the reliability as well as simplicity in integration so as to obtain improved data output. Miniaturization is achieved by innovative packaging. This work discusses the construction, working and flight performance of such a sensor.
Siao, K T; Pypendop, B H; Stanley, S D; Ilkiw, J E
This study reports the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in cats, after both i.v. and oral administration. Six healthy adult domestic shorthair female cats were used. Amantadine HCl (5 mg/kg, equivalent to 4 mg/kg amantadine base) was administered either intravenously or orally in a crossover randomized design. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to amantadine administration, and at various times up to 1440 min following intravenous, or up to 2880 min following oral administration. Plasma amantadine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and plasma amantadine concentration-time data were fitted to compartmental models. A two-compartment model with elimination from the central compartment best described the disposition of amantadine administered intravenously in cats, and a one-compartment model best described the disposition of oral amantadine in cats. After i.v. administration, the apparent volume of distribution of the central compartment and apparent volume of distribution at steady-state [mean ± SEM (range)], and the clearance and terminal half-life [harmonic mean ± jackknife pseudo-SD (range)] were 1.5 ± 0.3 (0.7-2.5) L/kg, 4.3 ± 0.2 (3.7-5.0) L/kg, 8.2 ± 2.1 (5.9-11.4) mL·min/kg, and 348 ± 49 (307-465) min, respectively. Systemic availability [mean ± SEM (range)] and terminal half-life after oral administration [harmonic mean ± jackknife pseudo-SD (range)] were 130 ± 11 (86-160)% and 324 ± 41 (277-381) min, respectively. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E; Schacht, Jochen
A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of ototoxicity in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows one to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Franc, Michel; Bouhsira, ?milie; Beugnet, Fr?d?ric
A study design was created to assess the potential for fleas to infest cats directly from other cats. In the first experiment, six cats were infested with 100 fleas each and then immediately put in contact with six flea-free cats for 24?h. After removal of all fleas the study was repeated and the contact between cats lasted 48?h. The total numbers of fleas recovered out of the 600 fleas deposited on the 6 donor cats after each infestation were 499 and 486 at 24?h and 48?h respectively. At 1?h...
Leclerc, J.; Viertel, Y.; Freeborn, P.
Eurockot Launch Services GmbH has become an established provider of commercial launch services particularly for organisations operating or planning to operate small earth observation, science and technology satellites in Low Earth Orbits (LEO). Eurockot has already performed a number of launches of earth observation missions for Germany, ESA, USA, Japan and the Republic of Korea in the recent past and presently has a backlog of future launches for the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan encompassing missions from both the Earth Explorer and Technology programmes. This abstract gives an insight into these missions and also briefly touches on the capability of the Rockot launch vehicle to perform earth escape mission launches with the use of an additional kick-stage attached to the spacecraft, thereby addressing technology and science missions planned by ESA.
We introduce the `Complete Wave Function' and deduce that all living beings, not just Schroedinger's cat, are actually described by a superposition of `alive' and `dead' quantum states; otherwise they would never die. Therefore this proposal provides a quantum mechanical explanation to the world-wide observation that we all pass away. Next we consider the Measurement problem in the framework of M-theory. For this purpose, together with Schroedinger's cat we also place inside the box Rasputin's cat, which is unaffected by poisson. We analyse the system identifying its excitations (catons and catinos) and we discuss its evolution: either to a classical fight or to a quantum entanglement. We also propose the $BSV\\Psi$ scenario, which implements the Complete Wave Function as well as the Big Bang and the String Landscape in a very (super)natural way. Then we test the gravitational decoherence of the entangled system applying an experimental setting due to Galileo. We also discuss the Information Loss paradox. For ...
Dubey, J P; Houk, A E; Verma, S K; Calero-Bernal, R; Humphreys, J G; Lindsay, D S
Cystoisospora felis is an ubiquitous coccidian of cats. The domestic cat (Felis catus) is its definitive host and several mammalian and avian species are its optional intermediate/transport hosts. Nothing is known if it is transmissible to wild felids. In the present study C. felis-like oocysts were found in two naturally infected bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Pennsylvania. To study transmission of C. felis-like parasite from bobcats to domestic cats, sporulated oocysts of C. felis-like from one bobcat were orally inoculated into interferon gamma gene knockout (KO) mice, and 56 days later tissues of KO mice were fed to two coccidian-free cats; two littermate cats were uninoculated controls. The inoculated cats and controls were euthanized five and seven days later, and their small intestines were studied histologically. One inoculated cat excreted C. felis-like oocysts seven days post inoculation (p.i.) and was immediately euthanized. Mature schizonts, mature male and female gamonts, and unsporulated oocysts were found in the lamina propria of small intestine; these stages were morphologically similar to C. felis of domestic cats. No parasites were seen in histological sections of small intestines of the remaining three cats. The experiment was terminated at seven days p.i. (minimum prepatent period for C. felis) to minimize spread of this highly infectious parasite to other cats. Although oocysts of the parasite in bobcats were morphologically similar to C. felis of domestic cats, the endogenous stages differed in their location of development. The bobcat derived parasite was located in the lamina propria of ileum whereas all endogenous stages of C. felis of domestic cats are always located in enterocytes of intestinal epithelium. Characterization of DNA isolated from C. felis-like oocysts from the donor bobcat revealed that sequences of the ITS1 region was only 87% similar to the ITS1 region of C. felis from domestic cats. These results indicate that the parasite in
Tessema, G.Y.; Elliott, J.A.; Rusbridge, M.G. (Manchester Univ. (UK). Inst. of Science and Technology)
Drift waves have been successfully launched from flag probes in a steady-state magnetized plasma, and the launching mechanism has been identified. Non-linear interactions are observed between launched and intrinsic waves. A wide range of further experimental studies is thus made possible, of fundamental relevance to plasma confinement. (author).
Rodriguez, J; Blais, M-C; Lapointe, C; Arsenault, J; Carioto, L; Harel, J
Although there is serologic evidence of exposure of cats to Leptospira spp., clinical disease is rarely reported in cats. To compare the seropositivity and urinary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) status for Leptospira spp. between healthy (H) cats and cats with kidney disease (KD), to investigate the serovars potentially involved, and to evaluate potential risk factors. Two hundred and forty client-owned cats. Cats were prospectively recruited and classified based on physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemistry profile, and urinalysis (125 H and 115 KD cats). Leptospira spp. serology (titers ≥1 : 100 considered positive) and urinary PCR were performed in all cats. Data assessing risk factors, obtained from a questionnaire, were evaluated using logistic regression models. Seropositivity for Leptospira spp. was statistically different between groups: 7.2% (9/125) and 14.9% (17/114) in the H and KD, respectively (P = .05). The proportion of PCR-positive cats was not. The most common serovars detected serologically were Pomona (n = 16) and Bratislava (n = 8). Risk factors for seropositivity included outdoor and hunting lifestyles (P = .03 and P cat in the household (P cats, suggesting that the role of Leptospira spp. in KD in cats should be further investigated. The detection of urinary shedding of leptospires in several cats identifies a potential role in the transmission of the organism. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Gomez, M.C.; Jenkins, J.A.; Giraldo, A.; Harris, R.F.; King, A.; Dresser, B.L.; Pope, C.E.
were synchronized by serum starvation (83.0%) than after roscovitine (80.0%) or contact-inhibition (80.0%). The fusion efficiency of in vivo and in vitro matured oocytes used as recipient cytoplasts of AWC donor nuclei (86.6% vs. 85.2%) was similar to the rates obtained with DSH donor nuclei, 83.7% vs. 73.0%, respectively. The only significant effect of source of donor nucleus (AWC vs. DSH) was on the rate of blastocyst formation in vitro. A higher percentage of the embryos derived from AWC nuclei developed to the blastocyst stage than did embryos produced from DSH nuclei, 24.2% vs. 3.3%, respectively (P calcium in the fusion medium on induction of oocyte activation and development of AWC-DSH-cloned embryos was determined. The presence of calcium in the fusion medium induced a high incidence of cleavage of DSH oocytes (54.3%), while oocyte cleavage frequency was much lower in the absence of calcium (16.6%). The presence or absence of calcium in the fusion medium did not affect the fusion, cleavage, and blastocyst development of AWC-DSH-cloned embryos. In experiment 5, AWC-DSH-cloned embryos were transferred to the uteri of 11 synchronized domestic cat recipients on Day 6 or 7 after oocyte aspiration. Recipients were assessed by ultrasonography on Day 21 postovulation, but no pregnancies were observed. In the present study, after NT, AWC donor nuclei were able to dedifferentiate in DSH cytoplasts and support high rates of blastocyst development in vitro. Incomplete reprogramming of the differentiated nucleus may be a major constraint to the in vivo developmental potential of the embryos.
Full Text Available Background: Cat as definitive host of Toxoplasma gondii is important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The object of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii as well as parasite isolation from faeces and brain tissues of stray cats in Kashan, central Iran. Methods: The prevalence of T. gondii was determined in serum, feces and brain tissue of 50 stray cats. IgG specific antibody to T. gondii was assessed by indirect fluorecent antibody test (IFAT. Results: Overall infection rate was 86% in 1:20 to1:640 titers. The highest percentage (22% was for 1:160 and the least (6% were for 1: 640. T. gondii tissue cyst isolated from 2(4% cats by bioassay in mice. No oocysts detected from cat stool by direct and concentration methods. Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of T. gondii in stray cats is high in Kashan region.
Judith L. Stella; Candace C. Croney
Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at a...
Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta
Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Caprace, Pierre-Emmanuel; Sageev, Michah
We prove that any group acting essentially without a fixed point at infinity on an irreducible finite-dimensional CAT(0) cube complex contains a rank one isometry. This implies that the Rank Rigidity Conjecture holds for CAT(0) cube complexes. We derive a number of other consequences for CAT(0) cube complexes, including a purely geometric proof of the Tits Alternative, an existence result for regular elements in (possibly non-uniform) lattices acting on cube complexes, and a characterization ...
Levy, Julie K; Burling, Amie N; Crandall, Michael M; Tucker, Sylvia J; Wood, Erin G; Foster, Jessie D
OBJECTIVE To determine the seroprevalence of heartworm infection, risk factors for seropositivity, and frequency of prescribing heartworm preventives for cats. DESIGN Prospective cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 34,975 cats from 1,353 veterinary clinics (n = 26,707) and 125 animal shelters (8,268) in the United States and Canada. PROCEDURES Blood samples were collected from all cats and tested with a point-of-care ELISA for Dirofilaria immitis antigen, FeLV antigen, and FIV antibody. Results were compared among geographic regions and various cat groupings. RESULTS Seropositivity for heartworm antigen in cats was identified in 35 states but not in Canada; overall seroprevalence in the United States was 0.4%. Seroprevalence of heartworm infection was highest in the southern United States. A 3-fold increase in the proportion of seropositive cats was identified for those with (vs without) outdoor access, and a 2.5-fold increase was identified for cats that were unhealthy (vs healthy) when tested. Seroprevalence was 0.3% in healthy cats, 0.7% in cats with oral disease, 0.9% in cats with abscesses or bite wounds, and 1.0% in cats with respiratory disease. Coinfection with a retrovirus increased the risk of heartworm infection. Heartworm preventives were prescribed for only 12.6% of cats at testing, and prescribing was more common in regions with a higher seroprevalence. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE At an estimated prevalence of 0.4%, hundreds of thousands of cats in the United States are likely infected with heartworms. Given the difficulty in diagnosing infection at all clinically relevant parasite stages and lack of curative treatment options, efforts should be increased to ensure all cats receive heartworm preventives.
The CERN & Society programme brings together projects in the areas of education and outreach, innovation and knowledge exchange, and culture and arts, that spread the CERN spirit of scientific curiosity for the inspiration and benefit of society. Today, CERN & Society is launching its "giving" website – a portal to allow donors to contribute to various projects and forge new relationships with CERN. "The CERN & Society initiative in its embryonic form began almost three years ago, with the feeling that the laboratory could play a bigger role for the benefit of society," says Matteo Castoldi, Head of the CERN Development Office, who, with his team, is seeking supporters and ambassadors for the CERN & Society initiative. "The concept is not completely new – in some sense it is embedded in CERN’s DNA, as the laboratory helps society by creating knowledge and new technologies – but we would like to d...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — CATS facility is at the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), Champaign, IL. This 1-acre test site includes a variety of subsurface features carefully...
Kaya, O; Kirkan, S; Unal, B
Dermatophilus congolensis was isolated from a cat with dermatitis. The isolate was sensitive to oxytetracyclin, streptomycin and penicillin but resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamycin and cefoperazone.
Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy
Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582
Given, Joanne E; Loane, Maria; Luteijn, Johannes Michiel
and levonorgestrel/ethinylestradiol (OR 4.10, 95% CI 1.70-8.53; congenital heart disease/pulmonary valve stenosis and nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (OR 5.01, 95% CI 1.99-14.20/OR 28.20, 95% CI 4.63-122.24); complete absence of a limb and pregnen (4) derivatives (OR 6.60, 95% CI 1......AIMS: To evaluate congenital anomaly (CA)-medication exposure associations produced by the new EUROmediCAT signal detection system and determine which require further investigation. METHODS: Data from 15 EUROCAT registries (1995-2011) with medication exposures at the chemical substance (5th level...
Given, Joanne E; Loane, Maria; Luteijn, Johannes Michiel
AIMS: To evaluate congenital anomaly (CA)-medication exposure associations produced by the new EUROmediCAT signal detection system and determine which require further investigation. METHODS: Data from 15 EUROCAT registries (1995-2011) with medication exposures at the chemical substance (5th level...... and levonorgestrel/ethinylestradiol (OR 4.10, 95% CI 1.70-8.53; congenital heart disease/pulmonary valve stenosis and nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (OR 5.01, 95% CI 1.99-14.20/OR 28.20, 95% CI 4.63-122.24); complete absence of a limb and pregnen (4) derivatives (OR 6.60, 95% CI 1...
Tashakkor, Scott B.; Canabal, Francisco; Mishtawy, Jason E.
The Loci-CHEM 3.2 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code is being used to predict Ares-I launch vehicle aerodynamic heating. CFD has been used to predict both ascent and stage reentry environments and has been validated against wind tunnel tests and the Ares I-X developmental flight test. Most of the CFD predictions agreed with measurements. On regions where mismatches occurred, the CFD predictions tended to be higher than measured data. These higher predictions usually occurred in complex regions, where the CFD models (mainly turbulence) contain less accurate approximations. In some instances, the errors causing the over-predictions would cause locations downstream to be affected even though the physics were still being modeled properly by CHEM. This is easily seen when comparing to the 103-AH data. In the areas where predictions were low, higher grid resolution often brought the results closer to the data. Other disagreements are attributed to Ares I-X hardware not being present in the grid, as a result of computational resources limitations. The satisfactory predictions from CHEM provide confidence that future designs and predictions from the CFD code will provide an accurate approximation of the correct values for use in design and other applications
Obersteiner, M. H.; Borriello, G.
Further evolution of existing expendable launch vehicles will be an obvious element influencing the future of space transportation. Besides this reusability might be the change with highest potential for essential improvement. The expected cost reduction and finally contributing to this, the improvement of reliability including safe mission abort capability are driving this idea. Although there are ideas of semi-reusable launch vehicles, typically two stages vehicles - reusable first stage or booster(s) and expendable second or upper stage - it should be kept in mind that the benefit of reusability will only overwhelm if there is a big enough share influencing the cost calculation. Today there is the understanding that additional technology preparation and verification will be necessary to master reusability and get enough benefits compared with existing launch vehicles. This understanding is based on several technology and system concepts preparation and verification programmes mainly done in the US but partially also in Europe and Japan. The major areas of necessary further activities are: - System concepts including business plan considerations - Sub-system or component technologies refinement - System design and operation know-how and capabilities - Verification and demonstration oriented towards future mission mastering: One of the most important aspects for the creation of those coming programmes and activities will be the iterative process of requirements definition derived from concepts analyses including economical considerations and the results achieved and verified within technology and verification programmes. It is the intention of this paper to provide major trends for those requirements focused on future launch vehicles structures. This will include the aspects of requirements only valid for reusable launch vehicles and those common for expendable, semi-reusable and reusable launch vehicles. Structures and materials is and will be one of the
Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato
The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views.
Full Text Available Objective: to study the course of spinal anesthesia in regular users of CAT (Catha edulis Forskal. Subjects and methods. The course of spinal anesthesia was studied in 75 patients in relation to the degree of drug dependence in patients with a national habit to chew systematically CAT, the herbal psychogenic stimulant (pseudoephedrine, amphetamine. According to the dependence and clinical manifestations, all the patients were divided into 3 groups. Results. During spinal anesthesia, arterial hypotension and tachycardia were more common in Group 1 and control patients. Groups 2 and 3 patients with baseline hypertonus of the sympathetic nervous system showed a more significant resistance of indices at this stage and virtually needed no ephedrine administration. The time course of changes in the Cardo autonomic index practically corroborated this regularity. However, in the immediate postoperative period, Group 3 patients’ condition is characterized by the signs of functionally exhausted tone of the sympathetic nervous system, as appear as the signs of discomfort, withdrawal syndrome, respiratory and circulatory disorders, urinary retention, enteroparesis, which require active therapy in an intensive care unit. Thus, Groups 2 and 3 patients have a false temporary intraoperative resistance of hemodynamic parameters and psychoemotional status, which are more dramatically observed in the postoperative period. Key words: spinal analgesia, CAT as a psychogenic stimulant, amphetamine, pseudoephedrine, withdrawal syndrome.
Full Text Available Economical space transportation systems to launch small satellites into Earth’s orbits are researched in many countries. Using aerospace systems, included aircraft and air-launched launch vehicle, is one of the low cost technical solutions. The airborne launch vehicle application to launch a small satellite with the purpose of remote sensing requires high precision exit on specified sun-synchronous orbit. So a problem is stated to construct an optimal ascent trajectory and optimal control.In this paper, the mathematical motion model of the air-launched launch vehicle with the external disturbances caused by the Earth’s non-sphericity, drag and wind is put forward based on the three-stage flight program with passive intermediate section. A discrete process based on pseudo-spectral method is used to solve the problem, which allows converting the initial problem into a nonlinear programming problem with dynamic constraints and aims for the criteria of maximization of the final mass released onto the target orbit.Application of the proposed solution procedure is illustrated by calculating the optimal control and the corresponding trajectory for two-stage liquid launch vehicle, which places the small spacecraft on the orbit of sun-synchronous at the height of 512 km. The numerical simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and allow us to analyze three-stage trajectory parameters with intermediate passive flight phase. It can be noted that in the resulting ascent trajectory, the intermediate passive flight part is a suborbital trajectory with low energy integral, perigee of which is under the surface of the Earth.
Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim
Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European
de Godoy, Maria Rc; Shoveller, Anna K
Objectives The objectives of the current pilot study were to evaluate whether body condition score (BCS) and body weight are significantly related to physical activity counts, and to evaluate potential interaction between BCS and voluntary physical activity measured over a 14 day period. Methods Ten (five lean, five overweight), neutered, adult American Shorthair cats were selected for this study (median age 4 ± 0.5 years). Cats with a BCS of ⩽3.0 were considered lean, whereas cats with a BCS >3.0 were considered overweight, using a 5-point scale. Cats were housed in a free-living environment with indoor/outdoor access and were individually fed once daily a commercially available dry extruded diet and allowed 1 h to eat. Voluntary physical activity was measured consecutively for 14 days using the Actical Activity Monitors that were worn parallel to the ribs and attached via a harness. Results Lean cats had a greater mean total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0059), and a greater voluntary physical activity during light ( P = 0.0023) and dark ( P = 0.0446) periods, with overweight cats having 60% of the physical activity of lean cats. Lean cats were more active before feeding and during animal care procedures. These data suggest that lean cats have a greater anticipatory physical activity prior to feeding and are more eager to have social interaction with humans than overweight cats. A significant interaction was observed between day of physical activity measurement and BCS for total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0133) and activity during the light period ( P = 0.0016) where lean cats were consistently more active than overweight cats. In general, cats were more active during weekdays vs weekends. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that overweight cats are less active than lean cats and that voluntary physical activity level appears to be influenced by social interaction with humans.
Liccardi, Gennaro; Martín, Santiago; Lombardero, Manuel; D'Amato, Maria; Barber, Domingo; D'Amato, Gennaro; Cazzola, Mario
The relationship between pet ownership and the risk of developing respiratory allergic sensitization to pet allergens is still controversial. To determine the degree of cutaneous immediate hypersensitivity and the levels of specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies to cat allergen in cat sensitized patients directly or indirectly exposed to this animal. We studied 112 adolescents and adults sensitized to cat allergens (43 with and 69 without a cat at home). There were also 52 control subjects, 27 atopic non-sensitized to cat and 25 non-atopic. The degree of immediate hypersensitivity was assessed by using, in duplicate, skin prick test with four five-fold dilutions of cat hair allergen extract with the content of its major allergen Fel d 1 quantified in micrograms plus positive (10 mg/ml histamine chlorhydrate) and negative (saline solution) controls. The resulting wheal areas were analysed by means of Parallel Line Assay. A blood sample was collected from every patient and control subjects for the evaluation of serological cat specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies. Patients with cat at home had a lower cutaneous response than patients without this pet. The difference in the skin sensitivity was estimated in 3.4 times (Presponse to cat allergenic extract, assessed by SPT and compared with indirect exposure. In patients with cat at home mean levels of specific IgE are statistically comparable whereas the levels of IgG4 are higher in comparison with subjects not exposed to cats. The role of indirect exposure to cat allergens in airways sensitization also in adults is emphasized. Moreover, patients with cat at home show a cutaneous and serological sensitization to cat allergen not higher in comparison with subjects not exposed to cats.
Jensen, Ole B.
and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...
Askins, Bruce; Robinson, Kimberly
NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) successfully completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) in 2015, a major milestone on the journey to an unprecedented era of exploration for humanity. CDR formally marked the program's transition from design to production phase just four years after the program's inception and the first such milestone for a human launch vehicle in 40 years. While challenges typical of a complex development program lie ahead, CDR evaluators concluded that the design is technically and programmatically sound and ready to press forward to Design Certification Review (DCR) and readiness for launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in the 2018 timeframe. SLS is prudently based on existing propulsion systems, infrastructure and knowledge with a clear, evolutionary path as required by mission needs. In its initial configuration, designated Block I, SLS will a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO). It can evolve to a 130 t payload capacity by upgrading its engines, boosters, and upper stage, dramatically increasing the mass and volume of human and robotic exploration while decreasing mission risk, increasing safety, and simplifying ground and mission operations. CDR was the central programmatic accomplishment among many technical accomplishments that will be described in this paper. The government/industry SLS team successfully test fired a flight-like five-segment solid rocket motor, as well as seven hotfire development tests of the RS-25 core stage engine. The majority of the major test article and flight barrels, rings, and domes for the core stage liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen, engine section, intertank, and forward skirt were manufactured at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility. Renovations to the B-2 test stand for stage green run testing were completed at NASA Stennis Space Center. Core stage test stands are rising at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The modified Pegasus barge for core stage transportation from manufacturing
A NASA technician is dwarfed by the gigantic Third Stage (S-IVB) as it rests on supports in a facility at KSC. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.
Claire M. Cannon
Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.
Full Text Available A case of cryptococcosis in a cat refferred to the Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco is described. The cat was euthanized and the microscopic examination of a firm mass observed in the nasal cavity was accomplished. Cryptococcus sp. and a chronic inflammatory process was observed throughout the tissue.
Full Text Available ... More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Does Eating Turkey ... CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...
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Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren
The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…
Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist
Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)
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facilities were needed. Power, helium , nitrogen, communications, and water commodities were just some of the larger resources that needed to be validated...moving down a road required portable nitrogen, helium , and oxygen systems in addition to sustainable vehicle power. The sensitivity of this operation...atmosphere as past missions have sent the Upper stage on a collision orbit with the moon or the sun, but due to the remaining fuel on board and the lack of
Davis, Kyshia; Townsend, Wendy
To compare the tear-film osmolarity of normal cats and cats with conjunctivitis. The population consisted of shelter, research, and privately owned cats. Cats were classified as normal or having conjunctivitis. An ophthalmic examination including Schirmer tear test (STT), fluorescein staining, tear-film break-up time (TFBUT), intraocular pressure (IOP), and slit-lamp biomicroscopy of the anterior segment was performed. The severity of conjunctivitis was graded and assigned a numerical score. The Tear Lab(TM) Osmolarity System was utilized to determine the tear-film osmolarity. Unpaired t-tests were used to compare tear-film osmolarity, TFBUT, IOP, and STT of the two groups. A total of 93 cats (186 eyes) were examined. There were 37 normal cats (74 eyes) and 39 conjunctivitis cats (78 eyes). The mean age was 2.34 years. There was no statistical difference (P = 0.2065) between the median tear-film osmolarity of normal cats (328.5 ± 17.94 mOsms/L) and conjunctivitis cats (325.0 ± 24.84 mOsms/L). Cats with conjunctivitis had an accelerated TFBUT (P conjunctivitis did not cause a statistically significant change in tear-film osmolarity. The Tear Lab(TM) Osmolarity System was easily used and well tolerated by the cats in the study. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Hawthorne , CA), the primary new entrant in the NSS launch community, is now certified to provide some NSS space launches. SpaceX plans to develop more...interface, support systems, mission integration (includes mission unique requirements), flight instrumentation and range interfaces, special studies ...5 In response, DOD recognized the need to again reorganize the way it acquired launch services. Additional studies and internal reviews evaluated
Stahmann, James R.
Using the striking distance theory that lightning leaders will strike the nearest grounded point on their last jump to earth corresponding to the striking distance, the probability of striking a point on a structure in the presence of other points can be estimated. The lightning strokes are divided into deciles having an average peak current and striking distance. The striking distances are used as radii from the points to generate windows of approach through which the leader must pass to reach a designated point. The projections of the windows on a horizontal plane as they are rotated through all possible angles of approach define an area that can be multiplied by the decile stroke density to arrive at the probability of strokes with the window average striking distance. The sum of all decile probabilities gives the cumulative probability for all strokes. The techniques can be applied to NASA-Kennedy launch pad structures to estimate the lightning protection effectiveness for the crane, gaseous oxygen vent arm, and other points. Streamers from sharp points on the structure provide protection for surfaces having large radii of curvature. The effects of nearby structures can also be estimated.
Hornfeldt, C S; Westfall, M L
A 2 1/2-y-old spayed female cat was presented for lethargy and weakness. The cat was hypokalemic (3.1 m Eq K/L) and severely anemic (60% PVC, 1.3 g hemoglobin/dL). The cat was known to ingest bentonite-containing cat litter. It recovered with treatment of i.v. fluids, electrolytes and whole blood transfusion and was discharged. Two months later the cat was presented again with signs similar to those seen previously. This occurred 1 mo after the owner resumed the use of bentonite-containing cat litter. The signs were remarkably similar to those reported in humans from the chronic ingestion of bentonite clays. Bentonite toxicosis is suggested by the coexistence of hypokalemia hypochromic anemia in cats presented with lethargy and muscle weakness.
Simple Summary Living conditions in animal shelters can be stressful for cats. Clicker training might be able to alleviate this stress, by giving cats an opportunity to learn new behaviors and interact with humans. In this study, we assessed the initial ability of 100 shelter cats to perform four cued behaviors: touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five. Each cat completed 15, five-min training sessions over a two-week span. At the end of the program, we assessed the cats’ ability to perform the same behaviors. On average, the cats performed better on all four behaviors after clicker training, suggesting that the cats could learn to perform specific behaviors on cue. Individual cats with a higher level of interest in food showed greater gains in learning for two of the behaviors (high-five and touching a target). Cats with a bolder temperament at post-assessment demonstrated greater gains in learning than those classified as shy. We suggest that clicker training can be used to enhance cats’ well-being while they are housed in shelters, and that the learned behaviors might make them more desirable to adopters. Abstract Clicker training has the potential to mitigate stress among shelter cats by providing environmental enrichment and human interaction. This study assessed the ability of cats housed in a shelter-like setting to learn new behaviors via clicker training in a limited amount of time. One hundred shelter cats were enrolled in the study. Their baseline ability to perform four specific behaviors touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five was assessed, before exposing them to 15, five-min clicker training sessions, followed by a post-training assessment. Significant gains in performance scores were found for all four cued behaviors after training (p = 0.001). A cat’s age and sex did not have any effect on successful learning, but increased food motivation was correlated with greater gains in learning for two of the
Walker, Jessica K.; Bruce, Stephanie J.; Dale, Arnja R.
Simple Summary The need to balance the benefits of cat ownership with the prevention of wildlife predation in New Zealand evokes strong and opposing views. This paper evaluates public concern for wildlife predation by four categories of cats; owned cats, managed-stray cats, unmanaged-stray cats, and feral cats. In addition, public support for a National Cat Management Strategy and a range of management techniques are investigated. Although the participants expressed concern regarding wildlife predation by all four categories of cats, the highest levels of concern were predation by feral cats, followed by unmanaged stray cats, then managed stray cats, and finally owned cats. The large majority of participants were found to support the implementation of a National Cat Management Strategy. Management techniques for owned cats that obtained public support included; cat exclusion zones, limits on ownership numbers, microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing. Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) was the favoured management technique for managed stray cats, while TNR and lethal management techniques were equally favoured for unmanaged stray cats. Lethal control methods were favoured for feral cats. The findings presented in this paper will be useful to consider during the development of legislation relating to cat management and predation in New Zealand. Abstract Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively
Springer, D. A.
In order to reduce costs and accelerate vehicle turnaround, a single automated system will be developed to support shuttle launch site operations, replacing a multiplicity of systems used in previous programs. The Launch Processing System will provide real-time control, data analysis, and information display for the checkout, servicing, launch, landing, and refurbishment of the launch vehicles, payloads, and all ground support systems. It will also provide real-time and historical data retrieval for management and sustaining engineering (test records and procedures, logistics, configuration control, scheduling, etc.).
Bruce Buckingham from NASA Public Affairs introduces the panel who consist of: John Shannon, MMT chairman JSC; Mike Leinbach, NASA Launch Director; and 1st Lieutenant Kaleb Nordren, USAF 45th Weather Squadron. An opening statement is given from John Shannon on the postponement of the launch due to thunderstorms. Mike Leinbach also elaborates on the weather and talks about scrubbing two hours early, draining the vehicle, and reloading the hydrogen for the fuel cells for a possible launch attempt on Tuesday morning. Norden gives his weather forecast for Tuesday and Wednesday. Questions from the media on launch attempts, weather, and the cost of the scrub are addressed.
Driscoll, Carlos A.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L.; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E.; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H.; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C.; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Macdonald, David W.
The world’s domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors—Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)—indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance. PMID:17600185
Bijsmans, E S; Jepson, R E; Chang, Y M; Syme, H M; Elliott, J
Hypertension is a common problem in older cats, most often associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cross-sectional studies have suggested that blood pressure in cats increases with age. To determine whether blood pressure in cats increases with age and whether this occurs independently of the presence of CKD. To investigate risk factors for developing hypertension. Two hundred and sixty-five cats with CKD and 133 healthy cats ≥9 years were retrospectively identified. Four groups were created according to status at initial evaluation (CKD or healthy) and blood pressure at the last included visit (normotensive [NT] or developed hypertension [DH]): Healthy-NT, Healthy-DH, CKD-NT and CKD-DH. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) over time slopes were compared with 0 and between groups. Risk factors for the development of hypertension were investigated, and associations of biochemical and clinical variables with SBP were examined. Cats that were hypertensive at CKD diagnosis (n = 105) were not included in further analyses. Twenty-seven cats with CKD and 9 healthy cats developed hypertension ≥3 months after diagnosis of CKD or their first visit. Systolic blood pressure significantly increased with age in all cats (P cats were at less risk than cats with CKD to become hypertensive (hazard ratio 0.2, P cats in this study shows the importance of monitoring of SBP in elderly cats, and in particular in cats with CKD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Dorn, Elisabeth S; Tress, Barbara; Suchodolski, Jan S; Nisar, Tariq; Ravindran, Prajesh; Weber, Karin; Hartmann, Katrin; Schulz, Bianka S
Traditionally, changes in the microbial population of the nose have been assessed using conventional culture techniques. Sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the human nose is inhabited by a rich and diverse bacterial microbiome that cannot be detected using culture-based methods. The goal of this study was to describe the nasal microbiome of healthy cats, cats with nasal neoplasia, and cats with feline upper respiratory tract disease (FURTD). DNA was extracted from nasal swabs of healthy cats (n = 28), cats with nasal neoplasia (n = 16), and cats with FURTD (n = 15), and 16S rRNA genes were sequenced. High species richness was observed in all samples. Rarefaction analysis revealed that healthy cats living indoors had greater species richness (observed species p = 0.042) and Shannon diversity (p = 0.003) compared with healthy cats living outdoors. Higher species richness (observed species p = 0.001) and Shannon diversity (pcats in comparison to healthy cats in different age groups. Principal coordinate analysis revealed separate clustering based on similarities in bacterial molecular phylogenetic trees of 16S rRNA genes for indoor and outdoor cats. In all groups examined, the most abundant phyla identified were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. At the genus level, 375 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. In healthy cats and cats with FURTD, Moraxella spp. was the most common genus, while it was unclassified Bradyrhizobiaceae in cats with nasal neoplasia. High individual variability was observed. This study demonstrates that the nose of cats is inhabited by much more variable and diverse microbial communities than previously shown. Future research in this field might help to develop new diagnostic tools to easily identify nasal microbial changes, relate them to certain disease processes, and help clinicians in the decision process of antibiotic selection for individual patients.
Snoddy, Jimmy R.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Cook, Stephen A.
The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration (January 2004) serves as the foundation for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) strategic goals and objectives. As the NASA Administrator outlined during his confirmation hearing in April 2005, these include: 1) Flying the Space Shuttle as safely as possible until its retirement, not later than 2010. 2) Bringing a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into service as soon as possible after Shuttle retirement. 3) Developing a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics at NASA, consistent with the redirection of the human space flight program to focus on exploration. 4) Completing the International Space Station (ISS) in a manner consistent with international partner commitments and the needs of human exploration. 5) Encouraging the pursuit of appropriate partnerships with the emerging commercial space sector. 6) Establishing a lunar return program having the maximum possible utility for later missions to Mars and other destinations. In spring 2005, the Agency commissioned a team of aerospace subject matter experts to perform the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS). The ESAS team performed in-depth evaluations of a number of space transportation architectures and provided recommendations based on their findings? The ESAS analysis focused on a human-rated Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) for astronaut transport and a heavy lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) to carry equipment, materials, and supplies for lunar missions and, later, the first human journeys to Mars. After several months of intense study utilizing safety and reliability, technical performance, budget, and schedule figures of merit in relation to design reference missions, the ESAS design options were unveiled in summer 2005. As part of NASA's systems engineering approach, these point of departure architectures have been refined through trade studies during the ongoing design phase leading to the development phase that
Beckwith-Cohen, Billie; Teixeira, Leandro B C; Dubielzig, Richard R
Following unilateral enucleation, 4 Domestic Shorthair cats with an average age of 12.5 years (range: 9-16 years) were histologically diagnosed with a presumed primary intraocular chondrosarcoma at the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin (Madison, Wisconsin). Medical records and follow-up were available for 3 of the 4 cats. Clinically, only 1 eye was affected in each cat; a mass lesion was noted in 2 cats, and a neoplasm was suspected in the other 2 cats. Grossly, 3 tumors presented as coalescing, poorly demarcated, white, friable masses filling the vitreous and intraocular chambers; 1 tumor presented as a solitary, well-demarcated, tan mass involving the iris and ciliary body. Histologically, all 4 neoplasms were composed of haphazardly arranged plump neoplastic spindle cells surrounded by irregular islands and thick trabeculae of abundant, variably basophilic, and Alcian blue-positive chondromatous matrix. None of the cats presented histologically or clinically with signs suggestive of feline posttraumatic ocular sarcoma. Two cats are still alive and healthy 6 months and 3 years following enucleation. One cat died 6 months following enucleation; however, this cat suffered from poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, and the cause of death is undetermined. No other tumors or skeletal lesions were identified that could suggest a metastatic tumor to the eye. The origin of primary intraocular chondrosarcoma is unclear, but is presumed to be ocular multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Four cases of intraocular chondrosarcoma in cats not associated with the posttraumatic sarcoma complex of intraocular tumors are described. © 2014 The Author(s).
Beckwith-Cohen, B; Dubielzig, R R; Maggs, D J; Teixeira, L B C
Mast cell infiltration occurs in malignant, inflammatory (eg, allergic, infectious), and idiopathic disease processes in humans and animals. Here, we describe the clinical and histological features of a unique proliferative conjunctivitis occurring in 15 cats. Ocular specimens were examined histologically, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) was performed on ocular tissues obtained from 10 cats. Cats had a median age of 8 years (range: 7 months-17.5 years). The known median duration of ocular lesions prior to biopsy was 4 months (range: 1 week-3 years). Ocular disease was unilateral in 12 cats, and 9 cats had coexisting corneal disease. Clinically and histologically, proliferative or nodular conjunctival lesions were noted in 13 cats. The nictitating membrane was affected in 10 cats. Histologically, lesions were characterized by mixed inflammatory infiltrates with an abundance of Giemsa-positive and toluidine blue-positive intraepithelial and subepithelial mast cells, marked edema, and papillary epithelial hyperplasia. Feline herpesvirus 1 was demonstrated by PCR in 1 of 10 cats tested. Follow-up information was available for 14 cats: 8 had no recurrence during a median follow-up period of 17.5 months (range: 4.5-30 months), 2 underwent orbital exenteration, 3 had recurrence that was medically managed, and 1 cat had diffuse conjunctivitis at the time of biopsy and recurrence was deemed irrelevant. Various ocular medications were administered before and after surgical biopsy. This condition was designated as feline epitheliotropic mastocytic conjunctivitis, with intraepithelial mast cells being an essential feature and papillary epithelial proliferation being characteristic but not diagnostic alone. The condition appears to be uncommon and benign. Although the cause is unknown, an allergic component is possible.
Leung, Martin S. K.; Calise, Anthony J.
This paper evaluates a proposed hybrid analytical/numerical approach to launch-vehicle guidance for ascent to orbit injection. The feedback-guidance approach is based on a piecewise nearly analytic zero-order solution evaluated using a collocation method. The zero-order solution is then improved through a regular perturbation analysis, wherein the neglected dynamics are corrected in the first-order term. For real-time implementation, the guidance approach requires solving a set of small dimension nonlinear algebraic equations and performing quadrature. Assessment of performance and reliability are carried out through closed-loop simulation for a vertically launched 2-stage heavy-lift capacity vehicle to a low earth orbit. The solutions are compared with optimal solutions generated from a multiple shooting code. In the example the guidance approach delivers over 99.9 percent of optimal performance and terminal constraint accuracy.
Health visitors need time out from their routine workload and encouragement from managers to reflect on their role in relation to their clients' needs. This is particularly important in times of great change. Stevie Holland describes how the new HVA open learning packs, to be re-launched in September, can help this process, and how practitioners can use them to gain further professional and academic qualifications through the credit accumulation and transfer scheme.
KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Endeavour rolls out of the Orbiter Processing Facility to begin the next stage of launch preparation: stacking with the external tank and solid rocket boosters. Endeavour is scheduled to be launched Nov. 29 on mission STS-108. The 11-day mission will carry the replacement Expedition 4 crew to the International Space Station as well as the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, filled with supplies and equipment.
Richards, B. R.; Ferguson, M.; Fenn, P. D.
require the benefits inherent in a mobile platform. In this regard Pegasus is no different from a ground- launched vehicle in that it repeatedly launches from a fixed location at each range, albeit a location that is not on land. However, Pegasus can also offer services that avoid many of the restrictions inherent in being constrained to a particular launch site, few of which are trivial. They include inclination restrictions, large plane changes required to achieve low inclination orbits from high latitude launch sites, politically inopportune launch locations, and low frequency launch opportunities for missions that require phasing. Pegasus has repeatedly demonstrated this flexibility through the course of 31 flights, including 17 consecutive successes dating back to 1996, originating from seven different locations around the world including two outside the United States. Recently, Pegasus launched NASA's HETE-2 satellite in an operation that included satellite integration and vehicle mate in California, pre-launch staging operations from Kwajalein Island in the South Pacific, and launch operations controlled from over 7000 miles away in Florida. Pegasus has also used the Canary Islands as a launch point with the associated control room in Spain, and Florida as a launch point for a mission controlled from Virginia. This paper discusses the operational uniqueness of the Pegasus launch vehicle and the activities associated with establishing low-cost, flexible-inclination, low-risk launch operations that utilize Pegasus' greatest asset: its mobility.
Shaw, Eric J.; Greenberg, Joel
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated its Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Technology Program to provide information on the technical and commercial feasibility of single-stage to orbit (SSTO), fully-reusable launchers. Because RLVs would not depend on expendable hardware to achieve orbit, they could take better advantage of economies of scale than expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) that discard costly hardware on ascent. The X-33 experimental vehicle, a sub-orbital, 60%-scale prototype of Lockheed Martin's VentureStar SSTO RLV concept, is being built by Skunk Works for a 1999 first flight. If RLVs achieve prices to low-earth orbit of less than $1000 US per pound, they could hold promise for eliciting an elastic response from the launch services market. As opposed to the capture of existing market, this elastic market would represent new space-based industry businesses. These new opportunities would be created from the next tier of business concepts, such as space manufacturing and satellite servicing, that cannot earn a profit at today's launch prices but could when enabled by lower launch costs. New business creation contributes benefits to the US Government (USG) and the US economy through increases in tax revenues and employment. Assumptions about the costs and revenues of these new ventures, based on existing space-based and aeronautics sector businesses, can be used to estimate the macroeconomic benefits provided by new businesses. This paper examines these benefits and the flight prices and rates that may be required to enable these new space industries.
Motiwala, Samira A.; Mathias, Donovan L.; Mattenberger, Christopher J.
One of the most challenging aspects of developing human space launch and exploration systems is minimizing and mitigating the many potential risk factors to ensure the safest possible design while also meeting the required cost, weight, and performance criteria. In order to accomplish this, effective risk analyses and trade studies are needed to identify key risk drivers, dependencies, and sensitivities as the design evolves. The Engineering Risk Assessment (ERA) team at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) develops advanced risk analysis approaches, models, and tools to provide such meaningful risk and reliability data throughout vehicle development. The goal of the project presented in this memorandum is to design a generic launch 7 vehicle and spacecraft architecture that can be used to develop and demonstrate these new risk analysis techniques without relying on other proprietary or sensitive vehicle designs. To accomplish this, initial spacecraft and launch vehicle (LV) designs were established using historical sizing relationships for a mission delivering four crewmembers and equipment to the International Space Station (ISS). Mass-estimating relationships (MERs) were used to size the crew capsule and launch vehicle, and a combination of optimization techniques and iterative design processes were employed to determine a possible two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) launch trajectory into a 350-kilometer orbit. Primary subsystems were also designed for the crewed capsule architecture, based on a 24-hour on-orbit mission with a 7-day contingency. Safety analysis was also performed to identify major risks to crew survivability and assess the system's overall reliability. These procedures and analyses validate that the architecture's basic design and performance are reasonable to be used for risk trade studies. While the vehicle designs presented are not intended to represent a viable architecture, they will provide a valuable initial platform for developing and demonstrating
Robinson, Kimberly F.; Norris, George
Designed for human exploration missions into deep space, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) represents a new spaceflight infrastructure asset, enabling a wide variety of unique utilization opportunities. While primarily focused on launching the large systems needed for crewed spaceflight beyond Earth orbit, SLS also offers a game-changing capability for the deployment of small satellites to deep-space destinations, beginning with its first flight. Currently, SLS is making rapid progress toward readiness for its first launch in two years, using the initial configuration of the vehicle, which is capable of delivering 70 metric tons (t) to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). On its first flight test of the Orion spacecraft around the moon, accompanying Orion on SLS will be small-satellite secondary payloads, which will deploy in cislunar space. The deployment berths are sized for "6U" CubeSats, and on EM-1 the spacecraft will be deployed into cislunar space following Orion separate from the SLS Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage. Payloads in 6U class will be limited to 14 kg maximum mass. Secondary payloads on EM-1 will be launched in the Orion Stage Adapter (OSA). Payload dispensers will be mounted on specially designed brackets, each attached to the interior wall of the OSA. For the EM-1 mission, a total of fourteen brackets will be installed, allowing for thirteen payload locations. The final location will be used for mounting an avionics unit, which will include a battery and sequencer for executing the mission deployment sequence. Following the launch of EM-1, deployments of the secondary payloads will commence after sufficient separation of the Orion spacecraft to the upper stage vehicle to minimize any possible contact of the deployed CubeSats to Orion. Currently this is estimated to require approximately 4 hours. The allowed deployment window for the CubeSats will be from the time the upper stage disposal maneuvers are complete to up to 10 days after launch. The upper stage
Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim
Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....
Luteijn, Johannes Michiel; Morris, Joan K; Garne, Ester
CAT database data for 14 950 malformed foetuses/babies with first trimester medication exposures in 1995-2011 were analyzed. The odds of a specific medication exposure (coded according to chemical substance or subgroup) for a specific anomaly were compared with the odds of that exposure for all other anomalies...... for 40 385 medication anomaly combinations in the data. Simes multiple testing procedure with a 50% false discovery rate (FDR) identified associations least likely to be due to chance and those associations with more than two cases with the exposure and the anomaly were selected for further investigation....... The methodology was evaluated by considering the detection of well-known teratogens. RESULTS: The most common exposures were genitourinary system medications and sex hormones (35.2%), nervous system medications (28.0%) and anti-infectives for systemic use (25.7%). Fifty-two specific medication anomaly...
Cazalot, G; Regnier, A; Deviers, A; Serra, F; Lucas, M N; Etienne, C L; Letron, I Raymond
A 10 year-old castrated male Domestic Short-hair cat with a history of chronic bilateral keratitis was referred for assessment of a red, elevated mass involving the left cornea. The rapid growth of the mass, over a month period in combination with pronounced vascularization and invasion of the corneal surface suggested an aggressive inflammatory or neoplastic process. Following keratectomy, the lesion was diagnosed histopathologically as a hemangiosarcoma. The tumor recurred locally within 3 weeks and enucleation was performed. Histopathologic examination of the globe confirmed the diagnosis and did not reveal infiltration of the limbus and conjunctiva. No signs of local recurrence or metastatic disease have been observed 18 months following enucleation. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case of primary corneal hemangiosarcoma described in the feline species. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Vandervort, Robert E. (Inventor)
A system, method, and apparatus for a vented launch vehicle adaptor (LVA) for a manned spacecraft with a "pusher" launch abort system are disclosed. The disclosed LVA provides a structural interface between a commercial crew vehicle (CCV) crew module/service module (CM/SM) spacecraft and an expendable launch vehicle. The LVA provides structural attachment of the module to the launch vehicle. It also provides a means to control the exhaust plume from a pusher-type launch abort system that is integrated into the module. In case of an on-pad or ascent abort, which requires the module to jettison away from the launch vehicle, the launch abort system exhaust plume must be safely directed away from critical and dangerous portions of the launch vehicle in order to achieve a safe and successful jettison.
Nijsse, R; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A; Mughini-Gras, L
The prevalence of and risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs in cats older than 6 months were determined by examining 670 faecal samples collected in 4 cross-sectional studies in the Netherlands. Additionally, cat owners provided information on their attitude towards routine deworming. Samples were examined using the centrifugal sedimentation flotation method. Overall Toxocara prevalence was 7.2 %. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that young age and living in rural areas were significant risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs. Moreover, the more time a cat was allowed to roam outdoors, the higher was its risk to shed Toxocara as compared to cats with no outdoor access at all. For 199 cats (81.6 % of cats subjected to a deworming regimen) owners provided the reason for treatment. The main reason for routine deworming (80.4 %) concerned the cat's health and only 10.6 % of the cats were treated for public health reasons. Moreover, the generally advocated four-times-a-year deworming advice was applied on only 24.5 % of cats. We concluded that free roaming is a key factor in the acquisition of patent Toxocara infections leading to the environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs. Additionally, the knowledge of cat owners is still insufficient to expect them to make sound decisions on routine deworming.
Kasch, Cindy; Haimerl, Peggy; Heuwieser, Wolfgang; Arlt, Sebastian
Five steps have been recommended to provide evidence-based patient care: formulating a clinical question, searching for literature, evaluating the validity and applicability of results, implementing results into practice, and assessing if the new evidence has led to improved health care. Students can be trained in these steps by the development of knowledge summaries such as critically appraised topics (CATs). The aim of the present project was the development, use, and evaluation of a German-language CAT database and an appraisal of the quality of CATs developed by students. A total of 153 fifth-year veterinary medical students (in 21 groups) were enrolled in the project. Each group developed a CAT and most students participated in a survey. To learn more about the quality of the CATs, we asked experts to appraise the texts written by the students. The CATs were indexed with key words and assigned to specific fields corresponding to the European Colleges of Veterinary Specialisation. Currently, 57 CATs have been developed. The majority of students stated that writing CATs is a good exercise and that "it is important to teach the assessment of scientific information." In total, 13 experts completed the questionnaires, out of which 9 graded the CAT they appraised as good. In addition to English-language CAT databases, German tools should also be available for students and practitioners.
O V Verkhodanov
Full Text Available We describe the current status of CATS (astrophysical CATalogs Support system, a publicly accessible tool maintained at Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS (http://cats.sao.ru allowing one to search hundreds of catalogs of astronomical objects discovered all along the electromagnetic spectrum. Our emphasis is mainly on catalogs of radio continuum sources observed from 10 MHz to 245 GHz, and secondly on catalogs of objects such as radio and active stars, X-ray binaries, planetary nebulae, HII regions, supernova remnants, pulsars, nearby and radio galaxies, AGN and quasars. CATS also includes the catalogs from the largest extragalactic surveys with non-radio waves. In 2008 CATS comprised a total of about 109 records from over 400 catalogs in the radio, IR, optical and X-ray windows, including most source catalogs deriving from observations with the Russian radio telescope RATAN-600. CATS offers several search tools through different ways of access, e.g. via Web-interface and e-mail. Since its creation in 1997 CATS has managed about 105requests. Currently CATS is used by external users about 1500 times per day and since its opening to the public in 1997 has received about 4000 requests for its selection and matching tasks.
Ferrone, Kristine; Nguyen, Lori T.
In developing a mission strategy for interplanetary travel, the first step is to consider launch capabilities which provide the basis for fundamental parameters of the mission. This investigation focuses on the numerous launch vehicles of various characteristics available and in development internationally with respect to upmass, launch site, payload shroud size, fuel type, cost, and launch frequency. This presentation will describe launch vehicles available and in development worldwide, then carefully detail a selection process for choosing appropriate vehicles for interplanetary missions focusing on international collaboration, risk management, and minimization of cost. The vehicles that fit the established criteria will be discussed in detail with emphasis on the specifications and limitations related to interplanetary travel. The final menu of options will include recommendations for overall mission design and strategy.
Arockiam, Nicole; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen
With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA is seeking to reinvigorate the national space program and recapture the public s interest in human space exploration by developing missions to the Moon, near-earth asteroids, Lagrange points, Mars, and beyond. The would-be successor to the Space Shuttle, NASA s Constellation Program, planned to take humans back to the Moon by 2020, but due to budgetary constraints was cancelled in 2010 in search of a more "affordable, sustainable, and realistic" concept2. Following a number of studies, the much anticipated Space Launch System (SLS) was unveiled in September of 2011. The SLS core architecture consists of a cryogenic first stage with five Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs), and a cryogenic second stage using a new J-2X engine3. The baseline configuration employs two 5-segment solid rocket boosters to achieve a 70 metric ton payload capability, but a new, more capable booster system will be required to attain the goal of 130 metric tons to orbit. To this end, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center recently released a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) entitled "Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction." The increased emphasis on affordability is evident in the language used in the NRA, which is focused on risk reduction "leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS" and "enabling competition" to "enhance SLS affordability. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to perform an independent assessment of the elements that make up an affordable and realistic path forward for the SLS booster system, utilizing advanced design methods and technology evaluation techniques. The goal is to identify elements that will enable a more sustainable development program by exploring the trade space of heavy lift booster systems and focusing on affordability, operability, and reliability at the system and subsystem levels5. For this study
Must, Kärt; Hytönen, Marjo K; Orro, Toomas; Lohi, Hannes; Jokelainen, Pikka
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is relevant for veterinary and public health. The domestic cat, the definitive host species with the largest worldwide population, has become evolutionarily and epidemiologically the most important host of T. gondii. The outcome of T. gondii infection is influenced by congenital and acquired host characteristics. We detected differences in T. gondii seroprevalence by cat breed in our previous studies. The aims of this study were to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence in selected domestic cat breeds, and to evaluate whether being of a certain breed is associated with T. gondii seropositivity, when the age and lifestyle of the cat are taken into account. The studied breeds were the Birman, British Shorthair, Burmese, Korat, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ocicat, Persian, and Siamese. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with a commercial direct agglutination test at dilution 1:40. The samples were accompanied by owner-completed questionnaires that provided background data on the cats. Overall, 41.12% of the 1121 cats tested seropositive, and the seroprevalence increased with age. The Burmese had the lowest seroprevalence (18.82%) and the Persian had the highest (60.00%). According to the final multivariable logistic regression model, the odds to test seropositive were four to seven times higher in Birmans, Ocicats, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Persians when compared with the Burmese, while older age and receiving raw meat were also risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. This study showed that T. gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed and identified being of certain breeds, older age, and receiving raw meat as risk factors for seropositivity.
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0093 TITLE: The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Carpenter, MD RECIPIENT...Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0093 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Laura Carpenter...provides a description of the Year 2 progress made and plans for Year 3 for the project entitled “The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS).” The goal of
Walknowska, J; Peakman, D; Weleber, R G
Using multiple chromosomal banding techniques, we studied a child with typical cat-eye syndrome and ocular retraction syndrome. Although the mother was was chromosomally normal, other maternal relatives showed features of the cat-eye syndrome, suggesting the basic abnormality is heritable. The abnormal chromosome in our case was most likely the product of reciprocal translocation where short arm plus centromeric chromatin from two separate acrocentric chromosomes fused together. The chromosomes involved were probably No. 22 and either Nos. 13 or 14. The basic underlying defect in cat-eye syndrome may be a heritable fragile site or some other predisposition leading to complex chromosomal interchange.
Gaschen, Frédéric P; Merchant, Sandra R
Adverse food reactions (AFR) are a common problem that may cause cutaneous and/or gastrointestinal signs in dogs and cats. They comprise food intolerance, food intoxication, and food allergy. Response to a dietary elimination trial and recurrence of signs during dietary provocation remain the centerpiece of diagnosis and management of dogs and cats with AFR. Response to an elimination trial is frequently observed in dogs and cats with chronic idiopathic enteropathies. However, only a fraction of them relapse after a dietary challenge. These animals may have mild to enteritis and/or colitis and benefit from various additional properties of the elimination diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ginn, Jennifer A; Kumar, M S A; McKiernan, Brendan C; Powers, Barbara E
This retrospective study reports the presence and incidence of nasal turbinates in the nasopharynx (nasopharyngeal turbinates) in a population of brachycephalic dogs and cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease. Medical records were reviewed for 53 brachycephalic dogs and 10 brachycephalic cats undergoing upper airway endoscopy. Nasopharyngeal turbinates were identified in 21% of brachycephalic animals, including 21% of dogs and 20% of cats. Pugs accounted for 32% of all dogs in the study population and 82% of dogs with nasopharyngeal turbinates. The presence of nasopharyngeal turbinates may play a role in upper airway obstruction in the brachycephalic airway syndrome.
Wensman, Jonas Johansson; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin; Holst, Bodil Ström; Berg, Mikael
Bornaviruses are known to cause neurological disorders in a number of animal species. Avian Bornavirus (ABV) causes proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in birds and Borna disease virus (BDV) causes Borna disease in horses and sheep. BDV also causes staggering disease in cats, characterised by ataxia, behavioural changes and loss of postural reactions. BDV-infection markers in cats have been reported throughout the world. This review summarizes the current knowledge of Borna disease viruses in cats, including etiological agent, clinical signs, pathogenesis, epidemiology and diagnostics, with comparisons to Bornavirus infections in other species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martell-Moran, Nicole K; Solano, Mauricio; Townsend, Hugh Gg
Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the impact of onychectomy (declawing) upon subsequent development of back pain and unwanted behavior in cohorts of treated and control cats housed in two different locations. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study. In total, there was 137 declawed and 137 non-declawed cats, of which 176 were owned cats (88 declawed, 88 non-declawed) and 98 were shelter cats (49 declawed and 49 non-declawed). All cats were physically examined for signs of pain and barbering. The previous 2 years of medical history were reviewed for documented unwanted behavior such as inappropriate elimination and biting with minimal provocation and aggression. All declawed cats were radiographed for distal limb abnormalities, including P3 (third phalanx) bone fragments. The associations of declaw surgery with the outcomes of interest were examined using χ 2 analysis, two sample t-tests and manual, backwards, stepwise logistic regression. Results Significant increases in the odds of back pain (odds ratio [OR] 2.9), periuria/perichezia (OR 7.2), biting (OR 4.5) and barbering (OR 3.06) occurred in declawed compared with control cats. Of the 137 declawed cats, 86 (63%) showed radiographic evidence of residual P3 fragments. The odds of back pain (OR 2.66), periuria/perichezia (OR 2.52) and aggression (OR 8.9) were significantly increased in declawed cats with retained P3 fragments compared with those declawed cats without. Optimal surgical technique, with removal of P3 in its entirety, was associated with fewer adverse outcomes and lower odds of these outcomes, but operated animals remained at increased odds of biting (OR 3.0) and undesirable habits of elimination (OR 4.0) compared with non-surgical controls. Conclusions and relevance Declawing cats increases the risk of unwanted behaviors and may increase risk for developing back pain. Evidence of inadequate surgical technique was common in the study population. Among declawed cats, retained P3
Linde-Sipman, J.S. van der; Inch, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Nes, J.J. van; Verhagen, H.; Kersten, J.G.T.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Plekkringa, R.
In April 1996, an outbreak of toxic polyneuropathy in cats occurred in the Netherlands. All cats had been fed one of two brands of dry cat food from one manufacturer. Chemical analyses of these foods, stomach contents, and liver and kidney of affected cats revealed contamination with the ionophor
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cat urine odour extract on rodent pest species to reduce crop losses. Cat urine from the captured cats was drawn using cat catcher. Urinary catheter was inserted into the urethra up to the urinary bladder and a syringe attached to the urinary catheter was used to draw ...
Butt, Adam; Popp, Chris G.; Pitts, Hank M.; Sharp, David J.
This paper provides an update of design status following the preliminary design review of NASA s Ares I first stage roll and upper stage reaction control systems. The Ares I launch vehicle has been chosen to return humans to the moon, mars, and beyond. It consists of a first stage five segment solid rocket booster and an upper stage liquid bi-propellant J-2X engine. Similar to many launch vehicles, the Ares I has reaction control systems used to provide the vehicle with three degrees of freedom stabilization during the mission. During launch, the first stage roll control system will provide the Ares I with the ability to counteract induced roll torque. After first stage booster separation, the upper stage reaction control system will provide the upper stage element with three degrees of freedom control as needed. Trade studies and design assessments conducted on the roll and reaction control systems include: propellant selection, thruster arrangement, pressurization system configuration, and system component trades. Since successful completion of the preliminary design review, work has progressed towards the critical design review with accomplishments made in the following areas: pressurant / propellant tank, thruster assembly, and other component configurations, as well as thruster module design, and waterhammer mitigation approach. Also, results from early development testing are discussed along with plans for upcoming system testing. This paper concludes by summarizing the process of down selecting to the current baseline configuration for the Ares I roll and reaction control systems.
McCauley, R.; Davidson, J.; Gonzalez, Guillermo
This paper will present an overview of the flight test objectives and performance of the Orion Launch Abort System during Exploration Flight Test-1. Exploration Flight Test-1, the first flight test of the Orion spacecraft, was managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. This flight test was a two-orbit, high-apogee, high-energy entry, low-inclination test mission used to validate and test systems critical to crew safety. This test included the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. NASA is currently designing and testing the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Orion will serve as NASA's new exploration vehicle to carry astronauts to deep space destinations and safely return them to earth. The Orion spacecraft is composed of four main elements: the Launch Abort System, the Crew Module, the Service Module, and the Spacecraft Adapter (Fig. 1). The Launch Abort System (LAS) provides two functions; during nominal launches, the LAS provides protection for the Crew Module from atmospheric loads and heating during first stage flight and during emergencies provides a reliable abort capability for aborts that occur within the atmosphere. The Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) consists of an Abort Motor to provide the abort separation from the Launch Vehicle, an Attitude Control Motor to provide attitude and rate control, and a Jettison Motor for crew module to LAS separation (Fig. 2). The jettison motor is used during a nominal launch to separate the LAS from the Launch Vehicle (LV) early in the flight of the second stage when it is no longer needed for aborts and at the end of an LAS abort sequence to enable deployment of the crew module's Landing Recovery System. The LAS also provides a Boost Protective Cover fairing that shields the crew module from debris and the aero-thermal environment during ascent. Although the
Novack, Steven D.; Rogers, Jim; Hark, Frank; Al Hassan, Mohammad
NASA Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has the task of estimating the aleatory (randomness) and epistemic (lack of knowledge) uncertainty of launch vehicle loss of mission and crew risk and communicating the results. Launch vehicles are complex engineered systems designed with sophisticated subsystems that are built to work together to accomplish mission success. Some of these systems or subsystems are in the form of heritage equipment, while some have never been previously launched. For these cases, characterizing the epistemic uncertainty is of foremost importance, and it is anticipated that the epistemic uncertainty of a modified launch vehicle design versus a design of well understood heritage equipment would be greater. For reasons that will be discussed, standard uncertainty propagation methods using Monte Carlo simulation produce counter intuitive results and significantly underestimate epistemic uncertainty for launch vehicle models. Furthermore, standard PRA methods such as Uncertainty-Importance analyses used to identify components that are significant contributors to uncertainty are rendered obsolete since sensitivity to uncertainty changes are not reflected in propagation of uncertainty using Monte Carlo methods.This paper provides a basis of the uncertainty underestimation for complex systems and especially, due to nuances of launch vehicle logic, for launch vehicles. It then suggests several alternative methods for estimating uncertainty and provides examples of estimation results. Lastly, the paper shows how to implement an Uncertainty-Importance analysis using one alternative approach, describes the results, and suggests ways to reduce epistemic uncertainty by focusing on additional data or testing of selected components.
Rosenqvist, Maja Benedicte; Meilstrup, Ann-Katrine Helene; Larsen, Jesper
cats in different age groups. The presence was detected by a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay on blood samples as well as by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Results The study revealed a prevalence of 14.9% Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum positive cats and 1.5% Mycoplasma haemofelis...... positive cats. No cats were found positive for Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis. The results showed a statistically significant higher prevalence in older (>8 years) cats compared to younger cats and a higher prevalence among domestic cats compared to purebred cats. As part of this study, we developed...... a cloning strategy to obtain Danish positive controls of haemoplasma 16S rRNA. Conclusion From convenience-sampled cats in Denmark, we found that 16.4% were carriers of feline haemotropic mycoplasmas. Haemoplasma was mostly found in older and domestic cats. The prevalence found in Denmark is similar...
Sumrall, Phil; Morris, Bruce
NASA is designing the Ares V cargo launch vehicle to vastly expand exploration of the Moon begun in the Apollo program and enable the exploration of Mars and beyond. As the largest launcher in history, Ares V also represents a national asset offering unprecedented opportunities for new science, national security, and commercial missions of unmatched size and scope. The Ares V is the heavy-lift component of NASA's dual-launch architecture that will replace the current space shuttle fleet, complete the International Space Station, and establish a permanent human presence on the Moon as a stepping-stone to destinations beyond. During extensive independent and internal architecture and vehicle trade studies as part of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V to support future exploration. The smaller Ares I will launch the Orion crew exploration vehicle with four to six astronauts into orbit. The Ares V is designed to carry the Altair lunar lander into orbit, rendezvous with Orion, and send the mated spacecraft toward lunar orbit. The Ares V will be the largest and most powerful launch vehicle in history, providing unprecedented payload mass and volume to establish a permanent lunar outpost and explore significantly more of the lunar surface than was done during the Apollo missions. The Ares V consists of a Core Stage, two Reusable Solid Rocket Boosters (RSRBs), Earth Departure Stage (EDS), and a payload shroud. For lunar missions, the shroud would cover the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). The Ares V Core Stage is 33 feet in diameter and 212 feet in length, making it the largest rocket stage ever built. It is the same diameter as the Saturn V first stage, the S-IC. However, its length is about the same as the combined length of the Saturn V first and second stages. The Core Stage uses a cluster of five Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne RS-68B rocket engines, each supplying about 700,000 pounds of thrust
Dubourg, V.; Kainov, V.; Thoby, M.; Silkin, O.; Solovey, V.
The CNES Micro satellite DEMETER is planned for launch by the end of June 2004 on a DNEPR launcher, from the Baíkonur cosmodrome. DEMETER will be the main payload among nine co-passengers. DEMETER, initiated by CNES in 1998, is the first model of the MYRIADE micro satellites line of product; at the time when this abstract is issued, the satellite is going through the final integration tests, as well as the last system validation phase. The space head module of the launcher has been developed by the Ukrainian YSDO company, and a successful fit check test campaign has been performed in December 2003 and January 2004 that allowed confirming the compatibility of the payloads with their launcher interface. The launch campaign is in process of preparation, implying a close partnership between the satellite team at CNES and Russian and Ukrainian launcher authorities: DEMETER is a pioneer not only for the satellite concept itself, but also for being the first satellite of this range (3 axis stabilized, including an hydrazine propulsion system and developed by a national space agency) being launched on a Russian space adapted intercontinental ballistic missile SS18. The launch service is contracted and managed by ISC Kosmotras, and it will also be the first sun synchronous orbit launch for DNEPR. Thus the launch preparation proved to be a very challenging endeavour providing all the actors with very rich human experience, as well as technical exchanges, in the fields of launcher technology and interfaces, facilities adaptation, logistics and project coordination. In the coming paper, a short presentation of the DEMETER satellite and of the DNEPR launcher will be made, but the main purpose is to present: the launch campaign preparation milestones, the launch campaign itself and related preliminary results and the lessons learnt from this first CNES/DNEPR experience to open the way to the future MYRIADE launches. A common CNES/KOSMOTRAS presentation is proposed at the
Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Advanced Space Transportation Program has developed the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) technology that could give a space vehicle a running start to break free from Earth's gravity. A Magnetic Launch Assist system would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at speeds up to 600 mph. The vehicle would shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically propel a space vehicle along the track. The tabletop experimental track for the system shown in this photograph is 44-feet long, with 22-feet of powered acceleration and 22-feet of passive braking. A 10-pound carrier with permanent magnets on its sides swiftly glides by copper coils, producing a levitation force. The track uses a linear synchronous motor, which means the track is synchronized to turn the coils on just before the carrier comes in contact with them, and off once the carrier passes. Sensors are positioned on the side of the track to determine the carrier's position so the appropriate drive coils can be energized. MSFC engineers have conducted tests on the indoor track and a 50-foot outdoor track. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.
Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.
The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880
Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.
Dimopoulou, Maria; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Nielsen, Dorte Hald
Two three-month-old, intact female Abyssinian cats were presented with a history of lameness, constipation and ataxia. The cats had been fed a diet composed almost exclusively of meat. Both showed severe osteopenia and multiple pathological fractures on radiography. Following euthanasia of the more...... severely affected cat, postmortem examination revealed changes consistent with nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism and fibrous osteodystrophy, such as cortical thinning, massive connective tissue invasion in the diaphysis of long bones, and hypertrophy of the chief cells in both parathyroid glands....... After introducing a balanced commercial diet to the surviving cat, bone mineralisation improved from the baseline value, and at subsequent examinations at three, six and 22 weeks later, as indicated by bone mineral density measurements obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and compute tomography....
Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.
Contents: Cats are animals with highly efficient reproduction, clearly pointing to a need for suppression of fertility. Although surgical contraception is highly effective, it is not always the method of choice. This is predominantly because it is cost-intensive, time-consuming and irreversible......, with the latter being of major importance for cat breeders. This article reviews the use of progestins, scleroting agents, immunocontraception, melatonin, GnRH antagonists and finally, GnRH agonists, in adult male and female cats in detail, according to the present state of the art. By now, various scientific...... and clinical options are available for the suppression of fertility in adult cats and the decision as to which should be chosen - independent of the legal registration of any state - depends on different facts: (i) feral or privately owned animal? (ii) temporary or permanent suppression of fertility wanted...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A natural resource management plan describing the regulations and decision processes for sport hunting at Cat Island NWR. This plan has been replaced by a more...
Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao
BACKGROUND: The main two sorts of automatic gene annotation frameworks are ab initio and alignment-based, the latter splitting into two sub-groups. The first group is used for intra-species alignments, among which are successful ones with high specificity and speed. The other group contains more...... sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web...... at http://xat.sourceforge.net/. CONCLUSIONS: Examined from different angles, CAT outperforms other extant alignment tools. Tested against all available mouse-human and zebrafish-human orthologs, we demonstrate that CAT combines the specificity and speed of the best intra-species algorithms, like BLAT...
Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For ...
The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).
Cremaschi, Francesco; Winter, Sebastian; Rossi, Valerio; Wiegand, Andreas
The European Space Agency (ESA) is currently involved in several activities related to launch vehicle designs (Future Launcher Preparatory Program, Ariane 6, VEGA evolutions, etc.). Within these activities, ESA has identified the importance of developing a simulation infrastructure capable of supporting the multi-disciplinary design and preliminary guidance navigation and control (GNC) design of different launch vehicle configurations. Astos Solutions has developed the multi-disciplinary optimization and launcher GNC simulation and sizing tool (LGSST) under ESA contract. The functionality is integrated in the Analysis, Simulation and Trajectory Optimization Software for space applications (ASTOS) and is intended to be used from the early design phases up to phase B1 activities. ASTOS shall enable the user to perform detailed vehicle design tasks and assessment of GNC systems, covering all aspects of rapid configuration and scenario management, sizing of stages, trajectory-dependent estimation of structural masses, rigid and flexible body dynamics, navigation, guidance and control, worst case analysis, launch safety analysis, performance analysis, and reporting.
Kare, Jordin T.
The heat-exchanger (HX) thruster and modular laser array provide a comparatively low-risk route to a ground-to-orbit laser launch system. Recently, the reference designs for the propulsion system, laser array, and overall launch system have evolved significantly. By combining a variable flow of dense propellant with the primary hydrogen propellant, the heat exchanger thruster can trade reduced Isp for increased thrust at liftoff, with minimal increase in tank mass. Single-mode CW fiber lasers up to 10 kW power allow a beam module to be built with off-the-shelf commercial lasers. Low-cost high-radiance laser diode arrays can deliver launch-level fluxes of 5-10 MW/m2 over tens of kilometers, sufficient to power a vehicle through the atmosphere, and high enough to hand off propulsion to a main laser array several hundred kilometers downrange. These and other enhancements enable a system design with a true single-stage vehicle in which the only component not yet demonstrated is the silicon-carbide heat exchanger itself.
Liska, William D
To describe the surgical technique for the micro total hip replacement (Micro THR) system and report clinical outcomes. Prospective study. Dogs (n=49) and cats (n=8) with coxofemoral arthropathy. Small breed dogs and cats with coxofemoral arthritis were enrolled for Micro THR. Patient data were recorded. Implant positioning and cement mantle quality were evaluated radiographically. Orthopedic examinations and client interviews were used to assess outcome. Micro THR was performed unilaterally (40 dogs, 8 cats) and staged bilaterally (9 dogs) to resolve pain associated with osteoarthritis or trauma. Mean body weight was 7.2 kg. Postoperative complications included prosthesis luxation (9), cup aseptic loosening (1), and sciatic neurapraxia (1). Mean radiographic follow up was 96.1 weeks; 10 joints were followed for ≥3.0 years. Sixty of the 66 (91%) Micro THRs had excellent outcomes. Two dogs (dogs with unmanageable luxation had explantation. Micro THR is considered a satisfactory procedure for management of small breed dogs and cats with coxofemoral disease unresponsive to medical management. Micro THR is a viable option to treat disabling disorders of the hip. More than 170 cat and small dog breeds, and many mixed breeds, could benefit from Micro THR surgery. © Copyright 2010 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Mellanby, R J; Foale, R; Friend, E; Woodger, N; Herrtage, M E; Dobson, J D
A 12-year-old male neutered Siamese cat presented with a history of inappetance and lethargy and an enlarged left anal sac. The anal sac was surgically excised and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of anal sac adenocarcinoma. Perianal tumours are rare in the cat and anal sac adenocarcinoma has not been previously reported. This is in contrast to the dog where anal sac adenocarcinoma is a well recognised albeit uncommon tumour.
De Risio, Luisa; Fraser McConnell, James
This case report describes the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 3.5-year-old, male neutered, domestic shorthair cat with second order Horner's syndrome as the only clinical abnormality. The neuroanatomical pathway of the sympathetic innervation to the eye, differential diagnoses for Horner's syndrome in cats, and the interpretation of pharmacological testing are reviewed. The unusual MRI findings and the value of fat-suppressed MRI sequences are discussed.
Drolet, R; Bernard, J,
Plasma cell pododermatitis, an uncommon disease of unknown etiology, is described in a six year old male domestic short-haired cat. The cat was referred with a history of lameness associated with swelling, softness and ulceration of the foot pads. The history suggested a seasonal occurrence of the condition. The dermis and subcutis of the foot pads were infiltrated by inflammatory cells which were mainly plasma cells. The large number of plasma cells present in the lesions suggests an immunol...
Breuer, W; Hermanns, W
Gastritis in cats is caused, among other things, by infectious agents, like bacteria, metazoic parasites or viruses. Herpesvirus-gastritis has not as yet been documented in cats. Therefore in this paper such a case will be described. In this case the mucous membrane of the stomach shows multifocal acute necroses with evidence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells of the gastric glands. By means of electron microscopy the causative virus can be specified as herpesvirus.
Adronie Verbrugghe; Myriam Hesta
The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient ...
Larsen, Jennifer A
Surgical neutering is one of the most common procedures performed on pets in the USA among other countries. There are known effects of neutering on the physiology and behavior of the cat that predispose to obesity, which is the most significant sequela from a nutritional perspective. Increased food intake is the most likely factor influencing weight gain in the neutered cat. Proactively addressing these changes with nutritional management strategies can help prevent weight gain and associated negative consequences.
Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr
The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...
Matsumura, Eitaro; Sakai, Masashi; Hayashi, Katsuaki; Murakami, Shuichiro; Takenaka, Shinji; Aoki, Kenji
The aniline-assimilating bacterium Rhodococcus sp. AN-22 was found to constitutively synthesize CatB (cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerase) and CatC (muconolactone isomerase) in its cells growing on non-aromatic substrates, in addition to the previously reported CatA (catechol 1,2-dioxygenase). The bacterium maintained the specific activity of the three enzymes at an almost equal level during cultivation on succinate. CatB and CatC were purified to homogeneity and characterized. CatB was a monomer with a molecular mass of 44 kDa. The enzyme was activated by Mn2+, Co2+ and Mg2+. Native CatC was a homo-octamer with a molecular mass of 100 kDa. The enzyme was stable between pH 7.0 and 10.5 and was resistant to heating up to 90 °C. Genes coding for CatA, CatB and CatC were cloned and named catA, catB and catC respectively. The catABC genes were transcribed as one operon. The deduced amino acid sequences of CatA, CatB and CatC showed high identities with those from other Gram-positive micro-organisms. A regulator gene such as catR encoding a regulatory protein was not observed around the cat gene cluster of Rhodococcus sp. AN-22, but a possible relic of catR was found in the upstream region of catA. Reverse transcriptase-PCR and primer extension analyses showed that the transcriptional start site of the cat gene cluster was located 891 bp upstream of the catA initiation codon in the AN-22 strain growing on both aniline and succinate. Based on these data, we concluded that the bacterium constitutively transcribed the catABC genes and translated its mRNA into CatA, CatB and CatC. PMID:16156722
Pas, An; Dubey, J P
The sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid occurring in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The sand cat captive-breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in Sharjah, UAE, has until recently been severely compromised by very high newborn mortality rates. Two different pairs of sand cats gave birth, respectively, to one and two litters (with a total of eight kittens) between 1999 and 2006. Seven out of eight kittens died between the third and 21st wk of life. Toxoplasmosis was confirmed as the cause of death in these two litters. Adult cats had high antibody titers to Toxoplasma gondii before pregnancy, suggesting that maternal immunity did not protect the kittens against infection with T. gondii and that maternal immunity might not have prevented transplacental transmission of the parasite. This observation contrasts with what is seen in domestic cats. To date, this is the first report on confirmed fatal toxoplasmosis and prevalence of T. gondii in sand cats.
Stock, E; Paepe, D; Daminet, S; Vandermeulen, E; Duchateau, L; Saunders, J H; Vanderperren, K
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound examination (CEUS) is a functional imaging technique allowing noninvasive assessment of tissue perfusion. Studies in humans show that the technique holds great potential to be used in the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, data in veterinary medicine are currently lacking. To evaluate renal perfusion using CEUS in cats with CKD. Fourteen client-owned cats with CKD and 43 healthy control cats. Prospective case-controlled clinical trial using CEUS to evaluate renal perfusion in cats with CKD compared to healthy control cats. Time-intensity curves were created, and perfusion parameters were calculated using off-line software. A linear mixed model was used to examine differences between perfusion parameters of cats with CKD and healthy cats. In cats with CKD, longer time to peak and shorter mean transit times were observed for the renal cortex. In contrast, a shorter time to peak and rise time were seen for the renal medulla. The findings for the renal cortex indicate decreased blood velocity and shorter total duration of enhancement, likely caused by increased vascular resistance in CKD. Increased blood velocity in the renal medulla has not been described before and may be because of a different response to regulatory factors in cortex and medulla. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound examination was capable of detecting perfusion changes in cats with CKD. Further research is warranted to assess the diagnostic capabilities of CEUS in early stage of the disease process. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Bucherl, Cori; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark; Perusich, Steve; Whitten, Mary
The launch complexes at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are critical support facilities for the successful launch of space-based vehicles. These facilities include a flame trench that bisects the pad at ground level. This trench includes a flame deflector system that consists of an inverted, V-shaped steel structure covered with a high temperature concrete material five inches thick that extends across the center of the flame trench. One side of the "V11 receives and deflects the flames from the orbiter main engines; the opposite side deflects the flames from the solid rocket boosters. There are also two movable deflectors at the top of the trench to provide additional protection to shuttle hardware from the solid rocket booster flames. These facilities are over 40 years old and are experiencing constant deterioration from launch heat/blast effects and environmental exposure. The refractory material currently used in launch pad flame deflectors has become susceptible to failure, resulting in large sections of the material breaking away from the steel base structure and creating high-speed projectiles during launch. These projectiles jeopardize the safety of the launch complex, crew, and vehicle. Post launch inspections have revealed that the number and frequency of repairs, as well as the area and size of the damage, is increasing with the number of launches. The Space Shuttle Program has accepted the extensive ground processing costs for post launch repair of damaged areas and investigations of future launch related failures for the remainder of the program. There currently are no long term solutions available for Constellation Program ground operations to address the poor performance and subsequent failures of the refractory materials. Over the last three years, significant liberation of refractory material in the flame trench and fire bricks along the adjacent trench walls following Space Shuttle launches have resulted in extensive investigations of
The CERN Visits Service is launching a new series of seminars for guides, and they are open to everyone. The series kicks off next week with a talk by Konrad Elsener on the CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso, CNGS, project.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Delta Velocity Corporation proposes the development of a very low cost, highly responsive nanosat launch system. We propose to develop an integrated propulsion...
Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs reliable, accurate navigation for launch vehicles and other missions. GPS is the best world-wide navigation system, but operates at low power making it...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop a family of compact, low-cost GPS-based attitude (GPS/A) sensors for launch vehicles. In order to obtain 3-D attitude...
McCollum, Matthew B.; Jones, Steven R.; Mack, Jonathan D.
Historically, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) relied heavily on lightning avoidance to protect launch vehicles and crew from lightning effects. As NASA transitions from the Space Shuttle to the new Constellation family of launch vehicles and spacecraft, NASA engineers are imposing design and construction standards on the spacecraft and launch vehicles to withstand both the direct and indirect effects of lightning. A review of current Space Shuttle lightning constraints and protection methodology will be presented, as well as a historical review of Space Shuttle lightning requirements and design. The Space Shuttle lightning requirements document, NSTS 07636, Lightning Protection, Test and Analysis Requirements, (originally published as document number JSC 07636, Lightning Protection Criteria Document) was developed in response to the Apollo 12 lightning event and other experiences with NASA and the Department of Defense launch vehicles. This document defined the lightning environment, vehicle protection requirements, and design guidelines for meeting the requirements. The criteria developed in JSC 07636 were a precursor to the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) lightning standards. These SAE standards, along with Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) DO-160, Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment, are the basis for the current Constellation lightning design requirements. The development and derivation of these requirements will be presented. As budget and schedule constraints hampered lightning protection design and verification efforts, the Space Shuttle elements waived the design requirements and relied on lightning avoidance in the form of launch commit criteria (LCC) constraints and a catenary wire system for lightning protection at the launch pads. A better understanding of the lightning environment has highlighted the vulnerability of the protection schemes and associated risk to the vehicle
During the Apollo 15 pre-launch activity in the launch control center's firing room 1 at Kennedy Space Center, the then recently appointed NASA Administrator, Dr. James C. Fletcher (right) speaks with (Left to right) William Anders, executive secretary of the National Aeronautics and Space Council; Lt. General Sam Phillips, former Apollo Program Director; and Dr. Wernher von Braun, NASA's Deputy Associate Administrator for planning.
Williams-Hayes, Peggy; Bosworth, John T.
This viewgraph presentation is an overview of the Launch Abort System (LAS) for the Constellation Program. The purpose of the paper is to review the planned tests for the LAS. The program will evaluate the performance of the crew escape functions of the Launch Abort System (LAS) specifically: the ability of the LAS to separate from the crew module, to gather flight test data for future design and implementation and to reduce system development risks.
Dittemore, Gary D.; Harding, Adam
The development of new and safer manned space vehicles is a top priority at NASA. Recently two different approaches of how to accomplish this mission of keeping astronauts safe was successfully demonstrated. With work already underway on an Apollo-like launch abort system for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), an alternative design concept named the Max Launch Abort System, or MLAS, was developed as a parallel effort. The Orion system, managed by the Constellation office, is based on the design of a single solid launch abort motor in a tower positioned above the capsule. The MLAS design takes a different approach placing the solid launch abort motor underneath the capsule. This effort was led by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). Both escape systems were designed with the Ares I Rocket as the launch vehicle and had the same primary requirement to safely propel a crew module away from any emergency event either on the launch pad or during accent. Beyond these two parameters, there was little else in common between the two projects, except that they both concluded in successful launches that will further promote the development of crew launch abort systems. A comparison of these projects from the standpoint of technical requirements; program management and flight test objectives will be done to highlight the synergistic lessons learned by two engineers who worked on each program. This comparison will demonstrate how the scope of the project architecture and management involvement in innovation should be tailored to meet the specific needs of the system under development.
Apollo l1 Commander Neil A. Armstrong and his wife, Carol, were among the many special NASA STS-83 launch guests who witnessed the liftoff of the Space Shuttle Columbia April 4 at the Banana Creek VIP Viewing Site at KSC. Columbia took off from Launch Pad 39A at 2:20:32 p.m. EST to begin the 16-day Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission.
Min, Li; Yang, Zhang
As the bond linking the micro research to the macro research in wind-sand flow, the scaling laws on sand mean launch velocity and mean launch angle can be used to calculate the mean velocity and the transport rate, and they also play an important role in understanding saltation. However, universal scaling laws are still absent. In analogy to the fluid flows, the wind-sand flow is divided into three periods based on the way of sand taking off from sand bed, and the hypothesis on the scaling laws in each period is proposed. Then according to the hypothesis we deduce the sand concentration piece-wise function for saltation layer and also the critical shields numbers dividing three periods. The comparisons between the predictions and the experimental observations show that under a lower shields number the vertical mean launch velocity and the mean launch angle scale with the wind shear velocity and the square root of shields number respectively. However, under a higher shields number the vertical mean launch velocity scale with the sand diameter and the mean launch angle is almost constant at 700 or so.
The NASA developed Ares rockets, named for the Greek god associated with Mars, will return humans to the moon and later take them to Mars and other destinations. This is an illustration of the Ares V with call outs. The Ares V is a heavy lift launch vehicle that will use five RS-68 liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen engines mounted below a larger version of the space shuttle external tank, and two five-segment solid propellant rocket boosters for the first stage. The upper stage will use the same J-2X engine as the Ares I and past Apollo vehicles. The Ares V can lift more than 286,000 pounds to low Earth orbit and stands approximately 360 feet tall. This versatile system will be used to carry cargo and the components into orbit needed to go to the moon and later to Mars. Ares V is subject to configuration changes before it is actually launched. This illustration reflects the latest configuration as of January 2007.
Schleifer, Sebastian G; Willemse, Ton
To evaluate skin test reactivity to environmental allergens in healthy cats and in cats with atopic dermatitis (AD). 10 healthy cats and 10 cats with AD. 10 allergens in serial dilutions were injected ID on the lateral aspect of the thorax of sedated cats. Histamine (0.01% solution) and buffer solutions were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Immediately after the last injection, 10% fluorescein solution was administered IV. Skin test results were evaluated with ultraviolet light after 15 to 30 minutes and at 4 and 6 hours by 2 independent observers. In the control group, skin tests were repeated after 6 weeks. Skin test reactivity and the nature of the immunoglobulin involved were investigated by use of the Prausnitz-Küstner test with untreated and heat-treated cat sera. Intertest and interobserver agreement were high when measurement of the diameter of the fluorescent wheal was used to evaluate skin test responses, compared with assessment of its intensity. In both groups of cats, immediate skin test reactivity was observed as an IgE-mediated reaction, as an IgG-mediated reaction, and as a result of nonspecific mast cell degranulation. There was no correlation between allergen concentration and the type of reaction observed. Skin test reactivity in cats should be evaluated after IV administration of 10% fluorescein solution by means of a Prausnitz-Küstner test to differentiate among IgE-mediated, IgG-mediated, and nonspecific reactions.
Rymarcsuk, James A.; Haase, Ethan E.
In the last five years the international space launch industry has undergone substantial change. New entrants and existing players in this market have introduced new and upgraded vehicles with greater lift capability than was available five years ago. In addition, some of these vehicles offer reduced risk from their predecessors thanks to design improvements and reductions in the number of failure points. The entry of these vehicles have generated greater supply, increased choice, and improved capabilities to the benefit of satellite operators and manufacturers. Some launch service providers have also enhanced the products and services they offer due to the increased competitiveness in the market. Although the number of commercial satellites launched per year has remained within a fairly narrow range in the last five years, expectations for the future that were once very optimistic have fallen dramatically. The significant number of commercial NGSO satellites launched in the late 1990s helped raise these expectations, but today, the predicted continued growth in launches due to NGSO and broadband systems has not materialized. Despite the decline in expectations from the late 1990s, however, the satellite market that the launch industry supports remains robust. Satellite operators maintain generally favorable financial positions, but the number of satellites required to provide services worldwide is growing slowly, with the number of new and replacement satellites launched per year remaining essentially flat. Satellite operators are undergoing consolidation that is rendering them stronger than ever, and putting them in a position to demand better service from their launch service providers. The increase in supply in the marketplace and the corresponding lack of growth in demand has led to a highly competitive marketplace for launch services internationally. ILS is well positioned with products and services to meet customer needs. Key customer buying factors include
Galaboff, Zachary J.; Jacobs, William; West, Mark E.; Montenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)
The field of Magnetic Levitation Lind Propulsion (MagLev) has been around for over 30 years, primarily in high-speed rail service. In recent years, however, NASA has been looking closely at MagLev as a possible first stage propulsion system for spacecraft. This approach creates a variety of new problems that don't currently exist with the present MagLev trains around the world. NASA requires that a spacecraft of approximately 120,000 lbs be accelerated at two times the acceleration of gravity (2g's). This produces a greater demand on power over the normal MagLev trains that accelerate at around 0.1g. To be able to store and distribute up to 3,000 Mega Joules of energy in less than 10 seconds is a technical challenge. Another problem never addressed by the train industry and, peculiar only to NASA, is the control of a lifting body through the acceleration of and separation from the MagLev track. Very little is understood about how a lifting body will react with external forces, Such as wind gusts and ground effects, while being propelled along on soft springs such as magnetic levitators. Much study needs to be done to determine spacecraft control requirements as well as what control mechanisms and aero-surfaces should be placed on the carrier. Once the spacecraft has been propelled down the track another significant event takes place, the separation of the spacecraft from the carrier. The dynamics involved for both the carrier and the spacecraft are complex and coupled. Analysis of the reaction of the carrier after losing, a majority of its mass must be performed to insure control of the carrier is maintained and a safe separation of the spacecraft is achieved. The spacecraft angle of attack required for lift and how it will affect the carriage just prior to separation, along with the impacts of around effect and aerodynamic forces at ground level must be modeled and analyzed to define requirements on the launch vehicle design. Mechanisms, which can withstand the
Saito, Yasuhiro; Saito, Toshiya; Okita, Koichi
Triggered lightning for rocket launch can cause the failure.The current Japanese criteria to postpone the launch opportunity is the thickness of cloud 1.8km with 0 -20 degrees Celsius. Of all H2A launches during these ten years, slipping launches have occurred over half of its flights. So, we have initiated a research on Triggered Lightning Launch Commit Criteria, two years ago.We present the overall activities with the observation campaign (RAIJIN*) in Feb/2012 and Jan-Feb/2013, by means of air-born field mill with airplane, X-band dual polarization radar, ground based field mill and Videosonde. Also, the analytical results and proposal of the new criteria will be shown.*) Raijin is originally a name for Thunder god in Japanese and here it stands for Rocket launch Atmospheric electricity Investigation by Jaxa IN cooperation with academia.
Kabatchnick, E; Langston, C; Olson, B; Lamb, K E
The prevalence of uremic hypothermia (UH) and the effects of improving uremia on body temperature have not been determined in veterinary patients. To determine the prevalence of UH and correlations between uremia and body temperature in patients undergoing intermittent hemodialysis (IHD). Uremic dogs (n = 122) and cats (n = 79) treated by IHD at the Bobst Hospital of the Animal Medical Center from 1997 to 2013. Retrospective review of medical records. The prevalence of hypothermia was 38% in azotemic cats and 20.5% in azotemic dogs. Statistically significant temperature differences were observed between uremic and nonuremic dogs (nonuremic: mean, 100.8°F; range, 91.2-109.5°F; uremic: mean, 99.9°F; range, 95.6-103.8°F; P cats (nonuremic: mean, 100.6°F; range, 94.0-103.8°F; uremic: mean, 99.3°F; range, 92.3-103.4°F; P dog dialysis patients, significant models included (1) timing (pre-dialysis versus post-dialysis) with weight class (small [P dogs), (2) timing with serum creatinine concentration (P = .021), and (3) timing with BUN concentration (P cat dialysis patients, there was a significant interaction between timing and weight as a categorical variable (cats and dogs. Uremic patients are hypothermic compared to ill nonuremic patients and body temperatures increase when uremia is corrected with IHD in dogs and in cats >5 kg. In cats, UH seems to be a more prevalent phenomenon driven by uremia. Uremic hypothermia does occur in dogs, but body weight is a more important predictor of body temperature. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Bergmann, M; Englert, T; Stuetzer, B; Hawley, J R; Lappin, M R; Hartmann, K
Bartonella species are zoonotic pathogens, and infections in cats are common. However, prevalence in cats in Southern Germany is still unknown. Therefore, prevalence of Bartonella species DNA in blood of 479 Southern German cats was determined using a previously published conventional PCR targeting a fragment of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. Associations between Bartonella bacteraemia, housing conditions, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) status, including progressive, regressive and abortive FeLV infection, were evaluated using Fisher's exact test. Prevalence of Bartonella species bacteraemia was 2.5 per cent (12/479; CI 0.01-0.04 per cent). Bartonella henselae DNA was amplified in 11 of the 12 cats. One cat was positive for Bartonella clarridgeiae DNA. Of the infected cats, 2/12 cats were ill; 6/12 cats had thrombocytopenia. There was a significantly higher risk of Bartonella species infection in young and shelter cats, but not in FIV-infected or FeLV-infected cats. Prevalence of Bartonella species bacteraemia is low in Southern German cats, but there is still a risk of zoonotic transmission associated with ownership of young cats. Most of the infected cats did not show clinical signs. Thrombocytopenia was common in Bartonella species-infected cats and further studies are required to define its clinical relevance. British Veterinary Association.
Full Text Available This study proposes a multiconstrained ascent guidance method for a solid rocket-powered launch vehicle, which uses a hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV as payload and shuts off by fuel exhaustion. First, pseudospectral method is used to analyze the two-stage launch vehicle ascent trajectory with different rocket ignition modes. Then, constraints, such as terminal height, velocity, flight path angle, and angle of attack, are converted into the constraints within height-time profile according to the second-stage rocket flight characteristics. The closed-loop guidance method is inferred by different spline curves given the different terminal constraints. Afterwards, a thrust bias energy management strategy is proposed to waste the excess energy of the solid rocket. Finally, the proposed method is verified through nominal and dispersion simulations. The simulation results show excellent applicability and robustness of this method, which can provide a valuable reference for the ascent guidance of solid rocket-powered launch vehicles.
Tobbe, Patrick; Matras, Alex; Wilson, Heath; Alday, Nathan; Walker, David; Betts, Kevin; Hughes, Ryan; Turbe, Michael
The Ares Real-Time Environment for Modeling, Integration, and Simulation (ARTEMIS) has been developed for use by the Ares I launch vehicle System Integration Laboratory (SIL) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The primary purpose of the Ares SIL is to test the vehicle avionics hardware and software in a hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) environment to certify that the integrated system is prepared for flight. ARTEMIS has been designed to be the real-time software backbone to stimulate all required Ares components through high-fidelity simulation. ARTEMIS has been designed to take full advantage of the advances in underlying computational power now available to support HWIL testing. A modular real-time design relying on a fully distributed computing architecture has been achieved. Two fundamental requirements drove ARTEMIS to pursue the use of high-fidelity simulation models in a real-time environment. First, ARTEMIS must be used to test a man-rated integrated avionics hardware and software system, thus requiring a wide variety of nominal and off-nominal simulation capabilities to certify system robustness. The second driving requirement - derived from a nationwide review of current state-of-the-art HWIL facilities - was that preserving digital model fidelity significantly reduced overall vehicle lifecycle cost by reducing testing time for certification runs and increasing flight tempo through an expanded operational envelope. These two driving requirements necessitated the use of high-fidelity models throughout the ARTEMIS simulation. The nature of the Ares mission profile imposed a variety of additional requirements on the ARTEMIS simulation. The Ares I vehicle is composed of multiple elements, including the First Stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), the Upper Stage powered by the J- 2X engine, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) which houses the crew, the Launch Abort System (LAS), and various secondary elements that separate from the vehicle. At launch, the
Kessler, Thomas L. [Boeing Co., Phantom Works (United States); Frye, Patrick [Boeing Co., Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power (United States); Partch, Russ [Air Force Research Lab. (United States)
The Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicle (SOTV) program being sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is developing technology that will engender revolutionary benefits to satellites and orbit-to-orbit transfer systems. Solar thermal propulsion offers significant advantages for near-term expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) such as Delta IV, mid- to far-term reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) and ultimately to manned exploration of the Moon and Mars. Solar thermal propulsion uses a relatively large mirrored concentrator to focus solar energy onto a compact absorber, which is in turn heated to >2200 K. This heat can then be used in two major ways. By flowing hydrogen or another working fluid through the absorber, high efficiency thrust can be generated with 800 sec or more specific impulse (Isp), almost twice that of conventional cryogenic stages and comparable with typical solid-core nuclear thermal stages. Within a decade, advances in materials and fabrication processes hold the promise of the Isp ranging up to 1,100 sec. In addition, attached thermionic or alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) power converters can be used to generate 20 to 100 kilowatts (kW) of electricity. The SOTV Space Experiment (SOTV-SE), planned to be flown in 2003, will demonstrate both hydrogen propulsion and thermionic power generation, including advanced lightweight deployable concentrators suitable for large-scale applications. Evolutionary geosynchronous-transfer orbit/geosynchronous-Earth orbit (GTO/GEO) payload lift capability improvements of 50% or more to the Delta IV launch vehicles could be implemented as part of the Delta IV P4I plan shortly thereafter. Beyond that, SOTV technology should allow long-term storage of stages in orbits up to GEO with tremendous manoeuvring capability, potentially 4 to 5 km/sec or more. Servicing of low-Earth orbit (LEO) and GEO assets and reusable (ROTVs) are other possible applications. Offering a combination of high Isp and high
... associated with NASA routine payloads could not be accomplished without launching orbital and interplanetary... range of payload masses, would provide the needed trajectory capabilities, and would provide highly...
Jackman, Angie; Johnson, Les
With significant and substantial progress being accomplished toward readying the Space Launch System (SLS) rocket for its first test flight, work is already also underway on preparations for the second flight – using an upgraded version of the vehicle – and beyond. Designed to support human missions into deep space, Space Launch System (SLS), is the most powerful human-rated launch vehicle the United States has ever undertaken, and together with the Orion spacecraft will support human exploration missions into the proving ground of cislunar space and ultimately to Mars. For its first flight, SLS will deliver a near-term heavy-lift capability for the nation with its 70-metric-ton Block 1 configuration. Each element of the vehicle now has flight hardware in production in support of the initial flight of the SLS, which will propel Orion around the moon and back. For its second flight, SLS will be upgraded to the more-capable Block 1B configuration. While the Block 1 configuration is capable of delivering more than 70 metric tons to low Earth orbit, the Block 1B vehicle will increase that capability to 105 metric tons. For that flight, the new configuration introduces two major new elements to the vehicle – an Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) that will be used for both ascent and in-space propulsion, and a Universal Stage Adapter (USA) that serves as a “payload bay” for the rocket, allowing the launch of large exploration systems along with the Orion spacecraft. Already, flight hardware is being prepared for the Block 1B vehicle. Beyond the second flight, additional upgrades will be made to the vehicle. The Block 1B vehicle will also be able to launch 8.4-meter-diameter payload fairings, larger than any previously flown, and the Spacecraft Payload Integration and Evolution (SPIE) Element will oversee development and production of those fairings. Ultimately, SLS will be evolved to a Block 2 configuration, which will replace the solid rocket boosters on the Block
Walker, Jessica K; Bruce, Stephanie J; Dale, Arnja R
Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively), followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively), managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively), and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively). Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%), and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%). Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.
McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J
Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jessica K. Walker
Full Text Available Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support; (b concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats; (c the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively, followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively, managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively, and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively. Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%, and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%. Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.
Full Text Available Case summary This report describes the clinical and parasitological findings in a domestic shorthair cat with isolated thoracic tetrathyridiosis. The cat was a stray from Malta that had lived in Germany for several years since as an indoor-only cat. Therefore, the process of infection remains very unusual. In this case it must be considered that the cat had been infected years previously while in Malta, and had lived at least 4 years without any clinical signs. It was possible to diagnose this uncommon disease and initiate an effective treatment with fenbendazole, praziquantel and supportive care. Clinical signs, as well as radiographic findings, were regressive with this treatment. Relevance and novel information Tetrathyridiosis is a rare finding in cats, especially in Germany, but it seems to be a potential differential diagnosis of pleural effusion. Mesocestoides corti , which was the causative parasite in this case, has not previously been isolated in Germany. Because tetrathyridiosis is only diagnosed post mortem in most cases, little is known about effective therapeutic options. Furthermore, clinical signs of this disease can be absent for several years and can potentially be triggered by neoplastic conditions or immunosuppression. Tetrathyridiosis seems to be a treatable disease that can be controlled by adequate antiparasitic therapy.
Majoy, Sean B; Sharp, Claire R; Dickinson, Amy E; Cunningham, Suzanne M
To describe a unique cause of septic pericarditis in a cat and detail the successful case management strategy. A 6-year-old sexually intact female Ragdoll cat was evaluated for a 7-day history of progressive lethargy, anorexia, and vaginal discharge. Thoracic radiographs revealed a markedly globoid cardiac silhouette and pleural effusion while the initial echocardiogram showed moderate volume pericardial effusion. Following pericardiocentesis, cytologic evaluation of the pericardial effusion revealed septic suppurative inflammation with intra- and extracellular Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria. Abdominal ultrasound demonstrated a moderate amount of echogenic uterine fluid accumulation with a right-sided uterine horn mass. After stabilization with pericardiocentesis, IV fluid therapy and IV antimicrobials, the cat underwent ovariohysterectomy and partial pericardiectomy. Histopathology confirmed a diagnosis of pyometra and septic pericarditis. Uterine and pericardial fluid bacterial culture yielded Escherichia coli with identical antimicrobial sensitivity spectrums. Septic pericarditis is a rare cause of pericardial effusion in the cat. Previous reported cases have either suggested the cause to be secondary to transient bacteremia resulting from a local infection seeding the pericardium or for the cause to remain unknown. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first veterinary report of septic pericarditis resulting from hematogeneously spread bacteria originating from a urogenital infection. It is also the first report of successful surgical management of septic pericarditis in the cat. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.
Market sensitivity and weight-based cost estimating relationships are key drivers in determining the financial viability of advanced space launch vehicle designs. Due to decreasing space transportation budgets and increasing foreign competition, it has become essential for financial assessments of prospective launch vehicles to be performed during the conceptual design phase. As part of this financial assessment, it is imperative to understand the relationship between market volatility, the uncertainty of weight estimates, and the economic viability of an advanced space launch vehicle program. This paper reports the results of a study that evaluated the economic risk inherent in market variability and the uncertainty of developing weight estimates for an advanced space launch vehicle program. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of a business case for advanced space flight design with respect to the changing nature of market conditions and the complexity of determining accurate weight estimations during the conceptual design phase. The expected uncertainty associated with these two factors drives the economic risk of the overall program. The study incorporates Monte Carlo simulation techniques to determine the probability of attaining specific levels of economic performance when the market and weight parameters are allowed to vary. This structured approach toward uncertainties allows for the assessment of risks associated with a launch vehicle program's economic performance. This results in the determination of the value of the additional risk placed on the project by these two factors.
Willett, John C. (Editor); Merceret, Francis J. (Editor); Krider, E. Philip; O'Brien, T. Paul; Dye, James E.; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Cummins, Kenneth; Christian, Hugh J.; Madura, John T.
Since natural and triggered lightning are demonstrated hazards to launch vehicles, payloads, and spacecraft, NASA and the Department of Defense (DoD) follow the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) for launches from Federal Ranges. The LLCC were developed to prevent future instances of a rocket intercepting natural lightning or triggering a lightning flash during launch from a Federal Range. NASA and DoD utilize the Lightning Advisory Panel (LAP) to establish and develop robust rationale from which the criteria originate. The rationale document also contains appendices that provide additional scientific background, including detailed descriptions of the theory and observations behind the rationales. The LLCC in whole or part are used across the globe due to the rigor of the documented criteria and associated rationale. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) adopted the LLCC in 2006 for commercial space transportation and the criteria were codified in the FAA's Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for Safety of an Expendable Launch Vehicle (Appendix G to 14 CFR Part 417, (G417)) and renamed Lightning Flight Commit Criteria in G417.
Watson, Michael D.; Neeley, James R.; Blackburn, Ruby F.
Traditionally, launch vehicle cost has been evaluated based on $/Kg to orbit. This metric is calculated based on assumptions not typically met by a specific mission. These assumptions include the specified orbit whether Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), or both. The metric also assumes the payload utilizes the full lift mass of the launch vehicle, which is rarely true even with secondary payloads.1,2,3 Other approaches for cost metrics have been evaluated including unit cost of the launch vehicle and an approach to consider the full program production and operations costs.4 Unit cost considers the variable cost of the vehicle and the definition of variable costs are discussed. The full program production and operation costs include both the variable costs and the manufacturing base. This metric also distinguishes operations costs from production costs, including pre-flight operational testing. Operations costs also consider the costs of flight operations, including control center operation and maintenance. Each of these 3 cost metrics show different sensitivities to various aspects of launch vehicle cost drivers. The comparison of these metrics provides the strengths and weaknesses of each yielding an assessment useful for cost metric selection for launch vehicle programs.
Agustin, Prayuani Dwi; Mukono, J
Abstract: Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii that transmitted from animals to humans. Actually, the symptoms of toxoplasmosis are asymptomatic with non-spesific and similar to other diseases. Cats are definite host of Toxoplasma gondii. The feces from infected cat contains million oocysts and infective to humans. Detection of toxoplasmosis in human can be done with a serological test to see the levels of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here addresses the testing and evaluation of wireless networking technologies for small launch vehicles by leveraging existing nanosat launch...
V. A. Grechukhin
Full Text Available Bridges are considered as the most complicated, labour-consuming and expensive components in roadway network of the Republic of Belarus. So their construction and operation are to be carried out at high technological level. One of the modern industrial methods is a cyclic longitudinal launching of large frameworks which provide the possibility to reject usage of expensive auxiliary facilities and reduce a construction period. There are several variants of longitudinal launching according to shipping conditions and span length: without launching girder, with launching girder, with top strut-framed beam in the form of cable-stayed system, with strut-framed beam located under span. While using method for the cyclic longitudinal launching manufacturing process of span is concentrated on the shore. The main task of the investigations is to select economic, quick and technologically simple type of the cyclic longitudinal launching with minimum resource- and labour inputs. Span launching has been comparatively analyzed with temporary supports being specially constructed within the span and according to capital supports with the help of launching girder. Conclusions made on the basis of calculations for constructive elements of span according to bearing ability of element sections during launching and also during the process of reinforced concrete plate grouting and at the stage of operation have shown that span assembly with application of temporary supports does not reduce steel spread in comparison with the variant excluding them. Results of the conducted investigations have been approbated in cooperation with state enterprise “Belgiprodor” while designing a bridge across river Sozh.
Levy, J K; Bard, K M; Tucker, S J; Diskant, P D; Dingman, P A
High volume spay-neuter (spay-castration) clinics have been established to improve population control of cats and dogs to reduce the number of animals admitted to and euthanazed in animal shelters. The rise in the number of spay-neuter clinics in the USA has been accompanied by concern about the quality of animal care provided in high volume facilities, which focus on minimally invasive, time saving techniques, high throughput and simultaneous management of multiple animals under various stages of anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine perioperative mortality for cats and dogs in a high volume spay-neuter clinic in the USA. Electronic medical records and a written mortality log were used to collect data for 71,557 cats and 42,349 dogs undergoing spay-neuter surgery from 2010 to 2016 at a single high volume clinic in Florida. Perioperative mortality was defined as deaths occurring in the 24h period starting with the administration of the first sedation or anesthetic drugs. Perioperative mortality was reported for 34 cats and four dogs for an overall mortality of 3.3 animals/10,000 surgeries (0.03%). The risk of mortality was more than twice as high for females (0.05%) as for males (0.02%) (P=0.008) and five times as high for cats (0.05%) as for dogs (0.009%) (P=0.0007). High volume spay-neuter surgery was associated with a lower mortality rate than that previously reported in low volume clinics, approaching that achieved in human surgery. This is likely to be due to the young, healthy population of dogs and cats, and the continuous refinement of techniques based on experience and the skills and proficiency of teams that specialize in a limited spectrum of procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cinti, Filippo; Pisani, Guido; Penazzi, Claudio; Carusi, Umberto; Vezzoni, Luca; Vezzoni, Aldo
Fracture of the central tarsal bone is an uncommon injury in dogs and occurs predominantly in racing Greyhounds. To the authors' knowledge, this type of fracture has not been described previously in cats. This case report describes a five-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat referred to the Centro Veterinario Luni Mare because of lameness, swelling and signs of pain in the right hindlimb caused by trauma. Clinical examination and diagnostic imaging revealed a right central tarsal bone fracture. Open reduction and internal fixation with a 2.0 mm position screw and two 0.8 mm Kirschner wires were carried out. The last follow-up examination three years postoperatively found the cat in good health with normal range of motion and function, and no signs of lameness in the right hindlimb.
Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J
Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.
Altreuther, G.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Buch, J.; Charles, S.D.; Cruthers, L.; Epe, C.; Young, D.R.; Krieger, K.J.
This paper reports the efficacy of emodepside/praziquantel spot¿on (Profender®, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany), a novel broadspectrum anthelmintic for dermal application, against L4 larvae and immature adult and adult stages of Ancylostoma tubaeforme in cats. The formulation contains 2.14% (w/w)
Zschockelt, Lina; Amelkina, Olga; Siemieniuch, Marta J; Kowalewski, Mariusz P; Dehnhard, Martin; Jewgenow, Katarina; Braun, Beate C
Felids show different reproductive strategies related to the luteal phase. Domestic cats exhibit a seasonal polyoestrus and ovulation is followed by formation of corpora lutea (CL). Pregnant and non-pregnant cycles are reflected by diverging plasma progesterone (P4) profiles. Eurasian and Iberian lynxes show a seasonal monooestrus, in which physiologically persistent CL (perCL) support constantly elevated plasma P4 levels. Prostaglandins (PGs) represent key regulators of reproduction, and we aimed to characterise PG synthesis in feline CL to identify their contribution to the luteal lifespan. We assessed mRNA and protein expression of PG synthases (PTGS2/COX2, PTGES, PGFS/AKR1C3) and PG receptors (PTGER2, PTGER4, PTGFR), and intra-luteal levels of PGE2 and PGF2α Therefore, CL of pregnant (pre-implantation, post-implantation, regression stages) and non-pregnant (formation, development/maintenance, early regression, late regression stages) domestic cats, and prooestrous Eurasian (perCL, pre-mating) and metoestrous Iberian (perCL, freshCL, post-mating) lynxes were investigated. Expression of PTGS2/COX2, PTGES and PTGER4 was independent of the luteal stage in the investigated species. High levels of luteotrophic PGE2 in perCL might be associated with persistence of luteal function in lynxes. Signals for PGFS/AKR1C3 expression were weak in mid and late luteal stages of cats but were absent in lynxes, concomitant with low PGF2α levels in these species. Thus, regulation of CL regression by luteal PGF2α seems negligible. In contrast, expression of PTGFR was evident in nearly all investigated CL of cat and lynxes, implying that luteal regression, e.g. at the end of pregnancy, is triggered by extra-luteal PGF2α. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.
Ascher, W.; Bailey, R. L.; Behm, J. W.; Gin, W.
Two-burn restartable solid propellant rocket motors for the kick stage (auxiliary stage) of the Shuttle Tug, or Interim Upper Stage, are described, with details on features and test results of the ignition and quench (thrust termination) systems and procedures, fabrication of propellant and insulation, explosion hazards of propellants, and comparative data on present and future motor design. These rocket motor systems are designed for upper stage augmentation of launch vehicles and possible service in Shuttle-launched outer planet spacecraft.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment. Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body weight were fed a single dose of 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4, 2, 5, or 10 mg astaxanthin and blood taken (n = 8/treatment at the same interval. Results Both dogs and cats showed similar biokinetic profiles. Maximal astaxanthin concentration in plasma was approximately 0.14 μmol/L in both species, and was observed at 6 h post-dosing. The plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 9 to 18 h. Astaxanthin was still detectable by 24 h in both species. In a subsequent study, dogs and cats were fed similar doses of astaxanthin daily for 15 to 16 d and astaxanthin uptake by plasma, lipoproteins, and leukocytes studied. In both species, plasma astaxanthin concentrations generally continued to increase through d 15 or 16 of supplementation. The astaxanthin was mainly associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL. In blood leukocytes, approximately half of the total astaxanthin was found in the mitochondria, with significant amounts also associated with the microsomes and nuclei. Conclusion Dogs and cats absorb astaxanthin from the diet. In the blood, the astaxanthin is mainly associated with HDL, and is taken up by blood leukocytes, where it is distributed to all subcellular organelles. Certain aspects of the biokinetic uptake of astaxanthin in dogs and cats are similar to that in humans.
This slide presentation reviews the results of a study on the use of wireless instrumentation and sensors on future launch vehicles. The use of wireless technologies would if feasible would allow for fewer wires, and allow for more flexibility. However, it was generally concluded that wireless solutions are not currently ready to replace wired technologies for launch vehicles. The recommendations of the study were to continue to use wired sensors as the primary choice for vehicle instrumentation, and to continue to assess needs and use wireless instrumentation where appropriate. The future work includes support efforts for wireless technologies, and continue to monitor the development of wireless solutions.
Smith, David Alan
The purpose of this Space Launch System (SLS) Mission Planner's Guide (MPG) is to provide future payload developers/users with sufficient insight to support preliminary SLS mission planning. Consequently, this SLS MPG is not intended to be a payload requirements document; rather, it organizes and details SLS interfaces/accommodations in a manner similar to that of current Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) user guides to support early feasibility assessment. Like ELV Programs, once approved to fly on SLS, specific payload requirements will be defined in unique documentation.
d) Sep 29,1987 Solar panels delivered to Holloman AFB, NM. e) Oct 8,1987 Tesi of the upwind launch system. f) Oct 9,1987 Detector system delivered to...McMurdo Station, had not yet been identified. c) Solar panels would provide long-duration power for the payload in lieu of a large weight of batteries...so that the solar panels faced the sun and the gamma ray detector pointed toward the supernova. f) The crews for the launch, telemetry, instrumentation
Tiller, Bruce K.
I. Ares First Stage design is on schedule. a) Avionics; b) Major Structures; c) Motor; and d) Deceleration System II. Ares I-X hardware is complete and assembly at KSC is underway. Launch scheduled for October 31. III. Recovery system testing is on schedule a) Drogue; b) Main chute; and c) Cluster. DM-1 static firing is scheduled for August 25, 2009
Tun, Sandee; Ithoi, Init; Mahmud, Rohela; Samsudin, Nur Izyan; Kek Heng, Chua; Ling, Lau Yee
The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs excreted in the faeces of stray cats, dogs and in soil samples. A total of 505 fresh samples of faeces (from 227 dogs and 152 cats) and soil were collected. The egg stage was detected via microscopy after the application of formalin-ether concentration technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples containing hookworm eggs and used for further identification to the species level using real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting analysis. Microscopic observation showed that the overall prevalence of helminth eggs among stray cats and dogs was 75.7% (95% CI = 71.2%-79.9%), in which 87.7% of dogs and 57.9% of cats were infected with at least one parasite genus. Five genera of heliminth eggs were detected in the faecal samples, including hookworms (46.4%), Toxocara (11.1%), Trichuris (8.4%), Spirometra (7.4%) and Ascaris (2.4%). The prevalence of helminth infections among stray dogs was significantly higher than that among stray cats (p dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, was also detected among cats, which is the first such occurrence reported in Malaysia till date. This finding indicated that there was a cross-infection of A. caninum between stray cats and dogs because of their coexistent within human communities. Taken together, these data suggest the potential role of stray cats and dogs as being the main sources of environmental contamination as well as for human infections.
Lari, Shahrzad M; Ghobadi, Hassan; Attaran, Davood; Mahmoodpour, Afsoun; Shadkam, Omid; Rostami, Maryam
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the serious late pulmonary complications caused by sulphur mustard exposure. Health status evaluations of chemical warfare patients with COPD are important to the management of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of the COPD assessment test (CAT) in evaluating the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of chemical warfare patients with COPD. Eighty-two consecutive patients with stable COPD were enrolled in this study. All subjects were visited by one physician, and the HRQOL was evaluated by the CAT and St. George Respiratory Questionnaires (SGRQs). In addition, a standard spirometry test, 6-min walk distance test and pulse oxymetry were conducted. The severity of the COPD was determined using Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging and the body mass index, obstruction, dyspnoea and exercise (BODE) index. The mean age of the patients was 47.30 ± 7.08 years. The mean CAT score was 26.03 ± 8.28. Thirty-five (43%) patients were in CAT stage 3. There were statistically significant correlations between the CAT and the SGRQ (r = 0.70, P = 0.001) and the BODE index (r = 0.70, P = 0.001). A statistically significant inverse correlation was found between the CAT score and the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (r = -0.30, P = 0.03). Our results demonstrated that the CAT is a simple and valid tool for assessment of HRQOL in chemical warfare patients with COPD and can be used in clinical practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cavana, Paola; Vittone, Valentina; Capucchio, Maria T; Farca, Anna M
This report describes an uncommon clinical case of cystic parathyroid adenocarcinoma. A 17-year-old male Persian cat was presented for evaluation of a ventral cervical mass. The cat was inappetent and showed weight loss, polydipsia and vomiting. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed moderate hypercalcaemia, a mild increase of creatinine, isosthenuria and proteinuria. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-agarose gel electrophoresis showed a mixed tubular proteinuric pattern, in accordance with histological examination that revealed interstitial nephritis and glomerulonephritis. Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was based on histopathological findings.
Dalesandro, Nicole; Stiles, Jean; Miller, Margaret
A 13-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was presented initially for a change in the appearance of the left eye. On initial examination, a small penetrating wound was suspected as the cause for a corneal scar, an anterior cortical incipient cataract and mild iritis. The cat was not re-presented until 1 year later at which time ocular pain was marked. Severe anterior uveitis and glaucoma were diagnosed and the eye enucleated. Histopathology documented intralenticular coccoid bacteria and septic lens implantation syndrome. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Thomas, William B
Idiopathic epilepsy is the most common brain disease in dogs and also occurs in cats. Optimal management entails an accurate diagnosis and appropriate drug therapy. In dogs, either phenobarbital or bromide is appropriate as initial therapy. Phenobarbital is the drug of choice for cats. Several other drugs including zonisamide and levetiracetam have the advantage of fewer side effects and are being increasingly used in veterinary medicine. Treatment is successful in most cases, allowing the pet and client to enjoy a good quality of life.
Drolet, R; Bernard, J
Plasma cell pododermatitis, an uncommon disease of unknown etiology, is described in a six year old male domestic short-haired cat. The cat was referred with a history of lameness associated with swelling, softness and ulceration of the foot pads. The history suggested a seasonal occurrence of the condition. The dermis and subcutis of the foot pads were infiltrated by inflammatory cells which were mainly plasma cells. The large number of plasma cells present in the lesions suggests an immunological basis for the condition.
Niederhäuser, S; Schaffartzik, A; Tschuor, F; Baeumlin, Y; Kühn, N; Glaus, T
A 3-year-old cat was presented with anorexia and vomiting. Palpation revealed a caudal abdominal mass. Ultrasound and explorative abdominal surgery revealed a cystic mass in the jejunum. Histopathologic findings were consistent with an epidermoid cyst. The cyst was likely of congenital origin, since the cat had not undergone previous abdominal surgery, and gradually grew to reach a size that caused intestinal obstruction. Extrapolating from findings in people, intestinal epidermoid cysts are considered benign with a good long-term prognosis when completely excised.
Zeugswetter, Florian K; Pagitz, Maximilian; Friedrich, Mona Sarah
To describe the prevalence and possible causes of hypochloremia in the local hospital cat population. Retrospective study consisting of two parts. Data were collected from the local electronic medical records database using the search terms "chloride" and "cats" (part A), and "blood gas analysis" and "cats" (part B). The medical records of the hypochloremic cats were then reviewed to determine prior treatment or infusions and to identify major underlying disease processes. Part A included an age and gender matched non-hypochloremic control group, whereas in part B acid-base status was assessed. Hypochloremia was detected in 367 (27%) of 1363 blood samples. The application of a correction formula to adjust for free water changes decreased the number of hypochloremic cats to 253 (19%). Only a minority had received glucocorticoids or loop diuretics and the prevalence of vomiting was 44%. Common associated disorders were gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases, as well as azotemia and diabetes mellitus. Polyuria/polydipsia, dehydration, prednisolone or furosemide pretreatment, azotemia and diabetes mellitus increased, whereas fluid therapy and the diagnosis of neoplasia decreased the prevalence of hypochloremia. An inverse correlation was found between corrected chloride and standardized base excess (rs = -0.597, p = 0.001) as well as anion gap (rs = -0.4, p = 0.026). 99% of the hypochloremic cats had derangements of acid-base balance. Hypochloremia is a common electrolyte disorder in the local cat population. The correction formula is necessary to adjust for changes in plasma osmolality. Although associated with metabolic alkalosis, most of the hypochloremic cats have a normal or decreased pH. The inverse correlation of chloride and anion gap als well as the high proportion of azotemic or diabetic animals support the concept of compensatory acidosis induced hypochloremia. Hypochloremia should prompt the clinician to performe blood-gas analysis. Diabetes
Kanamori, N; Sakai, K; Sei, H; Salvert, D; Vanni-Mercier, G; Yamamoto, M; Jouvet, M
Arterial blood pressure fluctuations during sleep were investigated with power analysis technique in both normal and decerebrate cats. In the initial postoperative stage lasting about 3 to 4 days, intact cats displayed, during paradoxical sleep, phasic increases in arterial blood pressure which were superimposed on a tonic hypotension. In the later chronic stage, however, the animals showed the phasic hypertension being superimposed on the background of a tonic hypertension. Regardless of these stages, the blood pressure during paradoxical sleep exhibited a 1/f-like spectrum, expressed by the power spectral density which is inversely proportional to the Fourier frequency f. On the other hand, a power spectral profile of the blood pressure during slow wave sleep presented a white noise-like pattern within the same frequency range of 0.1-0.01 Hz. After brainstem transections at the pontomesencephalic border, the cats exhibited consistently a sustained fall in blood pressure during paradoxical sleep and the power spectral density of the blood pressure displayed a white noise-like pattern throughout the survival periods of one month or more. These observations indicate that the blood pressure fluctuations in the 1/f spectrum during paradoxical sleep originate in rostral brain structures.
Marra, Peter P; Santella, Chris
... of the explosion of these cat populations. This compelling book traces the historical and cultural ties between humans and cats from early domestication to the current boom in pet ownership, along the way accessibly explaining the science...
Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive
The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.
NASA's venerable B-52 mothership is seen here photographed from a KC-135 Tanker aircraft. The X-43 adapter is visible attached to the right wing. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and is also both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported
Tuma, M. L.; Chenevert, D. J.
Integrated vehicle ground vibration testing (IVGVT) will be a vital component for ensuring the safety of NASA's next generation of exploration vehicles to send human beings to the Moon and beyond. A ground vibration test (GVT) measures the fundamental dynamic characteristics of launch vehicles during various phases of flight. The Ares Flight & Integrated Test Office (FITO) will be leading the IVGVT for the Ares I crew launch vehicle at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) from 2012 to 2014 using Test Stand (TS) 4550. MSFC conducted similar GVT for the Saturn V and Space Shuttle vehicles. FITO is responsible for performing the IVGVT on the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle to low Earth orbit, and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which can launch the lunar lander into orbit and send the combined Orionilander vehicles toward the Moon. Ares V consists of a six-engine core stage with two solid rocket boosters and an Earth departure stage (EDS). The same engine will power the EDS and the Ares I second stage. For the Ares IVGVT, the current plan is to test six configurations in three unique test positions inside TS 4550. Position 1 represents the entire launch stack at liftoff (using inert first stage segments). Position 2 consists of the entire launch stack at first stage burn-out (using empty first stage segments). Four Ares I second stage test configurations will be tested in Position 3, consisting of the Upper Stage and Orion crew module in four nominal conditions: J-2X engine ignition, post Launch Abort System (LAS) jettison, critical slosh mass, and J-2X burn-out. Because of long disuse, TS 4550 is being repaired and reactivated to conduct the Ares I IVGVT. The Shuttle-era platforms have been removed and are being replaced with mast climbers that provide ready access to the test articles and can be moved easily to support different positions within the test stand. The electrical power distribution system for TS 4550 was
Hickey, M C; Jandrey, K; Farrell, K S; Carlson-Bremer, D
Renal infarcts identified without definitive association with any specific disease process. Determine diseases associated with diagnosis of renal infarcts in cats diagnosed by sonography or necropsy. 600 cats underwent abdominal ultrasonography, necropsy, or both at a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Information obtained from electronic medical records. Cats classified as having renal infarct present based on results of sonographic evaluation or necropsy. Time-matched case-controls selected from cats that underwent the next scheduled diagnostic procedure. 309 of 600 cats having diagnosis of renal infarct and 291 time-matched controls. Cats 7-14 years old were 1.6 times (odds ratio, 95% CI: 1.03-2.05, P = .03) more likely to have renal infarct than younger cats but no more likely to have renal infarct than older cats (1.4, 0.89-2.25, P = .14). All P = .14 are statistically significant. Cats with renal infarcts were 4.5 times (odds ratio, 95% CI: 2.63-7.68, P cats without renal infarcts. Cats with renal infarcts were 0.7 times (odds ratio, 95% CI: 0.51-0.99, P = .046) less likely to have diagnosis of neoplasia compared to cats without renal infarcts. Cats with diagnosis of hyperthyroidism did not have significant association with having renal infarct. Cats with renal infarcts were 8 times (odds ratio, 95% CI: 2.55-25.40, P ≤ .001) more likely to have diagnosis of distal aortic thromboembolism than cats without renal infarcts. Cats with renal infarcts identified on antemortem examination should be screened for occult cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Irons, James R.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Markham, Brian L.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cook, Bruce; Dwyer, John L.
The year 2013 will be an exciting period for those that study the Earth land surface from space, particularly those that observe and characterize land cover, land use, and the change of cover and use over time. Two new satellite observatories will be launched next year that will enhance capabilities for observing the global land surface. The United States plans to launch the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) in January. That event will be followed later in the year by the European Space Agency (ESA) launch of the first Sentinel 2 satellite. Considered together, the two satellites will increase the frequency of opportunities for viewing the land surface at a scale where human impact and influence can be differentiated from natural change. Data from the two satellites will provide images for similar spectral bands and for comparable spatial resolutions with rigorous attention to calibration that will facilitate cross comparisons. This presentation will provide an overview of the LDCM satellite system and report its readiness for the January launch.
Beltman, W.M.; van der Hoogt, Peter; Spiering, R.M.E.J.; Tijdeman, H.
The dynamical behaviour of solar panels during launch is significantly affected by the thin layers of air trapped between the panels. For narrow gaps the air manifests itself not only as a considerable added mass, but its viscosity can result in a substantial amount of damping. A model has been
The SMAP post-launch Cal/Val activities are intended both to assess the quality of the mission products and to support analyses that lead to their improvement. A suite of complementary methodologies will be employed that will result in a robust global assessment. Much of the work will occur in the C...
Center for Homeland Defense and Security
Center for Homeland Defense and Security, PRESS RELEASES The Naval Postgraduate School’s (NPS) Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS) has launched a certificate program in Homeland Defense and Security (HD/S) specifically for the National Guard (NG). The...
One crucial step in a Mars sample return mission would be to launch the collected sample away from the surface of Mars. This artist's concept depicts a Mars ascent vehicle for starting a sample of Mars rocks on their trip to Earth.
Smith, Sheldon D.; Myruski, Brian L.; Farmer, Richard C.; Freeman, Jon A.
Report presents mathematical model for use in designing rocket-launching stand. Predicts pressure and thermal environment, as well as thermal responses of structures to impinging rocket-exhaust plumes. Enables relatively inexperienced analyst to determine time-varying distributions and absolute levels of pressure and heat loads on structures.
Dupnick, Edwin; Skratt, John
A myriad of evolutionary paths connect the current state of government-dominated space launch operations to true commercial access to space. Every potential path requires the investment of private capital sufficient to fund the commercial venture with a perceived risk/return ratio acceptable to the investors. What is the private sector willing to invest? Does government participation reduce financial risk? How viable is a commercial launch system without government participation and support? We examine the interplay between various forms of government participation in commercial launch system development, alternative launch system designs, life cycle cost estimates, and typical industry risk aversion levels. The boundaries of this n-dimensional envelope are examined with an ECON-developed business financial model which provides for the parametric assessment and interaction of SSTO design variables (including various operational scenarios with financial variables including debt/equity assumptions, and commercial enterprise burden rates on various functions. We overlay this structure with observations from previous ECON research which characterize financial risk aversion levels for selected industrial sectors in terms of acceptable initial lump-sum investments, cumulative investments, probability of failure, payback periods, and ROI. The financial model allows the construction of parametric tradeoffs based on ranges of variables which can be said to actually encompass the ``true'' cost of operations and determine what level of ``true'' costs can be tolerated by private capitalization.
Towards Performance Prognostics of a Launch Valve Glenn Shevach1, Mark Blair2, James Hing3, Larry Venetsky4, Everard Martin5, John Wheelock6...focuses on robotics and machine learning for ALRE & SE applications. Everard Martin is a Mechanical Engineer in the Steam Catapult Launcher In-Service
Henson, Grant; Jone, Clyde S. III
This chapter concerns materials for expendable and reusable launch vehicle (LV) structures. An emphasis is placed on applications and design requirements, and how these requirements are met by the optimum choice of materials. Structural analysis and qualification strategies, which cannot be separated from the materials selection process, are described.
J.M.A. van den Brand (Judith); K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)
textabstractTo demonstrate that pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus may cause respiratory disease in cats, we intratracheally infected cats. Diffuse alveolar damage developed. Seroconversion of sentinel cats indicated cat-to-cat virus transmission. Unlike in cats infected with highly pathogenic avian
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...
An epidemiological survey was undertaken to study the prevalence and intensity of infection with Toxocara cati in some selected domestic cats from two communities in south-western Nigeria. Faecal samples of 200 cats were collected through a direct rectal swab using a long forceps from households with cat from Ode Irele ...
Breeding success of Pterodroma macroptera, Procellaria aequinoctialis and Pachyptila vittata salvini in three cat-free and three control areas were used to evaluate the effects of cat Felis catus predation on the avifauna of Marion Island. Breeding success of all three species was significantly higher in the combined cat-free ...
the points of introduction of mutant alleles for cat coat phenotypes from Europe into Latin America,; the heterozygosity levels at these loci in the current Latin American cat populations,; the level of genetic heterogeneity among Latin American cat populations, and how this compares with levels found in North American and ...
Stewart, Sarah A; Gaunt, Matthew C; Taylor, Susan M; Snead, Elizabeth C R
Two clinical cases of accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines are described. One cat died the day after presentation as a result of aspiration pneumonia and head trauma, despite supportive care. The second cat survived with supportive treatment, but developed dermatologic complications 10 d later.
Naan, Elaine C; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Kooistra, Hans S; Peeters, Marijke E
To describe outcome after thyroidectomy in hyperthyroid cats, with emphasis on peri- and postsurgical complications and recurrence. Retrospective study. One hundred and one hyperthyroid cats. Diagnostic work-up included preoperative measurement of plasma calcium, sodium, potassium, urea, and creatinine concentrations, and thyroid scintigraphy. A modified intracapsular dissection technique was performed. Postoperatively, parathyroid gland function was evaluated by measuring plasma calcium concentration several times daily. Outcome was obtained by standard telephone questionnaire. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed ectopic hyperplastic thyroid tissue (EHTT) in 9 cats. Preoperatively, 29 of 91 cats had hypokalemia. Two cats died within 3 days after surgery and 5 of 86 cats developed postoperative transient hypocalcemia. On histologic examination, thyroid carcinoma was identified in 3 of 88 cats. Hyperthyroidism recurred in 5 cats between 3 and 59 months; 4 of these cats had EHTT preoperatively. The difference in recurrence rate between hyperthyroid cats with and without EHTT was significant (P<.001). Complications were uncommon after thyroidectomy performed by an experienced surgeon when combined with an anesthetic regimen associated with minimal adverse cardiovascular effects. Hyperthyroid cats with EHTT had a significantly higher chance of recurrence. Thyroidectomy is associated with a low incidence of surgical complications and is an effective treatment for hyperthyroid cats when radioactive iodine therapy is not available. Preoperative thyroid scintigraphy is advised. Surgery is not recommended when EHTT is present, because of a higher chance of developing recurrent disease.
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, much of the dogs and cats owners were exposed to parasite. Training of dogs and cats owners, promotion of their awareness about various ways of transmission and examination of the infections in dogs and cats and prevention of these infections are recommended.
Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...
van Ree, R.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Bulder, I.; Bond, J.; Aalberse, R. C.
Current diagnostics and therapeutics for cat allergy are based on cat epithelial extracts originating from highly variable source materials. This gives rise to several problems: variability of allergen composition, contamination with house dust mite allergens, and potential transfer of pathogenic
Stewart, Shaun M.; Senent, Juan; Williams, Jacob; Condon, Gerald L.; Lee, David E.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Constellation Program is currently designing a new transportation system to replace the Space Shuttle, support human missions to both the International Space Station (ISS) and the Moon, and enable the eventual establishment of an outpost on the lunar surface. The present Constellation architecture is designed to meet nominal capability requirements and provide flexibility sufficient for handling a host of contingency scenarios including (but not limited to) launch delays at the Earth. This report summarizes a body of work performed in support of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Committee. It analyzes three lunar orbit rendezvous dual-launch architecture options which incorporate differing methodologies for mitigating the effects of launch delays at the Earth. NASA employed the recently-developed Mission Assessment Post Processor (MAPP) tool to quickly evaluate vehicle performance requirements for several candidate approaches for conducting human missions to the Moon. The MAPP tool enabled analysis of Earth perturbation effects and Earth-Moon geometry effects on the integrated vehicle performance as it varies over the 18.6-year lunar nodal cycle. Results are provided summarizing best-case and worst-case vehicle propellant requirements for each architecture option. Additionally, the associated vehicle payload mass requirements at launch are compared between each architecture and against those of the Constellation Program. The current Constellation Program architecture assumes that the Altair lunar lander and Earth Departure Stage (EDS) vehicles are launched on a heavy lift launch vehicle. The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is separately launched on a smaller man-rated vehicle. This strategy relaxes man-rating requirements for the heavy lift launch vehicle and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of the overall architecture over the operational lifetime of the program. The crew launch
Bamford, James; Ernst, David; Fubini, David G
More than 5,000 joint ventures, and many more contractual alliances, have been launched worldwide in the past five years. Companies are realizing that JVs and alliances can be lucrative vehicles for developing new products, moving into new markets, and increasing revenues. The problem is, the success rate for JVs and alliances is on a par with that for mergers and acquisitions--which is to say not very good. The authors, all McKinsey consultants, argue that JV success remains elusive for most companies because they don't pay enough attention to launch planning and execution. Most companies are highly disciplined about integrating the companies they target through M&A, but they rarely commit sufficient resources to launching similarly sized joint ventures or alliances. As a result, the parent companies experience strategic conflicts, governance gridlock, and missed operational synergies. Often, they walk away from the deal. The launch phase begins with the parent companies' signing of a memorandum of understanding and continues through the first 100 days of the JV or alliance's operation. During this period, it's critical for the parents to convene a team dedicated to exposing inherent tensions early. Specifically, the launch team must tackle four basic challenges. First, build and maintain strategic alignment across the separate corporate entities, each of which has its own goals, market pressures, and shareholders. Second, create a shared governance system for the two parent companies. Third, manage the economic interdependencies between the corporate parents and the JV. And fourth, build a cohesive, high-performing organization (the JV or alliance)--not a simple task, since most managers come from, will want to return to, and may even hold simultaneous positions in the parent companies. Using real-world examples, the authors offer their suggestions for meeting these challenges.
Prince, Frank A.; Hamaker, Joseph W. (Technical Monitor)
One of NASA's primary missions is to reduce the cost of access to space while simultaneously increasing safety. A key component, and one of the least understood, is the recurring operations and support cost for reusable launch systems. In order to predict these costs, NASA, under the leadership of the Independent Program Assessment Office (IPAO), has commissioned the development of a Launch Systems Operations Cost Model (LSOCM). LSOCM is a tool to predict the operations & support (O&S) cost of new and modified reusable (and partially reusable) launch systems. The requirements are to predict the non-recurring cost for the ground infrastructure and the recurring cost of maintaining that infrastructure, performing vehicle logistics, and performing the O&S actions to return the vehicle to flight. In addition, the model must estimate the time required to cycle the vehicle through all of the ground processing activities. The current version of LSOCM is an amalgamation of existing tools, leveraging our understanding of shuttle operations cost with a means of predicting how the maintenance burden will change as the vehicle becomes more aircraft like. The use of the Conceptual Operations Manpower Estimating Tool/Operations Cost Model (COMET/OCM) provides a solid point of departure based on shuttle and expendable launch vehicle (ELV) experience. The incorporation of the Reliability and Maintainability Analysis Tool (RMAT) as expressed by a set of response surface model equations gives a method for estimating how changing launch system characteristics affects cost and cycle time as compared to today's shuttle system. Plans are being made to improve the model. The development team will be spending the next few months devising a structured methodology that will enable verified and validated algorithms to give accurate cost estimates. To assist in this endeavor the LSOCM team is part of an Agency wide effort to combine resources with other cost and operations professionals to
Fitzpatrick, R L; Wittenburg, L A; Hansen, R J; Gustafson, D L; Quimby, J M
Ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, is an effective anti-emetic in cats. The purpose of this study was to compare pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous (SQ) ondansetron in healthy geriatric cats to cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or liver disease using a limited sampling strategy. 60 cats participated; 20 per group. Blood was drawn 30 and 120 min following one 2 mg (mean 0.49 mg/kg, range 0.27-1.05 mg/kg) SQ dose of ondansetron. Ondansetron concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Drug exposure represented as area under the curve (AUC) was predicted using a limited sampling approach based on multiple linear regression analysis from previous full sampling studies, and clearance (CL/F) estimated using noncompartmental methods. Kruskal-Wallis anova was used to compare parameters between groups. Mean AUC (ng/mL·h) of subcutaneous ondansetron was 301.4 (geriatric), 415.2 (CKD), and 587.0 (liver). CL/F (L/h/kg) of SQ ondansetron was 1.157 (geriatric), 0.967 (CKD), and 0.795 (liver). AUC was significantly higher in liver and CKD cats when compared to geriatric cats (P cats was significantly decreased (P cats. In age-matched subset analysis, AUC and CL/F in liver cats remained significantly different from geriatric cats. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Delport, P C; Fourie, L J
This study was done to compare the collection of cat urine, for phosphate concentration determination, by catheterisation with that via a proprietary cat litter (Katkor). The passage of urine through the litter or its retention in the litter for a period of 2 hours did not affect the concentration of phosphates compared with that of the original sample. Apart from a small volume of urine trapped in the litter by capillary action, and some urine adhering to the funnel in which the litter was placed, the litter proved to be an excellent medium for routine urine collection from cats, and more especially as an alternative to catheterisation when regular collection from a particular cat is required.
Abstract Since the introduction of brominated flame retardants (such as the PBDEs), increases in feline hyperthyroidism have been observed. We hypothesized that PBDE exposure was linked to the increased occurrence of hyperthyroidism in cats. Herein, PBDEs in serum of pet ...
Oswaldo Santos Baquero
Full Text Available A two-stage cluster sample design was used to estimate population parameters of dogs and cats of the urban area of Votorantim, São Paulo State, Brazil, to support the planning and implementation of population management programs for companion animals. For dogs, the total and density estimates were 27,241 dogs (95% confidence interval [CI]=23,903-30,578 and 951 dogs km-2 (95% CI=835-1,068, respectively. For cats, these estimates were 5,579 cats (95% CI=3,595-7,562 and 195 cats km-2 (95% CI=126-264. Cost was the most prevalent reason for not sterilizing the animals (33%, 95% CI=23%-44%, Deff=6.1. The percentage of interviewees that expressed reasons for abandoning their animals was equal to 9 (95% CI=5-13, Deff=2.1. Other estimates were obtained, including indirect estimates of abandonment. The estimates associated with abandonment suggest that the prevalence of this phenomenon can significantly affect population dynamics. Distribution of dogs per household can be used to construct hypothetical populations and to validate estimation procedures. The estimates generated allow parameterizing mathematical models and constructing population management indicators
Hansen, Alice P.; Skarbye, Line K.; Vinther, Lene M.
Feline endoparasites are highly prevalent worldwide and may cause a variety of clinical signs in infected cats. Prevalence rates are dynamic and there is limited knowledge of the current prevalence in Denmark and the clinical manifestation and significance of especially the lungworm Aelurostrongy......Feline endoparasites are highly prevalent worldwide and may cause a variety of clinical signs in infected cats. Prevalence rates are dynamic and there is limited knowledge of the current prevalence in Denmark and the clinical manifestation and significance of especially the lungworm...... Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. This study investigated the total and local prevalence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and other endoparasites in Danish cats. The clinical significance of feline aelurostrongylosis was also examined through identification of frequency and severity of selected clinical signs. Faecal...... samples (n = 327) and clinical data (n = 312) were collected from August to October 2015, primarily from outdoor cats located at shelters distributed across Denmark. A modified Baermann method and a concentration McMaster technique was used to diagnose A. abstrusus first stage larvae and eggs...
Pukay, B.P.; Stevenson, D.A.
A four year old ovariohysterectomized domestic short-haired cat under treatment for behavioral urine spraying and idiopathic alopecia developed mammary gland hypertrophy following treatment with megestrol acetate. Withdrawal of the progestin and treatment with androgen failed to cause regression of the hypertrophy. The affected mammary gland was surgically excised and recovery was uneventful.
email, SharePoint , printed reports, etc.) p. Is there a documented process that the CAT team can review to better understand the interactions with...schedule, task statement, etc.) i. What tools are used to create those deliverables? ii. Where and how are those deliverables stored? SharePoint
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 2. Schrödinger's Cat States. A N Maheshwari V P Srivastava. Research News Volume 3 Issue 2 February 1998 pp 79-82. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/02/0079-0082 ...
Over the past 30 years, a progressive increase in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith prevalence is reported in cats and dogs diagnosed with urolithiasis. This increase in prevalence appears to have occurred since dietary modifications were introduced to address magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.
Chang, Chung-chien Karen
Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of…
Berends, MJW; Tan-Sindhunata, G; Leegte, B; Van Essen, AJ
Cat-Eye syndrome (CES) is a disorder with a variable pattern of multiple congenital anomalies of which coloboma of the iris and anal atresia are the best known. CES is cyogenetically characterised by the presence of an extra bisatellited marker chromosome, which represents an inverted dicentric
Barger, Anne M; Weedon, G Robert; Maddox, Carol W; Galloway, Kimberly A
A young adult feral cat presented to the Champaign County Humane Society with a subcutaneous mass near the stifle. The mass was aspirated. Chains of paired cocci organisms were identified, consistent with Dermatophilus congolensis. The identity of these organisms was confirmed by culture and polymerase chain reaction. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.
Lenin A Villamizar-Martinez
Full Text Available Case summary A 10-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented for assessment of a gingival mass surrounding the left maxillary third and fourth premolar teeth. The mass was surgically removed by means of a marginal rim excision, and the tissue was submitted for histological assessment. It was identified as a benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma. There was proliferation of mineralized eosinophilic material with multiple irregularly placed lacunae and reversal lines, reminiscent of cementum. The cat recovered uneventfully from the anesthesia, and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence 6 months after surgery. Relevance and novel information Cementoblastomas (true cementomas in domestic animals are rare, with just a few reports in ruminants, monogastric herbivores and rodents. Cementoblastoma is considered a benign tumor that arises from the tooth root. The slow, expansive and constant growth that characterizes these masses may be accompanied by signs of oral discomfort and dysphagia. This case report is intended to increase knowledge regarding this tumor in cats and also highlights the importance of complete excision of the neoplasm. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports in the literature of cementoblastoma in the cat.
Fox, J G; Beaucage, C M; Murphy, J C; Niemi, S M
Cats were infected experimentally with Salmonella typhimurium via the conjunctiva. Clinical signs consisted of lacrimation, conjunctivitis, blepharospasm, prominent nictitating membrane and scleral injection. These signs were accompanied by an absolute neutrophilia and conjunctival smears indicative of moderate to severe suppurative inflammation. Ocular signs disappeared by day 6 postinfection. Salmonella typhimurium was cultured intermittently from the inoculated conjunctivae and rectal swab...
Full Text Available ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading About Recipes for Kids With Diabetes Can ... Do I Help a Kid Who's Bullied? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a ...
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of amlodipine on blood pressure and renal function in cats with arterial hypertension secondary to chronic renal failure. The research was conducted on 11 cats, aged between 7 and 14.5 years, diagnosed with arterial hypertension secondary to chronic renal failure. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MBP and pulse rate were determined by oscillometric method, before and after 7, 30 or 120 days of treatment with amlodipine. At the beginning of treatment, all cats were receiving 0.625 mg amlodipine once daily and after 7 days oftreatment, in five cats, the dose was increased to 1.25 mg amlodipine, once daily. Before amlodipine administration the mean values of SBP/DBP were 175 ± 13.2 mmHg/119 ± 7.2 mmHg and after 30 days of treatment, the mean values of the SBP/DBP were reduced by 27.9/25.4 mmHg (p<0,001. After 120 days of treatment with amlodipine mean values of SBP/DBP were lower with 32/31 mmHg compared with baseline values (p<0.001. The treatment with amlodipine did not significantly affect the values of blood biochemical parameters of renal profile.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The main two sorts of automatic gene annotation frameworks are ab initio and alignment-based, the latter splitting into two sub-groups. The first group is used for intra-species alignments, among which are successful ones with high specificity and speed. The other group contains more sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. Results Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool. It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web at http://xat.sourceforge.net/. Conclusions Examined from different angles, CAT outperforms other extant alignment tools. Tested against all available mouse-human and zebrafish-human orthologs, we demonstrate that CAT combines the specificity and speed of the best intra-species algorithms, like BLAT and sim4, with the sensitivity of the best inter-species tools, like GeneWise.
Full Text Available Case series summary Chronic inflammatory airway disease with secondary broncholithiasis was diagnosed in two cats from CT and bronchoalveolar lavage cytological findings. In one cat with progressively worsening lower respiratory tract signs, more than 80 discrete, highly attenuating endobronchial opacities were detected on thoracic CT. The broncholiths were distributed throughout the right middle, and left and right caudal lung lobes, and the caudal part of the left cranial and accessory lobes. In the other cat broncholithiasis was an incidental finding on thoracic radiographs taken during diagnostic investigation of inappetence. On thoracic CT, 25 calcified endobronchial opacities were detected in the left caudal lung lobe in secondary and tertiary bronchi. CT features of chronic inflammatory airway disease were present in both cases, including bronchiectasis, atelectasis, flattening of the diaphragm and bronchial wall thickening. Relevance and novel information This is the first report to document CT features of broncholithiasis in cats. Feline broncholithiasis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in any case where calcified endobronchial material is evident on thoracic radiographs or CT.
Villamizar-Martinez, Lenin A; Reiter, Alexander M; Sánchez, Melissa D; Soltero-Rivera, Maria M
A 10-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented for assessment of a gingival mass surrounding the left maxillary third and fourth premolar teeth. The mass was surgically removed by means of a marginal rim excision, and the tissue was submitted for histological assessment. It was identified as a benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma). There was proliferation of mineralized eosinophilic material with multiple irregularly placed lacunae and reversal lines, reminiscent of cementum. The cat recovered uneventfully from the anesthesia, and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence 6 months after surgery. Cementoblastomas (true cementomas) in domestic animals are rare, with just a few reports in ruminants, monogastric herbivores and rodents. Cementoblastoma is considered a benign tumor that arises from the tooth root. The slow, expansive and constant growth that characterizes these masses may be accompanied by signs of oral discomfort and dysphagia. This case report is intended to increase knowledge regarding this tumor in cats and also highlights the importance of complete excision of the neoplasm. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports in the literature of cementoblastoma in the cat.
Musk, Elon; Koenigsmann, Hans; Gurevich, Gwynne
Falcon is a mostly reusable, two stage, liquid oxygen and kerosene powered launch vehicle being built by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) from the ground up. The vehicle is designed above all for high reliability, followed by low cost and a benign flight environment. Launched from Vandenberg, a standard Falcon can carry over 470 kg to a 700 km sun-synchronous orbit and a heavy Falcon can deliver 1450 kg to the same orbit. To minimize failure modes, the vehicle has the minimum pragmatic...
Attached to the second stage of a Boeing Delta II at Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, is the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space Satellite-1 (SEDSat-1). An international project, SEDSat-1 is a secondary payload on the Deep Space 1 mission and will be deployed 88 minutes after launch over Hawaii. The satellite includes cameras for imaging Earth, a unique attitude determination system, and amateur radio communication capabilities. Deep Space 1, targeted for launch on Oct. 24, is the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program and is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century.
Mendillo, M; Hawkins, G S; Klobuchar, J A
A dramatic ionospheric phenomenon, unique in magnitude and in spatial and temporal extent, occurred along the Atlantic Coast of North America after the launch of the NASA Skylab Workshop on 14 May 1973. The effect was a large and rapid decrease in the total number of ionospheric electrons within a distance of 1000 kilometers of the burning engines of the Saturn V launch vehicle. The observations are interpreted in terms of exceptionally enhanced chemical loss rates due to the molecular hydrogen and water vapor contained in the Saturn second-stage exhaust plume.
Full Text Available The article describes numerical simulations of the process of lifeboat launching at the ship’s side. The research aimed at finding the values of ship motion parameters which appear to be most dangerous for people in the lowered lifeboat due to the generated accelerations. The simplified model of ship hull motion adopted at this research stage bases on a superposition of harmonic motions with given amplitudes and periods in six degrees of freedom. The range of the amplitude of motion for each degree of freedom corresponds approximately to that of possible motion of the PANAMAX type ship on the Baltic sea. In total, 120 960 cases of ship hull motion were examined.
Baer, Mel; Crawford, Dave; Hickox, Charles; Kipp, Marlin; Hertel, Gene; Morgan, Hal; Ratzel, Arthur; Cragg, Clinton H.
An assessment methodology is developed to guide quantitative predictions of adverse physical environments and the subsequent effects on the Ares-1 crew launch vehicle associated with the loss of containment of cryogenic liquid propellants from the upper stage during ascent. Development of the methodology is led by a team at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) with guidance and support from a number of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) personnel. The methodology is based on the current Ares-1 design and feasible accident scenarios. These scenarios address containment failure from debris impact or structural response to pressure or blast loading from an external source. Once containment is breached, the envisioned assessment methodology includes predictions for the sequence of physical processes stemming from cryogenic tank failure. The investigative techniques, analysis paths, and numerical simulations that comprise the proposed methodology are summarized and appropriate simulation software is identified in this report.
Full Text Available This paper aims the difficult problem of creating new product concepts in thearea of high-technology and innovation. Because of scientific discoveries andimpressive development of technology, many companies compete for marketsupremacy on the technological innovations market. In a global market,which is currently in an economic and financial crisis, consumers make a newhierarchy of priorities in terms of expenditure and consumption. Therefore,companies that create new products must be very careful about 2 aspects,so the new product may not become a failure: the products positioning on themarket and the target group which they address to. This paper belongs to themarketing area by bringing into discussion theoretical concepts, by analyzingthe stages crossed by a company in the process of launching a new hightechproduct and crossing the abyss in the product adoption process byconsumers.
Alberthsen, C; Rand, J S; Bennett, P C; Paterson, M; Lawrie, M; Morton, J M
A lack of information limits understanding of the excess cat problem and development of effective management strategies. This study describes cats entering Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Queensland shelters and identifies risk factors for euthanasia. Data for cats entering relevant shelters (July 2006-June 2008) were obtained from the RSPCA's electronic database. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for euthanasia. Of 33,736 cats admitted, 46% were adult cats (≥3 months) and 54% were kittens (<3 months). The most common reason for admission was stray (54%), followed by owner surrender (44%). Euthanasia was the most common outcome (65%), followed by adoption (30%). The odds of euthanasia were lower for kittens and for cats that were desexed prior to admission. Of the strays, 8% had been desexed. For cats of similar age, sex, desexed and feral status, stray cats were more likely to be adopted than owner-surrenders. Strategies are needed to reduce numbers of cats admitted and euthanased. Given the high proportion of admissions that were kittens, reducing the incidence of delayed sterilisation of owned cats may be an important strategy for reducing the number of unwanted kittens. Many cats admitted as strays were rehomable, but given the high proportion of admissions that are strays, further research on stray populations is needed. Future studies of cats entering shelters would be enhanced if data collection definitions, categories and methods were standardised. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.
Quimby, Jessica; Lappin, Michael
Control of hyperphosphatemia is an important part of the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of sucralfate as a phosphate binder in normal cats and normophosphatemic CKD cats. A 500 mg sucralfate slurry was administered orally q 8 hr for 2 wk, and serum phosphorus, urine fractional excretion of phosphorus, and fecal phosphorus concentrations were measured. In normal cats treated with sucralfate, significant changes in serum phosphorus concentration or urinary excretion of phosphorus were not detected, and vomiting occurred after 14.7% of administrations. Of the five normophosphatemic cats with CKD treated with sucralfate, three experienced clinical decompensation, including vomiting, anorexia, constipation, and increased azotemia. Administration of sucralfate did not result in significant changes in fecal phosphorus concentration in these cats. The effects of sucralfate administration on serum phosphorus concentration and urinary excretion of phosphorus in CKD cats was difficult to determine because of dehydration and worsening azotemia associated with decompensation. Due to side effects and the apparent lack of efficacy of the medication, the study was discontinued. This study was unable to confirm efficacy of this sucralfate formulation as a phosphate binder, and side effects were problematic during the study.
Chen, Anping; Deng, Tao
This paper introduced a hydraulic blowdown servo system developed for a solid launch vehicle of the family of Chinese Long March Vehicles. It's the thrust vector control (TVC) system for the first stage. This system is a cold gas blowdown hydraulic servo system and consist of gas vessel, hydraulic reservoir, servo actuator, digital control unit (DCU), electric explosion valve, and pressure regulator etc. A brief description of the main assemblies and characteristics follows. a) Gas vessel is a resin/carbon fiber composite over wrapped pressure vessel with a titanium liner, The volume of the vessel is about 30 liters. b) Hydraulic reservoir is a titanium alloy piston type reservoir with a magnetostrictive sensor as the fluid level indicator. The volume of the reservoir is about 30 liters. c) Servo actuator is a equal area linear piston actuator with a 2-stage low null leakage servo valve and a linear variable differential transducer (LVDT) feedback the piston position, Its stall force is about 120kN. d) Digital control unit (DCU) is a compact digital controller based on digital signal processor (DSP), and deployed dual redundant 1553B digital busses to communicate with the on board computer. e) Electric explosion valve is a normally closed valve to confine the high pressure helium gas. f) Pressure regulator is a spring-loaded poppet pressure valve, and regulates the gas pressure from about 60MPa to about 24MPa. g) The whole system is mounted in the aft skirt of the vehicle. h) This system delivers approximately 40kW hydraulic power, by contrast, the total mass is less than 190kg. the power mass ratio is about 0.21. Have finished the development and the system test. Bench and motor static firing tests verified that all of the performances have met the design requirements. This servo system is complaint to use of the solid launch vehicle.
Fox, Jack J.; Gormley, Thomas J.
Perhaps the most substantial single obstacle to progress of space exploration and utilization of space for human benefit is the safety & reliability and the inherent cost of launching to, and returning from, space. The primary influence in the high costs of current launch systems (the same is true for commercial and military aircraft and most other reusable systems) is the operations, maintenance and infrastructure portion of the program's total life cycle costs. Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) maintenance and design have traditionally been two separate engineering disciplines with often conflicting objectives - maximizing ease of maintenance versus optimizing performance, size and cost. Testability analysis, an element of Informed Maintenance (IM), has been an ad hoc, manual effort, in which maintenance engineers attempt to identify an efficient method of troubleshooting for the given product, with little or no control over product design. Therefore, testability deficiencies in the design cannot be rectified. It is now widely recognized that IM must be engineered into the product at the design stage itself, so that an optimal compromise is achieved between system maintainability and performance. The elements of IM include testability analysis, diagnostics/prognostics, automated maintenance scheduling, automated logistics coordination, paperless documentation and data mining. IM derives its heritage from complimentary NASA science, space and aeronautic enterprises such as the on-board autonomous Remote Agent Architecture recently flown on NASA's Deep Space 1 Probe as well as commercial industries that employ quick turnaround operations. Commercial technologies and processes supporting NASA's IM initiatives include condition based maintenance technologies from Boeing's Commercial 777 Aircraft and Lockheed-Martin's F-22 Fighter, automotive computer diagnostics and autonomous controllers that enable 100,000 mile maintenance free operations, and locomotive monitoring
Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.; Lyles, Garry M.; Beaman, David E.
Exploration beyond Earth will be an enduring legacy for future generations, confirming America's commitment to explore, learn, and progress. NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is responsible for designing and developing the first exploration-class rocket since the Apollo Program's Saturn V that sent Americans to the Moon. The SLS offers a flexible design that may be configured for the MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle and associated equipment, or may be outfitted with a payload fairing that will accommodate flagship science instruments and a variety of high-priority experiments. Both options support a national capability that will pay dividends for future generations. Building on legacy systems, facilities, and expertise, the SLS will have an initial lift capability of 70 metric tons (mT) and will be evolvable to 130 mT. While commercial launch vehicle providers service the International Space Station market, this capability will surpass all vehicles, past and present, providing the means to do entirely new missions, such as human exploration of asteroids and Mars. With its superior lift capability, the SLS can expand the interplanetary highway to many possible destinations, conducting revolutionary missions that will change the way we view ourselves, our planet and its place in the cosmos. To perform missions such as these, the SLS will be the largest launch vehicle ever built. It is being designed for safety and affordability - to sustain our journey into the space age. Current plans include launching the first flight, without crew, later this decade, with crewed flights beginning early next decade. Development work now in progress is based on heritage space systems and working knowledge, allowing for a relatively quick start and for maturing the SLS rocket as future technologies become available. Together, NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry are partnering to develop this one-of-a-kind asset. Many of NASA's space
Austgen, Laura E.; Bowen, Richard A.; Bunning, Michel L.; Davis, Brent S.; Mitchell, Carl J.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.
Domestic dogs and cats were infected by mosquito bite and evaluated as hosts for West Nile virus (WNV). Viremia of low magnitude and short duration developed in four dogs but they did not display signs of disease. Four cats became viremic, with peak titers ranging from 103.0 to 104.0 PFU/mL. Three of the cats showed mild, non-neurologic signs of disease. WNV was not isolated from saliva of either dogs or cats during the period of viremia. An additional group of four cats were exposed to WNV o...
M Nils Peterson
Full Text Available Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs and bird conservation professionals (BCPs across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators. Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.
Stiles, J; Weil, A B; Packer, R A; Lantz, G C
The medical records of 20 cats with post-anesthetic cortical blindness were reviewed. Information collected included signalment and health status, reason for anesthesia, anesthetic protocols and adverse events, post-anesthetic visual and neurological abnormalities, clinical outcome, and risk factors. The vascular anatomy of the cat brain was reviewed by cadaver dissections. Thirteen cats were anaesthetised for dentistry, four for endoscopy, two for neutering procedures and one for urethral obstruction. A mouth gag was used in 16/20 cats. Three cats had had cardiac arrest, whereas in the remaining 17 cases, no specific cause of blindness was identified. Seventeen cats (85%) had neurological deficits in addition to blindness. Fourteen of 20 cats (70%) had documented recovery of vision, whereas four (20%) remained blind. Two cats (10%) were lost to follow up while still blind. Ten of 17 cats (59%) with neurological deficits had full recovery from neurological disease, two (12%) had mild persistent deficits and one (6%) was euthanased as it failed to recover. Four cats (23%) without documented resolution of neurological signs were lost to follow up. Mouth gags were identified as a potential risk factor for cerebral ischemia and blindness in cats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pratesi, A; Grierson, J; Moores, A P
To describe the surgical technique and to report outcomes in cats with coxofemoral luxation treated with open reduction and toggle rod stabilisation. Retrospective study of cats with coxofemoral luxation stabilised via the toggle rod method. Short-term follow-up included clinical examination and radiographs. Long-term follow-up was via owner questionnaire. Fourteen cats were included. All of the cats had reported unilateral craniodorsal hip luxation. Nine cats (64·3%) had additional orthopaedic injuries. Luxations were stabilised with a 3·2-mm toggle rod (2·7-mm toggle rod in one cat) and two loops of four-metric polydioxanone (five-metric polydioxanone in one cat and three loops of four-metric polydioxanone in two cats). Success rate, in terms of maintenance of reduction, was 86%. Reluxation occurred in two cats (14%), both of which had multiple limb injuries. Eleven owner questionnaires (mean follow-up time 15·5 months) reported a functional outcome of "very good" to "excellent". Although the diameter of the pelvic canal was reduced by the presence of the toggle rod (mean narrowing 16.2%), none of the cats had defaecatory issues. Toggle rod stabilisation is an effective method for the treatment of coxofemoral luxation in cats. Injuries to multiple limbs may be a risk factor for reluxation. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Rudinsky, Adam J; Guillaumin, Julien; Gilor, Chen
Objectives The impact of dietary factors on fecal occult blood (FOB) testing has been previously evaluated in cats, but the analytical sensitivity of this point-of-care test remains unexamined. The primary goal of this study was to assess the analytical sensitivity of the FOB test in cats. Methods Five cats were used in a repeated measures study. Following oral administration of blood, feces were collected and tested every 12 h for FOB and melena. All cats were fed an animal protein-free diet starting the week before entry into the study. Blood was administered on a milligram of hemoglobin per kilogram of body weight basis, and dosed at 1.5, 3, 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg hemoglobin in series with a wash-out period between each trial. Results FOB was detected in one cat at 1.5 mg/kg hemoglobin, three cats at 3 mg/kg hemoglobin and in all five cats at 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg hemoglobin. Melena was noted in one cat at 30 mg/kg and four cats at 45 mg/kg, but not at lower doses. Conclusions and relevance Administration of 15 mg/kg hemoglobin (equivalent to about 1.5 ml blood) was sufficient for positive results in all cats. However, detection occurred with as little as 1.5 mg/kg hemoglobin. Thus, FOB has good analytical sensitivity in cats under appropriate clinical situations.
Manchi, George; Jarolmasjed, Seyedhosein; Brunnberg, Mathias; Shahid, Muhammad; Rehbein, Sina; Stein, Silke; Gruber, Achim D; Brunnberg, Leo
Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) is a non-traumatic accumulation of air in the pleural cavity. This case report describes a cat with SP as a result of primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma. A second cat was diagnosed with primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma and asthma. A thoracostomy tube was inserted in the first cat while in the second cat a thoracostomy tube was placed and lobectomy of the right cranial and middle lung lobes was performed. Both cats died following treatment. The current literature reviewed here covers the comparative etiologies of SP as well as clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, therapy and prognosis in cats. A total of 64 cases of cats with secondary spontaneous pneumothorax reported in nine articles are discussed. To our knowledge, there has been no previous description in the literature regarding primary SP in cats. Based on prior case reports, surgery was performed in 16% (10 cats) of SP cases. The current review demonstrates that depending on the underlying lung disease, cats with SP have a careful short-term prognosis because 39 of 64 cats (60%) were discharged.
Thengchaisri, Naris; Sinthusingha, Chayakrit; Arthitwong, Surapong; Sattasathuchana, Panpicha
Evidence suggests that non-domesticated felids inherited the same AB-erythrocyte antigens as domestic cats. To study the possible compatibility of tiger blood with that of other endangered felidae, blood samples from captive tigers and domestic cats were subjected to an in vitro study. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify whether the captive tigers had blood type AB and (2) determine the compatibility between the blood of captive tigers and that of domestic cats with a similar blood type. The anti-coagulated blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid of 30 tigers was examined to determine blood type, and a crossmatching test was performed between tiger and cat blood. All 30 tigers had blood type A. Tube agglutination tests using tiger plasma with cat erythrocytes resulted in 100% agglutination (n=30) with type B cat erythrocytes and 76.7% agglutination (n=23) with type A cat erythrocytes. The 80% of major and 60% of minor compatibilities between blood from 10 tigers and 10 domestic cats with blood type A were found to pass compatibility tests. Interestingly, 3/10 of the tigers' red blood cell samples were fully compatible with all cat plasmas, and 1/10 of the tiger plasma samples were fully compatible with the type A red cells of domestic cats. Although the result of present findings revealed type-A blood group in the surveyed tigers, the reaction of tiger plasma with Type-A red cell from cats suggested a possibility of other blood type in tigers.
Full Text Available Case summary This case report describes an acute reaction, thought to be vagally mediated, in two cats immediately following cystocentesis. Both cats were being evaluated for feline idiopathic cystitis and developed bradycardia, hypersalivation, urination and weakness after a blind cystocentesis. Both cats recovered uneventfully with supportive care. Relevance and novel information A vagally mediated response may occur in cats after cystocentesis, which is a common procedure performed by veterinary professionals in cats. This response may be very profound and dramatic. Affected cats will likely make an uneventful recovery. This vagally mediated response to cystocentesis, though reported by word of mouth among veterinarians, has not been described in the literature. This is the first documentation of its occurrence in cats.
DeAvilla, Marisa D; Leech, Elizabeth B
To describe the clinical presentation and biochemical abnormalities occurring during the successful treatment of refeeding syndrome in a cat. A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat presented after having been missing for 12 weeks. The cat had clinical signs of severe starvation. Common complications developed during refeeding (eg, hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hemolytic anemia). The cat also developed hypoglycemia, a complication common in people but not previously reported in a cat. Hypoglycemia and electrolyte deficiencies were managed with intravenous supplementation. The cat was successfully treated and was discharged alive 7 days after presentation. Hypoglycemia has not been reported previously as a complication of refeeding in a cat. Frequent monitoring of electrolyte, mineral, and blood glucose concentrations is essential to successful management of refeeding syndrome. The ideal refeeding strategy is unknown at this time. Evidence suggests that a diet low in carbohydrate decreases the likelihood of metabolic derangements commonly associated with refeeding. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.
McConnaughey, Paul K.; Femminineo, Mark G.; Koelfgen, Syri J.; Lepsch, Roger A; Ryan, Richard M.; Taylor, Steven A.
Safe, reliable, and affordable access to low-Earth (LEO) orbit is necessary for all of the United States (US) space endeavors. In 2010, NASA s Office of the Chief Technologist commissioned 14 teams to develop technology roadmaps that could be used to guide the Agency s and US technology investment decisions for the next few decades. The Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Area (LPSTA) team was tasked to address the propulsion technology challenges for access to LEO. The developed LPSTA roadmap addresses technologies that enhance existing solid or liquid propulsion technologies and their related ancillary systems or significantly advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of less mature systems like airbreathing, unconventional, and other launch technologies. In developing this roadmap, the LPSTA team consulted previous NASA, military, and industry studies as well as subject matter experts to develop their assessment of this field, which has fundamental technological and strategic impacts for US space capabilities.
Colloredo, Scott; Gray, James A.
The impending conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program and the Constellation Program cancellation unveiled in the FY2011 President's budget created a large void for human spaceflight capability and specifically launch activity from the Florida launch Site (FlS). This void created an opportunity to re-architect the launch site to be more accommodating to the future NASA heavy lift and commercial space industry. The goal is to evolve the heritage capabilities into a more affordable and flexible launch complex. This case study will discuss the FlS architecture evolution from the trade studies to select primary launch site locations for future customers, to improving infrastructure; promoting environmental remediation/compliance; improving offline processing, manufacturing, & recovery; developing range interface and control services with the US Air Force, and developing modernization efforts for the launch Pad, Vehicle Assembly Building, Mobile launcher, and supporting infrastructure. The architecture studies will steer how to best invest limited modernization funding from initiatives like the 21 st elSe and other potential funding.
Murtazin, Rafail; Petrov, Nikolay; Ulybyshev, Yuri
Traditionally the launch mass of a crew vehicle with a launch abort system (LAS) should be in compliance with the ultimate launch vehicle (LV) payload mass capability. The LAS is used to provide crew safety in the case of LV failure. An additional propellant for the LV (that exceeds the mass of propellant required for the injection into a nominal orbit) may contribute to crew safety in the case of LV failures. Currently rescue strategies used to provide emergency landing or splashdown along the ground track (for a spacecraft with a low lift-to-drag ratio ( L/D), such as the Soyuz descent capsule) or landing on a back-up runway located near the flight path (for spacecraft with a high L/D, such as the Buran or Space Shuttle Orbiter). The advanced Russian human spacecraft with a low L/D that delivers crew to the International Space Station is designed to launch from the new Vostochny launch site. Major part of the LV ground track will pass over the Pacific Ocean. It means that any rescue operation will be challenging and complex. The paper explores possible launch abort strategies when an additional LV propellant is used. The optimal strategy is to provide a controlled abort landing into specified areas. The number and size of the areas should be minimal in order to minimize search-and-rescue time. A qualitative comparison between the traditional and proposed strategies is shortly discussed.
conjunction with cages or other intermediate devices. The launch process using a crane typically involves the attachment of the crane’s hook to the...vehicle or intermediate device after which it is hoisted up via winch and moved slowly over the side of the surface platform, lowered to the water...of traits for an optimal LARS. Of special concern is the need for a fast, safe winch, a latch/ hook mechanism, and controlling vehicle pendulation
Iran came a step closer to becoming a space-faring nation last month, with the successful test of a rocket capable of carrying a satellite into orbit and the opening of a new space centre. Western commentators, however, have expressed scepticism about whether Iran really does have the technology to successfully launch a satellite, suggesting instead that the country is more interested in developing intercontinental ballistic missiles, which require similarly powerful rockets.
Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.; Singer, Christer E.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is charged with delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth orbit (BEO). The SLS may also provide backup crew and cargo services to the International Space Station, where astronauts have been training for long-duration voyages to destinations such as asteroids and Mars. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V, providing 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability. This paper will provide an overview of its operations strategy, which includes initiatives to reduce both development and fixed costs by using existing hardware and infrastructure assets to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat using competitively selected advanced technologies that offer appropriate return on investment. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. A series of design reference missions has informed the SLS operations concept, including launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on an autonomous demonstration mission in a lunar flyby scenario in 2017, and the first flight of a crew on Orion for a lunar flyby in 2021. Additional concepts address the processing of very large payloads, using a series of modular fairings and adapters to flexibly configure the rocket for the mission. This paper will describe how the SLS, Orion, and Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs are working together to create streamlined, affordable operations for sustainable exploration for decades to come.
Environmental issues are emerging as another side of economic development in Vietnam. From Finland, through its strong network in South East Asia, Finnish Water Forum recognised the opportunity and the need of having a Finnish brand promoting Finnish water expertise in the environmental sector, especially water treatment in Vietnam. The research objective is to launch the brand successfully in Vietnam within 2014. In order to achieve that, this paper describes carefully the process of bu...
Doreswamy, Rajiv, N.; Self, Timothy A.
This viewgraph presentation describes test strategies and lean philisophies and practices that are applied to Ares Launch Vehicles. The topics include: 1) Testing strategy; 2) Lean Practices in Ares I-X; 3) Lean Practices Applied to Ares I-X Schedule; 4) Lean Event Results; 5) Lean, Six Sigma, and Kaizen Practices in the Ares Projects Office; 6) Lean and Kaizen Success Stories; and 7) Ares Six Sigma Practices.
Two technicians apply insulation to the outer surface of the S-II second stage booster for the Saturn V moon rocket. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.
Jeffery, J; Norhidayu, S; Mohd Zain, S N; Noor Hayati, M I; Nurazila, B
The cat fur mite, Lynxacarus radovskyi Tenorio, 1974 (Acarina: Astigmata: Listrophoridae) is reported from cats, Felis catus from three sites in peninsular Malaysia. The first site is a Malay village, Kampong Menteri in Taiping, Perak, where the mites were found on local pet cats. The other two sites are urban cities of Kuala Lumpur, in the Federal Territory and Georgetown, in the island of Penang. Mites from the urban areas were collected from stray cats. Although several ectoparasites (fleas, mites, ticks and lice) have been previously reported, L. radovskyi is recorded herein for the first time on cats from peninsular Malaysia.
Paepe, Dominique; Ghys, Liesbeth Fe; Smets, Pascale; Lefebvre, Hervé P; Croubels, Siska; Daminet, Sylvie
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a frequent and serious complication in human diabetic patients, but data are limited in cats. This study was undertaken to assess whether diabetic cats are susceptible to DKD. Kidney function was compared between 36 cats with diabetes mellitus (DM), 10 cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 10 age-matched healthy cats by measuring routine kidney variables (serum creatinine [sCreat], serum urea [sUrea], urine specific gravity [USG], urinary protein:creatinine ratio [UPC]), urinary cystatin C:creatinine ratio and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Urinary cystatin C (uCysC) was measured with a human particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay, validated to measure feline cystatin C, in all but two diabetic cats. GFR was evaluated by exo-iohexol clearance in 17 diabetic cats, all cats with CKD and all healthy cats. Diabetic cats had significantly (mean ± SD) lower sCreat (123 ± 38 vs 243 ± 80 µmol/l), sUrea (11 ± 3 vs 18 ± 7 mmol/l) and urinary cystatin C:creatinine ratio (6 ± 31 vs 173 ± 242 mg/mol), and a significantly higher USG (1.033 ± 0.012 vs 1.018 ± 0.006) and GFR (2.0 ± 0.7 vs 0.8 ± 0.3 ml/min/kg) compared with cats with CKD. Compared with healthy cats, diabetic cats only had significantly lower USG (1.033 ± 0.012 vs 1.046 ± 0.008). Proteinuria (UPC >0.4) was present in 39% of diabetic cats, in 30% of cats with CKD and in none of the healthy cats. However, the UPC did not differ statistically between the three groups. Based on evaluation of routine kidney variables, GFR and uCysC as a tubular marker at a single time point, a major impact of feline DM on kidney function could not be demonstrated. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.
Clayton, Daniel James; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Bechtel, Ryan D.
As compact and light weight power sources with reliable, long lives, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) have made space missions to explore the solar system possible. Due to the hazardous material that can be released during a launch accident, the potential health risk of an accident must be quantified, so that appropriate launch approval decisions can be made. One part of the risk estimation involves modeling the response of the RPS to potential accident environments. Due to the complexity of modeling the full RPS response deterministically on dynamic variables, the evaluation is performed in a stochastic manner with a Monte Carlo simulation. The potential consequences can be determined by modeling the transport of the hazardous material in the environment and in human biological pathways. The consequence analysis results are summed and weighted by appropriate likelihood values to give a collection of probabilistic results for the estimation of the potential health risk. This information is used to guide RPS designs, spacecraft designs, mission architecture, or launch procedures to potentially reduce the risk, as well as to inform decision makers of the potential health risks resulting from the use of RPSs for space missions.
Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.
The relative intensities of propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) simultaneously launched from opposing edges of a symmetric trench structure etched into a silver thin film may be controllably varied by tuning the linear polarization of the driving field. This is demonstrated through transient multiphoton photoemission electron microscopy measurements performed using a pair of spatially separated phase-locked femtosecond pulses. Our measurements are rationalized using finite-difference time domain simulations, which reveal that the coupling efficiency into the PSP modes is inversely proportional to the magnitude of the localized surface plasmon fields excited at the trench edges. Additional experiments on single step edges also show asymmetric PSP launching with respect to polarization, analogous to the trench results. Our combined experimental and computational results allude to the interplay between localized and propagating surface plasmon modes in the trench; strong coupling to the localized modes at the edges correlates to weak coupling to the PSP modes. Simultaneous excitation of the electric fields localized at both edges of the trench results in complex interactions between the right- and left-side PSP modes with Fabry-Perot and cylindrical modes. This results in a trench width-dependent PSP intensity ratio using otherwise identical driving fields. A systematic exploration of polarization directed PSP launching from a series of trench structures reveals an optimal PSP contrast ratio of 4.2 using a 500 nm-wide trench.
Houy, Nicolas; Jelovac, Izabela
This paper analyzes the timing decisions of pharmaceutical firms to launch a new drug in countries involved in international reference pricing. We show three important features of launch timing when all countries refer to the prices in all other countries and in all previous periods of time. First, there is no withdrawal of drugs in any country and in any period. Second, whenever the drug is sold in a country, it is also sold in all countries with larger willingness to pay. Third, there is no strict incentive to delay the launch of a drug in any country. We then show that the first and third results continue to hold when the countries only refer to the prices of a subset of all countries in a transitive way and in any period. We also show that the second result continues to hold when the reference is on the last period prices only. Last, we show that the seller's profits increase as the sets of reference countries decrease with respect to inclusion. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Launch of the quadecore processor chip at the Globe. On 14 November, in a series of major media events around the world, the chip-maker Intel launched its new 'quadcore' processor. For the regions of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, the day-long launch event took place in CERN's Globe of Science and Innovation, with over 30 journalists in attendance, coming from as far away as Johannesburg and Dubai. CERN was a significant choice for the event: the first tests of this new generation of processor in Europe had been made at CERN over the preceding months, as part of CERN openlab, a research partnership with leading IT companies such as Intel, HP and Oracle. The event also provided the opportunity for the journalists to visit ATLAS and the CERN Computer Centre. The strategy of putting multiple processor cores on the same chip, which has been pursued by Intel and other chip-makers in the last few years, represents an important departure from the more traditional improvements in the sheer speed of such chips. ...
Olds, John R.
A recently completed study at Georgia Tech examined various launch vehicle options for deploying a future constellation of Space Solar Power satellites of the Suntower configuration. One of the motivations of the study was to determine whether the aggressive $400/kg launch price goal established for SSP package delivery would result in an attractive economic scenario for a future RLV developer. That is, would the potential revenue and traffic to be derived from a large scale SSP project be enough of an economic "carrot" to attract an RLV company into developing a new, low cost launch vehicle to address this market. Preliminary results presented in the attached charts show that there is enough economic reward for RLV developers, specifically in the case of the latest large GEO-based Suntower constellations (over 15,500 MT per year delivery for 30 years). For that SSP model, internal rates of return for the 30 year economic scenario exceed 22%. However, up-front government assistance to the RLV developer in terms of ground facilities, operations technologies, guaranteed low-interest rate loans, and partial offsets of some vehicle development expenses is necessary to achieve these positive results. This white paper is meant to serve as a companion to the data supplied in the accompanying charts. It's purpose is to provide more detail on the vehicles and design processes used, to highlight key decisions and issues, and to emphasize key results from each phase of the Georgia Tech study.
Fesmire, James E.
New developments in materials science in the areas of solution gelation processes and nanotechnology have led to the recent commercial production of aerogels. Concurrent with these advancements has been the development of new approaches to cryogenic thermal insulation systems. For example, thermal and physical characterizations of aerogel beads under cryogenic-vacuum conditions have been performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of the NASA Kennedy Space Center. Aerogel-based insulation system demonstrations have also been conducted to improve performance for space launch applications. Subscale cryopumping experiments show the thermal insulating ability of these fully breathable nanoporous materials. For a properly executed thermal insulation system, these breathable aerogel systems are shown to not cryopump beyond the initial cooldown and thermal stabilization phase. New applications are being developed to augment the thermal protection systems of space launch vehicles, including the Space Shuttle External Tank. These applications include a cold-boundary temperature of 90 K with an ambient air environment in which both weather and flight aerodynamics are important considerations. Another application is a nitrogen-purged environment with a cold-boundary temperature of 20 K where both initial cooldown and launch ascent profiles must be considered. Experimental results and considerations for these flight system applications are discussed.
Verocai, Guilherme G; Fernandes, Julio I; Correia, Thais R; de Souza, Clarissa P; Melo, Raquel M P S; Scott, Fabio B
This paper reports a case of furuncular myiasis caused by the human bot-fly Dermatobia hominis in a domestic cat from Brazil. A crossbred shorthaired female cat of approximately 3 years old, presented with three boil-like cutaneous lesions at the left cranioventral region of the neck. These were diagnosed as furuncular myiasis. The animal was sedated, and after shaving the fur, bot-fly larvae were removed from the lesion by digital compression. Afterwards, the wounds were treated with 10% iodine solution and also with wound-healing cream containing sulfanilamide, urea and beeswax. Maggots were identified as third-stage larvae of D hominis. Clinical case reports of human bot-fly myiasis in cats are relevant due to its scarce occurrence in feline veterinary practice in some countries. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holt, James B.; Monk, Timothy S.
Propellant Mass Fraction (pmf) calculation methods vary throughout the aerospace industry. While typically used as a means of comparison between candidate launch vehicle designs, the actual pmf calculation method varies slightly from one entity to another. It is the purpose of this paper to present various methods used to calculate the pmf of launch vehicles. This includes fundamental methods of pmf calculation that consider only the total propellant mass and the dry mass of the vehicle; more involved methods that consider the residuals, reserves and any other unusable propellant remaining in the vehicle; and calculations excluding large mass quantities such as the installed engine mass. Finally, a historical comparison is made between launch vehicles on the basis of the differing calculation methodologies, while the unique mission and design requirements of the Ares V Earth Departure Stage (EDS) are examined in terms of impact to pmf.
Wald, Dara M; Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Jacobson, Susan K; Cox, Linda J
Risk perceptions and attitudes toward animals often explain tolerance for wildlife and management preferences. However, little is understood about how these relationships vary across different geographic regions and stakeholder groups. To address this gap in knowledge, we compared differences in acceptance capacity, risk perceptions, perceived enjoyment from outdoor cats, and experiences with outdoor cats among 3 groups (general public, conservation community, and animal-welfare community) in Hawaii and Florida, two states with large conservation challenges. We combined independently collected data from Florida and Hawaii, to determine how perception of the risks presented by outdoor cats, group membership, and state of residence influenced people's tolerance for outdoor cats. Florida respondents were significantly more tolerant of outdoor cats and less concerned about cat-related risks than Hawaii respondents (p < 0.05). In both states, animal-welfare group members reported greater enjoyment seeing cats and perceived a smaller increase in the cat population and lower levels of risk than other groups (p < 0.05). All groups exhibited similar relationships between acceptance capacity and enjoyment and the perceived increase in the cat population. Our results suggest public tolerance for cats varied due to the influence of local or geographical concerns, but that strongly held beliefs, risk perceptions, and feelings about cats explained more of the variance in stakeholder tolerance. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.
Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Bucherl, Cori N.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Whitten, Mary C.
Corrosion is the degradation of a material as a result of its interaction with the environment. The environment at the KSC launch pads has been documented by ASM International (formerly American Society for Metals) as the most corrosive in the US. The 70 tons of highly corrosive hydrochloric acid that are generated by the solid rocket boosters during a launch exacerbate the corrosiveness of the environment at the pads. Numerous failures at the pads are caused by the pitting of stainless steels, rebar corrosion, and the degradation of concrete. Corrosion control of launch pad structures relies on the use of coatings selected from the qualified products list (QPL) of the NASA Standard 5008A for Protective Coating of Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel, and Aluminum on Launch Structures, Facilities, and Ground Support Equipment. This standard was developed to establish uniform engineering practices and methods and to ensure the inclusion of essential criteria in the coating of ground support equipment (GSE) and facilities used by or for NASA. This standard is applicable to GSE and facilities that support space vehicle or payload programs or projects and to critical facilities at all NASA locations worldwide. Environmental regulation changes have dramatically reduced the production, handling, use, and availability of conventional protective coatings for application to KSC launch structures and ground support equipment. Current attrition rate of qualified KSC coatings will drastically limit the number of commercial off the shelf (COTS) products available for the Constellation Program (CxP) ground operations (GO). CxP GO identified corrosion detection and control technologies as a critical, initial capability technology need for ground processing of Ares I and Ares V to meet Constellation Architecture Requirements Document (CARD) CxP 70000 operability requirements for reduced ground processing complexity, streamlined integrated testing, and operations phase affordability
Francis, R.; Wingham, D.; Cullen, R.
Over the last ten years the relationship between climate change and the cryosphere has become increasingly important. Evidence of change in the polar regions is widespread, and the subject of public discussion. During this same ten years ESA has been preparing its CryoSat mission, specifically designed to provide measurements to determine the overall change in the mass balance of all of the ice caps and of change in the volume of sea-ice (rather than simply its extent). In fact the mission was ready for launch in October 2005, but a failure in the launch vehicle led to a loss of the satellite some 6 minutes after launch. The determination to rebuild the satellite and complete the mission was widespread in the relevant scientific, industrial and political entities, and the decision to redirect financial resources to the rebuild was sealed with a scientific report confirming that the mission was even more important in 2005 than at its original selection in 1999. The evolution of the cryosphere since then has emphasised that conclusion. In order to make a meaningful measurement of the secular change of the surface legation of ice caps and the thickness of sea-ice, the accuracy required has been specified as about half of the variation expected due to natural variability, over reasonable scales for the surfaces concerned. The selected technique is radar altimetry. Previous altimeter missions have pioneered the method: the CryoSat instrument has been modified to provide the enhanced capabilities needed to significantly extend the spatial coverage of these earlier missions. Thus the radar includes a synthetic aperture mode which enables the along-track resolution to be improved to about 250 m. This will will allow detection of leads in sea-ice which are narrower than those detected hitherto, so that operation deeper into pack-ice can be achieved with a consequent reduction in errors due to omission. Altimetry over the steep edges of ice caps is hampered by the irregular
Hosie, Margaret J; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin
In 2013, the ABCD published 'Matrix vaccination guidelines: ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries' in a Special Issue of the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (Volume 15, Issue 7, pages 540-544). The ABCD's vaccination recommendations were presented in tabulated form, taking into account that there is no universal vaccination protocol for all cats. To support the veterinarian's decision making, recommendations for four lifestyles were made: for cats with outdoors access, cats kept solely indoors, rescue shelter cats and cats in breeding catteries. This update article follows the same approach, offering current and, where relevant, expanded recommendations. © Published by SAGE on behalf of ISFM and AAFP 2015.
An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.
Bento, Filipe Manuel dos Santos
ColCat (http://cc.doc.ua.pt): sistema de pesquisa meta-bibliográfica distribuída; pesquisa simultânea e integrada nos catálogos de várias bibliotecas nacionais e estrangeiras de referência.Os motores de pesquisa na web têm a informação nas suas bases de dados limitada à web superficial (visible web), conjunto de páginas estáticas ou páginas cujo conteúdo é sempre o mesmo para uma determinada URL. Os diferentes conteúdos que uma página dinâmica pode ter, que variam de acordo com uma pesquisa o...
Gamburd, A; Rockmore, D
According to one of the basic conjectures in quantum chaos, the eigenvalues of a quantized chaotic Hamiltonian behave like the spectrum of the typical member of the appropriate ensemble of random matrices. We study one of the simplest examples of this phenomenon in the context of ergodic actions of groups generated by several linear toral automorphisms - 'cat maps'. Our numerical experiments indicate that for 'generic' choices of cat maps, the unfolded consecutive spacing distribution in the irreducible components of the Nth quantization (given by the N-dimensional Weil representation) approaches the GOE/GSE law of random matrix theory. For certain special 'arithmetic' transformations, related to the Ramanujan graphs of Lubotzky, Phillips and Sarnak, the experiments indicate that the unfolded consecutive spacing distribution follows Poisson statistics; we provide a sharp estimate in that direction.
Mokhamad Fakhrul Ulum
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate Indonesian stray cat (KLI eyes by transpalpebrae B-mode ultrasound imaging. Eight healthy adult stray cats with 3.0-4.0 kg body weight were underwent of eyes ultrasound scanning without anesthesia or sedation. Linear ultrasound transducer with 7.5-15 MHz of frequency and ultrasound-gel were adhered directly to palpebral on the closed eyes. The results showed that the internal architecture of eyes was visible in different echogenicity according to the constituent of eyes structure. The sonograms with hypoechoic to hyperechoic parts of eyes were cornea, iris, cilliary body, suspensor ligament, sclera, and lens capsule. Moreover, anechoic parts of sonograms that having aqueous constituent were anterior chamber, posterior chamber, and vitreous humor. Based on the result, it can be concluded that B-mode ultrasound was able to assess the eyes through transpalpebral scanning.
Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.
Finkler, Hilit; Terkel, Joseph
The attitudes and behaviours of cat owners in regard to treatment of cats may have a cumulative effect on the food availability, reproduction, density and welfare of the free-roaming cat population and thus also on the extent of cat overpopulation. Understanding this is thus a vital step in the a priori planning of cat management programs on any scale, as well as in developing public education programs on this issue. Although recent years have seen an accumulation of knowledge in regard to cat owners' attitudes and behaviours, the findings vary among countries and locations and in Israel this has never been investigated systematically. Using a questionnaire provided to cat owners in veterinary clinics, this study aimed at identifying those attitudes and behaviours that may be contributing to cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel, and at exploring the socio-economic factors that influence this problem. The findings show that the influential factors can be predicted from the cat owners' socio-economic status, mainly education and income, as well as gender and age. A consistency in those cat owner behaviours that contribute to cat overpopulation was also uncovered, revealing a sub-population of individuals who persist in the undesirable behaviours. Finally, a strong relationship between attitude and consequent behaviour was demonstrated, indicating the importance of education and targeted publicity as a means to influence attitudes and thereby change behaviours in this respect. We propose several measures by which to reduce the current extent of cat owners' contribution to the cat overpopulation: discouraging unwanted owner behaviours such as abandonment of their cats and allowing them to breed; promoting awareness of the neutering option among cat caretakers; and increasing pre-adoption neutering rates in shelters. Regional and national laws promoting responsible pet ownership need to be enacted. By improving the current level of knowledge and awareness among cat
Lefevre, Brian D.
For the purpose of maintaining dynamic stability and improving guidance command tracking performance under off-nominal flight conditions, a hybrid adaptive control scheme is selected and modified for use as a launch vehicle flight controller. This architecture merges a model reference adaptive approach, which utilizes both direct and indirect adaptive elements, with a classical dynamic inversion controller. This structure is chosen for a number of reasons: the properties of the reference model can be easily adjusted to tune the desired handling qualities of the spacecraft, the indirect adaptive element (which consists of an online parameter identification algorithm) continually refines the estimates of the evolving characteristic parameters utilized in the dynamic inversion, and the direct adaptive element (which consists of a neural network) augments the linear feedback signal to compensate for any nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics. The combination of these elements enables the control system to retain the nonlinear capabilities of an adaptive network while relying heavily on the linear portion of the feedback signal to dictate the dynamic response under most operating conditions. To begin the analysis, the ascent dynamics of a launch vehicle with a single 1st stage rocket motor (typical of the Ares 1 spacecraft) are characterized. The dynamics are then linearized with assumptions that are appropriate for a launch vehicle, so that the resulting equations may be inverted by the flight controller in order to compute the control signals necessary to generate the desired response from the vehicle. Next, the development of the hybrid adaptive launch vehicle ascent flight control architecture is discussed in detail. Alterations of the generic hybrid adaptive control architecture include the incorporation of a command conversion operation which transforms guidance input from quaternion form (as provided by NASA) to the body-fixed angular rate commands needed by the
On Wednesday, 26 October 2005, the sky over the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, will be illuminated by the blast from a Soyuz-Fregat rocket carrying this precious spacecraft aloft. The celestial motion of the planets in our Solar System has given Venus Express the window to travel to Venus on the best route. In fact, every nineteen months Venus reaches the point where a voyage from Earth is the most fuel-efficient. To take advantage of this opportunity, ESA has opted to launch Venus Express within the next ‘launch window’, opening on 26 October this year and closing about one month later, on 24 November. Again, due to the relative motion of Earth and Venus, plus Earth’s daily rotation, there is only one short period per day when it is possible to launch, lasting only a few seconds. The first launch opportunity is on 26 October at 06:43 Central European Summer Time (CEST) (10:43 in Baikonur). Venus Express will take only 163 days, a little more than five months, to reach Venus. Then, in April 2006, the adventure of exploration will begin with Venus finally welcoming a spacecraft, a fully European one, more than ten years after humankind paid the last visit. The journey starts at launch One of the most reliable launchers in the world, the Soyuz-Fregat rocket, will set Venus Express on course for its target. Soyuz, procured by the European/Russian Starsem company, consists of three main stages with an additional upper stage, Fregat, atop. Venus Express is attached to this upper stage. The injection of Venus Express into the interplanetary trajectory which will bring it to Venus consists of three phases. In the first nine minutes after launch, Soyuz will perform the first phase, that is an almost vertical ascent trajectory, in which it is boosted to about 190 kilometres altitude by its three stages, separating in sequence. In the second phase, the Fregat-Venus Express ‘block’, now free from the Soyuz, is injected into a circular parking orbit around Earth
Albarellos, Gabriela A; Montoya, Laura; Passini, Sabrina M; Lupi, Martín P; Lorenzini, Paula M; Landoni, María F
Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the plasma pharmacokinetic profile, tissue concentrations and urine elimination of cefazolin in cats under surgical conditions after a single intravenous dose of 20 mg/kg. Methods Intravenous cefazolin (20 mg/kg) was administered to nine young mixed-breed cats 30 mins before they underwent surgical procedures (ovariectomy or orchiectomy). After antibiotic administration, samples from blood, some tissues and urine were taken. Cefazolin concentrations were determined in all biological matrices and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Results Initial plasma concentrations were high (Cp(0), 134.80 ± 40.54 µg/ml), with fast and moderately wide distribution (distribution half-life [t½(d)] 0.16 ± 0.15 h; volume of distribution at steady state [V(d[ss])] 0.29 ± 0.10 l/kg) and rapid elimination (body clearance [ClB], 0.21 ± 0.06 l/h/kg; elimination half-life [t½], 1.18 ± 0.27 h; mean residence time 1.42 ± 0.36 h). Thirty to 60 mins after intravenous administration, cefazolin tissue concentrations ranged from 9.24 µg/ml (subcutaneous tissue) to 26.44 µg/ml (ovary). The tissue/plasma concentration ratio ranged from 0.18 (muscle) to 0.58 (ovary). Cefazolin urine concentrations were high with 84.2% of the administered dose being eliminated in the first 6 h postadministration. Conclusions and relevance Cefazolin plasma concentrations remained above a minimum inhibitory concentration of ⩽2 µg/ml up to 4 h in all the studied cats. This suggests that a single intravenous dose of 20 mg/kg cefazolin would be adequate for perioperative prophylactic use in cats.
Susanna S. Nagel
Full Text Available A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C, had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.
Full Text Available Case summary A domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for chronic, bilateral, ulcerative dermatitis affecting the inguinal region and lateral aspects of both pelvic limbs. Histopathologic examination of skin biopsies collected throughout the course of disease revealed chronic pyogranulomatous ulcerative dermatitis. Aerobic bacterial skin cultures yielded growth of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium amycolatum . Upon referral the clinical findings were suggestive of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species infection. Previously obtained skin cultures failed to yield growth of mycobacterial organisms. A deep skin biopsy was collected and submitted for mycobacterial culture. At 5 weeks of incubation Mycobacterium thermoresistibile was isolated. In previous reports, M thermoresistibile has been isolated after 2–4 days of incubation, suggesting that this strain may have been a slower growing variant, or other factors (such as prior antimicrobial therapy inhibited rapid growth of this isolate. The cat was hospitalized for intravenous antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement of wounds, vacuum-assisted wound closure therapy and reconstruction procedures. The wounds were ultimately primarily closed and the cat was discharged to the owner after 50 days of hospitalization. Seven months after hospitalization, the ulcerative skin lesions had healed. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, only two cases of M thermoresistibile panniculitis have been reported in cats. In the only detailed report of feline M thermoresistibile panniculitis, treatment was not attempted. The second case only reported detection of M thermoresistibile by PCR without a clinical description of the case. In our case report, severe chronic skin infection with M thermoresistibile was addressed using prolonged specific antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement and reconstructions, and treatment of secondary bacterial infections.
in CATS and their roles WORK COMPLETED / RESULTS Shutter implementation: Previously, a protective film was placed over the face of the...maintain the tube’s sensitivity and extend the lifetime of the instrument. The removal of the protective film was, however, a time-consuming process as...for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Annual Conference (ASPRS) in Tampa, FL entitled “Receiver Design for a Photon-Counting Airborne Laser Swath
Stevens, Judy A; Teh, S L; Haileyesus, Tadesse
Falls are the leading cause of non-fatal injuries in the United States. This study assessed the prevalence of fall injuries associated with cats and dogs in the United States and describes the types of injuries sustained, the location, activity, and circumstances under which they occurred. Data were from a nationally representative sample of emergency department visits from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2006, available through the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP). Based on 7,456 cases, an estimated 86,629 fall injuries each year were associated with cats and dogs, for an injury rate of 29.7. There were 7.5 times as many injuries involving dogs as cats and females were 2.1 times more likely to be injured than males. Injury rates were highest among people aged >/=75, but pets were a fall hazard for all ages. Fractures and contusions or abrasions were the most common injuries; the highest rates were for injuries to the extremities. About 66.4% of falls associated with cats and 31.3 % of falls associated with dogs were caused by falling or tripping over the pet. An additional 21.2% of falls related to dogs were caused by being pushed or pulled. Although pets were associated with fall injuries, this risk can be reduced by increasing public awareness about situations that can lead to falls, such as dog-walking and chasing pets, and by calling attention to the importance of obedience training for dogs to minimize hazardous behaviors such as pulling and pushing. Fall injuries represent a burden to individuals, our society and our health care system. Increasing public awareness and implementing basic prevention strategies can help people of all ages enjoy their pets, reduce their chances of experiencing pet-related falls, and lessen the impact of fall injuries on our health care system. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Success in treatment of endocrine emergencies is contingent on early recognition and treatment. Many endocrine diseases presenting emergently have nonspecific signs and symptoms. In addition, these endocrine crises are often precipitated by concurrent disease, further making early identification difficult. This article concentrates on recognition and emergency management of the most common endocrine crises in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lenin A Villamizar-Martinez; Reiter, Alexander M; Sánchez, Melissa D.; Soltero-Rivera, Maria M
Case summary A 10-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented for assessment of a gingival mass surrounding the left maxillary third and fourth premolar teeth. The mass was surgically removed by means of a marginal rim excision, and the tissue was submitted for histological assessment. It was identified as a benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma). There was proliferation of mineralized eosinophilic material with multiple irregularly placed lacunae and reversal lines, reminis...
Fikes, J. C.; Jackson, J. R.; Richardson, S. W.; Thomas, A. D.; Mann, T. O.; Miller, S. G.
The Composites for Exploration Upper Stage (CEUS) was a 3-year, level III project within the Technology Demonstration Missions program of the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate. Studies have shown that composites provide important programmatic enhancements, including reduced weight to increase capability and accelerated expansion of exploration and science mission objectives. The CEUS project was focused on technologies that best advanced innovation, infusion, and broad applications for the inclusion of composites on future large human-rated launch vehicles and spacecraft. The benefits included near- and far-term opportunities for infusion (NASA, industry/commercial, Department of Defense), demonstrated critical technologies and technically implementable evolvable innovations, and sustained Agency experience. The initial scope of the project was to advance technologies for large composite structures applicable to the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) by focusing on the affordability and technical performance of the EUS forward and aft skirts. The project was tasked to develop and demonstrate critical composite technologies with a focus on full-scale materials, design, manufacturing, and test using NASA in-house capabilities. This would have demonstrated a major advancement in confidence and matured the large-scale composite technology to a Technology Readiness Level 6. This project would, therefore, have bridged the gap for providing composite application to SLS upgrades, enabling future exploration missions.
Fisher, Dustin; Zhang, Yue; Wallace, Ben; Gilmore, Mark; Manchester, Ward; Arge, C. Nick
The Plasma Bubble Expansion Experiment (PBEX) at the University of New Mexico uses a coaxial plasma gun to launch jet and spheromak magnetic plasma configurations into the Helicon-Cathode (HelCat) plasma device. Plasma structures launched from the gun drag frozen-in magnetic flux into the background magnetic field of the chamber providing a rich set of dynamics to study magnetic turbulence, force-free magnetic spheromaks, and shocks. Preliminary modeling is presented using the highly-developed 3-D, MHD, BATS-R-US code developed at the University of Michigan. BATS-R-US employs an adaptive mesh refinement grid that enables the capture and resolution of shock structures and current sheets, and is particularly suited to model the parameter regime under investigation. CCD images and magnetic field data from the experiment suggest the stabilization of an m =1 kink mode trailing a plasma jet launched into a background magnetic field. Results from a linear stability code investigating the effect of shear-flow as a cause of this stabilization from magnetic tension forces on the jet will be presented. Initial analyses of a possible magnetic Rayleigh Taylor instability seen at the interface between launched spheromaks and their entraining background magnetic field will also be presented. Work supported by the Army Research Office Award No. W911NF1510480.
Creech, Stephen D.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Robinson, Kimerly F.
A foundational capability for international human deep-space exploration, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a new spaceflight infrastructure asset, creating opportunities for mission profiles and space systems that cannot currently be executed. While the primary purpose of SLS, which is making rapid progress towards initial launch readiness in two years, will be to support NASA's Journey to Mars, discussions are already well underway regarding other potential utilization of the vehicle's unique capabilities. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS is capable of propelling the Orion crew vehicle to cislunar space, while also delivering small CubeSat-class spacecraft to deep-space destinations. With the addition of a more powerful upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a class of secondary payloads, larger than today's CubeSats. Further upgrades to the vehicle, including advanced boosters, will evolve its performance to 130 t in its Block 2 configuration. Both Block 1B and Block 2 also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk, operational costs and/or complexity, shorter transit time to destination or launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. This paper will discuss both the performance and capabilities of Space Launch System as it evolves, and the current state of SLS utilization planning.
Yi, Elizabeth M; Leech, Elizabeth
To describe the clinical presentation and treatment of a cat with flurbiprofen toxicosis due to topical cream exposure. A 3-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat presented to an emergency and referral center for acute lethargy, hematemesis, and anemia. Severe azotemia was observed on serum biochemistry panel. The patient's anemia was treated with packed RBC transfusion, and treatment with crystalloid fluids, famotidine, pantoprazole, ampicillin, and sucralfate were begun on presentation. Anemia became intractable and the patient received multiple packed RBC and whole blood transfusions. Severe gastric ulcerations and duodenal perforation were confirmed via gastroduodenoscopy, and the patient was treated with surgical excision and repair of duodenal perforation. Azotemia resolved with IV fluid therapy, and anemia resolved following surgery. The patient recovered and was discharged after 9 days of hospitalization. The patient had likely been exposed to the owner's compounded pain relief cream containing 10% flurbiprofen. There was confirmation of flurbiprofen exposure via acid extraction urine analysis at a university toxicology laboratory. This is the first described case of flurbiprofen toxicosis due to topical cream exposure in a cat. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.
Mani L. Bhaumik
Full Text Available Erwin Schrödinger is famous for presenting his wave equation of motion that jump-started quantum mechanics. His disenchantment with the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics led him to unveil the Schrödinger's cat paradox, which did not get much attention for nearly half a century. In the meantime, disappointment with quantum mechanics turned his interest to biology facilitating, albeit in a peripheral way, the revelation of the structure of DNA. Interest in Schrödinger's cat has recently come roaring back making its appearance conspicuously in numerous scientific articles. From the arguments presented here, it would appear that the legendary Schrödinger's cat is here to stay, symbolizing a profound truth that quantum reality exists at all scales; but we do not observe it in our daily macroscopic world as it is masked for all practical purposes, most likely by environmental decoherence with irreversible thermal effects. Quanta 2017; 6: 70–80.
Caputo, Valentina; Niceta, Marcello; Fiorella, Santi; La Vecchia, Marco; Bastonini, Emanuela; Bongiorno, Maria R; Pistone, Giuseppe
Catalase gene (CAT) polymorphisms were analyzed as responsible for the deficiency of catalase enzyme activity and concomitant accumulation of excessive hydrogen peroxide in Vitiligo patients. Catalase is a well known oxidative stress regulator that could play an important role in the pathogenesis of Vitiligo. This study was conducted to evaluate three CAT gene polymorphisms (-89A/T, 389C/T, 419C/T) and their association with Vitiligo susceptibility in Sicilian population. 60 out of 73 Sicilian patients with Vitiligo were enrolled and submitted to CAT gene analysis. Contrary to the Northern part of Europe but likewise to the Mediterranean area, the frequency of the CAT genotypes in Sicily is equally distributed. Out of all CAT genotypes, only CAT -89 T/T frequency was found to be significantly higher amongst Vitiligo patients than controls. Despite the involvement of the CAT enzyme in the pathogenesis of Vitiligo, the biological significance of CAT gene polymorphisms is still controversial. With the only exception for CAT variant -89A/T, the other studied CAT gene polymorphisms (389C/T and 419C/T) might not to be associated with Vitiligo in Sicilian population.
Paepe, D; Saunders, J H; Bavegems, V; Paes, G; Peelman, L J; Makay, C; Daminet, S
To assess the prevalence of renal abnormalities in ragdoll cats. Ragdoll breeders often warn clients to watch for future renal problems, mainly due to chronic interstitial nephritis and polycystic kidney disease. Therefore, ragdoll screening by abdominal ultrasonography, measurement of serum creatinine and urea concentrations and genetic testing is often performed without documented scientific evidence of increased risk of renal disease. Retrospective evaluation of ragdoll screening for renal disease at one institution over an eight-year period. Renal ultrasonography was performed in 244 healthy ragdoll cats. Seven cats were positive for polycystic kidney disease, 21 were suspected to have chronic kidney disease, 8 had abnormalities of unknown significance and 2 cats had only one visible kidney. Cats suspected to have chronic kidney disease were significantly older and had significantly higher serum urea and creatinine concentrations than cats with normal renal ultrasonography. All 125 genetically tested cats were negative for polycystic kidney disease. However, only one of the seven ultrasonographically positive cats underwent genetic testing for polycystic kidney disease. Ultrasonographic findings compatible with chronic kidney disease were observed in almost 10% of cats, and polycystic kidney disease occurred at a low prevalence (cats are predisposed to chronic kidney disease. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.